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Sample records for heme binding properties

  1. Characterization of a gene family encoding SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain proteins with lectin-like and heme-binding properties from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Evaristus Chibunna Mbanefo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified a novel gene family dispersed in the genome of Schistosoma japonicum by retrotransposon-mediated gene duplication mechanism. Although many transcripts were identified, no homolog was readily identifiable from sequence information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we utilized structural homology modeling and biochemical methods to identify remote homologs, and characterized the gene products as SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain containing proteins. A common extracellular domain in this family was structurally similar to SEA-domain. SEA-domain is primarily a structural domain, known to assist or regulate binding to glycans. Recombinant proteins from three members of this gene family specifically interacted with glycosaminoglycans with high affinity, with potential implication in ligand acquisition and immune evasion. Similar approach was used to identify a heme-binding site on the SEA-domain. The heme-binding mode showed heme molecule inserted into a hydrophobic pocket, with heme iron putatively coordinated to two histidine axial ligands. Heme-binding properties were confirmed using biochemical assays and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed high affinity heme-binding (K D = 1.605×10(-6 M and cognate spectroscopic attributes of hexa-coordinated heme iron. The native proteins were oligomers, antigenic, and are localized on adult worm teguments and gastrodermis; major host-parasite interfaces and site for heme detoxification and acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest potential role, at least in the nucleation step of heme crystallization (hemozoin formation, and as receptors for heme uptake. Survival strategies exploited by parasites, including heme homeostasis mechanism in hemoparasites, are paramount for successful parasitism. Thus, assessing prospects for application in disease intervention is warranted.

  2. Characterization of a Gene Family Encoding SEA (Sea-urchin Sperm Protein, Enterokinase and Agrin)-Domain Proteins with Lectin-Like and Heme-Binding Properties from Schistosoma japonicum

    Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Shuaibu, Mohammed Nasir; Cherif, Mahamoud Sama; Yu, Chuanxin; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously identified a novel gene family dispersed in the genome of Schistosoma japonicum by retrotransposon-mediated gene duplication mechanism. Although many transcripts were identified, no homolog was readily identifiable from sequence information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we utilized structural homology modeling and biochemical methods to identify remote homologs, and characterized the gene products as SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin)-domain containing proteins. A common extracellular domain in this family was structurally similar to SEA-domain. SEA-domain is primarily a structural domain, known to assist or regulate binding to glycans. Recombinant proteins from three members of this gene family specifically interacted with glycosaminoglycans with high affinity, with potential implication in ligand acquisition and immune evasion. Similar approach was used to identify a heme-binding site on the SEA-domain. The heme-binding mode showed heme molecule inserted into a hydrophobic pocket, with heme iron putatively coordinated to two histidine axial ligands. Heme-binding properties were confirmed using biochemical assays and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed high affinity heme-binding (K D = 1.605×10−6 M) and cognate spectroscopic attributes of hexa-coordinated heme iron. The native proteins were oligomers, antigenic, and are localized on adult worm teguments and gastrodermis; major host-parasite interfaces and site for heme detoxification and acquisition. Conclusions The results suggest potential role, at least in the nucleation step of heme crystallization (hemozoin formation), and as receptors for heme uptake. Survival strategies exploited by parasites, including heme homeostasis mechanism in hemoparasites, are paramount for successful parasitism. Thus, assessing prospects for application in disease intervention is warranted. PMID:24416467

  3. Heme environment in HmuY, the heme-binding protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Wojtowicz, Halina; Wojaczynski, Jacek; Olczak, Mariusz; Kroliczewski, Jaroslaw; Latos-Grazynski, Lechoslaw; Olczak, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium implicated in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis, acquires heme for growth by a novel mechanism composed of HmuY and HmuR proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize the nature of heme binding to HmuY. The protein was expressed, purified and detailed investigations using UV-vis absorption, CD, MCD, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy were carried out. Ferric heme bound to HmuY may be reduced by sodium dithionite and re-oxidized by potassium ferricyanide. Heme complexed to HmuY, with a midpoint potential of 136 mV, is in a low-spin Fe(III) hexa-coordinate environment. Analysis of heme binding to several single and double HmuY mutants with the methionine, histidine, cysteine, or tyrosine residues replaced by an alanine residue identified histidines 134 and 166 as potential heme ligands.

  4. Heme environment in HmuY, the heme-binding protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Wojtowicz, Halina [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Wojaczynski, Jacek [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Mariusz [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Kroliczewski, Jaroslaw [Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, 50-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Latos-Grazynski, Lechoslaw [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Teresa [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-29

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium implicated in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis, acquires heme for growth by a novel mechanism composed of HmuY and HmuR proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize the nature of heme binding to HmuY. The protein was expressed, purified and detailed investigations using UV-vis absorption, CD, MCD, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy were carried out. Ferric heme bound to HmuY may be reduced by sodium dithionite and re-oxidized by potassium ferricyanide. Heme complexed to HmuY, with a midpoint potential of 136 mV, is in a low-spin Fe(III) hexa-coordinate environment. Analysis of heme binding to several single and double HmuY mutants with the methionine, histidine, cysteine, or tyrosine residues replaced by an alanine residue identified histidines 134 and 166 as potential heme ligands.

  5. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  6. HemeBIND: a novel method for heme binding residue prediction by combining structural and sequence information

    Hu Jianjun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate prediction of binding residues involved in the interactions between proteins and small ligands is one of the major challenges in structural bioinformatics. Heme is an essential and commonly used ligand that plays critical roles in electron transfer, catalysis, signal transduction and gene expression. Although much effort has been devoted to the development of various generic algorithms for ligand binding site prediction over the last decade, no algorithm has been specifically designed to complement experimental techniques for identification of heme binding residues. Consequently, an urgent need is to develop a computational method for recognizing these important residues. Results Here we introduced an efficient algorithm HemeBIND for predicting heme binding residues by integrating structural and sequence information. We systematically investigated the characteristics of binding interfaces based on a non-redundant dataset of heme-protein complexes. It was found that several sequence and structural attributes such as evolutionary conservation, solvent accessibility, depth and protrusion clearly illustrate the differences between heme binding and non-binding residues. These features can then be separately used or combined to build the structure-based classifiers using support vector machine (SVM. The results showed that the information contained in these features is largely complementary and their combination achieved the best performance. To further improve the performance, an attempt has been made to develop a post-processing procedure to reduce the number of false positives. In addition, we built a sequence-based classifier based on SVM and sequence profile as an alternative when only sequence information can be used. Finally, we employed a voting method to combine the outputs of structure-based and sequence-based classifiers, which demonstrated remarkably better performance than the individual classifier alone

  7. Binding analysis of ferritin with heme using α-casein and biotinylated-hemin: detection of heme-binding capacity of Dpr derived from heme synthesis-deficient Streptococcus mutans.

    Mieno, Ayako; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Mukai, Takao; Orino, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and mammalian ferritins are known to bind heme. The use of α-casein and biotinylated hemin could be applicable to detection of protein-bound heme and of proteins with heme-binding capacity, respectively. Although commercial horse spleen ferritin and purified horse spleen ferritin (L:H subunit ratio=4) bound to an α-casein-coated plate, and this binding could be inhibited by hemin, recombinant iron-binding protein (rDpr), derived from heme-deficient Streptococcus mutans and expressed in Escherichia coli, did not bind to an α-casein-coated plate. Both horse spleen ferritins bound to α-casein-immobilized beads. Commercial horse spleen ferritin and rDpr showed direct binding to hemin-agarose beads. After preincubation of commercial horse spleen ferritin or rDpr with biotinylated hemin, they showed indirect binding to avidin-immobilized beads through biotinylated hemin. These results demonstrate that α-casein is useful for detection of heme-binding ferritin and that both hemin-agarose and the combination of biotinylated hemin and avidin-beads are useful for detection of the heme-binding capacity of ferritin. In addition, this study also revealed that Dpr, a decameric iron-binding protein, from heme-deficient cells binds heme.

  8. Unique structure and stability of HmuY, a novel heme-binding protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Halina Wójtowicz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Infection, survival, and proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in humans depend on their capacity to impair host responses and acquire nutrients in a hostile environment. Among such nutrients is heme, a co-factor for oxygen storage, electron transport, photosynthesis, and redox biochemistry, which is indispensable for life. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major human bacterial pathogen responsible for severe periodontitis. It recruits heme through HmuY, which sequesters heme from host carriers and delivers it to its cognate outer-membrane transporter, the TonB-dependent receptor HmuR. Here we report that heme binding does not significantly affect the secondary structure of HmuY. The crystal structure of heme-bound HmuY reveals a new all-beta fold mimicking a right hand. The thumb and fingers pinch heme iron through two apical histidine residues, giving rise to highly symmetric octahedral iron co-ordination. The tetrameric quaternary arrangement of the protein found in the crystal structure is consistent with experiments in solution. It shows that thumbs and fingertips, and, by extension, the bound heme groups, are shielded from competing heme-binding proteins from the host. This may also facilitate heme transport to HmuR for internalization. HmuY, both in its apo- and in its heme-bound forms, is resistant to proteolytic digestion by trypsin and the major secreted proteases of P. gingivalis, gingipains K and R. It is also stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. In conclusion, these studies reveal novel molecular properties of HmuY that are consistent with its role as a putative virulence factor during bacterial infection.

  9. 4-Aminoquinoline-pyrimidine hybrids: synthesis, antimalarial activity, heme binding and docking studies.

    Kumar, Deepak; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Ponnan, Prija; Rawat, Diwan S

    2015-01-07

    A series of novel 4-aminoquinoline-pyrimidine hybrids has been synthesized and evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Several compounds showed promising in vitro antimalarial activity against both CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains with high selectivity index. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic to the mammalian cell lines. Selected compound 7g exhibited significant suppression of parasitemia in the in vivo assay. The heme binding studies were conducted to determine the mode of action of these hybrid molecules. These compounds form a stable 1:1 complex with hematin suggesting that heme may be one of the possible targets of these hybrids. The interaction of these conjugate hybrids was also investigated by the molecular docking studies in the binding site of PfDHFR. The pharmacokinetic property analysis of best active compounds was also studied using ADMET prediction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A role for heme in Alzheimer's disease: Heme binds amyloid β and has altered metabolism

    Atamna, Hani; Frey, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Heme is a common factor linking several metabolic perturbations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including iron metabolism, mitochondrial complex IV, heme oxygenase, and bilirubin. Therefore, we determined whether heme metabolism was altered in temporal lobes obtained at autopsy from AD patients and age-matched nondemented subjects. AD brain demonstrated 2.5-fold more heme-b (P < 0.01) and 26% less heme-a (P = 0.16) compared with controls, resulting in a highly significant 2.9-fold decrease in he...

  11. Stanniocalcin 1 binds hemin through a partially conserved heme regulatory motif

    Westberg, Johan A.; Jiang, Ji; Andersson, Leif C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) binds heme through novel heme binding motif. → Central iron atom of heme and cysteine-114 of STC1 are essential for binding. → STC1 binds Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ heme. → STC1 peptide prevents oxidative decay of heme. -- Abstract: Hemin (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a necessary component of many proteins, functioning either as a cofactor or an intracellular messenger. Hemoproteins have diverse functions, such as transportation of gases, gas detection, chemical catalysis and electron transfer. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a protein involved in respiratory responses of the cell but whose mechanism of action is still undetermined. We examined the ability of STC1 to bind hemin in both its reduced and oxidized states and located Cys 114 as the axial ligand of the central iron atom of hemin. The amino acid sequence differs from the established (Cys-Pro) heme regulatory motif (HRM) and therefore presents a novel heme binding motif (Cys-Ser). A STC1 peptide containing the heme binding sequence was able to inhibit both spontaneous and H 2 O 2 induced decay of hemin. Binding of hemin does not affect the mitochondrial localization of STC1.

  12. Stanniocalcin 1 binds hemin through a partially conserved heme regulatory motif

    Westberg, Johan A., E-mail: johan.westberg@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and HUSLAB, P.O. Box 21, Haartmaninkatu 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Jiang, Ji, E-mail: ji.jiang@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and HUSLAB, P.O. Box 21, Haartmaninkatu 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andersson, Leif C., E-mail: leif.andersson@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and HUSLAB, P.O. Box 21, Haartmaninkatu 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) binds heme through novel heme binding motif. {yields} Central iron atom of heme and cysteine-114 of STC1 are essential for binding. {yields} STC1 binds Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} heme. {yields} STC1 peptide prevents oxidative decay of heme. -- Abstract: Hemin (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a necessary component of many proteins, functioning either as a cofactor or an intracellular messenger. Hemoproteins have diverse functions, such as transportation of gases, gas detection, chemical catalysis and electron transfer. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a protein involved in respiratory responses of the cell but whose mechanism of action is still undetermined. We examined the ability of STC1 to bind hemin in both its reduced and oxidized states and located Cys{sup 114} as the axial ligand of the central iron atom of hemin. The amino acid sequence differs from the established (Cys-Pro) heme regulatory motif (HRM) and therefore presents a novel heme binding motif (Cys-Ser). A STC1 peptide containing the heme binding sequence was able to inhibit both spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced decay of hemin. Binding of hemin does not affect the mitochondrial localization of STC1.

  13. Characterization of SiaA, a streptococcal heme-binding protein associated with a heme ABC transport system.

    Sook, Brian R; Block, Darci R; Sumithran, Suganya; Montañez, Griselle E; Rodgers, Kenton R; Dawson, John H; Eichenbaum, Zehava; Dixon, Dabney W

    2008-02-26

    Many pathogenic bacteria require heme and obtain it from their environment. Heme transverses the cytoplasmic membrane via an ATP binding cassette (ABC) pathway. Although a number of heme ABC transport systems have been described in pathogenic bacteria, there is as yet little biophysical characterization of the proteins in these systems. The sia (hts) gene cluster encodes a heme ABC transporter in the Gram positive Streptococcus pyogenes. The lipoprotein-anchored heme binding protein (HBP) of this transporter is SiaA (HtsA). In the current study, resonance Raman (rR), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to determine the coordination state and spin state of both the ferric and ferrous forms of this protein. Identifiers from these techniques suggest that the heme is six-coordinate and low-spin in both oxidation states of the protein, with methionine and histidine as axial ligands. SiaA has a pKa of 9.7 +/- 0.1, attributed to deprotonation of the axial histidine. Guanidinium titration studies show that the ferric state is less stable than the ferrous state, with DeltaG(H2O) values for the oxidized and reduced proteins of 7.3 +/- 0.8 and 16.0 +/- 3.6 kcal mol-1, respectively. The reductive and oxidative midpoint potentials determined via spectroelectrochemistry are 83 +/- 3 and 64 +/- 3 mV, respectively; the irreversibility of heme reduction suggests that redox cycling of the heme is coupled to a kinetically sluggish change in structure or conformation. The biophysical characterization described herein will significantly advance our understanding of structure-function relationships in HBP.

  14. ATP-binding cassette B10 regulates early steps of heme synthesis.

    Bayeva, Marina; Khechaduri, Arineh; Wu, Rongxue; Burke, Michael A; Wasserstrom, J Andrew; Singh, Neha; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Langer, Nathaniel B; Paw, Barry H; Ardehali, Hossein

    2013-07-19

    Heme plays a critical role in gas exchange, mitochondrial energy production, and antioxidant defense in cardiovascular system. The mitochondrial transporter ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B10 has been suggested to export heme out of the mitochondria and is required for normal hemoglobinization of erythropoietic cells and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart; however, its primary function has not been established. The aim of this study was to identify the function of ABCB10 in heme synthesis in cardiac cells. Knockdown of ABCB10 in cardiac myoblasts significantly reduced heme levels and the activities of heme-containing proteins, whereas supplementation with δ-aminolevulinic acid reversed these defects. Overexpression of mitochondrial δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2, the rate-limiting enzyme upstream of δ-aminolevulinic acid export, failed to restore heme levels in cells with ABCB10 downregulation. ABCB10 and heme levels were increased by hypoxia, and reversal of ABCB10 upregulation caused oxidative stress and cell death. Furthermore, ABCB10 knockdown in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant delay of calcium removal from the cytoplasm, suggesting a relaxation defect. Finally, ABCB10 expression and heme levels were altered in failing human hearts and mice with ischemic cardiomyopathy. ABCB10 plays a critical role in heme synthesis pathway by facilitating δ-aminolevulinic acid production or export from the mitochondria. In contrast to previous reports, we show that ABCB10 is not a heme exporter and instead is required for the early mitochondrial steps of heme biosynthesis.

  15. Synthesis, antimalarial activity, heme binding and docking studies of N-substituted 4-aminoquinoline-pyrimidine molecular hybrids.

    Maurya, Shiv Shyam; Khan, Shabana I; Bahuguna, Aparna; Kumar, Deepak; Rawat, Diwan S

    2017-03-31

    A series of novel N-substituted 4-aminoquinoline-pyrimidine hybrids have been synthesized via simple and economic route and evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Most compounds showed potent antimalarial activity against both CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains with high selectivity index. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic to the mammalian cell lines. The most active compound 7b was analysed for heme binding activity using UV-spectrophotometer. Compound was found to interact with heme and a complex formation between compound and heme in a 1:1 stoichiometry ratio was determined using job plots. The interaction of these hybrids was also investigated by the molecular docking studies in the binding site of wild type Pf-DHFR-TS and quadruple mutant Pf-DHFR-TS. The pharmacokinetic property analysis of best active compounds was also studied by ADMET prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Distal Interactions on O2-Binding to Heme

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Dasmeh, Pouria

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports DFT-computed electronic ground states, Mössbauer isomer shifts, O-O and Fe-O vibration frequencies, and thermodynamics of O2-binding of heme models representing different distal (position E7) interactions, strictly validated against experimental data. Based on the results...... hydrogen bonds can further reduce isomer shifts up to 0.07 mm/s. The O-O stretch vibration, the O-O distance, and the isomer shift possess substantial heuristic value in interpreting electronic structure, whereas other properties are less effective, based on computed correlation coefficients. Shorter Fe...

  17. A relay network of extracellular heme-binding proteins drives C. albicans iron acquisition from hemoglobin.

    Kuznets, Galit; Vigonsky, Elena; Weissman, Ziva; Lalli, Daniela; Gildor, Tsvia; Kauffman, Sarah J; Turano, Paola; Becker, Jeffrey; Lewinson, Oded; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Iron scavenging constitutes a crucial challenge for survival of pathogenic microorganisms in the iron-poor host environment. Candida albicans, like many microbial pathogens, is able to utilize iron from hemoglobin, the largest iron pool in the host's body. Rbt5 is an extracellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored heme-binding protein of the CFEM family that facilitates heme-iron uptake by an unknown mechanism. Here, we characterize an additional C. albicans CFEM protein gene, PGA7, deletion of which elicits a more severe heme-iron utilization phenotype than deletion of RBT5. The virulence of the pga7-/- mutant is reduced in a mouse model of systemic infection, consistent with a requirement for heme-iron utilization for C. albicans pathogenicity. The Pga7 and Rbt5 proteins exhibit distinct cell wall attachment, and discrete localization within the cell envelope, with Rbt5 being more exposed than Pga7. Both proteins are shown here to efficiently extract heme from hemoglobin. Surprisingly, while Pga7 has a higher affinity for heme in vitro, we find that heme transfer can occur bi-directionally between Pga7 and Rbt5, supporting a model in which they cooperate in a heme-acquisition relay. Together, our data delineate the roles of Pga7 and Rbt5 in a cell surface protein network that transfers heme from extracellular hemoglobin to the endocytic pathway, and provide a paradigm for how receptors embedded in the cell wall matrix can mediate nutrient uptake across the fungal cell envelope.

  18. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  19. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  20. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases.

  1. Study on models of O2 binding to heme using density functional theory

    Hovorun D. M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a mechanism of molecular oxygen binding to heme three models of geometry structure of the complex are considered: the axis of O2 molecule is situated perpendicularly to the porphin macrocycle, parallel, and angularly. Methods. The Fe(II porphin complexes with dioxygen are calculated by the quantum-chemical method of density functional theory with the UB3LYP/6-311G approximation. Results. The optimized geometry and electron structures as well as the absorption IR spectra of the complexes in the high-spin (septet state are described. Conclusions. It is shown that the main mechanism of spin-orbit coupling during the O2 binding to heme is connected with peculiarity of the O2 molecule electronic structure.

  2. Heme-binding plasma membrane proteins of K562 erythroleukemia cells: Adsorption to heme-microbeads, isolation with affinity chromatography

    Majuri, R.

    1989-01-01

    Heme-microbeads attached themselves to the surface of viable K562 cells in a manner inhibitable by free hemin, indicating heme-recptor interaction. The microbeads were at first evenly distributed, but after prolonged incubation at 37 deg. C they formed a cap on one pole of the cells indicating clustering of the membrane heme receptors. Membrane proteins were labeled by culturing the cells in the presence of 35 S-methionine and were then solubilized with Triton X-114. The hydrophobic proteins contained about 20% of the total bound label. The solubilized membrane proteins were subsequently adsorbed to a heme-Sepharose affinity gel. According to SDS-electrophorsis and subsequent autoradiography, the immobilized heme captures two proteins or a protein with two polypeptides of 20 000 and 32 000 daltons. The larger of these was only wekly labeled with 35 S. The same two bands were observed if the cell surface proteins were labeled with 125 I by the lactoperoxidase method and the subsequently solubilized membrane proteins were isolated with heme-Sepharose. (author)

  3. Cyanide binding to hexacoordinate cyanobacterial hemoglobins: hydrogen-bonding network and heme pocket rearrangement in ferric H117A Synechocystis hemoglobin.

    Vu, B Christie; Nothnagel, Henry J; Vuletich, David A; Falzone, Christopher J; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2004-10-05

    The truncated hemoglobin (Hb) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a bis-histidyl hexacoordinate complex in the absence of exogenous ligands. This protein can form a covalent cross-link between His117 in the H-helix and the heme 2-vinyl group. Cross-linking, the physiological importance of which has not been established, is avoided with the His117Ala substitution. In the present work, H117A Hb was used to explore exogenous ligand binding to the heme group. NMR and thermal denaturation data showed that the replacement was of little consequence to the structural and thermodynamic properties of ferric Synechocystis Hb. It did, however, decelerate the association of cyanide ions with the heme iron. Full complexation required hours, instead of minutes, of incubation at optical and NMR concentrations. At neutral pH and in the presence of excess cyanide, binding occurred with a first-order dependence on cyanide concentration, eliminating distal histidine decoordination as the rate-limiting step. The cyanide complex of the H117A variant was characterized for the conformational changes occurring as the histidine on the distal side, His46 (E10), was displaced. Extensive rearrangement allowed Tyr22 (B10) to insert in the heme pocket and Gln43 (E7) and Gln47 (E11) to come in contact with it. H-bond formation to the bound cyanide was identified in solution with the use of (1)H(2)O/(2)H(2)O mixtures. Cyanide binding also resulted in a change in the ratio of heme orientational isomers, in a likely manifestation of heme environment reshaping. Similar observations were made with the related Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 H117A Hb, except that cyanide binding was rapid in this protein. In both cases, the (15)N chemical shift of bound cyanide was reminiscent of that in peroxidases and the orientation of the proximal histidine was as in other truncated Hbs. The ensemble of the data provided insight into the structural cooperativity of the heme pocket scaffold and pointed

  4. A Novel, “Double-Clamp” Binding Mode for Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibition

    Rahman, Mona N.; Vlahakis, Jason Z.; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A.; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-01-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC50 = 0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC50 = 4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This “double-clamp” binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors. PMID:22276118

  5. A novel, "double-clamp" binding mode for human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition.

    Mona N Rahman

    Full Text Available The development of heme oxygenase (HO inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308. Using a carbon monoxide (CO formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC(50 = 0.27±0.07 µM than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC(50 = 4.0±1.8 µM. The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This "double-clamp" binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.

  6. A novel, "double-clamp" binding mode for human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition.

    Rahman, Mona N; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-01-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC(50) = 0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC(50) = 4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This "double-clamp" binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.

  7. A Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Metal Ions

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M.; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo [Ewha; (Purdue); (Osaka)

    2013-05-29

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal–oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)–oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)–oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc3+ ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C–H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal–oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  8. The effect of irradiation and thermal process on beef heme iron concentration and color properties

    Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado; Colli, Celia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation and thermal process on the heme iron (heme-Fe) concentration and color properties of Brazilian cattle beef. Beef samples (patties and steaks) were irradiated at 0-10 kGy and cooked in a combination oven at 250 deg C for 9 minutes with 70% humidity. Total iron and heme iron (heme-Fe) concentrations were determined. The data were compared by multiple comparisons and fixed- effects ANOVA. Irradiation at doses higher than 5 kGy significantly altered the heme-Fe concentration. However, the sample preparation conditions interfered more in the heme-Fe content than did the irradiation. Depending on the animal species, meat heme iron levels between 35 and 52% of the total iron are used for dietetic calculations. In this study the percentage of heme-iron was, on average, 70% of the total iron showing that humidity is an important factor for its preservation. The samples were analyzed instrumentally for CIE L * , a * , and b * values. (author)

  9. Heme-binding activity of methoxyflavones from Pentzia monodiana Maire (Asteraceae).

    Ortiz, Sergio; Dali-Yahia, Kamel; Vasquez-Ocmin, Pedro; Grougnet, Raphaël; Grellier, Philippe; Michel, Sylvie; Maciuk, Alexandre; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    A heme-binding assay based on mass spectrometry was performed on P. monodiana Maire (Asteraceae) extracts to identify metabolites able to form adducts with heminic part of haemoglobin, as potential antimalarial drugs. Main adducts were characterized and their stability was measured. Isolation of main constituents of P. monodiana Maire lead to identification of the two methoxyflavones 3'-O-methyleupatorin (7) and artemetin (8) involved in the adducts formation. Four seco-tanapartholides (1-4), a guaianolide (5), a germacranolide (6) and two other methoxyflavones (9, 10) were also characterized. Evaluation of isolated compounds on P. falciparum and T. brucei brucei showed a moderate antiprotozoal activity of the two methoxyflavones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    functionally characterized. On the basis of prior work, we predicted that cTHAP4 is composed of a heme-binding nitrobindin domain, making THAP4 the only human THAP protein predicted to bind a cofactor. Nitrobindin, a recently characterized protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, is structurally similar and exhibits nitric oxide (NO)-binding properties that resemble the heme-binding nitrophorins. Nitrophorins use a heme moiety to store, transport, and release NO in a pH-specific manner. Although the exact function of nitrobindin is not fully known, the similarities between the well-characterized nitrophorins imply a role in NO transport, sensing, or metabolism. To better elucidate the possible function of THAP4, we solved the hemebound structure of cTHAP4 to a resolution of 1.79 {angstrom}.

