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Sample records for heme oxygenase activity

  1. Cysteine-independent activation/inhibition of heme oxygenase-2.

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    Vukomanovic, Dragic; Rahman, Mona N; Maines, Mahin D; Ozolinš, Terence Rs; Szarek, Walter A; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2016-03-01

    Reactive thiols of cysteine (cys) residues in proteins play a key role in transforming chemical reactivity into a biological response. The heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) isozyme contains two cys residues that have been implicated in binding of heme and also the regulation of its activity. In this paper, we address the question of a role for cys residues for the HO-2 inhibitors or activators designed in our laboratory. We tested the activity of full length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2) and its analog in which cys265 and cys282 were both replaced by alanine to determine the effect on activation by menadione (MD) and inhibition by QC-2350. Similar inhibition by QC-2350 and almost identical activation by MD was observed for both recombinant FL-hHO-2s. Our findings are interpreted to mean that thiols of FL-hHO-2s are not involved in HO-2 activation or inhibition by the compounds that have been designed and identified by us. Activation or inhibition of HO-2 by our compounds should be attributed to a mechanism other than altering binding affinity of HO-2 for heme through cys265 and cys282.

  2. Cysteine-independent activation/inhibition of heme oxygenase-2

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    Dragic Vukomanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive thiols of cysteine (cys residues in proteins play a key role in transforming chemical reactivity into a biological response. The heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2 isozyme contains two cys residues that have been implicated in binding of heme and also the regulation of its activity. In this paper, we address the question of a role for cys residues for the HO-2 inhibitors or activators designed in our laboratory. We tested the activity of full length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2 and its analog in which cys265 and cys282 were both replaced by alanine to determine the effect on activation by menadione (MD and inhibition by QC-2350. Similar inhibition by QC-2350 and almost identical activation by MD was observed for both recombinant FL-hHO-2s. Our findings are interpreted to mean that thiols of FL-hHO-2s are not involved in HO-2 activation or inhibition by the compounds that have been designed and identified by us. Activation or inhibition of HO-2 by our compounds should be attributed to a mechanism other than altering binding affinity of HO-2 for heme through cys265 and cys282.

  3. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

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    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  4. A novel and sensitive assay for heme oxygenase activity.

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    Iwamori, Saki; Sato, Emiko; Saigusa, Daisuke; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a renoprotective protein in the microsome that degrades heme and produces biliverdin. Biliverdin is then reduced to a potent antioxidant bilirubin by biliverdin reductase in the cytosol. Because HO activity does not necessarily correlate with HO mRNA or protein levels, a reliable assay is needed to determine HO activity. Spectrophotometric measurement is tedious and requires a relatively large amount of kidney samples. Moreover, bilirubin is unstable and spontaneously oxidized to biliverdin in vitro. We developed a novel and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify biliverdin to measure HO activity in mice. Biliverdin and its internal standard, a deuterated biliverdin-d4, have MS/MS fragments with m/z transitions of 583 to 297 and 587 to 299, respectively. We prepared lysates of mouse kidneys, and added excess hemin, NADPH, and bilirubin oxidase to convert all bilirubin produced to biliverdin. After 30-min incubation at 37 or 4°C, the samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The difference in the amount of biliverdin between the two temperatures is HO activity. Treating mice with cobalt protoporphyrin, which induces the expression of HO, increased HO activity as determined by biliverdin production. Measuring the production of biliverdin using LC-MS/MS is a more sensitive and specific way to determine HO activity than the spectrophotometric method and allows the detection of subtle changes in renal or other HO activity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. In vitro Activation of heme oxygenase-2 by menadione and its analogs.

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    Vukomanovic, Dragic; Rahman, Mona N; Bilokin, Yaroslav; Golub, Andriy G; Brien, James F; Szarek, Walter A; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2014-02-18

    Previously, we reported that menadione activated rat, native heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) and human recombinant heme oxygenase-2 selectively; it did not activate spleen, microsomal heme oxygenase-1. The purpose of this study was to explore some structure-activity relationships of this activation and the idea that redox properties may be an important aspect of menadione efficacy. Heme oxygenase activity was determined in vitro using rat spleen and brain microsomes as the sources of heme oxygenase-1 and -2, respectively, as well as recombinant, human heme oxygenase-2. Menadione analogs with bulky aliphatic groups at position-3, namely vitamins K1 and K2, were not able to activate HO-2. In contrast, several compounds with similar bulky but less lipophilic moieties at position-2 (and -3) were able to activate HO-2 many fold; these compounds included polar, rigid, furan-containing naphthoquinones, furan-benzoxazine naphthoquinones, 2-(aminophenylphenyl)-3-piperidin-1-yl naphthoquinones. To explore the idea that redox properties might be involved in menadione efficacy, we tested analogs such as 1,4-dimethoxy-2-methylnaphthalene, pentafluoromenadione, monohalogenated naphthoquinones, α-tetralone and 1,4-naphthoquinone. All of these compounds were inactive except for 1,4-naphthoquinone. Menadione activated full-length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2) as effectively as rat brain enzyme, but it did not activate rat spleen heme oxygenase. These observations are consistent with the idea that naphthoquinones such as menadione bind to a receptor in HO-2 and activate the enzyme through a mechanism that may involve redox properties.

  6. Structure prediction and activity analysis of human heme oxygenase-1 and its mutant.

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    Xia, Zhen-Wei; Zhou, Wen-Pu; Cui, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Shen, Qing-Xiang; Li, Yun-Zhu; Yu, Shan-Chang

    2004-08-15

    To predict wild human heme oxygenase-1 (whHO-1) and hHO-1 His25Ala mutant (delta hHO-1) structures, to clone and express them and analyze their activities. Swiss-PdbViewer and Antheprot 5.0 were used for the prediction of structure diversity and physical-chemical changes between wild and mutant hHO-1. hHO-1 His25Ala mutant cDNA was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two plasmids of E. coli DH5alpha. Expression products were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, and their activities were measured. rHO-1 had the structure of a helical fold with the heme sandwiched between heme-heme oxygenase-1 helices. Bond angle, dihedral angle and chemical bond in the active pocket changed after Ala25 was replaced by His25, but Ala25 was still contacting the surface and the electrostatic potential of the active pocket was negative. The mutated enzyme kept binding activity to heme. Two vectors pBHO-1 and pBHO-1(M) were constructed and expressed. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography yielded 3.6-fold and 30-fold higher purities of whHO-1, respectively. The activity of delta hHO-1 was reduced 91.21% after mutation compared with whHO-1. Proximal His25 ligand is crucial for normal hHO-1 catalytic activity. delta hHO-1 is deactivated by mutation but keeps the same binding site as whHO-1. delta hHO-1 might be a potential inhibitor of whHO-1 for preventing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  7. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation.

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    Wang, Z P; Liu, R F; Wang, A R; Li, J Y; Deng, X M

    2011-04-01

    Biliverdin is responsible for the coloration of blue eggs and is secreted onto the eggshell by the shell gland. Previous studies confirmed that a significant difference exists in biliverdin content between blue eggs and brown eggs, although the reasons are still unknown. Because the pigment is derived from oxidative degradation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO), this study compared heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), the gene encoding HO expression and HO activity, in the shell glands of the Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken (n = 12) and the Dongxiang brown-shelled chicken (n = 12). Results showed that HMOX1 was highly expressed at the mRNA (1.58-fold; P 0.05). Taken together, these results show that blue egg formation is associated with high expression of HMOX1 in the shell gland of Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, and suggest that differential expression of HMOX1 in the 2 groups of chickens is most likely to arise from an alteration in the trans-acting factor.

  8. How Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Heme-Induced Cell Death.

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    Lilibeth Lanceta

    Full Text Available Earlier observations indicate that free heme is selectively toxic to cells lacking heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 but how this enzyme prevents heme toxicity remains unexplained. Here, using A549 (human lung cancer and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells incubated with exogenous heme, we find knock-down of HO-1 using siRNA does promote the accumulation of cell-associated heme and heme-induced cell death. However, it appears that the toxic effects of heme are exerted by "loose" (probably intralysosomal iron because cytotoxic effects of heme are lessened by pre-incubation of HO-1 deficient cells with desferrioxamine (which localizes preferentially in the lysosomal compartment. Desferrioxamine also decreases lysosomal rupture promoted by intracellularly generated hydrogen peroxide. Supporting the importance of endogenous oxidant production, both chemical and siRNA inhibition of catalase activity predisposes HO-1 deficient cells to heme-mediated killing. Importantly, it appears that HO-1 deficiency somehow blocks the induction of ferritin; control cells exposed to heme show ~10-fold increases in ferritin heavy chain expression whereas in heme-exposed HO-1 deficient cells ferritin expression is unchanged. Finally, overexpression of ferritin H chain in HO-1 deficient cells completely prevents heme-induced cytotoxicity. Although two other products of HO-1 activity--CO and bilirubin--have been invoked to explain HO-1-mediated cytoprotection, we conclude that, at least in this experimental system, HO-1 activity triggers the induction of ferritin and the latter is actually responsible for the cytoprotective effects of HO-1 activity.

  9. Heme oxygenase 1-mediated novel anti-inflammatory activities of Salvia plebeia and its active components.

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    Akram, Muhammad; Syed, Ahmed Shah; Kim, Kyeong-A; Lee, Jong Soo; Chang, Sun-Young; Kim, Chul Young; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2015-11-04

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (SP) has been widely used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and pain. An anti-inflammatory potential of SP has remains largely unknown. We tried to elucidate the principle mechanism and the active ingredients underlying the anti-inflammatory activities of SP. We investigated the protective activities of SP methanolic extract (SPME) and seven representative ingredients against inflammation. Quantitative analysis using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS was conducted to determine the relative amounts of these seven active ingredients in SPME. Both in vitro murine macrophages and in vivo mouse models were employed to elucidate SP- and active ingredient-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. SPME significantly reduced inflammatory processes both in vivo in a TPA-induced ear edema model and in vitro in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. SPME decreased the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Seven active components (luteoloside (C1), nepitrin (C2), homoplantagenin (C3), luteolin (C4), nepetin (C5), hispidulin (C6), and eupatorin (C7)) of SPME were analyzed and their relative concentrations were determined, demonstrating that C2, C3, C5 and C6 were present in higher amounts than were C1, C4, and C7. These major compounds inhibited NO and PGE2 production, and iNOS and COX-II protein expression through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2). Our data demonstrate that SPME possesses potent in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Nepetin and hispidulin, and their glycosides are the major active compounds in SPME, and their effects are mediated by Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Taken together, we propose that SPME and its active ingredients may serve as novel therapeutic candidates for diseases associated with excessive inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  10. Resonance Raman and EPR spectroscopic studies on heme-heme oxygenase complexes.

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    Sun, J; Wilks, A; Ortiz de Montellano, P R; Loehr, T M

    1993-12-28

    The binding of ferrous and ferric hemes and manganese(II)- and manganese(III)-substituted hemes to heme oxygenase has been investigated by optical absorption, resonance Raman, and EPR spectroscopy. The results are consistent with the presence of a six-coordinate heme moiety ligated to an essential histidine ligand and a water molecule. The latter ionizes with a pKa approximately 8.0 to give a mixture of high-spin and low-spin six-coordinate hydroxo adducts. Addition of excess cyanide converts the heme to a hexacoordinate low-spin species. The resonance Raman spectrum of the ferrous heme-heme oxygenase complex and that of the Mn(II)protoporphyrin-heme oxygenase complex shows bands at 216 and 212 cm-1, respectively, that are assigned to the metal-histidine stretching mode. The EPR spectrum of the oxidized heme-heme oxygenase complex has a strongly axial signal with g parallel of approximately 6 and g perpendicular approximately 2. 14NO and 15NO adducts of ferrous heme-heme oxygenase exhibit EPR hyperfine splittings of approximately 20 and approximately 25 Gauss, respectively. In addition, both nitrosyl complexes show additional superhyperfine splittings of approximately 7 Gauss from spin-spin interaction with the proximal histidine nitrogen. The heme environment in the heme-heme oxygenase enzyme-substrate complex has spectroscopic properties similar to those of the heme in myoglobin. Hence, there is neither a strongly electron-donating fifth (proximal) ligand nor an electron-withdrawing network on the distal side of the heme moiety comparable to that for cytochromes P-450 and peroxidases. This observation has profound implications about the nature of the oxygen-activating process in the heme-->biliverdin reaction that are discussed in this paper.

  11. Beneficial effect of prolonged heme oxygenase 1 activation in a rat model of chronic heart failure

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    Massimo Collino

    2013-07-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 induction by acute hemin administration exerts cardioprotective effects. Here, we developed a rat model of heart failure to investigate whether a long-term induction of HO-1 by chronic hemin administration exerted protective effects. Sprague Dawley rats that underwent permanent ligation of the left coronary artery were closely monitored for survival rate analysis and sacrificed on day 28 post-operation. Administration of hemin (4 mg/kg body weight every other day for 4 weeks induced a massive increase in HO-1 expression and activity, as shown by the increased levels of the two main metabolic products of heme degradation, bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO. These effects were associated with significant improvement in survival and reduced the extension of myocardial damage. The ischemic hearts of the hemin-treated animals displayed reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in comparison with the non-treated rats, as shown by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, free-radical-induced DNA damage, caspase-3 activity and Bax expression. Besides, chronic HO-1 activation suppressed the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, interleukin 1β (IL-1β production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα production that were evoked by the ischemic injury, and increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX; 1 mg/kg lowered bilirubin and CO concentrations to control values, thus abolishing all the cardioprotective effects of hemin. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that chronic HO-1 activation by prolonged administration of hemin improves survival and exerts protective effects in a rat model of myocardial ischemia by exerting a potent antioxidant activity and disrupting multiple levels of the apoptotic and inflammatory cascade.

  12. Nicotinic receptor activation by epibatidine induces heme oxygenase-1 and protects chromaffin cells against oxidative stress.

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    Egea, Javier; Rosa, Angelo O; Cuadrado, Antonio; García, Antonio G; López, Manuela G

    2007-09-01

    Activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) provides neuroprotection against different toxic stimuli that often lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. ROS production has been related with disease progression in several neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. In this context, we investigated here if the exposure of bovine chromaffin cells to the potent nAChR agonist epibatidine protected against rotenone (30 micromol/L) plus oligomycin (10 micromol/L) (rot/oligo) toxicity, an in vitro model of mitochondrial ROS production. Epibatidine induced a concentration- and time-dependent protection, which was maximal at 3 mumol/L after 24 h. Pre-incubation with dantrolene (100 micromol/L) (a blocker of the ryanodine receptor channel), chelerythrine (1 micromol/L) (a protein kinase C inhibitor), or PD98059 (50 micromol/L) (a MEK inhibitor), aborted epibatidine-elicited cytoprotection. Mitochondrial depolarization, ROS, and caspase 3 active produced by rot/oligo were also prevented by epibatidine. Epibatidine doubled the amount of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a critical cell defence enzyme against oxidative stress. Furthermore, the HO-1 inhibitor Sn(IV) protoporphyrin IX dichloride reversed the epibatidine protecting effects and HO-1 inducer Co (III) protoporphyrin IX dichloride exhibited neuroprotective effects by itself. The results of this study point to HO-1 as the cytoprotective target of nAChR activation through the following pathway: endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release activates the protein kinase C/extracellular regulated kinase/HO-1 axis to mitigate mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production. This study provides a mechanistic insight on how nAChR activation translates into an antioxidant and antiapoptotic signal through up-regulation of HO-1.

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibits HLA Class I Antibody-Dependent Endothelial Cell Activation.

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    Eva Zilian

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a key limiting factor for long-term graft survival in solid organ transplantation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I (HLA I antibodies (Abs play a major role in the pathogenesis of AMR via their interactions with HLA molecules on vascular endothelial cells (ECs. The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase (HO-1 has anti-inflammatory functions in the endothelium. As complement-independent effects of HLA I Abs can activate ECs, it was the goal of the current study to investigate the role of HO-1 on activation of human ECs by HLA I Abs. In cell cultures of various primary human macro- and microvascular ECs treatment with monoclonal pan- and allele-specific HLA I Abs up-regulated the expression of inducible proinflammatory adhesion molecules and chemokines (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], interleukin-8 [IL-8] and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1]. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 with cobalt-protoporphyrin IX reduced, whereas inhibition of HO-1 with either zinc-protoporphyrin IX or siRNA-mediated knockdown increased HLA I Ab-dependent up-regulation of VCAM-1. Treatment with two carbon monoxide (CO-releasing molecules, which liberate the gaseous HO product CO, blocked HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation. Finally, in an in vitro adhesion assay exposure of ECs to HLA I Abs led to increased monocyte binding, which was counteracted by up-regulation of HO-1. In conclusion, HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation is modulated by endothelial HO-1 and targeted induction of this enzyme may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AMR in solid organ transplantation.

  14. Heme Oxygenases in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

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    Ayer, Anita; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Agarwal, Anupam; Stocker, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenases are composed of two isozymes, Hmox1 and Hmox2, that catalyze the degradation of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous iron, and biliverdin, the latter of which is subsequently converted to bilirubin. While initially considered to be waste products, CO and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown over the last 20 years to modulate key cellular processes, such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as antioxidant defense. This shift in paradigm has led to the importance of heme oxygenases and their products in cell physiology now being well accepted. The identification of the two human cases thus far of heme oxygenase deficiency and the generation of mice deficient in Hmox1 or Hmox2 have reiterated a role for these enzymes in both normal cell function and disease pathogenesis, especially in the context of cardiovascular disease. This review covers the current knowledge on the function of both Hmox1 and Hmox2 at both a cellular and tissue level in the cardiovascular system. Initially, the roles of heme oxygenases in vascular health and the regulation of processes central to vascular diseases are outlined, followed by an evaluation of the role(s) of Hmox1 and Hmox2 in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, intimal hyperplasia, myocardial infarction, and angiogenesis. Finally, the therapeutic potential of heme oxygenases and their products are examined in a cardiovascular disease context, with a focus on how the knowledge we have gained on these enzymes may be capitalized in future clinical studies. PMID:27604527

  15. Heme oxygenase-1, oxidation, inflammation and atherosclerosis

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    Jesus A Araujo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process of the vascular wall characterized by the infiltration of lipids and inflammatory cells. Oxidative modifications of infiltrating low density lipoproteins and induction of oxidative stress play a major role in lipid retention in the vascular wall, uptake by macrophages and generation of foam cells, a hallmark of this disorder. The vasculature has a plethora of protective resources against oxidation and inflammation, many of them regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a Nrf2-regulated gene that plays a critical role in the prevention of vascular inflammation. It is the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase, responsible for the oxidative cleavage of heme groups leading to the generation of biliverdin, carbon monoxide and release of ferrous iron. HO-1 has important antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, most of which play a significant role in the protection against atherogenesis. HO-1 may also be an important feature in macrophage differentiation and polarization to certain subtypes. The biological effects of HO-1 are largely attributable to its enzymatic activity, which can be conceived as a system with three arms of action, corresponding to its three enzymatic byproducts. HO-1 mediated vascular protection may be due to a combination of systemic and vascular local effects. It is usually expressed at low levels but can be highly upregulated in the presence of several proatherogenic stimuli. The HO-1 system is amenable for use in the development of new therapies, some of them currently under experimental and clinical trials. Interestingly, in contrast to the HO-1 antiatherogenic actions, the expression of its transcriptional regulator Nrf2 leads to proatherogenic effects instead. This article reviews the evidence that supports the antiatherogenic role of HO-1, potential pathways and mechanisms mediating

  16. Kidney injury and heme oxygenase-1

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    Hai-xing MAI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available     Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is one of the main pathways to degrade heme in mammals, and the main degradation products are free iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO, and bilirubin. Heme plays an important role in promoting cell survival, circulation of intracellular substrates, and immune regulation. Previous studies suggest that HO-1 pathway is an important internal factor in determining the susceptibility and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. The induction of HO-1 expression can attenuate the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI, and the inhibition of HO-1 expression will aggravate IRI. The present article summarizes the latest advances in research abroad and at home on protective mechanism by which HO-1 prevents AKI to further deepen our understanding of the role of HO-1 in the treatment of AKI.   

  17. HEME OXYGENASE-1 AND FATTY LIVER DISEASE.

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    Daniela Nicolosi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver diseases are a spectrum of liver pathologies characterized by abnormal hepatocellular accumulations of lipids. This condition may occur in both adults and children, particularly those who are obese or have insulin resistance or following abuse of alcohol consumption. They are classified in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD and Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (AFLD. Steatohepatitis is a specific pattern of injury within the spectrum of NAFLD and this pattern is associated with fibrotic progression and cirrhosis. The role of oxidative stress in liver steatosis production and its progression to inflammation leading to steatohepatitis has been discussed in relation to alterations in metabolic and pro-inflammatory pathway. One of the main enzymes responsible for antioxidant activity in the presence of liver damage is the Heme Oxygenase-1(HO-1.The products of the HO-1-catalyzed reaction, particularly carbon monoxide (CO and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown to exert protective effects in several organs against oxidative and other noxious stimuli. In this context, it is interesting to note that induction of HO-1 expression contributes to protection against liver damage in various experimental models. The focus of this review is on the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against fatty liver diseases.

  18. Induction of heme oxygenase I (HMOX1 by HPP-4382: a novel modulator of Bach1 activity.

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    Otis C Attucks

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS produced in response to metabolic activity and environmental factors. Increased oxidative stress is associated with the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases. Cellular response to excess ROS involves the induction of antioxidant response element (ARE genes under control of the transcriptional activator Nrf2 and the transcriptional repressor Bach1. The development of synthetic small molecules that activate the protective anti-oxidant response network is of major therapeutic interest. Traditional small molecules targeting ARE-regulated gene activation (e.g., bardoxolone, dimethyl fumarate function by alkylating numerous proteins including Keap1, the controlling protein of Nrf2. An alternative is to target the repressor Bach1. Bach1 has an endogenous ligand, heme, that inhibits Bach1 binding to ARE, thus allowing Nrf2-mediated gene expression including that of heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX1, a well described target of Bach1 repression. In this report, normal human lung fibroblasts were used to screen a collection of synthetic small molecules for their ability to induce HMOX1. A class of HMOX1-inducing compounds, represented by HPP-4382, was discovered. These compounds are not reactive electrophiles, are not suppressed by N-acetyl cysteine, and do not perturb either ROS or cellular glutathione. Using RNAi, we further demonstrate that HPP-4382 induces HMOX1 in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation verified that HPP-4382 treatment of NHLF cells reciprocally coordinated a decrease in binding of Bach1 and an increase of Nrf2 binding to the HMOX1 E2 enhancer. Finally we show that HPP-4382 can inhibit Bach1 activity in a reporter assay that measures transcription driven by the human HMOX1 E2 enhancer. Our results suggest that HPP-4382 is a novel activator of the antioxidant response through the modulation of Bach1 binding to the ARE binding site of target genes.

  19. Induction of heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) by HPP-4382: a novel modulator of Bach1 activity.

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    Attucks, Otis C; Jasmer, Kimberly J; Hannink, Mark; Kassis, Jareer; Zhong, Zhenping; Gupta, Suparna; Victory, Sam F; Guzel, Mustafa; Polisetti, Dharma Rao; Andrews, Robert; Mjalli, Adnan M M; Kostura, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in response to metabolic activity and environmental factors. Increased oxidative stress is associated with the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases. Cellular response to excess ROS involves the induction of antioxidant response element (ARE) genes under control of the transcriptional activator Nrf2 and the transcriptional repressor Bach1. The development of synthetic small molecules that activate the protective anti-oxidant response network is of major therapeutic interest. Traditional small molecules targeting ARE-regulated gene activation (e.g., bardoxolone, dimethyl fumarate) function by alkylating numerous proteins including Keap1, the controlling protein of Nrf2. An alternative is to target the repressor Bach1. Bach1 has an endogenous ligand, heme, that inhibits Bach1 binding to ARE, thus allowing Nrf2-mediated gene expression including that of heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), a well described target of Bach1 repression. In this report, normal human lung fibroblasts were used to screen a collection of synthetic small molecules for their ability to induce HMOX1. A class of HMOX1-inducing compounds, represented by HPP-4382, was discovered. These compounds are not reactive electrophiles, are not suppressed by N-acetyl cysteine, and do not perturb either ROS or cellular glutathione. Using RNAi, we further demonstrate that HPP-4382 induces HMOX1 in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation verified that HPP-4382 treatment of NHLF cells reciprocally coordinated a decrease in binding of Bach1 and an increase of Nrf2 binding to the HMOX1 E2 enhancer. Finally we show that HPP-4382 can inhibit Bach1 activity in a reporter assay that measures transcription driven by the human HMOX1 E2 enhancer. Our results suggest that HPP-4382 is a novel activator of the antioxidant response through the modulation of Bach1 binding to the ARE binding site of target genes.

  20. Thrombin induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts through protease-activated receptor signaling pathways

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    2012-01-01

    Introduction Thrombin is a key factor in the stimulation of fibrin deposition, angiogenesis, and proinflammatory processes. Abnormalities in these processes are primary features of osteoarthritis (OA). Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a stress-inducible rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation that confers cytoprotection against oxidative injury. Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced HO-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts (SFs). Methods Thrombin-mediated HO-1 expression was assessed with quantitative real-time (q)PCR. The mechanisms of action of thrombin in different signaling pathways were studied by using Western blotting. Knockdown of protease-activated receptor (PAR) proteins was achieved by transfection with siRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study in vivo binding of Nrf2 to the HO-1 promoter. Transient transfection was used to examine HO-1 activity. Results Osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) showed significant expression of thrombin, and expression was higher than in normal SFs. OASFs stimulation with thrombin induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in HO-1 expression. Pharmacologic inhibitors or activators and genetic inhibition by siRNA of protease-activated receptors (PARs) revealed that the PAR1 and PAR3 receptors, but not the PAR4 receptor, are involved in thrombin-mediated upregulation of HO-1. Thrombin-mediated HO-1 expression was attenuated by thrombin inhibitor (PPACK), PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin), or c-Src inhibitor (PP2). Stimulation of cells with thrombin increased PKCδ, c-Src, and Nrf2 activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that the interaction between thrombin and PAR1/PAR3 increases HO-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts through the PKCδ, c-Src, and Nrf2 signaling pathways. PMID:22541814

  1. Hemin inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury, involving heme oxygenase-1.

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    Luo, Yun-peng; Jiang, Lei; Kang, Kai; Fei, Dong-sheng; Meng, Xiang-lin; Nan, Chuan-chuan; Pan, Shang-ha; Zhao, Ming-ran; Zhao, Ming-yan

    2014-05-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to acute lung injury (ALI), accelerating caspase-1 maturation, and resulting in IL-1β and IL-18 over-production. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role in ALI. This study investigated the effect of hemin (a potent HO-1 inducer) on NLRP3 inflammasome in sepsis-induced ALI. The sepsis model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used in C57BL6 mice. In vivo induction and suppression of HO-1 were performed by pretreatment with hemin and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor) respectively. CLP triggered significant pulmonary damage, neutrophil infiltration, increased levels of IL-1β and IL-18, and edema formation in the lung. Hemin pretreatment exerted inhibitory effect on lung injury and attenuated IL-1β and IL-18 secretion in serum and lung tissue. In lung tissues, hemin down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1. Moreover, hemin reduced malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species production, and inhibited NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Meanwhile, hemin significantly increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and HO-1 enzymatic activity. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the CLP and ZnPP groups. Our study suggests that hemin-inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation involved HO-1, reducing IL-1β and IL-18 secretion and limiting the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isocyanides inhibit human heme oxygenases at the verdoheme stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-09-22

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides, isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 microM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design.

  3. Isocyanides Inhibit Human Heme Oxygenases at the Verdoheme Stage†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides; isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides, and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 μM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design. PMID:19694439

  4. Regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaga, S; Takahashi, K; Takeda, K; Yoshizawa, M; Fujita, H; Sasaki, H; Shibahara, S

    1996-06-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 is an essential enzyme in heme catabolism, and its human gene promoter contains a putative heat shock element (HHO-HSE). This study was designed to analyze the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress. The amounts of heme oxygenase-1 protein were not increased by heat shock (incubation at 42 degrees C) in human alveolar macrophages and in a human erythroblastic cell line, YN-1-0-A, whereas heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was noticeably induced. However, heat shock factor does bind in vitro to HHO-HSE and the synthetic HHO-HSE by itself is sufficient to confer the increase in the transient expression of a reporter gene upon heat shock. The deletion of the sequence, located downstream from HHO-HSE, resulted in the activation of a reporter gene by heat shock. These results suggest that HHO-HSE is potentially functional but is repressed in vivo. Interestingly, heat shock abolished the remarkable increase in the levels of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in YN-1-0-A cells treated with hemin or cadmium, in which HSP70 mRNA was noticeably induced. Furthermore, transient expression assays showed that heat shock inhibits the cadmium-mediated activation of the heme oxygenase-1 promoter, whereas the HSP70 gene promoter was activated upon heat shock. Such regulation of heme oxygenase-1 under thermal stress may be of physiologic significance in erythroid cells.

  5. Novel Insights into the Vasoprotective Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Marcantoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to enhanced oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. These events trigger platelet activation and their interaction with leukocytes and endothelial cells, thus contributing to the induction of chronic inflammatory processes at the vascular wall and to the development of atherosclerotic lesions and atherothrombosis. In this scenario, endogenous antioxidant pathways are induced to restrain the development of vascular disease. In the present paper, we will discuss the role of heme oxygenase (HO-1 which is an enzyme of the heme catabolism and cleaves heme to form biliverdin and carbon monoxide (CO. Biliverdin is reduced enzymatically to the potent antioxidant bilirubin. Recent evidence supports the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect of cyclooxygenase(COX-2-dependent prostacyclin in the vasculature. Moreover, the role of HO-1 in estrogen vasoprotection is emerging. Finally, possible strategies to develop novel therapeutics against cardiovascular disease by targeting the induction of HO-1 will be discussed.

  6. Methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 deficiency stimulates heme oxygenase-1 expression via ROS-dependent and Nrf2 activation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Geun-Hee; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr

    2016-05-13

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MsrB3), which is primarily found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is an important protein repair enzyme that stereospecifically reduces methionine-R-sulfoxide residues. We previously found that MsrB3 deficiency arrests the cell cycle at the G{sub 1}/S stage through up-regulation of p21 and p27. In this study, we report a critical role of MsrB3 in gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which has an anti-proliferative effect associated with p21 up-regulation. Depletion of MsrB3 elevated HO-1 expression in mammalian cells, whereas MsrB3 overexpression had no effect. MsrB3 deficiency increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly in the mitochondria. ER stress, which is associated with up-regulation of HO-1, was also induced by depletion of MsrB3. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine as an ROS scavenger reduced augmented HO-1 levels in MsrB3-depleted cells. MsrB3 deficiency activated Nrf2 transcription factor by enhancing its expression and nuclear import. The activation of Nrf2 induced by MsrB3 depletion was confirmed by increased expression levels of its other target genes, such as γ-glutamylcysteine ligase. Taken together, these data suggest that MsrB3 attenuates HO-1 induction by inhibiting ROS production, ER stress, and Nrf2 activation. -- Highlights: •MsrB3 depletion induces HO-1 expression. •MsrB3 deficiency increases cellular ROS and ER stress. •MsrB3 deficiency activates Nrf2 by increasing its expression and nuclear import. •MsrB3 attenuates HO-1 induction by inhibiting ROS production and Nrf2 activation.

  7. Biliverdin inhibits hepatitis C virus nonstructural 3/4A protease activity: mechanism for the antiviral effects of heme oxygenase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaowen; Wilson, Anne T; Luxon, Bruce A; Brown, Kyle E; Mathahs, M Meleah; Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha; McCaffrey, Anton P; Schmidt, Warren N

    2010-12-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Of the products of the reaction catalyzed by HO-1, iron has been shown to inhibit HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase, but little is known about the antiviral activity of biliverdin (BV). Herein, we report that BV inhibits viral replication and viral protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in replicons and cells harboring the infectious J6/JFH construct. Using the SensoLyte 620 HCV Protease Assay with a wide wavelength excitation/emission (591 nm/622 nm) fluorescence energy transfer peptide, we found that both recombinant and endogenous nonstructural 3/4A (NS3/4A) protease from replicon microsomes are potently inhibited by BV. Of the tetrapyrroles tested, BV was the strongest inhibitor of NS3/4A activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 9 μM, similar to that of the commercial inhibitor, AnaSpec (Fremont, CA) #25346 (IC(50) 5 μM). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated mixed competitive and noncompetitive inhibition of the protease by BV. In contrast, the effects of bilirubin (BR) on HCV replication and NS3/4A were much less potent. Because BV is rapidly converted to BR by biliverdin reductase (BVR) intracellularly, the effect of BVR knockdown on BV antiviral activity was assessed. After greater than 80% silencing of BVR, inhibition of viral replication by BV was enhanced. BV also increased the antiviral activity of α-interferon in replicons. BV is a potent inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, which likely contributes to the antiviral activity of HO-1. These findings suggest that BV or its derivatives may be useful in future drug therapies targeting the NS3/4A protease. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Biliverdin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Activity: Mechanism for the Antiviral Effects of Heme Oxygenase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaowen; Wilson, Anne T.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Brown, Kyle E.; Mathahs, M. Meleah; Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha; McCaffrey, Anton P.; Schmidt, Warren N.

    2010-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase -1 (HO-1) inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Of the products of the reaction catalyzed by HO-1 iron has been shown to inhibit HCV RNA polymerase, but little is known about the antiviral activity of biliverdin (BV). Herein, we report that BV inhibits viral replication and viral protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in replicons and cells harboring the infectious J6/JFH construct. Using the SensoLyte 620 HCV Protease Assay with a wide wavelength excitation/emission (591nm/622nm) fluorescence energy transfer peptide, we found that both recombinant and endogenous NS3/4A protease from replicon microsomes are potently inhibited by BV. Of the tetrapyrroles tested, BV was the strongest inhibitor of NS3/4A activity with an IC50 of 9 uM, similar to that of the commercial inhibitor, AnaSpec #25346 (IC50 5 uM). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated mixed competitive and non-competitive inhibition of the protease by BV. In contrast, the effects of bilirubin (BR) on HCV replication and NS3/4A were much less potent. Because BV is rapidly converted to BR by biliverdin reductase (BVR) intracellularly, the effect of BVR knockdown on BV antiviral activity was assessed. After >80% silencing of BVR, inhibition of viral replication by BV was enhanced. BV also increased the antiviral activity of α-interferon in replicons. Conclusion BV is a potent inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, which likely contributes to the antiviral activity of HO-1. These findings suggest that BV or its derivatives may be useful future drug therapies targeting the NS3/4A protease. PMID:21105106

  9. Immunolocalization of heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gayathri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study is an increasing evidence of involvement of antioxidant enzymes like heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal inflammation and their implication for treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates tumor angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, Makoto; Duda, Dan G; Ghattas, Maivel H; Lozonschi, Lucian; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamauchi, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuno, Seiki; Shibahara, Shigeki; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the continued growth of solid tumors, invasion and metastasis. Several studies clearly showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we used the vital microscope system, transparent skinfold model, lung colonization model and transduced pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1)/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) cells, to precisely analyze, for the first time, the effect of hHO-1 gene on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results revealed that HO-1 stimulates angiogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient mice. Overexpression of human hHO-1 after its retroviral transfer into Panc-1 cells did not interfere with tumor growth in vitro. While in vivo the development of tumors was accelerated upon transfection with hHO-1. On the other hand, inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) activity by stannous mesoporphyrin was able transiently to delay tumor growth in a dose dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was markedly increased in Panc-1/hHO-1 compared to mock transfected and wild type. Lectin staining and Ki-67 proliferation index confirmed these results. In addition hHO-1 stimulated in vitro tumor angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell survival. In a lung colonization model, overexpression of hHO-1 increased the occurrence of metastasis, while inhibition of HO activity by stannous mesoporphyrin completely inhibited the occurrence of metastasis. In conclusion, overexpression of HO-1 genes potentiates pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, by increasing tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis and that the inhibition of the HO system may be of useful benefit for the future treatment of the disease.

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, DJ; Ryter, SW; Choi, AMK

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of

  12. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  13. Endogenous Estrogen-Mediated Heme Oxygenase Regulation in Experimental Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of age-associated diseases in the cardiovascular system. Female Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: pharmacologically ovariectomized, surgically ovariectomized, and 24-month-old intact aging animals were compared with a control group. The activity and expression of heme oxygenases (HO in the cardiac left ventricle, the concentrations of cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the cardiac left ventricle, and the effects of heme oxygenase blockade (by 24-hour and 1-hour pretreatment with tin-protoporphyrin IX, SnPP on the epinephrine and phentolamine-induced electrocardiogram ST segment changes in vivo were investigated. The cardiac HO activity and the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 were significantly decreased in the aged rats and after ovariectomy. Estrogen depletion was accompanied by significant increases in the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The aged and ovariectomized animals exhibited a significantly elevated MPO activity and a significant ST segment depression. After pretreatment with SnPP augmented ST segment changes were determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensitivity to cardiac ischemia in estrogen depletion models is associated with suppression of the activity and expression of the HO system and increases in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers.

  14. Endogenous Estrogen-Mediated Heme Oxygenase Regulation in Experimental Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósa, Anikó; Veszelka, Médea; Berkó, Anikó Magyariné; Baráth, Zoltán; Ménesi, Rudolf; Pávó, Imre; László, Ferenc; Varga, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of age-associated diseases in the cardiovascular system. Female Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: pharmacologically ovariectomized, surgically ovariectomized, and 24-month-old intact aging animals were compared with a control group. The activity and expression of heme oxygenases (HO) in the cardiac left ventricle, the concentrations of cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the cardiac left ventricle, and the effects of heme oxygenase blockade (by 24-hour and 1-hour pretreatment with tin-protoporphyrin IX, SnPP) on the epinephrine and phentolamine-induced electrocardiogram ST segment changes in vivo were investigated. The cardiac HO activity and the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 were significantly decreased in the aged rats and after ovariectomy. Estrogen depletion was accompanied by significant increases in the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The aged and ovariectomized animals exhibited a significantly elevated MPO activity and a significant ST segment depression. After pretreatment with SnPP augmented ST segment changes were determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensitivity to cardiac ischemia in estrogen depletion models is associated with suppression of the activity and expression of the HO system and increases in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers. PMID:26064421

  15. Chromosomal localization of the human heme oxygenase genes: Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) maps to chromosome 22q12 and heme oxygenase-2 (HMOX2) maps to chromosome 16p13. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutty, R.K.; Kutty, G.; Rodriguez, I.R.; Chader, G.J.; Wiggert, B. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Heme oxygenase catalyzes the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, the precursor of the bile pigment bilirubin, and carbon monoxide, a putative neurotransmitter. The authors have employed polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the chromosome localization of the genes coding for the two known heme oxygenase isozymes. Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), the inducible form, was localized to human chromosome 22q12, while heme oxygenase-2 (HMOX2), the constitutive form, was localized to chromosome 16p13.3. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis.We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations.As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Solip [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Van Thu [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Sungwoo [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hyung, E-mail: jhlee36@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE{sub 2}, butyl lucidenateD{sub 2} (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these

  18. Functional imaging: monitoring heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisheng; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    The regulation of genetic elements can be monitored in living animals using photoproteins as reporters. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the key catabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway. Here, HO expression serves as a model for in vivo functional imaging of transcriptional regulation of a clinically relevant gene. HO enzymatic activity is inhibited by heme analogs, metalloporphyrins, but many members of this family of compounds also activate transcription of the HO-1 promoter. The degree of transcriptional activation by twelve metalloporphyrins, differing at the central metal and porphyrin ring substituents, was evaluated in both NIH 3T3 stable lines and transgenic animals containing HO-1 promoter-luciferase gene fusions. In the correlative cell culture assays, the metalloporphyrins increased transcription form the full length HO promoter fusion to varying degrees, but none increased transcription from a truncated HO-1 promoter. These results suggested that one or both of the two distal enhancer elements located at -4 and -10 Kb upstream from transcriptional start are required for HO-1 induction by heme and its analogs. The full-length HO-1-luc fusion was then evaluated as a transgene in mice. It was possible to monitor the effects of the metalloporphyrins, SnMP and ZnPP, in living animals over time. This spatiotemporal analyses of gene expression in vivo implied that alterations in porphyrin ring substituents and the central metal may affect the extent of gene activation. These data further indicate that using photoprotein reporters, subtle differences in gene expression can be monitored in living animals.

  19. Effect of a heme oxygenase-1 inducer on NADPH oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigated the effect of hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer, on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) expression in rats with alcohol-induced liver injury. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups consisting of the control group, the ethanol (EtOH) group, ...

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 comes back to endoplasmic reticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of); Pae, Hyun-Ock [Department of Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Back, Sung Hun; Chung, Su Wol [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Je Moon [Department of Opthalmology, Ulasn University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Son, Yong [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hun-Taeg, E-mail: chung@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Although multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. {yields} HO-1 expression at ER is induced by a diverse set of conditions that cause ER stressors. {yields} CO may induce HO-1 expression in human ECs by activating Nrf2 through PERK phosphorylation in a positive-feedback manner. {yields} ER-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress is discussed. -- Abstract: Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. In this review we discuss the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress.

  1. Mycoplasma fermentans MALP-2 induces heme oxygenase-1 expression via mitogen-activated protein kinases and Nrf2 pathways to modulate cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohua; You, Xiaoxing; Zeng, Yanhua; He, Jun; Liu, Liangzhuan; Deng, Zhongliang; Jiang, Chuanhao; Wu, Haiying; Zhu, Cuiming; Yu, Minjun; Wu, Yimou

    2013-06-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation that confers cytoprotection against oxidative injury and performs a vital function in the maintenance of cell hemostasis. Increasing numbers of reports have indicated that mycoplasma-derived membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides, such as macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), function as agents that stimulate the immune system by producing various inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which play roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory responses during mycoplasma infection. Here, we report that MALP-2 induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and upregulated HO-1 enzyme activity in THP-1 cells. Specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), SB203580, PD98059, and SP600125, significantly abolished HO-1 expression. In addition, MALP-2 also induced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation, and the silencing of Nrf2 expression in THP-1 cells decreased the levels of MALP-2-mediated HO-1 expression. Furthermore, COX-2 protein expression levels were upregulated in THP-1 cells in response to MALP-2, and transfection with small interfering RNAs of HO-1 significantly increased COX-2 accumulation. These results demonstrate that MALP-2 induces HO-1 expression via MAPKs and Nrf2 pathways and, furthermore, that MALP-2-induced COX-2 expression was modulated by HO-1 in THP-1 cells.

  2. Ischemic preconditioning protects against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy.

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    Liu, Anding; Fang, Haoshu; Wei, Weiwei; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta

    2014-12-01

    Ischemic preconditioning exerts a protective effect in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. The exact mechanism of ischemic preconditioning action remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that autophagy plays an important role in protecting against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the role of autophagy in ischemic preconditioning-afforded protection and its regulatory mechanisms in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury remain poorly understood. This study was designed to determine whether ischemic preconditioning could protect against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy. Laboratory investigation. University animal research laboratory. Male inbred Lewis rats and C57BL/6 mice. Ischemic preconditioning was produced by 10 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion prior to 60 minutes of ischemia. In a rat model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, rats were pretreated with wortmannin or rapamycin to evaluate the contribution of autophagy to the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. Heme oxygenase-1 was inhibited with tin protoporphyrin IX. In a mouse model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, autophagy or heme oxygenase-1 was inhibited with vacuolar protein sorting 34 small interfering RNA or heme oxygenase-1 small interfering RNA, respectively. Ischemic preconditioning ameliorated liver ischemia/reperfusion injury, as indicated by lower serum aminotransferase levels, lower hepatic inflammatory cytokines, and less severe ischemia/reperfusion-associated histopathologic changes. Ischemic preconditioning treatment induced autophagy activation, as indicated by an increase of LC3-II, degradation of p62, and accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. When ischemic preconditioning-induced autophagy was inhibited with wortmannin in rats or vacuolar protein sorting 34-specific small interfering RNA in mice, liver ischemia/reperfusion injury was worsened, whereas

  3. Heme oxygenase-1-generated biliverdin ameliorates experimental murine colitis.

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    Berberat, Pascal O; A-Rahim, Yousif I; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Warny, Michel M; Csizmadia, Eva; Robson, Simon C; Bach, Fritz H

    2005-04-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) seems to have an important protective role in acute and chronic inflammation. The products of heme catalysis, biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron (that induces apoferritin) mediate the beneficial effects of HO-1. Blockade of HO-1 activity results in exacerbation of experimental colitis. We tested whether HO-1 has protective effects in the development of colitis and determined that specific enzymatic products of HO-1 are responsible for these effects. Colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (5%) to C57BL/6 mice for 7 days. HO-1 was up-regulated by cobalt-protoporphyrin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Biliverdin, exogenous CO, or the iron chelator desferrioxamine was administered to other groups. Cobalt-protoporphyrin treatment resulted in significant up-regulation of HO-1 protein in mucosal and submucosal cells. Induction of HO-1 was associated with significantly less loss of body weight in mice with induced colitis (-12% versus -22% in the control animals, P biliverdin administration (50 micromol/kg, 3 times per day, intraperitoneally). We conclude that heightened HO-1 expression or administration of biliverdin ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Novel therapeutic strategies based on HO-1 and/or biliverdin administration may have use in inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.

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    Vlahakis, Jason Z; Rahman, Mona N; Roman, Gheorghe; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji; Szarek, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation. A PowerWave XS plate reader was used to monitor the absorbance (as a function of time) of heme bound to purified truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in the individual wells of a standard 96-well plate (with or without the addition of a test compound). The degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 was initiated using l-ascorbic acid, and the collected relevant absorbance data were analyzed by three different methods to calculate the percent control activity occurring in wells containing test compounds relative to that occurring in control wells with no test compound present. In the cases of wells containing inhibitory compounds, significant shifts in λ(max) from 404 to near 412 nm were observed as well as a decrease in the rate of heme degradation relative to that of the control. Each of the three methods of data processing (overall percent drop in absorbance over 1.5h, initial rate of reaction determined over the first 5 min, and estimated pseudo first-order reaction rate constant determined over 1.5h) gave similar and reproducible results for percent control activity. The fastest and easiest method of data analysis was determined to be that using initial rates, involving data acquisition for only 5 min once reactions have been initiated using l-ascorbic acid. The results of the study demonstrate that this simple assay based on the spectroscopic detection of heme represents a rapid, convenient method to determine the relative inhibitory activity of candidate compounds, and is useful in quickly screening a series or library of compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition

  5. Heme oxygenase system and hypertension: a comprehensive insight.

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    Tiwari, Shuchita; Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex interplay of interrelated etiologies, and the leading risk factor for many cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cardinal pathophysiological features of hypertension include enhanced vascular inflammation, vascular remodeling, vascular contractility and increased oxidative stress. In response to oxidative, inflammatory or other noxious stimuli, many physiological pathways like the heme oxygenase (HO) system are activated in an attempt to counteract tissue insults. However, the pathophysiological activation of the HO system only results to a transient increase of HO activity that fall below the necessary threshold capable of activating the downstream signaling components of the HO system like the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) secondary messenger system. Therefore, a more robust potentiation of the HO system by pharmacological agents such as hemin, heme-arginate, cobalt protoporphyrin or through retroviral HO-1 gene delivery would be needed to surmount the threshold for cytoprotection. The HO system modulates cellular homeostasis. Importantly, the HO system plays a vital role in a wide spectrum of physiologic including the regulation of blood vessel tone. Alterations in the activity and expression of HO has been correlated to pathophysiology of hypertension and related complications such as hypertrophy, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Moreover, the cytoprotection exerted by HO is attributable to its catabolic products namely, carbon monoxide, bilirubin/biliverdin, and ferritin that are known to modulate immune, inflammatory and oxidative insults. The growing incidence of hypertension and associated cardiometabolic complications has prompted the need for the exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies like substances capable of potentiating the HO system. This review briefly, highlights the functional significance of the HO system and its downstream signaling molecules

  6. Human heme oxygenase-1 efficiently catabolizes heme in the absence of biliverdin reductase.

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    Reed, James R; Huber, Warren J; Backes, Wayne L

    2010-11-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) uses molecular oxygen and electrons from NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase to convert heme to CO, ferrous iron, and biliverdin (BV). Enzymatic studies with the purified 30-kDa form of HO-1 routinely use a coupled assay containing biliverdin reductase (BVR), which converts BV to bilirubin (BR). BVR is believed to be required for optimal HO-1 activity. The goal of this study was to determine whether HO-1 activity could be monitored directly by following BV generation or iron release (using the ferrous iron chelator, ferrozine) in the absence of BVR. Using assays for each of the three end products, we found that HO-1 activity was stimulated in the presence of catalase and comparable rates were measured with each assay. Absorbance scans revealed characteristic spectra for BR, BV, and/or the ferrozine-iron complex. The optimal conditions were slightly different for the direct and coupled assays. BSA activated the coupled but inhibited the direct assays, and the assays had different pH optima. By measuring the activity of BVR directly using BV as a substrate, these differences were attributed to different enzymatic properties of BVR and HO-1. Thus, BVR is not needed to measure the activity of HO-1 when catalase is present. In fact, the factors affecting catalysis by HO-1 are better understood using the direct assays because the coupled assay can be influenced by properties of BVR.

  7. Chinese herbal medicine compound Yi-Zhi-Hao pellet inhibits replication of influenza virus infection through activation of heme oxygenase-1

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    Jinqiu Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a leading cause of respiratory disease, influenza A virus (IAV presents a pandemic threat in annual seasonal outbreaks. Given the limitation of existing anti-influenza therapies, there remains to be a requirement for new drugs. Compound Yi-Zhi-Hao pellet (CYZH is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM used in the clinic, whose formula has been recorded in Complication of National Standard for Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat common cold. In this study, we found that CYZH exhibited a broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity and inhibited the expression of viral RNA and proteins in vitro. Mechanistically, CYZH had no inhibitory activities against viral protein hemagglutinin and IAV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Instead, it induced activation of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, which subsequently upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression. Also, CYZH protected cells from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen series. In conclusions, CYZH inhibits IAV replication in vitro, at least partly by activating expression of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  8. Hemin inhibits NO production by IL-1β-stimulated human astrocytes through induction of heme oxygenase-1 and reduction of p38 MAPK activation

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    Sheng Wen S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme oxygenase (HO-1 has been shown to attenuate oxidative injury and reduce apoptosis. HO-1 can be induced by various stimuli released during cellular injury, such as heme. Deleterious free heme is degraded by HO-1 to carbon monoxide, iron and biliverdin, which have potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of HO-1 would inhibit production of the free radical (NO by interlukin (IL-1β-activated human astrocytes. Methods To measure NO production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, HO-1 expression and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase activation we used hemin as an HO-1 inducer and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP IX as an inhibitor of HO-1 activity in human astrocyte cultures prior to IL-1β exposure. Transfection of astrocyte cultures was performed using a pLEX expression vector carrying the human HO-1 sequence prior to IL-1β treatment. Supernatants of astrocyte cultures pretreated with inhibitors of p38 MAPK or MEK1/2 prior to IL-1β exposure were collected for NO assay. Results IL-1β treatment of astrocytes alone induced undetectable amounts of HO-1 protein by western blot. However, HO-1 mRNA expression was modestly up-regulated in response to IL-1β stimulation. Pretreatment with hemin alone substantially induced both HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and HO-1 mRNA expression was further enhanced when hemin was combined with IL-1β treatment. In contrast, IL-1β-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were markedly inhibited by hemin treatment. When pretreated with SnPP, the inhibitory effect of hemin on IL-1β-induced NO production and iNOS expression was reversed, suggesting the involvement of HO-1. IL-1β-induced p38 MAPK activation, which is known to be required for NO production, was also down-regulated by hemin. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that up-regulation of HO-1 in astrocytes is associated with down-regulation of i

  9. Structure of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme and enzymatic inactivation by mutation of the heme coordinating residue His-193

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    Suits,M.; Jaffer, N.; Jia, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Heme oxygenases catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. For pathogenic microorganisms, heme uptake and degradation are critical mechanisms for iron acquisition that enable multiplication and survival within hosts they invade. Here we report the first crystal structure of the pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme at 1.45 {angstrom} resolution. When compared with other heme oxygenases, ChuS has a unique fold, including structural repeats and a {beta}-sheet core. Not surprisingly, the mode of heme coordination by ChuS is also distinct, whereby heme is largely stabilized by residues from the C-terminal domain, assisted by a distant arginine from the N-terminal domain. Upon heme binding, there is no large conformational change beyond the fine tuning of a key histidine (His-193) residue. Most intriguingly, in contrast to other heme oxygenases, the propionic side chains of heme are orientated toward the protein core, exposing the {alpha}-meso carbon position where O{sub 2} is added during heme degradation. This unique orientation may facilitate presentation to an electron donor, explaining the significantly reduced concentration of ascorbic acid needed for the reaction. Based on the ChuS-heme structure, we converted the histidine residue responsible for axial coordination of the heme group to an asparagine residue (H193N), as well as converting a second histidine to an alanine residue (H73A) for comparison purposes. We employed spectral analysis and CO measurement by gas chromatography to analyze catalysis by ChuS, H193N, and H73A, demonstrating that His-193 is the key residue for the heme-degrading activity of ChuS.

  10. Role of histone acetylation in activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1 pathway by manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Guo, Zhenkun; Zhan, Yanting; Li, Huangyuan; Wu, Siying

    2017-10-17

    Manganese neurotoxicity is characterized by Parkinson-like symptoms with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia as the principal pathological feature. Manganese neurotoxicity studies may contribute to a good understanding of the mechanism of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we first confirmed that MnCl2 can promote the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in the nucleus or cytoplasm while increasing the binding activity of Nrf2 and antioxidant response elements, further promoting the expression of downstream target gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and leading to increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduce the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Second, we investigated the role of histone acetylation in the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by manganese chloride in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Histone acetyltransferase inhibitor (anacardic acid) and histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin A, TSA) were used as pretreatment reagents to adjust the level of histone acetylation. Here, we show that downregulation of histone acetylation can inhibit Mn-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and further inhibits the Mn-activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. This downregulation also promotes manganese-induced increase of ROS and decrease of GSH in neurons. These results suggest that the downregulation of histone acetylation may play an important role in the neurotoxicity caused by manganese and that TSA may provide new ideas and targets in treating manganese-induced Parkinson's syndrome and PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Heme Degradation by Heme Oxygenase Protects Mitochondria but Induces ER Stress via Formed Bilirubin

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    Andrea Müllebner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO, in conjunction with biliverdin reductase, degrades heme to carbon monoxide, ferrous iron and bilirubin (BR; the latter is a potent antioxidant. The induced isoform HO-1 has evoked intense research interest, especially because it manifests anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects relieving acute cell stress. The mechanisms by which HO mediates the described effects are not completely clear. However, the degradation of heme, a strong pro-oxidant, and the generation of BR are considered to play key roles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of BR on vital functions of hepatocytes focusing on mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The affinity of BR to proteins is a known challenge for its exact quantification. We consider two major consequences of this affinity, namely possible analytical errors in the determination of HO activity, and biological effects of BR due to direct interaction with protein function. In order to overcome analytical bias we applied a polynomial correction accounting for the loss of BR due to its adsorption to proteins. To identify potential intracellular targets of BR we used an in vitro approach involving hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria. After verification that the hepatocytes possess HO activity at a similar level as liver tissue by using our improved post-extraction spectroscopic assay, we elucidated the effects of increased HO activity and the formed BR on mitochondrial function and the ER stress response. Our data show that BR may compromise cellular metabolism and proliferation via induction of ER stress. ER and mitochondria respond differently to elevated levels of BR and HO-activity. Mitochondria are susceptible to hemin, but active HO protects them against hemin-induced toxicity. BR at slightly elevated levels induces a stress response at the ER, resulting in a decreased proliferative and metabolic activity of hepatocytes. However, the proteins that are targeted

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 promoter polymorphisms and risk of spina bifida.

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    Fujioka, Kazumichi; Yang, Wei; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Zhao, Hui; Wong, Ronald J; Stevenson, David K; Shaw, Gary M

    2015-09-01

    Spina bifida is the most common form of neural tube defects (NTDs). Etiologies of NTDs are multifactorial, and oxidative stress is believed to play a key role in NTD development. Heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, has multiple protective properties including mediating antioxidant processes, making it an ideal candidate for study. The inducible HO isoform (HO-1) has two functional genetic polymorphisms: (GT)n dinucleotide repeats and A(-413)T SNP (rs2071746), both of which can affect its promoter activity. However, no study has investigated a possible association between HO-1 genetic polymorphisms and risk of NTDs. This case-control study included 152 spina bifida cases (all myelomeningoceles) and 148 non-malformed controls obtained from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program reflecting births during 1990 to 1999. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and amplified fragment length polymorphisms/restriction fragment length polymorphisms using genomic DNA extracted from archived newborn blood spots. Genotype and haplotype frequencies of two HO-1 promoter polymorphisms between cases and controls were compared. For (GT)n dinucleotide repeat lengths and the A(-413)T SNP, no significant differences in allele frequencies or genotypes were found. Linkage disequilibrium was observed between the HO-1 polymorphisms (D': 0.833); however, haplotype analyses did not show increased risk of spina bifida overall or by race/ethnicity. Although, an association was not found between HO-1 polymorphisms and risk of spina bifida, we speculate that the combined effect of low HO-1 expression and exposures to known environmental oxidative stressors (low folate status or diabetes), may overwhelm antioxidant defenses and increase risk of NTDs and warrants further study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

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    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent c-Fos/Activator Protein 1 Induction Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression by Bradykinin in Brain Astrocytes.

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    Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Wang, Hui-Hsin; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2010-12-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a crucial role in tissue pathological changes such as brain injuries. Our previous studies have demonstrated that bradykinin (BK) induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 and COX-2, via mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BK-induced HO-1 expression in RBA-1 cells remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrated that BK induced HO-1 expression and enzymatic activity via a B(2) BK receptor-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling pathway. NADPH oxidase (Nox)-dependent ROS generation led to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and then activated the downstream molecules NF-κB and c-Jun, respectively. The c-Fos, an activator protein 1 (AP-1) subunit, was upregulated by activation of NF-κB and c-Jun, which bound to HO-1 promoter and thereby turned on transcription of HO-1 gene. The rat HO-1 promoter containing a putative AP-1 cis-binding site was identified as a crucial domain linking to BK action. Taken together, these results suggested that in RBA-1 cells, activation of ERK/NF-κB and JNK/c-Jun cascades by a Nox/ROS-dependent event enhancing c-Fos/AP-1 activity is essential for HO-1 upregulation and activation induced by BK. Moreover, ROS-dependent NF-E2-related factor 2 activation also contributes to HO-1 induction by BK in astrocytes.

  15. Melaleuca alternifolia Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Murine RAW264.7 Cells through Activation of the Nrf2-ARE Pathway.

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    Lee, Shih-Yu; Chen, Po-Yu; Lin, Jung-Chun; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Ou, Ching-Huei; Chang, Tsu-Chung

    2017-11-09

    Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) is the refined essential oil of the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia. MAC has been reported to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the mechanisms involved in this effect remain unclear. This study aims to delineate the molecular mechanisms that drive the anti-inflammatory activity of MAC and its active component, terpinen-4-ol, in macrophages. The effects of MAC on RAW264.7 cells were studied using western blotting, real-time PCR, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and NF-[Formula: see text]B luciferase reporter assays. Our results showed that MAC significantly increased both the mRNA and protein levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) via p38 and JNK MAPK activation. In addition, we showed that MAC significantly increased the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor regulating HO-1 induction. MAC was also associated with significant inhibition of iNOS expression, NO production, and NF-[Formula: see text]B activation. HO-1 was required for these anti-inflammatory effects as tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), an HO-1 inhibitor, abolished the effects of MAC on LPS-induced iNOS, NO, and NF-[Formula: see text]B activation. Our results indicate that MAC induces HO-1 expression in murine macrophages via the p38 MAPK and JNK pathways and that this induction is required for its anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Cloning and Expression of cDNA for Rat Heme Oxygenase

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    Shibahara, Shigeki; Muller, Rita; Taguchi, Hayao; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1985-12-01

    Two cDNA clones for rat heme oxygenase have been isolated from a rat spleen cDNA library in λ gt11 by immunological screening using a specific polyclonal antibody. One of these clones has an insert of 1530 nucleotides that contains the entire protein-coding region. To confirm that the isolated cDNA encodes heme oxygenase, we transfected monkey kidney cells (COS-7) with the cDNA carried in a simian virus 40 vector. The heme oxygenase was highly expressed in endoplasmic reticulum of transfected cells. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNA was determined and the primary structure of heme oxygenase was deduced. Heme oxygenase is composed of 289 amino acids and has one hydrophobic segment at its carboxyl terminus, which is probably important for the insertion of heme oxygenase into endoplasmic reticulum. The cloned cDNA was used to analyze the induction of heme oxygenase in rat liver by treatment with CoCl2 or with hemin. RNA blot analysis showed that both CoCl2 and hemin increased the amount of hybridizable mRNA, suggesting that these substances may act at the transcriptional level to increase the amount of heme oxygenase.