  11. Heme Sensor Proteins*

    Girvan, Hazel M.; Munro, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is a prosthetic group best known for roles in oxygen transport, oxidative catalysis, and respiratory electron transport. Recent years have seen the roles of heme extended to sensors of gases such as O2 and NO and cell redox state, and as mediators of cellular responses to changes in intracellular levels of these gases. The importance of heme is further evident from identification of proteins that bind heme reversibly, using it as a signal, e.g. to regulate gene expression in circadian rhythm pathways and control heme synthesis itself. In this minireview, we explore the current knowledge of the diverse roles of heme sensor proteins. PMID:23539616

  12. CYB5D2 requires heme-binding to regulate HeLa cell growth and confer survival from chemotherapeutic agents.

    Anthony Bruce

    Full Text Available The cytochrome b5 domain containing 2 (CYB5D2; Neuferricin protein has been reported to bind heme, however, the critical residues responsible for heme-binding are undefined. Furthermore, the relationship between heme-binding and CYB5D2-mediated intracellular functions remains unknown. Previous studies examining heme-binding in two cytochrome b5 heme-binding domain-containing proteins, damage-associated protein 1 (Dap1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, have revealed that conserved tyrosine (Y 73, Y79, aspartic acid (D 86, and Y127 residues present in human CYB5D2 may be involved in heme-binding. CYB5D2 binds to type b heme, however, only the substitution of glycine (G at D86 (D86G within its cytochrome b5 heme-binding (cyt-b5 domain abolished its heme-binding ability. Both CYB5D2 and CYB5D2(D86G localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopic CYB5D2 expression inhibited cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony growth of HeLa cells. Conversely, CYB5D2 knockdown and ectopic CYB5D2(D86G expression increased cell proliferation and colony growth. As PGRMC1 has been reported to regulate the expression and activities of cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs, we examined the role of CYB5D2 in regulating the activities of CYPs involved in sterol synthesis (CYP51A1 and drug metabolism (CYP3A4. CYB5D2 co-localizes with cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR, while CYB5D2 knockdown reduced lanosterol demethylase (CYP51A1 levels and rendered HeLa cells sensitive to mevalonate. Additionally, knockdown of CYB5D2 reduced CYP3A4 activity. Lastly, CYB5D2 expression conferred HeLa cell survival from chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin, with its ability to promote survival being dependent on its heme-binding ability. Taken together, this study provides evidence that heme-binding is critical for CYB5D2 in regulating HeLa cell growth and survival, with endogenous CYB5D2 being required to

  13. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis Is Regulated by the Redox State of a Heme-Binding Translational Activator.

    Soto, Iliana C; Barrientos, Antoni

    2016-02-20

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the last enzyme of the respiratory chain, catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water and therefore is essential for cell function and viability. COX is a multimeric complex, whose biogenesis is extensively regulated. One type of control targets cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1), a key COX enzymatic core subunit translated on mitochondrial ribosomes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cox1 synthesis and COX assembly are coordinated through a negative feedback regulatory loop. This coordination is mediated by Mss51, a heme-sensing COX1 mRNA-specific processing factor and translational activator that is also a Cox1 chaperone. In this study, we investigated whether Mss51 hemylation and Mss51-mediated Cox1 synthesis are both modulated by the reduction-oxidation (redox) environment. We report that Cox1 synthesis is attenuated under oxidative stress conditions and have identified one of the underlying mechanisms. We show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hydrogen peroxide induces the formation of a disulfide bond in Mss51 involving CPX motif heme-coordinating cysteines. Mss51 oxidation results in a heme ligand switch, thereby lowering heme-binding affinity and promoting its release. We demonstrate that in addition to affecting Mss51-dependent heme sensing, oxidative stress compromises Mss51 roles in COX1 mRNA processing and translation. H2O2-induced downregulation of mitochondrial translation has so far not been reported. We show that high H2O2 concentrations induce a global attenuation effect, but milder concentrations specifically affect COX1 mRNA processing and translation in an Mss51-dependent manner. The redox environment modulates Mss51 functions, which are essential for regulation of COX biogenesis and aerobic energy production.

  14. Dynamics of α-Hb chain binding to its chaperone AHSP depends on heme coordination and redox state.

    Kiger, Laurent; Vasseur, Corinne; Domingues-Hamdi, Elisa; Truan, Gilles; Marden, Michael C; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    AHSP is an erythroid molecular chaperone of the α-hemoglobin chains (α-Hb). Upon AHSP binding, native ferric α-Hb undergoes an unprecedented structural rearrangement at the heme site giving rise to a 6th coordination bond with His(E7). Recombinant AHSP, WT α-Hb:AHSP and α-Hb(HE7Q):AHSP complexes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Thermal denaturation curves were measured by circular dichroism for the isolated α-Hb and bound to AHSP. Kinetics of ligand binding and redox reactions of α-Hb bound to AHSP as well as α-Hb release from the α-Hb:AHSP complex were measured by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. AHSP binding to α-Hb is kinetically controlled to prevail over direct binding with β-chains and is also thermodynamically controlled by the α-Hb redox state and not the liganded state of the ferrous α-Hb. The dramatic instability of isolated ferric α-Hb is greatly decreased upon AHSP binding. Removing the bis-histidyl hexacoordination in α-HbH58(E7)Q:AHSP complex reduces the stabilizing effect of AHSP binding. Once the ferric α-Hb is bound to AHSP, the globin can be more easily reduced by several chemical and enzymatic systems compared to α-Hb within the Hb-tetramer. α-Hb reduction could trigger its release from AHSP toward its final Hb β-chain partner producing functional ferrous Hb-tetramers. This work indicates a preferred kinetic pathway for Hb-synthesis. The cellular redox balance in Hb-synthesis should be considered as important as the relative proportional synthesis of both Hb-subunits and their heme cofactor. The in vivo role of AHSP is discussed in the context of the molecular disorders observed in thalassemia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mini Heme-Proteins: Designability of Structure and Diversity of Functions.

    Rai, Jagdish

    2017-08-30

    Natural heme proteins may have heme bound to poly-peptide chain as a cofactor via noncovalent forces or heme as a prosthetic group may be covalently bound to the proteins. Nature has used porphyrins in diverse functions like electron transfer, oxidation, reduction, ligand binding, photosynthesis, signaling, etc. by modulating its properties through diverse protein matrices. Synthetic chemists have tried to utilize these molecules in equally diverse industrial and medical applications due to their versatile electro-chemical and optical properties. The heme iron has catalytic activity which can be modulated and enhanced for specific applications by protein matrix around it. Heme proteins can be designed into novel enzymes for sterio specific catalysis ranging from oxidation to reduction. These designed heme-proteins can have applications in industrial catalysis and biosensing. A peptide folds around heme easily due to hydrophobic effect of the large aromatic ring of heme. The directional property of co-ordinate bonding between peptide and metal ion in heme further specifies the structure. Therefore heme proteins can be easily designed for targeted structure and catalytic activity. The central aromatic chemical entity in heme viz. porphyrin is a very ancient molecule. Its presence in the prebiotic soup and in all forms of life suggests that it has played a vital role in the origin and progressive evolution of living organisms. Porphyrin macrocycles are highly conjugated systems composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α -carbon atoms via methine (=CH-) bridges. Initial minimalist models of hemoproteins focused on effect of heme-ligand co-ordinate bonding on chemical reactivity, spectroscopy, electrochemistry and magnetic properties of heme. The great sensitivity of these spectroscopic features of heme to its surrounding makes them extremely useful in structural elucidation of designed heme-peptide complexes. Therefore heme proteins are

  16. The Extracellular Heme-binding Protein HbpS from the Soil Bacterium Streptomyces reticuli Is an Aquo-cobalamin Binder*

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Fedosov, Sergey N.; Wedderhoff, Ina; Che, Edith N.; Torda, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular protein HbpS from Streptomyces reticuli interacts with iron ions and heme. It also acts in concert with the two-component sensing system SenS-SenR in response to oxidative stress. Sequence comparisons suggested that the protein may bind a cobalamin. UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed binding (Kd = 34 μm) to aquo-cobalamin (H2OCbl+) but not to other cobalamins. Competition experiments with the H2OCbl+-coordinating ligand CN− and comparison of mutants identified a histidine residue (His-156) that coordinates the cobalt ion of H2OCbl+ and substitutes for water. HbpS·Cobalamin lacks the Asp-X-His-X-X-Gly motif seen in some cobalamin binding enzymes. Preliminary tests showed that a related HbpS protein from a different species also binds H2OCbl+. Furthermore, analyses of HbpS-heme binding kinetics are consistent with the role of HbpS as a heme-sensor and suggested a role in heme transport. Given the high occurrence of HbpS-like sequences among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, our findings suggest a great functional versatility among these proteins. PMID:25342754

  17. Molecular characterization of a heme-binding protein of Bacteroides fragilis BE1.

    Otto, B R; Kusters, J G; Luirink, J; de Graaf, F K; Oudega, B

    1996-01-01

    An iron-repressible 44-kDa outer membrane protein plays a crucial role in the acquisition of heme by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis. The DNA sequence of the gene encoding the 44-kDa protein (hupA) was determined. The hupA gene encodes a protein of 431 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 48,189 Da. The hupA gene is preceded by an open reading frame of 480 bp that probably encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 18,073 Da. hupA and this open readi...

  18. Biochemical Characterization and Vaccine Potential of a Heme-Binding Glutathione Transferase from the Adult Hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    Zhan, Bin; Liu, Sen; Perally, Samirah; Xue, Jian; Fujiwara, Ricardo; Brophy, Peter; Xiao, Shuhua; Liu, Yueyuan; Feng, Jianjun; Williamson, Angela; Wang, Yan; Bueno, Lilian L.; Mendez, Susana; Goud, Gaddam; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Hawdon, John M.; Loukas, Alex; Jones, Karen; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    We report the cloning and expression of Ac-GST-1, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, and its possible role in parasite blood feeding and as a vaccine target. The predicted Ac-GST-1 open reading frame contains 207 amino acids (mass, 24 kDa) and exhibited up to 65% amino acid identity with other nematode GSTs. mRNA encoding Ac-GST-1 was detected in adults, eggs, and larval stages, but the protein was detected only in adult hookworm somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products. Using antiserum to the recombinant protein, Ac-GST-1 was immunolocalized to the parasite hypodermis and muscle tissue and weakly to the intestine. Recombinant Ac-GST-1 was enzymatically active, as determined by conjugation of glutathione to a model substrate, and exhibited a novel high-affinity binding site for hematin. The possible role of Ac-GST-1 in parasite heme detoxification during hemoglobin digestion or heme uptake prompted interest in evaluating it as a potential vaccine antigen. Vaccination of dogs with Ac-GST-1 resulted in a 39.4% reduction in the mean worm burden and 32.3% reduction in egg counts compared to control dogs following larval challenge, although the reductions were not statistically significant. However, hamsters vaccinated with Ac-GST-1 exhibited statistically significant worm reduction (53.7%) following challenge with heterologous Necator americanus larvae. These studies suggest that Ac-GST-1 is a possible drug and vaccine target for hookworm infection. PMID:16177370

  19. In vivo heme scavenging by Staphylococcus aureus IsdC and IsdE proteins

    Mack, John; Vermeiren, Christie; Heinrichs, David E.; Stillman, Martin J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first characterization of the in vivo porphyrin scavenging abilities of two components of a newly discovered heme scavenging system involving iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. These proteins are present within the cell envelope of the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. IsdC and IsdE, when expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, efficiently scavenged intracellular heme and resulted in de novo heme synthesis in excess of 100-fold above background. Magnetic circular dichroism analyses showed that the heme-binding properties of the two proteins differ significantly from one another. IsdC bound almost exclusively free-base protoporphyrin IX, whereas the IsdE protein was associated with low spin Fe(III) and Fe(II) heme. These properties provide important insight into the possible mechanisms of iron scavenging from bound heme by Isd proteins

  20. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters

    Norifumi Muraki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. Overall and heme environmental structures of these mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that there is little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme. A loss of one axial ligand or the hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr240 resulted in an increase in the redox potential of the heme for CgHmuT to be reduced by dithionite, though the wild type was not reduced under physiological conditions. These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be responsible for efficient heme uptake under aerobic conditions where Corynebacteria grow.

  1. Effective electrochemical method for investigation of hemoglobin unfolding based on the redox property of heme groups at glassy carbon electrodes.

    Li, Xianchan; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Limin; Yu, Ping; Lin, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Mao, Lanqun

    2009-10-15

    This study demonstrates a facile and effective electrochemical method for investigation of hemoglobin (Hb) unfolding based on the electrochemical redox property of heme groups in Hb at bare glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. In the native state, the heme groups are deeply buried in the hydrophobic pockets of Hb with a five-coordinate high-spin complex and thus show a poor electrochemical property at bare GC electrodes. Upon the unfolding of Hb induced by the denaturant of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), the fifth coordinative bond between the heme groups and the residue of the polypeptides (His-F8) is broken, and as a result, the heme groups initially buried deeply in the hydrophobic pockets dissociate from the polypeptide chains and are reduced electrochemically at GC electrodes, which can be used to probe the unfolding of Hb. The results on the GdnHCl-induced Hb unfolding obtained with the electrochemical method described here well coincide with those studied with other methods, such as UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism. The application of the as-established electrochemical method is illustrated to study the kinetics of GdnHCl-induced Hb unfolding, the GdnHCl-induced unfolding of another kind of hemoprotein, catalase, and the pH-induced Hb unfolding/refolding.

  2. Fasciola spp: Mapping of the MF6 epitope and antigenic analysis of the MF6p/HDM family of heme-binding proteins.

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández

    Full Text Available MF6p/FhHDM-1 is a small cationic heme-binding protein which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb MF6, and abundantly present in parenchymal cells and secreted antigens of Fasciola hepatica. Orthologs of this protein (MF6p/HDMs also exist in other causal agents of important foodborne trematodiasis, such as Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Paragonimus westermani. Considering that MF6p/FhHDM-1 is relevant for heme homeostasis in Fasciola and was reported to have immunomodulatory properties, this protein is expected to be a useful target for vaccination. Thus, in this study we mapped the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 and evaluated its antigenicity in sheep. The sequence of the MF6p/FhHDM-1 ortholog from F. gigantica (MF6p/FgHDM-1 was also reported. By means of ELISA inhibitions with overlapping synthetic peptides, we determined that the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 is located within the C-terminal moiety of MF6p/FhHDM-1, which is the most conserved region of MF6p/HDMs. By immunoblotting analysis of parasite extracts and ELISA inhibitions with synthetic peptides we also determined that mAb MF6 reacted with the same intensity with F. hepatica and F. gigantica, and in decreasing order of intensity with C. sinensis, O.viverrini and P. westermani orthologs. On the contrary, mAb MF6 showed no reactivity against Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Schistosoma mansoni. The study of the recognition of peptides covering different regions of MF6p/FhHDM-1 by sera from immunized sheep revealed that the C-terminal moiety is the most antigenic, thus being of potential interest for vaccination. We also demonstrated that the production of antibodies to MF6p/FhHDM-1 in sheep infected by F. hepatica occurs relatively early and follows the same pattern as those produced against L-cathepsins.

  3. Binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Apo-Bacterioferritin Associated Ferredoxin to Bacterioferritin B Promotes Heme Mediation of Electron Delivery and Mobilization of Core Mineral Iron†

    Weeratunga, Saroja K.; Gee, Casey E.; Lovell, Scott; Zeng, Yuhong; Woodin, Carrie L.; Rivera, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The bfrB gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The resultant protein (BfrB), which assembles into a 445.3 kDa complex0020from 24 identical subunits, binds 12 molecules of heme axially coordinated by two Met residues. BfrB, isolated with 5–10 iron atoms per protein molecule, was reconstituted with ferrous ions to prepare samples with a core mineral containing 600 ± 40 ferric ions per BfrB molecule and approximately one phosphate molecule per iron atom. In the presence of sodium dithionite or in the presence of P. aeruginosa ferredoxin NADP reductase (FPR) and NADPH the heme in BfrB remains oxidized and the core iron mineral is mobilized sluggishly. In stark contrast, addition of NADPH to a solution containing BfrB, FPR and the apo-form of P. aeruginosa bacterioferritin associated ferredoxin (apo-Bfd) results in rapid reduction of the heme in BfrB and in the efficient mobilization of the core iron mineral. Results from additional experimentation indicate that Bfd must bind to BfrB to promote heme mediation of electrons from the surface to the core to support the efficient mobilization of ferrous ions from BfrB. In this context, the thus far mysterious role of heme in bacterioferritins has been brought to the front by reconstituting BfrB with its physiological partner, apo-Bfd. These findings are discussed in the context of a model for the utilization of stored iron in which the significant upregulation of the bfd gene under low-iron conditions [Ochsner, U.A., Wilderman, P.J., Vasil, A.I., and Vasil, M.L. (2002) Mol. Microbiol. 45, 1277–1287] ensures sufficient concentrations of apo-Bfd to bind BfrB and unlock the iron stored in its core. Although these findings are in contrast to previous speculations suggesting redox mediation of electron transfer by holo-Bfd, the ability of apo-Bfd to promote iron mobilization is an economical strategy used by the cell because it obviates the need to further deplete cellular iron levels to

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopic evidence on the heme binding to the proximal histidine in unfolded carbonmonoxy myoglobin by guanidine hydrochloride

    Harami, Taikan, E-mail: harami.taikan@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kitao, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    The unfolded heme structure in myoglobin is controversial because of no chance of direct X-ray structure analyses. The unfolding of carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO) by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) was studied by the Moessbauer spectroscopy. The spectra show the presence of a sort of spectrum in the unfolded MbCO, independent on the concentration of GdnHCl from 1 to 6 M and the increase of the fraction of unfolded MbCO, depending on the GdnHCl concentration. The isomer shift of the iron of heme in the unfolded MbCO was identified to be different from that of the native MbCO as the globin structure in Mb collapses under the unfolded conditions. This result and the existing related Moessbauer data proved that the heme in the unfolded MbCO may remain coordinated to the proximal histidine.

  5. Heme orientational disorder in human adult hemoglobin reconstituted with a ring fluorinated heme and its functional consequences

    Nagao, Satoshi; Hirai, Yueki; Kawano, Shin; Imai, Kiyohiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    A ring fluorinated heme, 13,17-bis(2-carboxylatoethyl)-3,8-diethyl-2-fluoro-7,12, 18-trimethyl-porphyrin-atoiron(III), has been incorporated into human adult hemoglobin (Hb A). The heme orientational disorder in the individual subunits of the protein has been readily characterized using 19 F NMR and the O 2 binding properties of the protein have been evaluated through the oxygen equilibrium analysis. The equilibrated orientations of hemes in α- and β- subunits of the reconstituted protein were found to be almost completely opposite to each other, and hence were largely different from those of the native and the previously reported reconstituted proteins [T. Jue, G.N. La Mar, Heme orientational heterogeneity in deuterohemin-reconstituted horse and human hemoglobin characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 119 (1984) 640-645]. Despite the large difference in the degree of the heme orientational disorder in the subunits of the proteins, the O 2 affinity and the cooperativity of the protein reconstituted with 2-MF were similar to those of the proteins reconstituted with a series of hemes chemically modified at the heme 3- and 8-positions [K. Kawabe, K. Imaizumi, Z. Yoshida, K. Imai, I. Tyuma, Studies on reconstituted myoglobins and hemoglobins II. Role of the heme side chains in the oxygenation of hemoglobin, J. Biochem. 92 (1982) 1713-1722], whose O 2 affinity and cooperativity were higher and lower, respectively, relative to those of native protein. These results indicated that the heme orientational disorder could exert little effect, if any, on the O 2 affinity properties of Hb A. This finding provides new insights into structure-function relationship of Hb A

  6. Characterization of hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35 in Porphyromonas gingivalis: its cellular distribution, thioredoxin activity and role in heme utilization

    Abiko Yoshimitsu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is an obligate anaerobe that requires heme for growth. To understand its heme acquisition mechanism, we focused on a hemin-binding protein (HBP35 protein, possessing one thioredoxin-like motif and a conserved C-terminal domain, which are proposed to be involved in redox regulation and cell surface attachment, respectively. Results We observed that the hbp35 gene was transcribed as a 1.1-kb mRNA with subsequent translation resulting in three proteins with molecular masses of 40, 29 and 27 kDa in the cytoplasm, and one modified form of the 40-kDa protein on the cell surface. A recombinant 40-kDa HBP35 exhibited thioredoxin activity in vitro and mutation of the two putative active site cysteine residues abolished this activity. Both recombinant 40- and 27-kDa proteins had the ability to bind hemin, and growth of an hbp35 deletion mutant was substantially retarded under hemin-depleted conditions compared with growth of the wild type under the same conditions. Conclusion P. gingivalis HBP35 exhibits thioredoxin and hemin-binding activities and is essential for growth in hemin-depleted conditions suggesting that the protein plays a significant role in hemin acquisition.

  7. A dual component heme biosensor that integrates heme transport and synthesis in bacteria.

    Nobles, Christopher L; Clark, Justin R; Green, Sabrina I; Maresso, Anthony W

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial pathogens acquire host iron to power cellular processes and replication. Heme, an iron-containing cofactor bound to hemoglobin, is scavenged by bacterial proteins to attain iron. Methods to measure intracellular heme are laborious, involve complex chemistry, or require radioactivity. Such drawbacks limit the study of the mechanistic steps of heme transport and breakdown. Hypothesizing heme homeostasis could be measured with fluorescent methods, we coupled the conversion of heme to biliverdin IXα (a product of heme catabolism) by heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) with the production of near-infrared light upon binding this verdin by infrared fluorescent protein (IFP1.4). The resultant heme sensor, IFP-HO1, was fluorescent in pathogenic E. coli exposed to heme but not in the absence of the heme transporter ChuA and membrane coupling protein TonB, thereby validating their long-standing proposed role in heme uptake. Fluorescence was abolished in a strain lacking hemE, the central gene in the heme biosynthetic pathway, but stimulated by iron, signifying the sensor reports on intracellular heme production. Finally, an invasive strain of E. coli harboring the sensor was fluorescent during an active infection. This work will allow researchers to expand the molecular toolbox used to study heme and iron acquisition in culture and during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heme Mobilization in Animals: A Metallolipid's Journey.

    Reddi, Amit R; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-06-21

    Heme is universally recognized as an essential and ubiquitous prosthetic group that enables proteins to carry out a diverse array of functions. All heme-dependent processes, from protein hemylation to heme signaling, require the dynamic and rapid mobilization of heme to hemoproteins present in virtually every subcellular compartment. The cytotoxicity and hydrophobicity of heme necessitates that heme mobilization is carefully controlled at the cellular and systemic level. However, the molecules and mechanisms that mediate heme homeostasis are poorly understood. In this Account, we provide a heuristic paradigm with which to conceptualize heme trafficking and highlight the most recent developments in the mechanisms underlying heme trafficking. As an iron-containing tetrapyrrole, heme exhibits properties of both transition metals and lipids. Accordingly, we propose its transport and trafficking will reflect principles gleaned from the trafficking of both metals and lipids. Using this conceptual framework, we follow the flow of heme from the final step of heme synthesis in the mitochondria to hemoproteins present in various subcellular organelles. Further, given that many cells and animals that cannot make heme can assimilate it intact from nutritional sources, we propose that intercellular heme trafficking pathways must exist. This necessitates that heme be able to be imported and exported from cells, escorted between cells and organs, and regulated at the organismal level via a coordinated systemic process. In this Account, we highlight recently discovered heme transport and trafficking factors and provide the biochemical foundation for the cell and systems biology of heme. Altogether, we seek to reconceptualize heme from an exchange inert cofactor buried in hemoprotein active sites to an exchange labile and mobile metallonutrient.

  9. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and Heme oxygenases

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number of transporters of heme and heme synthesis intermediates have been described. Here we review aspects of heme metabolism and discuss our current understanding of heme transporters, with emphasis on the function of the cell-surface heme exporter, FLVCR. Knockdown of Flvcr in mice leads to both defective erythropoiesis and disturbed systemic iron homeostasis, underscoring the critical role of heme transporters in mammalian physiology. PMID:21238504

  10. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FULL-LENGTH HUMAN HEME OXYGENASE-1: PRESENCE OF INTACT MEMBRANE-BINDING REGION LEADS TO INCREASED BINDING AFFINITY FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE

    Huber, Warren J.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2009-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the chief regulatory enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin. In the process of heme degradation, this NADPH and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR)-dependent oxidation of heme also releases free iron and carbon monoxide. Much of the recent research involving heme oxygenase is done using a 30-kDa soluble form of the enzyme, which lacks the membrane binding region (C-terminal 23 amino acids). The goal of this study was to express and purify a full-length human HO-1 (hHO-1) protein; however, due to the lability of the full-length form, a rapid purification procedure was required. This was accomplished by use of a GST-tagged hHO-1 construct. Although the procedure permitted the generation of a full-length HO-1, this form was contaminated with a 30-kDa degradation product that could not be eliminated. Therefore, we attempted to remove a putative secondary thrombin cleavage site by a conservative mutation of amino acid 254, which replaces lysine with arginine. This mutation allowed the expression and purification of a full length hHO-1 protein. Unlike wild-type HO-1, the K254R mutant could be purified to a single 32-kDa protein capable of degrading heme at the same rate as the wild-type enzyme. The K254R full-length form had a specific activity of ~200–225 nmol bilirubin hr−1nmol−1 HO-1 as compared to ~140–150 nmol bilirubin hr−1nmol−1 for the WT form, which contains the 30-kDa contaminant. This is a 2–3-fold increase from the previously reported soluble 30-kDa HO-1, suggesting that the C-terminal 23 amino acids are essential for maximal catalytic activity. Because the membrane spanning domain is present, the full-length hHO-1 has the potential to incorporate into phospholipid membranes, which can be reconstituted at known concentrations, in combination with other ER-resident enzymes. PMID:17915953

  11. The Chemistry and Biochemistry of Heme c: Functional Bases for Covalent Attachment

    Bowman, Sarah E. J.; Bren, Kara L.

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of the literature concerning the synthesis, function, and activity of heme c-containing proteins is presented. Comparison of the properties of heme c, which is covalently bound to protein, is made to heme b, which is bound noncovalently. A question of interest is why nature uses biochemically expensive heme c in many proteins when its properties are expected to be similar to heme b. Considering the effects of covalent heme attachment on heme conformation and on the proximal histi...

  12. Unprecedented access of phenolic substrates to the heme active site of a catalase: substrate binding and peroxidase-like reactivity of Bacillus pumilus catalase monitored by X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy.

    Loewen, Peter C; Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jacek; Donald, Lynda J; Ivancich, Anabella

    2015-05-01

    Heme-containing catalases and catalase-peroxidases catalyze the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide as their predominant catalytic activity, but in addition, individual enzymes support low levels of peroxidase and oxidase activities, produce superoxide, and activate isoniazid as an antitubercular drug. The recent report of a heme enzyme with catalase, peroxidase and penicillin oxidase activities in Bacillus pumilus and its categorization as an unusual catalase-peroxidase led us to investigate the enzyme for comparison with other catalase-peroxidases, catalases, and peroxidases. Characterization revealed a typical homotetrameric catalase with one pentacoordinated heme b per subunit (Tyr340 being the axial ligand), albeit in two orientations, and a very fast catalatic turnover rate (kcat  = 339,000 s(-1) ). In addition, the enzyme supported a much slower (kcat  = 20 s(-1) ) peroxidatic activity utilizing substrates as diverse as ABTS and polyphenols, but no oxidase activity. Two binding sites, one in the main access channel and the other on the protein surface, accommodating pyrogallol, catechol, resorcinol, guaiacol, hydroquinone, and 2-chlorophenol were identified in crystal structures at 1.65-1.95 Å. A third site, in the heme distal side, accommodating only pyrogallol and catechol, interacting with the heme iron and the catalytic His and Arg residues, was also identified. This site was confirmed in solution by EPR spectroscopy characterization, which also showed that the phenolic oxygen was not directly coordinated to the heme iron (no low-spin conversion of the Fe(III) high-spin EPR signal upon substrate binding). This is the first demonstration of phenolic substrates directly accessing the heme distal side of a catalase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Heterogeneous electron transfer of a two-centered heme protein: redox and electrocatalytic properties of surface-immobilized cytochrome C(4).

    Monari, Stefano; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Di Rocco, Giulia; Martini, Laura; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco

    2009-10-15

    The recombinant diheme cytochrome c(4) from the psycrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125 and its Met64Ala and Met164Ala variants, which feature a hydroxide ion axially bound to the heme iron at the N- and C-terminal domains, respectively, were found to exchange electrons efficiently with a gold electrode coated with a SAM of 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid. The mutation-induced removal of the redox equivalence of the two heme groups and changes in the net charge of the protein lobes yield two-centered protein systems with unprecedented properties in the electrode-immobilized state. The heterogeneous and intraheme electron transfer processes were characterized for these species in which the high- and low-potential heme groups are swapped over in the bilobal protein framework and experience a constrained (M64A) and unconstrained (M164A) orientation toward the electrode. The reduction thermodynamics for the native and mutated hemes were measured for the first time for a diheme cytochrome c. In the diffusing regime, they reproduce closely those for the corresponding centers in single-heme class-I cytochromes c, despite the low sequence identity. Larger differences are observed in the thermodynamics of the immobilized species and in the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants. T-dependent kinetic measurements show that the proteins are positioned approximately 7 A from the HOOC-terminated SAM-coated electrode. Protein-electrode orientation and efficient intraheme ET enable the His,OH(-)-ligated heme A of the immobilized Met64Ala variant to carry out the reductive electrocatalysis of molecular oxygen. This system therefore constitutes a novel two-centered heme-based biocatalytic interface to be exploited for "third-generation" amperometric biosensing.

  14. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and heme oxygenases

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number...

  15. Expression and characterization of full-length human heme oxygenase-1: the presence of intact membrane-binding region leads to increased binding affinity for NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Huber, Warren J; Backes, Wayne L

    2007-10-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the chief regulatory enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin. In the process of heme degradation, HO-1 receives the electrons necessary for catalysis from the flavoprotein NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), releasing free iron and carbon monoxide. Much of the recent research involving heme oxygenase has been done using a 30 kDa soluble form of the enzyme, which lacks the membrane binding region (C-terminal 23 amino acids). The goal of this study was to express and purify a full-length human HO-1 (hHO-1) protein; however, due to the lability of the full-length form, a rapid purification procedure was required. This was accomplished by use of a glutathione-s-transferase (GST)-tagged hHO-1 construct. Although the procedure permitted the generation of a full-length HO-1, this form was contaminated with a 30 kDa degradation product that could not be eliminated. Therefore, attempts were made to remove a putative secondary thrombin cleavage site by a conservative mutation of amino acid 254, which replaces arginine with lysine. This mutation allowed the expression and purification of a full-length hHO-1 protein. Unlike wild type (WT) HO-1, the R254K mutant could be purified to a single 32 kDa protein capable of degrading heme at the same rate as the WT enzyme. The R254K full-length form had a specific activity of approximately 200-225 nmol of bilirubin h-1 nmol-1 HO-1 as compared to approximately 140-150 nmol of bilirubin h-1 nmol-1 for the WT form, which contains the 30 kDa contaminant. This is a 2-3-fold increase from the previously reported soluble 30 kDa HO-1, suggesting that the C-terminal 23 amino acids are essential for maximal catalytic activity. Because the membrane-spanning domain is present, the full-length hHO-1 has the potential to incorporate into phospholipid membranes, which can be reconstituted at known concentrations, in combination with other endoplasmic reticulum resident enzymes.

  16. The green hemoproteins of bovine erythrocytes. II. Spectral, ligand-binding, and electrochemical properties.

    DeFilippi, L J; Hultquist, D E

    1978-05-10

    The two green hemoproteins isolated from bovine erythrocytes (form I and form II) have been characterized as to spectral, electrochemical, and chemical properties. The absorption spectra of the isolated hemoproteins are typical of high spin ferric states. Reduction of the hemoproteins yields high spin ferrohemoproteins. Complexation of the ferrohemoproteins with CO and the ferrihemoproteins with cyanide yields low spin complexes, demonstrating the presence of an exchangeable weak field ligand in both the ferrous and ferric states of the hemoproteins. The differences in position and intensity of the absorption peaks of the visible spectra allow the two forms to be distinguished from one another. The midpoint potential of forms I and II were found to be +0.075 and +0.019 V, respectively, at pH 6.4 and +0.038 and -0.005 V, respectively, at pH 7.0. This is consistent with the gaining of 1 proton/electron during the reduction. The Nernst plot reveals an unusual 0.5-electron transfer, whereas a quantitative titration demonstrates a 1-electron transfer. Form I binds cyanide more tightly than form II (KD of 84 and 252 micrometer, respectively). The observed spectral, electrochemical, and ligand-binding differences between forms I and II can be explained in terms of a greater electron-withdrawing ability of the side chains of the heme of form I relative to the heme of form II.

  17. Assessment of the binding properties of granuloszint

    Schubiger, P.A.; Hasler, P.H.; Novak-Hofer, I.; Blaeuenstein, P.

    1989-01-01

    123 I-granuloszint (a murine monoclonal antibody - called AK-47 - against NCA-95 glycoprotein of granulocytes) has been proved to be a very convenient and successful radiopharmaceutical for visualizing infectious diseases. For a broad introduction in routine nuclear medicine it was necessary to optimize the labelling method and to determine in vitro exactly those biological and binding parameters which are relevant for an effective application in vivo. Binding to granulocytes has been shown to be specific and saturable (nonspecific binding about 10%) and is not via the Fc part of the antibody. The investigation of the binding properties of 125 I-labelled AK-47 gave the following results: Affinity constant 5x10 8 , 20,000-100,000 epitopes per granulocyte and an immunoreactivity of more than 90%. Labelling with 123 I reduced the immunoreactivity to 40%. The Lindmo method and immunoblotting are used as quality control to check the likely in vivo behaviour of the labelled antibody. There is a good correspondence between the results from the two methods. With our special labelling method and the different in vitro checks we have found a reliable way to control the production and to assure an optimal binding behaviour of 123 I-granuloszint. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of the binding properties of granuloszint

    Schubiger, P.A.; Hasler, P.H.; Novak-Hofer, I.; Blaeuenstein, P.

    1989-09-01

    /sup 123/I-granuloszint (a murine monoclonal antibody - called AK-47 - against NCA-95 glycoprotein of granulocytes) has been proved to be a very convenient and successful radiopharmaceutical for visualizing infectious diseases. For a broad introduction in routine nuclear medicine it was necessary to optimize the labelling method and to determine in vitro exactly those biological and binding parameters which are relevant for an effective application in vivo. Binding to granulocytes has been shown to be specific and saturable (nonspecific binding about 10%) and is not via the Fc part of the antibody. The investigation of the binding properties of /sup 125/I-labelled AK-47 gave the following results: Affinity constant 5x10/sup 8/, 20,000-100,000 epitopes per granulocyte and an immunoreactivity of more than 90%. Labelling with /sup 123/I reduced the immunoreactivity to 40%. The Lindmo method and immunoblotting are used as quality control to check the likely in vivo behaviour of the labelled antibody. There is a good correspondence between the results from the two methods. With our special labelling method and the different in vitro checks we have found a reliable way to control the production and to assure an optimal binding behaviour of /sup 123/I-granuloszint. (orig.).

  19. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis.

    Parhad, Swapnil S; Jaiswal, Deepa; Ray, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2016-03-25

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in l-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  1. (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of Nostoc sp. C139A variant of the heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) domain.

    Alexandropoulos, Ioannis I; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Marousis, Kostas D; Topouzis, Stavros; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2016-10-01

    The H-NOX (Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding) domain is conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. In human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) the H-NOX domain functions as a sensor for the gaseous signaling agent nitric oxide (NO). sGC contains the heme-binding H-NOX domain at its N-terminus, which regulates the catalytic site contained within the C-terminal end of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of GTP (guanosine 5'-triphosphate) to GMP (guanylyl monophosphate). Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 183-residue H-NOX domain from Nostoc sp. through solution NMR.

  2. pH dependence of cyanide binding to the ferric heme domain of the direct oxygen sensor from Escherichia coli and the effect of alkaline denaturation.

    Bidwai, Anil K; Ok, Esther Y; Erman, James E

    2008-09-30

    The spectrum of the ferric heme domain of the direct oxygen sensor protein from Escherichia coli ( EcDosH) has been measured between pH 3.0 and 12.6. EcDosH undergoes acid denaturation with an apparent p K a of 4.24 +/- 0.05 and a Hill coefficient of 3.1 +/- 0.6 and reversible alkaline denaturation with a p K a of 9.86 +/- 0.04 and a Hill coefficient of 1.1 +/- 0.1. Cyanide binding to EcDosH has been investigated between pH 4 and 11. The EcDosH-cyanide complex is most stable at pH 9 with a K D of 0.29 +/- 0.06 microM. The kinetics of cyanide binding are monophasic between pH 4 and 8. At pH >or=8.5, the reaction is biphasic with the fast phase dependent upon the cyanide concentration and the slow phase independent of cyanide. The slow phase is attributed to conversion of denatured EcDosH to the native state, with a pH-independent rate of 0.052 +/- 0.006 s (-1). The apparent association rate constant for cyanide binding to EcDosH increases from 3.6 +/- 0.1 M (-1) s (-1) at pH 4 to 520 +/- 20 M (-1) s (-1) at pH 11. The dissociation rate constant averages (8.6 +/- 1.3) x 10 (-5) s (-1) between pH 5 and 9, increasing to (1.4 +/- 0.1) x 10 (-3) s (-1) at pH 4 and (2.5 +/- 0.1) x 10 (-3) s (-1) at pH 12.2. The mechanism of cyanide binding is consistent with preferential binding of the cyanide anion to native EcDosH. The reactions of imidazole and H 2O 2 with ferric EcDosH were also investigated and show little reactivity.

  3. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  4. In vitro Activation of heme oxygenase-2 by menadione and its analogs.

    Vukomanovic, Dragic; Rahman, Mona N; Bilokin, Yaroslav; Golub, Andriy G; Brien, James F; Szarek, Walter A; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2014-02-18

    Previously, we reported that menadione activated rat, native heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) and human recombinant heme oxygenase-2 selectively; it did not activate spleen, microsomal heme oxygenase-1. The purpose of this study was to explore some structure-activity relationships of this activation and the idea that redox properties may be an important aspect of menadione efficacy. Heme oxygenase activity was determined in vitro using rat spleen and brain microsomes as the sources of heme oxygenase-1 and -2, respectively, as well as recombinant, human heme oxygenase-2. Menadione analogs with bulky aliphatic groups at position-3, namely vitamins K1 and K2, were not able to activate HO-2. In contrast, several compounds with similar bulky but less lipophilic moieties at position-2 (and -3) were able to activate HO-2 many fold; these compounds included polar, rigid, furan-containing naphthoquinones, furan-benzoxazine naphthoquinones, 2-(aminophenylphenyl)-3-piperidin-1-yl naphthoquinones. To explore the idea that redox properties might be involved in menadione efficacy, we tested analogs such as 1,4-dimethoxy-2-methylnaphthalene, pentafluoromenadione, monohalogenated naphthoquinones, α-tetralone and 1,4-naphthoquinone. All of these compounds were inactive except for 1,4-naphthoquinone. Menadione activated full-length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2) as effectively as rat brain enzyme, but it did not activate rat spleen heme oxygenase. These observations are consistent with the idea that naphthoquinones such as menadione bind to a receptor in HO-2 and activate the enzyme through a mechanism that may involve redox properties.

  5. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis

    Parhad, Swapnil S.; Jaiswal, Deepa; Ray, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in L-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. - Highlights: • The effect of interaction of nNOS with DLC1 has been debatable with contradicting reports in literature. • Purified DLC1 has no effect on electron transport between reductase and oxygenase domain of purified nNOS-CaM. • The NO release activity of nNOS was not altered by DLC1, supporting that DLC1 does not inhibit the enzyme. • These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell.

  6. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis

    Parhad, Swapnil S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Jaiswal, Deepa [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsingi, Hyderabad 500075 (India); Ray, Krishanu, E-mail: krishanu@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Mazumdar, Shyamalava, E-mail: shyamal@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2016-03-25

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in L-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. - Highlights: • The effect of interaction of nNOS with DLC1 has been debatable with contradicting reports in literature. • Purified DLC1 has no effect on electron transport between reductase and oxygenase domain of purified nNOS-CaM. • The NO release activity of nNOS was not altered by DLC1, supporting that DLC1 does not inhibit the enzyme. • These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell.

  7. Protein Machineries Involved in the Attachment of Heme to Cytochrome c: Protein Structures and Molecular Mechanisms

    Carlo Travaglini-Allocatelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes c (Cyt c are ubiquitous heme-containing proteins, mainly involved in electron transfer processes, whose structure and functions have been and still are intensely studied. Surprisingly, our understanding of the molecular mechanism whereby the heme group is covalently attached to the apoprotein (apoCyt in the cell is still largely unknown. This posttranslational process, known as Cyt c biogenesis or Cyt c maturation, ensures the stereospecific formation of the thioether bonds between the heme vinyl groups and the cysteine thiols of the apoCyt heme binding motif. To accomplish this task, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have evolved distinctive protein machineries composed of different proteins. In this review, the structural and functional properties of the main maturation apparatuses found in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells will be presented, dissecting the Cyt c maturation process into three functional steps: (i heme translocation and delivery, (ii apoCyt thioreductive pathway, and (iii apoCyt chaperoning and heme ligation. Moreover, current hypotheses and open questions about the molecular mechanisms of each of the three steps will be discussed, with special attention to System I, the maturation apparatus found in gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Mechanisms of heme utilization by Francisella tularensis.

    Helena Lindgren

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen causing the severe disease tularemia in mammals. As for other bacteria, iron is essential for its growth but very few mechanisms for iron acquisition have been identified. Here, we analyzed if and how F. tularensis can utilize heme, a major source of iron in vivo. This is by no means obvious since the bacterium lacks components of traditional heme-uptake systems. We show that SCHU S4, the prototypic strain of subspecies tularensis, grew in vitro with heme as the sole iron source. By screening a SCHU S4 transposon insertion library, 16 genes were identified as important to efficiently utilize heme, two of which were required to avoid heme toxicity. None of the identified genes appeared to encode components of a potential heme-uptake apparatus. Analysis of SCHU S4 deletion mutants revealed that each of the components FeoB, the siderophore system, and FupA, contributed to the heme-dependent growth. In the case of the former two systems, iron acquisition was impaired, whereas the absence of FupA did not affect iron uptake but led to abnormally high binding of iron to macromolecules. Overall, the present study demonstrates that heme supports growth of F. tularensis and that the requirements for the utilization are highly complex and to some extent novel.

  9. Assessment Criteria of Bentonite Binding Properties

    S. Żymankowska-Kumon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The criteria, with which one should be guided at the assessment of the binding properties of bentonites used for moulding sands, areproposed in the paper. Apart from the standard parameter which is the active bentonite content, the unrestrained growth indicator should be taken into account since it seems to be more adequate in the estimation of the sand compression strength. The investigations performed for three kinds of bentonites, applied in the Polish foundry plants, subjected to a high temperature influences indicate, that the pathway of changes of the unrestrained growth indicator is very similar to the pathway of changes of the sand compression strength. Instead, the character of changes of the montmorillonite content in the sand in dependence of the temperature is quite different. The sand exhibits the significant active bentonite content, and the sand compression strength decreases rapidly. The montmorillonite content in bentonite samples was determined by the modern copper complex method of triethylenetetraamine (Cu(II-TET. Tests were performed for bentonites and for sands with those bentonites subjected to high temperatures influences in a range: 100-700ºC.

  10. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...

  11. Relationship between natural and heme-mediated antibody polyreactivity

    Hadzhieva, Maya; Vassilev, Tchavdar [Stephan Angelov Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR-S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, F-75006 Paris (France); INSERM, UMR-S 1138, F-75006 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR-S 1138, F-75006 Paris (France); Dimitrov, Jordan D., E-mail: jordan.dimitrov@crc.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR-S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, F-75006 Paris (France); INSERM, UMR-S 1138, F-75006 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR-S 1138, F-75006 Paris (France)

    2016-03-25

    Polyreactive antibodies represent a considerable fraction of the immune repertoires. Some antibodies acquire polyreactivity post-translationally after interaction with various redox-active substances, including heme. Recently we have demonstrated that heme binding to a naturally polyreactive antibody (SPE7) results in a considerable broadening of the repertoire of recognized antigens. A question remains whether the presence of certain level of natural polyreactivity of antibodies is a prerequisite for heme-induced further extension of antigen binding potential. Here we used a second monoclonal antibody (Hg32) with unknown specificity and absence of intrinsic polyreactivity as a model to study the potential of heme to induce polyreactivity of antibodies. We demonstrated that exposure to heme greatly extends the antigen binding potential of Hg32, suggesting that the intrinsic binding promiscuity is not a prerequisite for the induction of polyreactivity by heme. In addition we compared the kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction of heme-exposed antibodies with a panel of unrelated antigens. These analyses revealed that the two heme-sensitive antibodies adopt different mechanisms of binding to the same set of antigens. This study contributes to understanding the phenomenon of induced antibody polyreactivity. The data may also be of importance for understanding of physiological and pathological roles of polyreactive antibodies. - Highlights: • Exposure of certain monoclonal IgE antibodies to heme results in gain of antigen binding polyreactivity. • Natural polyreactivity of antibodies is dispensable for acquisition of polyreactivity through interaction with heme. • Heme-induced monoclonal IgE antibodies differ in their thermodynamic mechanisms of antigen recognition.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1: a metabolic nike.

    Wegiel, Barbara; Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Bulmer, Andrew C; Otterbein, Leo E

    2014-04-10

    Heme degradation, which was described more than 30 years ago, is still very actively explored with many novel discoveries on its role in various disease models every year. The heme oxygenases (HO) are metabolic enzymes that utilize NADPH and oxygen to break apart the heme moiety liberating biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Heme that is derived from hemoproteins can be toxic to the cells and if not removed immediately, it causes cell apoptosis and local inflammation. Elimination of heme from the milieu enables generation of three products that influences numerous metabolic changes in the cell. CO has profound effects on mitochondria and cellular respiration and other hemoproteins to which it can bind and affect their function, while BV and bilirubin (BR), the substrate and product of BV, reductase, respectively, are potent antioxidants. Sequestration of iron into ferritin and its recycling in the tissues is a part of the homeodynamic processes that control oxidation-reduction in cellular metabolism. Further, heme is an important component of a number of metabolic enzymes, and, therefore, HO-1 plays an important role in the modulation of cellular bioenergetics. In this review, we describe the cross-talk between heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its products with other metabolic pathways. HO-1, which we have labeled Nike, the goddess who personified victory, dictates triumph over pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes, ischemia, and cancer.

  13. An ethane-bridged porphyrin dimer as a model of di-heme proteins: inorganic and bioinorganic perspectives and consequences of heme-heme interactions.

    Sil, Debangsu; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2015-10-07

    Interaction between heme centers has been cleverly implemented by Nature in order to regulate different properties of multiheme cytochromes, thereby allowing them to perform a wide variety of functions. Our broad interest lies in unmasking the roles played by heme-heme interactions in modulating different properties viz., metal spin state, redox potential etc., of the individual heme centers using an ethane-bridged porphyrin dimer as a synthetic model of dihemes. The large differences in the structure and properties of the diheme complexes, as compared to the monoheme analogs, provide unequivocal evidence of the role played by heme-heme interactions in the dihemes. This Perspective provides a brief account of our recent efforts to explore these interesting aspects and the subsequent outcomes.

  14. Single or functionalized fullerenes interacting with heme group

    Costa, Wallison Chaves; Diniz, Eduardo Moraes, E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Avenida dos Portugueses, 1966, CEP 65080-805, São Luís - MA (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    The heme group is responsible for iron transportation through the bloodstream, where iron participates in redox reactions, electron transfer, gases detection etc. The efficiency of such processes can be reduced if the whole heme molecule or even the iron is somehow altered from its original oxidation state, which can be caused by interactions with nanoparticles as fullerenes. To verify how such particles alter the geometry and electronic structure of heme molecule, here we report first principles calculations based on density functional theory of heme group interacting with single C{sub 60} fullerene or with C{sub 60} functionalized with small functional groups (−CH{sub 3}, −COOH, −NH{sub 2}, −OH). The calculations shown that the system heme + nanoparticle has a different spin state in comparison with heme group if the fullerene is functionalized. Also a functional group can provide a stronger binding between nanoparticle and heme molecule or inhibit the chemical bonding in comparison with single fullerene results. In addition heme molecule loses electrons to the nanoparticles and some systems exhibited a geometry distortion in heme group, depending on the binding energy. Furthermore, one find that such nanoparticles induce a formation of spin up states in heme group. Moreover, there exist modifications in density of states near the Fermi energy. Although of such changes in heme electronic structure and geometry, the iron atom remains in the heme group with the same oxidation state, so that processes that involve the iron might not be affected, only those that depend on the whole heme molecule.

  15. Heme: From quantum spin crossover to oxygen manager of life

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    The review discusses how the electronic structure of heme explains its central importance to oxygen-based life on Earth. Emphasis is on the chemical bonding of heme, its spin crossover, reversible O2 binding, and O-O bond activation, put in relation to its physiological functions. The review disc...

  16. The Binding Properties of Quechua Suffixes.

    Weber, David

    This paper sketches an explicitly non-lexicalist application of grammatical theory to Huallaga (Huanuco) Quechua (HgQ). The advantages of applying binding theory to many suffixes that have previously been treated only as objects of the morphology are demonstrated. After an introduction, section 2 outlines basic assumptions about the nature of HgQ…

  17. Transmutation of a heme protein.

    Barker, P D; Ferrer, J C; Mylrajan, M; Loehr, T M; Feng, R; Konishi, Y; Funk, W D; MacGillivray, R T; Mauk, A G

    1993-01-01

    Residue Asn57 of bovine liver cytochrome b5 has been replaced with a cysteine residue, and the resulting variant has been isolated from recombinant Escherichia coli as a mixture of four major species: A, BI, BII, and C. A combination of electronic spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry, and direct electrochemistry has been used to characterize these four major cytochrome derivatives. The red form A (E(m) = -19 mV) is found to possess a heme group bound covalently through a thioether linkage involving Cys57 and the alpha carbon of the heme 4-vinyl group. Form BI has a covalently bound heme group coupled through a thioether linkage involving the beta carbon of the heme 4-vinyl group. Form BII is similar to BI except that the sulfur involved in the thioether linkage is oxidized to a sulfoxide. The green form C (E(m) = 175 mV) possesses a noncovalently bound prosthetic group with spectroscopic properties characteristic of a chlorin. A mechanism is proposed for the generation of these derivatives, and the implications of these observations for the biosynthesis of cytochrome c and naturally occurring chlorin prosthetic groups are discussed. PMID:8341666

  18. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  19. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  20. Polypeptide binding properties of the chaperone calreticulin

    Jørgensen, C S; Heegaard, N H; Holm, A

    2000-01-01

    Calreticulin is a highly conserved eukaryotic ubiquitious protein located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two major characteristics of calreticulin are its chaperone activity and its lectin properties, but its precise function in intracellular protein and peptide processing remains to be elu......Calreticulin is a highly conserved eukaryotic ubiquitious protein located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two major characteristics of calreticulin are its chaperone activity and its lectin properties, but its precise function in intracellular protein and peptide processing remains...

  1. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Tumen, Fikret, E-mail: ftumen@firat.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol{sup -1} for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}H{sup o} values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low {Delta}H{sup o} values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  2. Solution NMR characterization of magnetic/electronic properties of azide and cyanide-inhibited substrate complexes of human heme oxygenase: implications for steric ligand tilt.

    Peng, Dungeng; Ogura, Hiroshi; Ma, Li-Hua; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N

    2013-04-01

    Solution 2D (1)H NMR was carried out on the azide-ligated substrate complex of human heme oxygenase, hHO, to provide information on the active site molecular structure, chromophore electronic/magnetic properties, and the distal H-bond network linked to the exogenous ligand by catalytically relevant oriented water molecules. While 2D NMR exhibited very similar patterns of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy cross peaks of residues with substrate and among residues as the previously characterized cyanide complex, significant, broadly distributed chemical shift differences were observed for both labile and non-labile protons. The anisotropy and orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor, χ, were determined for both the azide and cyanide complexes. The most significant difference observed is the tilt of the major magnetic axes from the heme normal, which is only half as large for the azide than cyanide ligand, with each ligand tilted toward the catalytically cleaved α-meso position. The difference in chemical shifts is quantitatively correlated with differences in dipolar shifts in the respective complexes for all but the distal helix. The necessity of considering dipolar shifts, and hence determination of the orientation/anisotropy of χ, in comparing chemical shifts involving paramagnetic complexes, is emphasized. The analysis shows that the H-bond network cannot detect significant differences in H-bond acceptor properties of cyanide versus azide ligands. Lastly, significant retardation of distal helix labile proton exchange upon replacing cyanide with azide indicates that the dynamic stability of the distal helix is increased upon decreasing the steric interaction of the ligand with the distal helix. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Examination of the ligand-binding and enzymatic properties of a bilin-binding protein from the poisonous caterpillar Lonomia obliqua.

    Ana B G Veiga

    Full Text Available The bilin-binding proteins (BBP from lepidopteran insects are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a special role in pigmentation through the binding of biliverdin IXγ. Lopap, a BBP-like protein from the venom of the toxic caterpillar Lonomia obliqua has been reported to act as a serine protease that activates the coagulation proenzyme prothrombin. Here we show that BBPLo, a variant of lopap from the same organism binds biliverdin IXγ, forming a complex that is spectrally identical with previously described BBP proteins. Although BBPLo is nearly identical in sequence to lopap, no prothrombinase activity was detected in our recombinant preparations using reconstituted systems containing coagulation factors Xa and Va, as well as anionic phospholipids. In addition to biliverdin, BBPLo was found to form a 1:1 complex with heme prompting us to examine whether the unusual biliverdin IXγ ligand of BBPs forms as a result of oxidation of bound heme in situ rather than by a conventional heme oxygenase. Using ascorbate or a NADPH(+-ferredoxin reductase-ferredoxin system as a source of reducing equivalents, spectral changes are seen that suggest an initial reduction of heme to the Fe(II state and formation of an oxyferrous complex. The complex then disappears and a product identified as a 5-coordinate carbonyl complex of verdoheme, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of biliverdin, is formed. However, further reaction to form biliverdin was not observed, making it unlikely that biliverdin IXγ is formed by this pathway.

  4. Design and synthesis of a tetradentate '3-amine-1-carboxylate' ligand to mimic the metal binding environment at the non-heme iron(II) oxidase active site.

    Dungan, Victoria J; Ortin, Yannick; Mueller-Bunz, Helge; Rutledge, Peter J

    2010-04-07

    Non-heme iron(II) oxidases (NHIOs) catalyse a diverse array of oxidative chemistry in Nature. As part of ongoing efforts to realize biomimetic, iron-mediated C-H activation, we report the synthesis of a new 'three-amine-one-carboxylate' ligand designed to complex with iron(II) and mimic the NHIO active site. The tetradentate ligand has been prepared as a single enantiomer in nine synthetic steps from N-Cbz-L-alanine, pyridine-2,6-dimethanol and diphenylamine, using Seebach oxazolidinone chemistry to control the stereochemistry. X-Ray crystal structures are reported for two important intermediates, along with variable temperature NMR experiments to probe the hindered interconversion of conformational isomers of several key intermediates, 2,6-disubstituted pyridine derivatives. The target ligand and an N-Cbz-protected precursor were each then complexed with iron(II) and tested for their ability to promote alkene dihydroxylation, using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant.