  17. Human heme oxygenase oxidation of 5- and 15-phenylhemes.

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    Wang, Jinling; Niemevz, Fernando; Lad, Latesh; Huang, Liusheng; Alvarez, Diego E; Buldain, Graciela; Poulos, Thomas L; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2004-10-08

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. Previous work indicated that electrophilic addition of the terminal oxygen of the ferric hydroperoxo complex to the alpha-meso-carbon gives 5-hydroxyheme. Earlier efforts to block this reaction with a 5-methyl substituent failed, as the reaction still gave biliverdin IXalpha. Surprisingly, a 15-methyl substituent caused exclusive cleavage at the gamma-meso-rather than at the normal, unsubstituted alpha-meso-carbon. No CO was formed in these reactions, but the fragment cleaved from the porphyrin eluded identification. We report here that hHO-1 cleaves 5-phenylheme to biliverdin IXalpha and oxidizes 15-phenylheme at the alpha-meso position to give 10-phenylbiliverdin IXalpha. The fragment extruded in the oxidation of 5-phenylheme is benzoic acid, one oxygen of which comes from O2 and the other from water. The 2.29- and 2.11-A crystal structures of the hHO-1 complexes with 1- and 15-phenylheme, respectively, show clear electron density for both the 5- and 15-phenyl rings in both molecules of the asymmetric unit. The overall structure of 15-phenylheme-hHO-1 is similar to that of heme-hHO-1 except for small changes in distal residues 141-150 and in the proximal Lys18 and Lys22. In the 5-phenylheme-hHO-1 structure, the phenyl-substituted heme occupies the same position as heme in the heme-HO-1 complex but the 5-phenyl substituent disrupts the rigid hydrophobic wall of residues Met34, Phe214, and residues 26-42 near the alpha-meso carbon. The results provide independent support for an electrophilic oxidation mechanism and support a role for stereochemical control of the reaction regiospecificity.

  18. MAPK/JNK1 activation protects cells against cadmium-induced autophagic cell death via differential regulation of catalase and heme oxygenase-1 in oral cancer cells.

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    So, Keum-Young; Kim, Sang-Hun; Jung, Ki-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are related to oral diseases. We investigated the roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase in cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and the underlying molecular mechanism in oral cancer cells. Exposing YD8 cells to Cd reduced the expression levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1/2 and induced the expression of HO-1 as well as autophagy and apoptosis, which were reversed by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Cd-exposed YD10B cells exhibited milder effects than YD8 cells, indicating that Cd sensitivity is associated with antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Autophagy inhibition via pharmacologic and genetic modulations enhanced Cd-induced HO-1 expression, caspase-3 cleavage, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ho-1 knockdown increased autophagy and apoptosis. Hemin treatment partially suppressed Cd-induced ROS production and apoptosis, but enhanced autophagy and CHOP expression, indicating that autophagy induction is associated with cellular stress. Catalase inhibition by pharmacological and genetic modulations increased Cd-induced ROS production, autophagy, and apoptosis, but suppressed HO-1, indicating that catalase is required for HO-1 induction. p38 inhibition upregulated Cd-induced phospho-JNK and catalase, but suppressed HO-1, autophagy, apoptosis. JNK suppression exhibited contrary results, enhancing the expression of phospho-p38. Co-suppression of p38 and JNK1 failed to upregulate catalase and procaspase-3, which were upregulated by JNK1 overexpression. Overall, the balance between the responses of p38 and JNK activation to Cd appears to have an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy induction. In addition, the upregulation of catalase by JNK1 activation can play a critical role in cell protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Heme Oxygenase, Inflammation, and Fibrosis: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly?

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    Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Immenschuh, Stephan; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2012-01-01

    Upon injury, prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress may cause pathological wound healing and fibrosis, leading to formation of excessive scar tissue. Fibrogenesis can occur in most organs and tissues and may ultimately lead to organ dysfunction and failure. The underlying mechanisms of pathological wound healing still remain unclear, and are considered to be multifactorial, but so far, no efficient anti-fibrotic therapies exist. Extra- and intracellular levels of free heme may be increased in a variety of pathological conditions due to release from hemoproteins. Free heme possesses pro-inflammatory and oxidative properties, and may act as a danger signal. Effects of free heme may be counteracted by heme-binding proteins or by heme degradation. Heme is degraded by heme oxygenase (HO) that exists as two isoforms: inducible HO-1 and constitutively expressed HO-2. HO generates the effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and free iron/ferritin. HO deficiency in mouse and man leads to exaggerated inflammation following mild insults, and accumulating epidemiological and preclinical studies support the widely recognized notion of the cytoprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects of the activity of the HO system and its effector molecules. In this review, we address the potential effects of targeted HO-1 induction or administration of HO-effector molecules as therapeutic targets in fibrotic conditions to counteract inflammatory and oxidative insults. This is exemplified by various clinically relevant conditions, such as hypertrophic scarring, chronic inflammatory liver disease, chronic pancreatitis, and chronic graft rejection in transplantation. PMID:22586396

  20. Structural and mutational analyses of the Leptospira interrogans virulence-related heme oxygenase provide insights into its catalytic mechanism.

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    Anabel Soldano

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase from Leptospira interrogans is an important virulence factor. During catalysis, redox equivalents are provided to this enzyme by the plastidic-type ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase also found in L. interrogans. This process may have evolved to aid this bacterial pathogen to obtain heme-iron from their host and enable successful colonization. Herein we report the crystal structure of the heme oxygenase-heme complex at 1.73 Å resolution. The structure reveals several distinctive features related to its function. A hydrogen bonded network of structural water molecules that extends from the catalytic site to the protein surface was cleared observed. A depression on the surface appears to be the H+ network entrance from the aqueous environment to the catalytic site for O2 activation, a key step in the heme oxygenase reaction. We have performed a mutational analysis of the F157, located at the above-mentioned depression. The mutant enzymes were unable to carry out the complete degradation of heme to biliverdin since the reaction was arrested at the verdoheme stage. We also observed that the stability of the oxyferrous complex, the efficiency of heme hydroxylation and the subsequent conversion to verdoheme was adversely affected. These findings underscore a long-range communication between the outer fringes of the hydrogen-bonded network of structural waters and the heme active site during catalysis. Finally, by analyzing the crystal structures of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase and heme oxygenase, we propose a model for the productive association of these proteins.

  1. QM/MM Study of the Conversion of Oxophlorin Into Verdoheme by Heme Oxygenase.

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    Alavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Zahedi, Mansour; Safari, Nasser; Ryde, Ulf

    2017-11-01

    Heme oxygenase is an enzyme that degrades heme, thereby recycling iron in most organisms, including human. Pervious density functional theory (DFT) calculations have suggested that iron(ІІI) hydroxyheme, an intermediate generated in the first step of heme degradation by heme oxygenase, is converted to iron(ІІІ) superoxo oxophlorin in the presence of dioxygen. In this paper, we have studied the detailed mechanism of conversion of iron(ІІІ) superoxo oxophlorin to verdoheme by using combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. The calculations employed the B3LYP method and the def2-QZVP basis set, considering dispersion effects with the DFT-D3 approach, obtaining accurate energies with large QM regions of almost 1000 atoms. The reaction was found to be exothermic by -35 kcal/mol, with a rate-determining barrier of 19 kcal/mol in the doublet state. The protein environment significantly affects the reaction by decreasing the reaction and activation energies and changing the structures by providing strategic hydrogen bonds.

  2. Crystal structure of human heme oxygenase-1 in a complex with biliverdin.

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    Lad, Latesh; Friedman, Jonathan; Li, Huying; Bhaskar, B; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; Poulos, Thomas L

    2004-04-06

    Heme oxygenase oxidatively cleaves heme to biliverdin, leading to the release of iron and CO through a process in which the heme participates both as a cofactor and as a substrate. Here we report the crystal structure of the product, iron-free biliverdin, in a complex with human HO-1 at 2.19 A. Structural comparisons of the human biliverdin-HO-1 structure with its heme complex and the recently published rat HO-1 structure in a complex with the biliverdin-iron chelate [Sugishima, M., Sakamoto, H., Higashimoto, Y., Noguchi, M., and Fukuyama, K. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 32352-32358] show two major differences. First, in the absence of an Fe-His bond and solvent structure in the active site, the distal and proximal helices relax and adopt an "open" conformation which most likely encourages biliverdin release. Second, iron-free biliverdin occupies a different position and orientation relative to heme and the biliverdin-iron complex. Biliverdin adopts a more linear conformation and moves from the heme site to an internal cavity. These structural results provide insight into the rate-limiting step in HO-1 catalysis, which is product, biliverdin, release.

  3. Interaction of nitric oxide with human heme oxygenase-1.

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    Wang, Jinling; Lu, Shen; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2003-01-24

    NO and CO may complement each other as signaling molecules in some physiological situations. We have examined the binding of NO to human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an enzyme that oxidizes heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron, to determine whether inhibition of hHO-1 by NO can contribute to the signaling interplay of NO and CO. An Fe(3+)-NO hHO-1-heme complex is formed with NO or the NO donors NOC9 or 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide.sodium salt. Resonance Raman spectroscopy shows that ferric hHO-1-heme forms a 6-coordinated, low spin complex with NO. The nu(N-O) vibration of this complex detected by Fourier transform IR is only 4 cm(-1) lower than that of the corresponding metmyoglobin (met-Mb) complex but is broader, suggesting a greater degree of ligand conformational freedom. The Fe(3+)-NO complex of hHO-1 is much more stable than that of met-Mb. Stopped-flow studies indicate that k(on) for formation of the hHO-1-heme Fe(3+)-NO complex is approximately 50-times faster, and k(off) 10 times slower, than for met-Mb, resulting in K(d) = 1.4 microm for NO. NO thus binds 500-fold more tightly to ferric hHO-1-heme than to met-Mb. The hHO-1 mutations E29A, G139A, D140A, S142A, G143A, G143F, and K179A/R183A do not significantly diminish the tight binding of NO, indicating that NO binding is not highly sensitive to mutations of residues that normally stabilize the distal water ligand. As expected from the K(d) value, the enzyme is reversibly inhibited upon exposure to pathologically, and possibly physiologically, relevant concentrations of NO. Inhibition of hHO-1 by NO may contribute to the pleiotropic responses to NO and CO.

  4. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

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    Qing-Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  5. Heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide-biliverdin pathway may be involved in the antinociceptive activity of etoricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor.

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    Grangeiro, Niedja M G; Aguiar, Jordana A; Chaves, Hellíada V; Silva, Antonio A R; Lima, Vilma; Benevides, Norma M B; Brito, Gerly A C; da Graça, José R V; Bezerra, Mirna M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction between the heme oxygenase-1/ biliverdin/carbon monoxide (HO-1/BVD/CO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways in the writhing test. Mice were pretreated with 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg, ip etoricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, or with one of the following HO-1/BVD/CO pathway modulators: 1, 3 or 9 mg/kg, sc ZnPP IX, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg, sc hemin, a substrate of the HO-1/BVD/CO pathway; or 0.00025, 0.025 or 2.5 μmol/kg, sc DMDC, a CO donor. Mice pretreated with etoricoxib or one of the HO-1/BVD/CO pathway modulators received an injection of acetic acid (ip) after 30 and 60 min, respectively. Next, the number of writhes was quantified between 0 and 30 min after stimulus injection. In another series of experiments, ineffective doses of etoricoxib were co-administered with hemin or DMDC and an effective dose of etoricoxib with ZnPP IX, followed by an acetic acid injection. Four hours after the acetic acid injection, levels of bilirubin, which is a product of BVD conversion by the BVD reductase enzyme, in the peritoneal lavage were determined. Hemin or DMDC reduced (p<0.05) the number of writhes, but ZnPP IX potentiated (p<0.05) the effect of acetic acid by increasing (p < 0.05) the number of writhes. The co-administration of etoricoxib with hemin or DMDC reduced (p<0.05) the number of writhes. However, the analgesic effect of etoricoxib was not observed in the presence of ZnPP IX. Pretreatment with ZnPP IX reduced bilirubin levels, but etoricoxib pretreatment significantly increased the bilirubin concentration in peritoneal exudates. The data obtained from these experiments showed that the HO-1/BVD/CO pathway was activated in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing model. The analgesic effect of etoricoxib was at least partially dependent on the participation of the HO-1/BVD/CO pathway.

  6. Disrupted postnatal lung development in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice

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    Zhang Huayan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme oxygenase (HO degrades cellular heme to carbon monoxide, iron and biliverdin. The HO-1 isoform is both inducible and cyto-protective during oxidative stress, inflammation and lung injury. However, little is known about its precise role and function in lung development. We hypothesized that HO-1 is required for mouse postnatal lung alveolar development and that vascular expression of HO-1 is essential and protective during postnatal alveolar development. Methods Neonatal lung development in wildtype and HO-1 mutant mice was evaluated by histological and molecular methods. Furthermore, these newborn mice were treated with postnatal dexamethasone (Dex till postnatal 14 days, and evaluated for lung development. Results Compared to wildtype littermates, HO-1 mutant mice exhibited disrupted lung alveolar structure including simplification, disorganization and reduced secondary crest formation. These defects in alveolar development were more pronounced when these mice were challenged with Dex treatment. Expression levels of both vascular endothelial and alveolar epithelial markers were also further decreased in HO-1 mutants after Dex treatment. Conclusions These experiments demonstrate that HO-1 is required in normal lung development and that HO-1 disruption and dexamethasone exposure are additive in the disruption of postnatal lung growth. We speculate that HO-1 is involved in postnatal lung development through modulation of pulmonary vascular development.

  7. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

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    Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland); Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  8. Biliverdin-promoted lateral root formation is mediated through heme oxygenase in rice.

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    Hsu, Yun Yen; Chao, Yun-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of biliverdin (BV), a product of heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzed reaction, on lateral root (LR) formation in rice. Treatment with BV induced LR formation and HO activity. As well, BV, could induce OsHO1 mRNA expression. Zn protoporphyrin IX (the specific inhibitor of HO) reduced LR number, HO activity and OsHO1 mRNA level induced by BV. Our data suggest that HO is required for BV-induced LR formation in rice.

  9. Alteration of the Regiospecificity of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 by Unseating of the Heme but not Disruption of the Distal Hydrogen Bonding Network†

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    Wang, Jinling; Evans, John P.; Ogura, Hiroshi; La Mar, Gerd N.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Heme oxygenase regiospecifically oxidizes heme at the α-meso position to give biliverdin IXα, CO, and iron. The heme orientation within the active site, which is thought to determine the oxidation regiospecificity, is shown here for the human enzyme (hHO1) to be largely determined by interactions between the heme carboxylic acid groups and residues Arg183 and Lys18 but not Tyr134. Mutation of either Arg183 or Lys18 individually does not significantly alter the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent reaction regiochemistry, but partially shifts the oxidation to the β/δ-meso positions in the reaction supported by ascorbic acid. Mutation of Glu29 to a lysine, which places a positive charge where it can interact with a heme carboxyl if the heme rotates by ~90°, causes a slight loss of regiospecificity, but combined with the R183E and K18E mutations results primarily in β/δ-meso oxidation of the heme under all conditions. NMR analysis of heme binding to the triple K18E/E29K/R183E mutant confirms rotation of the heme in the active site. Kinetic studies demonstrate that mutations of Arg183 greatly impair the rate of the P450 reductase-dependent reaction, in accord with the earlier finding that Arg183 is involved in binding of the reductase to hHO1, but have little effect on the ascorbate reaction. Mutations of Asp140 and Tyr58 that disrupt the active site hydrogen bonding network, impair catalytic rates but do not influence the oxidation regiochemistry. The results indicate both that the oxidation regiochemistry is largely controlled by ionic interactions of the heme propionic acid groups with the protein and that shifts in regiospecificity involve rotation of the heme about an axis perpendicular to the heme plane. PMID:16388581

  10. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LFO1 Is an IsdG Family Heme Oxygenase.

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    Lojek, Lisa J; Farrand, Allison J; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Michel, Brian W; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Rokas, Antonis; Skaar, Eric P

    2017-01-01

    Heme is essential for respiration across all domains of life. However, heme accumulation can lead to toxicity if cells are unable to either degrade or export heme or its toxic by-products. Under aerobic conditions, heme degradation is performed by heme oxygenases, enzymes which utilize oxygen to cleave the tetrapyrrole ring of heme. The HO-1 family of heme oxygenases has been identified in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells, whereas the IsdG family has thus far been described only in bacteria. We identified a hypothetical protein in the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which encodes a protein containing an antibiotic biosynthesis monooxygenase (ABM) domain consistent with those associated with IsdG family members. This protein, which we have named LFO1, degrades heme, contains similarities in predicted secondary structures to IsdG family members, and retains the functionally conserved catalytic residues found in all IsdG family heme oxygenases. These data establish LFO1 as an IsdG family member and extend our knowledge of the distribution of IsdG family members beyond bacteria. To gain further insight into the distribution of the IsdG family, we used the LFO1 sequence to identify 866 IsdG family members, including representatives from all domains of life. These results indicate that the distribution of IsdG family heme oxygenases is more expansive than previously appreciated, underscoring the broad relevance of this enzyme family. IMPORTANCE This work establishes a protein in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an IsdG family heme oxygenase. This protein, LFO1, exhibits predicted secondary structure and catalytic residues conserved in IsdG family members, in addition to a chloroplast localization sequence. Additionally, the catabolite that results from the degradation of heme by LFO1 is distinct from that of other heme degradation products. Using LFO1 as a seed, we performed phylogenetic analysis, revealing that the IsdG family is

  11. Heme oxygenase, inflammation, and fibrosis: the good, the bad, and the ugly?

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    Ditte M. S. Lundvig

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon injury, prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress may cause pathological wound healing and fibrosis, leading to formation of excessive scar tissue. Fibrogenesis can occur in most organs and tissues and may ultimately lead to organ dysfunction and failure. The underlying mechanisms of pathological wound healing still remains unclear, but are considered to have a multifactoral pathogenesis, and so far, no efficient anti-fibrotic therapies exists.Extra- and intracellular levels of free heme may be increased in a variety of pathological conditions due to heme-release from hemoproteins. Free heme possesses pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects, and may act as a danger signal, which counteracted by protein scavenging via various heme-binding proteins and by heme degradation. Heme is degraded by heme oxygenase (HO that exists as two isoforms: inducible HO-1 and constitutively expressed HO-2. This generates the effector molecules biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. HO deficiency in mouse and man leads to exaggerated inflammation upon insults, and still accumulating epidemiological and preclinical studies support the widely recognized notion of the cytoprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects of the activity of the HO system and the generated effector molecules. In this review, we address the potential applications of targeted HO-1 induction or administration of its effector molecules as therapeutic targets in fibrotic and inflammatory conditions to counteract inflammatory and oxidative insults. This is shown in various clinically relevant conditions, such as hypertrophic scarring, chronic inflammatory liver disease, chronic pancreatitis, and chronic graft rejection in transplantation.

  12. Transfection of the Human Heme Oxygenase Gene Into Rabbit Coronary Microvessel Endothelial Cells: Protective Effect Against Heme and Hemoglobin Toxicity

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    Abraham, N. G.; Lavrovsky, Y.; Schwartzman, M. L.; Stoltz, R. A.; Levere, R. D.; Gerritsen, M. E.

    1995-07-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress protein and has been suggested to participate in defense mechanisms against agents that may induce oxidative injury such as metals, endotoxin, heme/hemoglobin, and various cytokines. Overexpression of HO in cells might therefore protect against oxidative stress produced by certain of these agents, specifically heme and hemoglobin, by catalyzing their degradation to bilirubin, which itself has antioxidant properties. We report here the successful in vitro transfection of rabbit coronary microvessel endothelial cells with a functioning gene encoding the human HO enzyme. A plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus promoter and the human HO cDNA complexed to cationic liposomes (Lipofectin) was used to transfect rabbit endothelial cells. Cells transfected with human HO exhibited an ≈3.0-fold increase in enzyme activity and expressed a severalfold induction of human HO mRNA as compared with endogenous rabbit HO mRNA. Transfected and nontransfected cells expressed factor VIII antigen and exhibited similar acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake (two important features that characterize endothelial cells) with >85% of cells staining positive for each marker. Moreover, cells transfected with the human HO gene acquired substantial resistance to toxicity produced by exposure to recombinant hemoglobin and heme as compared with nontransfected cells. The protective effect of HO overexpression against heme/hemoglobin toxicity in endothelial cells shown in these studies provides direct evidence that the inductive response of human HO to such injurious stimuli represents an important tissue adaptive mechanism for moderating the severity of cell damage produced by these blood components.

  13. Epalrestat increases glutathione, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 by stimulating Nrf2 pathway in endothelial cells

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    Kaori Yama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Recently, we found that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH in rat Schwann cells. GSH plays a crucial role in protecting endothelial cells from oxidative stress, thereby preventing vascular diseases. Here we show that EPS increases GSH levels in not only Schwann cells but also endothelial cells. Treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs, an in vitro model of the vascular endothelium, with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. This was concomitant with the up-regulation of glutamate cysteine ligase, an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Moreover, EPS stimulated the expression of thioredoxin and heme oxygenase-1, which have important redox regulatory functions in endothelial cells. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant genes. EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in BAECs. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced glutamate cysteine ligase, thioredoxin-1, and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Interestingly, LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, abolished the EPS-stimulated GSH synthesis, suggesting that the kinase is associated with Nrf2 activation induced by EPS. Furthermore, EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2 and tert-butylhydroperoxide, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Taken together, the results provide evidence that EPS exerts new beneficial effects on endothelial cells by increasing GSH, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 levels through the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has the potential to prevent several vascular diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  14. Adenoviral transfer of the heme oxygenase-1 gene protects striatal astrocytes from heme-mediated oxidative injury.

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    Teng, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Jing; Chau, Lee-Young; Galunic, Nicholas; Regan, Raymond F

    2004-11-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced in the CNS after hemorrhage, and may have an effect on injury to surrounding tissue. Hemin, the preferred substrate of HO, is a neurotoxin that is present in intracranial hematomas. In a prior study, we observed that HO inhibitors increased the vulnerability of cultured cortical astrocytes to heme-mediated oxidative injury. To investigate the effect of HO more specifically, we used an adenoviral vector encoding the human HO-1 gene to specifically increase HO-1 expression. Incubation with 100 MOI of the HO-1 adenovirus (Adv-HHO-1) for 24 h increased both HO-1 protein and HO activity; a control adenovirus lacking the HO-1 gene had no effect. Using a DNA probe that was specific for human HO-1, 80.5 +/- 7.2% of astrocytes were observed to be infected by in situ hybridization. The cell death produced by 30-60 microM hemin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with 100 MOI Adv-HHO-1, as assessed by LDH release, propidium iodide exclusion, and MTT reduction assay. The threefold increase in cell protein oxidation produced by hemin was also attenuated in cultures pretreated with Adv-HHO-1. These results support the hypothesis that HO-1 protects astrocytes from heme-mediated oxidative injury. Specifically increasing astrocytic HO-1 by gene transfer may have a beneficial effect on hemorrhagic CNS injury.

  15. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

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    Mrinalini Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1, MT (metallothionein and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2. In contrast, lower level of NFκB (nuclear factor kappaB and tumor necrosis factor-α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor-β. Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NFκB and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NFκB levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia.

  16. Regulation of human heme oxygenase in endothelial cells by using sense and antisense retroviral constructs.

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    Quan, S; Yang, L; Abraham, N G; Kappas, A

    2001-10-09

    Our objective was to determine whether overexpression and underexpression of human heme oxygenase (HHO)-1 could be controlled on a long-term basis by introduction of the HO-1 gene in sense (S) and antisense (AS) orientation with an appropriate vector into endothelial cells. Retroviral vector (LXSN) containing viral long terminal repeat promoter-driven human HO-1 S (LSN-HHO-1) and LXSN vectors containing HHO-1 promoter (HOP)-controlled HHO-1 S and AS (LSN-HOP-HHO-1 and LSN-HOP-HHO-1-AS) sequences were constructed and used to transfect rat lung microvessel endothelial cells (RLMV cells) and human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HMEC-1 cells). RLMV cells transduced with HHO-1 S expressed human HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein associated with elevation in total HO activity compared with nontransduced cells. Vector-mediated expression of HHO-1 S or AS under control of HOP resulted in effective production of HO-1 or blocked induction of endogenous human HO-1 in HMEC-1 cells, respectively. Overexpression of HO-1 AS was associated with a long-term decrease (45%) of endogenous HO-1 protein and an increase (167%) in unmetabolized exogenous heme in HMEC-1 cells. Carbon monoxide (CO) production in HO-1 S- or AS-transduced HMEC-1 cells after heme treatment was increased (159%) or decreased (50%), respectively, compared with nontransduced cells. HO-2 protein levels did not change. These findings demonstrate that HHO-1 S and AS retroviral constructs are functional in enhancing and reducing HO activity, respectively, and thus can be used to regulate cellular heme levels, the activity of heme-dependent enzymes, and the rate of heme catabolism to CO and bilirubin.

  17. Covalent heme attachment to the protein in human heme oxygenase-1 with selenocysteine replacing the His25 proximal iron ligand.

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    Jiang, Yongying; Trnka, Michael J; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Ouellet, Hugues; Wang, Yongqiang; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-03-01

    To characterize heme oxygenase with a selenocysteine (SeCys) as the proximal iron ligand, we have expressed truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) His25Cys, in which Cys-25 is the only cysteine, in the Escherichia coli cysteine auxotroph strain BL21(DE3)cys. Selenocysteine incorporation into the protein was demonstrated by both intact protein mass measurement and mass spectrometric identification of the selenocysteine-containing tryptic peptide. One selenocysteine was incorporated into approximately 95% of the expressed protein. Formation of an adduct with Ellman's reagent (DTNB) indicated that the selenocysteine in the expressed protein was in the reduced state. The heme-His25SeCys hHO-1 complex could be prepared by either (a) supplementing the overexpression medium with heme, or (b) reconstituting the purified apoprotein with heme. Under reducing conditions in the presence of imidazole, a covalent bond is formed by addition of the selenocysteine residue to one of the heme vinyl groups. No covalent bond is formed when the heme is replaced by mesoheme, in which the vinyls are replaced by ethyl groups. These results, together with our earlier demonstration that external selenolate ligands can transfer an electron to the iron [Y. Jiang, P.R. Ortiz de Montellano, Inorg. Chem. 47 (2008) 3480-3482 ], indicate that a selenyl radical is formed in the hHO-1 His25SeCys mutant that adds to a heme vinyl group.

  18. Metabolite-driven Regulation of Heme Uptake by the Biliverdin IXβ/δ-Selective Heme Oxygenase (HemO) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Mouriño, Susana; Giardina, Bennett J; Reyes-Caballero, Hermes; Wilks, Angela

    2016-09-23

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquires extracellular heme via the Phu (Pseudomonas heme uptake) and Has (heme assimilation system) systems. We have previously shown the catalytic actions of heme oxygenase (HemO) along with the cytoplasmic heme transport protein PhuS control heme flux into the cell. To further investigate the role of the PhuS-HemO couple in modulating heme uptake, we have characterized two HemO variants, one that is catalytically inactive (HemO H26A/K34A/K132A or HemOin) and one that has altered regioselectivity (HemO N19K/K34A/F117Y/K132A or HemOα), producing biliverdin IXα (BVIXα). HemOα similar to wild type was able to interact and acquire heme from holo-PhuS. In contrast, the HemOin variant did not interact with holo-PhuS and showed no enzymatic activity. Complementation of a hemO deletion strain with the hemOin or hemOα variants in combination with [(13)C]heme isotopic labeling experiments revealed that the absence of BVIXβ and BVIXδ leads to a decrease in extracellular levels of hemophore HasA. We propose BVIXβ and/or BVIXδ transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally regulates HasA. Thus, coupling the PhuS-dependent flux of heme through HemO to feedback regulation of the cell surface signaling system through HasA allows P. aeruginosa to rapidly respond to fluctuating extracellular heme levels independent of the iron status of the cell. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Therapeutic Roles of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Metabolic Diseases: Curcumin and Resveratrol Analogues as Possible Inducers of Heme Oxygenase-1

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    Yong Son

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and obesity, are associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Because the integration of these stresses is critical to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, agents and cellular molecules that can modulate these stress responses are emerging as potential targets for intervention and treatment of metabolic diseases. It has been recognized that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 plays an important role in cellular protection. Because HO-1 can reduce inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and ER stress, in part by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, HO-1 has been suggested to play important roles in pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In the present review, we will explore our current understanding of the protective mechanisms of HO-1 in metabolic diseases and present some emerging therapeutic options for HO-1 expression in treating metabolic diseases, together with the therapeutic potential of curcumin and resveratrol analogues that have their ability to induce HO-1 expression.

  20. Reciprocal Effects of Oxidative Stress on Heme Oxygenase Expression and Activity Contributes to Reno-Vascular Abnormalities in EC-SOD Knockout Mice

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    Tomoko Kawakami

    2012-01-01

    although, HO activity was significantly (P<0.05 attenuated along with attenuation of serum adiponectin and vascular epoxide levels (P<0.05. CoPP, in EC-SOD(−/− mice, enhanced HO activity (P<0.05 and reversed aforementioned pathophysiological abnormalities along with restoration of vascular EET, p-eNOS, p-AKT and serum adiponectin levels in these animals. Taken together our results implicate a causative role of insufficient activation of heme-HO-adiponectin system in pathophysiological abnormalities observed in animal models of chronic oxidative stress such as EC-SOD(−/− mice.

  1. A Novel, “Double-Clamp” Binding Mode for Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mona N.; Vlahakis, Jason Z.; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A.; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-01-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC50 = 0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC50 = 4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This “double-clamp” binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors. PMID:22276118

  2. A novel, "double-clamp" binding mode for human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mona N; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-01-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC(50) = 0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC(50) = 4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This "double-clamp" binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.

  3. A novel, "double-clamp" binding mode for human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona N Rahman

    Full Text Available The development of heme oxygenase (HO inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308. Using a carbon monoxide (CO formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC(50 = 0.27±0.07 µM than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC(50 = 4.0±1.8 µM. The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This "double-clamp" binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.

  4. Protein expressed by the ho2 gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a true heme oxygenase. Properties of the heme and enzyme complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuhong; Migita, Catharina T; Sato, Michihiko; Sasahara, Masanao; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2005-02-01

    Two isoforms of a heme oxygenase gene, ho1 and ho2, with 51% identity in amino acid sequence have been identified in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Isoform-1, Syn HO-1, has been characterized, while isoform-2, Syn HO-2, has not. In this study, a full-length ho2 gene was cloned using synthetic DNA and Syn HO-2 was demonstrated to be highly expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble, catalytically active protein. Like Syn HO-1, the purified Syn HO-2 bound hemin stoichiometrically to form a heme-enzyme complex and degraded heme to biliverdin IXalpha, CO and iron in the presence of reducing systems such as NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin and sodium ascorbate. The activity of Syn HO-2 was found to be comparable to that of Syn HO-1 by measuring the amount of bilirubin formed. In the reaction with hydrogen peroxide, Syn HO-2 converted heme to verdoheme. This shows that during the conversion of hemin to alpha-meso-hydroxyhemin, hydroperoxo species is the activated oxygen species as in other heme oxygenase reactions. The absorption spectrum of the hemin-Syn HO-2 complex at neutral pH showed a Soret band at 412 nm and two peaks at 540 nm and 575 nm, features observed in the hemin-Syn HO-1 complex at alkaline pH, suggesting that the major species of iron(III) heme iron at neutral pH is a hexa-coordinate low spin species. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) revealed that the iron(III) complex was in dynamic equilibrium between low spin and high spin states, which might be caused by the hydrogen bonding interaction between the distal water ligand and distal helix components. These observations suggest that the structure of the heme pocket of the Syn HO-2 is different from that of Syn HO-1.

  5. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  6. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Yeom

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1, an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs. Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  7. Structure function and engineering of multifunctional non-heme iron dependent oxygenases in fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yu; Mori, Takahiro; Nakamura, Hitomi; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Hoshino, Shotaro; Senda, Miki; Senda, Toshiya; Abe, Ikuro

    2018-01-09

    Non-heme iron and α-ketoglutarate (αKG) oxygenases catalyze remarkably diverse reactions using a single ferrous ion cofactor. A major challenge in studying this versatile family of enzymes is to understand their structure-function relationship. AusE from Aspergillus nidulans and PrhA from Penicillium brasilianum are two highly homologous Fe(II)/αKG oxygenases in fungal meroterpenoid biosynthetic pathways that use preaustinoid A1 as a common substrate to catalyze divergent rearrangement reactions to form the spiro-lactone in austinol and cycloheptadiene moiety in paraherquonin, respectively. Herein, we report the comparative structural study of AusE and PrhA, which led to the identification of three key active site residues that control their reactivity. Structure-guided mutagenesis of these residues results in successful interconversion of AusE and PrhA functions as well as generation of the PrhA double and triple mutants with expanded catalytic repertoire. Manipulation of the multifunctional Fe(II)/αKG oxygenases thus provides an excellent platform for the future development of biocatalysts.

  8. An association study between Heme oxygenase-1 genetic variants and Parkinson´s disease

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    Pedro eAyuso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe blood-brain barrier (BBB supplies brain tissues with nutrients, filters harmful compounds from the brain back to the bloodstream, and plays a key role in iron homeostasis in the human brain. Disruptions of the BBB are associated with several neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Oxidative stress, iron deposition and mitochondrial impaired function are considered as risk factors for degeneration of the central nervous system. Heme oxygenase (HMOX degrades heme ring to biliverdin, free ferrous iron and carbon monoxide being the rate-limiting activity in heme catabolism. The isoform HMOX1 is highly inducible in response to reactive oxygen species which induce an increase in BBB permeability and impair its pathophysiology. Consequently, an over- expression of this enzyme may contribute to the marked iron deposition found in PD. We analyzed common HMOX1 gene variants in 691 patients suffering from PD and 766 healthy control individuals. Copy number variations in the HMOX1 gene exist, but these do not seem to be associated with PD risk. In contrast two polymorphisms that modify the transcriptional activity of the gene, namely a VNTR (GTn and the SNP rs2071746, are strongly associated with PD risk, particularly with the classic PD phenotype and with early onset of the disease.This study indicates that HMOX1 gene variants are associated to the risk of developing some forms of PD, thus adding new information that supports association of HMOX gene variations with PD risk.

  9. Psidium guajava extract inhibits thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) production in human keratinocytes by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and blocking NF-κB and STAT1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Hee; Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Yang, Ji Hye; Seo, Jong Kwon; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-01

    Psidium guajava (P. guajava) is a food and medicinal plant with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities that support its traditional uses. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of P. guajava ethyl acetate extract (PGEA) on atopic dermatitis and to investigate the possible mechanisms by which PGEA inhibits cytokine-induced Th2 chemokine expression in HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. We found that PGEA suppressed the IFN-γ/TNF-α-co-induced production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) protein and mRNA in HaCaT cells. Additionally, PGEA inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-co-induced activation of NF-κB and STAT1 and increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and mRNA. HO-1 inhibitor enhanced the suppressive effects of PGEA on TNF-α/IFN-γ-co-induced TARC production and gene expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PGEA inhibits chemokine expression in keratinocytes by inducing HO-1 expression and it suggests a possible therapeutic application in atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Regiospecificity determinants of human heme oxygenase: differential NADPH- and ascorbate-dependent heme cleavage by the R183E mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Lad, Latesh; Poulos, Thomas L; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2005-01-28

    The ability of the human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) R183E mutant to oxidize heme in reactions supported by either NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase or ascorbic acid has been compared. The NADPH-dependent reaction, like that of wild-type hHO-1, yields exclusively biliverdin IXalpha. In contrast, the R183E mutant with ascorbic acid as the reductant produces biliverdin IXalpha (79 +/- 4%), IXdelta (19 +/- 3%), and a trace of IXbeta. In the presence of superoxide dismutase and catalase, the yield of biliverdin IXdelta is decreased to 8 +/- 1% with a corresponding increase in biliverdin IXalpha. Spectroscopic analysis of the NADPH-dependent reaction shows that the R183E ferric biliverdin complex accumulates, because reduction of the iron, which is required for sequential iron and biliverdin release, is impaired. Reversal of the charge at position 183 makes reduction of the iron more difficult. The crystal structure of the R183E mutant, determined in the ferric and ferrous-NO bound forms, shows that the heme primarily adopts the same orientation as in wild-type hHO-1. The structure of the Fe(II).NO complex suggests that an altered active site hydrogen bonding network supports catalysis in the R183E mutant. Furthermore, Arg-183 contributes to the regiospecificity of the wild-type enzyme, but its contribution is not critical. The results indicate that the ascorbate-dependent reaction is subject to a lower degree of regiochemical control than the NADPH-dependent reaction. Ascorbate may be able to reduce the R183E ferric and ferrous dioxygen complexes in active site conformations that cannot be reduced by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 end-products carbon monoxide and biliverdin ameliorate murine collagen induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, M; Savitskaya, A; Steiner, C-W; Rath, E; Bilban, M; Wagner, O; Bach, F H; Smolen, J S; Scheinecker, C

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which degrades Heme to free iron, biliverdin and carbon monoxide (CO) plays an important role in inflammation. There are, however, conflicting data concerning the role of HO-1 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the therapeutic potential of individual heme degradation products remains to be determined. We therefore investigated the effect of CO and biliverdin upon therapeutic administration in the murine collagen induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice. Anti-CII antibody levels were determined by ELISA. Mice were scored for paw swelling and grip strength. After the first clinical signs of arthritis one group of animals was treated with biliverdin, the second group was treated with CO. After 60 days all animals were sacrificed and analysed for histomorphological signs of arthritis. All animals immunised with CII developed serum anti-CII antibodies. Antibody levels were decreased in the CO-treated group. Both, Biliverdin and the CO-treated animals, showed an improvement in clinical disease activity. Histological analysis revealed significantly less inflammation, erosion and reduced numbers of osteoclasts in CO-treated animals only, whereas cartilage degradation was prevented in both biliverdin and CO-treated animals. Our data demonstrate a beneficial effect of CO, in particular, and biliverdin, on inflammation and bone destruction in the CIA mouse model.

  12. Positive and negative regulation of the human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Takahashi, Y; Ito, K; Nagano, T; Shibahara, S; Miura, T

    1999-10-28

    To elucidate the regulation of the human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) gene expression, we assessed approximately 4 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the hHO-1 gene for basal promoter activity and sequenced approximately 2 kb of the 5'-flanking region. A series of deletion mutants of the 5'-flanking region linked to the luciferase gene was constructed. Basal level expression of these constructs was tested in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells. By measuring luciferase activity, which was transiently expressed in the transfected cells, we found a positive regulatory region at position -1976 to -1655 bp. This region functions in HepG2 cells but not in HeLa cells. A negative regulatory region was also found at position -981 to -412 bp that functions in both HepG2 cells and HeLa cells.

  13. Simvastatin ameliorates established pulmonary hypertension through a heme oxygenase-1 dependent pathway in rats

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    Lee Yung-Chie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simvastatin has been shown to ameliorate pulmonary hypertension by several mechanisms in experimental animal models. In this study, we hypothesized that the major benefits of simvastatin in pulmonary hypertension occur via the heme oxygenase-1 pathway. Methods Simvastatin (10 mg/kgw/day was tested in two rat models of pulmonary hypertension (PH: monocrotaline administration and chronic hypoxia. The hemodynamic changes, right heart hypertrophy, HO-1 protein expression, and heme oxygenase (HO activity in lungs were measured in both models with and without simvastatin treatment. Tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP, 20 μmol/kg w/day, a potent inhibitor of HO activity, was used to confirm the role of HO-1. Results Simvastatin significantly ameliorated pulmonary arterial hypertension from 38.0 ± 2.2 mm Hg to 22.1 ± 1.9 mm Hg in monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT-PH and from 33.3 ± 0.8 mm Hg to 17.5 ± 2.9 mm Hg in chronic hypoxia-induced PH (CH-PH rats. The severity of right ventricular hypertrophy was significantly reduced by simvastatin in MCT-PH and CH-PH rats. Co-administration with SnPP abolished the benefits of simvastatin. Simvastatin significantly increased HO-1 protein expression and HO activity in the lungs of rats with PH; however co-administration of SnPP reduced HO-1 activity only. These observations indicate that the simvastatin-induced amelioration of pulmonary hypertension was directly related to the activity of HO-1, rather than its expression. Conclusion This study demonstrated that simvastatin treatment ameliorates established pulmonary hypertension primarily through an HO-1-dependent pathway.

  14. Structures of the Substrate-free and Product-bound Forms of HmuO, a Heme Oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masaki; Ardèvol, Albert; Rovira, Carme; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase catalyzes the degradation of heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Here, we present crystal structures of the substrate-free, Fe3+-biliverdin-bound, and biliverdin-bound forms of HmuO, a heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, refined to 1.80, 1.90, and 1.85 Å resolution, respectively. In the substrate-free structure, the proximal and distal helices, which tightly bracket the substrate heme in the substrate-bound heme complex, move apart, and the proximal helix is partially unwound. These features are supported by the molecular dynamic simulations. The structure implies that the heme binding fixes the enzyme active site structure, including the water hydrogen bond network critical for heme degradation. The biliverdin groups assume the helical conformation and are located in the heme pocket in the crystal structures of the Fe3+-biliverdin-bound and the biliverdin-bound HmuO, prepared by in situ heme oxygenase reaction from the heme complex crystals. The proximal His serves as the Fe3+-biliverdin axial ligand in the former complex and forms a hydrogen bond through a bridging water molecule with the biliverdin pyrrole nitrogen atoms in the latter complex. In both structures, salt bridges between one of the biliverdin propionate groups and the Arg and Lys residues further stabilize biliverdin at the HmuO heme pocket. Additionally, the crystal structure of a mixture of two intermediates between the Fe3+-biliverdin and biliverdin complexes has been determined at 1.70 Å resolution, implying a possible route for iron exit. PMID:24106279

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 genotype of the donor is associated with graft survival after liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, C. I.; van der Steege, G.; Visser, D. S.; Nolte, I. M.; Hepkema, B. G.; Nijsten, M.; Slooff, M. J. H.; Porte, R. J.

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been suggested as a cytoprotective gene during liver transplantation. Inducibility of HO-1 is modulated by a (GT)(n) polymorphism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A(-413)T in the promoter. Both a short (GT)(n) allele and the A-allele have been associated with

  16. Rapamycin Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 in Liver but Inhibits Bile Flow Recovery after Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kist, Alwine; Wakkie, Joris; Madu, Max; Versteeg, Ruth; ten Berge, Judith; Nikolic, Andrej; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Porte, Robert J.; Padbury, Robert T. A.; Barritt, Greg J.

    Background/Aims. Rapamycin, which is employed in the management of patients undergoing liver surgery, induces the synthesis of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in some non-liver cell types. The aim was to investigate whether rapamycin can induce HO-1 expression in the liver, and to test the effects of

  17. Dry powder inhalation of hemin to induce heme oxygenase expression in the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.S.; Brandsma, C.; Harpe, M.F.H.; Van Dam, G.M.; Slebos, D.J.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate hemin as a powder for inhalation and to show proof of concept of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the lungs of mice by inhalation of hemin. Hemin was spray dried from a neutralized sodium hydroxide solution. The particle size distribution of the powder

  18. Heme oxygenase induction and biliverdin excretion: implications for the bile fluorescence biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Peter

    2006-07-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data have been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene and cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed that under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that chemical mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence is better expressed per amount of bile protein than per biliverdin absorption.

  19. Bile fluorescence, heme oxygenase induction, and increased biliverdin excretion by mixtures of environmental toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurk, Peter van den [Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States)]. E-mail: pvdhurk@clemson.edu

    2006-05-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data has been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. In two separate experiments channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene with cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed linear relationships between bile protein and biliverdin for each treatment group, but the slope of this relationship was significantly increased when fish received more chemical stress. Thus, under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates of the dosed fish. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had a significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and in both experiments a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence should not be expressed per biliverdin absorption, and that expression per bile protein would be a more reliable method.

  20. Bile fluorescence, heme oxygenase induction, and increased biliverdin excretion by mixtures of environmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The measurement of bile fluorescence has become a popular biomarker to demonstrate the exposure of fish to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Conflicting data has been published on how to normalize bile fluorescence. To investigate if normalization to biliverdin is a suitable method, experiments were performed to study the mechanisms related to biliverdin excretion in fish. In two separate experiments channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were dosed with mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene with cadmium, chlorinated phenols or borneol. The results showed linear relationships between bile protein and biliverdin for each treatment group, but the slope of this relationship was significantly increased when fish received more chemical stress. Thus, under increasing toxicant stress, more biliverdin was excreted per amount of protein. To investigate if the increased biliverdin excretion was related to increased heme degradation, enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase (HO) was measured in liver homogenates of the dosed fish. The fish dosed with chemical mixtures had a significantly higher HO activity than the control fish, and in both experiments a significant correlation was observed between HO activity and biliverdin concentration in the bile. It is concluded that mixtures of environmental pollutants can induce HO activity and that this chemical stress leads to increased biliverdin excretion. The elucidation of this mechanistic pathway warrants that bile fluorescence should not be expressed per biliverdin absorption, and that expression per bile protein would be a more reliable method.

  1. Upregulation of human heme oxygenase gene expression by Ets-family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deramaudt, B M; Remy, P; Abraham, N G

    1999-03-01

    Overexpression of human heme oxygenase-1 has been shown to have the potential to promote EC proliferation and angiogenesis. Since Ets-family proteins have been shown to play an important role in angiogenesis, we investigated the presence of ETS binding sites (EBS), GGAA/T, and ETS protein contributing to human HO-1 gene expression. Several chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs were examined in order to analyze the effect of ETS family proteins on the transduction of HO-1 in Xenopus oocytes and in microvessel endothelial cells. Heme oxygenase promoter activity was up-regulated by FLI-1ERGETS-1 protein(s). Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays demonstrated that the promoter region (-1500 to +19) contains positive and negative control elements and that all three members of the ETS protein family were responsible for the up-regulation of HHO-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), performed with nuclear extracts from endothelial cells overexpressing HHO-1 gene, and specific HHO-1 oligonucleotides probes containing putative EBS resulted in a specific and marked bandshift. Synergistic binding was observed in EMSA between AP-1 on the one hand, FLI-1, ERG, and ETS-1 protein on the other. Moreover, 5'-deletion analysis demonstrated the existence of a negative control element of HHO-1 expression located between positions -1500 and -120 on the HHO-1 promoter. The presence of regulatory sequences for transcription factors such as ETS-1, FLI-1, or ERG, whose activity is associated with cell proliferation, endothelial cell differentiation, and matrix metalloproteinase transduction, may be an indication of the important role that HO-1 may play in coronary collateral circulation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and hemoglobin-induced endothelial cell injuries.

  2. Heme oxygenase suppresses markers of heart failure and ameliorates cardiomyopathy in L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Chibbar, Rajni; Lane, Nina

    2014-07-05

    Heart failure and related cardiac complications remains a great health challenge. We investigated the effects of upregulating heme-oxygenase (HO) on myocardial histo-pathological lesions, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, oxidative mediators and important markers of heart failure such as osteopontin and osteoprotergerin in N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Treatment with the HO-inducer, heme-arginate improved myocardial morphology in L-NAME hypertensive rats by attenuating subendocardial injury, interstitial fibrosis, mononuclear-cell infiltration and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These were associated with the reduction of several inflammatory/oxidative mediators including chemokines/cytokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, endothelin-1, 8-isoprostane, nitrotyrosine, and aldosterone. Similarly, heme-arginate abated the elevated levels of extracellular matrix/remodeling proteins including transforming-growth factor beta (TGF-β1) and collagen-IV in the myocardium. These were accompanied by significant reduction of proteins of heart failure such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin. Interestingly, the cardio-protective effects of heme-arginate were associated with the potentiation of adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), HO-1, HO-activity, cyclic gnanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and the total-anti-oxidant capacity, whereas the HO-inhibitor, chromium-mesoporphyrin nullified the effects of heme-arginate, exacerbating inflammatory injury and oxidative insults. We conclude that heme-arginate therapy protects myocardial damage by potentiating the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis, which in turn suppressed the elevated levels of aldosterone, pro-inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, mononuclear-cell infiltration and oxidative stress, with concomitant reduction of extracellular matrix/remodeling proteins and

  3. Auranofin protects against cocaine-induced hepatic injury through induction of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Takashi; Sugiuchi, Jinko; Uehara, Junna; Naito-Yamamoto, Yumiko; Kenmotsu, Sachiyo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2011-10-01

    Auranofin, a disease-modifying gold compound, has been empirically applying to the management of rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated a protective effect of auranofin against hepatic injury induced by cocaine. Cocaine (75 mg/kg) markedly increased serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) (4,130 IU/l) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) (1,730 IU/l) activities at 16 hr after treatment, and induced hepatic necrosis surrounding central veins in mice. Concurrently, overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation and an oxidative stress marker, was identified at the edges of cocaine-mediated necrotic area. Auranofin (10 mg/ml, i.p.) significantly induced hepatic HO-1 protein in mice from 12 hr after treatment. Interestingly, pretreatment with auranofin resulted in the prevention of the increase of serum ALT and AST activities in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, although cocaine increased tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) gene expression in mouse livers, cocaine-induced liver injury was observed in TNFα deficient mice as well as wild-type mice. Auranofin-inducted HO-1 gene expression was observed in human primary hepatocytes as well as mouse primary hepatocytes. The present findings suggest that auranofin is effective in preventing cocaine-induced hepatic injury, and HO-1 may contribute to protect against chemically-induced cytotoxicity.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a heme oxygenase-2 gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Jin, Qi-Jiang; Lin, Yu-Ting; Feng, Jian-Fei; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Zheng, Tian-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO, EC 1.14.99.3) catalyzes the oxidation of heme and performs vital roles in plant development and stress responses. Two HO isozymes exist in plants. Between these, HO-1 is an oxidative stress-response protein, and HO-2 usually exhibited constitutive expression. Although alfalfa HO-1 gene (MsHO1) has been investigated previously, HO2 is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of HO2 gene, MsHO2, from alfalfa (Medica sativa L.). The full-length cDNA of MsHO2 contains an ORF of 870 bp and encodes for 290 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33.3 kDa. Similar to MsHO1, MsHO2 also appears to have an N-terminal transit peptide sequence for chloroplast import. Many conserved residues in plant HO were also conserved in MsHO2. However, unlike HO-1, the conserved histidine (His) required for heme-iron binding and HO activity was replaced by tyrosine (Tyr) in MsHO2. Further biochemical activity analysis of purified mature MsHO2 showed no HO activity, suggesting that MsHO2 may not be a true HO in nature. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed its maximum expression in the germinating seeds. Importantly, the expression levels of MsHO2 were up-regulated under sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and H(2)O(2) (especially) treatment, respectively.

  5. Solution 1H NMR investigation of the active site molecular and electronic structures of substrate-bound, cyanide-inhibited HmuO, a bacterial heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Syvitski, Ray T; Chu, Grace C; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; Mar, Gerd N La

    2003-02-28

    The molecular structure and dynamic properties of the active site environment of HmuO, a heme oxygenase (HO) from the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, have been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the human HO (hHO) complex as a homology model. It is demonstrated that not only the spatial contacts among residues and between residues and heme, but the magnetic axes that can be related to the direction and magnitude of the steric tilt of the FeCN unit are strongly conserved in the two HO complexes. The results indicate that very similar contributions of steric blockage of several meso positions and steric tilt of the attacking ligand are operative. A distal H-bond network that involves numerous very strong H-bonds and immobilized water molecules is identified in HmuO that is analogous to that previously identified in hHO (Li, Y., Syvitski, R. T., Auclair, K., Wilks, A., Ortiz de Montellano, P. R., and La Mar, G. N. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 33018-33031). The NMR results are completely consistent with the very recent crystal structure of the HmuO.substrate complex. The H-bond network/ordered water molecules are proposed to orient the distal water molecule near the catalytically key Asp(136) (Asp(140) in hHO) that stabilizes the hydroperoxy intermediate. The dynamic stability of this H-bond network in HmuO is significantly greater than in hHO and may account for the slower catalytic rate in bacterial HO compared with mammalian HO.

  6. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  7. Impact of heme oxygenase-1 on cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol efflux and oxysterol formation in cultured astroglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascalovici, Jacob R; Song, Wei; Vaya, Jacob; Khatib, Soliman; Fuhrman, Bianca; Aviram, Michael; Schipper, Hyman M

    2009-01-01

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol (CH) metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased neural tissues. The liver X receptor (LXR) is a molecular sensor of CH homeostasis. In the current study, we determined the effects of HO-1 over-expression and its byproducts iron (Fe(2+)), carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin on CH biosynthesis, CH efflux and oxysterol formation in cultured astroglia. HO-1/LXR interactions were also investigated in the context of CH efflux. hHO-1 over-expression for 3 days ( approximately 2-3-fold increase) resulted in a 30% increase in CH biosynthesis and a two-fold rise in CH efflux. Both effects were abrogated by the competitive HO inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin. CO, released from administered CORM-3, significantly enhanced CH biosynthesis; a combination of CO and iron stimulated CH efflux. Free iron increased oxysterol formation three-fold. Co-treatment with LXR antagonists implicated LXR activation in the modulation of CH homeostasis by heme degradation products. In Alzheimer's disease and other neuropathological states, glial HO-1 induction may transduce ambient noxious stimuli (e.g. beta-amyloid) into altered patterns of glial CH homeostasis. As the latter may impact synaptic plasticity and neuronal repair, modulation of glial HO-1 expression (by pharmacological or other means) may confer neuroprotection in patients with degenerative brain disorders.

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 and breast cancer resistance protein protect against heme-induced toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, Frank A D T G; Dankers, Anita C A; van Summeren, Frank; Scharstuhl, Alwin; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; Russel, Frans G M; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is the functional group of diverse hemoproteins and crucial for many cellular processes. However, heme is increasingly recognized as a culprit for a wide variety of pathologies, including sepsis, malaria, and kidney failure. Excess of free heme can be detrimental to tissues by mediating

  9. Heme Oxygenase-1 and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Protect Against Heme-induced Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Dankers, A.C.A.; Summeren, F. van; Scharstuhl, A.; Heuvel, J.J. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Pennings, S.W.C.; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is the functional group of diverse hemoproteins and crucial for many cellular processes. However, heme is increasingly recognized as a culprit for a wide variety of pathologies, including sepsis, malaria, and kidney failure. Excess of free heme can be detrimental to tissues by mediating

  10. Crystal structure of rat heme oxygenase-1 in complex with biliverdin-iron chelate. Conformational change of the distal helix during the heme cleavage reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugishima, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Noguchi, Masato; Fukuyama, Keiichi

    2003-08-22

    The crystal structure of rat heme oxygenase-1 in complex with biliverdin-iron chelate (biliverdin(Fe)-HO-1), the immediate precursor of the final product, biliverdin, has been determined at a 2.4-A resolution. The electron density in the heme pocket clearly showed that the tetrapyrrole ring of heme is cleaved at the alpha-meso edge. Like the heme bound to HO-1, biliverdin-iron chelate is located between the distal and proximal helices, but its accommodation state seems to be less stable in light of the disordering of the solvent-exposed propionate and vinyl groups. The middle of the distal helix is shifted away from the center of the active site in biliverdin(Fe)-HO-1, increasing the size of the heme pocket. The hydrogen-bonding interaction between Glu-29 and Gln-38, considered to restrain the orientation of the proximal helix in the heme-HO-1 complex, was lost in biliverdin(Fe)-HO-1, leading to relaxation of the helix. Biliverdin has a distorted helical conformation; the lactam oxygen atom of its pyrrole ring-A interacted with Asp-140 through a hydrogen-bonding solvent network. Because of the absence of a distal water ligand, the iron atom is five-coordinated with His-25 and four pyrrole nitrogen atoms. The coordination geometry deviates considerably from a square pyramid, suggesting that the iron may be readily dissociated. We speculate that the opened conformation of the heme pocket facilitates sequential product release, first iron then biliverdin, and that because of biliverdin's increased flexibility, iron release triggers its slow dissociation.

  11. Expression and characterization of truncated human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) and a fusion protein of hHO-1 with human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, A; Black, S M; Miller, W L; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1995-04-04

    A human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) gene without the sequence coding for the last 23 amino acids has been expressed in Escherichia coli behind the pho A promoter. The truncated enzyme is obtained in high yields as a soluble, catalytically-active protein, making it available for the first time for detailed mechanistic studies. The purified, truncated hHO-1/heme complex is spectroscopically indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme and converts heme to biliverdin when reconstituted with rat liver cytochrome P450 reductase. A self-sufficient heme oxygenase system has been obtained by fusing the truncated hHO-1 gene to the gene for human cytochrome P450 reductase without the sequence coding for the 20 amino acid membrane binding domain. Expression of the fusion protein in pCWori+ yields a protein that only requires NADPH for catalytic turnover. The failure of exogenous cytochrome P450 reductase to stimulate turnover and the insensitivity of the catalytic rate toward changes in ionic strength establish that electrons are transferred intramolecularly between the reductase and heme oxygenase domains of the fusion protein. The Vmax for the fusion protein is 2.5 times higher than that for the reconstituted system. Therefore, either the covalent tether does not interfere with normal docking and electron transfer between the flavin and heme domains or alternative but equally efficient electron transfer pathways are available that do not require specific docking.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic mice by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and enhancing autophagy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Lina; Qiao, Yu; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wu, Guodong; Wang, Lujing; Peng, Yahui; Dong, Xingli; Huang, Hui; Si, Lining; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jihong; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy associated with heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to its recognized role in metabolic...

  13. 1H NMR study of the effect of variable ligand on heme oxygenase electronic and molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Hua; Liu, Yangzhong; Zhang, Xuhong; Yoshida, Tadashi; La Mar, Gerd N

    2009-01-01

    Heme oxygenase carries out stereospecific catabolism of protohemin to yield iron, CO and biliverdin. Instability of the physiological oxy complex has necessitated the use of model ligands, of which cyanide and azide are amenable to solution NMR characterization. Since cyanide and azide are contrasting models for bound oxygen, it is of interest to characterize differences in their molecular and/or electronic structures. We report on detailed 2D NMR comparison of the azide and cyanide substrate complexes of heme oxygenase from Neisseria meningitidis, which reveals significant and widespread differences in chemical shifts between the two complexes. To differentiate molecular from electronic structural changes between the two complexes, the anisotropy and orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor were determined for the azide complex for comparison with those for the cyanide complex. Comparison of the predicted and observed dipolar shifts reveals that shift differences are strongly dominated by differences in electronic structure and do not provide any evidence for detectable differences in molecular structure or hydrogen bonding except in the immediate vicinity of the distal ligand. The readily cleaved C-terminus interacts with the active site and saturation-transfer allows difficult heme assignments in the high-spin aquo complex.

  14. The anti-inflammatory activity of Phellinus linteus (Berk. & M.A. Curt.) is mediated through the PKCdelta/Nrf2/ARE signaling to up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chul; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Kyung-Bum; Hahn, Jang-Hee; Kim, Young-Myeong; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yosida, Takemi; Park, Eun-Hee; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2007-09-05

    It has been reported that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates the anti-inflammatory activity of the n-BuOH subfraction (PL) prepared from fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus. This continuing work aimed to elucidate the signaling pathway to the up-regulation of HO-1 by PL. In RAW264.7 macrophage cells, PL was able to enhance phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), but not PKCalpha/betaII, in a time-dependent manner. PL-induced HO-1 expression was dramatically released by GF109203X, a general inhibitor of PKC, and rottlerin, a specific PKCdelta inhibitor but not by Gö6976, a selective inhibitor for PKCalpha/beta. Additionally, PL treatment resulted in a marked increase in antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven transcriptional activity, which was dependent on PKCdelta but not PKCalpha. An increase by PL treatment in the ARE-driven transcriptional activity was further enhanced by Nrf2, whereas it was diminished by Keap1. Furthermore, pretreatment of rottlerin and overexpression of PKCdelta (K376R), a kinase-inactive form of PKCdelta, partly blocked the suppression by PL of nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and iNOS promoter activity, which were elevated in the lypopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Similarly, expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its promoter activity were suppressed by PL, which were dependent upon PKCdelta. The present findings indicate that Phellinus linteus gives rise to an anti-inflammatory activity though the PKCdelta/Nrf2/ARE signaling to the up-regulation of HO-1 in an in vitro inflammation model.