  5. Binding properties of SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) in yeast.

    Jardin, Christophe; Horn, Anselm H C; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-03-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation and interaction play an essential role in many cellular processes. A large number of yeast proteins is known to interact non-covalently with SUMO via short SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs), but the structural details of this interaction are yet poorly characterized. In the present work, sequence analysis of a large dataset of 148 yeast SIMs revealed the existence of a hydrophobic core binding motif and a preference for acidic residues either within or adjacent to the core motif. Thus the sequence properties of yeast SIMs are highly similar to those described for human. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the binding preferences for four representative SIM peptides differing in the number and distribution of acidic residues. Furthermore, the relative stability of two previously observed alternative binding orientations (parallel, antiparallel) was assessed. For all SIMs investigated, the antiparallel binding mode remained stable in the simulations and the SIMs were tightly bound via their hydrophobic core residues supplemented by polar interactions of the acidic residues. In contrary, the stability of the parallel binding mode is more dependent on the sequence features of the SIM motif like the number and position of acidic residues or the presence of additional adjacent interaction motifs. This information should be helpful to enhance the prediction of SIMs and their binding properties in different organisms to facilitate the reconstruction of the SUMO interactome.

  6. Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes

    Hvidberg, Vibeke; Maniecki, Maciej B; Jacobsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    and is suggested to facilitate cellular heme metabolism. Using a ligand-affinity approach, we purified the human hemopexin-heme receptor and identified it as the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)/CD91, a receptor expressed in several cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes, neurons......, and syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding experiments, including Biacore analysis, showed that hemopexin-heme complex formation elicits the high receptor affinity. Uptake studies of radio-labeled hemopexin-heme complex in LRP/CD91-expressing COS cells and confocal microscopy of the cellular processing of fluorescent hemopexin......-heme complexes are removed by a receptor-mediated pathway showing striking similarities to the CD163-mediated haptoglobin-hemoglobin clearance in macrophages. Furthermore, the data indicate a hitherto unknown role of LRP/CD91 in inflammation....

  7. Heme Gazing: Illuminating Eukaryotic Heme Trafficking, Dynamics, and Signaling with Fluorescent Heme Sensors.

    Hanna, David A; Martinez-Guzman, Osiris; Reddi, Amit R

    2017-04-04

    Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is an essential protein prosthetic group and signaling molecule required for most life on Earth. All heme-dependent processes require the dynamic and rapid mobilization of heme from sites of synthesis or uptake to hemoproteins present in virtually every subcellular compartment. The cytotoxicity and hydrophobicity of heme necessitate that heme mobilization be carefully controlled to mitigate the deleterious effects of this essential toxin. Indeed, a number of disorders, including certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, are tied to defects in heme homeostasis. However, the molecules and mechanisms that mediate heme transport and trafficking, and the dynamics of these processes, are poorly understood. This is in large part due to the lack of physical tools for probing cellular heme. Herein, we discuss the recent development of fluorescent probes that can monitor and image kinetically labile heme with respect to its mobilization and role in signaling. In particular, we will highlight how heme gazing with these tools can uncover new heme trafficking factors upon being integrated with genetic screens and illuminate the concentration, subcellular distribution, and dynamics of labile heme in various physiological contexts. Altogether, the monitoring of labile heme, along with recent biochemical and cell biological studies demonstrating the reversible regulation of certain cellular processes by heme, is challenging us to reconceptualize heme from being a static cofactor buried in protein active sites to a dynamic and mobile signaling molecule.

  8. Isocyanides inhibit human heme oxygenases at the verdoheme stage.

    Evans, John P; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-09-22

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides, isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 microM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design.

  9. Isocyanides Inhibit Human Heme Oxygenases at the Verdoheme Stage†

    Evans, John P.; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides; isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides, and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 μM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design. PMID:19694439

  10. Wearing red for signaling: the heme-bach axis in heme metabolism, oxidative stress response and iron immunology.

    Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Watanabe-Matsui, Miki

    2014-04-01

    The connection between gene regulation and metabolism is an old issue that warrants revisiting in order to understand both normal as well as pathogenic processes in higher eukaryotes. Metabolites affect the gene expression by either binding to transcription factors or serving as donors for post-translational modification, such as that involving acetylation and methylation. The focus of this review is heme, a prosthetic group of proteins that includes hemoglobin and cytochromes. Heme has been shown to bind to several transcription factors, including Bach1 and Bach2, in higher eukaryotes. Heme inhibits the transcriptional repressor activity of Bach1, resulting in the derepression of its target genes, such as globin in erythroid cells and heme oxygenase-1 in diverse cell types. Since Bach2 is important for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes as well as regulatory and effector T cell differentiation and the macrophage function, the heme-Bach2 axis may regulate the immune response as a signaling cascade. We discuss future issues regarding the topic of the iron/heme-gene regulation network based on current understanding of the heme-Bach axis, including the concept of "iron immunology" as the synthesis of the iron metabolism and the immune response.

  11. Genome-based analysis of heme biosynthesis and uptake in prokaryotic systems.

    Cavallaro, Gabriele; Decaria, Leonardo; Rosato, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Heme is the prosthetic group of many proteins that carry out a variety of key biological functions. In addition, for many pathogenic organisms, heme (acquired from the host) may constitute a very important source of iron. Organisms can meet their heme demands by taking it up from external sources, by producing the cofactor through a dedicated biosynthetic pathway, or both. Here we analyzed the distribution of proteins specifically involved in the processes of heme biosynthesis and heme uptake in 474 prokaryotic organisms. These data allowed us to identify which organisms are capable of performing none, one, or both processes, based on the similarity to known systems. Some specific instances where one or more proteins along the pathways had unusual modifications were singled out. For two key protein domains involved in heme uptake, we could build a series of structural models, which suggested possible alternative modes of heme binding. Future directions for experimental work are given.

  12. Conserved residues of the human mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase mediate interactions with heme.

    Babbitt, Shalon E; San Francisco, Brian; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

    2014-08-19

    C-type cytochromes are distinguished by the covalent attachment of a heme cofactor, a modification that is typically required for its subsequent folding, stability, and function. Heme attachment takes place in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and, in most eukaryotes, is mediated by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS). HCCS is the primary component of the eukaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathway, known as System III. The catalytic function of HCCS depends on its ability to coordinate interactions between its substrates: heme and cytochrome c. Recent advancements in the recombinant expression and purification of HCCS have facilitated comprehensive analyses of the roles of conserved residues in HCCS, as demonstrated in this study. Previously, we proposed a four-step model describing HCCS-mediated cytochrome c assembly, identifying a conserved histidine residue (His154) as an axial ligand to the heme iron. In this study, we performed a systematic mutational analysis of 17 conserved residues in HCCS, and we provide evidence that the enzyme contains two heme-binding domains. Our data indicate that heme contacts mediated by residues within these domains modulate the dynamics of heme binding and contribute to the stability of the HCCS-heme-cytochrome c steady state ternary complex. While some residues are essential for initial heme binding (step 1), others impact the subsequent release of the holocytochrome c product (step 4). Certain HCCS mutants that were defective in heme binding were corrected for function by exogenous aminolevulinic acid (ALA, the precursor to heme). This chemical "correction" supports the proposed role of heme binding for the corresponding residues.

  13. hebp3, a novel member of the heme-binding protein gene family, is expressed in the medaka meninges with higher abundance in females due to a direct stimulating action of ovarian estrogens.

    Nakasone, Kiyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Kataaki

    2013-02-01

    The brains of teleost fish exhibit remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. To dissect the molecular basis for the development and reversal of sex differences in the teleost brain, we screened for genes differentially expressed between sexes in the brain of medaka (Oryzias latipes). One of the genes identified in the screen as being preferentially expressed in females was found to be a new member of the heme-binding protein gene family that includes hebp1 and hebp2 and was designated here as hebp3. The medaka hebp3 is expressed in the meninges with higher abundance in females, whereas there is no expression within the brain parenchyma. This female-biased expression of hebp3 is not attributable to the direct action of sex chromosome genes but results from the transient and reversible action of estrogens derived from the ovary. Moreover, estrogens directly activate the transcription of hebp3 via a palindromic estrogen-responsive element in the hebp3 promoter. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that hebp3 is a novel transcriptional target of estrogens, with female-biased expression in the meninges. The definite but reversible sexual dimorphism of the meningeal hebp3 expression may contribute to the development and reversal of sex differences in the teleost brain.

  14. Heme requirement and intracellular trafficking in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes

    Lara, F.A.; Sant'Anna, C.; Lemos, D.; Laranja, G.A.T.; Coelho, M.G.P.; Reis Salles, I.; Michel, A.; Oliveira, P.L.; Cunha-e-Silva, N.; Salmon, D.; Paes, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Epimastigotes multiplies in the insect midgut by taking up nutrients present in the blood meal including heme bound to hemoglobin of red blood cell. During blood meal digestion by vector proteases in the posterior midgut, hemoglobin is clipped off into amino acids, peptides, and free heme. In this paper, we compared the heme and hemoglobin uptake kinetics and followed their intracellular trafficking. Addition of heme to culture medium increased epimastigote proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, while medium supplemented with hemoglobin enhanced growth after 3-day lag phase. Medium supplemented with globin-derived peptides stimulated cell proliferation in a dose-independent way. Using Palladium mesoporphyrin IX (Pd-mP) as a fluorescent heme-analog, we observed that heme internalization proceeded much faster than that observed by hemoglobin-rhodamine. Binding experiments showed that parasites accumulated the Pd-mP into the posterior region of the cell whereas hemoglobin-rhodamine stained the anterior region. Finally, using different specific inhibitors of ABC transporters we conclude that a P-glycoprotein homologue transporter is probably involved in heme transport through the plasma membrane

  15. Alteration of the Regiospecificity of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 by Unseating of the Heme but not Disruption of the Distal Hydrogen Bonding Network†

    Wang, Jinling; Evans, John P.; Ogura, Hiroshi; La Mar, Gerd N.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Heme oxygenase regiospecifically oxidizes heme at the α-meso position to give biliverdin IXα, CO, and iron. The heme orientation within the active site, which is thought to determine the oxidation regiospecificity, is shown here for the human enzyme (hHO1) to be largely determined by interactions between the heme carboxylic acid groups and residues Arg183 and Lys18 but not Tyr134. Mutation of either Arg183 or Lys18 individually does not significantly alter the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent reaction regiochemistry, but partially shifts the oxidation to the β/δ-meso positions in the reaction supported by ascorbic acid. Mutation of Glu29 to a lysine, which places a positive charge where it can interact with a heme carboxyl if the heme rotates by ~90°, causes a slight loss of regiospecificity, but combined with the R183E and K18E mutations results primarily in β/δ-meso oxidation of the heme under all conditions. NMR analysis of heme binding to the triple K18E/E29K/R183E mutant confirms rotation of the heme in the active site. Kinetic studies demonstrate that mutations of Arg183 greatly impair the rate of the P450 reductase-dependent reaction, in accord with the earlier finding that Arg183 is involved in binding of the reductase to hHO1, but have little effect on the ascorbate reaction. Mutations of Asp140 and Tyr58 that disrupt the active site hydrogen bonding network, impair catalytic rates but do not influence the oxidation regiochemistry. The results indicate both that the oxidation regiochemistry is largely controlled by ionic interactions of the heme propionic acid groups with the protein and that shifts in regiospecificity involve rotation of the heme about an axis perpendicular to the heme plane. PMID:16388581

  16. Hal Is a Bacillus anthracis Heme Acquisition Protein

    Balderas, Miriam A.; Nobles, Christopher L.; Honsa, Erin S.; Alicki, Embriette R.

    2012-01-01

    The metal iron is a limiting nutrient for bacteria during infection. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a potential weapon of bioterrorism, grows rapidly in mammalian hosts, which suggests that it efficiently attains iron during infection. Recent studies have uncovered both heme (isd) and siderophore-mediated (asb) iron transport pathways in this pathogen. Whereas deletion of the asb genes results in reduced virulence, the loss of three surface components from isd had no effect, thereby leaving open the question of what additional factors in B. anthracis are responsible for iron uptake from the most abundant iron source for mammals, heme. Here, we describe the first functional characterization of bas0520, a gene recently implicated in anthrax disease progression. bas0520 encodes a single near-iron transporter (NEAT) domain and several leucine-rich repeats. The NEAT domain binds heme, despite lacking a stabilizing tyrosine common to the NEAT superfamily of hemoproteins. The NEAT domain also binds hemoglobin and can acquire heme from hemoglobin in solution. Finally, deletion of bas0520 resulted in bacilli unable to grow efficiently on heme or hemoglobin as an iron source and yielded the most significant phenotype relative to that for other putative heme uptake systems, a result that suggests that this protein plays a prominent role in the replication of B. anthracis in hematogenous environments. Thus, we have assigned the name of Hal (heme-acquisition leucine-rich repeat protein) to BAS0520. These studies advance our understanding of heme acquisition by this dangerous pathogen and justify efforts to determine the mechanistic function of this novel protein for vaccine or inhibitor development. PMID:22865843

  17. Synthetic heme/copper assemblies: toward an understanding of cytochrome c oxidase interactions with dioxygen and nitrogen oxides.

    Hematian, Shabnam; Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-08-18

    Our long-time niche in synthetic biological inorganic chemistry has been to design ligands and generate coordination complexes of copper or iron ions or both, those reacting with dioxygen (O2) or nitrogen oxides (e.g., nitric oxide (NO(g)) and nitrite (NO2(-))) or both. As inspiration for this work, we turn to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, which is responsible for dioxygen consumption and is also the predominant target for NO(g) and nitrite within mitochondria. In this Account, we highlight recent advances in studying synthetic heme/Cu complexes in two respects. First, there is the design, synthesis, and characterization of new O2 adducts whose further study will add insights into O2 reductive cleavage chemistry. Second, we describe how related heme/Cu constructs reduce nitrite ion to NO(g) or the reverse, oxidize NO(g) to nitrite. The reactions of nitrogen oxides occur as part of CcO's function, which is intimately tied to cellular O2 balance. We had first discovered that reduced heme/Cu compounds react with O2 giving μ-oxo heme-Fe(III)-O-Cu(II)(L) products; their properties are discussed. The O-atom is derived from dioxygen, and interrogations of these systems led to the construction and characterization of three distinctive classes of heme-peroxo complexes, two high-spin and one low-spin species. Recent investigations include a new approach to the synthesis of low-spin heme-peroxo-Cu complexes, employing a "naked" synthon, where the copper ligand denticity and geometric types can be varied. The result is a collection of such complexes; spectroscopic and structural features (by DFT calculations) are described. Some of these compounds are reactive toward reductants/protons effecting subsequent O-O cleavage. This points to how subtle improvements in ligand environment lead to a desired local structure and resulting optimized reactivity, as known to occur at enzyme active sites. The other sector of research is focused on heme/Cu assemblies mediating the redox

  18. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    Parashar, Abhinav [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Venkatachalam, Avanthika [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India); Gideon, Daniel Andrew [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  19. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of immobilized de novo designed heme proteins on metal electrodes

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, WW; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of rational design principles, template-assisted four-helix-bundle proteins that include two histidines for coordinative binding of a heme were synthesized. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the proteins in solution reveals the expected bis-histidine coordinated heme...

  20. The haptoglobin-CD163-heme oxygenase-1 pathway for hemoglobin scavenging

    Thomsen, Jens Haugbølle; Etzerodt, Anders; Svendsen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The haptoglobin- (Hp-) CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb)/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex...

  1. Mimicking heme enzymes in the solid state: metal-organic materials with selectively encapsulated heme.

    Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz; Perman, Jason; Musselman, Ronald L; Zaworotko, Michael J; Vetromile, Carissa M

    2011-07-13

    To carry out essential life processes, nature has had to evolve heme enzymes capable of synthesizing and manipulating complex molecules. These proteins perform a plethora of chemical reactions utilizing a single iron porphyrin active site embedded within an evolutionarily designed protein pocket. We herein report the first class of metal-organic materials (MOMs) that mimic heme enzymes in terms of both structure and reactivity. The MOMzyme-1 class is based upon a prototypal MOM, HKUST-1, into which catalytically active metalloporphyrins are selectively encapsulated in a "ship-in-a-bottle" fashion within one of the three nanoscale cages that exist in HKUST-1. MOMs offer unparalleled levels of permanent porosity and their modular nature affords enormous diversity of structures and properties. The MOMzyme-1 class could therefore represent a new paradigm for heme biomimetic catalysis since it combines the activity of a homogeneous catalyst with the stability and recyclability of heterogeneous catalytic systems within a single material.

  2. Using porphyrin-amino acid pairs to model the electrochemistry of heme proteins: experimental and theoretical investigations.

    Samajdar, Rudra N; Manogaran, Dhivya; Yashonath, S; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2018-04-18

    Quasi reversibility in electrochemical cycling between different oxidation states of iron is an often seen characteristic of iron containing heme proteins that bind dioxygen. Surprisingly, the system becomes fully reversible in the bare iron-porphyrin complex: hemin. This leads to the speculation that the polypeptide bulk (globin) around the iron-porphyrin active site in these heme proteins is probably responsible for the electrochemical quasi reversibility. To understand the effect of such polypeptide bulk on iron-porphyrin, we study the interaction of specific amino acids with the hemin center in solution. We choose three representative amino acids-histidine (a well-known iron coordinator in bio-inorganic systems), tryptophan (a well-known fluoroprobe for proteins), and cysteine (a redox-active organic molecule). The interactions of these amino acids with hemin are studied using electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and density functional theory. The results indicate that among these three, the interaction of histidine with the iron center is strongest. Further, histidine maintains the electrochemical reversibility of iron. On the other hand, tryptophan and cysteine interact weakly with the iron center but disturb the electrochemical reversibility by contributing their own redox active processes to the system. Put together, this study attempts to understand the molecular interactions that can control electrochemical reversibility in heme proteins. The results obtained here from the three representative amino acids can be scaled up to build a heme-amino acid interaction database that may predict the electrochemical properties of any protein with a defined polypeptide sequence.

  3. O2-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. → O 2 -mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. → Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. → Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. → Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O 2 -mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O 2 -mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10 -5 and 8.3 x 10 -4 s -1 , and h = 1.3 x 10 -4 and 8.5 x 10 -4 s -1 , in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 o C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O 2 -mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O 2 does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O 2 -mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  4. Heme degrading protein HemS is involved in oxidative stress response of Bartonella henselae.

    MaFeng Liu

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe³⁺ uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress.

  5. Heme A synthase in bacteria depends on one pair of cysteinyls for activity.

    Lewin, Anna; Hederstedt, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Heme A is a prosthetic group unique for cytochrome a-type respiratory oxidases in mammals, plants and many microorganisms. The poorly understood integral membrane protein heme A synthase catalyzes the synthesis of heme A from heme O. In bacteria, but not in mitochondria, this enzyme contains one or two pairs of cysteine residues that are present in predicted hydrophilic polypeptide loops on the extracytoplasmic side of the membrane. We used heme A synthase from the eubacterium Bacillus subtilis and the hyperthermophilic archeon Aeropyrum pernix to investigate the functional role of these cysteine residues. Results with B. subtilis amino acid substituted proteins indicated the pair of cysteine residues in the loop connecting transmembrane segments I and II as being essential for catalysis but not required for binding of the enzyme substrate, heme O. Experiments with isolated A. pernix and B. subtilis heme A synthase demonstrated that a disulfide bond can form between the cysteine residues in the same loop and also between loops showing close proximity of the two loops in the folded enzyme protein. Based on the findings, we propose a classification scheme for the four discrete types of heme A synthase found so far in different organisms and propose that essential cysteinyls mediate transfer of reducing equivalents required for the oxygen-dependent catalysis of heme A synthesis from heme O. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens

    Choby, Jacob E.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins, which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection, bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high-affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host source...

  7. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W. [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Mans, Ben J. [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort 0110 (South Africa); Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F., E-mail: jandersen@niaid.nih.gov [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the β-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity.

  8. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W.; Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the β-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity

  9. Heme isomers substantially affect heme's electronic structure and function

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Inspection of heme protein structures in the protein data bank reveals four isomers of heme characterized by different relative orientations of the vinyl side chains; remarkably, all these have been reported in multiple protein structures. Density functional theory computations explain this as du...

  10. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  11. Coordination Chemistry of Linear Oligopyrrolic Fragments Inspired by Heme Metabolites

    Gautam, Ritika

    Linear oligopyrroles are degradation products of heme, which is converted in the presence of heme oxygenase to bile pigments, such as biliverdin and bilirubin. These tetrapyrrolic oligopyrroles are ubiquitously present in biological systems and find applications in the fields of catalysis and sensing. These linear tetrapyrrolic scaffolds are further degraded into linear tripyrrolic and dipyrrolic fragments. Although these lower oligopyrroles are abundantly present, their coordination chemistry requires further characterization. This dissertation focuses mainly on two classes of bioinspired linear oligopyrroles, propentdyopent and tripyrrindione, and their transition metal complexes, which present a rich ligand-based redox chemistry. Chapter 1 offers an overview of heme degradation to different classes of linear oligopyrroles and properties of their transition metal complexes. Chapter 2 is focused on the tripyrrin-1,14-dione scaffold of the urinary pigment uroerythrin, which coordinates divalent transition metals palladium and copper with square planar geometry. Specifically, the tripyrrin-1, 14-dione ligand binds Cu(II) and Pd(II) as a dianionic organic radical under ambient conditions. The electrochemical study confirms the presence of ligand based redox chemistry, and one electron oxidation or reduction reactions do not alter the planar geometry around the metal center. The X-Ray analysis and the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the complexes in the solid and solution phase reveals intermolecular interactions between the ligand based unpaired electrons and therefore formation of neutral pi-pi dimers. In Chapter 3, the antioxidant activity and the fluorescence sensor properties of the tripyrrin-1,14-dione ligand in the presence of superoxide are described. We found that the tripyrrindione ligand undergoes one-electron reduction in the presence of the superoxide radical anion (O2•- ) to form highly fluorescent H3TD1•- radical anion, which emits

  12. Out of plane distortions of the heme b of Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase.

    Quang M Tran

    Full Text Available The role of the heme b in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase is highly ambiguous and its role in catalysis is questionable. To examine whether heme reduction is an essential step of the catalytic mechanism, we generated a series of site-directed mutations around the heme binding pocket, creating a library of variants with a stepwise decrease in the midpoint potential of the heme from the wild-type value of +20 mV down to -80 mV. This difference in midpoint potential is enough to alter the reactivity of the heme towards succinate and thus its redox state under turnover conditions. Our results show both the steady state succinate oxidase and fumarate reductase catalytic activity of the enzyme are not a function of the redox potential of the heme. As well, lower heme potential did not cause an increase in the rate of superoxide production both in vitro and in vivo. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrum of the heme in the wild-type enzyme is a combination of two distinct signals. We link EPR spectra to structure, showing that one of the signals likely arises from an out-of-plane distortion of the heme, a saddled conformation, while the second signal originates from a more planar orientation of the porphyrin ring.

  13. Successful recombinant production of Allochromatium vinosum cytochrome c' requires coexpression of cmm genes in heme-rich Escherichia coli JCB712

    Evers, Toon H.; Merkx, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome c' from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Allochromatium vinosum (CCP) displays a unique, reversible dimer-to-monomer transition upon binding of NO, CO, and CN - . This small, four helix bundle protein represents an attractive model for the study of other heme protein biosensors, provided a recombinant expression system is available. Here we report the development of an efficient expression system for CCP that makes use of a maltose binding protein fusion strategy to enhance periplasmic expression and allow easy purification by affinity chromatography. Coexpression of cytochrome c maturase genes and the use of a heme-rich Escherichia coli strain were found to be necessary to obtain reasonable yields of cytochrome c'. Characterization using circular dichroism, UV-vis spectroscopy, and size-exclusion chromatography confirms the native-like properties of the recombinant protein, including its ligand-induced monomerization

  14. The heme-heme oxygenase system: a molecular switch in wound healing.

    Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Beurden, H.E. van; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Adema, G.J.; Figdor, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    When cells are injured they release their contents, resulting in a local accumulation of free heme proteins and heme. Here, we investigated the involvement of heme and its degrading enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) in the inflammatory process during wound healing. We observed that heme directly

  15. Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Choby, Jacob E; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-28

    Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins, which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection, bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high-affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host sources, particularly hemoglobin, and both heme acquisition and synthesis are important for pathogenesis. Paradoxically, excess heme is toxic to bacteria and pathogens must rely on heme detoxification strategies. Heme is a key nutrient in the struggle for survival between host and pathogen, and its study has offered significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abacavir and warfarin modulate allosterically kinetics of NO dissociation from ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Imperi, Francesco; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) participates to heme scavenging, in turn HSA-heme binds gaseous diatomic ligands at the heme-Fe-atom. Here, the effect of abacavir and warfarin on denitrosylation kinetics of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., k off ) is reported. In the absence of drugs, the value of k off is (1.3 ± 0.2) x 10 -4 s -1 . Abacavir and warfarin facilitate NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO, the k off value increases to (8.6 ± 0.9) x 10 -4 s -1 . From the dependence of k off on the drug concentration, values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for the abacavir and warfarin binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., K = (1.2 ± 0.2) x 10 -3 M and (6.2 ± 0.7) x 10 -5 M, respectively) were determined. The increase of k off values reflects the stabilization of the basic form of HSA-heme-Fe by ligands (e.g., abacavir and warfarin) that bind to Sudlow's site I. This event parallels the stabilization of the six-coordinate derivative of the HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO atom. Present data highlight the allosteric modulation of HSA-heme-Fe(II) reactivity by heterotropic effectors

  17. Spectral characterization and DNA binding properties of lanthanide(III)

    Spectral data of complexes suggest that the ligand binds metal ion through pyridine- nitrogen, azomethine-nitrogen and amido-oxygen donor atoms. Electrochemical behaviour of metal complexes was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry. The complexes undergo quasi-reversible one electron reduction. The binding ...

  18. Introduction of water into the heme distal side by Leu65 mutations of an oxygen sensor, YddV, generates verdoheme and carbon monoxide, exerting the heme oxygenase reaction.

    Stranava, Martin; Martínková, Markéta; Stiborová, Marie; Man, Petr; Kitanishi, Kenichi; Muchová, Lucie; Vítek, Libor; Martínek, Václav; Shimizu, Toru

    2014-11-01

    The globin-coupled oxygen sensor, YddV, is a heme-based oxygen sensor diguanylate cyclase. Oxygen binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in the N-terminal sensor domain of this enzyme substantially enhances its diguanylate cyclase activity which is conducted in the C-terminal functional domain. Leu65 is located on the heme distal side and is important for keeping the stability of the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex by preventing the entry of the water molecule to the heme complex. In the present study, it was found that (i) Escherichia coli-overexpressed and purified L65N mutant of the isolated heme-bound domain of YddV (YddV-heme) contained the verdoheme iron complex and other modified heme complexes as determined by optical absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry; (ii) CO was generated in the reconstituted system composed of heme-bound L65N and NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase as confirmed by gas chromatography; (iii) CO generation of heme-bound L65N in the reconstituted system was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and catalase. In a concordance with the result, the reactive oxygen species increased the CO generation; (iv) the E. coli cells overexpressing the L65N protein of YddV-heme also formed significant amounts of CO compared to the cells overexpressing the wild type protein; (v) generation of verdoheme and CO was also observed for other mutants at Leu65 as well, but to a lesser extent. Since Leu65 mutations are assumed to introduce the water molecule into the heme distal side of YddV-heme, it is suggested that the water molecule would significantly contribute to facilitating heme oxygenase reactions for the Leu65 mutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Binding properties of oxacalix[4]arenes derivatives toward metal cations

    Mellah, B.