  15. Acute HIV-1 infection is associated with increased plasma levels of heme oxygenase-1 and presence of heme oxygenase-1-specific regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Mathieu; Fathi, Anahita; King, Melanie; Ledoux, Mary B; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Altfeld, Marcus; Addo, Marylyn M

    2017-03-13

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress response protein with potent anti-inflammatory activity and recent data suggest a potentially beneficial role in HIV pathogenesis. We investigated the impact of HO-1 and a novel subset of HO-1-specific CD8 regulatory T cells on virus-specific T-cell immunity in HIV-1-infected individuals. HO-1 protein levels were quantified in plasma from individuals at different stages of HIV-1 disease and longitudinally following primary HIV infection. HO-1-specific CD8 T cells were investigated by flow cytometry using human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I pentamers. Flow-sorted HO-1-specific CD8 T cells were cultured and tested for suppressive activity on HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-cell clones clones. HO-1 gene expression was determined in sorted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets from individuals with acute HIV-1 infection. HO-1 plasma levels were significantly increased in HIV-1 infection, with the highest levels in individuals with acute HIV-1 infection, and gradually declined over time. The frequency of CD8 T cells specific for HO-1 was elevated in study participants with primary HIV-1 infection and flow-sorted HO-1-specific CD8 T cells were capable of suppressing HIV-1-specific lysis of cytotoxic T-cell clones clones. HO-1 gene expression was upregulated in multiple immune cell subsets during acute HIV-1 infection and HO-1 overexpression modulated anti-HIV immunity in vitro. Our data suggest that HO-1 is induced during acute HIV-1 infection, likely mediating anti-inflammatory effects and driving expansion of HO-1-specific CD8 regulatory T cells capable of suppressing HIV-1-specific immune responses in vitro. The investigation of HO-1 and the novel CD8 regulatory cell type described here provide further insight into immune regulation in HIV-1 infection and may hold potential for future immunotherapeutic intervention.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 enhances autophagy in podocytes as a protective mechanism against high glucose-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chenglong [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zheng, Haining [Department of Hyperbaric Oxygen, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, Nanjing (China); Huang, Shanshan; You, Na; Xu, Jiarong; Ye, Xiaolong; Zhu, Qun; Feng, Yamin; You, Qiang; Miao, Heng [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Ding, Dafa, E-mail: dingdafa2004@aliyun.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Lu, Yibing, E-mail: luyibing2004@126.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Injury and loss of podocytes play vital roles in diabetic nephropathy progression. Emerging evidence suggests autophagy, which is induced by multiple stressors including hyperglycemia, plays a protective role. Meanwhile, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) possesses powerful anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, we investigated the impact of autophagy on podocyte apoptosis under diabetic conditions and its association with HO-1. Mouse podocytes were cultured in vitro; apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Transmission electron microscopy and biochemical autophagic flux assays were used to measure the autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and beclin-1. LC3-II and beclin-1 expression peaked 12–24 h after exposing podocytes to high glucose. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine or Beclin-1 siRNAs or Atg 5 siRNAs sensitized cells to apoptosis, suggesting autophagy is a survival mechanism. HO-1 inactivation inhibited autophagy, which aggravated podocyte injury in vitro. Hemin-induced autophagy also protected podocytes from hyperglycemia in vitro and was abrogated by HO-1 siRNA. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was higher in hemin-treated and lower in HO-1 siRNA-treated podocytes. Suppression of AMPK activity reversed HO-1-mediated Beclin-1 upregulation and autophagy, indicating HO-1-mediated autophagy is AMPK dependent. These findings suggest HO-1 induction and regulation of autophagy are potential therapeutic targets for diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • High glucose leads to increased autophagy in podocytes at an early stage. • The early autophagic response protects against high glucose-induced apoptosis. • Heme oxygenase-1 enhances autophagy and decreases high glucose -mediated apoptosis. • Heme oxygenase-1 induces autophagy through the activation of AMPK.

  17. Pharmacological Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Impairs Nuclear Accumulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids upon Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ibáñez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to physical and chemical stresses, such as ultraviolet radiation, hyperthermia, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS, as well as cytokines, among others. Its activity can be positively modulated by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP and negatively by tin protoporphirin (SnPP. Once induced, HO-1 degrades iron-containing heme into ferrous iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO and biliverdin. Importantly, numerous products of HO-1 are cytoprotective with anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. The products of HO-1 also display antiviral properties against several viruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, influenza, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and Ebola virus. Here, we sought to assess the effect of modulating HO-1 activity over herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection in epithelial cells and neurons. There are no vaccines against HSV-2 and treatment options are scarce in the immunosuppressed, in which drug-resistant variants emerge. By using HSV strains that encode structural and non-structural forms of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, we found that pharmacological induction of HO-1 activity with CoPP significantly decreases virus plaque formation and the expression of virus-encoded genes in epithelial cells as determined by flow cytometry and western blot assays. CoPP treatment did not affect virus binding to the cell surface or entry into the cytoplasm, but rather downstream events in the virus infection cycle. Furthermore, we observed that treating cells with a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2 recapitulated some of the anti-HSV effects elicited by CoPP. Taken together, these findings indicate that HO-1 activity interferes with the replication cycle of HSV and that its antiviral effects can be recapitulated by CO.

  18. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Ye, Jing-xue [Jilin Agricultural University, No.2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130021, Jilin (China); Si, Jian-yong [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Xu, Hui-bo [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Gongnongda road 1745, Changchun, 130021, Jiblin (China); Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Wang, Hong-wei, E-mail: hwang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Translational Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sunsubmit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Luteolin, a flavonoid that exhibits antioxidative properties, exerts myocardial protection effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of luteolin on myocardial injury protection and its possible mechanisms, a myocardial injury model was established with intragastric administration of 4 mg/kg isoproterenol (ISO) to male Sprague–Dawley rats (200–220 g) daily for 2 days. We found that pretreatment of luteolin (160, 80 and 40 mg/kg, i.g., respectively) daily for 15 days can prevent ISO-induced myocardial damage, including decrease of serum cardiac enzymes, improvement electrocardiography and heart vacuolation. Luteolin also improved the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential, suggesting one possible mechanism of luteolin-induced cardio-protection is mediated by blocking the oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanisms, we performed the in vitro study by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cytotoxicty model in H9c2 cells. We found that luteolin pretreatment prevented apoptosis, increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and enhanced the binding of Nrf2 to the antioxidant response element, providing an adaptive survival response against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-derived oxidative cytotoxicity. The addition of Znpp, a selective HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reduced the cytoprotective ability of luteolin, indicating the vital role of HO-1 on these effects. Luteolin also activated Akt and ERK, whereas the addition of LY294002 and U0126, the pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3K and ERK, attenuated luteolin-induced HO-1 expression and cytoprotective effect. Taken together, the above findings suggest that luteolin protects against myocardial injury and enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Akt and ERK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction. -- Highlights: ► Luteolin prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage.

  19. Effects of Polyphenolic Derivatives on Heme Oxygenase-System in Metabolic Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittala, Valeria; Vanella, Luca; Salerno, Loredana; Romeo, Giuseppe; Marrazzo, Agostino; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria

    2017-06-16

    The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of various naturally occurring polyphenols in the management of metabolic dysfunctions. This cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprises insulin resistance, increased levels of free fatty acids, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) along with DM-induced complications. Most of them are included in the well-known metabolic syndrome (MS). These metabolic dysfunctions in turn are tightly associated to a high risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of metabolic dysfunctions and related complications are not yet clear, it is widely recognized that they are associated to oxidative stress and chronic low-grade of inflammatory levels. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic references through the use of SciFinder. The database is provided by a division of ACS (American Chemical Society) and guarantees access to the world's most extensive and authoritative source of references. The search has been performed by using "heme oxygenase-1" as research topic and a subsequent refinement has been done by using inclusion/exclusion criteria. The quality of retrieved papers was evaluated on the basis of standard tools. From a careful review of the selected literature, of interest, the use of natural antioxidant polyphenols seems to be the ideal pharmacological treatment since they are endowed with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In particular, some polyphenols such as curcumin, quercetin, genistein, caffeic acid phenethyl ester are able to potently activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and related downstream expression of enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Indeed, an overexpression of HO-1 has demonstrated to play a beneficial role in metabolic diseases. The following review is intended to stimulate interest in the role of natural

  20. Role of the heme oxygenases in abnormalities of the mesenteric circulation in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdoti, David; Abraham, Nader G; Oyekan, Adebayo O; Yang, Liming; Gatta, Angelo; McGiff, John C

    2004-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a product of heme metabolism by heme-oxygenase (HO), has biological actions similar to those of nitric oxide (NO). The role of CO in decreasing vascular responses to constrictor agents produced by experimental cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride was evaluated before and after inhibition of HO with tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP) in the perfused superior mesenteric vasculature (SMV) of cirrhotic and normal rats and in normal rats transfected with the human HO-1 (HHO-1) gene. Perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictor responses of the SMV to KCl, phenylephrine (PE), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were decreased in cirrhotic rats. SnMP increased SMV perfusion pressure and restored the constrictor responses of the SMV to KCl, PE, and ET-1 in cirrhotic rats. The relative roles of NO and CO in producing hyporeactivity of the SMV to PE in cirrhotic rats were examined. Vasoconstrictor responses to PE were successively augmented by stepwise inhibition of CO and NO production, suggesting a complementary role for these gases in the regulation of reactivity of the SMV. Expression of constitutive but not of inducible HO (HO-1) was increased in the SMV of cirrhotic rats as was HO activity. Administration of adenovirus containing HHO-1 gene produced detection of HHO-1 RNA and increased HO activity in the SMV within 7 days. Rats transfected with HO-1 demonstrated reduction in both perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictor responses to PE in the SMV. We propose that HO is an essential component in mechanisms that modulate reactivity of the mesenteric circulation in experimental hepatic cirrhosis in rats.

  1. Heme-Oxygenase-1 Expression Contributes to the Immunoregulation Induced by Fasciola hepatica and Promotes Infection

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    Paula Carasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, also known as the liver fluke, is a trematode that infects livestock and humans causing fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease of increasing importance due to its worldwide distribution and high economic losses. This parasite immunoregulates the host immune system by inducing a strong Th2 and regulatory T immune response by immunomodulating dendritic cell (DC maturation and alternative activation of macrophages. In this paper, we show that F. hepatica infection in mice induces the upregulation of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of free heme that regulates the host inflammatory response. We show and characterize two different populations of antigen presenting cells that express HO-1 during infection in the peritoneum of infected animals. Cells that expressed high levels of HO-1 expressed intermediate levels of F4/80 but high expression of CD11c, CD38, TGFβ, and IL-10 suggesting that they correspond to regulatory DCs. On the other hand, cells expressing intermediate levels of HO-1 expressed high levels of F4/80, CD68, Ly6C, and FIZZ-1, indicating that they might correspond to alternatively activated macrophages. Furthermore, the pharmacological induction of HO-1 with the synthetic metalloporphyrin CoPP promoted F. hepatica infection increasing the clinical signs associated with the disease. In contrast, treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP protected mice from parasite infection, indicating that HO-1 plays an essential role during F. hepatica infection. Finally, HO-1 expression during F. hepatica infection was associated with TGFβ and IL-10 levels in liver and peritoneum, suggesting that HO-1 controls the expression of these immunoregulatory cytokines during infection favoring parasite survival in the host. These results contribute to the elucidation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by F. hepatica in the host and provide alternative checkpoints to control fasciolosis.

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 polymorphism is not associated with risk of colorectal cancer: a Danish prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intake of red and processed meat confers risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We wanted to test whether heme in meat promotes carcinogenesis. Methods: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, HMOX1) A-413T (rs2071746) was assessed in a nested case–cohort study of 383 CRC cases and 763 randomly selected...... participants from a prospective study of 57 053 individuals. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: No association was found between the HO-1 polymorphism and CRC (P value for trend for the fully adjusted estimates=0.29). No interaction with meat intake was found (P value...... for interaction=0.55). Conclusion: The studied HO-1 polymorphism was not associated with risk of CRC suggesting that heme from meat is not important in CRC development....

  3. The heme oxygenase-1 inducer THI-56 negatively regulates iNOS expression and HMGB1 release in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and CLP-induced septic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Hwa Jin; Tsoyi, Konstantin; Kim, Young Min; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear DNA binding protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has recently been suggested to act as a late mediator of septic shock. The effect of ((S)-6,7-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxynaphthylmethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, also known as THI-56, in an experimental model of sepsis was investigated. THI-56 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties in response to LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. In particular, THI-56 significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the release of HMGB1 in activated macrophages. THI-56 activated NE-F2-regulated factor 2 (Nrf-2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). The specific knockdown of the HO-1 gene by HO-1 siRNA significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of THI-56 on iNOS expression and HMGB1 release in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Importantly, THI-56 administration protected animals from death induced by either a lethal dose of LPS or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Furthermore, the ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine, and HMGB1 levels in the blood were significantly increased in CLP-induced septic mice, and the administration of THI-56 reduced these levels in a concentration-dependent and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX)-sensitive manner. In addition, the administration of THI-56 significantly ameliorated not only lung damage but also macrophage infiltration in the livers of CLP-induced septic mice, and these effects were also abrogated in the presence of ZnPPIX. Thus, we conclude that THI-56 significantly attenuates the proinflammatory response induced by LPS and reduces organ damage in a CLP-induced sepsis model through the upregulation of Nrf-2/HO-1.

  4. Sexual Dimorphism of Cardiovascular Ischemia Susceptibility Is Mediated by Heme Oxygenase

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    Anikó Pósa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the gender differences in heme-oxygenase (HO enzyme, which produces endogenous vascular protective carbon monoxide (CO. We studied (1 the activity and expression of HO enzymes in the left ventricle (LV and aorta, (2 basal increase in basal blood pressure provoked by arginine vasopressine (AVP in vivo, (3 the heart perfusion induced by AVP, (4 the ST segment depression provoked by adrenaline and 30 seconds later phentolamine, and (5 the aorta ring contraction induced by AVP in female and male Wistar rats. We found that HO activity and the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 were increased in female rat aorta and LV. We demonstrated that the basal blood pressure and administration of AVP provoked blood pressure response are increased in the males; the female myocardium was less sensitive towards angina. Both differences could be aggravated by the inhibition of HO. The aorta rings were more susceptible towards vasoconstriction by AVP in males; isolated heart perfusion decrease was higher in males. The HO inhibition aggravated the heart perfusion in both sexes. In conclusion, the increased HO activity and expression in females might play a role in the sexual dimorphism of cardiovascular ischemia susceptibility during the reproductive age.

  5. Heme oxygenase 1-generated carbon monoxide and biliverdin attenuate the course of experimental necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhn, Philipp; Mitkus, Tomas; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Künzli, Beat M; Bergmann, Frank; Fischer, Lars; Giese, Nathalia; Friess, Helmut; Berberat, Pascal O

    2013-03-01

    The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is highly up-regulated in acute pancreatitis (AP). In this study, we tested its metabolites as potential therapeutic agents for AP in rats. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by retrograde intraductal injection of sodium taurocholate in rats. Biliverdin hydrochloride (BV HCl) (50 μmol/kg subcutaneously), the carbon monoxide, donor methylene chloride (MC) (500 mg/kg orally), or iron-chelating desferrioxamine (DFO) (125 mg/kg subcutaneously) were administered in a therapeutic manner starting with the first dose 4 hours after taurocholate injection to mimic the effects of HO-1 metabolites. Administration of BV HCl, MC, or DFO showed significant reduction of inflammatory activity in comparison to controls leading to lower myeloperoxidase activity in the pancreas, less edema, lower ascites volumes, and preservation of tissue integrity (P < 0.05). Administration of either BV HCl or MC markedly increased 5-day survival rate (70% and 75% vs 40%; P < 0.05), whereas DFO had no significant effect on survival (60%). When given in therapeutic manner, all 3 substances led to diminished nuclear factor κB activity in the pancreas (P < 0.05). Therapeutic use of BV HCl and MC led to marked reduction of mortality in experimental pancreatitis. Thus, HO-1 metabolites may present a novel therapeutic approach in AP treatment.

  6. Characterization of a Wheat Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene and Its Responses to Different Abiotic Stresses

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    Yu-ting Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In animals and recently in plants, heme oxygenase-1 (HO1 has been found to confer protection against a variety of oxidant-induced cell and tissue injuries. In this study, a wheat (Triticum aestivum HO1 gene TaHO1 was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a polypeptide of 31.7 kD with a putative N-terminal plastid transit peptide. The amino acid sequence of TaHO1 was found to be 78% similar to that of maize HO1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TaHO1 clusters together with the HO1-like sequences in plants. The purified recombinant TaHO1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli was active in the conversion of heme to biliverdin IXa (BV, and showed that the Vmax was 8.8 U·mg−1 protein with an apparent Km value for hemin of 3.04 μM. The optimum Tm and pH were 35 °C and 7.4, respectively. The result of subcellular localization of TaHO1 showed that the putative transit peptide was sufficient for green fluorescent protein (GFP to localize in chloroplast and implied that TaHO1 gene product is at least localized in the chloroplast. Moreover, we found that TaHO1 mRNA could be differentially induced by the well-known nitric oxide (NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, gibberellin acid (GA, abscisic acid (ABA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and NaCl treatments. Therefore, the results suggested that TaHO1 might play an important role in abiotic stress responses.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (PHHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli.

  8. Gastroprotective effect of ghrelin against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats: possible role of heme oxygenase-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Mona M; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin has been shown to ameliorate gastric injury by several mechanisms in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats and the role of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) pathway as a novel mechanism underlying the gastroprotective effect of ghrelin. In all groups studied, ulcer score (U.S), ulcer index (U.I) and preventive index (P.I) were evaluated and the gastric inflammatory biomarkers including levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), HO-1 and bilirubin as an indicator of heme oxygenase activity were measured. Indomethacin induced significant elevation in U.S and U.I as well as the inflammatory and the oxidative markers and reduced the PGE2 in addition to HO-1 level and activity. Pretreatment with ghrelin reversed these results. In order to elucidate the possible role of HO-1 in mediating the protective effects of ghrelin, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) HO-1 blocker was administrated; it significantly attenuated the gastroprotective effect of ghrelin. In conclusion HO-1 activity significantly contributes toward ghrelin-mediated gastroprotection.

  9. Zinc Protoporphyrin Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 in PC-3 Cells via the Stress Response Pathway

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    Simon C. M. Kwok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, a naturally occurring molecule formed in iron deficiency or lead poisoning, is a potent competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. It also regulates expression of HO-1 at the transcriptional level. However, the effect of ZnPP on HO-1 expression is controversial. It was shown to induce HO-1 expression in some cells, but suppress it in others. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of ZnPP on HO-1 expression in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Incubation of PC-3 cells with 10 μM ZnPP for 4 h showed only a slight induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein, but the induction was high after 16 h and was maintained through 48 h of incubation. Of all the known responsive elements in the HO-1 promoter, ZnPP activated mainly the stress response elements. Of the various protein kinase inhibitors and antioxidant tested, only Ro 31-8220 abrogated ZnPP-induced HO-1 expression, suggesting that activation of HO-1 gene by ZnPP may involve protein kinase C (PKC. The involvement of PKC α, β, δ, η, θ, and ζ isoforms was ruled out by the use of specific inhibitors. The isoform of PKC involved and participation of other transcription factors remain to be studied.

  10. Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide-regulated Mitochondrial Dynamic Equilibrium Contributes to the Attenuation of Endotoxin-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats and in Lipopolysaccharide-activated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianbo; Shi, Jia; Wang, Dan; Dong, Shuan; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Man; Gong, Lirong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Daquan

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis-associated acute lung injury remains the major cause of mortality in critically ill patients and is characterized by marked oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics are indispensable for functional integrity. Additionally, heme oxygenase (HO)-1/carbon monoxide conferred cytoprotection against end-organ damage during endotoxic shock. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that HO-1/carbon monoxide played a critical role in maintaining the dynamic process of mitochondrial fusion/fission to mitigate lung injury in Sprague-Dawley rats or RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to endotoxin. The production of reactive oxygen species, the respiratory control ratio (RCR), and the expressions of HO-1 and mitochondrial dynamic markers were determined in macrophages. Concurrently, alterations in the pathology of lung tissue, lipid peroxidation, and the expressions of the crucial dynamic proteins were detected in rats. Endotoxin caused a 31% increase in reactive oxygen species and a 41% decrease in RCR levels (n = 5 per group). In parallel, the increased expression of HO-1 was observed in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, concomitantly with excessive mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 or hemin normalized mitochondrial dynamics, which were abrogated by zinc protoporphyrin IX. Additionally, impaired mitochondrial dynamic balance was shown in Sprague-Dawley rats that received lipopolysaccharide, accompanied by pathologic injury, elevated malondialdehyde contents, decreased manganese superoxide dismutase activities, and lowered RCR levels in rat lung mitochondria. However, the above parameters were augmented by zinc protoporphyrin IX and were in turn reversed by hemin. The HO-1/carbon monoxide system modulated the imbalance of the dynamic mitochondrial fusion/fission process evoked by lipopolysaccharide and efficiently ameliorated endotoxin-induced lung injury in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 metabolite biliverdin, not iron, inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Angke; Duan, Hong; Li, Na; Zhao, Lijuan; Pu, Fengxing; Huang, Baicheng; Wu, Chunyan; Nan, Yuchen; Du, Taofeng; Mu, Yang; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhang, Gaiping; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min; Xiao, Shuqi

    2017-01-01

    Porcinereproductiveandrespiratorysyndromevirus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) interferes with PRRSV replication. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, here we assess whether the HO-1 downstream metabolites biliverdin (BV) and/or iron mediate the HO-1 antiviral effect. We demonstrate a BV concentration-dependent suppression of PRRSV replication and show that virions are not directly inactivated by BV. Additionally, BV or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells; however, because NAC did not reduce viral load, the BV antiviral effect is independent of decreased ROS levels. Moreover, a secondary metabolite of BV, bilirubin (BR), specifically mediates this anti-PRRSV activity via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cGMP/PKG signaling pathway. While increased iron via addition of FeCl3 did not interfere with PRRSV replication, iron depletion by deferoxamine (DFO) after cobalt-protoporphyrin IX induction of HO-1 did not restore PRRSV replication. Collectively, our findings identify a HO-1-BV/BR-NO-cGMP/PKG cascade as a novel pathway underlying the host cell antiviral effect. These results provide a unique insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of the stress-responsive protein HO-1 during PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Myeloid Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulates the Acute Inflammatory Response to Zymosan in the Mouse Air Pouch

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    Rita Brines

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is induced by many stimuli to modulate the activation and function of different cell types during innate immune responses. Although HO-1 has shown anti-inflammatory effects in different systems, there are few data on the contribution of myeloid HO-1 and its role in inflammatory processes is not well understood. To address this point, we have used HO-1M-KO mice with myeloid-restricted deletion of HO-1 to specifically investigate its influence on the acute inflammatory response to zymosan in vivo. In the mouse air pouch model, we have shown an exacerbated inflammation in HO-1M-KO mice with increased neutrophil infiltration accompanied by high levels of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2. The expression of the degradative enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 was also enhanced. In addition, we observed higher levels of serum MMP-3 in HO-1M-KO mice compared with control mice, suggesting the presence of systemic inflammation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that myeloid HO-1 plays an anti-inflammatory role in the acute response to zymosan in vivo and suggest the interest of this target to regulate inflammatory processes.

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 Modulates Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication and Lung Pathogenesis during Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Janyra A; León, Miguel A; Céspedes, Pablo F; Gómez, Roberto S; Canedo-Marroquín, Gisela; Riquelme, Sebastían A; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Blancou, Phillipe; Simon, Thomas; Anegon, Ignacio; Lay, Margarita K; González, Pablo A; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2017-07-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children. The development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral drugs against hRSV is imperative to control the burden of disease in the susceptible population. In this study, we examined the effects of inducing the activity of the host enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on hRSV replication and pathogenesis on lung inflammation induced by this virus. Our results show that after hRSV infection, HO-1 induction with metalloporphyrin cobalt protoporphyrin IX significantly reduces the loss of body weight due to hRSV-induced disease. Further, HO-1 induction also decreased viral replication and lung inflammation, as evidenced by a reduced neutrophil infiltration into the airways, with diminished cytokine and chemokine production and reduced T cell function. Concomitantly, upon cobalt protoporphyrin IX treatment, there is a significant upregulation in the production of IFN-α/β mRNAs in the lungs. Furthermore, similar antiviral and protective effects occur by inducing the expression of human HO-1 in MHC class II+ cells in transgenic mice. Finally, in vitro data suggest that HO-1 induction can modulate the susceptibility of cells, especially the airway epithelial cells, to hRSV infection. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Spectroscopic Studies Reveal That the Heme Regulatory Motifs of Heme Oxygenase-2 Are Dynamically Disordered and Exhibit Redox-Dependent Interaction with Heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes a key step in heme homeostasis: the O2- and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent conversion of heme to biliverdin, Fe, and CO through a process in which the heme participates both as a prosthetic group and as a substrate. Mammals contain two isoforms of this enzyme, HO2 and HO1, which share the same α-helical fold forming the catalytic core and heme binding site, as well as a membrane spanning helix at their C-termini. However, unlike HO1, HO2 has an additional 30-residue N-terminus as well as two cysteine-proline sequences near the C-terminus that reside in heme regulatory motifs (HRMs). While the role of the additional N-terminal residues of HO2 is not yet understood, the HRMs have been proposed to reversibly form a thiol/disulfide redox switch that modulates the affinity of HO2 for ferric heme as a function of cellular redox poise. To further define the roles of the N- and C-terminal regions unique to HO2, we used multiple spectroscopic techniques to characterize these regions of the human HO2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic experiments with HO2 demonstrate that, when the HRMs are in the oxidized state (HO2O), both the extra N-terminal and the C-terminal HRM-containing regions are disordered. However, protein NMR experiments illustrate that, under reducing conditions, the C-terminal region gains some structure as the Cys residues in the HRMs undergo reduction (HO2R) and, in experiments employing a diamagnetic protoporphyrin, suggest a redox-dependent interaction between the core and the HRM domains. Further, electron nuclear double resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies demonstrate that, upon reduction of the HRMs to the sulfhydryl form, a cysteine residue from the HRM region ligates to a ferric heme. Taken together with EPR measurements, which show the appearance of a new low-spin heme signal in reduced HO2, it appears that a cysteine residue(s) in the HRMs directly interacts with a second bound heme

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1 Restores Impaired GARP+CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells from Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome by Upregulating LAP and GARP Expression on Activated T Lymphocytes

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    Yuzhou Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence shows that the pathological autoreactive immune response is responsible for plaque rupture and the subsequent onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (nTregs are indispensable in suppressing the pathological autoreactive immune response and maintaining immune homeostasis. However, the number and the suppressive function of glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP + CD4+ CD25+ activated nTregs were impaired in patients with ACS. Recent evidence suggests that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 can regulate the adaptive immune response by promoting the expression of Foxp3. We therefore hypothesized that HO-1 may enhance the function of GARP+ CD4+ CD25+Tregs in patients with ACS and thus regulate immune imbalance. Methods: T lymphocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers (control, n=30 and patients with stable angina (SA, n=40 or ACS (n=51. Half of these cells were treated with an HO-1 inducer (hemin for 48 h, and the other half were incubated with complete RPMI-1640 medium. The frequencies of T-helper 1 (Th1, Th2, Th17 and latency-associated peptide (LAP +CD4+ T cells and the expression of Foxp3 and GARP by CD4+CD25+T cells were then assessed by measuring flow cytometry after stimulation in vitro. The suppressive function of activated Tregs was measured by thymidine uptake. The levels of transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-β1 in the plasma were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The expression levels of the genes encoding these proteins were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Patients with ACS exhibited an impaired number and suppressive function of GARP+ CD4+ CD25+Tregs and a mixed Th1/Th17-dominant T cell response when compared with the SA and control groups. The expression of LAP in T cells was also lower in patients with ACS compared to patients with SA and the control individuals. Treatment with an HO-1 inducer enhanced the

  16. Knockdown of Heme Oxygenase-2 Impairs Corneal Epithelial Cell Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilovic, Adna; Patil, Kiran A.; Bellner, Lars; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Castellano, Kirkland; Cullaro, Giuseppe; Dunn, Michael W.; Schwartzman, Michal Laniado

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) represents an intrinsic cytoprotective system based on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties mediated via its products biliverdin/bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO). We showed that deletion of HO-2 results in impaired corneal wound healing with associated chronic inflammatory complications. This study was undertaken to examine the role of HO activity and the contribution of HO-1 and HO-2 to corneal wound healing in an in vitro epithelial scratch injury model. A scratch wound model was established using human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. These cells expressed both HO-1 and HO-2 proteins. Injury elicited a rapid and transient increase in HO-1 and HO activity; HO-2 expression was unchanged. Treatment with biliverdin or CORM-A1, a CO donor, accelerated wound closure by 10% at 24 h. Inhibition of HO activity impaired wound closure by more than 50%. However, addition of biliverdin or CORM-A1 reversed the effect of HO inhibition on wound healing. Moreover, knockdown of HO-2 expression, but not HO-1, significantly impaired wound healing. These results indicate that HO activity is required for corneal epithelial cell migration. Inhibition of HO activity impairs wound healing while amplification of its activity restores and accelerates healing. Importantly, HO-2, which is highly expressed in the corneal epithelium, appears to be critical for the wound healing process in the cornea. The mechanisms by which it contributes to cell migration in response to injury may reside in the cytoprotective properties of CO and biliverdin. PMID:21506105

  17. Comparison of the crystal structure and function to wild-type and His25Ala mutant human heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Pu; Zhong, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zi-Li; Xia, Zhen-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in heme metabolism. It regulates serum bilirubin level. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that the proximal residue histidine 25 (His25) plays a key role in hHO-1 activity. A highly purified hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was generated and crystallized with a new expression system. The crystal structure of the mutant was determined by X-ray diffraction technology and molecular replacement at the resolution of 2.8 A, and the model of hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was refined. The final crystallographic and free R factors were 0.245 and 0.283, respectively. The standard bond length deviation was 0.007 A, and the standard bond angle deviation was 1.3 degrees . The mutation of His25 to Ala led to an empty pocket underneath the ferric ion in the heme, leading to loss of binding iron ligand. Although this did not cause an overall structural change, the enzymatic activity of the mutant hHO-1 was reduced by 90%. By supplementing imidazole, the HO-1 activity was restored approximately 90% to its normal level. These data suggest that Ala25 remains unchanged in the structure compared to His25, but the important catalytic function of hHO-1 is lost. Thus, it appears that His25 is a crucial residue for proper hHO-1 catalysis.

  18. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 protects genetically fat Zucker rat livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Amersi, Farin; Buelow, Roland; Kato, Hirohisa; Ke, Bibo; Coito, Ana J.; Shen, Xiu-Da; Zhao, Delai; Zaky, Joseph; Melinek, Judy; Lassman, Charles R.; Kolls, Jay K.; Alam, J.; Ritter, Thomas; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Farmer, Douglas G.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in steatotic rat liver models of ex vivo cold ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the model of ischemia/isolated perfusion, treatment of genetically obese Zucker rats with the HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or with adenoviral HO-1 (Ad-HO-1) significantly improved portal venous blood flow, increased bile production, and decreased hepatocyte injury. Unlike in untreated rats or those pretreated with the HO-1 inhibito...

  19. Human heme oxygenase-1 deficiency: a lesson on serendipity in the discovery of the novel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Shoichi

    2007-04-01

    The first case of human heme oxygenase (HO)-1 deficiency was reported by Yachie et al. at our laboratory in the Department of Pediatrics, Angiogenesis and Vascular Development, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, in 1999. In the present paper I would like to review this novel disease. Our studies into HO-1 deficiency were called by us 'Kanazawa version Project X'. From the story of our successful discovery we have learned that serendipity is a very important spiritual factor. Serendipity is the making of fortunate and unexpected discoveries by chance (from its possession by the heroes in the Persian fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip).

  20. A Heme Oxygenase-1 Transducer Model of Degenerative and Developmental Brain Disorders

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    Hyman M. Schipper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In “stressed” astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  1. X-ray Crystallography of A Metalloprotein: A Reaction Intermediate of Heme Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masaki; Matsui, Toshitaka; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    X-ray crystallographic analysis of a metalloprotein requires knowing the electronic state of the metal center, if one wants to elucidate the exact function and/or reaction mechanism. As an example, we show our recent structural analysis of the heme oxygenase reaction intermediate which is involved in the third step of the heme degradation reaction. The reaction intermediate was crystallized under anaerobic condition, and the obtained crystals were frozen into liquid nitrogen. The absorption spectra of the single crystal before and after X-ray irradiation were compared with that of the frozen solution in 100 K cold nitrogen stream. The determined structure offers the first solid evidence for the presence of a water cluster in the distal pocket of this catalytically critical intermediate. This structure combined with the QM/MM calculation supports our proposal that the biliverdin is produced via Fe-OOH verdoheme intermediate.

  2. Structural characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 in complex with azole-based inhibitors.

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    Rahman, Mona N; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Roman, Gheorghe; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Szarek, Walter A; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2010-03-01

    The development of inhibitors specific for heme oxygenases (HO) aims to provide powerful tools in understanding the HO system. Based on the lead structure (2S, 4S)-2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-[((4-aminophenyl)thio)methyl]-1,3-dioxolane (azalanstat, QC-1) we have synthesized structural modifications to develop novel and selective HO inhibitors. The structural study of human HO-1 (hHO-1) in complex with a select group of the inhibitors was initiated using X-ray crystallographic techniques. Comparison of the structures of four such compounds each in complex with hHO-1 revealed a common binding mode, despite having different structural fragments. The compounds bind to the distal side of heme through an azole "anchor" which coordinates with the heme iron. An expansion of the distal pocket, mainly due to distal helix flexibility, allows accommodation of the compounds without displacing heme or the critical Asp140 residue. Rather, binding displaces a catalytically critical water molecule and disrupts an ordered hydrogen-bond network involving Asp140. The presence of a triazole "anchor" may provide further stability via a hydrogen bond with the protein. A hydrophobic pocket acts to stabilize the region occupied by the phenyl or adamantanyl moieties of these compounds. Further, a secondary hydrophobic pocket is formed via "induced fit" to accommodate bulky substituents at the 4-position of the dioxolane ring. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Haptoglobin-CD163-Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway for Hemoglobin Scavenging

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    Jens Haugbølle Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The haptoglobin- (Hp- CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity and put pressure on backup protecting systems such as the hemopexin-CD91-HO pathway. The Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway proteins are regulated by the acute phase mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6, but other regulatory factors indicate that this upregulation is a counteracting anti-inflammatory response during inflammation. The heme metabolites including bilirubin converted from biliverdin have overall an anti-inflammatory effect and thus reinforce the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway. Future studies of animal models of inflammation should further define the importance of the pathway in the anti-inflammatory response.

  4. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on heme oxygenase-1 expression in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats.

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    Kasarełło, Kaja; Jesion, Anika; Tyszkowska, Karolina; Matusik, Katarzyna; Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Wrzesień, Robert; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmunological disease leading to neurodegeneration. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, which strongly impedes the development of effective therapy. Most MS treatments focus on modulating the activity of the immune system. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) exerts a broad spectrum of action, such as modulating immune cell differentiation towards anti-inflammatory subtypes, influencing cytokine production, regulating immune cell migration into the central nervous system, and activating intracellular antioxidant mechanisms. It is well established that activation of the nuclear factor E2 (Nrf2)-dependent pathway, leading to expression of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, is influenced by DMF. In our experiments we used female Lewis rats in an animal model of MS - experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). The rats were fed with dimethyl fumarate to test the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), one of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, at specific time points of the symptomatic phases of the disease: on the first day of the occurrence of clinical symptoms (10th day post immunization, DPI); at the peak of clinical symptoms (14th DPI); and at the end of the relapse (21st DPI). The results showed that HO-1 expression, at both the mRNA and protein level, is influenced by DMF administration only at the very beginning of the symptomatic phase of EAE, and not at the peak of clinical symptoms, nor at the end of the relapse. This indicates that the regulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway by DMF occurs at a certain time interval (early EAE/MS) and strongly underlines the importance of the earliest introduction of the therapy to the patient. .

  5. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on heme oxygenase-1 expression in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats

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    Kaja Kasarełło

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmunological disease leading to neurodegeneration. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, which strongly impedes the development of effective therapy. Most MS treatments focus on modulating the activity of the immune system. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF exerts a broad spectrum of action, such as modulating immune cell differentiation towards anti-inflammatory subtypes, influencing cytokine production, regulating immune cell migration into the central nervous system, and activating intracellular antioxidant mechanisms. It is well established that activation of the nuclear factor E2 (Nrf2-dependent pathway, leading to expression of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, is influenced by DMF. In our experiments we used female Lewis rats in an animal model of MS – experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE. The rats were fed with dimethyl fumarate to test the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, one of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, at specific time points of the symptomatic phases of the disease: on the first day of the occurrence of clinical symptoms (10th day post immunization, DPI; at the peak of clinical symptoms (14th DPI; and at the end of the relapse (21st DPI. The results showed that HO-1 expression, at both the mRNA and protein level, is influenced by DMF administration only at the very beginning of the symptomatic phase of EAE, and not at the peak of clinical symptoms, nor at the end of the relapse. This indicates that the regulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway by DMF occurs at a certain time interval (early EAE/MS and strongly underlines the importance of the earliest introduction of the therapy to the patient.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 and its metabolites affect pancreatic tumor growth in vivo

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    Nuhn Philipp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer (PaCa is a fatal human cancer due to its exceptional resistance to all current anticancer therapies. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is significantly overexpressed in PaCa and seems to play an important role in cancer resistance to anticancer treatment. The inhibition of HO-1 sensitized PaCa cells to chemo- and radiotherapy in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and its metabolites biliverdin, carbon monoxide and iron on PaCa cells. PaCa cell lines with divergent HO-1 expression patterns were used in a murine orthotopic cancer model. HO-1 expression and activity was regulated by zinc (inhibition and cobalt (induction protoporphyrin. Furthermore, the influence of cellular HO-1 levels and its metabolites on effects of standard chemotherapy with gemcitabine was tested in vivo and in vitro. Results High HO-1 expression in PaCa cell lines was associated with increased chemoresistance in vitro. Chemoresistance to gemcitabine was increased during HO-1 induction in PaCa cells expressing low levels of HO-1. The inhibition of HO-1 activity in pancreatic tumors with high HO-1 boosted chemotherapeutic effects in vivo significantly. Furthermore, biliverdin and iron promoted PaCa resistance to chemotherapy. Consequently, specific iron chelation by desferrioxamine revealed profound anticancerous effects. Conclusion In summary, the inhibition of HO-1 and the chelation of iron in PaCa cells were associated with increased sensitivity and susceptibility of pancreatic tumors to chemotherapy in vivo. The metabolites biliverdin and iron seem to be involved in HO-1-mediated resistance to anticancer treatment. Therefore, HO-1 inhibition or direct interference with its metabolites may evolve new PaCa treatment strategies.

  7. Reduction of bilirubin by targeting human heme oxygenase-1 through siRNA.

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    Xia, Zhen-Wei; Li, Chun-E; Jin, You-Xin; Shi, Yi; Xu, Li-Qing; Zhong, Wen-Wei; Li, Yun-Zhu; Yu, Shan-Chang; Zhang, Zi-Li

    2007-04-01

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical condition caused mainly by the increased production and decreased excretion of bilirubin. Current treatment is aimed at reducing the serum levels of bilirubin. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme that generates bilirubin. In this study we intended to suppress HO-1 using the RNA interference technique. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-A, -B, and -C were designed based on human HO-1 (hHO-1) mRNA sequences. siRNA was transfected into a human hepatic cell line (HL-7702). hHO-1 transcription and protein levels were then determined. In addition, the inhibitory effect of siRNA on hHO-1 was assessed in cells treated with hemin or transfected with an hHO-1 plasmid. siRNA-C showed the most potent suppressive effect on hHO-1. This inhibition is dose and time dependent. Compared with control, both hemin and hHO-1 plasmids up-regulated hHO-1 expression in HL-7702 cells. However, the up-regulation was significantly attenuated by siRNA-C. Furthermore, the decrease in hHO-1 activity was coincident with the suppression of its transcription. Finally, siRNA-C was shown to reduce hHO-1 enzymatic activity and bilirubin levels. Thus, this study provides a novel therapeutic rationale by blocking bilirubin formation via siRNA for preventing and treating neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin encephalopathy at an early clinical stage.

  8. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Protects against Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Heme Oxygenase-1-Induced Autophagy

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    Xiong, Xuanxuan; Xu, Yonghua; Zhang, Hai; Huang, Changjun; Tian, Yuan; Jiao, Chengyu; Wang, Xuehao; Li, Xiangcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing evidence has linked autophagy to a protective role of preconditioning in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is essential in limiting inflammation and preventing the apoptotic response to IR. We previously demonstrated that HO-1 is up-regulated in liver graft after remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). The aim of this study was to confirm that RIPC protects against IR via HO-1-mediated autophagy. Methods RIPC was performed with regional ischemia of limbs before liver ischemia, and HO-1 activity was inhibited pre-operation. Autophagy was assessed by the expression of light chain 3-II (LC3-II). The HO-1/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)/p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was detected in an autophagy model and mineral oil-induced IR in vitro. Results In liver IR, the expression of LC3-II peaked 12–24 h after IR, and the ultrastructure revealed abundant autophagosomes in hepatocytes after IR. Autophagy was inhibited when HO-1 was inactivated, which we believe resulted in the aggravation of liver IR injury (IRI) in vivo. Hemin-induced autophagy also protected rat hepatocytes from IRI in vitro, which was abrogated by HO-1 siRNA. Phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 was up-regulated in hemin-pretreated liver cells and down-regulated after treatment with HO-1 siRNA. Conclusions RIPC may protect the liver from IRI by induction of HO-1/p38-MAPK-dependent autophagy. PMID:24914543

  9. Heme Oxygenase-1 Mediates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis

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    Oana N. Ursu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, which is suggested to play a role in defending the organism against oxidative stress-mediated injuries, can be induced by diverse factors including viruses and iron. As coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3-infected SWR/J mice susceptible for chronic myocarditis were found to have a significant iron incorporation and HO-1 upregulation in the myocardium, we aimed to investigate the molecular interplay between HO-1 expression and iron homeostasis in the outcome of viral myocarditis. Methods and Results: In susceptible SWR/J mice, but not in resistant C57BL/6 mice, we observed at later stages of CVB3 myocarditis significant iron deposits in macrophages and also in cardiomyocytes, which were spatially associated with oxidative stress, upregulation of HO-1 and caspase-3 activation. HO-1, which is also expressed in cultivated RAW 264.7 macrophages upon incubation with iron and/or CVB3, could be downregulated by inhibition of NO/iNOS using L-NAME. Moreover, specific inhibition of HO-1 by tin mesoporphyrin revealed a suppression of superoxide production in iron and/or CVB3-treated macrophages. The molecular relationship of HO-1 and caspase-3 activation was proven by downregulation with HO-1 siRNA in iron- and/or CVB3-treated cultivated cells. Importantly, iron was found to increase viral replication in vitro. Conclusion: These results indicate that HO-1 induces a paracrine signalling in macrophages via reactive oxygen species production, mediating apoptosis of heart muscle cells at later stages of myocarditis. Notably, in genetically susceptible mice iron potentiates the detrimental effects of CVB3 by the NO/HO-1 pathway, thus increasing cardiac pathogenicity.

  10. The neuroprotective effect of heme oxygenase (HO) on oxidative stress in HO-1 siRNA-transfected HT22 cells.

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    Kaizaki, Asuka; Tanaka, Sachiko; Ishige, Kumiko; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2006-09-07

    To investigate the role of heme oxygenase (HO) isozymes, we used siRNA technology to suppress HO-1 expression. HO-1 siRNA-transfected HT22 cells were vulnerable to hydrogen peroxide- and 4-hydroxynonenal-induced cytotoxicity. Biliverdin and bilirubin, degradative products of heme catalyzed by HO, protected HT22 cells from the insult of these oxidative stressors. These results suggest that inducible HO-1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress in HT22 cells.

  11. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseda, Clement A. [Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Srinivasan, Kumar [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wise, Jasen [Qiagen, Frederick, MD (United States); Catalano, Jennifer [Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection.

  12. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer.

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    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 Å of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58· is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates the progression of K/BxN serum transfer arthritis.

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    Rita Brines

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is induced in many cell types as a defense mechanism against stress. We have investigated the possible role of endogenous HO-1 in the effector phase of arthritis using the K/BxN serum transfer model of arthritis in HO-1 heterozygous and homozygous knock-out mice.Arthritis was induced in C57/Black-6 xFVB (HO-1(+/+, HO-1(+/- and HO-1(-/- mice by intraperitoneal injection of 150 µl serum from arthritic K/BxN mice at days 0 and 2. Blood was collected and animals were sacrificed at day 10. Histological analysis was performed in ankle sections. The levels of inflammatory mediators were measured in serum and paw homogenates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Multiplex technology. The incidence of arthritis was higher in HO-1(+/- and HO-1(-/- groups compared with HO-1(+/+. The inflammatory response was aggravated in HO-1(+/- mice as shown by arthritic score and the migration of inflammatory cells that could be related to the enhancement of CXCL-1 production. In addition, the HO-1(+/- group showed proteoglycan depletion significantly higher than HO-1(+/+ mice. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were increased in arthritic HO-1(-/- mice, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor and some cytokines such as interferon-γ showed a reduction compared to HO-1(+/+ or HO-1(+/- mice. In addition, down-regulated gene expression of ferritin, glutathione S-reductase A1 and superoxide dismutase-2 was observed in the livers of arthritic HO-1(+/- animals.Endogenous HO-1 regulates the production of systemic and local inflammatory mediators and plays a protective role in K/BxN serum transfer arthritis.

  14. Heme oxygenase and the immune system in normal and pathological pregnancies

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    Maide eOzen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is an immunotolerant state. Many factors, including environmental, socioeconomic, genetic, and immunologic changes by infection and/or other causes of inflammation, may contribute to inter-individual differences resulting in a normal or pathologic pregnancy. In particular, imbalances in the immune system can cause many pregnancy-related diseases, such as infertility, abortions, pre-eclampsia, and preterm labor, which result in maternal/fetal death, prematurity, or small-for-gestational age newborns. New findings imply that myeloid regulatory cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs may mediate immunotolerance during normal pregnancy. Effector T cells (Teffs have, in contrast, been implicated to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, feto-maternal tolerance affects the developing fetus. It has been shown that the Treg/Teff balance affects litter size and adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced Tregs can prevent fetal rejection in the mouse. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has a protective role in many conditions through its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, and anti-proliferative actions. HO-1 is highly expressed in the placenta and plays a role in angiogenesis and placental vascular development and in regulating vascular tone in pregnancy. In addition, HO-1 is a major regulator of immune homeostasis by mediating crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems. Moreover, HO-1 can inhibit inflammation-induced phenotypic maturation of immune effector cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and promote anti-inflammatory cytokine production. HO-1 may also be associated with T-cell activation and can limit immune-based tissue injury by promoting Treg suppression of effector responses. Thus, HO-1 and its byproducts may protect against pregnancy complications by its immunomodulatory effects, and the regulation of HO-1 or its downstream effects has the potential to prevent or treat pregnancy complications and

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects the heart from acute injury caused by inducible Cre recombinase.

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    Hull, Travis D; Bolisetty, Subhashini; DeAlmeida, Angela C; Litovsky, Silvio H; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F

    2013-08-01

    The protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cardiovascular disease has been previously demonstrated using transgenic animal models in which HO-1 is constitutively overexpressed in the heart. However, the temporal requirements for protection by HO-1 induction relative to injury have not been investigated, but are essential to employ HO-1 as a therapeutic strategy in human cardiovascular disease states. Therefore, we generated mice with cardiac-specific, tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible overexpression of a human HO-1 (hHO-1) transgene (myosin heavy chain (MHC)-HO-1 mice) by breeding mice with cardiac-specific expression of a TAM-inducible Cre recombinase (MHC-Cre mice), with mice containing an hHO-1 transgene preceded by a floxed-stop signal. MHC-HO-1 mice overexpress HO-1 mRNA and the enzymatically active protein following TAM administration (40 mg/kg body weight on 2 consecutive days). In MHC-Cre controls, TAM administration leads to severe, acute cardiac toxicity, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and 80% mortality by day 3. This cardiac toxicity is accompanied by a significant increase in inflammatory cells in the heart that are predominantly neutrophils. In MHC-HO-1 mice, HO-1 overexpression ameliorates the depression of cardiac function and high mortality rate observed in MHC-Cre mice following TAM administration and attenuates cardiomyocyte necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These results highlight that HO-1 induction is sufficient to prevent the depression of cardiac function observed in mice with TAM-inducible Cre recombinase expression by protecting the heart from necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These findings are important because MHC-Cre mice are widely used in cardiovascular research despite the limitations imposed by Cre-induced cardiac toxicity, and also because inflammation is an important pathological component of many human cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibits postmyocardial infarct remodeling and restores ventricular function.

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    Liu, Xiaoli; Pachori, Alok S; Ward, Christopher A; Davis, J Paul; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Kong, Deling; Zhang, Lunan; Murduck, Jared; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Perrella, Mark A; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J; Melo, Luis G

    2006-02-01

    We reported previously that predelivery of the anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to the heart by adeno associated virus (AAV) markedly reduces injury after acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on postinfarction recovery has not been investigated. In the current study, we assessed the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on post-MI left ventricle (LV) remodeling and function using echocardiographic imaging and histomorphometric approaches. Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 4 x 10(11) particles of AAV-LacZ (control) or AAV-hHO-1 in the LV wall. Eight wk after gene transfer, the animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by ligation of left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by reperfusion. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained in a blinded fashion prior and at 1.5 and 3 months after I/R. Ejection fraction (EF) was reduced by 13% and 40% in the HO-1 and LacZ groups, respectively at 1.5 months after MI. Three months after MI, EF recovered fully in the HO-1, but only partially in the LacZ-treated animals. Post-MI LV dimensions were markedly increased and the anterior wall was markedly thinned in the LacZ-treated animals compared with the HO-1-treated animals. Significant myocardial scarring and fibrosis were observed in the LacZ-group in association with elevated levels of interstitial collagen I and III and MMP-2 activity. Post-MI myofibroblast accumulation was reduced in the HO-1-treated animals, and retroviral overexpression of HO-1 reduced proliferation of isolated cardiac fibroblasts. Our data indicate that rAAV-HO-1 gene transfer markedly reduces fibrosis and ventricular remodeling and restores LV function and chamber dimensions after myocardial infarction.

  17. Overexpression of Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Renal Interstitial Inflammation and Fibrosis Induced by Unilateral Ureter Obstruction.

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    Xiao Chen

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis plays an important role in the onset and progression of chronic kidney diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is involved in diverse biological processes as a cytoprotective molecule, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanisms of HO-1 prevention in renal interstitial fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, HO-1 transgenic (TG mice were employed to investigate the effect of HO-1 on renal fibrosis using a unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO model and to explore the potential mechanisms. We found that HO-1 was adaptively upregulated in kidneys of both TG and wild type (WT mice after UUO. The levels of HO-1 mRNA and protein were increased in TG mice compared with WT mice under normal conditions. HO-1 expression was further enhanced after UUO and remained high during the entire experimental process. Renal interstitial fibrosis in the TG group was significantly attenuated compared with that in the WT group after UUO. Moreover, overexpression of HO-1 inhibited the loss of peritubular capillaries. In addition, UUO-induced activation and proliferation of myofibroblasts were suppressed by HO-1 overexpression. Furthermore, HO-1 restrained tubulointerstitial infiltration of macrophages and regulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in UUO mice. We also found that high expression of HO-1 inhibited reactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which could play a crucial role in attenuating renal fibrosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that HO-1 prevents renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis possibly by regulating the inflammatory response and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This study provides evidence that augmentation of HO-1 levels may be a therapeutic strategy against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents smoke induced B-cell infiltrates: a role for regulatory T cells?

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    Luinge Marjan A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the most important cause for the development of COPD. Since not all smokers develop COPD, it is obvious that other factors must be involved in disease development. We hypothesize that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a protective enzyme against oxidative stress and inflammation, is insufficiently upregulated in COPD. The effects of HO-1 modulation on cigarette smoke induced inflammation and emphysema were tested in a smoking mouse model. Methods Mice were either exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke exposure for 20 weeks. Cobalt protoporphyrin or tin protoporphyrin was injected during this period to induce or inhibit HO-1 activity, respectively. Afterwards, emphysema development, levels of inflammatory cells and cytokines, and the presence of B-cell infiltrates in lung tissue were analyzed. Results Smoke exposure induced emphysema and increased the numbers of inflammatory cells and numbers of B-cell infiltrates, as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue. HO-1 modulation had no effects on smoke induced emphysema development, or the increases in neutrophils and macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, HO-1 induction prevented the development of smoke induced B-cell infiltrates and increased the levels of CD4+CD25+ T cells and Foxp3 positive cells in the lungs. Additionally, the CD4+CD25+ T cells correlated positively with the number of Foxp3 positive cells in lung tissue, indicating that these cells were regulatory T cells. Conclusion These results support the concept that HO-1 expression influences regulatory T cells and indicates that this mechanism is involved in the suppression of smoke induced B-cell infiltrates. The translation of this interaction to human COPD should now be pursued.

  19. Synergistic Effects of Cilostazol and Probucol on ER Stress-Induced Hepatic Steatosis via Heme Oxygenase-1-Dependent Activation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis

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    Yingqing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selective type-3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor cilostazol and the antihyperlipidemic agent probucol have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Moreover, cilostazol and probucol can regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the combinatorial effect of cilostazol and probucol on mitochondrial biogenesis remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a well-known causative factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which can impair mitochondrial function in hepatocytes. Here, we investigated the synergistic effects of cilostazol and probucol on mitochondrial biogenesis and ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis. A synergistic effect of cilostazol and probucol on HO-1 and mitochondrial biogenesis gene expression was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 and murine primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, in an animal model of ER stress involving tunicamycin, combinatorial treatment with cilostazol and probucol significantly increased the expression of HO-1 and mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes and proteins, whereas it downregulated serum ALT, eIF2 phosphorylation, and CHOP expression, as well as the lipogenesis-related genes SREBP-1c and FAS. Based on these results, we conclude that cilostazol and probucol exhibit a synergistic effect on the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis via upregulation of HO-1, which confers protection against ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis.

  20. Heme oxygenases from Arabidopsis thaliana reveal different mechanisms of carbon monoxide binding

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    Gisk, Björn; Molitor, Bastian; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole; Kötting, Carsten

    2012-03-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO) are widely distributed enzymes involved in the degradation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide and Fe2+. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana possesses three functional HOs (HY1, HO3 and HO4) which are thus far biochemically indistinguishable. Here, we investigate binding of the reaction product and putative inhibitor CO to these three HOs with various spectroscopic techniques: Nanosecond time-resolved absorption, millisecond time-resolved multi-wavelength absorption and Fourier-transform-infrared difference spectroscopy. Kinetics of CO rebinding were found to differ substantially among the HOs. At low CO concentrations a novel intermediate was identified for HO3 and HO4, substantially slowing down rebinding. All HOs show relatively slow geminate rebinding of CO indicating the existence of an additional transient binding niche for CO. The positions found for the IR absorptions of νCO and νFeC suggest a nonpolar distal binding site for all three HOs. The frequency of the νFeC vibration was calculated by a combination band on which we report here for the first time. Another band in the FTIR difference spectrum could be assigned to a histidine residue, probably the proximal ligand of the heme-iron. The observed different rebinding kinetics among the HOs could indicate adaptation of the HOs to different environments.

  1. Human heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer lowers blood pressure and promotes growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaawy, H E; Zhang, F; Nguyen, X; ElHosseiny, A; Nasjletti, A; Schwartzman, M; Dennery, P; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    2001-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the conversion of heme to biliverdin, with release of free iron and carbon monoxide. Both heme and carbon monoxide have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone. A retroviral vector containing human HO-1 cDNA (LSN-HHO-1) was constructed and subjected to purification and concentration of the viral particles to achieve 5x10(9) to 1x10(10) colony-forming units per milliliter. The ability of concentrated infectious viral particles to express human HO-1 (HHO-1) in vivo was tested. A single intracardiac injection of the concentrated infectious viral particles (expressing HHO-1) to 5-day-old spontaneously hypertensive rats resulted in functional expression of the HHO-1 gene and attenuation of the development of hypertension. Rats expressing HHO-1 showed a significant decrease in urinary excretion of a vasoconstrictor arachidonic acid metabolite and a reduction in myogenic responses to increased intraluminal pressure in isolated arterioles. Unexpectedly, HHO-1 chimeric rats showed a simultaneous significant proportionate increase in somatic growth. Thus, delivery of HHO-1 gene by retroviral vector attenuates the development of hypertension and promotes body growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  2. Identification of an Escherichia coli O 157:H7 Heme Oxygenase with Tandem Functional Repeats

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    Suits,M.; Pal, G.; Nakatsu, A.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.; Jia, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HOs) catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron. Iron acquisition is critical for invading microorganisms to enable survival and growth. Here we report the crystal structure of ChuS, which displays a previously uncharacterized fold and is unique compared with other characterized HOs. Despite only 19% sequence identity between the N- and C-terminal halves, these segments of ChuS represent a structural duplication, with a root-mean-square deviation of 2.1 {angstrom} between the two repeats. ChuS is capable of using ascorbic acid or cytochrome P450 reductase-NADPH as electron sources for heme oxygenation. CO detection confirmed that ChuS is a HO, and we have identified it in pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Based on sequence analysis, this HO is present in many bacteria, although not in the E. coli K-12 strain. The N- and C-terminal halves of ChuS are each a functional HO.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1, intermediates in verdoheme formation and the requirement for reduction equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Moënne-Loccoz, P; Loehr, T M; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1997-03-14

    Conversion of heme to verdoheme by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to involve alpha-meso-hydroxylation and elimination of the meso-carbon as CO, a reaction supported by both H2O2 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase/O2. Anaerobic reaction of the heme-HO-1 complex with 1 eq of H2O2 produces an enzyme-bound intermediate identified by spectroscopic methods as alpha-meso-hydroxyheme. This is the first direct evidence for HO-1-catalyzed formation of alpha-meso-hydroxyheme. alpha-meso-Hydroxyheme exists as a mixture of Fe(III) phenolate, Fe(III) keto anion, and Fe(II) keto pi neutral radical resonance structures. EPR shows that complexation with CO enhances the Fe(II) pi neutral radical component. Reaction of the alpha-meso-hydroxyheme-HO-1 complex with O2 generates Fe(III) verdoheme, which can be reduced in the presence of CO to the Fe(II) verdoheme-CO complex. Thus, conversion of alpha-meso-hydroxyheme to Fe(III) verdoheme, in contrast to a previous report (Matera, K. M., Takahashi, S., Fujii, H., Zhou, H., Ishikawa, K., Yoshimura, T., Rousseau, D. L., Yoshida, T., and Ikeda-Saito, M. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 6618-6624), does not require a reducing equivalent. An electron is only required to reduce ferric to ferrous verdoheme in the first step of its conversion to biliverdin.

  4. Models of the low-spin iron(III) hydroperoxide intermediate of heme oxygenase: magnetic resonance evidence for thermodynamic stabilization of the d(xy) electronic state at ambient temperatures.

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    Rivera, Mario; Caignan, Gregori A; Astashkin, Andrei V; Raitsimring, Arnold M; Shokhireva, Tatjana Kh; Walker, F Ann

    2002-05-29

    The (13)C pulsed ENDOR and NMR study of [meso-(13)C-TPPFe(OCH(3))(OO(t)Bu)](-) performed in this work shows that although the unpaired electron in low-spin ferrihemes containing a ROO(-) ligand resides in a d(pi) orbital at 8 K, the d(xy) electron configuration is favored at physiological temperatures. The variable temperature NMR spectra indicate a dynamic situation in which a heme with a d(pi) electron configuration and planar porphyrinate ring is in equilibrium with a d(xy) electron configuration that has a ruffled porphyrin ring. Because of the similarity in the EPR spectra of the hydroperoxide complexes of heme oxygenase, cytochrome P450, and the model heme complex reported herein, it is possible that these two electron configurations and ring conformations may also exist in equilibrium in the enzymatic systems. The ruffled porphyrinate ring would aid the attack of the terminal oxygen of the hydroperoxide intermediate of heme oxygenase (HO) on the meso-carbon, and the large spin density at the meso-carbons of a d(xy) electron configuration heme suggests the possibility of a radical mechanism for HO. The dynamic equilibrium between the ruffled (d(xy)) and planar (d(pi)) conformers observed in the model complexes also suggests that a flexible heme binding cavity may be an important structural motif for heme oxygenase activity.

  5. Structures of the substrate-free and product-bound forms of HmuO, a heme oxygenase from corynebacterium diphtheriae: x-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masaki; Ardèvol, Albert; Rovira, Carme; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    2013-11-29

    Heme oxygenase catalyzes the degradation of heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Here, we present crystal structures of the substrate-free, Fe(3+)-biliverdin-bound, and biliverdin-bound forms of HmuO, a heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, refined to 1.80, 1.90, and 1.85 Å resolution, respectively. In the substrate-free structure, the proximal and distal helices, which tightly bracket the substrate heme in the substrate-bound heme complex, move apart, and the proximal helix is partially unwound. These features are supported by the molecular dynamic simulations. The structure implies that the heme binding fixes the enzyme active site structure, including the water hydrogen bond network critical for heme degradation. The biliverdin groups assume the helical conformation and are located in the heme pocket in the crystal structures of the Fe(3+)-biliverdin-bound and the biliverdin-bound HmuO, prepared by in situ heme oxygenase reaction from the heme complex crystals. The proximal His serves as the Fe(3+)-biliverdin axial ligand in the former complex and forms a hydrogen bond through a bridging water molecule with the biliverdin pyrrole nitrogen atoms in the latter complex. In both structures, salt bridges between one of the biliverdin propionate groups and the Arg and Lys residues further stabilize biliverdin at the HmuO heme pocket. Additionally, the crystal structure of a mixture of two intermediates between the Fe(3+)-biliverdin and biliverdin complexes has been determined at 1.70 Å resolution, implying a possible route for iron exit.

  6. Characterization of heme oxygenase 1 (heat shock protein 32) induction by atrial natriuretic peptide in human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiemer, Alexandra K.; Bildner, Nicole; Weber, Nina C.; Vollmar, Angelika M.

    2003-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiovascular hormone possessing antiinflammatory and cytoprotective potential. The aim of this study was to characterize induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 by ANP in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were treated with ANP, 8-bromo-cyclic

  7. Arachidonic Acid Induces ARE/Nrf2-Dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Transcription in Rat Brain Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2017-05-11

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major product of phospholipid hydrolysis catalyzed by phospholipase A2 during neurodegenerative diseases. AA exerts as a second messenger to regulate various signaling components which may be involved in different pathophysiological processes. Astrocytes are the main types of CNS resident cells which maintain and support the physiological function of brain. AA has been shown to induce ROS generation through activation of NADPH oxidases (Noxs) which may play a key role in the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the mechanisms underlying AA-induced HO-1 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). We found that AA induced HO-1 protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity in RBA-1, which was mediated through the synthesis of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin D2-activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) receptors. This note was confirmed by transfection with PPARγ small interfering RNAs (siRNA) which attenuated the AA-mediated responses. AA-induced HO-1 expression was mediated through Nox/ROS generation, which was inhibited by Nox inhibitors (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin) and ROS scavengers (N-acetyl cysteine). Moreover, AA-induced HO-1 expression was mediated through phosphorylation of Src, Pyk2, platelet-derived growth factor, PI3K/Akt, and ERK1/2 which were inhibited by the pharmacological inhibitors including PP1, PF431396, AG1296, LY294002, and U0126 or by transfection with respective siRNAs. AA-enhanced Nrf2 expression and HO-1 promoter activity was inhibited by transfection with Nrf2 siRNA or by these pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that Nrf2 and PPARγ were associated with the proximal antioxidant response element (ARE)-binding site on HO-1 promoter, suggesting that Nrf2/PPARγ are key transcription factors modulating HO-1 expression. AA-induced ARE promoter activity was also reduced by these

  8. Coordinated expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 4 and heme oxygenase 2: evidence for a regulatory link between glycolysis and heme catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Ishikawa, Kazunobu; Yoshizawa, Miki; Sato, Michihiko; Shibahara, Shigeki; Furuyama, Kazumichi

    2012-09-01

    Heme is an essential requirement for cell survival. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism and consists of two isozymes, HO-1 and HO-2. To identify the protein that regulates the expression or function of HO-1 or HO-2, we searched for proteins that interact with both isozymes, using protein microarrays. We thus identified 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4) that synthesizes or degrades fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, a key activator of glycolysis, depending on cellular microenvironments. Importantly, HO-2 and PFKFB4 are predominantly expressed in haploid spermatids. Here, we show a drastic reduction in expression levels of PFKFB4 mRNA and protein and HO-2 mRNA in HepG2 human hepatoma cells in responses to glucose deprivation (≤ 2.5 mM), which occurred concurrently with remarkable induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein. Knockdown of HO-2 expression in HepG2 cells, using small interfering RNA, caused PFKFB4 mRNA levels to decrease with a concurrent increase in HO-1 expression. Thus, in HepG2 cells, HO-1 expression was increased, when expression levels of HO-2 and PFKFB4 mRNAs were decreased. Conversely, overexpression of HO-2 in HepG2 cells caused the level of co-expressed PFKFB4 protein to increase. These results suggest a potential regulatory role for HO-2 in ensuring PFKFB4 expression. Moreover, in D407 human retinal pigment epithelial cells, glucose deprivation decreased the expression levels of PFKFB4, HO-1, and HO-2 mRNAs. Thus, glucose deprivation consistently down-regulated the expression of PFKFB4 and HO-2 mRNAs in both HepG2 cells and RPE cells. We therefore postulate that PFKFB4 and HO-2 are expressed in a coordinated manner to maintain glucose homeostasis.

  9. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated inhibits oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hoon; Cho, Soon Ok; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Nanhee; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-03-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is caused by mutational inactivation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene, which is involved in DNA repair. Increased oxidative stress has been shown in human AT cells and neuronal tissues of Atm-deficient mice. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible antioxidant enzyme and protects cells against oxidative stress. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ATM induces antioxidant enzyme HO-1 and protects cells from oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis by driving the activation of PKC-δ and NF-κB, by increasing cell viability, and by downregulating DNA fragmentation and apoptotic indicators (apoptosis-inducing factor and cleaved caspase-3). AT fibroblasts stably transfected with human full-length ATM cDNA (YZ5 cells) or the empty vector (MOCK cells) were treated with H2O2 as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a result, transfection with ATM inhibited ROS-induced cell death and DNA fragmentation in MOCK cells. Transfection with ATM induced expression of HO-1 which was mediated by PKC-δ and NF-κB in H2O2-treated MOCK cells. ZnPP, an HO-1 inhibitor, and transfection with HO-1 siRNA increased ROS levels and apoptosis, whereas hemin, an HO-1 activator, reduced ROS levels and apoptosis in H2O2-treated YZ5 cells. Rottlerin, a PKC-δ inhibitor, inhibited NF-κB activation and HO-1 expression in H2O2-treated YZ5 cells. MOCK cells showed increased cell death, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic indicators compared to YZ5 cells exposed to H2O2. In addition, transfection with p65 siRNA increased ROS levels and DNA fragmentation, but decreased HO-1 protein levels in H2O2-treated YZ5 cells. In conclusion, ATM induces HO-1 expression via activation of PKC-δ and NF-κB and inhibits oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. A loss of HO-1 induction may explain why AT patients are vulnerable to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion attenuates oxidative stress in neurons exposed to extracellular hemin

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    Benvenisti-Zarom Luna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas and is a potent oxidant. Growing evidence suggests that it contributes to delayed injury to surrounding tissue, and that this process is affected by the heme oxygenase enzymes. In a prior study, heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion increased the vulnerability of cultured cortical astrocytes to hemin. The present study tested the effect of HO-2 gene deletion on protein oxidation, reactive oxygen species formation, and cell viability after mixed cortical neuron/astrocyte cultures were incubated with neurotoxic concentrations of hemin. Results Continuous exposure of wild-type cultures to 1–10 μM hemin for 14 h produced concentration-dependent neuronal death, as detected by both LDH release and fluorescence intensity after propidium iodide staining, with an EC50 of 1–2 μM; astrocytes were not injured by these low hemin concentrations. Cell death was consistently reduced by at least 60% in knockout cultures. Exposure to hemin for 4 hours, a time point that preceded cell lysis, increased protein oxidation in wild-type cultures, as detected by staining of immunoblots for protein carbonyl groups. At 10 μM hemin, carbonylation was increased 2.3-fold compared with control sister cultures subjected to medium exchanges only; this effect was reduced by about two-thirds in knockout cultures. Cellular reactive oxygen species, detected by fluorescence intensity after dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR staining, was markedly increased by hemin in wild-type cultures and was localized to neuronal cell bodies and processes. In contrast, DHR fluorescence intensity in knockout cultures did not differ from that of sham-washed controls. Neuronal death in wild-type cultures was almost completely prevented by the lipid-soluble iron chelator phenanthroline; deferoxamine had a weaker but significant effect. Conclusions These results suggest that HO-2 gene deletion protects neurons in mixed

  11. Chlorophyll deficiency in the maize elongated mesocotyl2 mutant is caused by a defective heme oxygenase and delaying grana stacking.

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    Dianyi Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Etiolated seedlings initiate grana stacking and chlorophyll biosynthesis in parallel with the first exposure to light, during which phytochromes play an important role. Functional phytochromes are biosynthesized separately for two components. One phytochrome is biosynthesized for apoprotein and the other is biosynthesized for the chromophore that includes heme oxygenase (HO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We isolated a ho1 homolog by map-based cloning of a maize elongated mesocotyl2 (elm2 mutant. cDNA sequencing of the ho1 homolog in elm2 revealed a 31 bp deletion. De-etiolation responses to red and far-red light were disrupted in elm2 seedlings, with a pronounced elongation of the mesocotyl. The endogenous HO activity in the elm2 mutant decreased remarkably. Transgenic complementation further confirmed the dysfunction in the maize ho1 gene. Moreover, non-appressed thylakoids were specifically stacked at the seedling stage in the elm2 mutant. CONCLUSION: The 31 bp deletion in the ho1 gene resulted in a decrease in endogenous HO activity and disrupted the de-etiolation responses to red and far-red light. The specific stacking of non-appressed thylakoids suggested that the chlorophyll biosynthesis regulated by HO1 is achieved by coordinating the heme level with the regulation of grana stacking.

  12. Implication for using heme methyl hyperfine shifts as indicators of heme seating as related to stereoselectivity in the catabolism of heme by heme oxygenase: in-plane heme versus axial his rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N

    2008-01-08

    The triple mutant of the solubilized, 265-residue construct of human heme oxygenase, K18E/E29K/R183E-hHO, has been shown to redirect the exclusive alpha-regioselectivity of wild-type hHO to primarily beta,delta-selectivity in the cleavage of heme (Wang, J., Evans, J. P., Ogura, H., La Mar, G. N., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 61-73). The 1H NMR hyperfine shift pattern for the substrate and axial His CbetaH's and the substrate-protein contacts of the cyanide-inhibited protohemin and 2,4-dimethyldeuterohemin complexes of the triple mutant have been analyzed in detail and compared to data for the WT complex. It is shown that protein contacts for the major solution isomers for both substrates in the mutant dictate approximately 90 degrees in-plane clockwise rotation relative to that in the WT. The conventional interpretation of the pattern of substrate methyl hyperfine shifts, however, indicates substrate rotations of only approximately 50 degrees . This paradox is resolved by demonstrating that the axial His25 imidazole ring also rotates counterclockwise with respect to the protein matrix in the mutant relative to that in the WT. The axial His25 CbetaH hyperfine shifts are shown to serve as independent probes of the imidazole plane orientation relative to the protein matrix. The analysis indicates that the pattern of heme methyl hyperfine shifts cannot be used alone to determine the in-plane orientation of the substrate as it relates to the stereospecificity of heme cleavage, without explicit consideration of the orientation of the axial His imidazole plane relative to the protein matrix.

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Granuloma Development and Protects Against Dissemination of Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Doron; Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Zolak, Jason; Montes-Worboys, Ana; Oliva, Ocatvio; Guroji, Purushotum; Saini, Vikram; Steyn, Adrie JC; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena. B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections occur in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts and are an increasingly recognized cause of morbidity and mortality. The hallmark of pulmonary mycobacterial infections is the formation of granuloma in the lung. Our study focuses on the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme, in the regulation of granuloma development and maturation following infection with Mycobacterium avium. We examined the role of HO-1 in regulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), two molecules involved in monocyte-macrophage cell trafficking after infection. We showed that RAW 264.7 mouse monocytes exposed to M. avium expressed HO-1 and MCP-1. Inhibition of heme oxygenase by zinc protoporphyrin-IX led to inhibition of MCP-1 and increased expression of CCR2, its cognate receptor. HO-1-/- mice did not develop organized granuloma in their lungs, had higher lung colony forming unit of M. avium when infected with intratracheal M. avium, and had loose collections of inflammatory cells in the lung parenchyma. Mycobacteria were found only inside defined granulomas but not outside granuloma in the lungs of HO-1+/+ mice. In HO-1-/- mice, mycobacteria were also found in the liver and spleen and showed increased mortality. Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from GFP+ mice and given intravenously to HO-1+/+ mice localized into tight granulomas, while in HO-1-/- mice they remained diffusely scattered in areas of parenchymal inflammation. Higher MCP-1 levels were found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of M. avium infected HO-1-/- mice and CCR2 expression was higher in HO-1-/- alveolar macrophages when compared to HO-1+/+ mice. CCR2 expression localized to granuloma in HO-1+/+ mice but not in the HO-1-/- mice. These findings strongly suggest that HO-1 plays a protective role in the control of M. avium infection. PMID:22964851

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lulla, Aaron [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Araujo, Jesus A., E-mail: JAraujo@mednet.ucla.edu [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  15. L-Ascorbate attenuates methamphetamine neurotoxicity through enhancing the induction of endogenous heme oxygenase-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ya-Ni [Department of Nursing, Hsin Sheng College of Medical Care and Management, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jiz-Yuh [Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Ching-Tien [Department of Nursing, Hsin Sheng College of Medical Care and Management, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chih-Hung [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chien-Cheng [Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jia-Yi, E-mail: jywang2010@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse which causes neurotoxicity and increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. We previously found that METH induces heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in neurons and glial cells, and this offers partial protection against METH toxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of L-ascorbate (vitamin C, Vit. C) on METH toxicity and HO-1 expression in neuronal/glial cocultures. Cell viability and damage were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthianol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, respectively. Neuronal and glial localization of HO-1 were identified by double immunofluorescence staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using the fluorochrome 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. HO-1 mRNA and protein expression were examined by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results show that Vit. C induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expressions in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) significantly blocked induction of HO-1 by Vit. C. HO-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly elevated by a combination of Vit. C and METH, compared to either Vit. C or METH alone. Pretreatment with Vit. C enhanced METH-induced HO-1 expression and attenuated METH-induced ROS production and neurotoxicity. Pharmacological inhibition of HO activity abolished suppressive effects of Vit. C on METH-induced ROS production and attenuated neurotoxicity. We conclude that induction of HO-1 expression contributes to the attenuation of METH-induced ROS production and neurotoxicity by Vit. C. We suggest that HO-1 induction by Vit. C may serve as a strategy to alleviate METH neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: ► Besides the anti-oxidant effect, Vit. C also induces HO-1 expression in brain cells. ► Vit. C reduces METH neurotoxicity and ROS production by

  16. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase-1 act independently in liver ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Gourab; Luong, Tu V; Fuller, Barry J; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects against liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The mechanism involves nitric oxide metabolism but the importance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has not been established. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects against liver IR but it is unclear if this depends on nitric oxide synthase. A mouse model of IPC with liver IR using wild-type (WT) and eNOS transgenic knockout (eNOS-/-) mice was developed to study the role of eNOS and its relationship to HO-1. Serum alanine aminotransferase level, liver histopathologic injury scores, and liver microcirculatory blood flow were measured. Western blots measured liver HO-1/2, eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (HO-1). A set of 24-h recovery experiments was undertaken on WT mice with measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase level, histologic injury score, and HO-1 by Western blot. In WT animals, IPC preceding IR resulted in a reduction in hepatocellular and histologic injury, and improvement in parenchymal perfusion. In contrast, IPC in the eNOS-/- model did not protect the animals from IR injury. There was no difference between the eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS expression in all the WT groups. HO-1 protein was not detected in the nonrecovery groups but HO-1 messenger RNA was detected in all groups. In WT recovery experiments, IPC was protective against IR injury. HO-1 protein was detected in the IPC + IR and IR only groups but not in the sham group. This study developed and used an eNOS-/- model to demonstrate that eNOS mediates protection against liver IR injury by IPC. The eNOS expression and activity and HO-1 expression are increased independently in liver IPC and IR, with HO-1 expression increased in the later stages of IPC and IR. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer into rabbit ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, N G; da Silva, J L; Lavrovsky, Y; Stoltz, R A; Kappas, A; Dunn, M W; Schwartzman, M L

    1995-10-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress protein induced up to 100-fold within a few hours after exposure to oxidative stress, and it has been shown to counteract oxidative injury induced by ultraviolet light or free radicals. The current study was undertaken to determine whether the HO-1 gene can be introduced into adult rabbit ocular tissues by microinjection of a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus human HO-1 cDNA (Adv-HHO). Human HO-1 gene was used for transfection studies to differentiate endogenous from transfected HO. The purified Adv-HHO construct (10(8) pfu/ml) was mixed with lipofectamine and microinjected into the anterior chamber, vitreous cavity, and subretinal space of New Zealand rabbit eyes. After 2 weeks, total RNA was extracted from different ocular tissues, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific human HO-1 primers, and amplification products were subjected to Southern hybridization. Transfection with the Adv-HHO construct into rabbit corneal epithelial cells in culture resulted in a functional expression of the human HO-1 gene; the human HO-1 mRNA was detected, and enzyme activity increased threefold. Human HO-1 mRNA was detected in the retina after microinjection of the Adv-HHO construct into the subretinal space. Microinjection into the vitreous resulted in HO-1 mRNA expression in the corneal endothelium, iris, lens, and retina; after intracameral injection of the Adv-HHO construct, human HO-1 mRNA was detected in corneal epithelium and endothelium, ciliary body, lens, and iris. Regardless of the injection site, transfected human HO-1 mRNA was undetectable in tissues outside the eye, that is, brain, liver, and kidney. These results demonstrated a tissue-selective functional transfer of the human HO-1 gene into rabbit ocular tissues in vivo. This technique may be a promising means for delivering HO-1 gene in vivo as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide in Lung Disease

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    Myrna Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO, a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO, iron, and biliverdin-IXα. Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when applied at low concentration, have been observed in many of these models. Recent studies have expanded this concept to include chemical CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Collectively, salutary effects of the HO-1/CO system have been demonstrated in lung inflammation/acute lung injury, lung and vascular transplantation, sepsis, and pulmonary hypertension models. The beneficial effects of HO-1/CO are conveyed in part through the inhibition or modulation of inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative processes. Recent advances, however, suggest that the regulation of autophagy and the preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis may serve as additional candidate mechanisms. Further preclinical and clinical trials are needed to ascertain the therapeutic potential of HO-1/CO in human clinical disease.

  19. Heme oxygenase 1 defects lead to reduced chlorophyll in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixia; Yang, Zonghui; Zeng, Xinhua; Gao, Jie; Liu, Jie; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We previously described a Brassica napus chlorophyll-deficient mutant (ygl) with yellow-green seedling leaves and mapped the related gene, BnaC.YGL, to a 0.35 cM region. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this chlorophyll defect are still unknown. In this study, the BnaC07.HO1 gene (equivalent to BnaC.YGL) was isolated by the candidate gene approach, and its function was confirmed by genetic complementation. Comparative sequencing analysis suggested that BnaC07.HO1 was lost in the mutant, while a long noncoding-RNA was inserted into the promoter of the homologous gene BnaA07.HO1. This insert was widely present in B. napus cultivars and down-regulated BnaA07.HO1 expression. BnaC07.HO1 was highly expressed in the seedling leaves and encoded heme oxygenase 1, which was localized in the chloroplast. Biochemical analysis showed that BnaC07.HO1 can catalyze heme conversion to form biliverdin IXα. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the loss of BnaC07.HO1 impaired tetrapyrrole metabolism, especially chlorophyll biosynthesis. According, the levels of chlorophyll intermediates were reduced in the ygl mutant. In addition, gene expression in multiple pathways was affected in ygl. These findings provide molecular evidences for the basis of the yellow-green leaf phenotype and further insights into the crucial role of HO1 in B. napus.

  20. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

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    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases.

  1. Hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle modulate Heme Oxygenase-1 expression in the uterus

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    Maria Laura Zenclussen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of the Heme Oxygenase-1 (Hmox1 locus in mice results in intrauterine lethality. The expression of the heme catabolyzing enzyme encoded by this gene, namely HO 1, is required to successfully support reproductive events. We have previously observed that HO-1 acts at several key events in reproduction ensuring pregnancy. HO-1 defines ovulation, positively influences implantation and placentation and ensures fetal growth and survival. Here, we embarked on a study aimed to determine whether hormonal changes during the estrous cycle in the mouse define HO-1 expression, thus influencing receptivity. We analyzed the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen by ELISA and HO-1 mRNA expression in uterus by real time RT-PCR at the metestrus, proestrus, estrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle. Further, we studied the HO-1 protein expression by Western Blot upon hormone addition to cultured uterine AN3 cells. We observed that HO-1 variations in uterine tissue correlated to changes in hormonal levels at different phases of the estrus cycle. In vitro, HO-1 protein levels in AN3 cells augmented after the addition of physiological concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, which confirmed our in vivo observations. Our data suggest an important role for hormones in HO-1 regulation in uterus that has a significant impact in receptivity and later on blastocyst implantation.

  2. Functional identification of HugZ, a heme oxygenase from Helicobacter pylori

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    Xiao Bin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is recognized as an important trace element, essential for most organisms including pathogenic bacteria. HugZ, a protein related to heme iron utilization, is involved in bacterial acquisition of iron from the host. We previously observed that a hugZ homologue is correlated with the adaptive colonization of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, a major gastro-enteric pathogen. However, its exact physiological role remains unclear. Results A gene homologous to hugZ, designated hp0318, identified in H. pylori ATCC 26695, exhibits 66% similarity to cj1613c of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Soluble 6 × His fused-HugZ protein was expressed in vitro. Hemin-agrose affinity analysis indicated that the recombinant HugZ protein can bind to hemin. Absorption spectroscopy at 411 nm further revealed a heme:HugZ binding ratio of 1:1. Enzymatic assays showed that purified recombinant HugZ protein can degrade hemin into biliverdin and carbon monoxide in the presence of either ascorbic acid or NADPH and cytochrome P450 reductase. The biochemical and enzymatic characteristics agreed closely with those of Campylobacter jejuni Cj1613c protein, implying that hp0318 is a functional member of the HugZ family. A hugZ deletion mutant was obtained by homologous recombination. This mutant strain showed poor growth when hemoglobin was provided as the source of iron, partly because of its failure to utilize hemoglobin efficiently. Real-time quantitative PCR also confirmed that the expression of hugZ was regulated by iron levels. Conclusion These findings provide biochemical and genetic evidence that hugZ (hp0318 encodes a heme oxygenase involved in iron release/uptake in H. pylori.

  3. Osmopriming-induced salt tolerance during seed germination of alfalfa most likely mediates through H2O2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase.

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    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    The present study showed that osmopriming or pretreatment with low H2O2 doses (2 mM) for 6 h alleviated salt-reduced seed germination. The NADPH oxidase activity was the main source, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity might be a secondary source of H2O2 generation during osmopriming or H2O2 pretreatment. Hematin pretreatment similar to osmopriming improved salt-reduced seed germination that was coincident with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that osmopriming or H2O2 pretreatment was able to upregulate heme oxygenase HO-1 transcription, while the application of N,N-dimethyl thiourea (DMTU as trap of endogenous H2O2) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI as inhibitor of NADPHox) not only blocked the upregulation of HO but also reversed the osmopriming-induced salt attenuation. The addition of CO-saturated aqueous rescued the inhibitory effect of DMTU and DPI on seed germination and α-amylase activity during osmopriming or H2O2 pretreatment, but H2O2 could not reverse the inhibitory effect of ZnPPIX (as HO inhibitor) or Hb (as CO scavenger) that indicates that the CO acts downstream of H2O2 in priming-driven salt acclimation. The antioxidant enzymes and proline synthesis were upregulated in roots of seedlings grown from primed seeds, and these responses were reversed by adding DMTU, ZnPPIX, and Hb during osmopriming. These findings for the first time suggest that H2O2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase play a crucial role in priming-driven salt tolerance.

  4. Curcumin-Induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Prevents H2O2-Induced Cell Death in Wild Type and Heme Oxygenase-2 Knockout Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Niels A. J. Cremers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs from wild type (WT and HO-2 knockout (KO mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2 significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy.

  5. Ischemic preconditioning attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat steatotic liver: role of heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Anding; Guo, Enshuang; Yang, Jiankun; Li, Renlong; Yang, Yan; Liu, Shenpei; Hu, Jifa; Jiang, Xiaojing; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta; Sun, Jian; Ouyang, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Steatotic livers are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is ameliorated by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Autophagy possesses protective action on liver I/R injury and declines in steatotic livers. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increased susceptibility of steatotic livers to I/R injury was associated with defective hepatic autophagy, which could be restored by IPC via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling. Obesity and hepatic steatosis was ind...

  6. The orbital ground state of the azide-substrate complex of human heme oxygenase is an indicator of distal H-bonding: Implications for the enzyme mechanism‡

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    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P.; Peng, Dungeng; Satterlee, James D.; de Montellano, Paul R. Ortiz; Mar, Gerd N. La

    2009-01-01

    The active site electronic structure of the azide complex of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase-1, (hHO) has been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy to shed light on the orbital/spin ground state as an indicator of the unique distal pocket environment of the enzyme. 2D 1H NMR assignments of the substrate and substrate-contact residue signals reveal a pattern of substrate methyl contact shifts, that places the lone iron π-spin in the dxz orbital, rather than the dyz orbital found in the cya...

  7. α-Tocopherol protects renal cells from nicotine- or oleic acid-provoked oxidative stress via inducing heme oxygenase-1.

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    Reed, Dustin K; Hall, Samuel; Arany, Istvan

    2015-03-01

    Smoking and obesity increases renal oxidative stress via nicotine (NIC) or free fatty acid such as oleic acid (OA) but decreases levels of the vitamin E-derivative α-tocopherol (TOC), which has shown to stimulate the antioxidant system such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Hence, we hypothesized that supplementation of TOC may protect renal proximal tubules from NIC- or OA-mediated oxidative stress by upregulating the HO-1 gene. NIC- or OA-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined in the presence or absence of various pharmacologic or genetic inhibitors that modulate HO-1 activation and enhancer elements in the HO-1 promoter such as the antioxidant response element (ARE) and the cAMP-response element (CRE) in renal proximal tubule cells (NRK52E). Activity of the HO-1 promoter, the ARE and the CRE was determined in luciferase assays. We found that pre- or posttreatment with TOC attenuated NIC- or OA-dependent ROS production that required HO-1 activation. TOC activated the HO-1 promoter via the CRE but not the ARE enhancer through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase A (PKA). Consequently, inhibitors of ERK, PKA, or CRE activation mitigated beneficial effects of TOC on NIC- or OA-mediated ROS production. Hence, vitamin E supplementation-via induction of the cytoprotective HO-1-may help to reduce renal oxidative stress imposed by smoking or obesity.

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice

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    Fu Na

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant properties. However, the role of HO-1 on hepatocyte apoptosis remains unclear. We aim to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on oxidative stress related hepatocellular apoptosis in nutritional steatohepatitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet for four weeks to induce hepatic steatohepatitis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin, HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1 were administered to mice, respectively. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, the mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis related genes were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Results Hepatocyte signs of oxidative related apoptotic injury were presented in mice fed with MCD diet for 4 weeks. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver histology, which was associated with decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation content, reduced number of apoptotic cells by TUNEL staining, down-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes including Fas/FasL, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9, reduced expression of cytochrome p4502E1 (CYP2E1, inhibited cytochrome c (Cyt-c release, and up-regulated expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2. Whereas, inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP-IX caused oxidative stress related hepatic injury, which concomitant with increased number of TUNEL positive cells and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes. Conclusions The present study provided evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in preventing nutritional steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice.

  9. Orthodontic forces induce the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in rats

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    Christiaan M. Suttorp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL, and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Ni-Ti 10 cN coil spring. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96 and 120 hrs rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of multinuclear osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in the mononuclear cell population within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after appliance placement HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 hours. Some osteoclasts were HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of cytoprotective enzymes as HO-1 in the PDL determines the level of hyalinization and, subsequently, fast and slow tooth movers during orthodontic treatment.

  10. Over-expression of heme oxygenase-1 promotes oxidative mitochondrial damage in rat astroglia.

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    Song, Wei; Su, Haixiang; Song, Sisi; Paudel, Hemant K; Schipper, Hyman M

    2006-03-01

    Glial heme oxygenase-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Up-regulation of HO-1 in rat astroglia has been shown to facilitate iron sequestration by the mitochondrial compartment. To determine whether HO-1 induction promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress, assays for 8-epiPGF(2alpha) (ELISA), protein carbonyls (ELISA) and 8-OHdG (HPLC-EC) were used to quantify oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, respectively, in mitochondrial fractions and whole-cell compartments derived from cultured rat astroglia engineered to over-express human (h) HO-1 by transient transfection. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and the MTT assay, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and total cell counts. In rat astrocytes, hHO-1 over-expression (x 3 days) resulted in significant oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, partial growth arrest, and increased cell death. These effects were attenuated by incubation with 1 microM tin mesoporphyrin, a competitive HO inhibitor, or the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Up-regulation of HO-1 engenders oxidative mitochondrial injury in cultured rat astroglia. Heme-derived ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO) may mediate the oxidative modification of mitochondrial lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in these cells. Glial HO-1 hyperactivity may contribute to cellular oxidative stress, pathological iron deposition, and bioenergetic failure characteristic of degenerating and inflamed neural tissues and may constitute a rational target for therapeutic intervention in these conditions. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

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    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rat Spleen Following Aniline Exposure

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    Wang, Jianling; Ma, Huaxian; Boor, Paul J.; Sadagopa Ramanujam, V. M.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2010-01-01

    Splenic toxicity of aniline is characterized by vascular congestion, hyperplasia, fibrosis and development of a variety of sarcomas in rats. However, underlying mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic response are not well understood. Previously we have shown that aniline exposure causes oxidative damage to the spleen. To further explore the oxidative mechanism of aniline toxicity, we evaluated the potential contribution of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes heme degradation and releases free iron. Male SD rats were given 1 mmol/kg/day aniline in water by gavage for 1, 4 or 7 days, while respective controls received water only. Aniline exposure led to significant increases in HO-1 mRNA expression in the spleen (2- and 2.4-fold at days 4 and 7, respectively) with corresponding increases in protein expression, as confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Furthermore, immunohistochemical assessment of spleen showed stronger immunostaining for HO-1 in the spleens of rats treated for 7 days, confined mainly to the red pulp areas. No changes were observed in mRNA and protein levels of HO-1 following 1 day exposure. The increase in HO-1 expression was associated with increases in total iron (2.4- and 2.7- fold), free iron (1.9- and 3.5-fold), and ferritin levels (1.9- and 2.1-fold) at 4 and 7 days of aniline exposure. Our data suggest that HO-1 up-regulation in aniline-induced splenic toxicity could be a contributing pro-oxidant mechanism, mediated through iron release, and leading to oxidative damage. PMID:19969074

  13. Adiponectin-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Protects Against Iron-Induced Liver Injury via a PPARα-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heng; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Jen, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chou, Ying; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Protective effects of adiponectin (APN; an adipocytokine) were shown against various oxidative challenges; however, its therapeutic implications and the mechanisms underlying hepatic iron overload remain unclear. Herein, we show that the deleterious effects of iron dextran on liver function and iron deposition were significantly reversed by adiponectin gene therapy, which was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. Furthermore, AMPK-mediated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) activation by APN was ascribable to HO-1 induction. Additionally, we revealed direct transcriptional regulation of HO-1 by the binding of PPARα to a PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) by various experimental assessments. Interestingly, overexpression of HO-1 in hepatocytes mimicked the protective effect of APN in attenuating iron-mediated injury, whereas it was abolished by SnPP and small interfering HO-1. Furthermore, bilirubin, the end-product of the HO-1 reaction, but not CO, protected hepatocytes from iron dextran-mediated caspase activation. Herein, we demonstrate a novel functional PPRE in the promoter regions of HO-1, and APN-mediated HO-1 induction elicited an antiapoptotic effect and a decrease in iron deposition in hepatocytes subjected to iron challenge. PMID:20709802

  14. Hepcidin suppression and defective iron recycling account for dysregulation of iron homeostasis in heme oxygenase-1 deficiency.

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    Kartikasari, Apriliana E R; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Yachie, Akihiro; Wiegerinck, Erwin T G; Kemna, Erwin H J M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Winkels, Dorine W

    2009-09-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) contribution to iron homeostasis has been postulated, because it facilitates iron recycling by liberating iron mostly from heme catabolism. This enzyme also appears to be responsible for the resolution of inflammatory conditions. In a patient with HO-1 deficiency, inflammation and dysregulation of body iron homeostasis, including anemia and liver and kidney hemosiderosis, are evidenced. Here we postulated that HO-1 is critical in the regulation of ferroportin, the major cellular iron exporter, and hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis central in the pathogenesis of anemia of inflammation. Our current experiments in human THP-1 monocytic cells indicate a HO-1-induced iron-mediated surface-ferroportin expression, consistent with the role of HO-1 in iron recycling. Surprisingly, we observed low hepcidin levels in the HO-1-deficient patient, despite the presence of inflammation and hemosiderosis, both inducers of hepcidin. Instead, we observed highly increased soluble transferrin receptor levels. This suggests that the decreased hepcidin levels in HO-1 deficiency reflect the increased need for iron in the bone marrow due to the anaemia. Using human hepatoma cells, we demonstrate that HO-activity did not have a direct modulating effect on expression of HAMP, the gene that encodes for hepcidin. Therefore, we argue that the decreased iron recycling may, in part, have contributed to the low hepcidin levels. These findings indicate that dysregulation of iron homeostasis in HO-1 deficiency is the result of both defective iron recycling and erythroid activity-associated inhibition of hepcidin expression. This study therefore shows a crucial role for HO-1 in maintaining body iron balance.

  15. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to the amelioration of aluminum-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa.

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    Cui, Weiti; Zhang, Jing; Xuan, Wei; Xie, Yanjie

    2013-10-15

    In this report, pharmacological, histochemical and molecular approaches were used to investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation on the alleviation of aluminum (Al)-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa. Exposure of alfalfa to AlCl3 (0-100 μM) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of root elongation as well as the enhancement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content. 1 and 10 μM (in particular) Al(3+) increased alfalfa HO-1 transcript or its protein level, and HO activity in comparison with the decreased changes in 100 μM Al-treated samples. After recuperation, however, TBARS levels in 1 and 10 μM Al-treated alfalfa roots returned to control values, which were accompanied with the higher levels of HO activity. Subsequently, exogenous CO, a byproduct of HO-1, could substitute for the cytoprotective effects of the up-regulation of HO-1 in alfalfa plants upon Al stress, which was confirmed by the alleviation of TBARS and Al accumulation, as well as the histochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and loss of plasma membrane integrity. Theses results indicated that endogenous CO generated via heme degradation by HO-1 could contribute in a critical manner to its protective effects. Additionally, the pretreatments of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and hemin, an inducer of HO-1, exhibited the similar cytoprotective roles in the alleviation of oxidative stress, both of which were impaired by the potent inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). However, the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was not influenced by CO, BHT and hemin, respectively. Together, the present results showed up-regulation of HO-1 expression could act as a mechanism of cell protection against oxidative stress induced by Al treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Response to Wild Thyme Treatment Protects against Hypertension and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena; Miloradović, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Bugarski, Branko; Jovović, Đurđica; Karanović, Danijela; Vajić, Una-Jovana; Komes, Draženka; Grujić-Milanović, Jelica

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is the most powerful contributor to the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and inverse correlation between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods or beverages and incidence of cardiovascular diseases gains more importance. Reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the development of hypertension. We found that wild thyme (a spice plant, rich in polyphenolic compounds) induced a significant decrease of blood pressure and vascular resistance in hypertensive rats. The inverse correlation between vascular resistance and plasma heme oxygenase-1 suggests that endogenous vasodilator carbon monoxide generated by heme oxidation could account for this normalization of blood pressure. Next product of heme oxidation, bilirubin (a chain-breaking antioxidant that acts as a lipid peroxyl radical scavenger), becomes significantly increased after wild thyme treatment and induces the reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation in hypertensive, but not in normotensive rats. The obtained results promote wild thyme as useful supplement for cardiovascular interventions.

  17. Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Response to Wild Thyme Treatment Protects against Hypertension and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Mihailovic-Stanojevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure is the most powerful contributor to the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and inverse correlation between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods or beverages and incidence of cardiovascular diseases gains more importance. Reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the development of hypertension. We found that wild thyme (a spice plant, rich in polyphenolic compounds induced a significant decrease of blood pressure and vascular resistance in hypertensive rats. The inverse correlation between vascular resistance and plasma heme oxygenase-1 suggests that endogenous vasodilator carbon monoxide generated by heme oxidation could account for this normalization of blood pressure. Next product of heme oxidation, bilirubin (a chain-breaking antioxidant that acts as a lipid peroxyl radical scavenger, becomes significantly increased after wild thyme treatment and induces the reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation in hypertensive, but not in normotensive rats. The obtained results promote wild thyme as useful supplement for cardiovascular interventions.

  18. Isoporphyrin intermediate in heme oxygenase catalysis. Oxidation of alpha-meso-phenylheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-07-11

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the alpha-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin pi-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of alpha-meso-phenylheme-IX, alpha-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and alpha-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593-42604), only the alpha-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced alpha-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation.

  19. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 protects genetically fat Zucker rat livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Amersi, Farin; Buelow, Roland; Kato, Hirohisa; Ke, Bibo; Coito, Ana J.; Shen, Xiu-Da; Zhao, Delai; Zaky, Joseph; Melinek, Judy; Lassman, Charles R.; Kolls, Jay K.; Alam, J.; Ritter, Thomas; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Farmer, Douglas G.; Ghobrial, Rafik M.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in steatotic rat liver models of ex vivo cold ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the model of ischemia/isolated perfusion, treatment of genetically obese Zucker rats with the HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or with adenoviral HO-1 (Ad-HO-1) significantly improved portal venous blood flow, increased bile production, and decreased hepatocyte injury. Unlike in untreated rats or those pretreated with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), upregulation of HO-1 by Western blots correlated with amelioration of histologic features of I/R injury. Adjunctive infusion of ZnPP abrogated the beneficial effects of Ad-HO-1 gene transfer, documenting the direct involvement of HO-1 in protection against I/R injury. Following cold ischemia/isotransplantation, HO-1 overexpression extended animal survival from 40% in untreated controls to about 80% after CoPP or Ad-HO-1 therapy. This effect correlated with preserved hepatic architecture, improved liver function, and depressed infiltration by T cells and macrophages. Hence, CoPP- or gene therapy–induced HO-1 prevented I/R injury in steatotic rat livers. These findings provide the rationale for refined new treatments that should increase the supply of usable donor livers and ultimately improve the overall success of liver transplantation. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1631–1639 (1999). PMID:10587527

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 gene induction as an intrinsic regulation against delayed cerebral vasospasm in rats

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    Suzuki, Hidenori; Kanamaru, Kenji; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Inada, Hiroyasu; Kuroki, Minoru; Sun, Hong; Waga, Shiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes cerebral ischemia and infarction. To date, the pathogenesis and gene expression associated with vasospasm remain poorly understood. The present study used fluorescent differential display to identify differentially expressed genes in a rat model of SAH. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA was prominently induced in the basilar artery and modestly in brain tissue in a rat vasospasm model. A significant correlation was observed between the degree of vasospasm and HO-1 mRNA levels in the basilar arteries exhibiting vasospasm. Intracisternal injection of antisense HO-1 oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) significantly delayed the clearance of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin from the subarachnoid space and aggravated angiographic vasospasm. Antisense HO-1 ODN inhibited HO-1 induction in the basilar arteries but not in the whole brain tissue. This phenomenon was not observed in the nontreated, sense HO-1 ODN–treated, or scrambled ODN–treated arteries. We report the protective effects of HO-1 gene induction in cerebral vasospasm after SAH, a finding that should provide a novel therapeutic approach for cerebral vasospasm. PMID:10393699

  1. Vasculitis, Atherosclerosis, and Altered HDL Composition in Heme-Oxygenase-1-Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu; Navab, Mohamad; Lusis, Aldons J

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cardiovascular system, we have analyzed one-year-old HO-1-knockout mice. Homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had severe aortitis and coronary arteritis with mononuclear cellular infiltration and fatty streak formation even on a standard chow diet. Levels of plasma total cholesterol and HDL were similar among the three genotypes. However, homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had lower body weight and plasma triglyceride. HO-1-deficiency resulted in alteration of the composition of HDL. The ratio of apolipoprotein AI to AII in HO-1-knockout mice was reduced about 10-fold as compared to wild-type mice. In addition, paraoxonase, an enzyme against oxidative stress, was reduced less than 50% in HO-1-knockout mice. The knockout mice also exhibited significant elevation of plasma lipid hydroperoxides. This study using aged HO-1-knockout mice strengthened the idea that HO-1 functions to suppress systemic inflammation in artery wall and prevents plasma lipid peroxidation.

  2. Vasculitis, Atherosclerosis, and Altered HDL Composition in Heme-Oxygenase-1-Knockout Mice

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    Kazunobu Ishikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in cardiovascular system, we have analyzed one-year-old HO-1-knockout mice. Homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had severe aortitis and coronary arteritis with mononuclear cellular infiltration and fatty streak formation even on a standard chow diet. Levels of plasma total cholesterol and HDL were similar among the three genotypes. However, homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had lower body weight and plasma triglyceride. HO-1-deficiency resulted in alteration of the composition of HDL. The ratio of apolipoprotein AI to AII in HO-1-knockout mice was reduced about 10-fold as compared to wild-type mice. In addition, paraoxonase, an enzyme against oxidative stress, was reduced less than 50% in HO-1-knockout mice. The knockout mice also exhibited significant elevation of plasma lipid hydroperoxides. This study using aged HO-1-knockout mice strengthened the idea that HO-1 functions to suppress systemic inflammation in artery wall and prevents plasma lipid peroxidation.

  3. Divergent cardiopulmonary actions of heme oxygenase enzymatic products in chronic hypoxia.

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    Sally H Vitali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and pressure-overload induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. HO-1(-/- mice exposed to chronic hypoxia develop pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH with exaggerated right ventricular (RV injury consisting of dilation, fibrosis, and mural thrombi. Our objective was to identify the HO-1 product(s mediating RV protection from hypoxic injury in HO-1(-/- mice.HO-1(-/- mice were exposed to seven weeks of hypoxia and treated with inhaled CO or biliverdin injections. CO reduced right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP and prevented hypoxic pulmonary arteriolar remodeling in both HO-1(-/- and control mice. Biliverdin had no significant effect on arteriolar remodeling or RVSP in either genotype. Despite this, biliverdin prevented RV failure in the hypoxic HO-1(-/- mice (0/14 manifested RV wall fibrosis or thrombus, while CO-treated HO-1(-/- mice developed RV insults similar to untreated controls. In vitro, CO inhibited hypoxic VSMC proliferation and migration but did not prevent cardiomyocyte death from anoxia-reoxygenation (A-R. In contrast, bilirubin limited A-R-induced cardiomyocyte death but did not inhibit VSMC proliferation and migration.CO and bilirubin have distinct protective actions in the heart and pulmonary vasculature during chronic hypoxia. Moreover, reducing pulmonary vascular resistance may not prevent RV injury in hypoxia-induced PAH; supporting RV adaptation to hypoxia and preventing RV failure must be a therapeutic goal.

  4. Overexpressed human heme Oxygenase-1 decreases adipogenesis in pigs and porcine adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Park, Eun Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-11-27

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) are multipotent, which means they are able to differentiate into several lineages in vivo and in vitro under proper conditions. This indicates it is possible to determine the direction of differentiation of ADSC by controlling the microenvironment. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a type of antioxidant enzyme, attenuates adipogenicity and obesity. We produced transgenic pigs overexpressing human HO-1 (hHO-1-Tg), and found that these animals have little fatty tissue when autopsied. To determine whether overexpressed human HO-1 suppresses adipogenesis in pigs, we analyzed body weight increases of hHO-1-Tg pigs and wild type (WT) pigs of the same strain, and induced adipogenic differentiation of ADSC derived from WT and hHO-1-Tg pigs. The hHO-1-Tg pigs had lower body weights than WT pigs from 16 weeks of age until they died. In addition, hHO-1-Tg ADSC showed reduced adipogenic differentiation and expression of adipogenic molecular markers such as PPARγ and C/EBPα compared to WT ADSC. These results suggest that HO-1 overexpression reduces adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, which could support identification of therapeutic targets of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of combined mesenchymal stem cells and heme oxygenase-1 therapy on cardiac performance.

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    Zeng, Bin; Chen, Honglei; Zhu, Chengang; Ren, Xiaofeng; Lin, Guosheng; Cao, Feng

    2008-10-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to repair the infarcted myocardium and improve cardiac function. However, this approach is limited by its poor viability after transplantation, and controversy still exists over the mechanism by which MSCs contribute to the tissue repair. The human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) was transfected into cultured MSCs using an adenoviral vector. 1 x 10(6) Ad-hHO-1-transfected MSCs (HO-1-MSCs) or Ad-Null-transfected MSCs (Null-MSCs) or PBS only (PBS group) were injected intramyocardially into rat hearts 1h after myocardial infarction. HO-1-MSCs survived in the infarcted myocardium, and expressed hHO-1 mRNA. The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was significantly enhanced in HO-1-MSCs-treated hearts. At the same time, there were significant reduction of TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta and IL-6 mRNA, and marked increase of IL-10 mRNA in HO-1-MSCs-treated hearts. Moreover, a further downregulation of proapoptotic protein, Bax, and a marked increase in microvessel density were observed in HO-1-MSCs-treated hearts. The infarct size and cardiac performance were also significantly improved in HO-1-MSCs-treated hearts. The combined approach improves MSCs survival and is superior to MSCs injection alone.

  6. Brain death induces renal expression of heme oxygenase-1 and heat shock protein 70

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    van Dullemen Leon FA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidneys derived from brain dead donors have lower graft survival and higher graft-function loss compared to their living donor counterpart. Heat Shock Proteins (HSP are a large family of stress proteins involved in maintaining cell homeostasis. We studied the role of stress-inducible genes Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1, HSP27, HSP40, and HSP70 in the kidney following a 4 hour period of brain death. Methods Brain death was induced in rats (n=6 by inflating a balloon catheter in the epidural space. Kidneys were analysed for HSPs using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Results RT-PCR data showed a significant increase in gene expression for HO-1 and HSP70 in kidneys of brain dead rats. Western blotting revealed a massive increase in HO-1 protein in brain dead rat kidneys. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings, showing extensive HO-1 protein expression in the renal cortical tubules of brain dead rats. HSP70 protein was predominantly increased in renal distal tubules of brain dead rats treated for hypotension. Conclusion Renal stress caused by brain death induces expression of the cytoprotective genes HO-1 and HSP70, but not of HSP27 and HSP40. The upregulation of these cytoprotective genes indicate that renal damage occurs during brain death, and could be part of a protective or recuperative mechanism induced by brain death-associated stress.

  7. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 by chamomile protects murine macrophages against oxidative stress.

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    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Kanwal, Rajnee; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2012-06-27

    Protection of cells from oxidative insult may be possible through direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species, or through stimulation of intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms by induction of antioxidant gene expression. In this study we investigated the cytoprotective effect of chamomile and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. The cytoprotective effect of chamomile was examined on H(2)O(2)-induced cellular stress in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages treated with chamomile were protected from cell death caused by H(2)O(2). Treatment with 50μM H(2)O(2) for 6h caused significant increase in cellular stress accompanied by cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pretreatment with chamomile at 10-20μg/mL for 16h followed by H(2)O(2) treatment protected the macrophages against cell death. Chamomile exposure significantly increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes viz. heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1), and thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) in a dose-dependent manner, compared with their respective controls. Chamomile increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 with increased phosphorylated Nrf2 levels, and binding to the antioxidant response element in the nucleus. These molecular findings for the first time provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the induction of phase 2 enzymes through the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway by chamomile, and provide evidence that chamomile possesses antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Angelica gigas via Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Expression

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    Cho, Joon Hyeong; Kwon, Jung Eun; Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on controlling inflammation, which is caused by excessive nitric oxide (NO) production. Heme oxygenases (HOs), particularly HO-1, play a role in regulating the production of NO. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AG by measuring HO-1 expression. Treatments with CH2Cl2 layer and Angelica gigas extract (AGE) showed the highest NO inhibition effects. Decursin, decursinol angelate, and nodakenin were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of AGE. Decursin also demonstrated the highest anti-oxidative effect among the coumarins. Although decursin had the best NO inhibition and anti-oxidative effects, the effects of AGE treatment far surpassed that of decursin. This is owing to the combination effect of the coumarins present within AGE, which is a solvent extract of AG. The expression of HO-1 is an effective indicator of the anti-inflammatory effects of AG. Based on the results of the coumarin compounds, HO-1 expression was found to be dose dependent and specific to decursin. PMID:26083119

  9. Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 with Hemin Reduces Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation via Adipose Macrophage Phenotype Switching

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    Thai Hien Tu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose macrophages with the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype protect against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, which elicits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, modulates macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the HO-1 inducer, hemin, protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation by inducing macrophages to switch to the M2 phenotype. HO-1 induction by hemin reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 from cocultured adipocytes and macrophages by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory signaling molecules (JNK and NF-κB in both cell types. Hemin enhanced transcript levels of M2 macrophage marker genes (IL-4, Mrc1, and Clec10a in the cocultures, while reducing transcripts of M1 macrophage markers (CD274 and TNF-α. The protective effects of hemin on adipose inflammation and macrophage phenotype switching were confirmed in mice fed a high-fat diet, and these were associated with PPARγ upregulation and STAT6 activation. These findings suggest that induction of HO-1 with hemin protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation through M2 macrophage phenotype switching, which is induced by the PPARγ and STAT6 pathway. HO-1 inducers such as hemin may be useful for preventing obesity-induced adipose inflammation.

  10. Distinct reaction pathways followed upon reduction of oxy-heme oxygenase and oxy-myoglobin as characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Davydov, Roman M; Matsui, Toshitaka; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; Hoffman, Brian M; Huynh, Boi Hanh

    2007-02-07

    Activation of O(2) by heme-containing monooxygenases generally commences with the common initial steps of reduction to the ferrous heme and binding of O(2) followed by a one-electron reduction of the O(2)-bound heme. Subsequent steps that generate reactive oxygen intermediates diverge and reflect the effects of protein control on the reaction pathway. In this study, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopies were used to characterize the electronic states and reaction pathways of reactive oxygen intermediates generated by 77 K radiolytic cryoreduction and subsequent annealing of oxy-heme oxygenase (HO) and oxy-myoglobin (Mb). The results confirm that one-electron reduction of (Fe(II)-O(2))HO is accompanied by protonation of the bound O(2) to generate a low-spin (Fe(III)-O(2)H(-))HO that undergoes self-hydroxylation to form the alpha-meso-hydroxyhemin-HO product. In contrast, one-electron reduction of (Fe(II)-O(2))Mb yields a low-spin (Fe(III)-O(2)(2-))Mb. Protonation of this intermediate generates (Fe(III)-O(2)H(-))Mb, which then decays to a ferryl complex, (Fe(IV)=O(2-))Mb, that exhibits magnetic properties characteristic of the compound II species generated in the reactions of peroxide with heme peroxidases and with Mb. Generation of reactive high-valent states with ferryl species via hydroperoxo intermediates is believed to be the key oxygen-activation steps involved in the catalytic cycles of P450-type monooxygenases. The Mössbauer data presented here provide direct spectroscopic evidence supporting the idea that ferric-hydroperoxo hemes are indeed the precursors of the reactive ferryl intermediates. The fact that a ferryl intermediate does not accumulate in HO underscores the determining role played by protein structure in controlling the reactivity of reaction intermediates.

  11. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to survival of Mycobacterium abscessus in human macrophages-like THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Maher Y; Ahmad, Iman M; Switzer, Barbara; Britigan, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abs) is a rapidly growing mycobacterial species that infects macrophages, and is an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied the early stages of M.abs infection of macrophages, with emphasis on the role of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in this infection. THP-1 cells were activated using TPA into macrophage-like cells and infected with M.abs for different time points. M.abs infection robustly induced HO-1 expression in the THP-1 cells. Production of HO-1 was p38 MAPK-dependent, as p38 inhibitors suppressed HO-1 induction. Pretreatment with HO-1 inhibitors tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP) significantly inhibited M.abs growth inside macrophages. Furthermore, inhibiting HO-1 using HO-1 siRNA or the HO-1 upstream signaling molecule; Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA resulted in similar inhibition of M.abs. In contrast, inducing HO-1 did not increase M.abs intracellular growth above control. Products of HO-1 metabolism of heme are bilirubin, biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron. The addition of either bilirubin or biliverdin, but not CO, completely restored the SnPP inhibitory effect and partially that with HO-1 siRNA. To understand the mechanisms, we used Syto-62 labeled M.abs to infect macrophages. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibition promoted M.abs-containing phagosome fusion with lysosomes, which should enhance M.abs killing. M.abs infection enhanced THP-1 ROS production as demonstrated by increased DHE, DCF fluorescence, and EPR signal. HO-1 inhibition further increased ROS production in infected macrophages. Our results indicate that HO-1 induction is important for M.abs growth during the early stages of infection, and that the HO-1 products bilirubin and biliverdin, perhaps through modulation of intracellular ROS levels, may be involved. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to survival of Mycobacterium abscessus in human macrophages-like THP-1 cells

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    Maher Y. Abdalla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abs is a rapidly growing mycobacterial species that infects macrophages, and is an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied the early stages of M.abs infection of macrophages, with emphasis on the role of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in this infection. THP-1 cells were activated using TPA into macrophage-like cells and infected with M.abs for different time points. M.abs infection robustly induced HO-1 expression in the THP-1 cells. Production of HO-1 was p38 MAPK-dependent, as p38 inhibitors suppressed HO-1 induction. Pretreatment with HO-1 inhibitors tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP significantly inhibited M.abs growth inside macrophages. Furthermore, inhibiting HO-1 using HO-1 siRNA or the HO-1 upstream signaling molecule; Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA resulted in similar inhibition of M.abs. In contrast, inducing HO-1 did not increase M.abs intracellular growth above control. Products of HO-1 metabolism of heme are bilirubin, biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO and iron. The addition of either bilirubin or biliverdin, but not CO, completely restored the SnPP inhibitory effect and partially that with HO-1 siRNA. To understand the mechanisms, we used Syto-62 labeled M.abs to infect macrophages. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibition promoted M.abs-containing phagosome fusion with lysosomes, which should enhance M.abs killing. M.abs infection enhanced THP-1 ROS production as demonstrated by increased DHE, DCF fluorescence, and EPR signal. HO-1 inhibition further increased ROS production in infected macrophages. Our results indicate that HO-1 induction is important for M.abs growth during the early stages of infection, and that the HO-1 products bilirubin and biliverdin, perhaps through modulation of intracellular ROS levels, may be involved.

  13. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to survival of Mycobacterium abscessus in human macrophages-like THP-1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Maher Y.; Ahmad, Iman M.; Switzer, Barbara; Britigan, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abs) is a rapidly growing mycobacterial species that infects macrophages, and is an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied the early stages of M.abs infection of macrophages, with emphasis on the role of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in this infection. THP-1 cells were activated using TPA into macrophage-like cells and infected with M.abs for different time points. M.abs infection robustly induced HO-1 expression in the THP-1 cells. Production of HO-1 was p38 MAPK-dependent, as p38 inhibitors suppressed HO-1 induction. Pretreatment with HO-1 inhibitors tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP) significantly inhibited M.abs growth inside macrophages. Furthermore, inhibiting HO-1 using HO-1 siRNA or the HO-1 upstream signaling molecule; Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA resulted in similar inhibition of M.abs. In contrast, inducing HO-1 did not increase M.abs intracellular growth above control. Products of HO-1 metabolism of heme are bilirubin, biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron. The addition of either bilirubin or biliverdin, but not CO, completely restored the SnPP inhibitory effect and partially that with HO-1 siRNA. To understand the mechanisms, we used Syto-62 labeled M.abs to infect macrophages. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibition promoted M.abs-containing phagosome fusion with lysosomes, which should enhance M.abs killing. M.abs infection enhanced THP-1 ROS production as demonstrated by increased DHE, DCF fluorescence, and EPR signal. HO-1 inhibition further increased ROS production in infected macrophages. Our results indicate that HO-1 induction is important for M.abs growth during the early stages of infection, and that the HO-1 products bilirubin and biliverdin, perhaps through modulation of intracellular ROS levels, may be involved. PMID:25638774

  14. Ozonation of Human Blood Induces a Remarkable Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 and Heat Stress Protein-70

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    Velio Bocci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-I (HO-1 has emerged as one of the most protective enzymes and its pleiotropic activities have been demonstrated in a variety of human pathologies. Unpublished observations have shown that HO-1 is induced after the infusion of ozonated blood into the respective donors, and many other experimental observations have demonstrated the efficacy of oxidizing agents. It appeared worthwhile to evaluate whether we could better define the activity of potential inducers such as hydrogen peroxide and ozonated human plasma. Human vascular endothelial cells at confluence were challenged with different concentrations of these inducers and the simultaneous production of nitric oxide (NO; and HO-1 was measured by either measuring nitrite, or bilirubin formation, or/and the immune reactivity of the protein by Western blot using a rabbit antihuman HO-1 and Hsp-70. The results show that production of both NO and HO-1 is fairly dose dependent but is particularly elevated using human plasma after transient exposure to a medium ozone concentration. At this concentration, there is also induction of Hsp-70. The results clarify another positive effect achievable by the use of ozone therapy.

  15. Hemoglobin-glutamer 200 reduces reperfusion injury of the cold preserved rat liver by induction of heme oxygenase-1.

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    Topp, Stefan A; Krieg, Andreas; Koch, Alexander; Tidden, Carina M; Ramp, Uwe; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Macher, Arne; Schulte am Esch, Jan; Eisenberger, Claus F; Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Knoefel, Wolfram T

    2008-12-01

    Microcirculatory failure after cold liver preservation and reperfusion impairs tissue oxygenation and causes additional organ damage. Hemoglobin-glutamer (HbG) 200 is a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrying solution capable to improve organ oxygenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate its potential to decrease reperfusion injury after cold liver preservation. Therefore, Wistar rat livers were stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h and reperfused in the isolated perfused rat liver model with a sanguineous perfusate for 180 min. The perfusate consisted of rat blood and Krebs-Henseleit solution (Group A), supplemented by either HES 6% (Group B), or HbG (Groups C and D). In Group D heme oxygenase (HO) activity was blocked by intraperitoneal tin protoporphyrin-IX application before organ harvest. HbG supplementation increased the perfusate hemoglobin by 3,3 g/dL. After 180 min reperfusion perfusate alanine aminotransferase levels (72 +/- 27 micro/L) were significantly reduced in Group C, compared with Groups A and B (140 +/- 28 micro/L and 203 +/- 62 micro/L, respectively). These results correlated with a significant increase of HO-1 expression and activity during reperfusion. These effects could be abolished by tin protoporphyrin-IX application. HbG has been proven to be effective to reduce cold liver preservation-reperfusion injury. The positive effect on reperfusion injury depends on the induction of HO-1, which increases the bilirubin production, an important antioxidant acting as intracellular radical scavenger.