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this work was to establish the binding properties of oxacalix[4]arene derivatives with different numbers of the oxa bridges, functional groups (ketones, pyridine, ester, amide and methoxy) and conformations. Their interactions with alkali and alkaline-earth, heavy and transition metal cations have been evaluated according to different approaches: (i) extraction of corresponding picrates from an aqueous phase into dichloromethane; (ii) determination of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation in methanol and/or acetonitrile by UV-spectrophotometry and micro-calorimetry; (iii) determination of the stoichiometry of the complexes by ESI-MS; (iv) 1 H-NMR titrations allowing to localize the metal ions in the ligand cavity. In a first part dealing on homo-oxacalix[4]arenes, selectivities for Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Pb 2+ and Mn 2+ of ketones derivatives was shown. The presence of oxa bridge in these derivatives increases their efficiency while decreasing their selectivity with respect to related calixarenes. The pyridine derivative prefers transition and heavy metal cations, in agreement with the presence of the soft nitrogen atoms. In the second part, di-oxacalix[4]arene ester and secondary amide derivatives were shown to be less effective than tertiary amide counterparts but to present high selectivities for Li + , Ba 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ . A third part devoted to the octa-homo-tetra-oxacalix[4]arene tetra-methoxy shows that the 1:1 metal complexes formed are generally more stable than those of calixarenes, suggesting the participation of the oxygen atoms of the bridge in the complexation. Selectivity for Cs + , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ were noted. (author)

  20. Binding properties of halogenated biphenyls to cells and macromolecules

    Pepe, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) with serum proteins may help explain the cellular incorporation of PCB as the effect of PCB on thyroid hormone function. PCB reduces serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in rats; the mechanism for this effect is unknown. The initial distribution of PCB from blood to tissue is rapid and depends on blood perfusion and tissue affinity; however, the translocation of unmetabolized PCB from its initial storage sites to adipose tissue may depend on serum and cellular protein interactions. Therefore, the ability of PCB to displace triiodothyronine binding to albumin and antibodies, as well as the effect of binding to serum proteins as a mechanism for cellular incorporation was measured. PCB binding to albumin showed both high and low affinity binding sites. This binding was able to prevent triiodothyronine binding to albumin. The distribution of PCB inserum showed that lipoproteins contained 94% of the total 14 C PCB added, while 5% of the 14 C PCB was bound to albumin. The in vitro binding of 14 C PCB to serum obtained from rats pretreated with PCB in their diets for 6 months showed a significant decrease (p 14 C PCB was higher (p < 0.05) in liver, adrenal and adipose cells than pituitary and thyroid cells

  1. Synthesis and anion binding properties of porphyrins and related compounds

    Figueira, Flá vio; Rodrigues, Joã o M M; Farinha, Andreia; Cavaleiro, José A S; Tomé , Joã o P C

    2016-01-01

    promising. In this review, we summarize the most recent developments in anion binding studies while outlining the strategies that may be used to synthesize and functionalize these type of macrocycles. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  2. Heme-coordinated histidine residues form non-specific functional "ferritin-heme" peroxidase system: Possible and partial mechanistic relevance to oxidative stress-mediated pathology in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Esmaeili, Sajjad; Kooshk, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi; Asghari, Seyyed Mohsen; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    Ferritin is a giant protein composed of 24 subunits which is able to sequester up to 4500 atoms of iron. We proposed two kinds of heme binding sites in mammalian ferritins and provided direct evidence for peroxidase activity of heme-ferritin, since there is the possibility that "ferritin-heme" systems display unexpected catalytic behavior like heme-containing enzymes. In the current study, peroxidase activity of heme-bound ferritin was studied using TMB(1), l-DOPA, serotonin, and dopamine, in the presence of H2O2, as oxidant substrate. The catalytic oxidation of TMB was consistent with first-order kinetics with respect to ferritin concentration. Perturbation of the binding affinity and catalytic behavior of heme-bound His-modified ferritin were also documented. We also discuss the importance of the peroxidase-/nitrative-mediated oxidation of vital molecules as well as ferritin-induced catalase inhibition using in vitro experimental system. Uncontrollable "heme-ferritin"-based enzyme activity as well as up-regulation of heme and ferritin may inspire that some oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic effects in AD-affected cells could be correlated to ferritin-heme interaction and/or ferritin-induced catalase inhibition and describe its contribution as an important causative pathogenesis mechanism in some neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurogranin alters the structure and calcium binding properties of calmodulin.

    Hoffman, Laurel; Chandrasekar, Anuja; Wang, Xu; Putkey, John A; Waxham, M Neal

    2014-05-23

    Neurogranin (Ng) is a member of the IQ motif class of calmodulin (CaM)-binding proteins, and interactions with CaM are its only known biological function. In this report we demonstrate that the binding affinity of Ng for CaM is weakened by Ca(2+) but to a lesser extent (2-3-fold) than that previously suggested from qualitative observations. We also show that Ng induced a >10-fold decrease in the affinity of Ca(2+) binding to the C-terminal domain of CaM with an associated increase in the Ca(2+) dissociation rate. We also discovered a modest, but potentially important, increase in the cooperativity in Ca(2+) binding to the C-lobe of CaM in the presence of Ng, thus sharpening the threshold for the C-domain to become Ca(2+)-saturated. Domain mapping using synthetic peptides indicated that the IQ motif of Ng is a poor mimetic of the intact protein and that the acidic sequence just N-terminal to the IQ motif plays an important role in reproducing Ng-mediated decreases in the Ca(2+) binding affinity of CaM. Using NMR, full-length Ng was shown to make contacts largely with residues in the C-domain of CaM, although contacts were also detected in residues in the N-terminal domain. Together, our results can be consolidated into a model where Ng contacts residues in the N- and C-lobes of both apo- and Ca(2+)-bound CaM and that although Ca(2+) binding weakens Ng interactions with CaM, the most dramatic biochemical effect is the impact of Ng on Ca(2+) binding to the C-terminal lobe of CaM. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. TLR Stimulation Dynamically Regulates Heme and Iron Export Gene Expression in Macrophages

    Mary Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to capture iron or iron-containing heme from host tissues or blood. In response, organisms have developed defense mechanisms to keep iron from pathogens. Very little of the body’s iron store is available as free heme; rather nearly all body iron is complexed with heme or other proteins. The feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR, exports heme from cells. It was unknown whether FLVCR regulates heme-iron availability after infection, but given that other heme regulatory proteins are upregulated in macrophages in response to bacterial infection, we hypothesized that macrophages dynamically regulate FLVCR. We stimulated murine primary macrophages or macrophage cell lines with LPS and found that Flvcr is rapidly downregulated in a TLR4/MD2-dependent manner; TLR1/2 and TLR3 stimulation also decreased Flvcr expression. We identified several candidate TLR-activated transcription factors that can bind to the Flvcr promoter. Macrophages must balance the need to sequester iron from systemic circulating or intracellular pathogens with the macrophage requirement for heme and iron to produce reactive oxygen species. Our findings underscore the complexity of this regulation and point to a new role for FLVCR and heme export in macrophages responses to infection and inflammation.

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Amyloid β Derived and Amyloid β Independent Enhancers of the Peroxidase-like Activity of Heme.

    Wißbrock, Amelie; Kühl, Toni; Silbermann, Katja; Becker, Albert J; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Imhof, Diana

    2017-01-12

    Labile heme has been suggested to have an impact in several severe diseases. In the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, decreased levels of free heme have been reported. Therefore, we were looking for an assay system that can be used for heme concentration determination. From a biochemical point of view the peroxidase activity of the Aβ-heme complex seemed quite attractive to pursue this goal. As a consequence, a peptide that is able to increase the readout even in the case of a low heme concentration is favorable. The examination of Aβ- and non-Aβ-derived peptides in complex with heme revealed that the peroxidase-like activity significantly depends on the peptide sequence and length. A 23mer His-based peptide derived from human fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 in complex with heme exhibited a significantly higher peroxidase activity than Aβ(40)-heme. Structural modeling of both complexes demonstrated that heme binding via a histidine can be supported by hydrogen bond interactions of a basic residue near the propionate carboxyl function of protoporphyrin IX. Furthermore, the interplay of Aβ-heme and the lipoprotein LDL as a potential physiological effector of Aβ was examined.

  6. Cysteine-independent activation/inhibition of heme oxygenase-2

    Dragic Vukomanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive thiols of cysteine (cys residues in proteins play a key role in transforming chemical reactivity into a biological response. The heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2 isozyme contains two cys residues that have been implicated in binding of heme and also the regulation of its activity. In this paper, we address the question of a role for cys residues for the HO-2 inhibitors or activators designed in our laboratory. We tested the activity of full length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2 and its analog in which cys265 and cys282 were both replaced by alanine to determine the effect on activation by menadione (MD and inhibition by QC-2350. Similar inhibition by QC-2350 and almost identical activation by MD was observed for both recombinant FL-hHO-2s. Our findings are interpreted to mean that thiols of FL-hHO-2s are not involved in HO-2 activation or inhibition by the compounds that have been designed and identified by us. Activation or inhibition of HO-2 by our compounds should be attributed to a mechanism other than altering binding affinity of HO-2 for heme through cys265 and cys282.

  7. Cysteine-independent activation/inhibition of heme oxygenase-2.

    Vukomanovic, Dragic; Rahman, Mona N; Maines, Mahin D; Ozolinš, Terence Rs; Szarek, Walter A; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2016-03-01

    Reactive thiols of cysteine (cys) residues in proteins play a key role in transforming chemical reactivity into a biological response. The heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) isozyme contains two cys residues that have been implicated in binding of heme and also the regulation of its activity. In this paper, we address the question of a role for cys residues for the HO-2 inhibitors or activators designed in our laboratory. We tested the activity of full length recombinant human heme oxygenase-2 (FL-hHO-2) and its analog in which cys265 and cys282 were both replaced by alanine to determine the effect on activation by menadione (MD) and inhibition by QC-2350. Similar inhibition by QC-2350 and almost identical activation by MD was observed for both recombinant FL-hHO-2s. Our findings are interpreted to mean that thiols of FL-hHO-2s are not involved in HO-2 activation or inhibition by the compounds that have been designed and identified by us. Activation or inhibition of HO-2 by our compounds should be attributed to a mechanism other than altering binding affinity of HO-2 for heme through cys265 and cys282.

  8. Identification of residues in the heme domain of soluble guanylyl cyclase that are important for basal and stimulated catalytic activity.

    Padmamalini Baskaran

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide signals through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, a heme-containing heterodimer. NO binds to the heme domain located in the N-terminal part of the β subunit of sGC resulting in increased production of cGMP in the catalytic domain located at the C-terminal part of sGC. Little is known about the mechanism by which the NO signaling is propagated from the receptor domain (heme domain to the effector domain (catalytic domain, in particular events subsequent to the breakage of the bond between the heme iron and Histidine 105 (H105 of the β subunit. Our modeling of the heme-binding domain as well as previous homologous heme domain structures in different states point to two regions that could be critical for propagation of the NO activation signal. Structure-based mutational analysis of these regions revealed that residues T110 and R116 in the αF helix-β1 strand, and residues I41 and R40 in the αB-αC loop mediate propagation of activation between the heme domain and the catalytic domain. Biochemical analysis of these heme mutants allows refinement of the map of the residues that are critical for heme stability and propagation of the NO/YC-1 activation signal in sGC.

  9. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...

  10. Nucleic acid binding and other biomedical properties of artificial oligolysines

    Roviello GN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni N Roviello,1 Caterina Vicidomini,1 Vincenzo Costanzo,1 Valentina Roviello2 1CNR Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Via Mezzocannone site and Headquarters, 2Centro Regionale di Competenza (CRdC Tecnologie, Via Nuova Agnano, Napoli, Italy Abstract: In the present study, we report the interaction of an artificial oligolysine (referred to as AOL realized in our laboratory with targets of biomedical importance. These included polyinosinic acid (poly rI and its complex with polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, RNAs with well-known interferon-inducing ability, and double-stranded (ds DNA. The ability of the peptide to bind both single-stranded poly rI and ds poly I:C RNAs emerged from our circular dichroism (CD and ultraviolet (UV studies. In addition, we found that AOL forms complexes with dsDNA, as shown by spectroscopic binding assays and UV thermal denaturation experiments. These findings are encouraging for the possible use of AOL in biomedicine for nucleic acid targeting and oligonucleotide condensation, with the latter being a key step preceding their clinical application. Moreover, we tested the ability of AOL to bind to proteins, using serum albumin as a model protein. We demonstrated the oligolysine–protein binding by CD experiments which suggested that AOL, positively charged under physiological conditions, binds to the protein regions rich in anionic residues. Finally, the morphology characterization of the solid oligolysine, performed by scanning electron microscopy, showed different crystal forms including cubic-shaped crystals confirming the high purity of AOL. Keywords: nucleic acid binding, polyinosinic acid, double-stranded nucleic acids, oligolysine, circular dichroism

  11. A Heme-Sensing Mechanism in the Translational Regulation of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis

    Soto, Iliana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia; Myers, Richard S.; Hamel, Patrice; Barrientos, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Heme plays fundamental roles as cofactor and signaling molecule in multiple pathways devoted to oxygen sensing and utilization in aerobic organisms. For cellular respiration, heme serves as a prosthetic group in electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes. Here we report that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a heme-sensing mechanism translationally controls the biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. We show that Mss51, a COX1 mRNA-specific translational activator and Cox1 chaperone, which coordinates Cox1 synthesis in mitoribosomes with its assembly in COX, is a heme-binding protein. Mss51 contains two heme regulatory motifs or Cys-Pro-X domains located in its N-terminus. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have demonstrated that these motifs are important for heme binding and efficient performance of Mss51 functions. We conclude that heme sensing by Mss51 regulates COX biogenesis and aerobic energy production. PMID:23217259

  12. The influence of the Cys46/Cys55 disulfide bond on the redox and spectroscopic properties of human neuroglobin.

    Bellei, Marzia; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Di Rocco, Giulia; Borsari, Marco; Lancellotti, Lidia; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio

    2018-01-01

    Neuroglobin is a monomeric globin containing a six-coordinate heme b, expressed in the nervous system, which exerts an important neuroprotective role. In the human protein (hNgb), Cys46 and Cys55 form an intramolecular disulfide bond under oxidizing conditions, whose cleavage induces a helix-to-strand rearrangement of the CD loop that strengthens the bond between the heme iron and the distal histidine. Hence, it is conceivable that the intramolecular disulfide bridge modulates the functionality of human neuroglobin by controlling exogenous ligand binding. In this work, we investigated the influence of the Cys46/Cys55 disulfide bond on the redox properties and on the pH-dependent conformational equilibria of hNgb, using UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry, cyclic voltammetry, electronic absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). We found that the SS bridge significantly affects the heme Fe(III) to Fe(II) reduction enthalpy (ΔH°' rc ) and entropy (ΔS°' rc ), mostly as a consequence of changes in the reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects, without affecting the axial ligand-binding interactions and the polarity and electrostatics of the heme environment. Between pH3 and 12, the electronic properties of the heme of ferric hNgb are sensitive to five acid-base equilibria, which are scarcely affected by the Cys46/Cys55 disulfide bridge. The equilibria occurring at extreme pH values induce heme release, while those occurring between pH5 and 10 alter the electronic properties of the heme without modifying its axial coordination and low spin state. They involve the sidechains of non-coordinating aminoacids close to the heme and at least one heme propionate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the ligand binding properties of two homologous rat apocellular retinol-binding proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Levin, M S; Locke, B; Yang, N C; Li, E; Gordon, J I

    1988-11-25

    Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) and cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) are 132-residue cytosolic proteins which have 56% amino acid sequence identity and bind all-trans-retinol as their endogenous ligand. They belong to a family of cytoplasmic proteins which have evolved to bind distinct hydrophobic ligands. Their patterns of tissue-specific and developmental regulation are distinct. We have compared the ligand binding properties of rat apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II that have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Several observations indicate that the E. coli-derived apoproteins are structurally similar to the native rat proteins: they co-migrate on isoelectric focusing gels; and when complexed with all-trans-retinol, their absorption and excitation/emission spectra are nearly identical to those of the authentic rat holoproteins. Comparative lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies suggest that there are differences in the conformations of apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II. The interaction of E. coli-derived apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II with a variety of retinoids was analyzed using spectroscopic techniques. Both apoproteins formed high affinity complexes with all-trans-retinol (K'd approximately 10 nM). In direct binding assays, all-trans-retinal bound to both apoproteins (K'd approximately 50 nM for CRBP; K'd approximately 90 nM for CRBP II). However, all-trans-retinal could displace all-trans-retinol bound to CRBP II but not to CRBP. These observations suggests that there is a specific yet distinct interaction between these two proteins and all-trans-retinal. Apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II did not demonstrate significant binding to either retinoic acid or methyl retinoate, an uncharged derivative of all-trans-retinoic acid. This indicates that the carboxymethyl group of methyl retinoate cannot be sterically accommodated in their binding pockets and that failure to bind retinoic acid probably is not simply due to the negative charge of its C-15 carboxylate group

  14. dsRNA binding properties of RDE-4 and TRBP reflect their distinct roles in RNAi.

    Parker, Greg S; Maity, Tuhin Subhra; Bass, Brenda L

    2008-12-26

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding proteins facilitate Dicer functions in RNA interference. Caenorhabditis elegans RDE-4 facilitates cleavage of long dsRNA to small interfering RNA (siRNA), while human trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP) functions downstream to pass siRNA to the RNA-induced silencing complex. We show that these distinct in vivo roles are reflected in in vitro binding properties. RDE-4 preferentially binds long dsRNA, while TRBP binds siRNA with an affinity that is independent of dsRNA length. These properties are mechanistically based on the fact that RDE-4 binds cooperatively, via contributions from multiple domains, while TRBP binds noncooperatively. Our studies offer a paradigm for how dsRNA-binding proteins, which are not sequence specific, discern dsRNA length. Additionally, analyses of the ability of RDE-4 deletion constructs and RDE-4/TRBP chimeras to reconstitute Dicer activity suggest RDE-4 promotes activity using its dsRNA-binding motif 2 to bind dsRNA, its linker region to interact with Dicer, and its C-terminus for Dicer activation.

  15. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I.

    Chinchilla, Diana; Kilheeney, Heather; Vitello, Lidia B; Erman, James E

    2014-01-03

    Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32±0.16 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.34±0.15 s(-1), respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1±0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a "peroxygenase"-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min(-1) at pH 6.0. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the RNA-binding domain of HuR and its poly(U)-binding properties

    Wang, Hong; Li, Heng; Shi, Hui; Liu, Yang; Liu, Huihui; Zhao, Hui; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Here, the recombinant ARE-binding region of HuR (residues 18–186) was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.2, b = 133.1, c = 31.4 Å. Human antigen R (HuR), a ubiquitously expressed member of the Hu protein family, is an important post-transcriptional regulator which has three RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains. The two tandem N-terminal RRM domains can selectively bind to the AU-rich element (ARE), while the third one interacts with the poly(A) tail and other proteins. Here, the recombinant ARE-binding region of HuR (residues 18–186) was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.2, b = 133.1, c = 31.4 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. Mutagenesis analysis and SPR assays revealed its poly(U)-binding properties

  17. Potent heme-degrading action of antimony and antimony-containing parasiticidal agents.

    Drummond, G S; Kappas, A

    1981-02-01

    The ability of antimony and antimony-containing parasiticidal agents to enhance the rate of heme degradation in liver and kidney was investigated. Trivalent antimony was shown to be an extremely potent inducer of heme oxygenase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, in both organs, whereas the pentavalent form was a weak inducer of this enzyme. The ability of antimony to induce heme oxygenase was dose-dependent, independent of the salt used, and not a result of a direct activation of the enzyme in vitro. Concomitant with heme oxygenase induction by antimony, microsomal heme and cytochrome P-450 contents decreased, the cyto-chrome P-450-dependent mixed function oxidase system was impaired, and delta-ami-nolevulinate synthase (ALAS), the rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis, underwent the sequential changes-initial inhibition followed by rebound induction-usually associated with the administration of transition elements such as cobalt. Antimony induction of heme oxygenase however, unlike the enzyme induction elicited by cobalt, was not prevented either by cysteine administered orally or as a cysteine metal complex, or by simultaneous zinc administration. Desferoxamine also did not block heme oxygenase induction by antimony, but this chelator did prevent the rebound increase in ALAS activity associated with antimony or cobalt treatment. Antimony-containing parasiticidal drugs were also potent inducers of heme oxygenase in liver and kidney. The heme degradative action of these drugs may be related in part to the jaundice commonly associated with the prolonged therapeutic use of these agents. The heme-oxygenase-inducing action of antimony-containing parasiticidal drugs is a newly defined biological property of these compounds. The relation between the parasiticidal and the heme-oxygenase-inducing actions of such drugs is unknown. However, certain parasites contain hemoproteins or require heme compounds during their life cycle. It may therefore be

  18. Interaction of nitric oxide with human heme oxygenase-1.

    Wang, Jinling; Lu, Shen; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2003-01-24

    NO and CO may complement each other as signaling molecules in some physiological situations. We have examined the binding of NO to human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an enzyme that oxidizes heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron, to determine whether inhibition of hHO-1 by NO can contribute to the signaling interplay of NO and CO. An Fe(3+)-NO hHO-1-heme complex is formed with NO or the NO donors NOC9 or 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide.sodium salt. Resonance Raman spectroscopy shows that ferric hHO-1-heme forms a 6-coordinated, low spin complex with NO. The nu(N-O) vibration of this complex detected by Fourier transform IR is only 4 cm(-1) lower than that of the corresponding metmyoglobin (met-Mb) complex but is broader, suggesting a greater degree of ligand conformational freedom. The Fe(3+)-NO complex of hHO-1 is much more stable than that of met-Mb. Stopped-flow studies indicate that k(on) for formation of the hHO-1-heme Fe(3+)-NO complex is approximately 50-times faster, and k(off) 10 times slower, than for met-Mb, resulting in K(d) = 1.4 microm for NO. NO thus binds 500-fold more tightly to ferric hHO-1-heme than to met-Mb. The hHO-1 mutations E29A, G139A, D140A, S142A, G143A, G143F, and K179A/R183A do not significantly diminish the tight binding of NO, indicating that NO binding is not highly sensitive to mutations of residues that normally stabilize the distal water ligand. As expected from the K(d) value, the enzyme is reversibly inhibited upon exposure to pathologically, and possibly physiologically, relevant concentrations of NO. Inhibition of hHO-1 by NO may contribute to the pleiotropic responses to NO and CO.

  19. DNA binding properties of the small cascade subunit Csa5.

    Michael Daume

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide immunity against viral attacks in archaeal and bacterial cells. Type I systems employ a Cas protein complex termed Cascade, which utilizes small CRISPR RNAs to detect and degrade the exogenic DNA. A small sequence motif, the PAM, marks the foreign substrates. Previously, a recombinant type I-A Cascade complex from the archaeon Thermoproteus tenax was shown to target and degrade DNA in vitro, dependent on a native PAM sequence. Here, we present the biochemical analysis of the small subunit, Csa5, of this Cascade complex. T. tenax Csa5 preferentially bound ssDNA and mutants that showed decreased ssDNA-binding and reduced Cascade-mediated DNA cleavage were identified. Csa5 oligomerization prevented DNA binding. Specific recognition of the PAM sequence was not observed. Phylogenetic analyses identified Csa5 as a universal member of type I-A systems and revealed three distinct groups. A potential role of Csa5 in R-loop stabilization is discussed.

  20. Quantitation of the calcium and membrane binding properties of the C2 domains of dysferlin.

    Abdullah, Nazish; Padmanarayana, Murugesh; Marty, Naomi J; Johnson, Colin P

    2014-01-21

    Dysferlin is a large membrane protein involved in calcium-triggered resealing of the sarcolemma after injury. Although it is generally accepted that dysferlin is Ca(2+) sensitive, the Ca(2+) binding properties of dysferlin have not been characterized. In this study, we report an analysis of the Ca(2+) and membrane binding properties of all seven C2 domains of dysferlin as well as a multi-C2 domain construct. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements indicate that all seven dysferlin C2 domains interact with Ca(2+) with a wide range of binding affinities. The C2A and C2C domains were determined to be the most sensitive, with Kd values in the tens of micromolar, whereas the C2D domain was least sensitive, with a near millimolar Kd value. Mutagenesis of C2A demonstrates the requirement for negatively charged residues in the loop regions for divalent ion binding. Furthermore, dysferlin displayed significantly lower binding affinity for the divalent cations magnesium and strontium. Measurement of a multidomain construct indicates that the solution binding affinity does not change when C2 domains are linked. Finally, sedimentation assays suggest all seven C2 domains bind lipid membranes, and that Ca(2+) enhances but is not required for interaction. This report reveals for the first time, to our knowledge, that all dysferlin domains bind Ca(2+) albeit with varying affinity and stoichiometry. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress.

    Okinaga, S; Takahashi, K; Takeda, K; Yoshizawa, M; Fujita, H; Sasaki, H; Shibahara, S

    1996-06-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 is an essential enzyme in heme catabolism, and its human gene promoter contains a putative heat shock element (HHO-HSE). This study was designed to analyze the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress. The amounts of heme oxygenase-1 protein were not increased by heat shock (incubation at 42 degrees C) in human alveolar macrophages and in a human erythroblastic cell line, YN-1-0-A, whereas heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was noticeably induced. However, heat shock factor does bind in vitro to HHO-HSE and the synthetic HHO-HSE by itself is sufficient to confer the increase in the transient expression of a reporter gene upon heat shock. The deletion of the sequence, located downstream from HHO-HSE, resulted in the activation of a reporter gene by heat shock. These results suggest that HHO-HSE is potentially functional but is repressed in vivo. Interestingly, heat shock abolished the remarkable increase in the levels of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in YN-1-0-A cells treated with hemin or cadmium, in which HSP70 mRNA was noticeably induced. Furthermore, transient expression assays showed that heat shock inhibits the cadmium-mediated activation of the heme oxygenase-1 promoter, whereas the HSP70 gene promoter was activated upon heat shock. Such regulation of heme oxygenase-1 under thermal stress may be of physiologic significance in erythroid cells.

  2. Oxygen binding properties of non-mammalian nerve globins

    Hundahl, Christian; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen-binding globins occur in the nervous systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates. While the function of invertebrate nerve haemoglobins as oxygen stores that extend neural excitability under hypoxia has been convincingly demonstrated, the physiological role of vertebrate neuroglobins...... is less well understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the oxygenation characteristics of nerve haemoglobins from an annelid (Aphrodite aculeata), a nemertean (Cerebratulus lacteus) and a bivalve (Spisula solidissima) and of neuroglobin from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The functional differences...... have been related to haem coordination: the haem is pentacoordinate (as in human haemoglobin and myoglobin) in A. aculeata and C. lacteus nerve haemoglobins and hexacoordinate in S. solidissima nerve haemoglobin and D. rerio neuroglobin. Whereas pentacoordinate nerve globins lacked Bohr effects at all...