  16. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity: the role of heme oxygenase-1

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    Iclal Karatop-Cesur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy on acetaminophen (APAP induced renal and liver injudr and the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 activation. Wistar-Albino rats were randomly assigned into four groups. Control group received no treatment. APAP (3gr/kg was administered by gastric lavage in APAP group. Animals in the APAP+HBO and APAP+zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP+HBO groups received HBO therapy (90 min at 2.5 atm, starting 1 hour after APAP administration, for 2 consecutive days.HO-1 activity was inhibited by ZnPP. APAP+ZnPP+HBO group received intraperitoneal 50 µmol\\kg ZnPP injection 30 minutes after APAP treatment and HBO therapy for 2 days. Serum and tissue samples were taken at 48 hours after APAP treatment. Renal and liver functions were evaluated by serum levels of urea, creatinine and transaminases. Lipid peroxidation and tissue levels of antioxidant enzymes were measure by ELISA. Tissue injury was evaluated by light microscopy.HO-1 level was determined by immunohistochemistry. HO-1 mRNA level was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Serum transaminase levels significantly increased after APAP treatment (p [Dis Mol Med 2016; 4(3.000: 37-42

  17. An improved method for purification of recombinant truncated heme oxygenase-1 by expanded bed adsorption and gel filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Bo; Wang, Wei; Han, Ling; Zhou, Wen-Pu; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2007-03-01

    Recombinant truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) expressed in Escherichia coli was efficiently separated and purified from feedstock by DEAE-ion exchange expanded bed adsorption. Protocol optimization of hHO-1 on DEAE adsorbent resulted in adsorption in 0 M NaCl and elution in 150 mM NaCl at a pH of 8.5. The active enzyme fractions separated from the expanded bed column were further purified by a Superdex 75 gel filtration step. The specific hHO-1 activity increased from 0.82 +/- 0.05 to 24.8 +/- 1.8 U/mg during the whole purification steps. The recovery and purification factor of truncated hHO-1 of the whole purification were 72.7 +/- 4.7 and 30.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively. This purification process can decrease the demand on the preparation of feedstock and simplify the purification process.

  18. Roles of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and heme oxygenase-1 in ethylbenzene-induced renal toxicity in NRK-52E cells.

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    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yanrang; Wang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingshu; Gu, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Ethylbenzene is an important industrial chemical, but its potential toxicity is a recent concern. Our previous study investigated the renal toxicity of ethylbenzene in vivo Rat renal epithelial cells (NRK-52E cells) were incubated with 0, 30, 60, and 90 µmol/L of ethylbenzene for 24 h in vitro to investigate ethylbenzene-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The cell survival rate in the ethylbenzene-treated groups was significantly lower than the control group. Ethylbenzene significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly elevated compared with the control group, while glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased in ethylbenzene-treated groups. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were also markedly reduced. A significant dose-dependent increase in HO-1 and Nrf2 messenger RNA expression levels was observed in ethylbenzene-treated groups compared with the control group. Similarly, ethylbenzene treatment enhanced protein expression of HO-1 and Nrf2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicated that ethylbenzene induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and upregulation of HO-1 and Nrf2 in NRK-52E cells, which contributes to ethylbenzene-induced renal toxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Cardioprotective Effect of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene Are Mediated by Heme Oxygenase in Estrogen-Deficient Rat

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    Anikó Posa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens and raloxifene (RAL have beneficial effects on certain cardiovascular indices in postmenopausal women characterized by estrogen deficiency. Heme oxygenase (HO activity is increased by 17β-estradiol (E2 and RAL in estrogen-deficient rat resulting in vasorelaxation mediated by carbon monoxide. We determined the expressions of HO in cardiac and aortic tissues after ovariectomy (OVX and subsequent RAL or E2 treatment. We investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibition of HO enzyme on the arginine vasopressin- (AVP- induced blood pressure in vivo, the epinephrine- and phentolamine-induced electrocardiogram ST segment changes in vivo, and the myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme activity. When compared with intact females, OVX decreased the HO-1 and HO-2 expression, aggravated the electrocardiogram signs of heart ischemia and the blood pressure response to AVP, and increased the cardiac MPO. E2 and RAL are largely protected against these negative impacts induced by OVX. The pharmacological inhibition of HO in E2- or RAL-treated OVX animals, however, restored the cardiovascular status close to that observed in nontreated OVX animals. The decreased expression of HO enzymes and the changes in blood pressure ischemia susceptibility and inflammatory state in OVX rat can be reverted by the administration of E2 or RAL partly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles.

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 induction alters chemokine regulation and ameliorates human immunodeficiency virus-type-1 infection in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

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    Zhou, Zhao-Hua [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kumari, Namita; Nekhai, Sergei [Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Department of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC (United States); Clouse, Kathleen A. [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wahl, Larry M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [Laboratory of Cell and Development Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Viral Immunology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorated HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. •The partial protection by HO-1 against HIV infection was associated with induction of chemokines such as MIP1α and MIP1β. •This mechanism explains lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HO-1-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages. -- Abstract: We have elucidated a putative mechanism for the host resistance against HIV-1 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS-activated MDM both inhibited HIV-1 entry into the cells and were refractory to post-entry productive viral replication. LPS-treated cells were virtually negative for mature virions as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. LPS activation of MDM markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent inducible cytoprotective enzyme. Increased HO-1 expression was accompanied by elevated production of macrophage inflammatory chemokines (MIP1α and MIP1β) by LPS-activated MDM, significantly decreased surface chemokine receptor-5 (CCR-5) expression, and substantially reduced virus replication. Treatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP IX (tin protoporphyrin IX) attenuated the LPS-mediated responses, HIV-1 replication and secretion of MIP1α, MIP1β, and LD78β chemokines with little change in surface CCR-5 expression. These results identify a novel role for HO-1 in the modulation of host immune response against HIV infection of MDM.

  1. Resveratrol protects C6 astrocyte cell line against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress through heme oxygenase 1.

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    André Quincozes-Santos

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a polyphenol presents in grapes and wine, displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cytoprotective effect in brain pathologies associated to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. In previous work, we demonstrated that resveratrol exerts neuroglial modulation, improving glial functions, mainly related to glutamate metabolism. Astrocytes are a major class of glial cells and regulate neurotransmitter systems, synaptic processing, energy metabolism and defense against oxidative stress. This study sought to determine the protective effect of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in C6 astrocyte cell line, an astrocytic lineage, on neurochemical parameters and their cellular and biochemical mechanisms. H2O2 exposure increased oxidative-nitrosative stress, iNOS expression, cytokine proinflammatory release (TNFα levels and mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction and decreased antioxidant defenses, such as SOD, CAT and creatine kinase activity. Resveratrol strongly prevented C6 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity by modulating glial, oxidative and inflammatory responses. Resveratrol per se increased heme oxygenase 1 (HO1 expression and extracellular GSH content. In addition, HO1 signaling pathway is involved in the protective effect of resveratrol against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in astroglial cells. Taken together, these results show that resveratrol represents an important mechanism for protection of glial cells against oxidative stress.

  2. Homeostatic response under carcinogen withdrawal, heme oxygenase 1 expression and cell cycle association

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    Batlle Alcira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic injury deregulates cellular homeostasis and induces a number of alterations leading to disruption of cellular processes such as cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis, driving to carcinogenesis. The stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 catalyzes heme degradation producing biliverdin, iron and CO. Induction of HO-1 has been suggested to be essential for a controlled cell growth. The aim of this work was to analyze the in vivo homeostatic response (HR triggered by the withdrawal of a potent carcinogen, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB, after preneoplastic lesions were observed. We analyzed HO-1 cellular localization and the expression of HO-1, Bcl-2 and cell cycle related proteins under these conditions comparing them to hepatocellular carcinoma (HC. Methods The intoxication protocol was designed based on previous studies demonstrating that preneoplastic lesions were evident after 89 days of chemical carcinogen administration. Male CF1 mice (n = 18 were used. HR group received DAB (0.5 % w/w in the diet for 78 days followed by 11 days of carcinogen deprivation. The HC group received the carcinogen and control animals the standard diet during 89 days. The expression of cell cycle related proteins, of Bcl-2 and of HO-1 were analyzed by western blot. The cellular localization and expression of HO-1 were detected by immnunohistochemistry. Results Increased expression of cyclin E/CDK2 was observed in HR, thus implicating cyclin E/CDK2 in the liver regenerative process. p21cip1/waf1 and Bcl-2 induction in HC was restituted to basal levels in HR. A similar response profile was found for HO-1 expression levels, showing a lower oxidative status in the carcinogen-deprived liver. The immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of macrophages surrounding foci of necrosis and nodular lesions in HR indicative of an inflammatory response. Furthermore, regenerative cells displayed changes in type, size and intensity of HO-1

  3. Renal Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction with Hemin Augments Renal Hemodynamics, Renal Autoregulation, and Excretory Function

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    Fady T. Botros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenases (HO-1; HO-2 catalyze conversion of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin/bilirubin. To determine the effects of renal HO-1 induction on blood pressure and renal function, normal control rats (n=7 and hemin-treated rats (n=6 were studied. Renal clearance studies were performed on anesthetized rats to assess renal function; renal blood flow (RBF was measured using a transonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. Hemin treatment significantly induced renal HO-1. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were not different (115±5 mmHg versus 112±4 mmHg and 331±16 versus 346±10 bpm. However, RBF was significantly higher (9.1±0.8 versus 7.0±0.5 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and renal vascular resistance was significantly lower (13.0±0.9 versus 16.6±1.4 [mmHg/(mL/min/g], P<0.05. Likewise, glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated (1.4±0.2 versus 1.0±0.1 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and urine flow and sodium excretion were also higher (18.9±3.9 versus 8.2±1.0 μL/min/g, P<0.05 and 1.9±0.6 versus 0.2±0.1 μmol/min/g, P<0.05, resp.. The plateau of the autoregulation relationship was elevated, and renal vascular responses to acute angiotensin II infusion were attenuated in hemin-treated rats reflecting the vasodilatory effect of HO-1 induction. We conclude that renal HO-1 induction augments renal function which may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of HO-1 induction observed in hypertension models.

  4. Protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer against oxyhemoglobin-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, D; Weiler, D; Alam, J; Nath, K; Katusic, Z S

    2001-10-01

    The current study was designed to determine the effect of recombinant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression on endothelial function in cerebral arteries. Isolated canine basilar arteries were exposed ex vivo (30 minutes at 37 degrees C) to an adenoviral vector (10(10) PFU/mL, total volume 300 microL) encoding either the HO-1 gene (AdCMVHO-1) or the beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) reporter gene (AdCMVbeta-Gal). Twenty-four hours after transduction, arterial rings were suspended in organ chamber for isometric force recording. Endothelium-dependent relaxations were obtained in response to bradykinin (10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L) during contraction to uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP; 3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-5) mol/L). Certain rings were incubated with oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb; 10(-5) mol/L) overnight (16 to 18 hours of 24 hours). Expression and localization of recombinant protein were shown by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin and endothelium-independent relaxation to forskolin (10(-9) to 10(-5) mol/L) and DEA-NONOate (10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/L) were identical in beta-Gal- and HO-1-transduced arteries. Exposure to OxyHb caused impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin (P arteries expressing recombinant HO-1 ( P > 0.05). This protective effect of HO-1 was reversed by coincubation with tin protoporphyrin (SnPP9; 10(-5) mol/L), a selective inhibitor of HO-1 (P arteries, and that expression of recombinant HO-1 in cerebral arteries protects vasomotor function against OxyHb-induced injury.

  5. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Song, Fangfang; Li, Xiangyang; Rong, Shuang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Muxun; Yao, Ping; Hao, Liping; Yang, Nianhong; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2010-08-25

    Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM) and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001). Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001). The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  6. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001. Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001. The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  7. Adipocyte heme oxygenase-1 induction attenuates metabolic syndrome in both male and female obese mice.

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    Burgess, Angela; Li, Ming; Vanella, Luca; Kim, Dong Hyun; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi; Sodhi, Komal; Canestraro, Martina; Martasek, Pavel; Peterson, Stephen J; Kappas, Attallah; Abraham, Nader G

    2010-12-01

    Increases in visceral fat are associated with increased inflammation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and vascular dysfunction. We examined the effect of the potent heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), on regulation of adiposity and glucose levels in both female and male obese mice. Both lean and obese mice were administered CoPP intraperitoneally (3 mg/kg once per week) for 6 weeks. Serum levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFa), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and HO-1, PPARγ, pAKT, and pAMPK protein expression in adipocytes and vascular tissue were measured. While female obese mice continued to gain weight at a rate similar to controls, induction of HO-1 slowed the rate of weight gain in male obese mice. HO-1 induction led to lowered blood pressure levels in obese male and female mice similar to that of lean male and female mice. HO-1 induction also produced a significant decrease in the plasma levels of IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and fasting glucose of obese females compared to untreated female obese mice. HO-1 induction increased the number and decreased the size of adipocytes of obese animals. HO-1 induction increased adiponectin, pAKT, pAMPK, and PPARγ levels in adipocyte of obese animals. Induction of HO-1 in adipocytes was associated with an increase in adiponectin and a reduction in inflammatory cytokines. These findings offer the possibility of treating not only hypertension, but also other detrimental metabolic consequences of obesity including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in obese populations by induction of HO-1 in adipocytes.

  8. Protection from ischemic heart injury by a vigilant heme oxygenase-1 plasmid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao Liang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Y Clare; Qian, Keping; Shen, Leping; Phillips, M Ian

    2004-04-01

    Although human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) could provide a useful approach for cellular protection in the ischemic heart, constitutive overexpression of hHO-1 may lead to unwanted side effects. To avoid this, we designed a hypoxia-regulated hHO-1 gene therapy system that can be switched on and off. This vigilant plasmid system is composed of myosin light chain-2v promoter and a gene switch that is based on an oxygen-dependent degradation domain from the hypoxia inducible factor-1-alpha. The vector can sense ischemia and switch on the hHO-1 gene system, specifically in the heart. In an in vivo experiment, the vigilant hHO-1 plasmid or saline was injected intramyocardially into myocardial infarction mice or sham operation mice. After gene transfer, expression of hHO-1 was only detected in the ischemic heart treated with vigilant hHO-1 plasmids. Masson trichrome staining showed significantly fewer fibrotic areas in vigilant hHO-1 plasmids-treated mice compared with saline control (43.0%+/-4.8% versus 62.5%+/-3.3%, PhHO-1 expression in peri-infarct border areas, concomitant with higher Bcl-2 levels and lower Bax, Bak, and caspase 3 levels in the ischemic myocardium compared with saline control. By use of a cardiac catheter, heart from vigilant hHO-1 plasmids-treated mice showed improved recovery of contractile and diastolic performance after myocardial infarction compared with saline control. This study documents the beneficial regulation and therapeutic potential of vigilant plasmid-mediated hHO-1 gene transfer. This novel gene transfer strategy can provide cardiac-specific protection from future repeated bouts of ischemic injury.

  9. Unconjugated bilirubin mediates heme oxygenase-1-induced vascular benefits in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Limei; Wong, Wing Tak; Zhang, Yang; Han, Quan-Bin; Ho, Hing-Man; Wang, Nanping; Wong, Siu Ling; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Yu, Jun; Ng, Chi-Fai; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts vasoprotective effects. Such benefit in diabetic vasculopathy, however, remains unclear. We hypothesize that bilirubin mediates HO-1-induced vascular benefits in diabetes. Diabetic db/db mice were treated with hemin (HO-1 inducer) for 2 weeks, and aortas were isolated for functional and molecular assays. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured in cultured endothelial cells. Hemin treatment augmented endothelium-dependent relaxations (EDRs) and elevated Akt and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in db/db mouse aortas, which were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor SnMP or HO-1 silencing virus. Hemin treatment increased serum bilirubin, and ex vivo bilirubin treatment improved relaxations in diabetic mouse aortas, which was reversed by the Akt inhibitor. Biliverdin reductase silencing virus attenuated the effect of hemin. Chronic bilirubin treatment improved EDRs in db/db mouse aortas. Hemin and bilirubin reversed high glucose-induced reductions in Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. The effect of hemin but not bilirubin was inhibited by biliverdin reductase silencing virus. Furthermore, bilirubin augmented EDRs in renal arteries from diabetic patients. In summary, HO-1-induced restoration of endothelial function in diabetic mice is most likely mediated by bilirubin, which preserves NO bioavailability through the Akt/eNOS/NO cascade, suggesting bilirubin as a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention of diabetic vasculopathy. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects against nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice

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    Kong Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an antioxidant defense enzyme, has been shown to protect against oxidant-induced liver injury. However, its role on liver fibrosis remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effect and the mechanism of HO-1 in nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis in mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet for eight weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin, HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1 were administered to mice, respectively. Liver injury was assessed by serum ALT, AST levels and histological examination; hepatic lipid peroxides levels were determined; the expression levels of several fibrogenic related genes were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Results MCD feeding mice showed progressive hepatic injury including hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury. This effect was associated with the up-regulation of HO-1, reduction of hepatic lipid peroxides levels, down-regulation of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 as well as the pro-fibrotic genes alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, matrix metallopeptidase-2 and matrix metallopeptidase-9. A contrary effect was observed in mice treated with ZnPP-IX. Conclusions The present study provided the evidence for the protective role of HO-1 in ameliorating MCD diet-induced fibrosing steatohepatitis. Modulation of HO-1 expression might serve as a therapeutic approach for fibrotic steatohepatitis.

  11. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 protects mouse liver from apoptotic ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Issan, Y.; Katz, Y.; Sultan, M.; Safran, M.; Michal, Laniado-Schwartzman; Nader, G. Abraham; Kornowski, R.; Grief, F.; Pappo, O.; Hochhauser, E.

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction of liver allografts. Cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP)–dependent induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to protect the liver from I/R injury. This study analyzes the apoptotic mechanisms of HO-1-mediated cytoprotection in mouse liver exposed to I/R injury. HO-1 induction was achieved by the administration of CoPP (1.5 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70 %) ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion injury. Mice were randomly allocated to four main experimental groups (n = 10 each): (1) A control group undergoing sham operation. (2) Similar to group 1 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before the operation. (3) Mice undergoing in vivo hepatic I/R. (4) Similar to group 3 but with the administration of CoPP 72 h before ischemia induction. When compared with the I/R mice group, in the I/R+CoPP mice group, the increased hepatic expression of HO-1 was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme levels, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria and by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, there was a decreased mean number of proliferating cells (positively stained for Ki67), and a reduced hepatic expression of: C/EBP homologous protein (an index of endoplasmic reticulum stress), the NF-κB’s regulated genes (CIAP2, MCP-1 and IL-6), and increased hepatic expression of IκBa (the inhibitory protein of NF-κB). HO-1 over-expression plays a pivotal role in reducing the hepatic apoptotic IR injury. HO-1 may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation. PMID:23435964

  12. Erythropoietin attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension through interplay between endothelial progenitor cells and heme-oxygenase

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    Rosa L.E. Loon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO1.MethodsRats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the presence or absence of the selective HO-activity-inhibitor tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP. HO-activity, circulating EPCs and pulmonary vascular lesions were assessed after 3 weeks.ResultsIn PAH-rats, circulating EPCs were decreased and HO-activity was increased compared to control. EPO-treatment restored circulating EPCs and improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, as shown by a reduced wall thickness and occlusion rate of the intra-acinar vessels. Inhibition of HO-activity with SnMP aggravated PAH. Moreover, SnMP treatment abrogated EPO-induced amelioration of pulmonary vascular remodeling, while surprisingly further increasing circulating EPCs as compared with EPO alone.ConclusionsIn experimental PAH, EPO treatment restored the number of circulating EPC’s to control level, improved pulmonary vascular remodeling, and showed important interplay with HO-activity. Inhibition of increased HO-activity in PAH-rats exacerbated progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling, despite the presence of restored numbers of circulating EPC’s. We suggest that both EPO-induced HO1 and EPCs are promising targets to ameliorate the pulmonary vasculature in PAH.

  13. High-Glucose-Derived Oxidative Stress-Dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression from Astrocytes Contributes to the Neuronal Apoptosis.

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    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung

    2017-01-01

    An elevated level of glucose has been found in the blood of hyperglycemia and diabetes patients associated with several central nervous system (CNS) complications. These disorders may be due to the up-regulation of many neurotoxic mediators by host cells triggered by high glucose (HG). Moreover, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a crucial role in tissue pathological changes such as brain injuries. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HG-induced HO-1 expression in brain cells remain poorly defined. Thus, we use the rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1) as a model to investigate the signaling mechanisms of HO-1 induction by HG and its effects on neuronal cells. We demonstrated that HG induced HO-1 expression via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling pathway. NADPH oxidase (Nox)- and mitochondrion-dependent ROS generation led to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and then activated the downstream transcriptional factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and c-Fos/activator protein 1 (AP-1), respectively. Subsequently, the activated NF-κB and AP-1 turned on transcription of HO-1 gene. These results indicated that in brain astrocytes, activation of MAPK-mediated NF-κB and c-Fos/AP-1 cascades by Nox/ROS and mitoROS-dependent events is essential for HO-1 up-regulation induced by HG. Moreover, we found that HG-induced extracellular ROS increase and HO-1 expression from astrocytes resulted in neuronal apoptosis. These results offers new insights into the mechanisms and effects of the action of HG, supporting that HG may cause brain disorders in the development of diabetes- and hyperglycemia-induced CNS complications such as neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Macrophage heme oxygenase-1-SIRT1-p53 axis regulates sterile inflammation in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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    Nakamura, Kojiro; Zhang, Min; Kageyama, Shoichi; Ke, Bibo; Fujii, Takehiro; Sosa, Rebecca A; Reed, Elaine F; Datta, Nakul; Zarrinpar, Ali; Busuttil, Ronald W; Araujo, Jesus A; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2017-12-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), characterized by exogenous antigen-independent local inflammation and hepatocellular death, represents a risk factor for acute and chronic rejection in liver transplantation. We aimed to investigate the molecular communication involved in the mechanism of liver IRI. We analyzed human liver transplants, primary murine macrophage cell cultures and IR-stressed livers in myeloid-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene mutant mice, for anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions of macrophage-specific HO-1/SIRT1 (sirtuin 1)/p53 (tumor suppressor protein) signaling. Decreased HO-1 expression in human post-reperfusion liver transplant biopsies correlated with a deterioration in hepatocellular function (serum ALT; pp53/MDM2 (murine double minute 2) expression levels decreased (pp53, which in turn attenuated macrophage activation. In a murine model of hepatic warm IRI, myeloid-specific HO-1 deletion lacked SIRT1/p53, exacerbated liver inflammation and IR-hepatocellular death, whereas adjunctive SIRT1 activation restored p53 signaling and rescued livers from IR-damage. This bench-to-bedside study identifies a new class of macrophages activated via the HO-1-SIRT1-p53 signaling axis in the mechanism of hepatic sterile inflammation. This mechanism could be a target for novel therapeutic strategies in liver transplant recipients. Post-transplant low macrophage HO-1 expression in human liver transplants correlates with reduced hepatocellular function and survival. HO-1 regulates macrophage activation via the SIRT1-p53 signaling network and regulates hepatocellular death in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus targeting this pathway in liver transplant recipients could be of therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction by Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-3 Suppresses Interleukin-1β-Mediated Neuroinflammation

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    Chih-Chung Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders and brain damage are initiated by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which leads to tissue injury, cellular death and inflammation. In cellular anti-oxidant systems, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an oxidative-sensor protein induced by ROS generation or carbon monoxide (CO release. CO releasing molecules (CORMs, including CORM-3, exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of CORM-3-induced HO-1 expression and protection against interleukin (IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses have not been fully elucidated in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1. To study the regulation of CORM-3-induced HO-1 expression, signaling pathways, promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression were assessed following treatment with pharmacological inhibitors and gene-specific siRNA knockdown. We found that CORM-3 mediated HO-1 induction via transcritional and translational processes. Furthermore, CORM-3-induced HO-1 expression was mediated by phosphorylation of several protein kinases, such as c-Src, Pyk2, protein kinase Cα (PKCα and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which were inhibited by respective pharmacological inhibitors or by gene-specific knockdown with siRNA transfections. Next, we found that CORM-3 sequentially activated the c-Src/Pyk2/PKCα/p42/p44 MAPK pathway, thereby up-regulating mRNA for the activator protein (AP-1 components c-Jun and c-Fos; these effects were attenuated by an AP-1 inhibitor (Tanshinone IIA; TSIIA and other relevant inhibitors. Moreover, CORM-3-induced upregulation of HO-1 attenuated the IL-1β-induced cell migration and matrix metallopeptidase-9 mRNA expression in RBA-1 cells. These effects were reversed by an matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2/9 inhibitor or by transfection with HO-1 siRNA.

  16. Ascorbic acid partly antagonizes resveratrol mediated heme oxygenase-1 but not paraoxonase-1 induction in cultured hepatocytes - role of the redox-regulated transcription factor Nrf2

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    Hori Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both resveratrol and vitamin C (ascorbic acid are frequently used in complementary and alternative medicine. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms for potential health benefits of resveratrol and its interactions with ascorbic acid. Methods The antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 were analysed for their mRNA and protein levels in HUH7 liver cells treated with 10 and 25 μmol/l resveratrol in the absence and presence of 100 and 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Additionally the transactivation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and paraoxonase-1 were determined by reporter gene assays. Results Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol induces the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 in cultured hepatocytes. Heme oxygenase-1 induction by resveratrol was accompanied by an increase in Nrf2 transactivation. Resveratrol mediated Nrf2 transactivation as well as heme oxygenase-1 induction were partly antagonized by 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Conclusions Unlike heme oxygenase-1 (which is highly regulated by Nrf2 paraoxonase-1 (which exhibits fewer ARE/Nrf2 binding sites in its promoter induction by resveratrol was not counteracted by ascorbic acid. Addition of resveratrol to the cell culture medium produced relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide which may be a positive hormetic redox-signal for Nrf2 dependent gene expression thereby driving heme oxygenase-1 induction. However, high concentrations of ascorbic acid manifold increased hydrogen peroxide production in the cell culture medium which may be a stress signal thereby disrupting the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  17. Impairment of nitric oxide synthase but not heme oxygenase accounts for baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic nicotine in female rats.

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    Mohamed A Fouda

    Full Text Available We recently reported that chronic nicotine impairs reflex chronotropic activity in female rats. Here, we sought evidence to implicate nitric oxide synthase (NOS and/or heme oxygenase (HO in the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate to increases (phenylephrine or decreases (sodium nitroprusside in blood pressure were generated in conscious female rats treated with nicotine or saline in absence and presence of pharmacological modulators of NOS or HO activity. Compared with saline-treated rats, nicotine (2 mg/kg/day i.p., for 14 days significantly reduced the slopes of baroreflex curves, a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS. Findings that favor the involvement of NOS inhibition in the nicotine effect were (i NOS inhibition (Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME reduced BRS in control rats but failed to do so in nicotine-treated rats, (ii L-arginine, NO donor, reversed the BRS inhibitory effect of nicotine. Alternatively, HO inhibition (zinc protoporphyrin IX, ZnPP had no effect on BRS in nicotine- or control rats and failed to reverse the beneficial effect of L-arginine on nicotine-BRS interaction. Similar to female rats, BRS was reduced by L-NAME, but not ZnPP, in male rats and the L-NAME effect was not accentuated after concomitant administration of nicotine. Baroreflex dysfunction caused by nicotine in female rats was blunted after supplementation with hemin (HO inducer but not tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II dimer (CORM-2, a carbon monoxide (CO releasing molecule, or bilirubin, the breakdown product of heme catabolism. The facilitatory effect of hemin was abolished upon simultaneous treatment with L-NAME or 1H-[1], [2], [4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, sGC. The activities of HO and NOS in brainstem tissues were also significantly increased by hemin. Thus, the inhibition of NOS, but not HO, accounts for the baroreflex depressant of chronic nicotine

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 in Raw 264.7 cells and a mouse edema model

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    Kwon, Soon Won; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Kim, Mi Jin; Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Nam; Dutta, Suman [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Soo [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-Si 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hyun Sook, E-mail: wazzup@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant PEP-1 heme oxygenase-1 expression vector was constructed and overexpressed. {yields} We investigated transduction efficiency of PEP-1-HO-1 protein in Raw 264.7 cells. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 exerted anti-inflammatory activity in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mice edema model. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 could be used as a therapeutic drug against inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of free heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe{sup 2+}), is up-regulated by several cellular stress and cell injuries, including inflammation, ischemia and hypoxia. In this study, we examined whether fusion of HO-1 with PEP-1, a protein transduction domain that is able to deliver exogenous molecules to living cells or tissues, would facilitate HO-1 delivery to target cells and tissues, and thereby effectively exert a therapeutically useful response against inflammation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and were stably maintained in the cells for about 60 h. In addition, fluorescence analysis revealed that only PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were significantly transduced into the cytoplasm of cells, while HO-1 proteins failed to be transduced. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse edema model, transduced PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins effectively inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Also, histological analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 remarkably suppressed ear edema. The results suggest that the PEP-1-HO-1 fusion protein can be used as a therapeutic molecule against reactive oxygen species-related inflammatory diseases.

  19. Heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide-biliverdin pathway down regulates neutrophil rolling, adhesion and migration in acute inflammation

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    Freitas, A; Alves-Filho, J C; Secco, D D; Neto, A F; Ferreira, S H; Barja-Fidalgo, C; Cunha, F Q

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Heme oxygenase (HO) activity is known to down-regulate inflammatory events. Here, we address the role of HO and its metabolites, carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin (BVD), in leukocyte rolling, adhesion and neutrophil migration during inflammatory processes. Experimental approach: Intravital microscopy was used to evaluate leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the mesenteric microcirculation of mice. TNFα and IL-1β were determined by ELISA and HO-1 protein expression by Western blot. Key results: Intraperitoneal challenge with carrageenan enhanced HO-1 protein expression in mesentery and bilirubin concentration in peritoneal exudates. Pretreatment of mice with a non-specific inhibitor of HO (ZnDPBG) or with a HO-1 specific inhibitor (ZnPP IX) enhanced neutrophil migration, rolling and adhesion on endothelium induced by carrageenan. In contrast, HO substrate (hemin), CO donor (DMDC) or BVD reduced these parameters. The reduction of neutrophil recruitment promoted by HO metabolites was independent of the production of chemotactic cytokines. Inhibitory effects of CO, but not of BVD, were counteracted by treatment with a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, ODQ. Furthermore, inhibition of HO prevented the inhibitory effect of a nitric oxide (NO) donor (SNAP) upon neutrophil migration, while the blockade of NO synthase (NOS) activity by aminoguanidine did not affect the CO or BVD effects. Conclusions and Implications: Metabolites of HO decreased leukocyte rolling, adhesion and neutrophil migration to the inflammatory site by a mechanism partially dependent on sGC. Moreover, inhibition by NO of neutrophil migration was dependent on HO activity. PMID:16953189

  20. Pharmacological preconditioning with vitamin C attenuates intestinal injury via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

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    Bing Zhao

    Full Text Available Pre-induction of heme oxygenase (HO-1, which is regarded as an effective method of "organ preconditioning", exerts beneficial effects during hemorrhagic shock (HS. However, the available HO-1 inducers exhibit disadvantages such as toxicity or complex technical requirements. Therefore, a safe and convenient HO-1 inducer would be promising and could be exploited in the treatment of foreseeable hemorrhaging, such as prior to major surgery. Here we investigated the effect of vitamin C (VitC, a common antioxidant, on intestinal HO-1 expression and examined whether VitC pretreatment prevented HS related intestinal tissue injuries after HO-1 induction. First, we conducted an in vitro study and found that HO-1 expression in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6 was induced by non-toxic VitC in a time and concentration dependent manner, and the mechanism was related to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. Next, we conducted an in vivo study and found that VitC induced intestinal HO-1 protein expression (mainly observed in the intestinal epithelial cells and HO-1 activity in normal SD rats, and that these HO-1 levels were further enhanced by VitC in a rat model of HS. The HS related intestinal injuries, including histological damage, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis decreased after VitC pretreatment, and this alleviating of organ injuries was abrogated after the inhibition of HO-1 activity by zinc protoporphyrin-IX. It was of note that VitC did little histological damage to the intestine of the sham rats. These data suggested that VitC might be applied as a safe inducer of intestinal HO-1 and that VitC pretreatment attenuated HS related intestinal injuries via the induction of HO-1.

  1. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy protects against pulmonary endothelial cell death and development of emphysema in cadmium-treated mice.

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    Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Kim, Hyunki; Yu, Zhihong; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Mirov, Sergey B; Carter, A Brent; Rowe, Steven M; Matalon, Sadis; Thannickal, Victor J; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary exposure to cadmium, a major component of cigarette smoke, has a dramatic impact on lung function and the development of emphysema. Cigarette smoke exposure induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we employed a truncated mouse model of emphysema by intratracheal instillation of cadmium (CdCl2) solution (0.025% per 1 mg/kg body wt) in HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and overexpressing humanized HO-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (hHO-1BAC) mice. We evaluated the role of HO-1 in cadmium-induced emphysema in mice by analyzing histopathology, micro-computed tomography scans, and lung function tests. CdCl2-exposed HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe emphysema compared with HO-1(+/+) or hHO-1BAC mice. Loss of pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) from the alveolar capillary membrane is recognized to be a target in emphysema. PECs from HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and hHO-1BAC were employed to define the underlying molecular mechanism for the protection from emphysema by HO-1. Electron microscopy, expression of autophagic markers (microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 3 II, autophagy protein 5, and Beclin1) and apoptotic marker (cleaved caspase 3) suggested induction of autophagy and apoptosis in PECs after CdCl2 treatment. CdCl2-treated HO-1(-/-) PECs exhibited downregulation of autophagic markers and significantly increased cleaved caspase 3 expression and activity (∼4-fold higher). Moreover, hHO-1BAC PECs demonstrated upregulated autophagy and absence of cleaved caspase 3 expression or activity. Pretreatment of HO-1(+/+) PECs with rapamycin induced autophagy and resulted in reduced cell death upon cadmium treatment. Induction of autophagy following CdCl2 treatment was found to be protective from apoptotic cell death. HO-1 induced protective autophagy in PECs and mitigated cadmium-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. [Gene transfer-induced human heme oxygenase-1 over-expression protects kidney from ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

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    Lü, Jin-xing; Yan, Chun-yin; Pu, Jin-xian; Hou, Jian-quan; Yuan, He-xing; Ping, Ji-gen

    2010-12-14

    To study the protection of gene transfer-induced human heme oxygenase-1 over-expression against renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury was established with Sprague-Dawley rats. In the therapy group (n=18), the left kidney was perfused and preserved with Ad-hHO-1 at 2.5×10(9) pfu/1.0 ml after flushed with 0-4°C HC-A organ storage solution via donor renal aorta. The rats in control groups were perfused with 0.9% saline solution (n=12) or the vector carrying no interest gene Ad-EGFP 2.5×10(9) pfu/1.0 ml (n=18) instead of Ad-hHO-1. BUN and Cr in serum were measured by slide chemical methods. The kidney samples of rats were harvested for assay of histology, immunohistochemistry and quantification of HO enzymatic activity. Apoptosis cells in the kidney were measured by TUNEL. Ad-hHO-1 via donor renal aorta could transfect renal cells of rats effectively, enzymatic activity of HO in treated group [(1.62±0.07) nmol×mg(-1)×min(-1)] is higher than in control groups treated with saline solution team [(1.27±0.07) nmol×mg(-1)×min(-1)] and vector EGFP team [(1.22±0.06) nmol×mg(-1)×min(-1)] (PhHO-1 expressed hHO-1 in kidneys at a high level. Corresponding to this, the level of BUN and Cr, as well as the number of apoptosis cells, were decreased, and the damage in histology by HE staining was ameliorated. Over-expression of human HO-1 can protect the kidney from ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

  3. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 protects against cold injury-induced brain damage: a laboratory-based study.

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    Shih, Ruey-Horng; Cheng, Shin-Ei; Tung, Wei-Hsuan; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2010-08-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a kind of stress protein, is critical for the protection against ischemic stroke and cerebrovascular endothelium damage. However, the effects of HO-1 on trauma-induced brain injury are still unknown. Hence, we attempted to use a cold injury-induced brain trauma (CIBT) model in mice, which provides for a well-established approach for assessing brain edema and blood-brain barrier breakdown. Additionally, we explored cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) to investigate the protective effects of HO-1. HO-1 was induced by infection with a recombinant adenovirus carrying the human HO-1 gene or an inducer of HO-1 activity, cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP). The recombinant adenovirus (3.5 x 10(7) PFU/mouse, i.v.) or CoPP (10 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased HO-1 protein expression and HO-1 enzyme activity in the cerebral cortex of the mice. We found that overexpression of HO-1 protected against cold injury-induced secondary damage and behavioral impairment. Up-regulation of HO-1 decreased brain edema and neutrophil infiltration induced by cold injury. These HO-1-dependent protecting effects were abrogated by pretreatment with the HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP; 3 mg/kg, i.v.). HO-1 expression in the cerebral endothelium was observed by immunofluorescent staining. CoPP-induced (1 muM, 24 h) HO-1 protein expression was determined by western blotting in bEnd.3 cells. Enhanced HO-1 also protected against cold injury-induced cell loss and damage, which were respectively determined by GAPDH leakage into the cell medium and XTT assay in bEnd.3 cells. In summary, HO-1 overexpression appears to offer an effective neuroprotection against cold-induced secondary brain injury.

  4. Insights into the mechanism of isoenzyme-specific signal peptide peptidase-mediated translocation of heme oxygenase.

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    Bianca Schaefer

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that signal peptide peptidase (SPP can catalyze the intramembrane cleavage of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 that leads to translocation of HO-1 into the cytosol and nucleus. While there is consensus that translocated HO-1 promotes tumor progression and drug resistance, the physiological signals leading to SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage of HO-1 and the specificity of the process remain unclear. In this study, we used co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy to investigate the translocation mechanism of HO-1 and its regulation by SPP. We show that HO-1 and the closely related HO-2 isoenzyme bind to SPP under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxic conditions SPP mediates intramembrane cleavage of HO-1, but not HO-2. In experiments with an inactive HO-1 mutant (H25A we show that translocation is independent of the catalytic activity of HO-1. Studies with HO-1 / HO-2 chimeras indicate that the membrane anchor, the PEST-domain and the nuclear shuttle sequence of HO-1 are necessary for full cleavage and subsequent translocation under hypoxic conditions. In the presence of co-expressed exogenous SPP, the anchor and the PEST-domain are sufficient for translocation. Taken together, we identified the domains involved in HO-1 translocation and showed that SPP-mediated cleavage is isoform-specific and independent of HO-activity. A closer understanding of the translocation mechanism of HO-1 is of particular importance because nuclear HO-1 seems to lead to tumor progression and drug resistance.

  5. Effects of heme oxygenase-1-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on microcirculation and energy metabolism following liver transplantation

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    Yang, Liu; Shen, Zhong-Yang; Wang, Rao-Rao; Yin, Ming-Li; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Wu, Bin; Liu, Tao; Song, Hong-Li

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on the microcirculation and energy metabolism of hepatic sinusoids following reduced-size liver transplantation (RLT) in a rat model. METHODS BMMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro using an adherent method, and then transduced with HO-1-bearing recombinant adenovirus to construct HO-1/BMMSCs. A rat acute rejection model following 50% RLT was established using a two-cuff technique. Recipients were divided into three groups based on the treatment received: normal saline (NS), BMMSCs and HO-1/BMMSCs. Liver function was examined at six time points. The levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), and hyaluronic acid (HA) were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The portal vein pressure (PVP) was detected by Power Lab ML880. The expressions of ET-1, iNOS, eNOS, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) protein in the transplanted liver were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. ATPase in the transplanted liver was detected by chemical colorimetry, and the ultrastructural changes were observed under a transmission electron microscope. RESULTS HO-1/BMMSCs could alleviate the pathological changes and rejection activity index of the transplanted liver, and improve the liver function of rats following 50% RLT, with statistically significant differences compared with those of the NS group and BMMSCs group (P improved the activity of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (ASTm) and ATPase, compared with the other two groups (P improve the microcirculation of hepatic sinusoids significantly, and recover the energy metabolism of damaged hepatocytes in rats following RLT, thus protecting the transplanted liver. PMID:28596681

  6. Local gene delivery of heme oxygenase-1 by adeno-associated virus into osteoarthritic mouse joints exhibiting synovial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyostio-Moore, S; Bangari, D S; Ewing, P; Nambiar, B; Berthelette, P; Sookdeo, C; Hutto, E; Moran, N; Sullivan, J; Matthews, G L; Scaria, A; Armentano, D

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the role of synovial oxidative stress on joint pathology in a spontaneous mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA) by intra-articular (IA) delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) expressing anti-oxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Joint transduction by rAAV vectors was evaluated with serotype 1, 2, 5 and 8 capsids carrying LacZ gene administered by IA injections into STR/ort mice. Transduced cell types were identified by β-galactosidase staining in sectioned joints. Effect of oxidative stress on AAV transduction of primary synoviocytes in vitro was quantitated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. In vivo, the efficacy of rAAV1/HO-1 was tested by IA administration into STR/ort mice followed by histopathological scoring of cartilage. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and HO-1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of joint sections. Administration of a rAAV1 based vector into OA mouse joints resulted in transduction of the synovium, joint capsule, adipocytes and skeletal muscle while none of the serotypes showed significant cartilage transduction. All OA joints exhibited significantly elevated levels of oxidative stress marker, 3-NT, in the synovium compared to OA-resistant CBA-strain of mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that AAV transgene expression in primary synoviocytes was augmented by oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2) and that a rAAV expressing HO-1 reduced the levels of oxidative stress. In vivo, HO-1 was increased in the synovium of STR/ort mice. However, delivery of rAAV1/HO-1 into OA joints did not reduce cartilage degradation. AAV-mediated HO-1 delivery into OA joints during active disease was not sufficient to improve cartilage pathology in this model. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression in prostate cancer cells modulates the oxidative response in bone cells.

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    Mercedes Ferrando

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of death among males. It is currently estimated that inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. PCa is dominated by complications arising from metastasis to the bone where the tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment impairing the balance between bone formation and degradation. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is not completely understood. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 counteracts oxidative damage and inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that HO-1 is implicated in PCa, demonstrating that endogenous HO-1 inhibits bone derived-prostate cancer cells proliferation, invasion and migration and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of HO-1 modulated PCa cells on osteoblasts proliferation in vitro and on bone remodeling in vivo. Using a co-culture system of PC3 cells with primary mice osteoblasts (PMOs, we demonstrated that HO-1 pharmacological induction (hemin treatment abrogated the diminution of PMOs proliferation induced by PCa cells and decreased the expression of osteoclast-modulating factors in osteoblasts. No changes were detected in the expression of genes involved in osteoblasts differentiation. However, co-culture of hemin pre-treated PC3 cells (PC3 Hem with PMOs provoked an oxidative status and activated FoxO signaling in osteoblasts. The percentage of active osteoblasts positive for HO-1 increased in calvarias explants co-cultured with PC3 Hem cells. Nuclear HO-1 expression was detected in tumors generated by in vivo bone injection of HO-1 stable transfected PC3 (PC3HO-1 cells in the femur of SCID mice. These results suggest that HO-1 has the potential to modify the bone microenvironment impacting on PCa bone metastasis.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulated Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

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    Luca Vanella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of increased expression of HO-1 protein and increased levels of HO activity on differentiation of bone-marrow-derived human MSCs. MSCs are multipotent cells that proliferate and differentiate into many different cell types including adipocytes and osteoblasts. HO, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, plays an important role during MSCs differentiation. HO catalyzes the stereospecific degradation of heme to biliverdin, with the concurrent release of iron and carbon monoxide. Upregulation of HO-1 expression and increased HO activity are essential for MSC growth and differentiation to the osteoblast lineage consistent with the role of HO-1 in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. HO-1 participates in the MSC differentiation process shifting the balance of MSC differentiation in favor of the osteoblast lineage by decreasing PPARγ and increasing osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2. In this paper, we define HO-1 as a target molecule in the modulation of adipogenesis and osteogenesis from MSCs and examine the role of the HO system in diabetes, inflammation, osteoporosis, hypertension, and other pathologies, a burgeoning area of research.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 induction improves cardiac function following myocardial ischemia by reducing oxidative stress.

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    Yossi Issan

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation.In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage markers and signaling pathways were measured.HO-1 induction lowered release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phospho kinase (CK, decreased propidium iodide staining, improved cell morphology and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. In diabetic mice, Fractional Shortening (FS was lower than non-diabetic mice (35±1%vs.41±2, respectively p<0.05. CoPP-treated diabetic animals improved cardiac function (43±2% p<0.01, reduced CK, Troponin T levels and infarct size compared to non-treated diabetic mice (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively. CoPP-enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the decrease in superoxide levels in cardiac tissues and plasma TNFα levels (p<0.05. The increased levels of HO-1 by CoPP treatment after LAD ligation led to a shift of the Bcl-2/bax ratio towards the antiapoptotic process (p<0.05. CoPP significantly increased the expression levels of pAKT and pGSK3β (p<0.05 in cardiomyocytes and in diabetic mice with MI. SnPP abolished CoPP's cardioprotective effects.HO-1 induction plays a role in cardioprotection against hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes and in reducing post ischemic cardiac damage in the diabetic heart as proved by the increased levels of pAKT with

  10. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

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    Simon J Gibbons

    Full Text Available Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1 expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162 are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases.Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders.Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2 and without diabetes (n = 170 were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2 and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234. Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI were done. Statistical analyses of short (32 repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis.The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016. Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008. Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23 as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12, P = 0.022.Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  11. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Simon J; Grover, Madhusudan; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Zubair, Adeel; Wilson, Laura A; Wu, Yanhong; Abell, Thomas L; Hasler, William L; Koch, Kenneth L; McCallum, Richard W; Nguyen, Linda A B; Parkman, Henry P; Sarosiek, Irene; Snape, William J; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders. Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2) and without diabetes (n = 170) were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2) and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234). Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) were done. Statistical analyses of short (32) repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis. The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016). Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM) and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008). Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23) as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12), P = 0.022. Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  12. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function following Myocardial Ischemia by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Kornowski, Ran; Aravot, Dan; Shainberg, Asher; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Sodhi, Komal; Abraham, Nader G.; Hochhauser, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation. Methods In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage markers and signaling pathways were measured. Results HO-1 induction lowered release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospho kinase (CK), decreased propidium iodide staining, improved cell morphology and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. In diabetic mice, Fractional Shortening (FS) was lower than non-diabetic mice (35±1%vs.41±2, respectively p<0.05). CoPP-treated diabetic animals improved cardiac function (43±2% p<0.01), reduced CK, Troponin T levels and infarct size compared to non-treated diabetic mice (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively). CoPP-enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the decrease in superoxide levels in cardiac tissues and plasma TNFα levels (p<0.05). The increased levels of HO-1 by CoPP treatment after LAD ligation led to a shift of the Bcl-2/bax ratio towards the antiapoptotic process (p<0.05). CoPP significantly increased the expression levels of pAKT and pGSK3β (p<0.05) in cardiomyocytes and in diabetic mice with MI. SnPP abolished CoPP's cardioprotective effects. Conclusions HO-1 induction plays a role in cardioprotection against hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes and in reducing post ischemic cardiac damage in the diabetic heart as proved by

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Is Dependent on Oxidative Stress and Reflects Treatment Outcomes

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    Neesha Rockwood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB and has been proposed as a biomarker of active disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb induces HO-1 as well as how its expression is affected by HIV-1 coinfection and successful antitubercular therapy (ATT are poorly understood. We found that HO-1 expression is markedly increased in rabbits, mice, and non-human primates during experimental Mtb infection and gradually decreased during ATT. In addition, we examined circulating concentrations of HO-1 in a cohort of 130 HIV-1 coinfected and uninfected pulmonary TB patients undergoing ATT to investigate changes in expression of this biomarker in relation to HIV-1 status, radiological disease severity, and treatment outcome. We found that plasma levels of HO-1 were elevated in untreated HIV-1 coinfected TB patients and correlated positively with HIV-1 viral load and negatively with CD4+ T cell count. In both HIV-1 coinfected and Mtb monoinfected patients, HO-1 levels were substantially reduced during successful TB treatment but not in those who experienced treatment failure or subsequently relapsed. To further delineate the molecular mechanisms involved in induction of HO-1 by Mtb, we performed a series of in vitro experiments using mouse and human macrophages. We found that Mtb-induced HO-1 expression requires NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production induced by the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6, which in turn triggers nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NRF-2. These observations provide further insight into the utility of HO-1 as a biomarker of both disease and successful therapy in TB monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected patients and reveal a previously undocumented pathway linking expression of the enzyme with oxidative stress.

  14. Desoxyrhapontigenin up-regulates Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression in macrophages and inflammatory lung injury

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    Ran Joo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an important anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and cytoprotective enzyme that is regulated by the activation of the major transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. In the present study, six stilbene derivatives isolated from Rheum undulatum L. were assessed for their antioxidative potential. In the tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, desoxyrhapontigenin was the most potent component that reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and peroxynitrite. In response to desoxyrhapontigenin, the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA confirmed that desoxyrhapontigenin promoted the DNA binding of Nrf2 and increased the expression of antioxidant proteins and enzymes regulated by Nrf2. Further investigation utilizing specific inhibitors of Akt, p38, JNK and ERK demonstrated that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway mediates HO-1 expression. Moreover, the increase in Nrf2 expression mediated by treatment with desoxyrhapontigenin was reversed by Nrf2 or Akt gene knock-down. In the LPS-induced in vivo lung inflammation model, pretreatment with desoxyrhapontigenin markedly ameliorated LPS-induced lung inflammation and histological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis of Nrf2, HO-1 and p65 was conducted and confirmed that treatment with desoxyrhapontigenin induced Nrf2 and HO-1 expression but reduced p65 expression. These findings suggest that desoxyrhapontigenin may be a potential therapeutic candidate as an antioxidant or an anti-inflammatory agent.

  15. De-etiolation of wheat seedling leaves: cross talk between heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

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    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available Greening of etiolated plants is predominantly stimulated by light but the complete molecular mechanism is still unknown. Multiple studies currently focus on the important physiological effects of heme oxygenase (HO/carbon monoxide (CO in plants. In this report, firstly, the role of HO/CO in light-induced de-etiolation process was investigated. We discovered that light could significantly increase HO activities, HO-1 gene expression, CO release, and chlorophyll accumulation, all of which were sensitive to zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX, the potent inhibitor of HO-1, respectively. Both HO-1 inducer hematin (H and CO aqueous solution were able to relieve etiolation in wheat seedling leaves under completely darkness by up-regulating endogenous HO/CO system, so as nitric oxide (NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP did. Similarly, endogenous NO production was also boost in response to light, SNP, hematin and CO aqueous solution in wheat seedling leaves. Additionally, the restoration of chlorophyll contents was blocked, when the inhibitor of mammalian nitric oxide synthase N(G-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME or the specific scavenger of NO 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO was added, respectively. Furthermore, the inducible effects of light were different from those of SNP, hematin, and CO on Pfr accumulation and PHYA transcripts. However, all of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, hematin, and CO could accelerate NO emission, which suggested that HO/CO in wheat seedlings de-etiolation under dark-light transition may have a cross talk with NO.

  16. Gastroprotective effect of heme-oxygenase 1/biliverdin/CO pathway in ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antoniella S; Gadelha, Gemima G; Lima, Samara J; Garcia, Joyce A; Medeiros, Jand Venes R; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Aldo A; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Brito, Gerly Anne C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Souza, Marcellus H L P

    2010-09-10

    Our objective was to evaluate the role of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1)/biliverdin/CO pathway in gastric defense against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice. Mice were pre-treated with saline, hemin (HO-1 inducer), biliverdin (HO-1 product), dimanganese decacarbonyl (DMDC, CO donor) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX, HO-1 antagonist). Another group received soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor (ODQ) 30 min before hemin, biliverdin or DMDC. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ethanol. After one hour, rats were sacrificed. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malonylaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) or bilirubin. HO-1 expression was determined after saline or ethanol administration by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or immunohistochemistry. Ethanol (25% or 50%) induced gastric damage, increased MDA levels and reduced GSH in the gastric tissue. Ethanol 50% increased HO-1 mRNA transcripts, HO-1 immunoreactivity, and bilirubin concentration in gastric mucosa. Pre-treatment with hemin reduced gastric damage and MDA formation and increased GSH concentration in the gastric mucosa. ZnPP IX amplified the ethanol-induced gastric lesion, increased MDA formation and decreased GSH concentration in gastric mucosa. Biliverdin and DMDC reduced gastric damage and MDA formation and increased GSH concentration in the gastric tissue. ODQ completely abolished the DMDC protective gastric effect. However, effects of hemin or biliverdin did not change with ODQ treatment. Our results suggest that HO-1/biliverdin/CO pathway plays a protective role against ethanol-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that can be dependent (CO) or independent (biliverdin) of sGC activation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) protects skin cells from ionizing radiation via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Ge, Yangyang; Cao, Han; Ge, Xin; Luo, Judong; Xue, Jiao; Yang, Hongying; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2014-11-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of many disorders. Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers; however, radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern. EGCG has not yet been reported as protecting skin cells against ionizing radiation. In the present study, we investigated whether EGCG confers cytoprotection against ionizing radiation. We found that, compared with the control, pretreatment with EGCG significantly enhanced the viability of human skin cells that were irradiated with X-rays, and decreased apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Mito-Tracker assay showed that EGCG suppressed the damage to mitochondria induced by ionizing radiation via upregulation of SOD2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells were significantly reduced when pretreated with EGCG before irradiation. Radiation-induced γH2AX foci, which are representative of DNA double-strand breaks, were decreased by pretreatment with EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG induced the expression of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner via transcriptional activation. HO-1 knockdown or treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPPIX) reversed the protective role of EGCG, indicating an important role for HO-1. These results suggest that EGCG offers a new strategy for protecting skin against ionizing radiation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 and inflammation in experimental right ventricular failure on prolonged overcirculation-induced pulmonary hypertension.

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    Asmae Belhaj

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO-1 is a stress response enzyme which presents with cardiovascular protective and anti-inflammatory properties. Six-month chronic overcirculation-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in piglets has been previously reported as a model of right ventricular (RV failure related to the RV activation of apoptotic and inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that altered HO-1 signalling could be involved in both pulmonary vascular and RV changes. Fifteen growing piglets were assigned to a sham operation (n = 8 or to an anastomosis of the left innominate artery to the pulmonary arterial trunk (n = 7. Six months later, hemodynamics was evaluated after closure of the shunt. After euthanasia of the animals, pulmonary and myocardial tissue was sampled for pathobiological evaluation. Prolonged shunting was associated with a tendency to decreased pulmonary gene and protein expressions of HO-1, while pulmonary gene expressions of interleukin (IL-33, IL-19, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and -2 were increased. Pulmonary expressions of constitutive HO-2 and pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α remained unchanged. Pulmonary vascular resistance (evaluated by pressure/flow plots was inversely correlated to pulmonary HO-1 protein and IL-19 gene expressions, and correlated to pulmonary ICAM-1 gene expression. Pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness and PVR were inversely correlated to pulmonary IL-19 expression. RV expression of HO-1 was decreased, while RV gene expressions TNF-α and ICAM-2 were increased. There was a correlation between RV ratio of end-systolic to pulmonary arterial elastances and RV HO-1 expression. These results suggest that downregulation of HO-1 is associated to PAH and RV failure.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates anti-adipogenesis effect of raspberry ketone in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Yang, Bo-Cheng; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Yen-Mei; Yen, Mao-Hsiung; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2017-07-15

    Obesity is caused by excessive accumulation of body fat and is closely related to complex metabolic diseases. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound in red raspberry, was recently reported to possess anti-obesity effects. However, its mechanisms are unclear. Adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity and, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of action of RK on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Adipocyte lipid contents were determined using oil-red O staining while adipogenic transcription factor and lipogenic protein expressions were determined using western blotting. RK (300-400µM) strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. RK reduced the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressions and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Wnt10b, and β-catenin expressions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, RK inhibited lipid accumulation, and adipogenic transcription factor and lipogenic protein expressions were all decreased by inhibiting HO-1 or β-catenin using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) or β-catenin short-interfering RNA (siRNA), respectively. Furthermore, Wnt10b and β-catenin expressions were negatively regulation by SnPP. RK may exert anti-adipogenic effects through modulation of the HO-1/Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 in pigs confers resistance against xenograft rejection during ex vivo perfusion of porcine kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Lemme, Erika; Hassel, Petra; Queisser, Anna-Lisa; Herrmann, Doris; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Carnwath, Joseph W; Klose, Johannes; Tiede, Andreas; Friedrich, Lars; Baars, Wiebke; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    The major immunological hurdle to successful porcine-to-human xenotransplantation is the acute vascular rejection (AVR), characterized by endothelial cell (EC) activation and perturbation of coagulation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its derivatives have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory effects and protect against reactive oxygen species, rendering HO-1 a promising molecule to control AVR. Here, we report the production and characterization of pigs transgenic for human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) and demonstrate significant protection in porcine kidneys against xenograft rejection in ex vivo perfusion with human blood and transgenic porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) in a TNF-α-mediated apoptosis assay. Transgenic and non-transgenic PAEC were tested in a TNF-α-mediated apoptosis assay. Expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin) was measured by real-time PCR. hHO-1 transgenic porcine kidneys were perfused with pooled and diluted human AB blood in an ex vivo perfusion circuit. MHC class-II up-regulation after induction with IFN-γ was compared between wild-type and hHO-1 transgenic PAEC. Cloned hHO-1 transgenic pigs expressed hHO-1 in heart, kidney, liver, and in cultured ECs and fibroblasts. hHO-1 transgenic PAEC were protected against TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. Real-time PCR revealed reduced expression of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. These effects could be abrogated by the incubation of transgenic PAECs with the specific HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphorine IX (Zn(II)PPIX, 20 μm). IFN-γ induced up-regulation of MHC class-II molecules was significantly reduced in PAECs from hHO-1 transgenic pigs. hHO-1 transgenic porcine kidneys could successfully be perfused with diluted human AB-pooled blood for a maximum of 240 min (with and without C1 inh), while in wild-type kidneys, blood flow ceased after ∼60 min. Elevated levels of d-Dimer and TAT were detected, but no significant consumption of fibrinogen and

  1. Low heme oxygenase-1 levels in patients with systemic sclerosis are associated with an altered Toll-like receptor response: another role for CXCL4?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, L. van; Cossu, M.; Scharstuhl, A.; Pennings, B.W.; Vonk, M.C.; Vreman, H.J.; Lafyatis, R.L.; Berg, W.B. van den; Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Radstake, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: SSc is a disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a haem-degrading enzyme that mediates resolution of inflammation and is induced upon mediators abundantly present in SSc. We aimed to assess whether HO-1 expression/function is disturbed in SSc

  2. Low heme oxygenase-1 levels in patients with systemic sclerosis are associated with an altered Toll-like receptor response : Another role for CXCL4?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bon, Lenny; Cossu, Marta; Scharstuhl, Alwin; Pennings, Bas W C; Vonk, Madelon C.; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Lafyatis, Robert L.; van den Berg, Wim; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Radstake, Timothy R D J

    2016-01-01

    Objective. SSc is a disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a haem-degrading enzyme that mediates resolution of inflammation and is induced upon mediators abundantly present in SSc. We aimed to assess whether HO-1 expression/function is disturbed in SSc

  3. Atorvastatin prevents hypoxia-induced inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression but does not affect heme oxygenase-1 in human microvascular endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loboda, Agnieszka; Jazwa, Agnieszka; Jozkowicz, Alicj A.; Dorosz, Jerzy; Balla, Jozsef; Molema, Grietje; Dulak, Jozef

    Beneficial cardiovascular effects of statins, the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are particularly assigned to the modulation of inflammation. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are listed among the crucial protective,

  4. A Single Site mutation (F429H) Converts the Enzyme CYP 2B4 into a Heme Oxygenase: A QM/MM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, Dandamudi; Zazza, Costantino; Lai, Wenzhen; Chourasia, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The intriguing deactivation of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B4 enzyme induced by a mutation of a single residue, Phe429 to His, is explored by means of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations of the O-OH bond activation of the (Fe3+OOH)− intermediate. It is found that the F429H mutant of CYP 2B4 undergoes homolytic, instead of heterolytic, O-OH bond cleavage. Thus, the mutant acquires the following characteristics of a heme oxygenase (HO) enzyme: (a) The donation by His429 of an additional NH---S H-bond to the cysteine ligand combined with the presence of the substrate retard the heterolytic cleavage and give rise to homolytic O-OH cleavage, and (b) the Thr302/water cluster orients the nascent OH• close to the meso position of the porphyrin, and ensures an efficient meso hydroxylation. PMID:22356576

  5. Soyasaponin Bb Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijie, Zhu; Ranran, Fu; Xiuying, Liu; Yutang, He; Bo, Wang; Tao, Ma

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that oxidative stress induced by alcohol played a crucial role in the formation of alcoholic liver disease. Although the formation mechanisms underlying liver injury induced by alcohol still remained largely unknown, it has been considered that oxidative stress played a core role in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soyasaponin Bb (Ss-Bb) on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat hepatocyte injury. It has been shown that the administration of Ss-Bb could significantly restore antioxidant activity in BRL 3A cells. Moreover, the impaired liver function and morphology changes resulting from ethanol exposure were improved by Ss-Bb treatment. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) indicated a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role. Finally, we found that pretreatment with Ss-Bb to ethanol exposure cells increased the expression level of HO-1. It was suggested that Ss-Bb may protect against alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury through ameliorating oxidative stress, and the induction of HO-1 was an important protective mechanism. Effects of soyasaponin Bb was investigated on oxidative stress in rat hepatocytesCell viability and antioxidant capacities were evaluated to determine the effectsThe expression level of HO-1 was measured to reveal the proptective mechanisms.

  6. [Genistein attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yukun; Wang, Daoxin; Zhu, Tao; Li, Changyi

    2012-02-01

    To study the effect of genistein on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT). Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15), namely the control group, model group, low-dose (20 µg/kg) genistein group and high-dose (80 µg/kg) genistein group. The hemodynamic parameters were measured and the remodeling of pulmonary small arteries was observed by electron microscope (EM). The expression of HO-1 in the lung tissues were detected by Western blotting. Compared with the model group, genistein treatment significantly reduced the elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure, improved the right ventricular hypertrophy index, and increased the expression of HO-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Genistein attentuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in MCT-treated rats possibly by up-regulation of HO-1 in the lung tissues.

  7. The Induction of Heme Oxygenase 1 Decreases Painful Diabetic Neuropathy and Enhances the Antinociceptive Effects of Morphine in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castany, Sílvia; Carcolé, Mireia; Leánez, Sergi; Pol, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus which is poorly controlled by conventional analgesics. This study investigates if treatment with an heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP), could modulate the allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by diabetes and enhanced the antinociceptive effects of morphine. In a diabetic mice model induced by the injection of streptozotocin (STZ), we evaluated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg of CoPP at several days after its administration. The antinociceptive actions produced by the systemic administration of morphine alone or combined with CoPP were also evaluated. In addition, the effects of CoPP treatment on the expression of HO-1, the microglial activation marker (CD11b/c), the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and μ-opioid receptors (MOR), were also assessed. Our results showed that the administration of 10 mg/kg of CoPP during 5 consecutive days completely blocked the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity induced by diabetes. These effects are accompanied by the increased spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve protein levels of HO-1. In addition, the STZ-induced activation of microglia and overexpression of NOS2 in the spinal cord were inhibited by CoPP treatment. Furthermore, the antinociceptive effects of morphine were enhanced by CoPP treatment and reversed by the administration of an HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP). The spinal cord expression of MOR was also increased by CoPP treatment in diabetic mice. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that the induction of HO-1 attenuated STZ-induced painful diabetic neuropathy and enhanced the antinociceptive effects of morphine via inhibition of microglia activation and NOS2 overexpression as well as by increasing the spinal cord levels of MOR. This study proposes the administration of CoPP alone or

  8. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression by dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA) through the AMPK–Nrf2 dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Sunyoung, E-mail: sunyoung@snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-15

    Oxidative stress is induced by the accumulation of free radicals, resulting in an imbalanced cellular redox state, which has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan compound isolated from Cucurbita moschata, has previously been reported to contain anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells and primary MEFs (Abraham and Kappas, 2008). In this study, it was tested whether DHCA could affect the expression of HO-1, using Raw264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. DHCA increased the protein and RNA levels of HO-1 and upregulated its promoter activity. Data from transient transfection assays indicated that ARE located in the E1 region of the HO-1 promoter are important in this DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1 expression. DHCA was also shown to enhance the nuclear translocation and binding of Nrf2 to the respective DNA sequences. The upregulation of HO-1 expression by DHCA was also observed in primary macrophages derived from wild type animals, but not in those from Nrf2 KO mice. Effects of DHCA on HO-1 and Nrf2 were reduced when cells were treated with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, but not by PI3K/Akt or MAPK inhibitors. Data from an experiment using a specific siRNA or chemical inhibitor for HO-1 suggested that the DHCA-mediated induction of the HO-1 protein could suppress the LPS-stimulated production of NO. Taken together, our data suggest that DHCA induces the expression of HO-1 by controlling its promoter activity through the AMPK–Nrf2 pathway, eventually leading to the reduction of NO production, and may thus have potential as an effective antioxidant. - Highlights: • Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA) induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. • The AMPK–Nrf2 pathway is critically involved in the DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1. • DHCA increased the expression of HO-1, Gclc and Gclm in primary macrophages. • DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1 contributed to the suppression of NO production.

  9. The heme oxygenase 1 product biliverdin interferes with hepatitis C virus replication by increasing antiviral interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Elisabeth; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Ocker, Matthias; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lohmann, Volker; Hashemolhosseini, Said; Tiegs, Gisa; Sass, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been shown recently to interfere with replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). We investigated the effect of HO-1 products carbon monoxide (CO), iron and biliverdin on HCV replication using the replicon cell lines Huh-5-15 and LucUbiNeo-ET, stably expressing HCV proteins NS3 through NS5B. Incubation of these cell lines in the presence of the CO donor methylene chloride transiently reduced HCV replication, whereas an increase of iron in cell culture by administration of FeCl(3) or iron-saturated lactoferrin did not interfere with HCV replication. Likewise, depletion of iron by deferoxamine during induction of HO-1 by cobalt-protoporphyrin IX did not restore HCV replication. The most prominent effect was observed after incubation of replicon cell lines in the presence of biliverdin. Biliverdin seems to interfere with HCV replication-mediated oxidative stress by inducing expression of antiviral interferons, such as interferon alpha2 and alpha17. The antioxidant biliverdin reduces HCV replication in vitro by triggering the antiviral interferon response and might improve HCV therapy in the future.

  10. DNA Protecting Activities of Nymphaea nouchali (Burm. f Flower Extract Attenuate t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress Cell Death through Nrf2-Mediated Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression by Activating MAP-Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Badrul Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Nymphaea nouchali flower (NNF extract and the underlying mechanism using RAW 264.7 cells. The presence of gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, caffeic acid, quercetin, and apigenin in the NNF was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The extract had a very potent capacity to scavenge numerous free radicals. NNF extract was also able to prevent DNA damage and quench cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation induced by tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP with no signs of toxicity. The NNF extract was able to augment the expression of both primary and phase II detoxifying enzyme, resulting in combat the oxidative stress. This is accomplished by phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase (p38 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK followed by enhancing the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. This attenuates cellular ROS generation and confers protection from cell death. Altogether, the results of current study revealed that Nymphaea nouchali flower could be a source of natural phytochemicals that could lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for preventing oxidative stress associated diseases and attenuating disease progression.

  11. Solution NMR study of environmental effects on substrate seating in human heme oxygenase: influence of polypeptide truncation, substrate modification and axial ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfeng; Li, Yiming; Wang, Jinling; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; La Mar, Gerd N

    2006-01-01

    Solution proton NMR has been used here to show that, as either the high-spin ferric, protohemin (PH) substrate complex at neutral pH, or the low-spin ferric, cyanide-inhibited PH substrate complex, the active site electronic and molecular structure of the 233- and 265-residue recombinant constructs of human heme oxygenase-1, hHO, are essentially indistinguishable. It is shown, moreover, that the equilibrium PH orientational isomerism about the alpha,gamma-meso axis is 1:1 in the water-ligated, resting-state complex, but changes to a 4:1 equilibrium ratio as the cyanide-inhibited complex, with the minor species in solution corresponding to the only one found in crystals. The introduction of significant PH orientational preference in the cyanide over the aquo complex is rationalized by the crystallographic observation for the same H2O and CN ligated complexes of rat heme oxygenase (rHO), where the steric tilt of the Fe-CN unit resulted in a approximately 1 A transition of PH into the hydrophobic interior, and stronger interaction of the vinyls with the HO matrix [M. Sugishima, H. Sakamoto, M. Noguchi, K. Fukugama, Biochemistry 42 (2003) 9898-9905]. 1H NMR spectra of the cyanide-inhibited PH complex are the most used, and most useful, for determining the distribution of orientational isomerism for PH in complexes of HO. Hence, it is imperative that the time-course of the spectra after sample preparation be considered in order to reach conclusions that relate isomeric seating of the heme with variable isomeric biliverdin products. The natural orientational isomerism of PH leads to spectral congestion that has prompted the use of a synthetic, twofold symmetric substrate, 2,4-dimethyldeuterohemin, DMDH. While the hyperfine shift pattern for non-ligated residues are very similar and are consistent with largely conserved molecular structure with the alternate substrates, the steric tilt of the Fe-CN vector towards the protein interior, as determined by the orientation of

  12. Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Therapy Provides Cardioprotection Via Control of Post-Ischemic Inflammation: An Experimental Study in a Pre-Clinical Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Rabea; Lange, Philipp; Petersen, Björn; Gottlieb, Elena; Ng, Judy King Man; Finger, Stefanie; Horstkotte, Jan; Lee, Seungmin; Thormann, Michael; Knorr, Maike; El-Aouni, Chiraz; Boekstegers, Peter; Reichart, Bruno; Wenzel, Philip; Niemann, Heiner; Kupatt, Christian

    2015-07-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress-responsive enzyme converting heme to bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and free iron, which exerts anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Although efficient cardioprotection after HO-1 overexpression has been reported in rodents, its role in attenuating post-ischemic inflammation is unclear. This study assessed the efficacy of recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV)-encoding human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in attenuating post-ischemic inflammation in a murine and a porcine ischemia/reperfusion model. Murine ischemia was induced by 45 min of left anterior descending occlusion, followed by 24 h of reperfusion and functional as well as fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis. Porcine hearts were subjected to 60 min of ischemia and 24h of reperfusion before hemodynamic and histologic analyses were performed. Human microvascular endothelial cells transfected with hHO-1 displayed an attenuated interleukin-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, resulting in reduced monocytic THP-1 cell recruitment in vitro. In murine left anterior descending occlusion and reperfusion, the post-ischemic influx of CD45(+) leukocytes, Ly-6G(+) neutrophils, and Ly-6C(high) monocytes was further exacerbated in HO-1-deficient hearts and reversed by rAAV.hHO-1 treatment. Conversely, in our porcine model of ischemia, the post-ischemic influx of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils and CD14(+) monocytes was reduced by 49% and 87% after rAAV.hHO-1 transduction, similar to hHO-1 transgenic pigs. Functionally, rAAV.hHO-1 and hHO-1 transgenic left ventricles displayed a smaller loss of ejection fraction than control animals. Whereas HO-1 deficiency exacerbates post-ischemic cardiac inflammation in mice, hHO-1 gene therapy attenuates inflammation after ischemia and reperfusion in murine and porcine hearts. Regional hHO-1 gene therapy provides cardioprotection in a pre-clinical porcine ischemia/reperfusion model. Copyright © 2015 American

  13. The Haptoglobin-CD163-Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway for Hemoglobin Scavenging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Haugbølle; Etzerodt, Anders; Svendsen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity...

  14. A selective stepwise heme oxygenase model system: an iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical leads to a verdoheme-type compound via an isoporphyrin intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Sharma, Savita K; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2013-11-06

    The selective oxidation of the α-position of two heme-Fe(III) tetraarylporphryinate complexes occurs when water(hydroxide) attacks their oxidized Cmpd I-type equivalents, high-valent Fe(IV)═O π-cation radical species ((P(+•))Fe(IV)═O). Stepwise intermediate formation occurs, as detected by UV-vis spectroscopic monitoring or mass spectrometric interrogation, being iron(III) isoporphyrins, iron(III) benzoyl-biliverdins, and the final verdoheme-like products. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes could proceed through heterolytic cleavage of an iron(III)-hydroperoxo intermediate to form a transient Cmpd I-type species.

  15. Mutations in the FMN domain modulate MCD spectra of the heme site in the oxygenase domain of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempombe, Joseph; Elmore, Bradley O; Sun, Xi; Dupont, Andrea; Ghosh, Dipak K; Guillemette, J Guy; Kirk, Martin L; Feng, Changjian

    2009-05-27

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) output state for NO production is a complex of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding domain and the heme domain, and thereby it facilitates the interdomain electron transfer from the FMN to the catalytic heme site. Emerging evidence suggests that interdomain FMN-heme interactions are important in the formation of the output state because they guide the docking of the FMN domain to the heme domain. In this study, notable effects of mutations in the adjacent FMN domain on the heme structure in a human iNOS bidomain oxygenase/FMN construct have been observed by using low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The comparative MCD study of wild-type and mutant proteins clearly indicates that a properly docked FMN domain contributes to the observed L-Arg perturbation of the heme MCD spectrum in the wild-type protein and that the conserved surface residues in the FMN domain (E546 and E603) play key roles in facilitating a productive alignment of the FMN and heme domains in iNOS.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 delays gibberellin-induced programmed cell death of rice aleurone layers subjected to drought stress by interacting with nitric oxide

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    Huangming eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereal aleurone layers undergo a gibberellin (GA-regulated process of programmed cell death (PCD following germination. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is known as a rate-liming enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin IXα (BV, carbon monoxide (CO, and free iron ions (Fe2+. It is a critical component in plant development and adaptation to environment stresses. Our previous studies confirmed that HO-1 inducer hematin (Ht promotes the germination of rice seeds in drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG conditions, but the corresponding effects of HO-1 on the alleviation of germination-triggered PCD in GA-treated rice aleurone layers remain unknown. The present study has determined that GA co-treated with PEG results in lower HO-1 transcript levels and HO activity, which in turn results in the development of vacuoles in aleurone cells, followed by PCD. The pharmacology approach illustrated that up- or down-regulated HO-1 gene expression and HO activity delayed or accelerated GA-induced PCD. Furthermore, the application of the HO-1 inducer hematin and nitric oxide (NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP not only activated HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and endogenous NO content, but also blocked GA-induced rapid vacuolation and accelerated aleurone layers PCD under drought stress. However, both HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl0-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO reserved the effects of hematin and SNP on rice aleurone layer PCD under drought stress by down-regulating endogenous HO-1 and NO, respectively. The inducible effects of hematin and SNP on HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and NO content were blocked by cPTIO. Together, these results clearly suggest that HO-1 is involved in the alleviation of GA-induced PCD of drought-triggered rice aleurone layers by associating with NO.

  17. Diabetes-Related Induction of the Heme Oxygenase System and Enhanced Colocalization of Heme Oxygenase 1 and 2 with Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in Myenteric Neurons of Different Intestinal Segments

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    Lalitha Chandrakumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and decreased effectiveness of endogenous defense mechanisms plays an essential role in the initiation of diabetes-related neuropathy. We demonstrated that nitrergic myenteric neurons display different susceptibilities to diabetic damage in different gut segments. Therefore, we aim to reveal the gut segment-specific differences in the expression of heme oxygenase (HO isoforms and the colocalization of these antioxidants with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in myenteric neurons. After ten weeks, samples from the duodenum, ileum, and colon of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were processed for double-labelling fluorescent immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The number of both HO-immunoreactive and nNOS/HO-immunoreactive myenteric neurons was the lowest in the ileal and the highest in the colonic ganglia of controls; it increased the most extensively in the ileum and was also elevated in the colon of diabetics. Although the total number of nitrergic neurons decreased in all segments, the proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons colocalizing with HOs was enhanced robustly in the ileum and colon of diabetics. We presume that those nitrergic neurons which do not colocalize with HOs are the most seriously affected by diabetic damage. Therefore, the regional induction of the HO system is strongly correlated with diabetes-related region-specific nitrergic neuropathy.

  18. Upregulation of heme oxygenase and collagen type III in the rat bladder after partial bladder outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Mitsuhiko; Ukimura, Osamu; Yaoi, Takeshi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Fushiki, Shinji; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate possible changes of the gene expression and localization of the enzymes, heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), with reference to increase of collagen type III in response to the partial obstruction of the bladder. Following initial obstruction, whole rat bladders were removed for real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated significantly enhanced expression of HO (p < 0.01) and collagen type III (p < 0.001) gene on postoperative day 14. Enhanced expression of NOS gene was seen only on postoperative day 4 (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry revealed that immunoreactivity to HO-1 had much in common in neural cells and fibers, although immunoreactivity to HO-2 and iNOS was relatively weak. This study suggested gene expression of HO, especially HO-1, was more dramatically changed than NOS, and was upregulated simultaneously with increase of collagen type III after obstruction. HO systems could be involved in the pathogenesis of bladder dysfunction related to increase of collagen type III after obstruction. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Gene Transfer of Heme Oxygenase-1 Using an Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 6 Vector Prolongs Cardiac Allograft Survival

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    Jacqueline M. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Allograft survival can be prolonged by overexpression of cytoprotective genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. Modifications in vector design and delivery have provided new opportunities to safely and effectively administer HO-1 into the heart prior to transplantation to improve long-term graft outcome. Methods. HO-1 was delivered to the donor heart using an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV with a pseudotype 6 capsid and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF to enhance myocardial tropism and microvascular permeability. Survival of mouse cardiac allografts, fully or partially mismatched at the MHC, was determined with and without cyclosporine A. Intragraft cytokine gene expression was examined by PCR. Results. The use of AAV6 to deliver HO-1 to the donor heart, combined with immunosuppression, prolonged allograft survival by 55.3% when donor and recipient were completely mismatched at the MHC and by 94.6% if partially mismatched. The combination of gene therapy and immunosuppression was more beneficial than treatment with either AAV6-HO-1 or CsA alone. IL-17a, b, e and f were induced in the heart at rejection. Conclusions. Pretreatment of cardiac allografts with AAV6-HO-1 plus cyclosporine A prolonged graft survival. HO-1 gene therapy represents a beneficial adjunct to immunosuppressive therapy in cardiac transplantation.

  20. Expression of heme oxygenase-1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its correlation with clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degese, María S; Mendizabal, Javier E; Gandini, Norberto A; Gutkind, J Silvio; Molinolo, Alfredo; Hewitt, Stephen M; Curino, Alejandro C; Coso, Omar A; Facchinetti, María M

    2012-07-01

    While changes in heme oxygenase (HO-1) in lung cancer have already been reported, conflicting results were obtained for enzyme expression in human lung cancer specimens. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study HO-1 expression in a large collection of human lung cancer samples. For this purpose, we analyzed the expression of HO-1 in an organized tissue microarray (TMA) and investigated its correlation with clinicopathological data. Ninety-six percent of tumor samples were positive for HO-1, and the expression of HO-1 was significantly higher in cancerous than in non-cancerous tissues. Importantly, HO-1 expression correlated with advanced stages and lymph node involvement. Additionally, quantitative RT-PCR in 18 pairs of human lung carcinomas and their adjacent non-malignant tissues was performed. Our results demonstrate that HO-1 protein is upregulated in epithelial malignant cells in NSCLC and its expression is associated with higher stages of the disease. Additionally, different subcellular localization is observed between tumor and adjacent non-malignant tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Paul E; Graf, Brigitte; Curran-Celentano, Joanne M; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether anthocyanin-enriched bilberry extracts modulate pre- or posttranslational levels of oxidative stress defense enzymes heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Confluent ARPE-19 cells were preincubated with anthocyanin and nonanthocyanin phenolic fractions of a 25% enriched extract of bilberry (10(-6)-1.0 mg/mL) and, after phenolic removal, cells were oxidatively challenged with H(2)O(2). The concentration of intracellular glutathione was measured by HPLC and free radical production determined by the dichlorofluorescin diacetate assay. HO-1 and GST-pi protein and mRNA levels were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. Preincubation with bilberry extract ameliorated the intracellular increase of H(2)O(2)-induced free radicals in RPE, though H(2)O(2) cytotoxicity was not affected. By 4 hours, the extract had upregulated HO-1 and GST-pi protein by 2.8- and 2.5-fold, respectively, and mRNA by 5.5- and 7.1-fold, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Anthocyanin and nonanthocyanin phenolic fractions contributed similarly to mRNA upregulation. Anthocyanins and other phenolics from bilberry upregulate the oxidative stress defense enzymes HO-1 and GST-pi in RPE, suggesting that they stimulate signal transduction pathways influencing genes controlled by the antioxidant response element.

  2. Negative feedback regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression by heme oxygenase-1 induction in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamanaka, Rieko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2008-04-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced under infectious diseases in macrophages. We performed experiments using various gene deficient mouse-derived macrophages to determine a detailed induction mechanism of HO-1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the functional role of HO-1 induction in macrophages. LPS (1 microg/mL) maximally induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and HO-1 mRNAs in wild-type (WT) macrophages at 6h and 12h after treatment, respectively, and liberated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) from WT macrophages. LPS also induced iNOS and HO-1 in TNFalpha(-/-) macrophages, but not in iNOS(-/-) macrophages. Interestingly, although LPS strongly induced iNOS, it failed to induce HO-1 almost completely in nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)(-/-) macrophages. The LPS-induced iNOS gene expression was suppressed by pretreatment with HO-1 inducers, hemin and Co-protoporphyrin (CoPP), but not with HO-1 inhibitor, Sn-protoporphyrin in WT macrophages. In the Nrf2(-/-) macrophages, the ability of CoPP to induce HO-1 and its inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced iNOS gene expression were lower than seen in WT macrophages. The present findings suggest that HO-1 is induced via NO-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and the enzymatic function of HO-1 inhibits the overproduction of NO in macrophages.

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1/CO as protective mediators in cigarette smoke- induced lung cell injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinay, Tamás; Choi, Augustine M K; Ryter, Stefan W

    2012-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease involving airways restriction, alveolar destruction, and loss of lung function, primarily due to cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. The inducible stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in cytoprotection against the toxic action of many xenobiotics, including CS. HO-1 also protects against elastase-induced emphysema. Differential expression of HO-1 in epithelial cells and macrophages may contribute to COPD susceptibility. Genetic polymorphisms in the HO-1 gene, which may account for variations in HO-1 expression among subpopulations, may be associated with COPD pathogenesis. Carbon monoxide (CO), a primary reaction product of HO-1 has been implicated in cytoprotection in many acute lung injury models, though it's precise role in chronic CS-induced lung injury remains unclear. CO is a potential biomarker of CS exposure and of inflammatory lung conditions. To date, a single clinical trial has addressed the possible therapeutic potential of CO in COPD patients. The implications of the cytoprotective potential of HO-1/CO system in CS-induced lung injury and COPD are discussed.

  4. Depression-like behaviors and heme oxygenase-1 are regulated by Lycopene in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Fu, Yanyan; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Pan, Wei; Shi, Yue; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xunbao; Qi, Dashi; Li, Lei; Ma, Kai; Tang, Renxian; Zheng, Kuiyang; Song, Yuanjian

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that lycopene possesses anti-inflammatory properties in the central nervous system. However, the potential role and the molecular mechanisms of lycopene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge inflammation and depression-like behaviors has not been clearly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the effects and the potential mechanisms of lycopene on LPS-induced depression-like behaviors. Lycopene was orally administered (60mg/kg) every day for seven days followed by intraperitoneal LPS injection (1mg/kg). The Forced swim test and tail suspension test were used to detect changes in the depression-like behaviors. ELISA was used to measure the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the plasma. Immunoblotting was performed to measure the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the hippocampus. The results showed that pretreatment with lycopene could ameliorate depression-like behaviors. Moreover, lycopene relieved neuronal cell injury in hippocampal CA1 regions. Furthermore, lycopene decreased LPS-induced expression of IL-1β and HO-1 in the hippocampus together with decreasing level of IL-6 and TNF-α in the plasma. Taken together, these results suggest that lycopene can attenuate LPS-induced inflammation and depression-like behaviors, which may be involved in regulating HO-1 in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein kinase G-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction by Agastache rugosa leaf extract protects RAW264.7 cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa Min; Kang, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Min Kyu; Kim, Sun Hee; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl

    2006-01-16

    It has been proposed that the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO) protects cells against oxidant-mediated injury. Although components of Agastache rugosa showed antioxidant effect, it is unclear this effect is related with HO-1 activity. Thus, we investigated the effects of Agastache rugosa leaf extract (ALE) on HO-1 protein expression and enzyme activity, and its protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage was also investigated using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Results showed that ALE concentration dependently increased HO-1 protein and enzyme activity, and protected cells from H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity, with an IC(50) of 0.526 mg/ml. Hemin, a HO-1 inducer, also showed similar effect to ALE. Furthermore, the protective effect of both ALE and hemin was inhibited by a HO inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX. The expression of HO-1 protein by ALE was reduced by pretreatment with LY83583 and ODQ, specific inhibitors of guanylate cyclase, but not by PKA inhibitors, H89 and KT5720, indicating that PKG signaling pathway regulates HO-1 induction by ALE. Taken together, it is concluded that PKG-dependent HO-1 induction is one of the important antioxidant mechanisms by which ALE protects RAW264.7 cells from H(2)O(2). Thus, ALE along with other actions may be beneficial for the treatment of oxidant-induced cellular injuries.

  6. Epigallocatechin Gallate Attenuates Proliferation and Oxidative Stress in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Interleukin-1β via Heme Oxygenase-1

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    Po-Len Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs triggered by inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress contributes importantly to atherogenesis. The association of green tea consumption with cardiovascular protection has been well documented in epidemiological observations, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of the most active green tea catechin derivative, (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We found that pretreatment of EGCG dose- and time-dependently induced HO-1 protein levels in HASMCs. EGCG inhibited interleukin- (IL-1β-induced HASMC proliferation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer CoPPIX decreased IL-1β-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor ZnPPIX significantly reversed EGCG-caused growth inhibition in IL-1β-treated HASMCs. At the molecular level, EGCG treatment significantly activated nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2 transcription activities. These results suggest that EGCG might serve as a complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of these pathologies by inducing HO-1 expression and subsequently decreasing VSMC proliferation.

  7. Epigallocatechin Gallate Attenuates Proliferation and Oxidative Stress in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Interleukin-1β via Heme Oxygenase-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Len; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Hsieh, Chong-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) triggered by inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress contributes importantly to atherogenesis. The association of green tea consumption with cardiovascular protection has been well documented in epidemiological observations, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of the most active green tea catechin derivative, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), focusing particularly on the role of a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We found that pretreatment of EGCG dose- and time-dependently induced HO-1 protein levels in HASMCs. EGCG inhibited interleukin- (IL-)1β-induced HASMC proliferation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer CoPPIX decreased IL-1β-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor ZnPPIX significantly reversed EGCG-caused growth inhibition in IL-1β-treated HASMCs. At the molecular level, EGCG treatment significantly activated nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) transcription activities. These results suggest that EGCG might serve as a complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of these pathologies by inducing HO-1 expression and subsequently decreasing VSMC proliferation. PMID:25386047

  8. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Induction of Metallothionein-2A and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression by the Antineoplastic Agent Gallium Nitrate in Human Lymphoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiying; Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of gallium nitrate, an antineoplastic drug, are only partly understood. Using a DNA microarray to examine genes induced by gallium nitrate in CCRF-CEM cells, we found that gallium increased metallothionein-2A (MT2A) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression and altered the levels of other stress-related genes. MT2A and HO-1 were increased after 6 and 16 h of incubation with gallium nitrate. An increase in oxidative stress, evidenced by a decrease in cellular GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and an increase in dichlorodihydrofluoroscein (DCF) fluorescence, was seen after 1 – 4 h incubation of cells with gallium nitrate. DCF fluorescence was blocked by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone. N-acetyl-L-cysteine blocked gallium-induced MT2A and HO-1 expression and increased gallium’s cytotoxicity. Studies with a zinc-specific fluoroprobe suggested that gallium produced an expansion of an intracellular labile zinc pool, suggesting an action of gallium on zinc homeostasis. Gallium nitrate increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and activated Nrf-2, a regulator of HO-1 gene transcription. Gallium-induced Nrf-2 activation and HO-1 expression were diminished by a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. We conclude that gallium nitrate induces cellular oxidative stress as an early event which then triggers the expression of HO-1 and MT2A through different pathways. PMID:18586083

  9. Cobalt alleviates GA-induced programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers via the regulation of H2O2 production and heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-11-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Solution NMR characterization of magnetic/electronic properties of azide and cyanide-inhibited substrate complexes of human heme oxygenase: implications for steric ligand tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dungeng; Ogura, Hiroshi; Ma, Li-Hua; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N

    2013-04-01

    Solution 2D (1)H NMR was carried out on the azide-ligated substrate complex of human heme oxygenase, hHO, to provide information on the active site molecular structure, chromophore electronic/magnetic properties, and the distal H-bond network linked to the exogenous ligand by catalytically relevant oriented water molecules. While 2D NMR exhibited very similar patterns of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy cross peaks of residues with substrate and among residues as the previously characterized cyanide complex, significant, broadly distributed chemical shift differences were observed for both labile and non-labile protons. The anisotropy and orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor, χ, were determined for both the azide and cyanide complexes. The most significant difference observed is the tilt of the major magnetic axes from the heme normal, which is only half as large for the azide than cyanide ligand, with each ligand tilted toward the catalytically cleaved α-meso position. The difference in chemical shifts is quantitatively correlated with differences in dipolar shifts in the respective complexes for all but the distal helix. The necessity of considering dipolar shifts, and hence determination of the orientation/anisotropy of χ, in comparing chemical shifts involving paramagnetic complexes, is emphasized. The analysis shows that the H-bond network cannot detect significant differences in H-bond acceptor properties of cyanide versus azide ligands. Lastly, significant retardation of distal helix labile proton exchange upon replacing cyanide with azide indicates that the dynamic stability of the distal helix is increased upon decreasing the steric interaction of the ligand with the distal helix. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Curcumin ameliorates TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and subsequent THP-1 adhesiveness via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in the HaCaT cells

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    Gi Soo Youn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 are important in theinfiltration of leukocytes into the site of inflammation. In thisstudy, we investigated the inhibitory effects of curcumin onICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesiveness as well as itsunderlying action mechanism in the TNF-α-stimulated keratinocytes.Curcumin induced expression of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1 in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. In addition,curcumin induced Nrf2 activation in dose- and time-dependentmanners in the HaCaT cells. Curcumin suppressed TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and subsequent monocyte adhesion,which were reversed by the addition of tin protoporphyrinIX (SnPP, a specific inhibitor of HO-1, or HO-1knockdown using siRNA. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown usingsiRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of curcumin on theTNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and adhesion of monocytesto keratinocytes. These results suggest that curcumin may exertits anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the TNF-α-inducedICAM-1 expression and subsequent monocyte adhesion viaexpression of HO-1 in the keratinocytes. [BMB Reports 2013;46(8: 410-415

  12. The in vitro protection of human decay accelerating factor and hDAF/heme oxygenase-1 transgenes in porcine aortic endothelial cells against sera of Formosan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C-F; Tai, H-C; Wu, C-P; Ho, L-L; Lin, Y-J; Hwang, C-S; Yang, T-S; Lee, J-M; Tseng, Y-L; Huang, C-C; Weng, C-N; Lee, P-H

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate hyperacute rejection, pigs have been generated with alpha-Gal transferase gene knockout and transgenic expression of human decay accelerating factor (hDAF), MCP, and CD59. Additionally, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been suggested to defend endothelial cells. Sera (MS) (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) from Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis, MC), an Old World monkey wildly populated in Taiwan, was used to test the protective in vitro, effects of hDAF or hDAF/hHO-1 on porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAEC) derived from hDAF(+), hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+), and hDAF(+)/hHO-1(-) and 1 nontransgenic pAEC. Ten percent human serum (HS) served as a positive control. When MS addition increased to 10% or 15%, all transgenic pAEC exhibited a greater survival than nontransgenic pAEC. Noticeably, 15% MS reduced survived to 40% in nontransgenic and transgenic pAEC, respectively. These results revealed that hDAF exerted protective effects against MC complement activation. However, comparing with 10% MS and HS in pAEC of nontransgenic pigs, the survivability was higher in HS, suggesting that complement activation by MS was more toxic than that by HS. Furthermore, hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+) showed no further protection against effects of MS on transgenic pAEC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of a selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor via the stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 in LPS-activated mice and J774.1 murine macrophages

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    Sung Bum Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 converts inactive cortisone to the active cortisol. 11β-HSD1 may be involved in the resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of 2-(3-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated C57BL/6J mice and macrophages. LPS increased 11β-HSD1 activity and expression in macrophages, which was inhibited by KR-66344. In addition, KR-66344 increased survival rate in LPS treated C57BL/6J mice. HO-1 mRNA expression level was increased by KR-66344, and this effect was reversed by the HO competitive inhibitor, ZnPP, in macrophages. Moreover, ZnPP reversed the suppression of ROS formation and cell death induced by KR-66344. ZnPP also suppressed animal survival rate in LPS plus KR-66344 treated C57BL/6J mice. In the spleen of LPS-treated mice, KR-66344 prevented cell death via suppression of inflammation, followed by inhibition of ROS, iNOS and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, LPS increased NFκB-p65 and MAPK phosphorylation, and these effects were abolished by pretreatment with KR-66344. Taken together, KR-66344 protects against LPS-induced animal death and spleen injury by inhibition of inflammation via induction of HO-1 and inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity. Thus, we concluded that the selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor may provide a novel strategy in the prevention/treatment of inflammatory disorders in patients.

  14. The iron chaperone poly(rC)-binding protein 2 forms a metabolon with the heme oxygenase 1/cytochrome P450 reductase complex for heme catabolism and iron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanatori, Izumi; Richardson, Des R; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kishi, Fumio

    2017-08-11

    Mammals incorporate a major proportion of absorbed iron as heme, which is catabolized by the heme oxygenase 1 (HO1)-NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) complex into biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and ferrous iron. Moreover, intestinal iron is incorporated as ferrous iron, which is transported via the iron importer, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Recently, we demonstrated that the iron chaperone poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) can directly receive ferrous iron from DMT1 or transfer iron to the iron exporter, ferroportin 1. To promote intracellular iron flux, an iron chaperone may be essential for receiving iron generated by heme catabolism, but this hypothesis is untested so far. Herein, we demonstrate that HO1 binds to PCBP2, but not to other PCBP family members, namely PCBP1, PCBP3, or PCBP4. Interestingly, HO1 formed a complex with either CPR or PCBP2, and it was demonstrated that PCBP2 competes with CPR for HO1 binding. Using PCBP2-deletion mutants, we demonstrated that the PCBP2 K homology 3 domain is important for the HO1/PCBP2 interaction. In heme-loaded cells, heme prompted HO1-CPR complex formation and decreased the HO1/PCBP2 interaction. Furthermore, in vitro reconstitution experiments with purified recombinant proteins indicated that HO1 could bind to PCBP2 in the presence of heme, whereas loading of PCBP2 with ferrous iron caused PCBP2 to lose its affinity for HO1. These results indicate that ferrous iron released from heme can be bound by PCBP2 and suggest a model for an integrated heme catabolism and iron transport metabolon. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Micro-RNA-155-mediated control of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is required for restoring adaptively tolerant CD4+ T-cell function in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Vandevenne, Patricia; Hamdi, Haifa; Van Puyvelde, Merry; Zucchi, Alessandro; Bettonville, Marie; Weatherly, Kathleen; Braun, Michel Y

    2015-03-01

    T cells chronically stimulated by a persistent antigen often become dysfunctional and lose effector functions and proliferative capacity. To identify the importance of micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) in this phenomenon, we analyzed mouse miR-155-deficient CD4(+) T cells in a model where the chronic exposure to a systemic antigen led to T-cell functional unresponsiveness. We found that miR-155 was required for restoring function of T cells after programmed death receptor 1 blockade. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was identified as a specific target of miR-155 and inhibition of HO-1 activity restored the expansion and tissue migration capacity of miR-155(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, miR-155-mediated control of HO-1 expression in CD4(+) T cells was shown to sustain in vivo antigen-specific expansion and IL-2 production. Thus, our data identify HO-1 regulation as a mechanism by which miR-155 promotes T-cell-driven inflammation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase contributes to endothelial cell protection by heme oxygenase-1-evidence for direct and indirect antioxidant actions of bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Thomas; Hortmann, Marcus; Oelze, Matthias; Opitz, Benjamin; Steven, Sebastian; Schell, Richard; Knorr, Maike; Karbach, Susanne; Schuhmacher, Swenja; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is highly protective in various pathophysiological states such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. HO-1-derived bilirubin is an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). It remains to determine whether conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin is an essential step for HO-1-conferred protection of endothelial cells. RONS scavenging activities of biliverdin versus bilirubin were assessed by different RONS generating systems and detection techniques. We also silenced the biliverdin reductase (BVR) or HO-1 gene in cultured primary human endothelial cells (HUVECs) and measured the effect on RONS formation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, effects of bilirubin and biliverdin on expression of GTP-cyclohydrolase were assessed in an endothelial cell line (EA.hy 926). HO-1- and BVR-silenced cells have increased levels of oxidative stress and bilirubin but not biliverdin increased expression of the protective protein GTP-cyclohydrolase. Moreover, protection by hemin-induced HO-1 expression or biliverdin-triggered bilirubin formation was impaired upon silencing of the HO-1 or BVR gene, respectively. Since bilirubin significantly scavenged RONS but chronic treatment was even more protective our observations support direct and indirect antioxidant properties of BVR and bilirubin and an important role for BVR and bilirubin in HO-1 conferred protection of endothelial cells.

  17. Increased heme-oxygenase 1 expression in mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes decreases differentiation and lipid accumulation via upregulation of the canonical Wnt signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, Luca; Sodhi, Komal; Kim, Dong Hyun; Puri, Nitin; Maheshwari, Mani; Hinds, Terry D; Bellner, Lars; Goldstein, Dov; Peterson, Stephen J; Shapiro, Joseph I; Abraham, Nader G

    2013-03-12

    Heme oxygenase (HO), a major cytoprotective enzyme, attenuates oxidative stress and obesity. The canonical Wnt signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of adipogenesis. The present study examined the interplay between HO-1and the Wnt canonical pathway in the modulation of adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived adipocytes. To verify the role of HO-1 in generating small healthy adipocytes, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), inducer of HO-1, was used during adipocyte differentiation. Lipid accumulation was measured by Oil red O staining and lipid droplet size was measured by BODIPY staining. During adipogenesis in vitro, differentiating pre-adipocytes display transient increases in the expression of genes involved in canonical Wnt signaling cascade. Increased levels of HO-1 expression and HO activity resulted in elevated levels of β-catenin, pGSK3β, Wnt10b, Pref-1, and shh along with increased levels of adiponectin (P reduction in C/EBPα, PPARγ, Peg-1/Mest, aP2, CD36 expression and lipid accumulation (P adipocyte differentiation suggesting that the HO-1 mediated increase in Wnt10b can modulate the adipocyte phenotype by regulating the transcriptional factors that play a role in adipogenesis. This is evidenced by a decrease in lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokine levels, increased adiponectin levels and elevation of the expression of genes of the canonical Wnt signaling cascade.

  18. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FULL-LENGTH HUMAN HEME OXYGENASE-1: PRESENCE OF INTACT MEMBRANE-BINDING REGION LEADS TO INCREASED BINDING AFFINITY FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Warren J.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2009-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the chief regulatory enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin. In the process of heme degradation, this NADPH and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR)-dependent oxidation of heme also releases free iron and carbon monoxide. Much of the recent research involving heme oxygenase is done using a 30-kDa soluble form of the enzyme, which lacks the membrane binding region (C-terminal 23 amino acids). The goal of this study was to express and purify a full-length human HO-1 (hHO-1) protein; however, due to the lability of the full-length form, a rapid purification procedure was required. This was accomplished by use of a GST-tagged hHO-1 construct. Although the procedure permitted the generation of a full-length HO-1, this form was contaminated with a 30-kDa degradation product that could not be eliminated. Therefore, we attempted to remove a putative secondary thrombin cleavage site by a conservative mutation of amino acid 254, which replaces lysine with arginine. This mutation allowed the expression and purification of a full length hHO-1 protein. Unlike wild-type HO-1, the K254R mutant could be purified to a single 32-kDa protein capable of degrading heme at the same rate as the wild-type enzyme. The K254R full-length form had a specific activity of ~200–225 nmol bilirubin hr−1nmol−1 HO-1 as compared to ~140–150 nmol bilirubin hr−1nmol−1 for the WT form, which contains the 30-kDa contaminant. This is a 2–3-fold increase from the previously reported soluble 30-kDa HO-1, suggesting that the C-terminal 23 amino acids are essential for maximal catalytic activity. Because the membrane spanning domain is present, the full-length hHO-1 has the potential to incorporate into phospholipid membranes, which can be reconstituted at known concentrations, in combination with other ER-resident enzymes. PMID:17915953

  19. The role of carbon monoxide and heme oxygenase in the prevention of sickle cell disease vaso-occlusive crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomperts, Edward; Belcher, John D; Otterbein, Leo E; Coates, Thomas D; Wood, John; Skolnick, Brett E; Levy, Howard; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2017-06-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a painful, lifelong hemoglobinopathy inherited as a missense point mutation in the hemoglobin (Hb) beta-globin gene. This disease has significant impact on quality of life and mortality, thus a substantial medical need exists to reduce the vaso-occlusive crises which underlie the pathophysiology of the disease. The concept that a gaseous molecule may exert biological function has been well known for over one hundred years. Carbon monoxide (CO), although studied in SCD for over 50 years, has recently emerged as a powerful cytoprotective biological response modifier capable of regulating a host of physiologic and therapeutic processes that, at low concentrations, exerts key physiological functions in various models of tissue inflammation and injury. CO is physiologically generated by the metabolism of heme by the heme oxygenase enzymes and is measurable in blood. A substantial amount of preclinical and clinical data with CO have been generated, which provide compelling support for CO as a potential therapeutic in a number of pathological conditions. Data underlying the therapeutic mechanisms of CO, including in SCD, have been generated by a plethora of in vitro and preclinical studies including multiple SCD mouse models. These data show CO to have key signaling impacts on a host of metallo-enzymes as well as key modulating genes that in sum, result in significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects as well as vasodilation and anti-adhesion of cells to the endothelium resulting in preservation of vascular flow. CO may also have a role as an anti-polymerization HbS agent. In addition, considerable scientific data in the non-SCD literature provide evidence for a beneficial impact of CO on cerebrovascular complications, suggesting that in SCD, CO could potentially limit these highly problematic neurologic outcomes. Research is needed and hopefully forthcoming, to carefully elucidate the safety and benefits of this

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 attenuates inflammation and oxidative damage in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingjing; Fan, Guoquan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-11-01

    Emphysema is a serious disease of the respiratory system and is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis, exerts potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti‑proliferative effects in various diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of HO-1 on smoke‑induced emphysema, as well as the underlying mechanisms in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema. Rats were either exposed to cigarette smoke or sham‑exposed for 20 weeks to establish the model of smoke-induced emphysema. The rats were subcutaneously injected with protoporphyrin IX [tin-protoporphyrin IX (SnPP) or ferriprotoporphyrin IX chloride (hemin)] during this period to examine the protective effects of HO-1. Subsequently, the development of emphysema, inflammatory cells, the levels of inflammatory mediators, particularly interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 [MCP‑1, also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)], IL-8 [also known as chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8)], macrophage inflammatory protein‑2α [MIP-2α, also known as chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2)] and IL-10, as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Exposure to smoke increased the total cell, neutrophil and macrophage counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It also increased the levels of the inflammatory mediators, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIP-2α, as well as the MDA content and induced emphysema. Treatment with hemin upregulated HO-1 expression and attenuated the development of smoke-induced emphysema by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, decreasing the levels of inflammatory mediators and attenuating oxidative damage, to a certain extent. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HO-1 exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, thus attenuating the

  1. Coupling of the distal hydrogen bond network to the exogenous ligand in substrate-bound, resting state human heme oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dungeng; Ogura, Hiroshi; Zhu, Wenfeng; Ma, Li-Hua; Evans, John P; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; La Mar, Gerd N

    2009-12-01

    Mammalian heme oxygenase (HO) possesses catalytically implicated distal ordered water molecules within an extended H-bond network, with one of the ordered water molecules (#1) providing a bridge between the iron-coordinated ligand and the catalytically critical Asp140, that, in turn, serves as an acceptor for the Tyr58 OH H-bond. The degree of H-bonding by the ligated water molecule and the coupling of this water molecule to the H-bond network are of current interest and are herein investigated by (1)H NMR. Two-dimensional NMR allowed sufficient assignments to provide both the H-bond strength and hyperfine shifts, the latter of which were used to quantify the magnetic anisotropy in both the ferric high-spin aquo and low-spin hydroxo complexes. The anisotropy in the aquo complex indicates that the H-bond donation to water #1 is marginally stronger than in a bacterial HO, while the anisotropy for the hydroxo complex reveals a conventional (d(xz), d(yz))(1) ground state indicative of only moderate to weak H-bond acceptance by the ligated hydroxide. Mapping out the changes of the H-bond strengths in the network during the ligated water --> hydroxide conversion by correcting for the effects of magnetic anisotropy reveals a very substantial change in H-bond strength for Tyr58 OH and lesser effects on nearby H-bonds. The effect of pH on the H-bonding network in human HO is much larger and transmitted much further from the iron than in a pathogenic bacterial HO. The implications for the HO mechanism of the H-bond of Tyr58 to Asp140 are discussed.

  2. Retinal protection from acute glaucoma-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury through pharmacologic induction of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su; Chen, Show-Li; Han, Wen-Hua; Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Kao, Ling-Yuh; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the protective effects of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a potent heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducer, in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury and to document the possible antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms underlying the protection. Rats pretreated with intraperitoneal injection of CoPP (5 mg/kg) were subjected to retinal ischemia by increases in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. The protective effects of CoPP were evaluated by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and measuring apoptosis in retinal layers. In addition, expressions of HO-1, caspase-3, p53, Bcl-xL, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were documented by Western blot analysis. Detection of HO-1, NF-kappaB, and CD68 protein in the retina was performed by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence. Pharmacologic induction of HO-1 by CoPP led to HO-1 expression in the full retinal layer. HO-1 overexpression alleviated apoptosis in the retina, preserved RGCs, and attenuated the reduction of inner retinal thickness after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Concurrently, overexpression of HO-1 was associated with inhibition of caspase-3, p53, NF-kappaB, and iNOS and with increased expression of Bcl-xL. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory effect of HO-1 was related to reduction in the recruitment of macrophage infiltration in the retina through the suppression of MCP-1. These beneficial effects of HO-1 induced by CoPP were diminished by the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP. Overexpression of HO-1 by pharmacologic induction protected the retina from subsequent cellular damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury through antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  3. Treatment of Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Glatiramer Acetate Alters Expression of Heme-Oxygenase-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Janssen

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG synergizes with the immunomodulatory agent glatiramer acetate (GA in eliciting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the relapsing-remitting EAE model. Thus, we hypothesized that mice with chronic EAE may also benefit from this combination therapy. We first assessed how a treatment with a single dose of GA together with daily application of EGCG may modulate EAE. Although single therapies with a suboptimal dose of GA or EGCG led to disease amelioration and reduced CNS inflammation, the combination therapy had no effects. While EGCG appeared to preserve axons and myelin, the single GA dose did not improve axonal damage or demyelination. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of EGCG was abolished when GA was applied in combination. To elucidate how a single dose of GA may interfere with EGCG, we focused on the anti-inflammatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant properties of EGCG. Surprisingly, we observed that while EGCG induced a downregulation of the gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in affected CNS areas, the combined therapy of GA+EGCG seems to promote an increased HO-1 expression. These data suggest that upregulation of HO-1 may contribute to diminish the neuroprotective benefits of EGCG alone in this EAE model. Altogether, our data indicate that neuroprotection by EGCG in chronic EAE may involve regulation of oxidative processes, including downmodulation of HO-1. Further investigation of the re-dox balance in chronic neuroinflammation and in particular functional studies on HO-1 are warranted to understand its role in disease progression.

  4. Heme oxygenase attenuates angiotensin II-mediated superoxide production in cultured mouse thick ascending loop of Henle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Silvia; Patel, Bijal J; Parker, Lawson B; Vera, Trinity; Rimoldi, John M; Gadepalli, Rama S V; Drummond, Heather A; Stec, David E

    2008-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction can attenuate the development of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension. However, the mechanism by which HO-1 lowers blood pressure is not clear. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that induction of HO-1 can reduce the ANG II-mediated increase in superoxide production in cultured thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) cells. Studies were performed on an immortalized cell line of mouse TALH (mTALH) cells. HO-1 was induced in cultured mTALH cells by treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP, 10 microM) or hemin (50 microM) or by transfection with a plasmid containing the human HO-1 isoform. Treatment of mTALH cells with 10(-9) M ANG II increased dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence (an index of superoxide levels) from 35.5+/-5 to 136+/-18 relative fluorescence units (RFU)/microm2. Induction of HO-1 via CoPP, hemin, or overexpression of the human HO-1 isoform significantly reduced ANG II-induced DHE fluorescence to 64+/-5, 64+/-8, and 41+/-4 RFU/microm2, respectively. To determine which metabolite of HO-1 is responsible for reducing ANG II-mediated increases in superoxide production in mTALH cells, cells were preincubated with bilirubin or carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule (CORM)-A1 (each at 100 microM) before exposure to ANG II. DHE fluorescence averaged 80+/-7 RFU/microm2 after incubation with ANG II and was significantly decreased to 55+/-7 and 53+/-4 RFU/microm2 after pretreatment with bilirubin and CORM-A1. These results demonstrate that induction of HO-1 in mTALH cells reduces the levels of ANG II-mediated superoxide production through the production of both bilirubin and CO.

  5. Fetal Microsatellite in the Heme Oxygenase 1 Promoter Is Associated With Severe and Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Utge, Siddheshwar; Klemetti, Miira M; Paananen, Jussi; Pulkki, Kari; Romppanen, Jarkko; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Lakkisto, Päivi; Laivuori, Hannele

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a vascular pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1, encoded by HMOX1 ) is a stress response enzyme crucial for endothelial and placental function. Long version of the guanine-thymine (GT n ) microsatellite in the HMOX1 promoter decreases HO-1 expression, and the long maternal repeat is associated with late-onset preeclampsia. Our aim was to study whether the length of fetal repeat is associated with mother's preeclampsia, whether the length of fetal and maternal repeats affect HO-1 levels in placenta and maternal serum, and whether HO-1 levels are altered in preeclampsia. We genotyped the repeat in the cord blood of 609 preeclamptic and 745 nonpreeclamptic neonates. HO-1 levels were measured in 36 placental samples, and in the first (222 cases/243 controls) and third (176 cases/53 controls) pregnancy trimester serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The long fetal GT n repeat was associated with preeclampsia and its severe and early-onset subtypes. Interaction analysis suggested the maternal and fetal effects to be independent. Placental or serum HO-1 levels were not altered in preeclamptics, possibly reflecting heterogeneity of preeclampsia. Carriers of the long fetal and maternal repeats had lower placental and serum HO-1 levels, respectively, providing functional evidence for the association. We conclude that the long fetal GT n repeat may increase mother's risk for especially severe and early-onset preeclampsia. The fetal and maternal risk alleles likely predispose to different disease subtypes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Heme on innate immunity and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianno Ferreira Dutra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prostetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion and hemorrhage. The plasma scavanger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavange heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce ROS generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced citotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases.

  7. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 suppresses heat shock protein 90 and the proliferation of human breast cancer cells through its byproduct carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wen-Ying [Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Chou [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chwen-Ming; Lin, Chun-Mao; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Ku-Chung [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei, E-mail: cwlin@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an oxidative stress-response enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme into bilirubin, ferric ion, and carbon monoxide (CO). Induction of HO-1 was reported to have antitumor activity; the inhibitory mechanism, however, is still unclear. In the present study, we found that treatment with [Ru(CO){sub 3}Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2} (RuCO), a CO-releasing compound, reduced the growth of human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Analysis of growth-related proteins showed that treatment with RuCO down-regulated cyclinD1, CDK4, and hTERT protein expressions. Interestingly, RuCO treatment resulted in opposite effects on wild-type and mutant p53 proteins. These results were similar to those of cells treated with geldanamycin (a heat shock protein (HSP)90 inhibitor), suggesting that RuCO might affect HSP90 activity. Moreover, RuCO induced mutant p53 protein destabilization accompanied by promotion of ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. The induction of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) showed consistent results, while the addition of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, diminished the RuCO-mediated effect. RuCO induction of HO-1 expression was reduced by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580). Additionally, treatment with a chemopreventive compound, curcumin, induced HO-1 expression accompanied with reduction of HSP90 client protein expression. The induction of HO-1 by curcumin inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-elicited matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and tumor invasion. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence underlying HO-1's antitumor mechanism. CO, a byproduct of HO-1, suppresses HSP90 protein activity, and the induction of HO-1 may possess potential as a cancer therapeutic. - Highlights: • CO and HO-1 inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells. • CO and HO-1 attenuated HSP90 and its client proteins expression. • CO induced mutant p53 protein

  8. Effects of heme oxygenase-1 gene modulated mesenchymal stem cells on vasculogenesis in ischemic swine hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Tang, Yao-Liang; Ma, Gen-Shan; Shen, Cheng-Xing; Wei, Qin; Zhu, Qi; Yao, Yu-Yu; Liu, Nai-Feng

    2011-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation may partially restore heart function in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of MSCs modified with heme xygenase-1 (HO-1) on post-infarct swine hearts to determine whether the induction of therapeutic angiogenesis is modified by the angiogenic cytokines released from the implanted cells. In vitro, MSCs were divided into four groups: (1) non-transfected MSCs (MSCs group), (2) MSCs transfected with the pcDNA3.1-Lacz plasmid (Lacz-MSCs group), (3) MSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 (HO-1-MSCs group), and (4) MSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 and pretreatment with an HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) (HO-1-MSCs + SnPP group). Cells were cultured in an airtight incubation bottle for 24 hours, in which the oxygen concentration was maintained at < 1%, followed by 12 hours of reoxygenation. After hypoxia/reoxygen treatment, ELISA was used to measure transforming growth factor (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in the supernatant. In vivo, 28 Chinese mini-pigs were randomly allocated to the following treatment groups: (1) control group (saline), (2) Lacz-MSCs group, (3) HO-1-MSCs group, and (4) HO-1-MSCs + SnPP group. About 1 × 10(7) of autologous stem cells or an identical volume of saline was injected intracoronary into porcine hearts 1 hour after MI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay and postmortem analysis were assessed four weeks after stem cell transplantation. Post hypoxia/reoxygenation in vitro, TGF-β in the supernatant was significantly increased in the HO-1-MSCs ((874.88 ± 68.23) pg/ml) compared with Lacz-MSCs ((687.81 ± 57.64) pg/ml, P < 0.001). FGF-2 was also significantly increased in the HO-1-MSCs ((1106.48 ± 107.06) pg/ml) compared with the Lacz-MSCs ((853.85 ± 74.44) pg/ml, P < 0.001). In vivo, at four weeks after transplantation, HO-1 gene transfer increased the capillary density in the peri-infarct area

  9. Expression and characterization of full-length human heme oxygenase-1: the presence of intact membrane-binding region leads to increased binding affinity for NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Warren J; Backes, Wayne L

    2007-10-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the chief regulatory enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin. In the process of heme degradation, HO-1 receives the electrons necessary for catalysis from the flavoprotein NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), releasing free iron and carbon monoxide. Much of the recent research involving heme oxygenase has been done using a 30 kDa soluble form of the enzyme, which lacks the membrane binding region (C-terminal 23 amino acids). The goal of this study was to express and purify a full-length human HO-1 (hHO-1) protein; however, due to the lability of the full-length form, a rapid purification procedure was required. This was accomplished by use of a glutathione-s-transferase (GST)-tagged hHO-1 construct. Although the procedure permitted the generation of a full-length HO-1, this form was contaminated with a 30 kDa degradation product that could not be eliminated. Therefore, attempts were made to remove a putative secondary thrombin cleavage site by a conservative mutation of amino acid 254, which replaces arginine with lysine. This mutation allowed the expression and purification of a full-length hHO-1 protein. Unlike wild type (WT) HO-1, the R254K mutant could be purified to a single 32 kDa protein capable of degrading heme at the same rate as the WT enzyme. The R254K full-length form had a specific activity of approximately 200-225 nmol of bilirubin h-1 nmol-1 HO-1 as compared to approximately 140-150 nmol of bilirubin h-1 nmol-1 for the WT form, which contains the 30 kDa contaminant. This is a 2-3-fold increase from the previously reported soluble 30 kDa HO-1, suggesting that the C-terminal 23 amino acids are essential for maximal catalytic activity. Because the membrane-spanning domain is present, the full-length hHO-1 has the potential to incorporate into phospholipid membranes, which can be reconstituted at known concentrations, in combination with other endoplasmic reticulum resident enzymes.

  10. Ischemic preconditioning protects hippocampal pyramidal neurons from transient ischemic injury via the attenuation of oxidative damage through upregulating heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Cho, Geum-Sil; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against subsequent severe ischemic injury by activating specific mechanisms. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IPC attenuates postischemic neuronal death via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Animals used in this study were randomly assigned to 4 groups; sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated group and IPC+ischemia-operated group. IPC was induced by subjecting gerbils to 2min of ischemia followed by 1 day of recovery. A significant loss of neurons was observed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia-operated groups at 5 days postischemia. In the IPC+ischemia-operated groups, CA1 pyramidal neurons were well protected. The level of HO-1 protein and its activity increased significantly in the CA1 of the IPC+sham-operated group, and the level and activity was maintained in all the time after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the ischemia-operated groups. HO-1 immunoreactivity was induced in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in both IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated groups. We also found that levels or immunoreactivities of superoxide anion, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were significantly decreased in the CA1 of both IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated groups. Whereas, treatment with zinc protoporphyrin IX (a HO-1 inhibitor) into the IPC+ischemia-operated groups did not preserve the IPC-mediated increase of HO-1 and lost beneficial effects of IPC by inhibiting ischemia-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. In brief, IPC protects CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic injury by upregulating HO-1, and we suggest that the enhancement of HO-1 expression by IPC may be a legitimate strategy for a therapeutic intervention of cerebral ischemic damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Solution 1H, 15N NMR spectroscopic characterization of substrate-bound, cyanide-inhibited human heme oxygenase: water occupation of the distal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Syvitski, Ray T; Auclair, Karine; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul; La Mar, Gerd N

    2003-11-05

    A solution NMR spectroscopic study of the cyanide-inhibited, substrate-bound complex of uniformly (15)N-labeled human heme oxygenase, hHO, has led to characterization of the active site with respect to the nature and identity of strong hydrogen bonds and the occupation of ordered water molecules within both the hydrogen bonding network and an aromatic cluster on the distal side. [(1)H-(15)N]-HSQC spectra confirm the functionalities of several key donors in particularly robust H-bonds, and [(1)H-(15)N]HSQC-NOESY spectra lead to the identification of three additional robust H-bonds, as well as the detection of two more relatively strong H-bonds whose identities could not be established. The 3D NMR experiments provided only a modest, but important, extension of assignments because of the loss of key TOCSY cross-peaks due to the line broadening from a dynamic heterogeneity in the active site. Steady-state NOEs upon saturating the water signal locate nine ordered water molecules in the immediate vicinity of the H-bond donors, six of which are readily identified in the crystal structure. The additional three are positioned in available spaces to account for the observed NOEs. (15)N-filtered steady-state NOEs upon saturating the water resonances and (15)N-filtered NOESY spectra demonstrate significant negative NOEs between water molecules and the protons of five aromatic rings. Many of the NOEs can be rationalized by water molecules located in the crystal structure, but strong water NOEs, particularly to the rings of Phe47 and Trp96, demand the presence of at least an additional two immobilized water molecules near these rings. The H-bond network appears to function to order water molecules to provide stabilization for the hydroperoxy intermediate and to serve as a conduit to the active site for the nine protons required per HO turnover.