  3. Synthesis and anion binding properties of porphyrins and related compounds

    Figueira, Flávio

    2016-12-02

    Over the last two decades the preparation of pyrrole-based receptors for anion recognition has attracted considerable attention. In this regard porphyrins, phthalocyanines and expanded porphyrins have been used as strong and selective receptors while the combination of those with different techniques and materials can boost their applicability in different applications as chemosensors and extracting systems. Improvements in the field, including the synthesis of this kind of compounds, can contribute to the development of efficient, cheap, and easy-to-prepare anion receptors. Extensive efforts have been made to improve the affinity and selectivity of these compounds and the continuous expansion of related research makes this chemistry even more promising. In this review, we summarize the most recent developments in anion binding studies while outlining the strategies that may be used to synthesize and functionalize these type of macrocycles. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  4. Visualization of the role of host heme on the virulence of the heme auxotroph Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Joubert, Laetitia; Dagieu, Jean-Baptiste; Fernandez, Annabelle; Derré-Bobillot, Aurélie; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Fleurot, Isabelle; Gruss, Alexandra; Lechardeur, Delphine

    2017-01-16

    Heme is essential for several cellular key functions but is also toxic. Whereas most bacterial pathogens utilize heme as a metabolic cofactor and iron source, the impact of host heme during bacterial infection remains elusive. The opportunist pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae does not synthesize heme but still uses it to activate a respiration metabolism. Concomitantly, heme toxicity is mainly controlled by the HrtBA efflux transporter. Here we investigate how S. agalactiae manages heme toxicity versus benefits in the living host. Using bioluminescent bacteria and heme-responsive reporters for in vivo imaging, we show that the capacity of S. agalactiae to overcome heme toxicity is required for successful infection, particularly in blood-rich organs. Host heme is simultaneously required, as visualized by a generalized infection defect of a respiration-negative mutant. In S. agalactiae, HrtBA expression responds to an intracellular heme signal via activation of the two-component system HssRS. A hssRS promoter-driven intracellular luminescent heme sensor was designed to identify host compartments that supply S. agalactiae with heme. S. agalactiae acquires heme in heart, kidneys, and liver, but not in the brain. We conclude that S. agalactiae response to heme is organ-dependent, and its efflux may be particularly relevant in late stages of infection.

  5. PASTA in Penicillin Binding Proteins and Serine/Threonine Kinases: A Recipe of Structural, Dynamic and Binding Properties.

    Calvanese, Luisa; Falcigno, Lucia; Squeglia, Flavia; D'Auria, Gabriella; Berisio, Rita

    2017-11-24

    Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) and Serine Threonine kinases (STPKs) are two classes of bacterial enzymes whose involvement in a series of vital processes in bacterial growth and division is well assessed. Many PBPs and STPKs show linked an ancillary domain named PASTA, whose functional role is not completely deciphered so far. It has been proposed that PASTAs are sensor modules that by binding opportune ligands (i.e. muropeptides) activate the cognate proteins to their functions. However, based on recent data, the sensor annotation sounds true for PASTA from STPKs, and false for PASTA from PBPs. Different PASTA domains, belonging or not to different protein classes, sharing or not appreciable sequence identities, always show identical folds. This survey of the structural, binding and dynamic properties of PASTA domains pursues the reasons why identical topologies may turn in different roles. Amino acid compositions, total charges and distribution of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic patches on the surface, significantly vary among PASTAs from STPKs and PBPs and appear to correlate with different functions. A possible criterion to discriminate between PASTA modules of STPKs or PBPs solely based on their sequences is proposed. Possibly reflecting different species as well as functional roles and evolutionary profile, our routine represents a fast even though approximate method to distinguish between PASTA belonging to different classes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Evaluation of binding properties of Plantago psyllium seed mucilage.

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ansoroudi, Farshad; Fallah, Saeed; Amin, Gholamreza

    2010-09-01

    Mucilage extracted from Plantago psyllium seeds was evaluated for inertness and safety parameters. The suitability of psyllium mucilage for a pharmaceutical binder was assessed in paracetamol tablets. Properties of the granules prepared using different concentrations of psyllium mucilage was compared with PVP and tragacanth. Psyllium mucilage at 5 % (m/m) was found to be comparable with 3 % (m/m) of PVP. Investigated paracetamol tablets indicated that psyllium mucilage can retard the drug release.

  7. Genetic Variability of the Heme Uptake System among Different Strains of the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum: Identification of a New Heme Receptor

    Mouriño, Susana; Rodríguez-Ares, Isabel; Osorio, Carlos R.; Lemos, Manuel L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to utilize heme compounds as iron sources was investigated in Vibrio anguillarum strains belonging to serotypes O1 to O10. All strains, regardless of their serotype or isolation origin could utilize hemin and hemoglobin as sole iron sources. Similarly, all of the isolates could bind hemin and Congo red, and this binding was mediated by cell envelope proteins. PCR and Southern hybridization were used to assay the occurrence of heme transport genes huvABCD, which have been previously described in serotype O1. Of 23 strains studied, two serotype O3 isolates proved negative for all huvABCD genes, whereas nine strains included in serotypes O2, O3, O4, O6, O7, and O10 tested negative for the outer membrane heme receptor gene huvA. A gene coding for a novel outer membrane heme receptor was cloned and characterized in a V. anguillarum serotype O3 strain lacking huvA. The new heme receptor, named HuvS, showed significant similarity to other outer membrane heme receptors described in Vibrionaceae, but little homology (39%) to HuvA. This heme receptor was present in 9 out of 11 of the V. anguillarum strains that tested negative for HuvA. Furthermore, complementation experiments demonstrated that HuvS could substitute for the HuvA function in Escherichia coli and V. anguillarum mutants. The huvS and huvA sequences alignment, as well as the analysis of their respective upstream and downstream DNA sequences, suggest that horizontal transfer and recombination might be responsible for generating this genetic diversity. PMID:16332832

  8. Chemical Synthesis of the 20 kDa Heme Protein Nitrophorin 4 by α-Ketoacid-Hydroxylamine (KAHA) Ligation.

    He, Chunmao; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Thuaud, Frédéric; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2015-10-26

    The chemical synthesis of the 184-residue ferric heme-binding protein nitrophorin 4 was accomplished by sequential couplings of five unprotected peptide segments using α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation reactions. The fully assembled protein was folded to its native structure and coordinated to the ferric heme b cofactor. The synthetic holoprotein, despite four homoserine residues at the ligation sites, showed identical properties to the wild-type protein in nitric oxide binding and nitrite dismutase reactivity. This work establishes the KAHA ligation as a valuable and viable approach for the chemical synthesis of proteins up to 20 kDa and demonstrates that it is well-suited for the preparation of hydrophobic protein targets. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Serotoninergic receptors in brain tissue: properties and identification of various 3H-ligand binding sites in vitro

    Leysen, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro binding studies to serotoninergic receptors were performed using 3 H-LSD, 3 H-5-HT and 3 H-spiperone. An overwiew is given on findings using these three ligands with respect to the following: localization of specific binding sites, in various animal species, the regional distribution in the brain and periphery, the subcellular and cellular distribution. Properties of the binding sites, influence of the composition of the assay medium, binding kinetic properties, receptor regulation in vivo. Identity of the binding sites, differences between site for various 3 H-ligands, pharmacological specificity of the membranous binding sites, chemical composition of the macromolecular complex constituting the binding site. Function of the receptor. Binding affinities of 44 compounds were measured in binding assays using 3 H-spiperone and 3 H-LSD with rat frontal cortex membrane preparations and using 3 H-5-HT and 3 H-LSD with rat hippocampal membrane preparations

  10. Effects of binding metronidazole to a copper-acetate compound on radiosensitizer properties

    Negron, Ana C. Valderrama; Silva, Denise de Oliveira; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2009-01-01

    Copper compounds exhibit interesting biological properties. Nitroimidazoles show radiosensitizer properties for radiotherapy tumor treatment. In the present work, the effect of binding metronidazole (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole = MTZ) to copper-acetate on the radiosensitizer properties has been investigated. A compound of copper-acetate-MTZ was prepared and characterized. The experiments were carried out by gamma-irradiation of Hep2 (human larynx cancer) cells under hypoxic conditions. The radiation doses for 50% cell survival in the presence of radiosensitizer were about 8.2 Gy for CuAcMTZ or free MTZ. The effect of binding metronidazole to copper acetate on radiosensitizer properties is mainly related to the radiosensitizer process which involves two events for CuAcMTZ in contrast to one event observed for the MTZ free drug. (author)

  11. Identification of fluorescent compounds with non-specific binding property via high throughput live cell microscopy.

    Sangeeta Nath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compounds exhibiting low non-specific intracellular binding or non-stickiness are concomitant with rapid clearing and in high demand for live-cell imaging assays because they allow for intracellular receptor localization with a high signal/noise ratio. The non-stickiness property is particularly important for imaging intracellular receptors due to the equilibria involved. METHOD: Three mammalian cell lines with diverse genetic backgrounds were used to screen a combinatorial fluorescence library via high throughput live cell microscopy for potential ligands with high in- and out-flux properties. The binding properties of ligands identified from the first screen were subsequently validated on plant root hair. A correlative analysis was then performed between each ligand and its corresponding physiochemical and structural properties. RESULTS: The non-stickiness property of each ligand was quantified as a function of the temporal uptake and retention on a cell-by-cell basis. Our data shows that (i mammalian systems can serve as a pre-screening tool for complex plant species that are not amenable to high-throughput imaging; (ii retention and spatial localization of chemical compounds vary within and between each cell line; and (iii the structural similarities of compounds can infer their non-specific binding properties. CONCLUSION: We have validated a protocol for identifying chemical compounds with non-specific binding properties that is testable across diverse species. Further analysis reveals an overlap between the non-stickiness property and the structural similarity of compounds. The net result is a more robust screening assay for identifying desirable ligands that can be used to monitor intracellular localization. Several new applications of the screening protocol and results are also presented.

  12. Heme Oxygenase-1 and breast cancer resistance protein protect against heme-induced toxicity

    Wagener, Frank A D T G; Dankers, Anita C A; van Summeren, Frank; Scharstuhl, Alwin; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; Russel, Frans G M; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is the functional group of diverse hemoproteins and crucial for many cellular processes. However, heme is increasingly recognized as a culprit for a wide variety of pathologies, including sepsis, malaria, and kidney failure. Excess of free heme can be detrimental to tissues by mediating

  13. Structure and binding properties of a cameloid nanobody raised against KDM5B

    Wiuf, Anders; Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Kristensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The histone demethylase KDM5B is considered to be a promising target for anticancer therapy. Single-chain antibodies from llama (nanobodies) have been raised to aid in crystallization and structure determination of this enzyme. The antigen-binding properties of 15 of these nanobodies have been...

  14. The copper binding properties of metformin - QCM-D, XPS and nanobead agglomeration

    Quan, Xueling; Uddin, Rokon; Heiskanen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    Study of the copper binding properties of metformin is important for revealing its mechanism of action as a first-line type-2 diabetes drug. A quantitative investigation of interactions between metformin and l-cysteine-copper complexes was performed. The results suggest that metformin could...

  15. A machine learning approach for the identification of odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties

    Suganthan PN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are believed to shuttle odorants from the environment to the underlying odorant receptors, for which they could potentially serve as odorant presenters. Although several sequence based search methods have been exploited for protein family prediction, less effort has been devoted to the prediction of OBPs from sequence data and this area is more challenging due to poor sequence identity between these proteins. Results In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that uses Regularized Least Squares Classifier (RLSC in conjunction with multiple physicochemical properties of amino acids to predict odorant-binding proteins. The algorithm was applied to the dataset derived from Pfam and GenDiS database and we obtained overall prediction accuracy of 97.7% (94.5% and 98.4% for positive and negative classes respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that RLSC is potentially useful for predicting the odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties irrespective of sequence similarity. Our method predicts 92.8% of 56 odorant binding proteins non-homologous to any protein in the swissprot database and 97.1% of the 414 independent dataset proteins, suggesting the usefulness of RLSC method for facilitating the prediction of odorant binding proteins from sequence information.

  16. Hemopexin and haptoglobin: allies against heme toxicity from hemoglobin not contenders.

    Ann eSmith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal here is to describe our current understanding of heme metabolism and the deleterious effects of free heme on immunological processes, endothelial function, systemic inflammation, and various end-organ tissues (e.g. kidney, lung, liver, etc., with particular attention paid to the role of hemopexin (HPX. Because heme toxicity is the impetus for much of the pathology in sepsis, sickle cell disease, and other hemolytic conditions, the biological importance and clinical relevance of HPX, the predominant heme binding protein, is reinforced. A perspective on the function of HPX and haptoglobin (Hp is presented, updating how these two proteins and their respective receptors act simultaneously to protect the body in clinical conditions that entail hemolysis and/or systemic intravascular inflammation. Evidence from longitudinal studies in patients supports that HPX plays a Hp-independent role in genetic and non-genetic hemolytic diseases without the need for global Hp depletion. Evidence also supports that HPX has an important role in the prognosis of complex illnesses characterized predominantly by the presence of hemolysis, such as sickle cell disease, sepsis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and conditions involving intravascular and extravascular hemolysis, such as that generated by extracorporeal circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and from blood transfusions. We propose that quantitating the amounts of plasma heme, HPX, Hb-Hp, heme-HPX and heme-albumin levels in various disease states may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the above-mentioned conditions, which is crucial to developing targeted plasma protein supplementation (i.e. replenishment therapies for patients with heme toxicity due to HPX depletion.

  17. Binding properties of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin to mucins.

    Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Noriko; Tonozuka, Takashi; Sakano, Yoshiyuki; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2007-04-01

    It has been reported that Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin (C16S toxin) first binds to the sialic acid on the cell surface of mucin before invading cells [A. Nishikawa, N. Uotsu, H. Arimitsu, J.C. Lee, Y. Miura, Y. Fujinaga, H. Nakada, T. Watanabe, T. Ohyama, Y. Sakano, K. Oguma, The receptor and transporter for internalization of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin into HT-29 cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319 (2004) 327-333]. In this study we investigated the binding properties of the C16S toxin to glycoproteins. Although the toxin bound to membrane blotted mucin derived from the bovine submaxillary gland (BSM), which contains a lot of sialyl oligosaccharides, it did not bind to neuraminidase-treated BSM. The binding of the toxin to BSM was inhibited by N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and sialyl oligosaccharides strongly, but was not inhibited by neutral oligosaccharides. Both sialyl alpha2-3 lactose and sialyl alpha2-6 lactose prevented binding similarly. On the other hand, the toxin also bound well to porcine gastric mucin. In this case, neutral oligosaccharides might play an important role as ligand, since galactose and lactose inhibited binding. These results suggest that the toxin is capable of recognizing a wide variety of oligosaccharide structures.

  18. PatchSurfers: Two methods for local molecular property-based binding ligand prediction.

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Bures, Mark Gregory; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-15

    Protein function prediction is an active area of research in computational biology. Function prediction can help biologists make hypotheses for characterization of genes and help interpret biological assays, and thus is a productive area for collaboration between experimental and computational biologists. Among various function prediction methods, predicting binding ligand molecules for a target protein is an important class because ligand binding events for a protein are usually closely intertwined with the proteins' biological function, and also because predicted binding ligands can often be directly tested by biochemical assays. Binding ligand prediction methods can be classified into two types: those which are based on protein-protein (or pocket-pocket) comparison, and those that compare a target pocket directly to ligands. Recently, our group proposed two computational binding ligand prediction methods, Patch-Surfer, which is a pocket-pocket comparison method, and PL-PatchSurfer, which compares a pocket to ligand molecules. The two programs apply surface patch-based descriptions to calculate similarity or complementarity between molecules. A surface patch is characterized by physicochemical properties such as shape, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic potentials. These properties on the surface are represented using three-dimensional Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a series expansion of a 3 dimensional function. Utilizing 3DZD for describing the physicochemical properties has two main advantages: (1) rotational invariance and (2) fast comparison. Here, we introduce Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer with an emphasis on PL-PatchSurfer, which is more recently developed. Illustrative examples of PL-PatchSurfer performance on binding ligand prediction as well as virtual drug screening are also provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carrageenans as a new source of drugs with metal binding properties.

    Khotimchenko, Yuri S; Khozhaenko, Elena V; Khotimchenko, Maxim Y; Kolenchenko, Elena A; Kovalev, Valeri V

    2010-04-01

    Carrageenans are abundant and safe non-starch polysaccharides exerting their biological effects in living organisms. Apart from their known pro-inflammation properties and some pharmacological activity, carrageenans can also strongly bind and hold metal ions. This property can be used for creation of the new drugs for elimination of metals from the body or targeted delivery of these metal ions for healing purposes. Metal binding activity of different carrageenans in aqueous solutions containing Y(3+) or Pb(2+) ions was studied in a batch sorption system. The metal uptake by carrageenans is not affected by the change of the pH within the range from 2.0 to 6.0. The rates and binding capacities of carrageenans regarding metal ions were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants, and the sorption isothermal data could be explained well by the Langmuir equation. The results obtained through the study suggest that kappa-, iota-, and lambda-carrageenans are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Y(3+) and Pb(2+) ions are bound by iota-carrageenan. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of polysaccharide is the more appropriate substance for elaboration of the drugs with high selective metal binding properties.

  20. Carrageenans as a New Source of Drugs with Metal Binding Properties

    Yuri S. Khotimchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are abundant and safe non-starch polysaccharides exerting their biological effects in living organisms. Apart from their known pro-inflammation properties and some pharmacological activity, carrageenans can also strongly bind and hold metal ions. This property can be used for creation of the new drugs for elimination of metals from the body or targeted delivery of these metal ions for healing purposes. Metal binding activity of different carrageenans in aqueous solutions containing Y3+ or Pb2+ ions was studied in a batch sorption system. The metal uptake by carrageenans is not affected by the change of the pH within the range from 2.0 to 6.0. The rates and binding capacities of carrageenans regarding metal ions were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants, and the sorption isothermal data could be explained well by the Langmuir equation. The results obtained through the study suggest that κ-, ι-, and λ-carrageenans are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Y3+ and Pb2+ ions are bound by i-carrageenan. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of polysaccharide is the more appropriate substance for elaboration of the drugs with high selective metal binding properties.

  1. Alteration of human serum albumin binding properties induced by modifications: A review

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, Małgorzata; Szkudlarek, Agnieszka; Chudzik, Mariola; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Sułkowska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Albumin, a major transporting protein in the blood, is the main target of modification that affects the binding of drugs to Sudlow's site I and II. These modification of serum protein moderates its physiological function, and works as a biomarker of some diseases. The main goal of the paper was to explain the possible alteration of human serum albumin binding properties induced by modifications such as glycation, oxidation and ageing, their origin, methods of evaluation and positive and negative meaning described by significant researchers.

  2. Transfection of the Human Heme Oxygenase Gene Into Rabbit Coronary Microvessel Endothelial Cells: Protective Effect Against Heme and Hemoglobin Toxicity

    Abraham, N. G.; Lavrovsky, Y.; Schwartzman, M. L.; Stoltz, R. A.; Levere, R. D.; Gerritsen, M. E.

    1995-07-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress protein and has been suggested to participate in defense mechanisms against agents that may induce oxidative injury such as metals, endotoxin, heme/hemoglobin, and various cytokines. Overexpression of HO in cells might therefore protect against oxidative stress produced by certain of these agents, specifically heme and hemoglobin, by catalyzing their degradation to bilirubin, which itself has antioxidant properties. We report here the successful in vitro transfection of rabbit coronary microvessel endothelial cells with a functioning gene encoding the human HO enzyme. A plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus promoter and the human HO cDNA complexed to cationic liposomes (Lipofectin) was used to transfect rabbit endothelial cells. Cells transfected with human HO exhibited an ≈3.0-fold increase in enzyme activity and expressed a severalfold induction of human HO mRNA as compared with endogenous rabbit HO mRNA. Transfected and nontransfected cells expressed factor VIII antigen and exhibited similar acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake (two important features that characterize endothelial cells) with >85% of cells staining positive for each marker. Moreover, cells transfected with the human HO gene acquired substantial resistance to toxicity produced by exposure to recombinant hemoglobin and heme as compared with nontransfected cells. The protective effect of HO overexpression against heme/hemoglobin toxicity in endothelial cells shown in these studies provides direct evidence that the inductive response of human HO to such injurious stimuli represents an important tissue adaptive mechanism for moderating the severity of cell damage produced by these blood components.

  3. Characterization of Heme Proteins Involved in Microbial Exoelectric Activity and Small Molecule-Sensing

    Vogler, Malvina M.

    2018-01-01

    Heme proteins, also termed cytochromes, are a widespread class of metalloproteins containing an Fe-protoporphyrin IX cofactor. They perform numerous functions in nature such as oxygen-transport by hemoglobin, monooxygenation reactions catalyzed by Cytochrome P-450, and electron transfer reactions during photosynthesis. The differences between proteincofactor binding characteristics and the cofactor environment greatly influence the extensive range of functions. In this dissertation, proteins from the Mtr pathway of Shewanella oneidensis are characterized. These c-type cytochromes contain multiple heme cofactors per protein molecule that covalently attach to the protein amino acid sequence and are involved in electron transfer to extracellular metal oxides during anaerobic conditions. Successful recombinant expression of pathway components MtrC and MtrA is achieved in Escherichia coli. Heme-dependent gel staining and UV/Vis spectroscopy show characteristic c-type cytochrome characteristics. Mass spectrometry confirms that the correct extensive post-translational modifications were performed and the ten heme groups were incorporated per protein of MtrC and MtrA and the correct lipid-anchor was attached to extracellular MtrC. Raman spectroscopy measurements of MtrA provide intriguing structural information and highlight the strong influence of the heme cofactors within the protein structure. Next, an Arabidopsis thaliana protein is analyzed. It was previously identified via a motif search of the plant genome, based on conserved residues in the H4 NOX pocket. Here, the incorporation of a heme b cofactor is confirmed. UV/Vis spectroscopy under anaerobic conditions demonstrates reversible binding of nitric oxide to the heme iron and depicts the previously published characteristic absorption maxima for other H-NOX proteins.

  4. Chemistry and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heme b-HemQ and Coproheme-HemQ.

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Dalla Sega, Marco; Scheiblbrandner, Stefan; Jandova, Zuzana; Schaffner, Irene; Mlynek, Georg; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Furtmüller, Paul G; Oostenbrink, Chris; Obinger, Christian

    2016-09-27

    Recently, a novel pathway for heme b biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria has been proposed. The final poorly understood step is catalyzed by an enzyme called HemQ and includes two decarboxylation reactions leading from coproheme to heme b. Coproheme has been suggested to act as both substrate and redox active cofactor in this reaction. In the study presented here, we focus on HemQs from Listeria monocytogenes (LmHemQ) and Staphylococcus aureus (SaHemQ) recombinantly produced as apoproteins in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate the rapid and two-phase uptake of coproheme by both apo forms and the significant differences in thermal stability of the apo forms, coproheme-HemQ and heme b-HemQ. Reduction of ferric high-spin coproheme-HemQ to the ferrous form is shown to be enthalpically favored but entropically disfavored with standard reduction potentials of -205 ± 3 mV for LmHemQ and -207 ± 3 mV for SaHemQ versus the standard hydrogen electrode at pH 7.0. Redox thermodynamics suggests the presence of a pronounced H-bonding network and restricted solvent mobility in the heme cavity. Binding of cyanide to the sixth coproheme position is monophasic but relatively slow (∼1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). On the basis of the available structures of apo-HemQ and modeling of both loaded forms, molecular dynamics simulation allowed analysis of the interaction of coproheme and heme b with the protein as well as the role of the flexibility at the proximal heme cavity and the substrate access channel for coproheme binding and heme b release. Obtained data are discussed with respect to the proposed function of HemQ in monoderm bacteria.

  5. A Heme-based Redox Sensor in the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans*

    Molitor, Bastian; Stassen, Marc; Modi, Anuja; El-Mashtoly, Samir F.; Laurich, Christoph; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Dawson, John H.; Rother, Michael; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a bioinformatics study, the protein MA4561 from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans was originally predicted to be a multidomain phytochrome-like photosensory kinase possibly binding open-chain tetrapyrroles. Although we were able to show that recombinantly produced and purified protein does not bind any known phytochrome chromophores, UV-visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of a heme tetrapyrrole cofactor. In contrast to many other known cytoplasmic heme-containing proteins, the heme was covalently attached via one vinyl side chain to cysteine 656 in the second GAF domain. This GAF domain by itself is sufficient for covalent attachment. Resonance Raman and magnetic circular dichroism data support a model of a six-coordinate heme species with additional features of a five-coordination structure. The heme cofactor is redox-active and able to coordinate various ligands like imidazole, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon monoxide depending on the redox state. Interestingly, the redox state of the heme cofactor has a substantial influence on autophosphorylation activity. Although reduced protein does not autophosphorylate, oxidized protein gives a strong autophosphorylation signal independent from bound external ligands. Based on its genomic localization, MA4561 is most likely a sensor kinase of a two-component system effecting regulation of the Mts system, a set of three homologous corrinoid/methyltransferase fusion protein isoforms involved in methyl sulfide metabolism. Consistent with this prediction, an M. acetivorans mutant devoid of MA4561 constitutively synthesized MtsF. On the basis of our results, we postulate a heme-based redox/dimethyl sulfide sensory function of MA4561 and propose to designate it MsmS (methyl sulfide methyltransferase-associated sensor). PMID:23661702

  6. Nitric oxide heme interactions in nitrophorin from Cimex lectularius

    Christmann, R.; Auerbach, H., E-mail: auerbach@physik.uni-kl.de [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Berry, R. E.; Walker, F. A. [The University of Arizona, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Schünemann, V. [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The nitrophorin from the bedbug Cimex lectularius (cNP) is a nitric oxide (NO) carrying protein. Like the nitrophorins (rNPs) from the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, cNP forms a stable heme Fe(III)-NO complex, where the NO can be stored reversibly for a long period of time. In both cases, the NPs are found in the salivary glands of blood-sucking bugs. The insects use the nitrophorins to transport the NO to the victim’s tissues, resulting in vasodilation and reduced blood coagulation. However, the structure of cNP is significantly different to those of the rNPs from Rhodnius prolixus. Furthermore, the cNP can bind a second NO molecule to the proximal heme cysteine when present at higher concentrations. High field Mössbauer spectroscopy on {sup 57}Fe enriched cNP complexed with NO shows reduction of the heme iron and formation of a ferrous nitric oxide (Fe(II)-NO) complex. Density functional theory calculations reproduce the experimental Mössbauer parameters and confirm this observation.