  12. Quercetin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells: Role of MAPKs on the Nrf2 Pathway and Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Y Sun

    Full Text Available A large group of flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables have been suggested to elicit health benefits due mainly to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies with immune cells have demonstrated inhibition of these inflammatory responses through down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory pathway involving NF-κB and up-regulation of the anti-oxidative pathway involving Nrf2. In the present study, the murine BV-2 microglial cells were used to compare anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and cyanidin, two flavonoids differing by their alpha, beta keto carbonyl group. Quercetin was 10 folds more potent than cyanidin in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NO production as well as stimulation of Nrf2-induced heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 protein expression. In addition, quercetin demonstrated enhanced ability to stimulate HO-1 protein expression when cells were treated with LPS. In an attempt to unveil mechanism(s for quercetin to enhance Nrf2/HO-1 activity under endotoxic stress, results pointed to an increase in phospho-p38MAPK expression upon addition of quercetin to LPS. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors for phospho-p38MAPK and MEK1/2 for ERK1/2 further showed that these MAPKs target different sites of the Nrf2 pathway that regulates HO-1 expression. However, inhibition of LPS-induced NO by quercetin was not fully reversed by TinPPIX, a specific inhibitor for HO-1 activity. Taken together, results suggest an important role of quercetin to regulate inflammatory responses in microglial cells and its ability to upregulate HO-1 against endotoxic stress through involvement of MAPKs.

  13. Quercetin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells: Role of MAPKs on the Nrf2 Pathway and Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Grace Y; Chen, Zihong; Jasmer, Kimberly J; Chuang, Dennis Y; Gu, Zezong; Hannink, Mark; Simonyi, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    A large group of flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables have been suggested to elicit health benefits due mainly to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies with immune cells have demonstrated inhibition of these inflammatory responses through down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory pathway involving NF-κB and up-regulation of the anti-oxidative pathway involving Nrf2. In the present study, the murine BV-2 microglial cells were used to compare anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and cyanidin, two flavonoids differing by their alpha, beta keto carbonyl group. Quercetin was 10 folds more potent than cyanidin in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production as well as stimulation of Nrf2-induced heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression. In addition, quercetin demonstrated enhanced ability to stimulate HO-1 protein expression when cells were treated with LPS. In an attempt to unveil mechanism(s) for quercetin to enhance Nrf2/HO-1 activity under endotoxic stress, results pointed to an increase in phospho-p38MAPK expression upon addition of quercetin to LPS. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors for phospho-p38MAPK and MEK1/2 for ERK1/2 further showed that these MAPKs target different sites of the Nrf2 pathway that regulates HO-1 expression. However, inhibition of LPS-induced NO by quercetin was not fully reversed by TinPPIX, a specific inhibitor for HO-1 activity. Taken together, results suggest an important role of quercetin to regulate inflammatory responses in microglial cells and its ability to upregulate HO-1 against endotoxic stress through involvement of MAPKs.

  14. Gene therapy for nucleus pulposus regeneration by heme oxygenase-1 plasmid DNA carried by mixed polyplex micelles with thermo-responsive heterogeneous coronas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ganjun; Chen, Hongying; Li, Junjie; Huang, Qiang; Gupte, Melanie J; Liu, Hao; Song, Yueming; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-06-01

    Safe and high-efficiency gene therapy for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration was urgently desired to treat disc degeneration-associated diseases. In this work, an efficient nonviral cationic block copolymer gene delivery system was used to deliver therapeutic plasmid DNA (pDNA), which was prepared via complexation between the mixed cationic block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly{N-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoehtyl]aspartamide} [PEG-b-PAsp(DET)] and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-PAsp(DET) [PNIPAM-b-PAsp(DET)], and pDNA at 25 °C. The mixed polyplex micelles (MPMs) containing heterogeneous coronas with hydrophobic and hydrophilic microdomains coexisting could be obtained upon heating from 25 to 37 °C, which showed high tolerability against nuclease and strong resistance towards protein adsorption. The gene transfection efficiency of MPMs in NP cells was significantly higher than that of regular polyplex micelles prepared from sole block copolymer of PEG-b-PAsp(DET) (SPMs) in in vitro and in vivo evaluation due to the synergistic effect of improved colloidal stability and low cytotoxicity. High expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in NP cells transfected by MPMs loading HO-1 pDNA significantly decreased the expression activity of matrix metalloproteinases 3 (MMP-3) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and simultaneously increased the NP phenotype-associated genes such as aggrecan, type II collagen, and SOX-9. Moreover, the therapeutic effects of MPMs loading pDNA were tested to treat disc degeneration induced by stab injury. The results demonstrated that administration of HO-1 pDNA carried by MPMs in rat tail discs apparently reduced inflammatory responses induced by need stab and increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, finally achieving better therapeutic efficacy as compared with SPMs. Consequently, MPMs loading HO-1 pDNA were demonstrated to be potential as a safe and high-efficiency nonviral gene delivery system

  15. Sofalcone, a gastric mucosa protective agent, increases vascular endothelial growth factor via the Nrf2-heme-oxygenase-1 dependent pathway in gastric epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Akiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Onda, Kenji, E-mail: knjond@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kawahara, Hirofumi; Uchiyama, Yuka; Nakayama, Hiroko; Omi, Takamasa; Nagaoka, Masayoshi [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsui, Hirofumi [Division of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-nohdai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Sofalcone increases HO-1 in gastric epithelial cells. {yields} The induction of HO-1 by sofalcone treatment follows the activation of Nrf2. {yields} The production of VEGF by sofalcone treatment is mediated by HO-1 induction. -- Abstract: Sofalcone, 2'-carboxymethoxy-4,4-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)chalcone, is an anti-ulcer agent that is classified as a gastric mucosa protective agent. Recent studies indicate heat shock proteins such as HSP32, also known as heme-oxygenase-1(HO-1), play important roles in protecting gastrointestinal tissues from several stresses. We have previously reported that sofalcone increases the expression of HO-1 in adipocytes and pre-adipocytes, although the effect of sofalcone on HO-1 induction in gastrointestinal tissues is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the effects of sofalcone on the expression of HO-1 and its functional role in rat gastric epithelial (RGM-1) cells. We found that sofalcone increased HO-1 expression in RGM-1 cells in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. The HO-1 induction was associated with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in RGM-1 cells. We also observed that sofalcone increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in the culture medium. Treatment of RGM-1 cells with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin-protoporphyrin), or HO-1 siRNA inhibited sofalcone-induced VEGF production, suggesting that the effect of sofalcone on VEGF expression is mediated by the HO-1 pathway. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of sofalcone are partly exerted via Nrf2-HO-1 activation followed by VEGF production.

  16. Over-expression of Toll-like receptor 2 up-regulates heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases oxidative injury in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shoulong; Yu, Kun; Jiang, Wuqi; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuotian; Deng, Zhuo; Yao, Yuchang; Zhang, Baolu; Liu, Guoshi; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis, an infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, produces udder inflammation and oxidative injury in milk-producing mammals. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important for host recognition of invading Gram-positive microbes. Over-expression of TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats is a useful model for studying various aspects of infection with Gram-positive bacteria, in vivo. We over-expressed TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats. Pam3CSK4, a component of Gram-positive bacteria, triggered the TLR2 signal pathway by stimulating the monocytes-macrophages from the TLR2-positive transgenic goats, and induced over-expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammation factors downstream of the signal pathway. Compared with wild-type controls, measurements of various oxidative stress-related molecules showed that TLR2, when over-expressed in transgenic goat monocytes-macrophages, resulted in weak lipid damage, high level expression of anti-oxidative stress proteins, and significantly increased mRNA levels of transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and the downstream gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). When Pam3CSK4 was used to stimulate ear tissue in vivo the HO-1 protein of the transgenic goats had a relatively high expression level. The results indicate that the oxidative injury in goats over-expressing TLR2 was reduced following Pam3CSK4 stimulation. The underlying mechanism for this reduction was increased expression of the anti-oxidation gene HO-1 by activation of the Nrf2 signal pathway.

  17. The orbital ground state of the azide-substrate complex of human heme oxygenase is an indicator of distal H-bonding: implications for the enzyme mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P; Peng, Dungeng; Satterlee, James D; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; La Mar, Gerd N

    2009-04-14

    The active site electronic structure of the azide complex of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase 1 (hHO) has been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy to shed light on the orbital/spin ground state as an indicator of the unique distal pocket environment of the enzyme. Two-dimensional (1)H NMR assignments of the substrate and substrate-contact residue signals reveal a pattern of substrate methyl contact shifts that places the lone iron pi-spin in the d(xz) orbital, rather than the d(yz) orbital found in the cyanide complex. Comparison of iron spin relaxivity, magnetic anisotropy, and magnetic susceptibilities argues for a low-spin, (d(xy))(2)(d(yz),d(xz))(3), ground state in both azide and cyanide complexes. The switch from singly occupied d(yz) for the cyanide to d(xz) for the azide complex of hHO is shown to be consistent with the orbital hole determined by the azide pi-plane in the latter complex, which is approximately 90 degrees in-plane rotated from that of the imidazole pi-plane. The induction of the altered orbital ground state in the azide relative to the cyanide hHO complex, as well as the mean low-field bias of methyl hyperfine shifts and their paramagnetic relaxivity relative to those in globins, indicates that azide exerts a stronger ligand field in hHO than in the globins, or that the distal H-bonding to azide is weaker in hHO than in globins. The Asp140 --> Ala hHO mutant that abolishes activity retains the unusual WT azide complex spin/orbital ground state. The relevance of our findings for other HO complexes and the HO mechanism is discussed.

  18. The orbital ground state of the azide-substrate complex of human heme oxygenase is an indicator of distal H-bonding: Implications for the enzyme mechanism‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P.; Peng, Dungeng; Satterlee, James D.; de Montellano, Paul R. Ortiz; Mar, Gerd N. La

    2009-01-01

    The active site electronic structure of the azide complex of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase-1, (hHO) has been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy to shed light on the orbital/spin ground state as an indicator of the unique distal pocket environment of the enzyme. 2D 1H NMR assignments of the substrate and substrate-contact residue signals reveal a pattern of substrate methyl contact shifts, that places the lone iron π-spin in the dxz orbital, rather than the dyz orbital found in the cyanide complex. Comparison of iron spin relaxivity, magnetic anisotropy and magnetic susceptibilities argues for a low-spin, (dxy)2(dyz,dxz)3, ground state in both azide and cyanide complexes. The switch from singly-occupied dyz for the cyanide to dxz for the azide complex of hHO is shown to be consistent with the orbital hole determined by the azide π-plane in the latter complex, which is ∼90° in-plane rotated from that of the imidazole π-plane. The induction of the altered orbital ground state in the azide relative to the cyanide hHO complex, as well as the mean low-field bias of methyl hyperfine shifts and their paramagnetic relaxivity relative to those in globins, indicate that azide exerts a stronger ligand field in hHO than in the globins, or that the distal H-bonding to azide is weaker in hHO than in globins. The Asp140 → Ala hHO mutant that abolishes activity retains the unusual WT azide complex spin/orbital ground state. The relevance of our findings for other HO complexes and the HO mechanism is discussed. PMID:19243105

  19. Taraxacum coreanum protects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through heme oxygenase-1 expression in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chi-Su; Ko, Wonmin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Dong-Cheol; Kim, Jongsu; Choi, Moonbum; Beom, Jin Seon; An, Ren-Bo; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2017-04-01

    Taraxacum coreanum Nakai is a dandelion that is native to Korea, and is widely used as an edible and medicinal herb. The present study revealed the neuroprotective effect of this plant against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells. Ethanolic extracts from the aerial (TCAE) and the root parts (TCRE) of T. coreanum were prepared. Both extracts were demonstrated, by high performance liquid chromatography, to contain caffeic acid and ferulic acid as representative constituents. TCAE and TCRE significantly increased cell viability against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment of HT22 cells with the extracts induced increased expression of the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), compared with untreated cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased HO-1 enzymatic activity, compared with untreated cells, was also demonstrated following treatment with TCAE and TCRE. In addition, western blot analysis of the nuclear fractions of both TCAE and TCRE-treated HT22 cells revealed increased levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2) compared with untreated cells, and decreased Nrf2 levels in the cytoplasmic fraction compared with untreated cells. The present study suggested that the neuroprotective effect of T. coreanum is associated with induction of HO-1 expression and Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus. Therefore, T. coreanum exhibits a promising function in prevention of neurodegeneration. Further studies will be required for the isolation and the full characterization of its active substances.

  20. Solution 1H NMR characterization of substrate-free C. diphtheriae heme oxygenase: pertinence for determining magnetic axes in paramagnetic substrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenming; Unno, Masaki; Matsui, Toshitaka; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; La Mar, Gerd N

    2010-10-01

    Proton 2D NMR was used to confirm in solution a highly conserved portion of the molecular structure upon substrate loss for the heme oxygenase from the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, HmuO. The chemical shifts for the conserved portion of the structure are assessed as references for the dipolar shifts needed to determine the orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor, chi, in paramagnetic substrate complexes of HmuO. It is shown that the chemical shifts for the structurally conserved portion of substrate-free HmuO serve as excellent references for residues with only small to moderate sized dipolar shifts in the cyanide-inhibited substrate complex of HmuO, yielding an orientation of chi that is essentially the same as conventionally obtained from large dipolar shifts based on empirical estimates of the diamagnetic reference. The implications of these diamagnetic chemical shifts for characterizing the hydrogen bonding in the physiologically relevant, resting-state, high-spin aquo complex are discussed. The pattern of labile proton exchange in the distal H-bond network of substrate-free HmuO allowed comparison of changes in dynamic stability of tertiary contacts in the substrate-free and substrate-bound HmuO and with the same complexes of human heme oxygenase. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Solution 1H NMR characterization of substrate-free C. diphtheriae heme oxygenase; pertinence for determining magnetic axes in paramagnetic substrate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenming; Unno, Masaki; Matsui, Toshitaka; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; La Mar, Gerd N.

    2010-01-01

    Proton 2D NMR was used to confirm in solution a highly conserved portion of the molecular structure upon substrate loss for the heme oxygenase from the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, HmuO. The chemical shifts for the conserved portion of the structure are assessed as references for the dipolar shifts needed to determine the orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor, χ, in paramagnetic substrate complexes of HmuO. It is shown that the chemical shifts for the structurally conserved portion of substrate-free HmuO serve as excellent references for residues with only small to moderate sized dipolar shifts in the cyanide-inhibited substrate complex of HmuO, yielding an orientation of χ that is essentially the same as conventionally obtained from large dipolar shifts based on empirical estimates of the diamagnetic reference. The implications of these diamagnetic chemical shifts for characterizing the hydrogen bonding in the physiologically relevant, resting-state, high-spin aquo complex are discussed. The pattern of labile proton exchange in the distal H-bond network of substrate-free HmuO allowed comparison of changes in dynamic stability of tertiary contacts in the substrate-free and substrate-bound HmuO and with the same complexes of human heme oxygenase. PMID:20655112

  2. Investigation of a possible interaction between the heme oxygenase/biliverdin reductase and nitric oxide synthase pathway in murine gastric fundus and jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Ole; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2008-08-20

    This study investigated the possible interaction between the heme oxygenase (HO)/biliverdin reductase (BVR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway in murine gastric fundus and jejunum, since previous studies have shown that both HO-2 and BVR are expressed in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and co-localized with neuronal NOS in a large proportion of myenteric neurons along the gastrointestinal tract. Neither HO inhibition by chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) nor co-incubation with CO or biliverdin/bilirubin affected nitrergic neurotransmission - i.e. relaxations induced by non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) nerve stimulation or exogenous NO - under normal physiological conditions. However, biliverdin/bilirubin reversed the inhibitory effect of the superoxide generator LY83583 on exogenous NO-induced relaxations in both tissues. When gastric fundus muscle strips were depleted of the endogenous antioxidant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) by the Cu-chelator DETCA, electrically induced NANC relaxations were also affected by LY82583; however, biliverdin/bilirubin could not substitute for the loss of Cu/Zn SOD when this specific antioxidant enzyme was depleted. In jejunal muscle strips, the combination DETCA plus LY83583 nearly abolished contractile phasic activity and, hence, did not allow studying nitrergic relaxation in these experimental conditions. In conclusion, this study does not establish a role for HO/CO in inhibitory NANC neurotransmission in murine gastric fundus and jejunum under normal physiological conditions. However, the antioxidants biliverdin/bilirubin might play an important role in the protection of the nitrergic neurotransmitter against oxidative stress.

  3. A vigilant, hypoxia-regulated heme oxygenase-1 gene vector in the heart limits cardiac injury after ischemia-reperfusion in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao Liang; Qian, Keping; Zhang, Y Clare; Shen, Leping; Phillips, M Ian

    2005-12-01

    The effect of a cardiac specific, hypoxia-regulated, human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) vector to provide cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury was assessed. When myocardial ischemia and reperfusion is asymptomatic, the damaging effects are cumulative and patients miss timely treatment. A gene therapy approach that expresses therapeutic genes only when ischemia is experienced is a desirable strategy. We have developed a cardiac-specific, hypoxia-regulated gene therapy "vigilant vector'' system that amplifies cardioprotective gene expression. Vigilant hHO-1 plasmids, LacZ plasmids, or saline (n = 40 per group) were injected into mouse heart 2 days in advance of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Animals were exposed to 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. For that term (24 hours) effects, the protein levels of HO-1, inflammatory responses, apoptosis, and infarct size were determined. For long-term (3 week) effects, the left ventricular remodeling and recovery of cardiac function were assessed. Ischemia-reperfusion resulted in a timely overexpression of HO-1 protein. Infarct size at 24 hours after ischemia-reperfusion was significantly reduced in the HO-1-treated animals compared with the LacZ-treated group or saline-treated group (P < .001). The reduction of infarct size was accompanied by a decrease in lipid peroxidant activity, inflammatory cell infiltration, and proapoptotic protein level in ischemia-reperfusion-injured myocardium. The long-term study demonstrated that timely, hypoxia-induced HO-1 overexpression is beneficial in conserving cardiac function and attenuating left ventricle remodelling. The vigilant HO-1 vector provides a protective therapy in the heart for reducing cellular damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury and preserving heart function.

  4. Transforming growth factor β1 enhances heme oxygenase 1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts by inhibiting microRNA 519b synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jui Kuo

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is manifested by synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction that is directly linked to synovitis, joint swelling and pain. In the light of the role of synovium in the pathogenesis and the symptoms of OA, synovium-targeted therapy is a promising strategy to mitigate the symptoms and progression of OA. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, a secreted homodimeric protein, possesses unique and potent anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties in many cell types. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 is an inducible anti-inflammatory and stress responsive enzyme that has been proven to prevent injuries caused by many diseases. Despite the similar anti-inflammatory profile and their involvement in the pathogenesis of arthritic diseases, no studies have as yet explored the possibility of any association between the expression of TGF-β1 and HO-1.TGF-β1-induced HO-1 expression was examined by HO-1 promoter assay, qPCR, and Western blotting. The siRNAs and enzyme inhibitors were utilized to determine the intermediate involved in the signal transduction pathway. We showed that TGF-β1 stimulated the synthesis of HO-1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which can be mitigated by blockade of the phospholipase (PLCγ/protein kinase C alpha (PKCα pathway. We also showed that the expression of miRNA-519b, which blocks HO-1 transcription, is inhibited by TGF-β1, and the suppression of miRNA 519b could be reversed via blockade of the PLCγ/PKCα pathway.TGF-β1 stimulated the expression of HO-1 via activating the PLCγ/PKCα pathway and suppressing the downstream expression of miRNA-519b. These results may shed light on the pathogenesis and treatment of OA.

  5. Diabetes Impairs the Vascular Recruitment of Normal Stem Cells by Oxidant Damage, Reversed by Increases in pAMPK, Heme Oxygenase-1, and Adiponectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambuceti, Gianmario; Morbelli, Silvia; Vanella, Luca; Kusmic, Claudia; Marini, Cecilia; Massollo, Michela; Augeri, Carla; Corselli, Mirko; Ghersi, Chiara; Chiavarina, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F; L'Abbate, Antonio; Drummond, George; Abraham, Nader G; Frassoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis progression is accelerated in diabetes mellitus (DM) by either direct endothelial damage or reduced availability and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Both alterations are related to increased oxidant damage. Aim We examined if DM specifically impairs vascular signaling, thereby reducing the recruitment of normal EPCs, and if increases in antioxidant levels by induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can reverse this condition. Methods Control and diabetic rats were treated with the HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) once a week for 3 weeks. Eight weeks after the development of diabetes, EPCs harvested from the aorta of syngenic inbred normal rats and labeled with technetium-99m-exametazime were infused via the femoral vein to estimate their blood clearance and aortic recruitment. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and the aortic expression of thrombomodulin (TM), CD31, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were used to measure endothelial damage. Results DM reduced blood clearance and aortic recruitment of EPCs. Both parameters were returned to control levels by CoPP treatment without affecting EPC kinetics in normal animals. These abnormalities of EPCs in DM were paralleled by reduced serum adiponectin levels, increased numbers of CECs, reduced endothelial expression of phosphorylated eNOS, and reduced levels of TM, CD31, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK). CoPP treatment restored all of these parameters to normal levels. Conclusion Type II DM and its related oxidant damage hamper the interaction between the vascular wall and normal EPCs by mechanisms that are, at least partially, reversed by the induction of HO-1 gene expression, adiponectin, and pAMPK levels. PMID:19038792

  6. Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Deficiency and Associated Glutamate-Mediated Neurotoxicity Is a Highly Conserved HIV Phenotype of Chronic Macrophage Infection That Is Resistant to Antiretroviral Therapy.

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    Gill, Alexander J; Kovacsics, Colleen E; Vance, Patricia J; Collman, Ronald G; Kolson, Dennis L

    2015-10-01

    Expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is significantly reduced in the brain prefrontal cortex of HIV-positive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Furthermore, this HO-1 deficiency correlates with brain viral load, markers of macrophage activation, and type I interferon responses. In vitro, HIV replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) selectively reduces HO-1 protein and RNA expression and induces production of neurotoxic levels of glutamate; correction of this HO-1 deficiency reduces neurotoxic glutamate production without an effect on HIV replication. We now demonstrate that macrophage HO-1 deficiency, and the associated neurotoxin production, is a conserved feature of infection with macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains that correlates closely with the extent of replication, and this feature extends to HIV-2 infection. We further demonstrate that this HO-1 deficiency does not depend specifically upon the HIV-1 accessory genes nef, vpr, or vpu but rather on HIV replication, even when markedly limited. Finally, antiretroviral therapy (ART) applied to MDM after HIV infection is established does not prevent HO-1 loss or the associated neurotoxin production. This work defines a predictable relationship between HIV replication, HO-1 loss, and neurotoxin production in MDM that likely reflects processes in place in the HIV-infected brains of individuals receiving ART. It further suggests that correcting this HO-1 deficiency in HIV-infected MDM could provide neuroprotection above that provided by current ART or proposed antiviral therapies directed at limiting Nef, Vpr, or Vpu functions. The ability of HIV-2 to reduce HO-1 expression suggests that this is a conserved phenotype among macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency viruses that could contribute to neuropathogenesis. The continued prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) underscores the need for adjunctive therapy that targets the

  7. Identification of heme oxygenase-1-specific regulatory CD8+ T cells in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Brimnes, Marie K

    2009-01-01

    Treg deficiencies are associated with autoimmunity. Conversely, CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and are associated with prevention of antitumor immunity and anticancer immunotherapy. Recently, CD4+ Tregs have been much studied, but little is known about CD8+ Tregs...... was far more pronounced than that of conventional CD4+CD25+CD127- Tregs. The inhibitory activity of HO-1-specific T cells seemed at least partly to be mediated by soluble factors. Our data link the cellular stress response to the regulation of adaptive immunity, expand the role of HO-1 in T cell......-mediated immunoregulation, and establish a role for peptide-specific CD8+ T cells in regulating cellular immune responses. Identification of potent antigen-specific CD8+ Tregs may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions in both autoimmune diseases and cancer....

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 affects generation and spontaneous cardiac differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

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    Stepniewski, Jacek; Pacholczak, Tomasz; Skrzypczyk, Aniela; Ciesla, Maciej; Szade, Agata; Szade, Krzysztof; Bidanel, Romain; Langrzyk, Agnieszka; Grochowski, Radoslaw; Vandermeeren, Felix; Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Neli; Jez, Mateusz; Drabik, Grazyna; Nakanishi, Mahito; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2018-02-01

    Cellular stress can influence efficiency of iPSCs generation and their differentiation. However, the role of intracellular cytoprotective factors in these processes is still not well known. Therefore, we investigated the effect of HO-1 (Hmox1) or Nrf2 (Nfe2l2), two major cytoprotective genes. Hmox1-/- fibroblasts demonstrated decreased reprogramming efficiency in comparison to Hmox1+/+ cells. Reversely, pharmacological enhancement of HO-1 resulted in higher number of iPSCs colonies. Importantly, elevated level of both p53 and p53-regulated miR-34a and 14-3-3σ was observed in HO-1-deficient fibroblasts whereas downregulation of p53 in these cells markedly increased their reprogramming efficiency. In human fibroblasts HO-1 silencing also induced p53 expression and affected reprogramming outcome. Hmox1+/+ and Hmox1-/- iPSCs similarly differentiated in vitro to cells originating from three germ layers, however, lower number of contracting cells was observed during this process in HO-1-deficient cells indicating attenuated cardiac differentiation. Importantly, silencing of Hmox1 in murine ESC using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing also impaired their spontaneous cardiac differentiation. Decreased reprogramming efficiency was also observed in Nrf2-lacking fibroblasts. Reversely, sulforaphane, a Nrf2 activator, increased the number of iPSCs colonies. However, both Nfe2l2+/+ and Nfe2l2-/- iPSCs showed similar pluripotency and differentiation capacity. These results indicate that regulation of HO-1 expression can further optimize generation and cardiac differentiation of iPSCs. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(2):129-142, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. 1H NMR study of the magnetic properties and electronic structure of the hydroxide complex of substrate-bound heme oxygenase from Neisseria meningitidis: influence of the axial water deprotonation on the distal H-bond network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Hua; Liu, Yangzhong; Zhang, Xuhang; Yoshida, Tadashi; La Mar, Gerd N

    2006-05-24

    The substrate and active site residues of the low-spin hydroxide complex of the protohemin complex of Neisseria meningitidis heme oxygenase (NmHO) have been assigned by saturation transfer between the hydroxide and previously characterized aquo complex. The available dipolar shifts allowed the quantitation of both the orientation and anisotropy of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor. The resulting positive sign, and reduced magnitude of the axial anisotropy relative to the cyanide complex, dictate that the orbital ground state is the conventional "d(pi)" (d(2)(xy)(d(xz), d(yz))(3)); and not the unusual "d(xy)" (d(2)(xz)d(2)(yz)d(xy)) orbital ground state reported for the hydroxide complex of the homologous heme oxygenase (HO) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Caignan, G.; Deshmukh, R.; Zeng, Y.; Wilks, A.; Bunce, R. A.; Rivera, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 11842-11852) and proposed as a signature of the HO distal cavity. The conservation of slow labile proton exchange with solvent from pH 7.0 to 10.8 confirms the extraordinary dynamic stability of NmHO complexes. Comparison of the diamagnetic contribution to the labile proton chemical shifts in the aquo and hydroxide complexes reveals strongly conserved bond strengths in the distal H-bond network, with the exception of the distal His53 N(epsilon)(1)H. The iron-ligated water is linked to His53 primarily by a pair of nonligated, ordered water molecules that transmit the conversion of the ligated H-bond donor (H(2)O) to a H-bond acceptor (OH(-)), thereby increasing the H-bond donor strength of the His53 side chain.

  10. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function Inversely Correlates With Long-term Glucose Control in Diabetic Patients: Association With the Attenuation of the Heme Oxygenase-Adiponectin Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Sharoni, Ram; Vanella, Luca; Puri, Nitin; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G.; Porat, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are attenuated, both in number and functionality, in animal models of chronic cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. This effect has subsequently been linked to the aggravation of long-term morbidity and mortality associated with such disorders. The objective was to examine EPC number and survival in chronic diabetic vs nondiabetic patients in conjunction with the examination of their redox, inflammatory, and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2 genes) status in serum and visceral fat. Methods Visceral adipose tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery was analyzed for Nrf2-dependent genes. Oxidative stress was evaluated using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay (TBARS). Peripheral blood, collected 1 day prior to surgery, was evaluated for inflammatory cytokines and EPCs. Results When compared with controls (P < 0.05), results of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay were higher in diabetic patients. Although Nrf2-dependent antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin-1 [Trx-1], nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] qui-none oxidoreductase [NQO1], glutathione S-transferase [GST]) were upregulated, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and adiponectin protein expression were lower in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of bilirubin were lower (P < 0.005) while the levels of inflammatory cytokines were higher in diabetic patients (P < 0.05). EPC levels and their colony forming units were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with reduced viability in diabetic patients as compared with nondiabetic patients. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that in diabetic patients, there is an inadequate heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis response, which could compromise the compensatory antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects consequently contributing toward EPC dysfunction in these patients. PMID:22445099

  11. Ferulic acid regulates the Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 system and counteracts trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eCatino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and biliverdin reductase (BVR system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin. Ferulic acid (1-10 μM for 6 h dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1-10 μM for 6 h dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM. Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM and bilirubin (50 nM significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and bilirubin formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

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    Ma, Tianju; Chen, Tingjun; Li, Peng; Ye, Zi; Zhai, Wei; Jia, Liang; Chen, Wenqian; Sun, Ang; Huang, Yang; Wei, Shihui; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (hLEC; SRA01/04). SRA01/04 cells were exposed to a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration gradient and inducers of HO-1 such as cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), respectively. In addition, an RNA silencing experiment was conducted to investigate the HO-1 function in this study. A Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure cell viability. Western blot and ELISA were used to detect the level of HO-1 expression. In our study, hLECs were exposed to 400 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 h with or without pretreatment with 10μΜ CoPP or 10μΜ ZnPP, respectively. Double immunofluorescence staining was used for cell identification and the qualitative expression of HO-1. Expression of HO-1 was monitored using Western blot and ELISA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry analyses; commercial enzymatic kits were used to measure the levels of glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The proportion of cell apoptosis was quantified by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The expression of caspase family (-8, -3) proteins was measured by Western blot analysis. HO-1 significantly restored the cell viability under H2O2 injury via reducing the generation of ROS and increasing the levels of SOD and GSH activity. Moreover, HO-1 also inhibited H2O2-induced caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins, thus significantly reducing the apoptosis of SRA01/04. An RNA silencing experiment demonstrated the increased resistance of LECs to oxidative stress specifically for increased levels of HO-1. These findings suggested that HO-1 protects human lens epithelial cells from H2O2-induced oxidant stress by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing ROS generation, and thus inhibiting caspase family

  13. Protein oxidation mediated by heme-induced active site conversion specific for heme-regulated transcription factor, iron response regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitatsuji, Chihiro; Izumi, Kozue; Nambu, Shusuke; Kurogochi, Masaki; Uchida, Takeshi; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Iwai, Kazuhiro; O'Brian, Mark R; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2016-01-05

    The Bradyrhizobium japonicum transcriptional regulator Irr (iron response regulator) is a key regulator of the iron homeostasis, which is degraded in response to heme binding via a mechanism that involves oxidative modification of the protein. Here, we show that heme-bound Irr activates O2 to form highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the "active site conversion" from heme iron to non-heme iron to degrade itself. In the presence of heme and reductant, the ROS scavenging experiments show that Irr generates H2O2 from O2 as found for other hemoproteins, but H2O2 is less effective in oxidizing the peptide, and further activation of H2O2 is suggested. Interestingly, we find a time-dependent decrease of the intensity of the Soret band and appearance of the characteristic EPR signal at g = 4.3 during the oxidation, showing the heme degradation and the successive formation of a non-heme iron site. Together with the mutational studies, we here propose a novel "two-step self-oxidative modification" mechanism, during which O2 is activated to form H2O2 at the heme regulatory motif (HRM) site and the generated H2O2 is further converted into more reactive species such as ·OH at the non-heme iron site in the His-cluster region formed by the active site conversion.

  14. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on heme oxygenase-1, biliverdin IXalpha reductase and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase 1 in rats with wild-type or variant AH receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niittynen, Marjo; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2008-09-04

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes hepatic accumulation of biliverdin and its monoglucuronide in moderately TCDD-resistant line B rats, but not in highly TCDD-resistant line A rats. In the mammalian heme degradation process, heme is cleaved to biliverdin by the rate-limiting enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Subsequently, biliverdin IXalpha reductase (BVRA) catalyzes the reduction of biliverdin to bilirubin. In heme biosynthesis, the rate-limiting enzyme is delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase 1 (ALAS1). The effect of TCDD on HO-1, BVRA and ALAS1 was studied at the levels of mRNA (all three enzymes), protein expression (HO-1), and enzymatic activity (BVRA, liver only) in order to determine whether the accumulation of biliverdin could be due to their altered expression. In both lines A and B, 300 microg/kg TCDD transiently repressed hepatic HO-1 mRNA on day 2 but induced HO-1 protein expression at later time-points; however, the impact emerged earlier (day 14 vs. day 35) in line B rats. In spleen, TCDD repressed HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in lines A and B through days 2-35, but did not affect its mRNA levels in TCDD-sensitive L-E rats (10 days after 100 microg/kg). In all rat strains/lines, there was a strong repression of ALAS1 and a moderate induction of BVRA mRNA in liver, but mostly not in spleen. Hepatic BVRA activity was increased in lines A and B on day 14. At 5 weeks, it was still elevated in line A but reduced to 51% of control in line B. The results suggest that hepatic heme degradation is induced by TCDD in rats; however, this does not alone explain the accumulation of biliverdin in line B rats. Other factors such as the late repression of BVRA found here and possibly oxidative stress may be important contributors to biliverdin accumulation in these rats.

  15. Metformin inhibits heme oxygenase-1 expression in cancer cells through inactivation of Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling and AMPK-independent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hee [Department of Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Resistance to therapy is the major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often highly up-regulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. It has been suggested that inhibition of HO-1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-tumor effects of metformin are mediated by suppression of HO-1 expression in cancer cells. Our results indicate that metformin strongly suppresses HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2, cervical cancer HeLa, and non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. Metformin also markedly reduced Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels in whole cell lysates and suppressed tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. We also found that metformin regulation of Nrf2 expression is mediated by a Keap1-independent mechanism and that metformin significantly attenuated Raf-ERK signaling to suppress Nrf2 expression in cancer cells. Inhibition of Raf-ERK signaling by PD98059 decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, confirming that the inhibition of Nrf2 expression is mediated by an attenuation of Raf-ERK signaling in cancer cells. The inactivation of AMPK by siRNA, DN-AMPK or the pharmacological AMPK inhibitor compound C, revealed that metformin reduced HO-1 expression in an AMPK-independent manner. These results highlight the Raf-ERK-Nrf2 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits HO-1 expression in cancer cells. • Metformin attenuates Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling. • Suppression of HO-1 by metformin is independent of AMPK. • HO-1 inhibition contributes to anti-proliferative effects of metformin.

  16. YC-1 activation of human soluble guanylyl cyclase has both heme-dependent and heme-independent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Lee, Y. C.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    YC-1 [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] is an allosteric activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). YC-1 increases the catalytic rate of the enzyme and sensitizes the enzyme toward its gaseous activators nitric oxide or carbon monoxide. In other studies the administration of YC-1 to experimental animals resulted in the inhibition of the platelet-rich thrombosis and a decrease of the mean arterial pressure, which correlated with increased cGMP levels. However, details of YC-1 interaction with sGC and enzyme activation are incomplete. Although evidence in the literature indicates that YC-1 activation of sGC is strictly heme-dependent, this report presents evidence for both heme-dependent and heme-independent activation of sGC by YC-1. The oxidation of the sGC heme by 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one completely inhibited the response to NO, but only partially attenuated activation by YC-1. We also observed activation by YC-1 of a mutant sGC, which lacks heme. These findings indicate that YC-1 activation of sGC can occur independently of heme, but that activation is substantially increased when the heme moiety is present in the enzyme.

  17. Dietary heme-mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon.

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    Noortje Ijssennagger

    Full Text Available Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome analysis of mucosa of heme-fed mice showed, besides stress- and proliferation-related genes, many upregulated lipid metabolism-related PPARα target genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PPARα in heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia. Male PPARα KO and WT mice received a purified diet with or without heme. As PPARα is proposed to protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, we hypothesized that the absence of PPARα leads to more surface injury and crypt hyperproliferation in the colon upon heme-feeding. Heme induced luminal cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation and colonic hyperproliferation and hyperplasia to the same extent in WT and KO mice. Transcriptome analysis of colonic mucosa confirmed similar heme-induced hyperproliferation in WT and KO mice. Stainings for alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of Vanin-1 and Nrf2-targets indicated a compromised antioxidant defense in heme-fed KO mice. Our results suggest that the protective role of PPARα in antioxidant defense involves the Nrf2-inhibitor Fosl1, which is upregulated by heme in PPARα KO mice. We conclude that PPARα plays a protective role in colon against oxidative stress, but PPARα does not mediate heme-induced hyperproliferation. This implies that oxidative stress of surface cells is not the main determinant of heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects of TMC-256C1 from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. SF-6354 via up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Murine Hippocampal and Microglial Cell Lines

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    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of searching for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine fungi, TMC-256C1 was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SF6354. TMC-256C1 displayed anti-neuroinflammatory effect in BV2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS as well as neuroprotective effect against glutamate-stimulated neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. TMC-256C1 was shown to develop a cellular resistance to oxidative damage caused by glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in HT22 cells, and suppress the inflammation process in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of TMC-256C1 were associated with upregulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in HT22 and BV2 cells. We also found that TMC-256C1 activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results demonstrated that TMC-256C1 activates HO-1 protein expression, probably by increasing nuclear Nrf2 levels via the activation of the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  19. Hepatic heme catabolism in cultured hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, B.C.; Bonkovsky, H.L.

    1987-05-01

    Uncertainty persists concerning the role and importance of heme oxygenase in the catabolism of heme by hepatocytes. The products of heme oxygenase catalyzed heme catabolism are equimolar amounts of biliverdin IX..cap alpha.., CO, and iron. Previous reports from studies with rodent hepatocyte cultures have suggested the possibility that non-heme oxygenase pathway(s) predominate in the breakdown of hepatic hemoprotein heme. The authors have studied this question in cultured chick embryo hepatocytes, which retain normal regulation of heme metabolism and levels of cytochromes P-450 as in intact animals. Exogenous heme added to the culture medium with control chick embryo hepatocyte cultures was quantitatively converted to biliverdin IX..cap alpha... To study endogenous heme breakdown, cellular heme was labelled by exposing cultured cells to (5-/sup 14/C) 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The hepatocytes were also treated with mephenytoin that increases cytochrome P-450, total hepatic heme and heme oxygenase. At various times after labelling heme, biliverdin, and CO were isolated and counted. For at least 8 hrs, the increase in CO radioactivity corresponded to the loss of radioactivity in heme. Beyond 1 h biliverdin was unstable in culture medium, but for 1 h after labelling (dpm BVIX..cap alpha.. + dpm CO) ..delta..dpm heme. All BV detected was the ..cap alpha.. isomer. They conclude that heme oxygenase accounts for both endogenous and exogenous heme breakdown by hepatocytes.

  20. Simvastatin protects against the development of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats via a heme oxygenase-1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Jian; Liu, Chun-Ping; Yu, Bing-Xiang; Lu, Wei-Xuan

    2011-10-01

    Heme oxygease-1 (HO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism. Induction of HO-1 has been shown to have vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. More recently, experimental studies suggested the potential of simvastatin as a novel therapy for pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HO-1 is required for the pulmonary vascular protective effects of simvastatin. Simvastatin (2 mg/kg/day) was administered once daily to rats for 4 weeks after monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Zn-protoporphyrin (Znpp), a potent inhibitor of HO, was used to confirm the role of HO-1. The hemodynamic changes, right heart hypertrophy, interleukin-6 (IL-6) level, and HO-1 protein expression in lungs were measured at day 28. Simvastatin significantly ameliorated mean pulmonary arterial hypertension (20.6 mm Hg). In addition, perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells and the level of IL-6 were decreased in simvastatin treatment group. Simvastatin also increased significantly lung HO-1 protein expression. Inhibiting HO-1 using Znpp resulted in a loss of the effect of simvastatin in MCT rats. These results suggest that HO-1 expression is critical for the vascular protective effects of simvastatin in MCT-induced PH rats.

  1. Association between heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Song, Fangfang; Li, Xiangyang; Rong, Shuang; Yang, Wei; Wang, Di; Xu, Jiqu; Fu, Juan; Zhao, Yanting; Liu, Liegang

    2010-09-15

    Several studies have recently focused on the association between heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) gene promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, results have been conflicting. This systematic Human Genome Epidemiology review and meta-analysis was undertaken to integrate previous findings and summarize the effect size of the association of HMOX1 gene promoter polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. The authors retrieved all studies matched to search terms from the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases that had been published through December 31, 2009. The articles were then checked independently by 2 investigators according to the eligibility and exclusion criteria. For all alleles and genotypes, odds ratios were pooled using either fixed-effects or random-effects models. An increased odds ratio for type 2 diabetes was observed in persons with the (GT)(n) L (long) allele as compared with those with the (GT)(n) S (short) allele (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.24; P = 0.02). Furthermore, the diabetes odds ratio for persons with the LL genotype, versus those with the SS genotype, was significantly increased (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.50; P = 0.02). Persons carrying longer (GT)(n) repeats in the HMOX1 gene promoter may have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Effects of Nuclear Factor-E2-related factor 2/Heme Oxygenase 1 on splanchnic hemodynamics in experimental cirrhosis with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; He, Yue; Duan, Ming; Luo, Meng

    2017-05-01

    We explored the effects of Nuclear Factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) on splanchnic hemodynamics in portal hypertensive rats. Experimental cirrhosis with portal hypertension was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. The expression of proteins was examined by immunoblotting. Hemodynamic studies were performed by radioactive microspheres. The vascular perfusion system was used to measure the contractile response of mesentery arterioles in rats. Nrf2 expression in the nucleus and HO-1 expression in cytoplasm was significantly enhanced in portal hypertensive rats. Portal pressure, as well as regional blood flow, increased significantly in portal hypertension and can be blocked by tin protoporphyrin IX. The expression of endogenous nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factors increased significantly compared to normal rats, while HO-1 inhibition decreased the expression of these proteins significantly. The contractile response of mesenteric arteries decreased in portal hypertension, but can be partially recovered through tin protoporphyrin IX treatment. The expression of Nrf2/HO-1 increased in mesenteric arteries of portal hypertensive rats, which was related to oxidative stress. HO-1was involved in increased portal pressure and anomaly splanchnic hemodynamics in portal hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A critical and comprehensive insight on heme oxygenase and related products including carbon monoxide, bilirubin, biliverdin and ferritin in type-1 and type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manish; Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of diabetes and associated complications presents a major health risk worldwide, and requires an efficient management protocol. Type-1 and type-2 diabetes have several common pathophysiological denominators including hyperglycemia, elevated oxidative stress, increased inflammation and apoptosis. These pathological factors are implicated in the progression and worsening of the disease, and the related cardiometabolic complications associated with it. Despite the advancement in management of type-1 and type-2 diabetes, the high incidence of diabetes and related complications calls for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent findings suggest that the pharmacological modulation of the microsomal heme oxygenase (HO) system may be an important therapeutic avenue to explore. The HO system and related products such as carbon monoxide, bilirubin, biliverdin, biliverdin reductase and ferritin have been shown to abate inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and reduce hyperglycemia. In addition, the HO system also enhances insulin sensitivity and increase pancreatic beta cell insulin production in experimental models of type-1 and type-2 diabetes. This review is an effort to provide evidence of the regulatory and cytoprotective role of the HO system in type-1 and type-2 diabetes, and will highlight the multifaceted mechanisms implicated in the anti-diabetic effects of the HO system.

  4. Nrf2 regulates the inflammatory response, including heme oxygenase-1 induction, by mycoplasma pneumoniae lipid-associated membrane proteins in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jihong; Chen, Chunyan; Ou, Guangli; You, Xiaoxing; Tan, Tianping; Hu, Xinnian; Zeng, Yihua; Yu, Minjun; Zhu, Cuiming

    2017-06-01

    A series of inflammatory responses caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae largely depend on the lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor, is considered to be a critical modulator of inflammatory responses and cellular redox homeostasis. Monocytes play an important role in the invasion and immunity to resist pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in the anti-inflammatory response stimulated by LAMPs using the human monocyte cell line THP-1. LAMPs were shown to affect the localization of Nrf2, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory reactants, including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-8), were highly elevated in LAMP-stimulated Nrf2-silenced THP-1 cells. Moreover, LAMPs induced the levels of mRNA and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In summary, our results demonstrated that LAMPs cause nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which further suppresses the expression of inflammatory reactants in THP-1 cells. © Crown copyright 2017.

  5. Red Yeast Rice Protects Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Proangiogenic Cells against High-Glucose-Induced Senescence and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Tung; Chen, Huey-Yi; Chen, Wen-Chi; Man, Kee-Ming; Chen, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    The inflammation and oxidative stress of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs), also named endothelial progenitor cells, triggered by hyperglycemia contributes significantly to vascular dysfunction. There is supporting evidence that the consumption of red yeast rice (RYR; Monascus purpureus-fermented rice) reduces the vascular complications of diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of RYR extract in PACs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent antioxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We found that treatment with RYR extract induced nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in PACs. RYR extract inhibited high-glucose-induced (30 mM) PAC senescence and the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX also decreased high-glucose-induced cell senescence and oxidative stress, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and HO-1 small interfering RNA significantly reversed RYR extract-caused inhibition of senescence and reduction of oxidative stress in high-glucose-treated PACs. These results suggest that RYR extract serves as alternative and complementary medicine in the treatment of these diseases, by inducing HO-1, thereby decreasing the vascular complications of diabetes.

  6. Postneonatal Mortality and Liver Changes in Cloned Pigs Associated with Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor I-Fc and Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Jin, Jun-Xue; Lee, Sanghoon; Taweechaipaisankul, Anukul; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hwang, Joing-Ik; Ahn, Curie; Saadeldin, Islam M; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2017-01-01

    Soluble human tumor necrosis factor (shTNFRI-Fc) and human heme oxygenase 1 (hHO-1) are key regulators for protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury for xenotransplantation. Somatic cells with more than 10 copy numbers of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 were employed in somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cloned pigs, thereby resulting in seven cloned piglets. However, produced piglets were all dead within 24 hours after birth. Obviously, postnatal death with liver apoptosis was reported in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets. In liver, the transcript levels of ferritin heavy chain, light chain, transferrin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly highly expressed compared to those of lower copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets (P hHO-1 piglets (P hHO-1 overexpression may apparently induce free iron in the liver and exert oxidative stress by enhancing reactive oxygen species production and block normal postneonatal liver metabolism.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness and outcomes in patients with bladder cancer: a correlation with smoking intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Kanda, Shigeru; Mitsunari, Kensuke; Asai, Akihiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is upregulated in malignancies and, in turn, regulates other cancer-related factors. Although HO-1 expression has been associated with cigarette smoking under various pathologic conditions, little is known about their association in patients with bladder cancer. HO-1 expression was assessed in 215 formalin-fixed bladder cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Microvessel density, lymph vessel density (LVD), proliferation index (PI), and expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -C, and -D, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were investigated by similar methods. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the pathologic role and predictive value of HO-1 expression. Our results demonstrated that HO-1 expression was positively associated with T stage, lymph node metastasis, and grade. HO-1 expression was also positively correlated with PI, LVD, and expression levels of VEGF-D, COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 (P smoking intensity. Positive HO-1 expression was a significant predictor of subsequent metastasis (P = 0.008) and poor cause-specific survival (P smoking intensity. Smoking upregulated HO-1 expression, and HO-1 was associated with malignant behavior of bladder cancer. Cancer cell proliferation, lymphangiogenesis, and expression levels of VEGF-D, COX-2, and MMP-2 played important roles in these HO-1-related effects. The clinical correlations of HO-1 were regulated by a complex mechanism that depended on smoking intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual and co-expression patterns of nerve growth factor and heme oxygenase-1 predict shorter survival of gastric carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Sang Jae; Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Kyu Yun

    2017-07-05

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor which regulates cell development and proliferation. Recently, it has been suggested that NGF induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression, and that both NGF and HO1 are involved in the progression of malignant human tumors. However, exact roles of NGF and HO1 in tumorigenesis remain controversial. Therefore, we investigated the expression and correlation of NGF and HO1 in human gastric carcinoma tissues. We examined immunohistochemical expression of NGF and HO1 in 167 gastric carcinomas and compared with various prognostic clinicopathological factors. The expression of NGF and HO1 was positive in 40% (67/167) and 51% (85/167) of cases, respectively, and their expression was significantly correlated with each other (p < 0.001). Individual expression patterns of NGF and HO1, and co-expression pattern of these two molecules were significantly associated with shorter survival by univariate analysis. HO1 expression (overall survival; p < 0.001, relapse-free survival; p = 0.002) and co-expression pattern of NGF and HO1 (overall survival; p = 0.002, relapse-free survival; p = 0.003) were independent poor prognostic indicators of gastric carcinoma patients by multivariate analysis. These results demonstrate that the individual and co-expression patterns of NGF and HO1 might be used as prognostic indicators for gastric carcinoma patients.

  9. Association of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2, Thioredoxin Interacting Protein, and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Polymorphisms with Diabetes and Obesity in Mexican Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Saraí Jiménez-Osorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor-erythroid 2- (NF-E2- related factor 2 (Nrf2 is abated and its ability to reduce oxidative stress is impaired in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore if polymorphisms in Nrf2 and target genes are associated with diabetes and obesity in Mexican mestizo subjects. The rs1800566 of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 gene, rs7211 of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP gene, rs2071749 of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1 gene, and the rs6721961 and the rs2364723 from Nrf2 gene were genotyped in 627 diabetic subjects and 1020 controls. The results showed that the rs7211 polymorphism is a protective factor against obesity in nondiabetic subjects (CC + CT versus TT, OR = 0.40, P=0.005 and in women (CC versus CT + TT, OR = 0.7, P=0.016. TT carriers had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower body mass index. The rs2071749 was positively associated with obesity (AA versus AG + GG, OR = 1.25, P=0.026. Finally, the rs6721961 was negatively associated with diabetes in men (CC versus CA + AA, OR = 0.62, P=0.003. AA carriers showed lower glucose concentrations. No association was found for rs1800566 and rs2364723 polymorphisms. In conclusion, the presence of Nrf2 and related genes polymorphisms are associated with diabetes and obesity in Mexican patients.

  10. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 in Kupffer cells blocks mast cell degranulation and inhibits dendritic cell migration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Mu-Qing; He, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Mao-Hong; Huang, Man; Teng, Fei; Wei, Qing; Li, Ji-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) influence liver allografts by interacting with other non‑parenchymal cells. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in KCs upon interaction with mast cells (MCs), and the effects on dendritic cell (DC) function, were investigated in the present study. KCs, MCs and DCs were prepared from 8‑10‑week‑old C57BL/6 mice. KCs were pretreated with PBS, dimethyl sulfoxide, hemin (50 µM; HO‑1 inducer), and zinc protoporphyrin (50 µM; HO‑1 inhibitor) for 8 h. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting was performed to determine HO‑1 mRNA and protein levels in KCs, respectively. C‑C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) surface molecules were measured using flow cytometry, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), C‑C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 19 and CCL21 were measured by ELISA. The Transwell model was used to investigate the migration of DCs. Pretreatment of KCs with hemin induced HO‑1 transcription and protein expression, and interacted with and stabilized MC membranes. When co‑cultured with MCs, the expression of CCR7 on DCs was reduced, and PGE2, CCL19 and CCL21 were similarly decreased. DC migration was also impaired. Upregulation of HO‑1 in KCs blocked MC degranulation and reduced DC migration.

  11. Postneonatal Mortality and Liver Changes in Cloned Pigs Associated with Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor I-Fc and Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon A. Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble human tumor necrosis factor (shTNFRI-Fc and human heme oxygenase 1 (hHO-1 are key regulators for protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury for xenotransplantation. Somatic cells with more than 10 copy numbers of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 were employed in somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cloned pigs, thereby resulting in seven cloned piglets. However, produced piglets were all dead within 24 hours after birth. Obviously, postnatal death with liver apoptosis was reported in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets. In liver, the transcript levels of ferritin heavy chain, light chain, transferrin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly highly expressed compared to those of lower copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets (P<0.05. Also, H2O2 contents were increased, and superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in the higher copy number of shTNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 piglets (P<0.05. These results indicate that TNFRI-Fc and hHO-1 overexpression may apparently induce free iron in the liver and exert oxidative stress by enhancing reactive oxygen species production and block normal postneonatal liver metabolism.

  12. Eff ects of hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N M; Kamel, M Y; Rifaai, R A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the protective outcome of hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer on L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is considered to be a critical inflammatory disorder with a major impact on the patient health. Various theories have been recommended regarding the pathophysiology of AP and associated pulmonary complications. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, acute pancreatitis (AP), hemin pre-treated AP group, and hemin post-treated AP group. Administration of hemin before induction of AP significantly attenuated the L-arginine- induced pancreatitis and associated pulmonary complications characterized by the increasing serum levels of amylase, lipase, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and histo-architectural changes in pancreas and lungs as compared to control group. Additionally, pre-treatment with hemin significantly compensated the deficits in total antioxidant capacities and lowered the elevated malondialdehyde levels observed with AP. On the other hand, post-hemin administration did not show any protection against L-arginine-induced AP. The current study indicates that the induction of HO-1 by hemin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated the L-arginine-induced pancreatitis and associated pulmonary complications may be due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  13. The involvement of sirtuin 1 and heme oxygenase 1 in the hepatoprotective effects of quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced sub-chronic liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelo, Mighty Kgalalelo; Pierzynová, Aneta; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina; Kučera, Tomáš; Farghali, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of quercetin in a sub-chronic model of hepatotoxicity. The roles of putative antioxidant enzymes, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), in hepatoprotection were also addressed. Sub-chronic liver injury was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CTC), once every 3 days, for 2 weeks. Some CTC rats were concurrently treated with 100 mg/kg quercetin, intragastrically, once every day, for 2 weeks. The effects of these drugs in the liver were evaluated by biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological studies. CTC triggered oxidative damage to the liver as unanimously shown by altered biochemical parameters and liver morphology. Furthermore, CTC highly upregulated HO-1 and SIRT1 expression levels. Concomitant treatment of rats with quercetin downregulated SIRT1 expression and ameliorated the hepatotoxic effects of CTC. However, quercetin did not have any significant effect on HO-1 expression and bilirubin levels. Collectively, these results suggest that the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of quercetin in CTC treated rats were SIRT1 mediated and less dependent on HO-1. Thus, pharmacologic modulation of SIRT1 could provide a logic therapeutic approach in sub-chronic hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Red Yeast Rice Protects Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Proangiogenic Cells against High-Glucose-Induced Senescence and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Tung Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflammation and oxidative stress of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs, also named endothelial progenitor cells, triggered by hyperglycemia contributes significantly to vascular dysfunction. There is supporting evidence that the consumption of red yeast rice (RYR; Monascus purpureus-fermented rice reduces the vascular complications of diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of RYR extract in PACs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent antioxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We found that treatment with RYR extract induced nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in PACs. RYR extract inhibited high-glucose-induced (30 mM PAC senescence and the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX also decreased high-glucose-induced cell senescence and oxidative stress, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and HO-1 small interfering RNA significantly reversed RYR extract-caused inhibition of senescence and reduction of oxidative stress in high-glucose-treated PACs. These results suggest that RYR extract serves as alternative and complementary medicine in the treatment of these diseases, by inducing HO-1, thereby decreasing the vascular complications of diabetes.

  15. Reactive oxygen species and PI3K/Akt signaling play key roles in the induction of Nrf2-driven heme oxygenase-1 expression in sulforaphane-treated human mesothelioma MSTO-211H cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Jeong, Hyang-Yun; Kim, Yong-Bae; Lee, Yong-Jin; Won, Seong Youn; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Nam, Hae-Seon; Lee, Sang-Han

    2012-02-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction plays cytoprotective roles against oxidative injury, apoptosis, and anticancer therapy; however, little is known about its regulation in human mesothelioma MSTO-211H cells. In this study, we investigated Nrf2/HO-1 induction in response to sulforaphane and determined the signaling pathways involved in this process. Sulforaphane treatment decreased cell viability and triggered a rapid and transient increase in the intracellular ROS levels. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented sulforaphane-induced cytotoxicity. Erk1/2 was activated within 1h of sulforaphane addition, whereas Akt phosphorylation was suppressed until the first 8h, and was then maintained at an elevated level until 72h, displaying a biphasic regulatory feature. Nrf2 protein levels in both nuclear and whole cell lysates were increased after sulforaphane treatment and were decreased by pretreatment with NAC, actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 system after sulforaphane treatment was suppressed by pretreatment with NAC or Ly294002, a PI3K inhibitor. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA decreased cell viability and attenuated sulforaphane-induced HO-1 up-regulation. Overall, our results indicate that ROS generation and/or activation of PI3K/Akt signaling regulate cell survival and Nrf2-driven HO-1 expression in sulforaphane-treated MSTO-211H cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dioxygen reactivity of meso-hydroxylated hemes: intermediates in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Heme oxygenase; heme degradation; coupled oxidation; variable temperature paramagnetic NMR. Abstract. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the only enzyme in mammals known to catalyse the physiological degradation of unwanted heme into biliverdin, Fe ion and CO. The process involves introduction of the hydroxyl ...

  17. Bilirubin participates in protecting of heme oxygenase-1 induction by quercetin against ethanol hepatotoxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Qinfeng; Tang, Yuhan; Deng, Yue; Li, Yanyan; Shi, Yanru; Gao, Chao; Xing, Mingyou; Wang, Di; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-03-01

    To attenuate alcohol liver disease (ALD) is extremely urgent since ALD has been emerged as a major liver disease. The aim of the present study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect against ethanol-induced injury of bilirubin, a product of heme metabolism degradation via HO and biliverdin reductase catalysis. Ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were treated by quercetin, bilirubin, inflammatory factors, and/or HO-1 inducer/inhibitor for 24 h, and the cellular damage was assayed. Quercetin lowered ethanol-induced glutathione depletion and superoxide dismutase inactivation, inhibited the overproduction of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species, and decreased the leakage of cellular aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, accompanying the normalization of bilirubin level. The effect of quercetin was mimicked by exogenous bilirubin in a dose-dependent manner to some extent (within 25 μmol/L) and pharmacological HO-1 inducer hemin, but abolished by HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin-IX. Inflammatory challenge of TNF-α plus IL-6 further aggravated ethanol-induced oxidative damage, which was also attenuated by bilirubin in part. These findings shed a light on the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory role of bilirubin released from quercetin/HO-1 and biliverdin reductase pathway against ethanol hepatotoxicity and highlight a prospective strategy of nutritional intervention for ALD by naturally occurring quercetin to induce HO-1 with the release of bioactive end-products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coupling of the Distal H-bond Network to the Exogenous Ligand in Substrate-bound, Resting State Human Heme Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dungeng; Ogura, Hiroshi; Zhu, Wenfeng; Ma, Li-Hua; Evans, John P.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; La Mar, Gerd N.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian heme oxygenase, HO, possesses catalytically implicated distal ordered water molecules within an extended H-bond network, with one of the ordered water molecules (#1) providing a bridge between the iron-coordinated ligand and the catalytically critical Asp140, that, in turn, serves as an acceptor for the Tyr58 OH H-bond. The degree of H-bonding by the ligated water molecule and the coupling of this water molecule to the H-bond network are of current interest and are herein investigated by 1H NMR. 2D NMR allowed sufficient assignments to provide both the H-bond strength and hyperfine shifts, the latter of which were used to quantify the magnetic anisotropy in both the ferric high-spin aquo and low-spin hydroxo complexes. The anisotropy in the aquo complex indicates that the H-bond donation to water #1 is marginally stronger than in a bacterial HO, while the anisotropy for the hydroxo complex reveals a conventional (dxz, dyz)1 ground state indicative of only moderate to weak H-bond acceptance by the ligated hydroxide. Mapping out the changes of the H-bond strengths in the network during the ligated water → hydroxide conversion by correcting for the effects of magnetic anisotropy, reveals a very substantial change in H-bond strength for Tyr58 OH, and lesser effects on nearby H-bonds. The effect of pH on the H-bonding network in human HO is much larger and transmitted much further from the iron than in a pathogenic bacterial HO. The implications for the HO mechanism of the H-bond of Tyr58 to Asp140 are discussed. PMID:19842713

  19. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 inhibits cell death in crotonaldehyde-stimulated HepG2 cells via the PKC-δ-p38-Nrf2 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crotonaldehyde, an alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde present in cigarette smoke, is an environmental pollutant and a product of lipid peroxidation. It also produces adverse effects to humans and is considered as a risk factor for various diseases. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 plays important roles in protecting cells against oxidative stress as a prime cellular defense mechanism. However, HO-1 may be associated with cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HO-1 induction on cell survival in crotonaldehyde-stimulated human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells. METHODS: To investigate the signaling pathway involved in crotonaldehyde-induced HO-1 expression, we compared levels of inhibition efficiency of specific inhibitors and specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs of several kinases. The cell-cycle and cell death was measured by FACS and terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining. RESULTS: Treatment with crotonaldehyde caused a significant increase in nuclear translocation of NF-E2 related factor (Nrf2. Treatment with inhibitors of the protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ and p38 pathways resulted in obvious blockage of crotonaldehyde-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, treatment with HO-1 siRNA and the specific HO-1 inhibitor zinc-protoporphyrin produced an increase in the G(0/G(1 phase of the cell cycle in crotonaldehyde-stimulated HepG2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results support an anti-apoptotic role for HO-1 in crotonaldehyde-stimulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and provide a mechanism by which induction of HO-1 expression via PKC-δ-p38 MAPK-Nrf2 pathway may promote tumor resistance to oxidative stress.

  20. Induction of heme oxygenase-1, biliverdin reductase and H-ferritin in lung macrophage in smokers with primary spontaneous pneumothorax: role of HIF-1alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Goven

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Few data concern the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP, which is associated with alveolar hypoxia/reoxygenation. This study tested the hypothesis that PSP is associated with oxidative stress in lung macrophages. We analysed expression of the oxidative stress marker 4-HNE; the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, biliverdin reductase (BVR and heavy chain of ferritin (H-ferritin; and the transcription factors controlling their expression Nrf2 and HIF-1alpha, in lung samples from smoker and nonsmoker patients with PSP (PSP-S and PSP-NS, cigarette smoke being a risk factor of recurrence of the disease.mRNA was assessed by RT-PCR and proteins by western blot, immunohistochemistry and confocal laser analysis. 4-HNE, HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin were increased in macrophages from PSP-S as compared to PSP-NS and controls (C. HO-1 increase was associated with increased expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein in alveolar macrophages in PSP-S patients, whereas Nrf2 was not modified. To understand the regulation of HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin, THP-1 macrophages were exposed to conditions mimicking conditions in C, PSP-S and PSP-NS patients: cigarette smoke condensate (CS or air exposure followed or not by hypoxia/reoxygenation. Silencing RNA experiments confirmed that HIF-1alpha nuclear translocation was responsible for HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin induction mediated by CS and hypoxia/reoxygenation.PSP in smokers is associated with lung macrophage oxidative stress. The response to this condition involves HIF-1alpha-mediated induction of HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin.

  1. Glomerular Epithelial Cells-Targeted Heme Oxygenase-1 Over Expression in the Rat: Attenuation of Proteinuria in Secondary But Not Primary Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsaves, Vassilios; Makri, Panagiota; Detsika, Maria G; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Lianos, Elias A

    2016-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) in response to injury is poor and this may be a disadvantage. We, therefore, explored whether HO-1 overexpression in GEC can reduce proteinuria induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) or in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab)-mediated glomerulonephritis (GN). HO-1 overexpression in GEC (GECHO-1) of Sprague-Dawley rats was achieved by targeting a FLAG-human (h) HO-1 using transposon-mediated transgenesis. Direct GEC injury was induced by a single injection of PAN. GN was induced by administration of an anti-rat GBM Ab and macrophage infiltration in glomeruli was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, which was also used to assess glomerular nephrin expression. In GECHO-1 rats, FLAG-hHO-1 transprotein was co-immunolocalized with nephrin. Baseline glomerular HO-1 protein levels were higher in GECHO-1 compared to wild type (WT) rats. Administration of either PAN or anti-GBM Ab to WT rats increased glomerular HO-1 levels. Nephrin expression markedly decreased in glomeruli of WT or GECHO-1 rats treated with PAN. In anti-GBM Ab-treated WT rats, nephrin expression also decreased. In contrast, it was preserved in anti-GBM Ab-treated GECHO-1 rats. In these, macrophage infiltration in glomeruli and the ratio of urine albumin to urine creatinine (Ualb/Ucreat) were markedly reduced. There was no difference in Ualb/Ucreat between WT and GECHO-1 rats treated with PAN. Depending on the type of injury, HO-1 overexpression in GEC may or may not reduce proteinuria. Reduced macrophage infiltration and preservation of nephrin expression are putative mechanisms underlying the protective effect of HO-1 overexpression following immune injury. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Gene therapy strategy for long-term myocardial protection using adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of heme oxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis G; Agrawal, Reitu; Zhang, Lunan; Rezvani, Mojgan; Mangi, Abeel A; Ehsan, Afshin; Griese, Daniel P; Dell'Acqua, Giorgio; Mann, Michael J; Oyama, Junichi; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Layne, Matthew D; Perrella, Mark A; Dzau, Victor J

    2002-02-05

    Ischemia and oxidative stress are the leading mechanisms for tissue injury. An ideal strategy for preventive/protective therapy would be to develop an approach that could confer long-term transgene expression and, consequently, tissue protection from repeated ischemia/reperfusion injury with a single administration of a therapeutic gene. In the present study, we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) as a vector for direct delivery of the cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) into the rat myocardium, with the purpose of evaluating this strategy as a therapeutic approach for long-term protection from ischemia-induced myocardial injury. Human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) was delivered to normal rat hearts by intramyocardial injection. AAV-mediated transfer of the hHO-1 gene 8 weeks before acute coronary artery ligation and release led to a dramatic reduction (>75%) in left ventricular myocardial infarction. The reduction in infarct size was accompanied by decreases in myocardial lipid peroxidation and in proapoptotic Bax and proinflammatory interleukin-1beta protein abundance, concomitant with an increase in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level. This suggested that the transgene exerts its cardioprotective effects in part by reducing oxidative stress and associated inflammation and apoptotic cell death. This study documents the beneficial therapeutic effect of rAAV-mediated transfer, before myocardial injury, of a cytoprotective gene that confers long-term myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our data suggest that this novel "pre-event" gene transfer approach may provide sustained tissue protection from future repeated episodes of injury and may be beneficial as preventive therapy for patients with or at risk of developing coronary ischemic events.

  3. Preemptive heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery reveals reduced mortality and preservation of left ventricular function 1 yr after acute myocardial infarction.

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    Liu, Xiaoli; Simpson, Jeremy A; Brunt, Keith R; Ward, Christopher A; Hall, Sean R R; Kinobe, Robert T; Barrette, Valerie; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Pachori, Alok S; Dzau, Victor J; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Melo, Luis G

    2007-07-01

    We reported previously that predelivery of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene to the heart by adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV-2) markedly reduces ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. However, the effect of preemptive HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival and prevention of postinfarction heart failure has not been determined. We assessed the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival, myocardial function, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling 1 yr after myocardial infarction (MI) using echocardiographic imaging, pressure-volume (PV) analysis, and histomorphometric approaches. Two groups of Lewis rats were injected with 2 x 10(11) particles of AAV-LacZ (control) or AAV-human HO-1 (hHO-1) in the anterior-posterior apical region of the LV wall. Six weeks after gene transfer, animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Echocardiographic measurements and PV analysis of LV function were obtained at 2 wk and 12 mo after I/R. One year after acute MI, mortality was markedly reduced in the HO-1-treated animals compared with the LacZ-treated animals. PV analysis demonstrated significantly enhanced LV developed pressure, elevated maximal dP/dt, and lower end-diastolic volume in the HO-1 animals compared with the LacZ animals. Echocardiography showed a larger apical anterior-to-posterior wall ratio in HO-1 animals compared with LacZ animals. Morphometric analysis revealed extensive myocardial scarring and fibrosis in the infarcted LV area of LacZ animals, which was reduced by 62% in HO-1 animals. These results suggest that preemptive HO-1 gene delivery may be useful as a therapeutic strategy to reduce post-MI LV remodeling and heart failure.

  4. Antioxidants Condition Pleiotropic Vascular Responses to Exogenous H2O2: Role of Modulation of Vascular TP Receptors and the Heme Oxygenase System

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    Zhang, Fan; Monu, Sumit R.; Sodhi, Komal; Bellner, Lars; Lamon, Brian D.; Zhang, Yilun; Abraham, Nader G.; Nasjletti, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a nonradical oxidant, is employed to ascertain the role of redox mechanisms in regulation of vascular tone. Where both dilation and constriction have been reported, we examined the hypothesis that the ability of H2O2 to effect vasoconstriction or dilation is conditioned by redox mechanisms and may be modulated by antioxidants. Results: Exogenous H2O2 (0.1–10.0 μM), dose-dependently reduced the internal diameter of rat renal interlobular and 3rd-order mesenteric arteries (pH2O2, also uncovered vasodilation. Innovations: Redox-dependent vasoconstriction to H2O2 was blocked by inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) (indomethacin-10 μM), thromboxane (TP) synthase (CGS13080-10 μM), and TP receptor antagonist (SQ29548-1 μM). However, H2O2 did not increase vascular thromboxane B2 release; instead, it sensitized the vasculature to a TP agonist, U46619, an effect reversed by PEG-SOD. Antioxidant-conditioned dilatory response to H2O2 was accompanied by enhanced vascular heme oxygenase (HO)-dependent carbon monoxide generation and was abolished by HO inhibitors or by HO-1 & 2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides treatment of SD rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that H2O2 has antioxidant-modifiable pleiotropic vascular effects, where constriction and dilation are brought about in the same vascular segment. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increases vascular TP sensitivity and predisposes these arterial segments to constrictor prostanoids. Conversely, vasodilation is reliant upon HO-derived products whose synthesis is stimulated only in the presence of antioxidants targeting radicals downstream of H2O2. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 471–480. PMID:22867102

  5. Adaphostin toxicity in a sensitive non-small cell lung cancer model is mediated through Nrf2 signaling and heme oxygenase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monks Anne

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preclinical toxicity of adaphostin has been related to oxidative stress. This study investigated the regulatory mechanism underlying adaphostin induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 which plays a significant role in modulation of drug-induced toxicity in the non-small cell lung cancer cell line model, NCI-H522. Methods The transcriptional response of NCI-H522 to adaphostin prominently involved oxidative stress genes, particularly HMOX1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS involvement was additionally established by generation of ROS prior to modulation of adaphostin-toxicity with antioxidants. To identify up-stream regulatory elements of HMOX1, immunofluorescence was used to evaluate nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, in the presence of adaphostin. The PI3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, was employed as a pharmacological inhibitor of this process. Results Generation of ROS provided a substantial foundation for the sensitivity of NCI-H522 to adaphostin. However, in contrast to leukemia cell lines, transcriptional response to oxidative stress was associated with induction of HMOX1, which was dependent on nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, Nrf2. Pretreatment of cells with wortmannin inhibited translocation of Nrf2 and induction of HMOX1. Wortmannin pretreatment was also able to diminish adaphostin induction of HMOX1, and as a consequence, enhance the toxicity of adaphostin to NCI-H522. Conclusions Adaphostin-induced oxidative stress in NCI-H522 was mediated through nuclear translocation of Nrf2 leading to upregulation of HMOX1. Inhibition of Nrf2 translocation by wortmannin inhibited this cytoprotective response, and enhanced the toxicity of adaphostin, suggesting that inhibitors of the PI3K pathway, such as wortmannin, might augment the antiproliferative effects of adaphostin in solid tumors that depend on the Nrf2/ARE pathway for protection against oxidative stress.

  6. Eupatolide inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells through ROS-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namho; Hwangbo, Cheol; Lee, Suhyun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2013-11-01

    The abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Here, we investigated the effects of eupatolide (EuTL), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the medicinal plant Inula britannica, on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), as well as its underlying mechanisms. EuTL remarkably inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Treatment of RASMCs with EuTL induced both protein and mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor), U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) and LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) did not suppress EuTL-induced HO-1 expression; however, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant) blocked EuTL-induced HO-1 expression. Moreover, treatment of RASMCs with EuTL increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); however, this translocation was also inhibited by NAC. NAC or inhibition of HO-1 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of EuTL on PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that EuTL could suppress PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs through HO-1 induction via ROS-Nrf2 pathway and may be a potential HO-1 inducer for preventing or treating vascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) deficiency ameliorates TNBS colitis in mice: role of M2 macrophages and heme oxygenase-1.

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    Harusato, Akihito; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Hirai, Yasuko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Handa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Muto, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which plays an important role in the protection of cells and tissues against acute and chronic inflammation. However, the role of Bach1 in the gastrointestinal mucosal defense system remains little understood. HO-1 supports the suppression of experimental colitis and localizes mainly in macrophages in colonic mucosa. This study was undertaken to elucidate the Bach1/HO-1 system's effects on the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. This study used C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous Bach1-deficient C57BL/6 mice in which colonic damage was induced by the administration of an enema of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Subsequently, they were evaluated macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically. Peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice were isolated and analyzed. Then, wild-type mice were injected with peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice. Acute colitis was induced similarly. TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited in Bach1-deficient mice. TNBS administration increased the expression of HO-1 messenger RNA and protein in colonic mucosa in Bach1-deficient mice. The expression of HO-1 mainly localized in F4/80-immunopositive and CD11b-immunopositive macrophages. Isolated peritoneal macrophages from Bach1-deficient mice highly expressed HO-1 and also manifested M2 macrophage markers, such as Arginase-1, Fizz-1, Ym1, and MRC1. Furthermore, TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited by the transfer of Bach1-deficient macrophages into wild-type mice. Deficiency of Bach1 ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. Bach1-deficient macrophages played a key role in protection against colitis. Targeting of this mechanism is applicable to cell therapy for human inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Genetic polymorphism of heme oxygenase 1 promoter in the occurrence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongbin; Ying, Xiwang; Liu, Yuanshun; Ye, Sa; Yan, Jianping; Li, Yaqing

    2017-05-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) plays an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the association of HMOX1 length polymorphism in promoter region to the risk and severity of COPD has not been well studied. In this study, we searched the databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and extracted the information from related articles. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to study the effect of HMOX1 polymorphism on the risk and severity of COPD. As a result, nine studies were included for this meta-analysis. Higher frequencies of L allele and type I genotype (containing at least one L allele) were found in patients with COPD (for L allele, OR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.32-3.11, P = 0.001; for type I genotype, OR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.28-2.61, P = 0.001), especially in Asian population (for L allele, OR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.68-2.95, P < 0.001; for type I genotype, OR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.51-2.70, P < 0.001). Genotyping method, source of control subjects, literature quality and language also affected the results to some extent. However, there was little difference in HMOX1 genotypes distribution in patients with COPD with different severity. Our study indicated L allele and type I genotype were related to the susceptibility but not the severity of COPD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Dual role of the active-center cysteine in human peroxiredoxin 1: Peroxidase activity and heme binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Ishimori, Koichiro; Uchida, Takeshi

    2017-02-12

    HBP23, a 23-kDa heme-binding protein identified in rats, is a member of the peroxiredoxin (Prx) family, the primary peroxidases involved in hydrogen peroxide catabolism. Although HBP23 has a characteristic Cys-Pro heme-binding motif, the significance of heme binding to Prx family proteins remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of heme binding to human peroxiredoxin-1 (PRX1), which has 97% amino acid identity to HBP23. PRX1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Spectroscopic titration demonstrated that PRX1 binds heme with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a dissociation constant of 0.17 μM. UV-vis spectra of heme-PRX1 suggested that Cys52 is the axial ligand of ferric heme. PRX1 peroxidase activity was lost upon heme binding, reflecting the fact that Cys52 is not only the heme-binding site but also the active center of peroxidase activity. Interestingly, heme binding to PRX1 caused a decrease in the toxicity and degradation of heme, significantly suppressing H2O2-dependent heme peroxidase activity and degradation of PRX1-bound heme compared with that of free hemin. By virtue of its cytosolic abundance (∼20 μM), PRX1 thus functions as a scavenger of cytosolic hemin (dual role; Cys-dependent peroxidase activity and cytosolic heme scavenger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from plant cell cultures induce heme oxygenase 1 gene expression in a human keratinocyte cell line by affecting the balance of NRF2 and BACH1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbossa, Anna; Dal Bosco, Martina; Pressi, Giovanna; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Dal Toso, Roberto; Menegazzi, Marta

    2012-08-30

    Phenylpropanoids have several highly significant biological properties in both plants and animals. Four phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs), verbascoside (VB), forsythoside B (FB), echinacoside (EC) and campneoside I (CP), were purified and tested for their capability to activate NRF2 and induce phase II cytoprotective enzymes in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). All four substances showed similar strong antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities as determined by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Furthermore, in HaCaT cells, FB and EC are strong activators of NRF2, the nuclear transcription factor regulating many phase II detoxifying and cytoprotective enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1). In HaCaT cells, FB and EC (200 μM) induced nuclear translocation of NRF2 protein after 24 h and reduced nuclear protein levels of BACH1, a repressor of the antioxidant response element. FB and EC greatly HMOX1 mRNA levels by more than 40-fold in 72 h. Cytoplasmic HMOX1 protein levels were also increased at 48 h after treatment. VB was less active compared to FB and EC, and CP was slightly active only at later times of treatment. We suggest that hydroxytyrosol (HYD) could be a potential bioactive metabolite of PPGs since HYD, in equimolar amounts to PGGs, is able to both activate HO-1 transcription and modify Nrf2/Bach1 nuclear protein levels. This is in agreement with the poor activity of CP, which contains a HYD moiety modified by an O-methyl group. In conclusion, FB and EC from plant cell cultures may provide long-lasting skin protection by induction of phase II cytoprotective capabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lycopene inhibits cyclic strain-induced endothelin-1 expression through the suppression of reactive oxygen species generation and induction of heme oxygenase-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Li-Chin; Chao, Hung-Hsing; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Tsai, Jen-Chen; Liu, Ju-Chi; Hong, Hong-Jye; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng; Chen, Jin-Jer

    2015-06-01

    Lycopene is the most potent active antioxidant among the major carotenoids, and its use has been associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasopressor synthesized by endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of CVD. However, the direct effects of lycopene on vascular endothelial cells have not been fully described. This study investigated the effects of lycopene on cyclic strain-induced ET-1 gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and identified the signal transduction pathways that are involved in this process. Cultured HUVECs were exposed to cyclic strain (20% in length, 1 Hz) in the presence or absence of lycopene. Lycopene inhibited strain-induced ET-1 expression through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through attenuation of p22(phox) mRNA expression and NAD(P)H oxidase activity. Furthermore, lycopene inhibited strain-induced ET-1 secretion by reducing ROS-mediated extrace-llular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Conversely, lycopene treatment enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression through the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, followed by induction of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation; in addition, HO-1 silencing partially inhibited the repressive effects of lycopene on strain-induced ET-1 expression. In summary, our study showed, for the first time, that lycopene inhibits cyclic strain-induced ET-1 gene expression through the suppression of ROS generation and induction of HO-1 in HUVECs. Therefore, this study provides new valuable insight into the molecular pathways that may contribute to the proposed beneficial effects of lycopene on the cardiovascular system. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory action and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells through PI3K/AKT/Nrf-2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Gil-Saeng

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative skin damage and skin inflammation play key roles in the pathogenesis of skin-related diseases. Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid abundantly found in several vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been shown to exert various positive biological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects. In this study, we investigate the skin protective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of fisetin in hydrogen peroxide- and TNF-α-challenged human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. When HaCaT cells were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of fisetin (1-20μM), heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, fisetin dose-dependently increased cell viability and reduced ROS production in hydrogen peroxide-treated HaCaT cells. Fisetin also inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 IL-1β, IL-6, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and activation of NF-κB in HaCaT cells treated with TNF-α. Fisetin induced Nrf2 translocation to the nuclei. HO-1 siRNA transient transfection reversed the effects of fisetin on cytoprotection, ROS reduction, NO, PGE2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α production, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Moreover, fisetin increased Akt phosphorylation and a PI3K pathway inhibitor (LY294002) abolished fisetin-induced cytoprotection and NO inhibition. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a beneficial role of fisetin in skin therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Inhibitory effects of benzaldehyde derivatives from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on inflammatory mediators via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-12-19

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Su Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1 and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2, were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB. These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2 translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  15. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor/heme oxygenase-1 axis is critical for the inflammatory features of type 2 diabetes-associated osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaamonde-Garcia, Carlos; Courties, Alice; Pigenet, Audrey; Laiguillon, Marie-Charlotte; Sautet, Alain; Houard, Xavier; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Meijide, Rosa; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological findings support the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Moreover, OA cartilage from patients with T2DM exhibits a greater response to inflammatory stress, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. To investigate whether the antioxidant defense system participates in this response, we examined here the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf-2), a master antioxidant transcription factor, and of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), one of its main target genes, in OA cartilage from T2DM and non-T2DM patients as well as in murine chondrocytes exposed to high glucose (HG). Ex vivo experiments indicated that Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression is reduced in T2DM versus non-T2DM OA cartilage (0.57-fold Nrf-2 and 0.34-fold HO-1), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release was increased in samples with low HO-1 expression. HG-exposed, IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes had lower Nrf-2 levels in vitro, particularly in the nuclear fraction, than chondrocytes exposed to normal glucose (NG). Accordingly, HO-1 levels were also decreased (0.49-fold) in these cells. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX more efficiently attenuated PGE2 and IL-6 release in HG+IL-1β-treated cells than in NG+IL-1β-treated cells. Greater reductions in HO-1 expression and increase in PGE2/IL-6 production were observed in HG+IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes from Nrf-2-/- mice than in chondrocytes from wild-type mice. We conclude that the Nrf-2/HO-1 axis is a critical pathway in the hyperglucidic-mediated dysregulation of chondrocytes. Impairments in this antioxidant system may explain the greater inflammatory responsiveness of OA cartilage from T2DM patients and may inform treatments of such patients. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Transduction of PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 into insulin-producing INS-1 cells protects them against cytokine-induced cell death

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    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong Keun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok Yil, E-mail: hykwon@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby triggering the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We recently developed a cell-permeable fusion protein, PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage cells. In this study, we transduced PEP-1-HO-1 into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 h. Pre-treatment with PEP-1-HO-1 increased the survival of INS-1 cells exposed to cytokine mixture (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. PEP-1-HO-1 markedly decreased cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These protective effects of PEP-1-HO-1 against cytokines were correlated with the changes in the levels of signaling mediators of inflammation (iNOS and COX-2) and cell apoptosis/survival (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, PARP, JNK, and Akt). These results showed that the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 efficiently prevented cytokine-induced cell death of INS-1 cells by alleviating oxidative/nitrosative stresses and inflammation. Further, these results suggested that PEP-1-mediated HO-1 transduction may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent β-cell destruction in patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • We showed that PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 exerted a protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited cytokine-induced ROS and NO accumulation. • PEP-1-HO-1 suppressed cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Bax. • PEP-1-HO-1 transduction may be an efficient tool to prevent β-cell destruction.

  17. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (pstress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This study provides seminal evidence that exercise

  18. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated apoptosis under cadmium-induced oxidative stress is regulated by autophagy, which is sensitized by tumor suppressor p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2016-10-07

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible cytoprotective enzyme. It is often overexpressed in different types of cancers and promotes cell survival. However, the role of HO-1 and the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress in cancer cells remain undefined. Here we show that the role of HO-1 under Cd-induced oxidative stress is dependent upon autophagy, which is sensitized by the tumor suppressor p53. The sensitivity to Cd was 3.5- and 14-fold higher in p53-expressing YD8 and H460 cells than in p53-null YD10B and H1299 cells, respectively. The levels of p53 in YD8 and H460 cells decreased in a Cd concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. In both cell lines, Cd exposure resulted in caspase-3-mediated PARP-1 cleavage and the induction of CHOP, LC3-II, and HO-1, which were limited in YD10B and H1299 cells exposed to high concentrations of Cd. Cd exposure to p53-overexpressing YD10B cells enhanced Cd-induced HO-1 and LC3-II levels, whereas genetic knockdown of p53 in YD8 cells resulted in the suppression of Cd-induced levels of HO-1 and LC3-II, indicating that p53 is required in the sensing of HO-1 and induction of autophagy. The inhibition of autophagy using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for the autophagy-related gene atg5 enhanced HO-1, CHOP, and PARP-1 cleavage induced by Cd. However, transfection with HO-1 siRNA increased Cd-induced LC3-II, and suppressed the expression of CHOP and cleavage of PARP-1. Collectively, the role of HO-1 in apoptosis could be modulated by autophagy, which is sensitized by p53 expression in human cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Redox and light control the heme-sensing activity of AppA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Dragnea, Vladimira; Feldman, George; Hammad, Loubna A; Karty, Jonathan A; Dann, Charles E; Bauer, Carl E

    2013-08-27

    The DNA binding activity of the photosystem-specific repressor PpsR is known to be repressed by the antirepressor AppA. AppA contains a blue-light-absorbing BLUF domain and a heme-binding SCHIC domain that controls the interaction of AppA with PpsR in response to light and heme availability. In this study, we have solved the structure of the SCHIC domain and identified the histidine residue that is critical for heme binding. We also demonstrate that dark-adapted AppA binds heme better than light-excited AppA does and that heme bound to the SCHIC domain significantly reduces the length of the BLUF photocycle. We further show that heme binding to the SCHIC domain is affected by the redox state of a disulfide bridge located in the Cys-rich carboxyl-terminal region. These results demonstrate that light, redox, and heme are integrated inputs that control AppA's ability to disrupt the DNA binding activity of PpsR. Photosynthetic bacteria must coordinate synthesis of the tetrapyrroles cobalamin, heme, and bacteriochlorophyll, as overproduction of the latter two is toxic to cells. A key regulator controlling tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is PpsR, and the activity of PpsR is controlled by the heme-binding and light-regulated antirepressor AppA. We show that AppA binds heme only under dark conditions and that heme binding significantly affects the length of the AppA photocycle. Since AppA interacts with PpsR only in the dark, bound heme thus stimulates the antirepressor activity of PpsR. This causes the redirection of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis away from heme into the bacteriochlorophyll branch.

  20. Heme utilization by pathogenic bacteria: not all pathways lead to biliverdin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Angela; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    2014-08-19

    under hydrolytic conditions. The differences between heme oxygenation by the canonical and noncanonical HOs and coupled oxidation will be discussed in the context of the stabilization of the reactive Fe(III)-OOH intermediate and regioselective heme hydroxylation. Thus, in the determination of heme oxygenase activity in vitro, it is important to ensure that the reaction proceeds through successive oxygenation steps. We further suggest that when bacterial heme degradation is being characterized, a systems biology approach combining genetics, mechanistic enzymology, and metabolite profiling should be undertaken.

  1. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction prevents Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated endothelial cell death and impaired angiogenic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamoun, Hatem; Zachariah, Matshediso; McVey, John H; Green, Fiona R; Agouni, Abdelali

    2017-03-01

    Most of diabetic cardiovascular complications are attributed to endothelial dysfunction and impaired angiogenesis. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and oxidative stresses were shown to play a pivotal role in the development of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) was shown to protect against oxidative stress in diabetes; however, its role in alleviating ER stress-induced endothelial dysfunction remains not fully elucidated. We aim here to test the protective role of HO-1 against high glucose-mediated ER stress and endothelial dysfunction and understand the underlying mechanisms with special emphasis on oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) were grown in either physiological or intermittent high concentrations of glucose for 5days in the presence or absence of Cobalt (III) Protoporphyrin IX chloride (CoPP, HO-1 inducer) or 4-Phenyl Butyric Acid (PBA, ER stress inhibitor). Using an integrated cellular and molecular approach, we then assessed ER stress and inflammatory responses, in addition to apoptosis and angiogenic capacity in these cells. Our results show that HO-1 induction prevented high glucose-mediated increase of mRNA and protein expression of key ER stress markers. Cells incubated with high glucose exhibited high levels of oxidative stress, activation of major inflammatory and apoptotic responses [nuclear factor (NF)-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)] and increased rate of apoptosis; however, cells pre-treated with CoPP or PBA were fully protected. In addition, high glucose enhanced caspases 3 and 7 cleavage and activity and augmented cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) expression whereas HO-1 induction prevented these effects. Finally, HO-1 induction and ER stress inhibition prevented high glucose-induced reduction in NO release and impaired the angiogenic capacity of HUVECs, and enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression. Altogether, we show here the

  2. Genistein inhibits ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and MCP-1 expression of HUVECs through heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-ping; Zheng, Feng-li; Zhao, Jia-hui; Guo, Dong-xing; Chen, Xiao-long

    2013-01-01

    Genistein, a principal component of soybean isoflavones, plays an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the detailed mechanisms have not been fully investigated. The aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effect and investigate potential pharmacological mechanism of genistein. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced injury in on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established to evaluate the protective role of genistein. Macrophage/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) secretion and their messenger RNA transcription were observed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Meanwhile, the study investigated the role of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway during the process. Pretreatment with genistein markedly reduced ox-LDL-induced MCP-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 secretion and mRNA transcription, which was further decreased by the inducer of HO and reversed by the inhibitor of HO; additionally, the effects were accompanied with upregulating HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and markedly abolished with Nrf2 siRNA. Anti-inflammatory effect of genistein on endothelial cells may be associated with the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heme-mediated cell activation: the inflammatory puzzle of sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Caroline Conceição da; Santiago, Rayra Pereira; Fiuza, Luciana Magalhães; Aleluia, Milena Magalhães; Ferreira, Júnia Raquel Dutra; Figueiredo, Camylla Vilas Boas; Yahouedehou, Setondji Cocou Modeste Alexandre; Oliveira, Rodrigo Mota de; Lyra, Isa Menezes; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Hemolysis triggers the onset of several clinical manifestations of sickle cell anemia (SCA). During hemolysis, heme, which is derived from hemoglobin (Hb), accumulates due to the inability of detoxification systems to scavenge sufficiently. Heme exerts multiple harmful effects, including leukocyte activation and migration, enhanced adhesion molecule expression by endothelial cells and the production of pro-oxidant molecules. Area covered: In this review, we describe the effects of heme on leukocytes and endothelial cells, as well as the features of vascular endothelial cells related to vaso-occlusion in SCA. Expert commentary: Free Hb, heme and iron, potent cytotoxic intravascular molecules released during hemolysis, can exacerbate, modulate and maintain the inflammatory response, a main feature of SCA. Endothelial cells in the vascular environment, as well as leukocytes, can become activated via the molecular signaling effects of heme. Due to the hemolytic nature of SCA, hemolysis represents an interesting therapeutic target for heme-scavenging purposes.

  4. Mutations in the FMN Domain Modulate MCD Spectra of the Ferric Heme in the Oxygenase Domain of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempombe, Joseph; Elmore, Bradley O.; Sun, Xi; Dupont, Andrea; Ghosh, Dipak K.; Guillemette, J. Guy; Kirk, Martin L.; Feng, Changjian

    2009-01-01

    The NOS ouput state for NO production is a complex of the FMN-binding domain and heme domain, and thereby it faciltates the interdomain electron transfer from the FMN to the catalytic heme site. Emerging evidence suggests that interdomain FMN/heme interactions are important in formation of the output state by guiding the docking of the FMN domain to the heme domain. In this study, notable effects of mutations in the adjacent FMN domain on the heme structure in a human iNOS bi-domain oxygnease/FMN construct have been observed by using low-temperature MCD spectroscopy. The comparative MCD study of wild type and mutant proteins clearly indicate that a properly docked FMN domain contributes to the observed l-Arg-perturbation of heme MCD spectrum in the wild type protein, and that the conserved surface residues at the FMN domain (E546 and E603) play key roles in facilitating a productive alignment of the FMN and heme domains in iNOS. PMID:19405537

  5. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, Abhinav [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Venkatachalam, Avanthika [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India); Gideon, Daniel Andrew [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  6. Kidneys From α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Knockout/Human Heme Oxygenase-1/Human A20 Transgenic Pigs Are Protected From Rejection During Ex Vivo Perfusion With Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Hellen E; Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Petkov, Stoyan; Herrmann, Doris; Hauschild-Quintern, Janet; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Hassel, Petra; Ziegler, Maren; Baars, Wiebke; Bergmann, Sabine; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-07-01

    Multiple modifications of the porcine genome are required to prevent rejection after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Here, we produced pigs with a knockout of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1-KO) combined with transgenic expression of the human anti-apoptotic/anti-inflammatory molecules heme oxygenase-1 and A20, and investigated their xenoprotective properties. The GGTA1-KO/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1)/human A20 (hA20) transgenic pigs were produced in a stepwise approach using zinc finger nuclease vectors targeting the GGTA1 gene and a Sleeping Beauty vector coding for hA20. Two piglets were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and sequencing. The biological function of the genetic modifications was tested in a (51)Chromium release assay and by ex vivo kidney perfusions with human blood. Disruption of the GGTA1 gene by deletion of few basepairs was demonstrated in GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs. The hHO-1 and hA20 mRNA expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ex vivo perfusion of 2 transgenic kidneys was feasible for the maximum experimental time of 240 minutes without symptoms of rejection. Results indicate that GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs are a promising model to alleviate rejection and ischemia-reperfusion damage in porcine xenografts and could serve as a background for further genetic modifications toward the production of a donor pig that is clinically relevant for xenotransplantation.

  7. Sofalcone upregulates the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway, reduces soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and quenches endothelial dysfunction: potential therapeutic for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Kenji; Tong, Stephen; Nakahara, Anzu; Kondo, Mei; Monchusho, Hideaki; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha; Beard, Sally; Binder, Natalie; Tuohey, Laura; Brownfoot, Fiona; Hannan, Natalie J

    2015-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension, oxidative stress, and severe endothelial dysfunction. Antiangiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin, play key pathophysiological roles in preeclampsia. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective, antioxidant enzyme reported to be downregulated in preeclampsia. Studies propose that inducing HO-1 may also decrease sFlt-1 production. Sofalcone, a gastric antiulcer agent in clinical use, is known to induce HO-1 in gastric epithelium. We aimed to investigate whether sofalcone induces HO-1 and reduces sFlt-1 release from primary human placental and endothelial cells and blocks endothelial dysfunction in vitro. We isolated human trophoblasts and endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and also used uterine microvascular cells. We investigated the effects of sofalcone on (1) HO-1 production, (2) activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 pathway, (3) sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin release, (4) tumor necrosis factor α-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule upregulation, and (5) endothelial tubule formation. Sofalcone potently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein in both primary trophoblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, sofalcone treatment caused nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and transactivation of other nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 responsive genes (NQO1, TXN, and GCLC). Importantly, sofalcone significantly decreased the secretion of sFlt-1 from primary human trophoblasts. Sofalcone potently suppressed endothelial dysfunction in 2 in vitro models, blocking tumor necrosis factor α-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results indicate that in primary human tissues, sofalcone can potently activate antioxidant nuclear factor

  8. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  9. Heme metabolism as an integral part of iron homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lipiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme, a ferrous iron protoporphyrin IX complex, is employed as a prosthetic group in a number of diverse heme proteins that participate in important cellular and systemic physiological processes. Provision of an adequate amount of iron for heme biosynthesis is one of the elemental hallmarks of intracellular iron homeostasis. In the cell the bioavailability of iron for the two main iron biological pathways – heme synthesis and the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters ([Fe-S] – is mainly regulated by the IRP/IRE posttranscriptional system. The biogenesis of [Fe-S] centers is crucial for heme synthesis because these co-factors determine the activity of IRP1 and that of ferrochelatase, an enzyme responsible for the insertion of an iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. On the other hand, delivery of iron for heme and hemoglobin synthesis in erythroblasts, precursors of erythrocytes in bone marrow, is an indispensable element of body iron homeostasis. This process relies on the recovery of iron from senescent red blood cells through the enzymatic degradation of heme molecules and recycling of iron to the circulation. Molecular coordination of these processes involves the activity of heme oxygenase 1, IRP1 and IRP2 as well as the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis. Recent studies show in mammals the existence of an expanded system of proteins involved in the transport of intact heme molecules at the cellular and systemic levels. The biological role of this system is of particular importance when the concentration of free heme reaches a toxic level in the body (intravascular hemolysis as well as locally in cells having intensive heme metabolism such as erythroblasts and macrophages.

  10. The effect of 17β-estradiol on the expression of dipeptidyl peptidase III and heme oxygenase 1 in liver of CBA/H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačak Šafranko, Ž; Sobočanec, S; Šarić, A; Jajčanin-Jozić, N; Krsnik, Ž; Aralica, G; Balog, T; Abramić, M

    2015-04-01

    17β-estradiol (E₂) has well-established cardioprotective, antioxidant and neuroprotective role, and exerts a vast range of biological effects in both sexes. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is protease involved as activator in Keap1-Nrf2 signalling pathway, which is important in cellular defense to oxidative and electrophilic stress. It is generally accepted that oxidative stress is crucial in promoting liver diseases. To examine the effect of E₂ on the expression of DPP III and haeme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in liver of adult CBA/H mice of both sexes. Gene and protein expressions of studied enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse the localization of both proteins in different liver cell types. Ovariectomy diminished expression of DPP III and HO-1 proteins. E₂ administration abolished this effect, and even increased these proteins above the control. A significant enhancement in DPP III protein was found in E₂-treated males, as well. A decrease in the expression of HO-1, but not of the DPP III gene, was detected in the liver of ovariectomized females. HO-1 protein was found localized in the pericentral areas of hepatic lobules (Kupffer cells and hepatocytes), whilst DPP III showed a uniform distribution within hepatic tissue. We demonstrate for the first time that E₂ influences the protein level of DPP III in vivo, and confirm earlier finding on HO-1 gene upregulation by 17β-estradiol. These results additionally confer new insights into complexity of protective action of E₂.

  11. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose.

  12. XAS study of the active site of a bacterial heme-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Longa, S [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita dell' Aquila via Vetoio, loc. Coppito II 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Arcovito, A [Istituto di Biochimica e Biochimica Clinica, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Roma (Italy); Brunori, M; Castiglione, N; Cutruzzola, F; Giardina, G; Rinaldo, S [Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche ' A. Rossi Fanelli' , Sapienza Universit/a di Roma, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); D' Angelo, P, E-mail: dlonga@caspur.i [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, P. le A.Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Denitrifying bacteria control NO and NO{sub 2} cytosolic levels by regulating the expression of denitrification gene clusters via REDOX signalling of specific transcriptional factors that may act as NO sensors in vivo. A protein belonging to the subclass DNR (dissimilative nitrate respiration regulator) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recently suggested to be a heme containing protein. Very recently the three dimensional structure of the apo-form of DNR (in the absence of heme) has been determined by X-Ray crystallography, whereas the holo-form (in the presence of heme) has not yet been crystallized. We have investigated the heme local structure in solution of ferric and ferrous holo-DNR by XAS. The Fe K-edge XANES spectrum of the ferric adduct displays typical features of a low-spin hexacoordinate Fe-heme complex, having two histidines ligated. After chemical reduction, relevant changes of the XANES fingerprints suggest a repositioning of the heme inside the hydrophobic core of the protein in agreement with previously reported structural and spectroscopic evidence. Partial release of the axial ligands leaves the Fe(II)heme available, and very reactive, to bind exogenous ligands like NO, thus supporting its role as the cofactor involved in NO sensing activity.

  13. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase type 2 (mPGES2) is a glutathione-dependent heme protein, and dithiothreitol dissociates the bound heme to produce active prostaglandin E2 synthase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takusagawa, Fusao

    2013-04-05

    An x-ray study indicated that microsomal prostaglandin E synthase type 2 (mPGES2) is a heme-bound protein and catalyzes prostaglandin (PG) H2 degradation, but not PGE2 formation (Yamada, T., and Takusagawa, F. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 8414-8424). In response to the x-ray study, Watanabe et al. claimed that mPGES2 is a heme-free protein and that both the heme-free and heme-bound proteins have PGE2 synthesis activity in the presence of dithiothreitol (Watanabe, K., Ito, S., and Yamamoto, S. (2008) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 367, 782-786). To resolve the contradictory results, the heme-binding scheme of mPGES2 was further characterized in vivo and in vitro by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. A substantial amount of heme-bound mPGES2 was detected in cell extracts. The heme content in mPGES2 was increased along with an increase in Fe(3+) in the culture medium. Heme-free mPGES2 was converted to the heme-bound form by mixing it with pig liver extract, indicating that mPGES2 is capable of forming a complex with heme in mammalian cells. Heme binds to mPGES2 only in the presence of glutathione. The newly determined heme dissociation constant (2.9 nM) supports strongly that mPGES2 is a heme-bound protein in vivo. The bound heme was not dissociated by oxidation by H2O2 or reduction by glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol. However, reduction by dithiothreitol (an artificial reducing compound) induced the bound heme to dissociate from mPGES2 and released heme-free mPGES2, which exhibited PGE2 synthesis activity in vitro. Imidazole bound to mPGES2 by stacking on the bound heme and inhibited heme oxidation by H2O2 and reduction by dithiothreitol.

  14. Heme A synthesis and CcO activity are essential forTrypanosoma cruziinfectivity and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Marcelo L; Cirulli, Brenda A; Menéndez-Bravo, Simón M; Cricco, Julia A

    2017-06-27

    Trypanosoma cruzi , the causative agent of Chagas disease, presents a complex life cycle and adapts its metabolism to nutrients' availability. Although T. cruzi is an aerobic organism, it does not produce heme. This cofactor is acquired from the host and is distributed and inserted into different heme-proteins such as respiratory complexes in the parasite's mitochondrion. It has been proposed that T. cruzi's energy metabolism relies on a branched respiratory chain with a cytochrome c oxidase-type aa 3 (C c O) as the main terminal oxidase. Heme A, the cofactor for all eukaryotic C c O, is synthesized via two sequential enzymatic reactions catalyzed by heme O synthase (HOS) and heme A synthase (HAS). Previously, TcCox10 and TcCox15 ( Trypanosoma cruzi Cox10 and Cox15 proteins) were identified in T. cruzi They presented HOS and HAS activity, respectively, when they were expressed in yeast. Here, we present the first characterization of TcCox15 in T. cruzi , confirming its role as HAS. It was differentially detected in the different T. cruzi stages, being more abundant in the replicative forms. This regulation could reflect the necessity of more heme A synthesis, and therefore more C c O activity at the replicative stages. Overexpression of a non-functional mutant caused a reduction in heme A content. Moreover, our results clearly showed that this hindrance in the heme A synthesis provoked a reduction on C c O activity and, in consequence, an impairment on T. cruzi survival, proliferation and infectivity. This evidence supports that T. cruzi depends on the respiratory chain activity along its life cycle, being C c O an essential terminal oxidase. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 plays a pro-life role in experimental brain stem death via nitric oxide synthase I/protein kinase G signaling at rostral ventrolateral medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Kuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its clinical importance, a dearth of information exists on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin brain stem death. A suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation on brain stem death resides in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM because it is the origin of a life-and-death signal that sequentially increases (pro-life and decreases (pro-death to reflect the advancing central cardiovascular regulatory dysfunction during the progression towards brain stem death in critically ill patients. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that heme oxygnase-1 (HO-1 may play a pro-life role as an interposing signal between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 and nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I/protein kinase G (PKG cascade in RVLM, which sustains central cardiovascular regulatory functions during brain stem death. Methods We performed cardiovascular, pharmacological, biochemical and confocal microscopy experiments in conjunction with an experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol bilaterally into RVLM of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results Western blot analysis coupled with laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that augmented HO-1 expression that was confined to the cytoplasm of RVLM neurons occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death and was antagonized by immunoneutralization of HIF-1α or HIF-1β in RVLM. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic presence of HO-2 in RVLM neurons manifested insignificant changes during both phases. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of HO-1 or knockdown of ho-1 gene in RVLM blunted the augmented life-and-death signals exhibited during the pro-life phase. Those pretreatments also blocked the upregulated pro-life NOS I/PKG signaling without affecting the pro-death NOS II/peroxynitrite cascade in RVLM. Conclusions We conclude that transcriptional

  16. Purification and Characterization of a New Indole Oxygenase from the Leaves of Tecoma stans L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunapuli, S P; Vaidyanathan, C S

    1983-01-01

    A new indole oxygenase from the leaves of Tecoma stans was isolated and purified to homogenity. The purified enzyme system catalyzes the conversion of indole to anthranilic acid. It is optimally active at pH 5.2 and 30 degrees C. Two moles of oxygen are consumed and one mole of anthranilic acid is formed for every mole of indole oxidized. Dialysis resulted in complete loss of the activity. The inactive enzyme could be reactivated by the addition of concentrated dialysate. The enzyme is not inhibited by copper-specific chelators, non-heme iron chelators or atebrin. It is not a cuproflavoprotein, unlike the other indole oxygenases and oxidases.

  17. Effect of the herbal formulation Shen-Zhi-Ling on an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by modulating the biliverdin reductase/heme oxygenase 1 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sanli; Shen, Dingzhu; Chen, Chuan; Wu, Beiling; Chi, Huiying

    2017-09-01

    Shen-Zhi-Ling (SZL) oral liquid is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that is mainly used for the clinical treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of SZL treatment on AD. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were utilized to evaluate the effect of SZL treatment (0.5 g/20 g/day). Morris water maze and Thioflavin S staining analyses were used to evaluate the cognitive impairment and β-amyloid plaques, respectively, while quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR). Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the BVR and HO-1 protein levels in the hippocampus. The findings of the current study demonstrated that SZL treatment was able to ameliorate the impairment of memory and reduce the accumulation of amyloid plaques, and its ameliorating effects may be attributed to the modulation of the HO-1/BVR system in the hippocampus. These results indicate that SZL may be a possible complementary and alternative therapy to delay the development of AD.

  18. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

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    Nathália Rocco-Machado

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite.

  19. Identification of residues in the heme domain of soluble guanylyl cyclase that are important for basal and stimulated catalytic activity.

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    Padmamalini Baskaran

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide signals through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, a heme-containing heterodimer. NO binds to the heme domain located in the N-terminal part of the β subunit of sGC resulting in increased production of cGMP in the catalytic domain located at the C-terminal part of sGC. Little is known about the mechanism by which the NO signaling is propagated from the receptor domain (heme domain to the effector domain (catalytic domain, in particular events subsequent to the breakage of the bond between the heme iron and Histidine 105 (H105 of the β subunit. Our modeling of the heme-binding domain as well as previous homologous heme domain structures in different states point to two regions that could be critical for propagation of the NO activation signal. Structure-based mutational analysis of these regions revealed that residues T110 and R116 in the αF helix-β1 strand, and residues I41 and R40 in the αB-αC loop mediate propagation of activation between the heme domain and the catalytic domain. Biochemical analysis of these heme mutants allows refinement of the map of the residues that are critical for heme stability and propagation of the NO/YC-1 activation signal in sGC.

  20. Heme controls ferroportin1 (FPN1) transcription involving Bach1, Nrf2 and a MARE/ARE sequence motif at position -7007 of the FPN1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Samuele; Chiabrando, Deborah; Messana, Erika; Stolte, Jens; Turco, Emilia; Tolosano, Emanuela; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2010-08-01

    Macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system play a key role in recycling iron from hemoglobin of senescent or damaged erythrocytes. Heme oxygenase 1 degrades the heme moiety and releases inorganic iron that is stored in ferritin or exported to the plasma via the iron export protein ferroportin. In the plasma, iron binds to transferrin and is made available for de novo red cell synthesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that control the transcriptional response of iron export protein ferroportin to hemoglobin in macrophages. Iron export protein ferroportin mRNA expression was analyzed in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in response to hemoglobin, heme, ferric ammonium citrate or protoporphyrin treatment or to siRNA mediated knockdown or overexpression of Btb And Cnc Homology 1 or nuclear accumulation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-like. Iron export protein ferroportin promoter activity was analyzed using reporter constructs that contain specific truncations of the iron export protein ferroportin promoter or mutations in a newly identified MARE/ARE element. We show that iron export protein ferroportin is transcriptionally co-regulated with heme oxygenase 1 by heme, a degradation product of hemoglobin. The protoporphyrin ring of heme is sufficient to increase iron export protein ferroportin transcriptional activity while the iron released from the heme moiety controls iron export protein ferroportin translation involving the IRE in the 5'untranslated region. Transcription of iron export protein ferroportin is inhibited by Btb and Cnc Homology 1 and activated by Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-like involving a MARE/ARE element located at position -7007/-7016 of the iron export protein ferroportin promoter. This finding suggests that heme controls a macrophage iron recycling regulon involving Btb and Cnc Homology 1 and Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-like to assure the coordinated degradation of heme by heme oxygenase 1, iron storage and

  1. Impact of heme on specific antibody production in mice: promotive, inhibitive or null outcome is determined by its concentration

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    Guofu Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Free heme is an endogenous danger signal that provokes innate immunity. Active innate immunity provides a precondition of an effective adaptive immune response. However, heme catabolites, CO, biliverdin and bilirubin trigger immunosuppression. Furthermore, free heme induces expression of heme oxygenase-1 to increase production of CO, biliverdin and bilirubin. As such, free heme can play a paradoxical role in adaptive immunity. What is the outcome of the animal immune response to an antigen in the presence of free heme? This question remains to be explored. Here, we report the immunization results of rats and mice after intraperitoneal injection of formulations containing BSA and heme. When the heme concentrations were below 1 μM, between 1 μM and 5 μM and above 5 μM, production of anti-BSA IgG and IgM was unaffected, enhanced and suppressed, respectively. The results suggest that heme can influence adaptive immunity by double concentration-thresholds. If the heme concentrations are less than the first threshold, there is no effect on adaptive immunity; if the concentrations are more than the first but less than the second threshold, there is promotion effect; and if the concentrations are more than the second threshold, there is an inhibitory effect. A hypothesis is also presented here to explain the mechanism.

  2. Reciprocal regulation of IL-6 and IL-10 balance by HGF via recruitment of heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages for attenuation of liver injury in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

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    Kamimoto, Miyuki; Mizuno, Shinya; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2009-08-01

    Acute liver injury is a clinical hallmark of endotoxemia regarding the features of septic organ failure. In this process, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 are key contributors for eliciting pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, respectively. In contrast, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) provides a defense mechanism against endotoxemia by controlling the IL-6/IL-10 balance, but how higher levels of HO-1 are sustained under pathological conditions remains unknown. Using a mouse model of endotoxemia, we provide evidence to show that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) enhances HO-1 expression in macrophages, thereby up-regulating IL-10 and down-regulating IL-6 productions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice manifested acute liver injury similar to that observed in septic patients, while administration of recombinant HGF enhanced expression of HO-1 by hepatic macrophages in vivo. As a result, HGF blocked the onset of hepatic injuries in LPS-treated mice. More importantly, when an HO-1 inhibitor (Sn-PP) was administered with HGF into LPS-treated mice, the protective effects of HGF against hepatic injury were attenuated. Furthermore, Sn-PP partially restored the HGF-mediated decrease in plasma IL-6 levels, while it inhibited the HGF-stimulated increase in plasma IL-10 levels. In the culture of macrophages (Raw264.7), HGF enhanced the LPS-mediated HO-1 induction, and this effect was abolished by cycloheximide, but not by actinomycin-D, thus suggesting that a post-transcriptional pathway is involved in HGF-mediated up-regulation of HO-1. Based on the current data, we conclude that up-regulation of HO-1 plays an important role in HGF-mediated hepatoprotection during endotoxemia, by favoring production of IL-10 over IL-6.

  3. Characterization of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in human cancer cells: the importance of enhanced BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N; Wolf, Roman F; Zhou, Jundong; Avery, Jori E; Wu, Jinchang; Lind, Stuart E; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2014-05-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cancer cells has never been characterized. This study examines DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human cancer cell model systems. DHA enhanced HO-1 gene expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximal induction at 21 h of treatment. This induction of HO-1 expression was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft nude mouse model fed a fish-oil-enriched diet. The increase in HO-1 gene transcription induced by DHA was significantly attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. This was supported by direct measurement of lipid peroxide levels after DHA treatment. Using a human HO-1 gene promoter reporter construct, we identified two antioxidant response elements (AREs) that mediate the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription. Knockdown of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression compromised the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, indicating the importance of the Nrf2 pathway in this event. However, the nuclear protein levels of Nrf2 remained unchanged upon DHA treatment. Further studies demonstrated that DHA reduces nuclear Bach1 protein expression by promoting its degradation and attenuates Bach1 binding to the AREs in the HO-1 gene promoter. In contrast, DHA enhanced Nrf2 binding to the AREs without affecting nuclear Nrf2 expression levels, indicating a new cellular mechanism that mediates DHA's induction of HO-1 gene transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human malignant cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An artificial heme-enzyme with enhanced catalytic activity: evolution, functional screening and structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Rosa; Lista, Liliana; Cerrone, Corinne; Caserta, Giorgio; Chino, Marco; Maglio, Ornella; Nastri, Flavia; Pavone, Vincenzo; Lombardi, Angela

    2015-05-07

    Synthetic proteins represent useful tools for reproducing metalloprotein functions in minimal, well-defined scaffolds. Herein, we describe the rational refinement of function into heme-protein models from the Mimochrome family. Originally designed to mimic the bis-His cytochrome b, the Mimochrome structure was modified to introduce a peroxidase-like activity, by creating a distal cavity on the heme. The success with the first asymmetric system, Mimochrome VI (MC6), gave the opportunity to explore further modifications in order to improve the catalytic activity. Starting from ferric MC6, single amino acid substitutions were introduced in the peptide chains to obtain four compounds, which were screened for peroxidase activity. The detailed structural and functional analysis of the best analogue, Fe(III)-E(2)L(TD)-MC6, indicates that an arginine residue in proximity to the heme-distal site could assist with catalysis by favoring the formation of the intermediate "compound I", thus mimicking R(38) in HRP. This result highlights the potential of using small scaffolds for exploring the main factors that tune the heme-protein activity, and for programming new desired functions.

  5. Heme-Protein Active Site Models via Self-Assembly in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiammengo, R.; Wojciechowski, Kamil; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Figoli, A.; Wessling, Matthias; Reinhoudt, David; Timmerman, P.

    2003-01-01

    Water-soluble models of heme-protein active sites are obtained via the self-assembly of cationic porphyrins 1 and tetrasulfonato calix[4]arene 2 (K1·2 = 105 M-1). Selective binding of ligands either outside or inside the cavity of assemblies 1·2 via coordination to the zinc center has been observed.

  6. Dietary heme mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Wit, de Nicole; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  7. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  8. The effects of the heme precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA on REV-ERBα activation

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    Kohei Yamashita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear receptor, REV-ERBα, has a key role in circadian rhythms and requires heme as its ligand. The present study determined whether the heme precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, affects REV-ERBα and its target genes. When exposed to ALA, the human lung diploid cell line, WI-38, exhibited activation of REV-ERBα and repression of the transcription of REV-ERBα target genes, including BMAL1, an essential component of the circadian oscillator. Moreover, co-incubation of sodium ferrous citrate (SFC and ALA also activated REV-ERBα and repressed the transcription of REV-ERBα target genes. These results indicate that ALA regulates human circadian rhythms via REV-ERBα.

  9. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO

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    Katarzyna Magierowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO produced by heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2 causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g., RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g., zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p., hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g. and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p., 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p., indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p., SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g., and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g. affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS. Gastric blood flow (GBF, the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g. significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  10. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Surmiak, Marcin; Adamski, Juliusz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pajdo, Robert; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g.)), RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g.), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g.) and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p.), indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g.), and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g.) affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). Gastric blood flow (GBF), the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO) contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g.) significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO. PMID:27023525

  11. Heme Gazing: Illuminating Eukaryotic Heme Trafficking, Dynamics, and Signaling with Fluorescent Heme Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, David A; Martinez-Guzman, Osiris; Reddi, Amit R

    2017-04-04

    Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is an essential protein prosthetic group and signaling molecule required for most life on Earth. All heme-dependent processes require the dynamic and rapid mobilization of heme from sites of synthesis or uptake to hemoproteins present in virtually every subcellular compartment. The cytotoxicity and hydrophobicity of heme necessitate that heme mobilization be carefully controlled to mitigate the deleterious effects of this essential toxin. Indeed, a number of disorders, including certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, are tied to defects in heme homeostasis. However, the molecules and mechanisms that mediate heme transport and trafficking, and the dynamics of these processes, are poorly understood. This is in large part due to the lack of physical tools for probing cellular heme. Herein, we discuss the recent development of fluorescent probes that can monitor and image kinetically labile heme with respect to its mobilization and role in signaling. In particular, we will highlight how heme gazing with these tools can uncover new heme trafficking factors upon being integrated with genetic screens and illuminate the concentration, subcellular distribution, and dynamics of labile heme in various physiological contexts. Altogether, the monitoring of labile heme, along with recent biochemical and cell biological studies demonstrating the reversible regulation of certain cellular processes by heme, is challenging us to reconceptualize heme from being a static cofactor buried in protein active sites to a dynamic and mobile signaling molecule.

  12. Sulforaphane Suppresses Hepatitis C Virus Replication by Up-Regulating Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression through PI3K/Nrf2 Pathway.

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    Jung-Sheng Yu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection-induced oxidative stress is a major risk factor for the development of HCV-associated liver disease. Sulforaphane (SFN is an antioxidant phytocompound that acts against cellular oxidative stress and tumorigenesis. However, there is little known about its anti-viral activity. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN significantly suppressed HCV protein and RNA levels in HCV replicon cells and infectious system, with an IC50 value of 5.7 ± 0.2 μM. Moreover, combination of SFN with anti-viral drugs displayed synergistic effects in the suppression of HCV replication. In addition, we found nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/HO-1 induction in response to SFN and determined the signaling pathways involved in this process, including inhibition of NS3 protease activity and induction of IFN response. In contrast, the anti-viral activities were attenuated by knockdown of HO-1 with specific inhibitor (SnPP and shRNA, suggesting that anti-HCV activity of SFN is dependent on HO-1 expression. Otherwise, SFN stimulated the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K leading Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression against HCV replication. Overall, our results indicated that HO-1 is essential in SFN-mediated anti-HCV activity and provide new insights in the molecular mechanism of SFN in HCV replication.

  13. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyangshuk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Soo [Department of Biological Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu, E-mail: jinpark@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction.

  14. The role of heme oxygenase-1 in down regulation of PGE2 production by taurine chloramine and taurine bromamine in J774.2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecki, R; Kurnyta, M; Biedroń, R; Chorobik, P; Bereta, M; Marcinkiewicz, J

    2008-08-01

    Taurine chloramine (TauCl) and taurine bromamine (TauBr), products of myeloperoxidase halide system, exert anti-inflammatory properties. TauCl was demonstrated to inhibit the production of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) dependent production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Recently we have demonstrated that both major leukocyte haloamines, TauCl and TauBr, induced expression of HO-1 in non-activated and LPS-activated J774.2 macrophages. In this study, we have shown that TauCl and TauBr, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, inhibited the production of (PGE(2)) without altering the expression of COX-2 protein, in LPS/IFN-gamma stimulated J774.2 cells. The inhibitory effect of TauCl and TauBr was reversed by chromium III mesoporhyrin (CrMP), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity. Our data suggest that HO-1 might participate in anti-inflammatory effects of TauCl/TauBr possibly by inhibition of COX-2 activity and decrease of PGE(2) production.

  15. Glutamate regulates Ca2+ signals in smooth muscle cells of newborn piglet brain slice arterioles through astrocyte- and heme oxygenase-dependent mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xi, Q.; Umstot, E.; Zhao, G.; Narayanan, D.; Leffler, C.W.; Jaggar, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate is the principal cerebral excitatory neurotransmitter and dilates cerebral arterioles to match blood flow to neural activity. Arterial contractility is regulated by local and global Ca(2+) signals that occur in smooth muscle cells, but modulation of these signals by glutamate is poorly

  16. Domains of macrophage N(O) synthase have divergent roles in forming and stabilizing the active dimeric enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D K; Abu-Soud, H M; Stuehr, D J

    1996-02-06

    The cytokine-inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is a flavin-containing hemeprotein that must dimerize to generate NO. Trypsin cleaves the dimeric enzyme into an oxygenase domain fragment that remains dimeric, contains heme and H4biopterin, and binds L-arginine and a reductase domain fragment that is monomeric, binds NADPH, FAD, FMN, and catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome c [Ghosh, D. K. & Stuehr, D. J. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 801-807]. The current study investigates the isolated oxygenase and reductase domains of iNOS to understand how they form and stabilize the active dimeric enzyme. The dimeric oxygenase domain dissociated into folded, heme-containing monomers when incubated w