  7. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J.; López-Garriga, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. ► The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. ► The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. ► Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. 1 H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OHη at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N ε1 H/N ε2 H at 10.66 ppm/−3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C δ H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus, we hypothesize that in hemeproteins with similar electrostatic environment the flexibility of the heme-6-propionate promotes a hydrogen

  8. Glycation alters ligand binding, enzymatic, and pharmacological properties of human albumin.

    Baraka-Vidot, Jennifer; Planesse, Cynthia; Meilhac, Olivier; Militello, Valeria; van den Elsen, Jean; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe

    2015-05-19

    Albumin, the major circulating protein in blood plasma, can be subjected to an increased level of glycation in a diabetic context. Albumin exerts crucial pharmacological activities through its drug binding capacity, i.e., ketoprofen, and via its esterase-like activity, allowing the conversion of prodrugs into active drugs. In this study, the impact of the glucose-mediated glycation on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of human albumin was investigated. Aggregation product levels and the redox state were quantified to assess the impact of glycation-mediated changes on the structural properties of albumin. Glucose-mediated changes in ketoprofen binding properties and esterase-like activity were evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy and p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis assays, respectively. With the exception of oxidative parameters, significant dose-dependent alterations in biochemical and functional properties of in vitro glycated albumin were observed. We also found that the dose-dependent increase in levels of glycation and protein aggregation and average molecular mass changes correlated with a gradual decrease in the affinity of albumin for ketoprofen and its esterase-like property. In parallel, significant alterations in both pharmacological properties were also evidenced in albumin purified from diabetic patients. Partial least-squares regression analyses established a significant correlation between glycation-mediated changes in biochemical and pharmacological properties of albumin, highlighting the important role for glycation in the variability of the drug response in a diabetic situation.

  9. Identification of the Mitochondrial Heme Metabolism Complex.

    Medlock, Amy E; Shiferaw, Mesafint T; Marcero, Jason R; Vashisht, Ajay A; Wohlschlegel, James A; Phillips, John D; Dailey, Harry A

    2015-01-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for most organisms and all metazoans. While the individual enzymes involved in synthesis and utilization of heme are fairly well known, less is known about the intracellular trafficking of porphyrins and heme, or regulation of heme biosynthesis via protein complexes. To better understand this process we have undertaken a study of macromolecular assemblies associated with heme synthesis. Herein we have utilized mass spectrometry with coimmunoprecipitation of tagged enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway in a developing erythroid cell culture model to identify putative protein partners. The validity of these data obtained in the tagged protein system is confirmed by normal porphyrin/heme production by the engineered cells. Data obtained are consistent with the presence of a mitochondrial heme metabolism complex which minimally consists of ferrochelatase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase and aminolevulinic acid synthase-2. Additional proteins involved in iron and intermediary metabolism as well as mitochondrial transporters were identified as potential partners in this complex. The data are consistent with the known location of protein components and support a model of transient protein-protein interactions within a dynamic protein complex.

  10. Monomeric Yeast Frataxin is an Iron-Binding Protein

    Cook, J.; Bencze, K.; Jankovic, A.; Crater, A.; Busch, C.; Bradley, P.; Stemmler, A.; Spaller, M.; Stemmler, T.

    2006-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 in 50 000 humans, is caused by decreased levels of the protein frataxin. Although frataxin is nuclear-encoded, it is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and necessary for proper regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Frataxin is required for the cellular production of both heme and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Monomeric frataxin binds with high affinity to ferrochelatase, the enzyme involved in iron insertion into porphyrin during heme production. Monomeric frataxin also binds to Isu, the scaffold protein required for assembly of Fe-S cluster intermediates. These processes (heme and Fe-S cluster assembly) share requirements for iron, suggesting that monomeric frataxin might function as the common iron donor. To provide a molecular basis to better understand frataxin's function, we have characterized the binding properties and metal-site structure of ferrous iron bound to monomeric yeast frataxin. Yeast frataxin is stable as an iron-loaded monomer, and the protein can bind two ferrous iron atoms with micromolar binding affinity. Frataxin amino acids affected by the presence of iron are localized within conserved acidic patches located on the surfaces of both helix-1 and strand-1. Under anaerobic conditions, bound metal is stable in the high-spin ferrous state. The metal-ligand coordination geometry of both metal-binding sites is consistent with a six-coordinate iron-(oxygen/nitrogen) based ligand geometry, surely constructed in part from carboxylate and possibly imidazole side chains coming from residues within these conserved acidic patches on the protein. On the basis of our results, we have developed a model for how we believe yeast frataxin interacts with iron

  11. Multi-heme Cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Structures, functions and opportunities

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen; Butt, Julea N.

    2014-11-05

    Multi-heme cytochromes are employed by a range of microorganisms to transport electrons over distances of up to tens of nanometers. Perhaps the most spectacular utilization of these proteins is in the reduction of extracellular solid substrates, including electrodes and insoluble mineral oxides of Fe(III) and Mn(III/IV), by species of Shewanella and Geobacter. However, multi-heme cytochromes are found in numerous and phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes where they participate in electron transfer and redox catalysis that contributes to biogeochemical cycling of N, S and Fe on the global scale. These properties of multi-heme cytochromes have attracted much interest and contributed to advances in bioenergy applications and bioremediation of contaminated soils. Looking forward there are opportunities to engage multi-heme cytochromes for biological photovoltaic cells, microbial electrosynthesis and developing bespoke molecular devices. As a consequence it is timely to review our present understanding of these proteins and we do this here with a focus on the multitude of functionally diverse multi-heme cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We draw on findings from experimental and computational approaches which ideally complement each other in the study of these systems: computational methods can interpret experimentally determined properties in terms of molecular structure to cast light on the relation between structure and function. We show how this synergy has contributed to our understanding of multi-heme cytochromes and can be expected to continue to do so for greater insight into natural processes and their informed exploitation in biotechnologies.

  12. Oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin from the white rhinoceros (beta 2-GLU) and the tapir.

    Baumann, R; Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G

    1984-04-01

    The beta-chain of rhinoceros hemoglobin contains glutamic acid at position beta 2, and important site for the binding of organic phosphates. We have investigated the oxygen binding properties of this hemoglobin and its interaction with ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, CO2 and chloride. The results show that the presence of GLU at position beta 2 nearly abolishes the effect of organic phosphates and CO2, whereas the oxygen-linked binding of chloride is not affected. Thus rhinoceros hemoglobin has only protons and chloride anions as major allosteric effectors for the control of its oxygen affinity. From the results obtained with hemoglobin solutions it can be calculated that the blood oxygen affinity of the rhinoceros must be rather high with a P50 of about 20 torr at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, which conforms with observations obtained for other large mammals.

  13. Heme-Protein Active Site Models via Self-Assembly in Water

    Fiammengo, R.; Wojciechowski, Kamil; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Figoli, A.; Wessling, Matthias; Reinhoudt, David; Timmerman, P.

    2003-01-01

    Water-soluble models of heme-protein active sites are obtained via the self-assembly of cationic porphyrins 1 and tetrasulfonato calix[4]arene 2 (K1·2 = 105 M-1). Selective binding of ligands either outside or inside the cavity of assemblies 1·2 via coordination to the zinc center has been observed.

  14. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    Chinchilla, Diana, E-mail: Diana_Chinchilla@yahoo.com; Kilheeney, Heather, E-mail: raindropszoo@yahoo.com; Vitello, Lidia B., E-mail: lvitello@niu.edu; Erman, James E., E-mail: jerman@niu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) binds acrylonitrile in a pH-independent fashion. •The spectrum of the CcP/acrylonitrile complex is that of a 6c–ls ferric heme. •The acrylonitrile/CcP complex has a K{sub D} value of 1.1 ± 0.2 M. •CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover rate of 0.61 min{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32 ± 0.16 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} and 0.34 ± 0.15 s{sup −1}, respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1 ± 0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a “peroxygenase”-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min{sup −1} at pH 6.0.

  15. The oxygen-binding properties of hemocyanin from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas.

    González, Andrea; Nova, Esteban; Del Campo, Miguel; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo; Ferreira, Jorge; Becker, María Inés

    2017-12-01

    Hemocyanins have highly conserved copper-containing active sites that bind oxygen. However, structural differences among the hemocyanins of various mollusks may affect their physicochemical properties. Here, we studied the oxygen-binding cooperativity and affinity of Concholepas concholepas hemocyanin (CCH) and its two isolated subunits over a wide range of temperatures and pH values. Considering the differences in the quaternary structures of CCH and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), we hypothesized that the heterodidecameric CCH has different oxygen-binding parameters than the homodidecameric KLH. A novel modification of the polarographic method was applied in which rat liver submitochondrial particles containing cytochrome c oxidase were introduced to totally deplete oxygen of the test solution using ascorbate as the electron donor. This method was both sensitive and reproducible. The results showed that CCH, like other hemocyanins, exhibits cooperativity, showing an inverse relationship between the oxygen-binding parameters and temperature. According to their Hill coefficients, KLH has greater cooperativity than CCH at physiological pH; however, CCH is less sensitive to pH changes than KLH. Appreciable differences in binding behavior were found between the CCH subunits: the cooperativity of CCH-A was not only almost double that of CCH-B, but it was also slightly superior to that of CCH, thus suggesting that the oxygen-binding domains of the CCH subunits are different in their primary structure. Collectively, these data suggest that CCH-A is the main oxygen-binding domain in CCH; CCH-B may play a more structural role, perhaps utilizing its surprising predisposition to form tubular polymers, unlike CCH-A, as demonstrated here using electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nucleic acid-binding properties of the RRM-containing protein RDM1

    Hamimes, Samia; Bourgeon, Dominique; Stasiak, Alicja Z.; Stasiak, Andrzej; Van Dyck, Eric

    2006-01-01

    RDM1 (RAD52 Motif 1) is a vertebrate protein involved in the cellular response to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. In addition to an RNA recognition motif, RDM1 contains a small amino acid motif, named RD motif, which it shares with the recombination and repair protein, RAD52. RDM1 binds to single- and double-stranded DNA, and recognizes DNA distortions induced by cisplatin adducts in vitro. Here, we have performed an in-depth analysis of the nucleic acid-binding properties of RDM1 using gel-shift assays and electron microscopy. We show that RDM1 possesses acidic pH-dependent DNA-binding activity and that it binds RNA as well as DNA, and we present evidence from competition gel-shift experiments that RDM1 may be capable of discrimination between the two nucleic acids. Based on reported studies of RAD52, we have generated an RDM1 variant mutated in its RD motif. We find that the L 119 GF → AAA mutation affects the mode of RDM1 binding to single-stranded DNA

  17. Calcium ion binding properties and the effect of phosphorylation on the intrinsically disordered Starmaker protein.

    Wojtas, Magdalena; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Poznar, Monika; Maciejewska, Marta; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Dobryszycki, Piotr

    2015-10-27

    Starmaker (Stm) is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved in otolith biomineralization in Danio rerio. Stm controls calcium carbonate crystal formation in vivo and in vitro. Phosphorylation of Stm affects its biomineralization properties. This study examined the effects of calcium ions and phosphorylation on the structure of Stm. We have shown that CK2 kinase phosphorylates 25 or 26 residues in Stm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that Stm's affinity for calcium binding is dependent on its phosphorylation state. Phosphorylated Stm (StmP) has an estimated 30 ± 1 calcium binding sites per protein molecule with a dissociation constant (KD) of 61 ± 4 μM, while the unphosphorylated protein has 28 ± 3 sites and a KD of 210 ± 22 μM. Calcium ion binding induces a compaction of the Stm molecule, causing a significant decrease in its hydrodynamic radius and the formation of a secondary structure. The screening effect of Na(+) ions on calcium binding was also observed. Analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of Stm and StmP showed that Stm and StmP molecules adopt the structure of native coil-like proteins.

  18. Analysis of calcium-induced conformational changes in calcium-binding allergens and quantitative determination of their IgE binding properties.

    Parody, Nuria; Fuertes, Miguel Angel; Alonso, Carlos; Pico de Coaña, Yago

    2013-01-01

    The polcalcin family is one of the most epidemiologically relevant families of calcium-binding allergens. Polcalcins are potent plant allergens that contain one or several EF-hand motifs and their allergenicity is primarily associated with the Ca(2+)-bound form of the protein. Conformation, stability, as well as IgE recognition of calcium-binding allergens greatly depend on the presence of protein-bound calcium ions. We describe a protocol that uses three techniques (SDS-PAGE, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and ELISA) to describe the effects that calcium has on the structural changes in an allergen and its IgE binding properties.

  19. Challenging Density Functional Theory Calculations with Hemes and Porphyrins

    de Visser, Sam P.; Stillman, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review recent advances in computational chemistry and specifically focus on the chemical description of heme proteins and synthetic porphyrins that act as both mimics of natural processes and technological uses. These are challenging biochemical systems involved in electron transfer as well as biocatalysis processes. In recent years computational tools have improved considerably and now can reproduce experimental spectroscopic and reactivity studies within a reasonable error margin (several kcal·mol−1). This paper gives recent examples from our groups, where we investigated heme and synthetic metal-porphyrin systems. The four case studies highlight how computational modelling can correctly reproduce experimental product distributions, predicted reactivity trends and guide interpretation of electronic structures of complex systems. The case studies focus on the calculations of a variety of spectroscopic features of porphyrins and show how computational modelling gives important insight that explains the experimental spectra and can lead to the design of porphyrins with tuned properties. PMID:27070578

  20. Challenging Density Functional Theory Calculations with Hemes and Porphyrins

    Sam P. de Visser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review recent advances in computational chemistry and specifically focus on the chemical description of heme proteins and synthetic porphyrins that act as both mimics of natural processes and technological uses. These are challenging biochemical systems involved in electron transfer as well as biocatalysis processes. In recent years computational tools have improved considerably and now can reproduce experimental spectroscopic and reactivity studies within a reasonable error margin (several kcal·mol−1. This paper gives recent examples from our groups, where we investigated heme and synthetic metal-porphyrin systems. The four case studies highlight how computational modelling can correctly reproduce experimental product distributions, predicted reactivity trends and guide interpretation of electronic structures of complex systems. The case studies focus on the calculations of a variety of spectroscopic features of porphyrins and show how computational modelling gives important insight that explains the experimental spectra and can lead to the design of porphyrins with tuned properties.

  1. The calcium binding properties and structure prediction of the Hax-1 protein.

    Balcerak, Anna; Rowinski, Sebastian; Szafron, Lukasz M; Grzybowska, Ewa A

    2017-01-01

    Hax-1 is a protein involved in regulation of different cellular processes, but its properties and exact mechanisms of action remain unknown. In this work, using purified, recombinant Hax-1 and by applying an in vitro autoradiography assay we have shown that this protein binds Ca 2+ . Additionally, we performed structure prediction analysis which shows that Hax-1 displays definitive structural features, such as two α-helices, short β-strands and four disordered segments.

  2. Prebiotics increase heme iron bioavailability and do not affect non-heme iron bioavailability in humans.

    Weinborn, Valerie; Valenzuela, Carolina; Olivares, Manuel; Arredondo, Miguel; Weill, Ricardo; Pizarro, Fernando

    2017-05-24

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a prebiotic mix on heme and non-heme iron (Fe) bioavailability in humans. To this purpose, twenty-four healthy women were randomized into one of two study groups. One group ate one yogurt per day for 12 days with a prebiotic mix (prebiotic group) and the other group received the same yogurt but without the prebiotic mix (control group). Before and after the intake period, the subjects participated in Fe absorption studies. These studies used 55 Fe and 59 Fe radioactive isotopes as markers of heme Fe and non-heme Fe, respectively, and Fe absorption was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The results showed that there were no significant differences in heme and non-heme Fe bioavailability in the control group. Heme Fe bioavailability of the prebiotic group increased significantly by 56% post-prebiotic intake. There were no significant differences in non-heme Fe bioavailability in this group. We concluded that daily consumption of a prebiotic mix increases heme Fe bioavailability and does not affect non-heme iron bioavailability.

  3. Differences in both glycosylation and binding properties between rat and mouse liver prolactin receptors.

    Lascols, O; Cherqui, G; Munier, A; Picard, J; Capeau, J

    1994-05-01

    To investigate whether glycanic chains of prolactin receptors (PRL-R) play a role in hormone binding activity, comparison was made of rat and mouse liver solubilized receptors with respect to both their affinity for the hormone and their glycosylation properties. As compared with rat receptors, mouse receptors exhibited a 2-fold higher affinity for human growth hormone (hGH), the hormone being bound by both tissues with a lactogenic specificity. Along with this increased affinity, mouse receptors had a 2 lower M(r) relative to rat receptors (62 kDa versus 64 kDa as measured on hGH cross-linked receptors). These differences could be ascribed to different glycosylation properties of the receptors from the two species, as supported by the followings. 1) After treatment with endoglycosidase F (endo F), rat and mouse PRL-R no longer exhibited any difference in their M(r) (54 kDa for both cross-linked receptors). 2) Neuraminidase treatment increased by 37% the binding of hGH to mouse receptors, but was ineffective on the hormone-binding to rat receptors. Conversely, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), another sialic acid specific probe, decreased hGH binding to rat receptors by 25%, but had no effect on this process for mouse ones. 3) Marked differences were observed in the recoveries of rat and mouse hormone-receptor (HR) complexes from ricin-1- (RCA1-), concanavalin A- (ConA-) and WGA-immobilized lectins. These differences were reduced (RCA1 and ConA) or abolished (WGA) after rat and mouse receptor desialylation by neuraminidase, a treatment which decreased the M(r) of both receptors by 2 kDa. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the PRL-R from rat and mouse liver contain biantennary N-linked oligosaccharidic chains with distinct type of sialylation, which may account for their differential hormone-binding affinities.

  4. A rapid, simple method for obtaining radiochemically pure hepatic heme

    Bonkowski, H.L.; Bement, W.J.; Erny, R.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactively-labelled heme has usually been isolated from liver to which unlabelled carrier has been added by long, laborious techniques involving organic solvent extraction followed by crystallization. A simpler, rapid method is devised for obtaining radiochemically-pure heme synthesized in vivo in rat liver from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate. This method, in which the heme is extracted into ethyl acetate/glacial acetic acid and in which porphyrins are removed from the heme-containing organic phase with HCl washes, does not require addition of carrier heme. The new method gives better heme recoveries than and heme specific activities identical to, those obtained using the crystallization method. In this new method heme must be synthesized from delta-amino[4- 14 C]levulinate; it is not satisfactory to use [2- 14 C]glycine substrate because non-heme counts are isolated in the heme fraction. (Auth.)

  5. Structural characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 in complex with azole-based inhibitors.

    Rahman, Mona N; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Roman, Gheorghe; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Szarek, Walter A; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao

    2010-03-01

    The development of inhibitors specific for heme oxygenases (HO) aims to provide powerful tools in understanding the HO system. Based on the lead structure (2S, 4S)-2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-[((4-aminophenyl)thio)methyl]-1,3-dioxolane (azalanstat, QC-1) we have synthesized structural modifications to develop novel and selective HO inhibitors. The structural study of human HO-1 (hHO-1) in complex with a select group of the inhibitors was initiated using X-ray crystallographic techniques. Comparison of the structures of four such compounds each in complex with hHO-1 revealed a common binding mode, despite having different structural fragments. The compounds bind to the distal side of heme through an azole "anchor" which coordinates with the heme iron. An expansion of the distal pocket, mainly due to distal helix flexibility, allows accommodation of the compounds without displacing heme or the critical Asp140 residue. Rather, binding displaces a catalytically critical water molecule and disrupts an ordered hydrogen-bond network involving Asp140. The presence of a triazole "anchor" may provide further stability via a hydrogen bond with the protein. A hydrophobic pocket acts to stabilize the region occupied by the phenyl or adamantanyl moieties of these compounds. Further, a secondary hydrophobic pocket is formed via "induced fit" to accommodate bulky substituents at the 4-position of the dioxolane ring. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermodynamic, Anticoagulant, and Antiproliferative Properties of Thrombin Binding Aptamer Containing Novel UNA Derivative

    Kotkowiak, Weronika; Lisowiec-Wachnicka, Jolanta; Grynda, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrinolysis, cell proliferation, and migration. Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is able to inhibit the activity of thrombin molecule via binding to its exosite I. This 15-nt DNA oligonucleotide forms an intramolecular, antipar......Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrinolysis, cell proliferation, and migration. Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is able to inhibit the activity of thrombin molecule via binding to its exosite I. This 15-nt DNA oligonucleotide forms an intramolecular......, antiparallel G-quadruplex structure with a chair-like conformation. In this paper, we report on our investigations on the influence of certain modified nucleotide residues on thermodynamic stability, folding topology, and biological properties of TBA variants. In particular, the effect of single incorporation......-quadruplex thermodynamic and biological stability, and that the effect is strongly position dependent. Interestingly, TBA variants containing the modified nucleotide residues are characterized by unchanged folding topology. Thrombin time assay revealed that incorporation of certain UNA residues may improve G...

  7. DNA binding properties of dioxin receptors in wild-type and mutant mouse hepatoma cells

    Cuthill, S.; Poellinger, L.

    1988-01-01

    The current model of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) entails stimulation of target gene transcription via the formation of dioxin-receptor complexes and subsequent accumulation of the complexes within the cell nucleus. Here, the authors have analyzed the DNA binding properties of the dioxin receptor in wild-type mouse hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells and a class of nonresponsive mutant cells which fail to accumulate dioxin-receptor complexes within the nucleus in vivo. In vitro, both the wild-type and mutant [ 3 H]dioxin-receptor complexes exhibited low affinity for DNA-cellulose (5-8% and around 4% retention, respectively) in the absence of prior biochemical manipulations. However, following chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, the wild-type but not the mutant dioxin receptor was transformed to a species with an increased affinity for DNA (40-50% retention on DNA-cellulose). The gross molecular structure of the mutant, non DNA binding dioxin receptor did not appear to be altered as compared to that of the wild-type receptor. These results imply that the primary deficiency in the mutant dioxin receptor form may reside at the DNA binding level and that, in analogy to steroid hormone receptors, DNA binding of the receptor may be an essential step in the regulation of target gene transcription by dioxin

  8. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, André D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage. PMID:27759005

  9. Insights on Heme Synthesis in the Malaria Parasite.

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan A; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2017-08-01

    The malaria parasite has a functional heme-biosynthetic pathway, although it can access host hemoglobin-heme. The heme pathway is dispensable for blood stages, but essential in the mosquito stages which do not acquire hemoglobin-heme. We propose that the blood stage parasites maintain a dynamic heme pool through multiple back-up mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium-binding properties of troponin C in detergent-skinned heart muscle fibers

    Pan, B.S.; Solaro, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to obtain information with regard to behavior of the Ca 2+ receptor, troponin C (TnC), in intact myofilament lattice of cardiac muscle, we investigated Ca 2+ -binding properties of canine ventricular muscle fibers skinned with Triton X-100. Analysis of equilibrium Ca 2+ -binding data of the skinned fibers in ATP-free solutions suggested that there were two distinct classes of binding sites which were saturated over the physiological range of negative logarithm of free calcium concentration (pCa): class I (KCa = 7.4 X 10(7) M-1, KMg = 0.9 X 10(3) M-1) and class II (KCa = 1.2 X 10(6) M-1, KMg = 1.1 X 10(2) M-1). The class I and II were considered equivalent, respectively, to the Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ -specific sites of TnC. The assignments were supported by TnC content of the skinned fibers determined by electrophoresis and 45 Ca autoradiograph of electroblotted fiber proteins. Dissociation of rigor complexes by ATP caused a downward shift of the binding curve between pCa 7 and 5, an effect which could be largely accounted for by lowering of KCa of the class II sites. When Ca 2+ binding and isometric force were measured simultaneously, it was found that the threshold pCa for activation corresponds to the range of pCa where class II sites started to bind Ca 2+ significantly. We concluded that the low affinity site of cardiac TnC plays a key role in Ca 2+ regulation of contraction under physiological conditions, just as it does in the regulation of actomyosin ATPase. Study of kinetics of 45 Ca washout from skinned fibers and myofibrils revealed that cardiac TnC in myofibrils contains Ca 2+ -binding sites whose off-rate constant for Ca 2+ is significantly lower than the Ca 2+ off-rate constant hitherto documented for the divalent ion-binding sites of either cardiac/slow muscle TnC or fast skeletal TnC

  11. RNA-binding properties and mapping of the RNA-binding domain from the movement protein of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Herranz, M Carmen; Pallás, Vicente

    2004-03-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is involved in intercellular virus transport. In this study, putative RNA-binding properties of the PNRSV MP were studied. The PNRSV MP was produced in Escherichia coli using an expression vector. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) using DIG-labelled riboprobes demonstrated that PNRSV MP bound ssRNA cooperatively without sequence specificity. Two different ribonucleoprotein complexes were found to be formed depending on the molar MP : PNRSV RNA ratio. The different responses of the complexes to urea treatment strongly suggested that they have different structural properties. Deletion mutagenesis followed by Northwestern analysis allowed location of a nucleic acid binding domain to aa 56-88. This 33 aa RNA-binding motif is the smallest region delineated among members of the family Bromoviridae for which RNA-binding properties have been demonstrated. This domain is highly conserved within all phylogenetic subgroups previously described for PNRSV isolates. Interestingly, the RNA-binding domain described here and the one described for Alfamovirus are located at the N terminus of their corresponding MPs, whereas similar domains previously characterized in members of the genera Bromovirus and Cucumovirus are present at the C terminus, strongly reflecting their corresponding phylogenetic relationships. The evolutionary implications of this observation are discussed.

  12. Pharmacological Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Impairs Nuclear Accumulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids upon Infection

    Francisco J. Ibáñez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to physical and chemical stresses, such as ultraviolet radiation, hyperthermia, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS, as well as cytokines, among others. Its activity can be positively modulated by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP and negatively by tin protoporphirin (SnPP. Once induced, HO-1 degrades iron-containing heme into ferrous iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO and biliverdin. Importantly, numerous products of HO-1 are cytoprotective with anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. The products of HO-1 also display antiviral properties against several viruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, influenza, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and Ebola virus. Here, we sought to assess the effect of modulating HO-1 activity over herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection in epithelial cells and neurons. There are no vaccines against HSV-2 and treatment options are scarce in the immunosuppressed, in which drug-resistant variants emerge. By using HSV strains that encode structural and non-structural forms of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, we found that pharmacological induction of HO-1 activity with CoPP significantly decreases virus plaque formation and the expression of virus-encoded genes in epithelial cells as determined by flow cytometry and western blot assays. CoPP treatment did not affect virus binding to the cell surface or entry into the cytoplasm, but rather downstream events in the virus infection cycle. Furthermore, we observed that treating cells with a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2 recapitulated some of the anti-HSV effects elicited by CoPP. Taken together, these findings indicate that HO-1 activity interferes with the replication cycle of HSV and that its antiviral effects can be recapitulated by CO.

  13. Mechanism governing heme synthesis reveals a GATA factor/heme circuit that controls differentiation.

    Tanimura, Nobuyuki; Miller, Eli; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Yang, David; Burstyn, Judith N; Dewey, Colin N; Bresnick, Emery H

    2016-02-01

    Metal ion-containing macromolecules have fundamental roles in essentially all biological processes throughout the evolutionary tree. For example, iron-containing heme is a cofactor in enzyme catalysis and electron transfer and an essential hemoglobin constituent. To meet the intense demand for hemoglobin assembly in red blood cells, the cell type-specific factor GATA-1 activates transcription of Alas2, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in heme biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase-2 (ALAS-2). Using genetic editing to unravel mechanisms governing heme biosynthesis, we discovered a GATA factor- and heme-dependent circuit that establishes the erythroid cell transcriptome. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation of two Alas2 intronic cis elements strongly reduces GATA-1-induced Alas2 transcription, heme biosynthesis, and surprisingly, GATA-1 regulation of other vital constituents of the erythroid cell transcriptome. Bypassing ALAS-2 function in Alas2 cis element-mutant cells by providing its catalytic product 5-aminolevulinic acid rescues heme biosynthesis and the GATA-1-dependent genetic network. Heme amplifies GATA-1 function by downregulating the heme-sensing transcriptional repressor Bach1 and via a Bach1-insensitive mechanism. Through this dual mechanism, heme and a master regulator collaborate to orchestrate a cell type-specific transcriptional program that promotes cellular differentiation. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. A Heme-responsive Regulator Controls Synthesis of Staphyloferrin B in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Laakso, Holly A; Marolda, Cristina L; Pinter, Tyler B; Stillman, Martin J; Heinrichs, David E

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possesses a multitude of mechanisms by which it can obtain iron during growth under iron starvation conditions. It expresses an effective heme acquisition system (the iron-regulated surface determinant system), it produces two carboxylate-type siderophores staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B (SB), and it expresses transporters for many other siderophores that it does not synthesize. The ferric uptake regulator protein regulates expression of genes encoding all of these systems. Mechanisms of fine-tuning expression of iron-regulated genes, beyond simple iron regulation via ferric uptake regulator, have not been uncovered in this organism. Here, we identify the ninth gene of the sbn operon, sbnI, as encoding a ParB/Spo0J-like protein that is required for expression of genes in the sbn operon from sbnD onward. Expression of sbnD-I is drastically decreased in an sbnI mutant, and the mutant does not synthesize detectable SB during early phases of growth. Thus, SB-mediated iron acquisition is impaired in an sbnI mutant strain. We show that the protein forms dimers and tetramers in solution and binds to DNA within the sbnC coding region. Moreover, we show that SbnI binds heme and that heme-bound SbnI does not bind DNA. Finally, we show that providing exogenous heme to S. aureus growing in an iron-free medium results in delayed synthesis of SB. This is the first study in S. aureus that identifies a DNA-binding regulatory protein that senses heme to control gene expression for siderophore synthesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. A Heme-responsive Regulator Controls Synthesis of Staphyloferrin B in Staphylococcus aureus*♦

    Laakso, Holly A.; Marolda, Cristina L.; Pinter, Tyler B.; Stillman, Martin J.; Heinrichs, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possesses a multitude of mechanisms by which it can obtain iron during growth under iron starvation conditions. It expresses an effective heme acquisition system (the iron-regulated surface determinant system), it produces two carboxylate-type siderophores staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B (SB), and it expresses transporters for many other siderophores that it does not synthesize. The ferric uptake regulator protein regulates expression of genes encoding all of these systems. Mechanisms of fine-tuning expression of iron-regulated genes, beyond simple iron regulation via ferric uptake regulator, have not been uncovered in this organism. Here, we identify the ninth gene of the sbn operon, sbnI, as encoding a ParB/Spo0J-like protein that is required for expression of genes in the sbn operon from sbnD onward. Expression of sbnD–I is drastically decreased in an sbnI mutant, and the mutant does not synthesize detectable SB during early phases of growth. Thus, SB-mediated iron acquisition is impaired in an sbnI mutant strain. We show that the protein forms dimers and tetramers in solution and binds to DNA within the sbnC coding region. Moreover, we show that SbnI binds heme and that heme-bound SbnI does not bind DNA. Finally, we show that providing exogenous heme to S. aureus growing in an iron-free medium results in delayed synthesis of SB. This is the first study in S. aureus that identifies a DNA-binding regulatory protein that senses heme to control gene expression for siderophore synthesis. PMID:26534960

  16. Comparative study of enzyme activity and heme reactivity in Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens cystathionine β-synthases.

    Su, Yang; Majtan, Tomas; Freeman, Katherine M; Linck, Rachel; Ponter, Sarah; Kraus, Jan P; Burstyn, Judith N

    2013-01-29

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway, which is critical for the synthesis of cysteine from methionine in eukaryotes. CBS uses coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for catalysis, and S-adenosylmethionine regulates the activity of human CBS, but not yeast CBS. Human and fruit fly CBS contain heme; however, the role for heme is not clear. This paper reports biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of CBS from fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (DmCBS) and the CO/NO gas binding reactions of DmCBS and human CBS. Like CBS enzymes from lower organisms (e.g., yeast), DmCBS is intrinsically highly active and is not regulated by AdoMet. The DmCBS heme coordination environment, the reactivity, and the accompanying effects on enzyme activity are similar to those of human CBS. The DmCBS heme bears histidine and cysteine axial ligands, and the enzyme becomes inactive when the cysteine ligand is replaced. The Fe(II) heme in DmCBS is less stable than that in human CBS, undergoing more facile reoxidation and ligand exchange. In both CBS proteins, the overall stability of the protein is correlated with the heme oxidation state. Human and DmCBS Fe(II) hemes react relatively slowly with CO and NO, and the rate of the CO binding reaction is faster at low pH than at high pH. Together, the results suggest that heme incorporation and AdoMet regulation in CBS are not correlated, possibly providing two independent means for regulating the enzyme.

  17. Modeling the microscopic electrical properties of thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) for label-free biosensors

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino; Cataldo, Rosella; De Nunzio, Giorgio; Giotta, Livia; Guascito, Maria Rachele

    2017-02-01

    Aptamers are chemically produced oligonucleotides, able to bind a variety of targets such as drugs, proteins and pathogens with high sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, aptamers are largely employed for producing label-free biosensors (aptasensors), with significant applications in diagnostics and drug delivery. In particular, the anti-thrombin aptamers are biomolecules of high interest for clinical use, because of their ability to recognize and bind the thrombin enzyme. Among them, the DNA 15-mer aptamer (TBA), has been widely explored around the possibility of using it in aptasensors. This paper proposes a microscopic model of the electrical properties of TBA and of the aptamer-thrombin complex, combining information from both structure and function, following the issues addressed in an emerging branch of electronics known as proteotronics. The theoretical results are compared and validated with measurements reported in the literature. Finally, the model suggests resistance measurements as a novel tool for testing aptamer-target affinity.

  18. Theoretical and Experimental: The Synthetic and Anion-Binding Properties of Tripodal Salicylaldehyde Derivatives

    Zhong-Jie Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of colorimetric anion probes 1–6 containing OH and NO2 groups were synthesized, and their recognition properties toward various anions were investigated by visual observation, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance titration spectra and theoretical investigation. Nanomaterials of three compounds 2–4 were prepared successfully. Four compounds 3–6 that contain electron-withdrawing substituents showed a high binding ability for AcO−. The host–guest complex formed through a 1:1 binding ratio, and color changes were detectable during the recognition process. Theoretical investigation analysis revealed that an intramolecular hydrogen bond existed in the structures of compounds and the roles of molecular frontier orbitals in molecular interplay. These studies suggested that this series of compounds could be used as colorimetric probes to detect of AcO−.

  19. Inverse gas chromatography as a method for determination of surface properties of binding materials

    Yu, Jihai; Lu, Xiaolei; Yang, Chunxia; Du, Baoli; Wang, Shuxian; Ye, Zhengmao

    2017-09-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a promising measurement technique for investigating the surface properties of binding materials, which are the major influence element for the adsorption performance of superplasticizer. In this work, using the IGC method, blast furnace slag (BFS), sulphoaluminate cement (SAC) and portland cement (P·O) are employed to systematically evaluate the corresponding dispersive component (γsd), specific surface free energy (γsab), and acid-base properties. The obtained results show that γsd contributes to a major section of the surface free energy in the three binding materials, suggesting they are of a relatively low polarity. Compared to the two kinds of cements, the BFS possesses the highest dispersive and specific surface free energies (the values are 45.01 mJ/m2 and 11.68 mJ/m2, respectively), and also exhibits a wider distribution range of γsd, indicating their surfaces are heterogeneous. For acid-base properties, the results indicate the surfaces of three samples are basic in nature. In addition, the adsorption investigation shows that per unit surface of BFS adsorbs the most superplasticizer molecules, which indicates the higher surface free energies is beneficial to the superplasticizer adsorption.

  20. Thermodynamic, Anticoagulant, and Antiproliferative Properties of Thrombin Binding Aptamer Containing Novel UNA Derivative

    Weronika Kotkowiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrinolysis, cell proliferation, and migration. Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA is able to inhibit the activity of thrombin molecule via binding to its exosite I. This 15-nt DNA oligonucleotide forms an intramolecular, antiparallel G-quadruplex structure with a chair-like conformation. In this paper, we report on our investigations on the influence of certain modified nucleotide residues on thermodynamic stability, folding topology, and biological properties of TBA variants. In particular, the effect of single incorporation of a novel 4-thiouracil derivative of unlocked nucleic acid (UNA, as well as single incorporation of 4-thiouridine and all four canonical UNAs, was evaluated. The studies presented herein have shown that 4-thiouridine in RNA and UNA series, as well as all four canonical UNAs, can efficiently modulate G-quadruplex thermodynamic and biological stability, and that the effect is strongly position dependent. Interestingly, TBA variants containing the modified nucleotide residues are characterized by unchanged folding topology. Thrombin time assay revealed that incorporation of certain UNA residues may improve G-quadruplex anticoagulant properties. Noteworthy, some TBA variants, characterized by decreased ability to inhibit thrombin activity, possess significant antiproliferative properties reducing the viability of the HeLa cell line even by 95% at 10 μM concentration.

  1. Effect of 60Co-gamma radiation on the binding properties in furs

    Raina, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pelts were pickled by the usual procedure and were tanned with basic aluminium sulphate, basic chromium sulphate and their combinations. Tanned furs were irradiated with 60 Co-gamma radiations in the dose range of 5.0-114.0 kGy. The effect of radiation on the binding properties of various added substances like mineral tannins, fats, moisture and shrinkage temperature has been assessed by their comparison with the control samples. The results of these investigations show that radiation on furs causes detannage, increases the moisture and bound fat content and decreases the shrinkage temperature of the furs. (author)

  2. Effect of [sup 60]Co-gamma radiation on the binding properties in furs

    Raina, R K [Regional Research Lab., Srinagar (India)

    1992-09-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pelts were pickled by the usual procedure and were tanned with basic aluminium sulphate, basic chromium sulphate and their combinations. Tanned furs were irradiated with [sup 60]Co-gamma radiations in the dose range of 5.0-114.0 kGy. The effect of radiation on the binding properties of various added substances like mineral tannins, fats, moisture and shrinkage temperature has been assessed by their comparison with the control samples. The results of these investigations show that radiation on furs causes detannage, increases the moisture and bound fat content and decreases the shrinkage temperature of the furs. (author).

  3. Investigation of gas molecules adsorption on carbon nano tubes electric properties in tight binding model

    Moradian, R.; Mohammadi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Based on tight binding model we investigated effects of bi-atomic molecules gas(in the general form denoted by X 2 )on single-walled carbon nano tubes electronic properties. We found for some specified values of hopping integrals and random on-site energies, adsorbed molecules bound states located inside of the (10,0) single-walled carbon nano tubes energy gap, where it is similar to the reported experimental results for O 2 adsorption while for other values there is no bound states inside of energy gap. This is similar to the N 2 adsorption on semiconductor single-walled carbon nano tubes.

  4. Synthesis and binding properties of calix[4]arene diamide dicarboxylic acids

    Arnaud-Neu, F.; Barboso, S.; Schwing-Weill, M.J.; Casnati, A.; Pinalli, A.; Ungaro, R.

    2000-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes diametrically substituted at the lower rim with two carboxylic acid and two tertiary amide binding groups were obtained in good yields and their acid-base properties studied in methanol solution. Complexation studies, performed in methanol by potentiometry, show that mononuclear (MLH z , z = 0,1) or dinuclear (M 2 L) complexes are formed with alkali metal cations, whereas M x L 2 H z (x=1,2,z = 0,1) species, involving two ligands, are also present with alkaline-earth cations. Both ligands show a remarkable selectivity for Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ among alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions. (authors)

  5. Measurement of Heme Synthesis Levels in Mammalian Cells.

    Hooda, Jagmohan; Alam, Maksudul; Zhang, Li

    2015-07-09

    Heme serves as the prosthetic group for a wide variety of proteins known as hemoproteins, such as hemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochromes. It is involved in various molecular and cellular processes such as gene transcription, translation, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. The biosynthesis levels of heme vary across different tissues and cell types and is altered in diseased conditions such as anemia, neuropathy and cancer. This technique uses [4-(14)C] 5-aminolevulinic acid ([(14)C] 5-ALA), one of the early precursors in the heme biosynthesis pathway to measure the levels of heme synthesis in mammalian cells. This assay involves incubation of cells with [(14)C] 5-ALA followed by extraction of heme and measurement of the radioactivity incorporated into heme. This procedure is accurate and quick. This method measures the relative levels of heme biosynthesis rather than the total heme content. To demonstrate the use of this technique the levels of heme biosynthesis were measured in several mammalian cell lines.

  6. Thermodynamic stability and retinol binding property of {beta}-lactoglobulin in the presence of cationic surfactants

    Sahihi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K., E-mail: bordbar@chem.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghayeb, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The stability parameters of {beta}-lactoglobulin, BLG, in the presence of C{sub n}TAB have been evaluated. > Rising in hydrocarbon chain length increases the denaturating power of surfactants. > C{sub n}TAB enhances the retinol binding affinity of BLG in all of its concentration range. - Abstract: In this work the stability parameters of bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin, variant A (BLG-A), with regard to their transition curves induced by dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 12}TAB), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 16}TAB) as cationic surfactants, were determined at 298 K. For each transition curve, the conventional method of analysis which assumes a linear concentration dependence of the pre- and post-transition base lines, gave the most realistic values for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O). The results represent the increase in the denaturating power of surfactants with an increase in hydrocarbon chain length. The value of about 22.27 kJ . mol{sup -1} was obtained for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O) from transition curves. Subsequently, the retinol binding property of BLG as its functional indicator was investigated in the presence of these surfactants using the spectrofluorimeter titration method. The results represent the substantial enhancement of retinol binding affinity of BLG in the presence of these surfactants.

  7. Fluorescence Spectral Properties of All4261 Binding with Phycocyanobilin in E.Coli

    Ma, Q.; Zheng, X. J.; Zhou, Z.; Zhou, N.; Zhao, K. H.; Zhou, M.

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are chromophorylated proteins that acting as sensory photoreceptors in cyanobacteria. Based on the bioinformatics of All4261 in Nostoc sp. PCC7120, All4261 is a CBCR apoprotein composed of GAF domains in the N-terminal region. Via polymerase chain reaction with specific primers, All4261 was amplified with genome DNA of Nostoc sp. PCC7120 as template and then subcloned into the expression vector pET30(a+). To survey the fluorescence spectral properties, All4261 was coexpressed with the plasmid that catalyzes phycocyanobilin (PCB) biosynthesis, pACYC-ho1-pcyA, in E.coli BL21. Fluorescence emission spectra and excitation spectra showed that chromophorylated cells containing All4261-PCB had a fluorescence emission peak at 645 nm and a fluorescence excitation peak at 550 nm, but no reversible photoconversion. In order to identify the binding site of PCB in All4261, we obtained three variants All4261(C296L), All4261(C328A), and All4261(C339L), via sitedirected mutagenesis. The binding site was identified as C339 based on the lack of PCB binding of All4261(C339L).

  8. Acid-base and copper-binding properties of three organic matter fractions isolated from a forest floor soil solution

    van Schaik, Joris W. J.; Kleja, Dan B.; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2010-02-01

    Vast amounts of knowledge about the proton- and metal-binding properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters have been obtained in studies on isolated humic and fulvic (hydrophobic) acids. Although macromolecular hydrophilic acids normally make up about one-third of DOM, their proton- and metal-binding properties are poorly known. Here, we investigated the acid-base and Cu-binding properties of the hydrophobic (fulvic) acid fraction and two hydrophilic fractions isolated from a soil solution. Proton titrations revealed a higher total charge for the hydrophilic acid fractions than for the hydrophobic acid fraction. The most hydrophilic fraction appeared to be dominated by weak acid sites, as evidenced by increased slope of the curve of surface charge versus pH at pH values above 6. The titration curves were poorly predicted by both Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and NICA-Donnan model calculations using generic parameter values, but could be modelled accurately after optimisation of the proton-binding parameters (pH ⩽ 9). Cu-binding isotherms for the three fractions were determined at pH values of 4, 6 and 9. With the optimised proton-binding parameters, the SHM model predictions for Cu binding improved, whereas the NICA-Donnan predictions deteriorated. After optimisation of Cu-binding parameters, both models described the experimental data satisfactorily. Iron(III) and aluminium competed strongly with Cu for binding sites at both pH 4 and pH 6. The SHM model predicted this competition reasonably well, but the NICA-Donnan model underestimated the effects significantly at pH 6. Overall, the Cu-binding behaviour of the two hydrophilic acid fractions was very similar to that of the hydrophobic acid fraction, despite the differences observed in proton-binding characteristics. These results show that for modelling purposes, it is essential to include the hydrophilic acid fraction in the pool of 'active' humic substances.

  9. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation : Toward understanding and improvement of heme biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.

    S. de Weert; P.J. Punt; Christien Lokman; C.A. van den Hondel; A.C. Franken; A.F. Ram

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  10. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation: Towards understanding and improvement of heme biosynthesis in filamentous fungi

    Franken, A.C.W.; Lokman, B.C.; Ram, A.F.J.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Weert, S. de

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  11. Hydrodynamic and Membrane Binding Properties of Purified Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag Protein

    Dick, Robert A.; Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Nanda, Hirsh; Fang, Xianyang; Wen, Yi; Barros, Marilia; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan; Vogt, Volker M. (NCI); (Cornell); (CM); (NIST)

    2016-05-06

    Previously, no retroviral Gag protein has been highly purified in milligram quantities and in a biologically relevant and active form. We have purified Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein and in parallel several truncation mutants of Gag and have studied their biophysical properties and membrane interactionsin vitro. RSV Gag is unusual in that it is not naturally myristoylated. From its ability to assemble into virus-like particlesin vitro, we infer that RSV Gag is biologically active. By size exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering, Gag in solution appears extended and flexible, in contrast to previous reports on unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag, which is compact. However, by neutron reflectometry measurements of RSV Gag bound to a supported bilayer, the protein appears to adopt a more compact, folded-over conformation. At physiological ionic strength, purified Gag binds strongly to liposomes containing acidic lipids. This interaction is stimulated by physiological levels of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and by cholesterol. However, unlike HIV-1 Gag, RSV Gag shows no sensitivity to acyl chain saturation. In contrast with full-length RSV Gag, the purified MA domain of Gag binds to liposomes only weakly. Similarly, both an N-terminally truncated version of Gag that is missing the MA domain and a C-terminally truncated version that is missing the NC domain bind only weakly. These results imply that NC contributes to membrane interactionin vitro, either by directly contacting acidic lipids or by promoting Gag multimerization.

    Retroviruses like HIV assemble at and bud from the plasma membrane of cells. Assembly requires the interaction between thousands of Gag molecules to form a lattice. Previous work indicated that lattice formation at the plasma membrane is influenced by the conformation of monomeric HIV. We have extended this work to the more tractable RSV Gag. Our

  12. Characterization of ligand binding to melanocortin 4 receptors using fluorescent peptides with improved kinetic properties.

    Link, Reet; Veiksina, Santa; Rinken, Ago; Kopanchuk, Sergei

    2017-03-15

    Melanocortin 4 (MC 4 ) receptors are important drug targets as they regulate energy homeostasis, eating behaviour and sexual functions. The ligand binding process to these G protein-coupled receptors is subject to considerable complexity. Different steps in the complex dynamic regulation can be characterized by ligand binding kinetics. Optimization of these kinetic parameters in terms of on-rate and residence time can increase the rapid onset of drug action and reduce off-target effects. Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is one of the homogeneous fluorescence-based assays that enable continuous online monitoring of ligand binding kinetics. FA has been implemented for the kinetic study of melanocortin MC 4 receptors expressed on budded baculoviruses. However, the slow dissociation of the fluorescently labelled peptide NDP-α-MSH does not enable reaching equilibrium nor enable more in-depth study of the binding mechanisms. To overcome this problem, two novel red-shifted fluorescent ligands were designed. These cyclized heptapeptide derivatives (UTBC101 and UTBC102) exhibited nanomolar affinity toward melanocortin MC 4 receptors but had relatively different kinetic properties. The dissociation half-lives of UTBC101 (τ 1/2 =160min) and UTBC102 (τ 1/2 =7min) were shorter compared to that what was previously reported for Cy3B-NDP-α-MSH (τ 1/2 =224min). The significantly shorter dissociation half-life of UTBC102 enables equilibrium in screening assays, whereas the higher affinity of UTBC101 helps to resolve a wider range of competitor potencies. These two ligands are suitable for further kinetic screening of novel melanocortin MC 4 receptor specific ligands and could complement each other in these studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties of the periplasmic ModA molybdate-binding protein of Escherichia coli.

    Rech, S; Wolin, C; Gunsalus, R P

    1996-02-02

    The modABCD operon, located at 17 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome, encodes the protein components of a high affinity molybdate uptake system. Sequence analysis of the modA gene (GenBank L34009) predicts that it encodes a periplasmic binding protein based on the presence of a leader-like sequence at its N terminus. To examine the properties of the ModA protein, the modA structural gene was overexpressed, and its product was purified. The ModA protein was localized to the periplasmic space of the cell, and it was released following a gentle osmotic shock. The N-terminal sequence of ModA confirmed that a leader region of 24 amino acids was removed upon export from the cell. The apparent size of ModA is 31.6 kDa as determined by gel sieve chromatography, whereas it is 22.5 kDa when examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A ligand-dependent protein mobility shift assay was devised using a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protocol to examine binding of molybdate and other anions to the ModA periplasmic protein. Whereas molybdate and tungstate were bound with high affinity (approximately 5 microM), sulfate, chromate, selenate, phosphate, and chlorate did not bind even when tested at 2 mM. A UV spectral assay revealed apparent Kd values of binding for molybdate and tungstate of 3 and 7 microM, respectively. Strains defective in the modA gene were unable to transport molybdate unless high levels of the anion were supplied in the medium. Therefore the modA gene product is essential for high affinity molybdate uptake by the cell. Tungstate interference of molybdate acquisition by the cell is apparently due in part to the high affinity of the ModA protein for this anion.

  14. Characterization of the complex between native and reduced bovine serum albumin with aquacobalamin and evidence of dual tetrapyrrole binding.

    Dereven'kov, Ilia A; Hannibal, Luciana; Makarov, Sergei V; Makarova, Anna S; Molodtsov, Pavel A; Koifman, Oskar I

    2018-05-02

    Serum albumin binds to a variety of endogenous ligands and drugs. Human serum albumin (HSA) binds to heme via hydrophobic interactions and axial coordination of the iron center by protein residue Tyr161. Human serum albumin binds to another tetrapyrrole, cobalamin (Cbl), but the structural and functional properties of this complex are poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the reaction between aquacobalamin (H 2 OCbl) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, the bovine counterpart of HSA) using Ultraviolet-Visible and fluorescent spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. The reaction between H 2 OCbl and BSA led to the formation of a BSA-Cbl(III) complex consistent with N-axial ligation (amino). Prior to the formation of this complex, the reactants participate in an additional binding event that has been examined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Binding of BSA to Cbl(III) reduced complex formation between the bound cobalamin and free cyanide to form cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), suggesting that the β-axial position of the cobalamin may be occupied by an amino acid residue from the protein. Reaction of BSA containing reduced disulfide bonds with H 2 OCbl produces cob(II)alamin and disulfide with intermediate formation of thiolate Cbl(III)-BSA complex and its decomposition. Finally, in vitro studies showed that cobalamin binds to BSA only in the presence of an excess of protein, which is in contrast to heme binding to BSA that involves a 1:1 stoichiometry. In vitro formation of BSA-Cbl(III) complex does not preclude subsequent heme binding, which occurs without displacement of H 2 OCbl bound to BSA. These data suggest that the two tetrapyrroles interact with BSA in different binding pockets.

  15. Tight-binding study of the structural and magnetic properties of vanadium clusters

    Zhao Jijun; Lain, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of small vanadium clusters are studied in the framework of tight-binding theory. According to parameters of the cluster dimer and bulk solid, we developed a tight-binding interatomic potential and calculated the bonding energies for the different possible structures to determine the ground state atomic configurations of the small vanadium clusters. The theoretical bonding energies for the vanadium clusters agree with the experiment much better than the simple droplet model. However, the calculated values for the clusters of odd atomic number are somewhat higher than the measured ones, corresponding to the pair occupation of delocalized 4s 1 electrons. Based on the optimized geometries, we study the magnetic properties of these clusters through a parametrized Hubbard Hamiltonian. We find the small V clusters of ground-state structures exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior while the alignment of local moments in the clusters with the unoptimized structures may show either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic characteristics. The average magnetic moments of the clusters decrease nonmonotonically as cluster size increases and the theoretical results are consistent with the upper limits obtained from a recent experiment. (orig.)

  16. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors 55 FeCl3 and [2- 14 C]glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated [2-14C]glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool

  17. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Calcium Binding Properties and Allosteric Regulation of Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM).

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Craig, Theodore A; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L

    2017-07-18

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is an EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding protein that also binds to a specific DNA sequence, downstream regulatory elements (DRE), and thereby regulates transcription in a calcium-dependent fashion. DREAM binds to DRE in the absence of Ca 2+ but detaches from DRE under Ca 2+ stimulation, allowing gene expression. The Ca 2+ binding properties of DREAM and the consequences of the binding on protein structure are key to understanding the function of DREAM. Here we describe the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the Ca 2+ binding properties and the subsequent conformational changes of full-length DREAM. We demonstrate that all EF-hands undergo large conformation changes upon calcium binding even though the EF-1 hand is not capable of binding to Ca 2+ . Moreover, EF-2 is a lower-affinity site compared to EF-3 and -4 hands. Comparison of HDX profiles between wild-type DREAM and two EF-1 mutated constructs illustrates that the conformational changes in the EF-1 hand are induced by long-range structural interactions. HDX analyses also reveal a conformational change in an N-terminal leucine-charged residue-rich domain (LCD) remote from Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands. This LCD domain is responsible for the direct interaction between DREAM and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and regulates the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB-binding protein. These long-range interactions strongly suggest how conformational changes transmit the Ca 2+ signal to CREB-mediated gene transcription.

  19. Identification of the heme acquisition system in Vibrio vulnificus M2799.

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Yasunobe, Megumi; Murata, Masahiro; Yamahata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Miyaki, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Tanabe, Tomotaka; Funahashi, Tatsuya; Tsujibo, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, the causative agent of serious, often fatal, infections in humans, requires iron for its pathogenesis. As such, it obtains iron via both vulnibactin and heme-mediated iron-uptake systems. In this study, we identified the heme acquisition system in V. vulnificus M2799. The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding heme receptors HupA and HvtA and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system proteins HupB, HupC, and HupD were determined, and then used in the construction of deletion mutants developed from a Δics strain, which could not synthesize vulnibactin. Growth experiments using these mutants indicated that HupA and HvtA are major and minor heme receptors, respectively. The expressions of two proteins were analyzed by the quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, complementation analyses confirmed that the HupBCD proteins are the only ABC transport system shared by both the HupA and HvtA receptors. This is the first genetic evidence that the HupBCD proteins are essential for heme acquisition by V. vulnificus. Further investigation showed that hupA, hvtA, and hupBCD are regulated by Fur. The qRT-PCR analysis of the heme receptor genes revealed that HupR, a LysR-family positive transcriptional activator, upregulates the expression of hupA, but not hvtA. In addition, ptrB was co-transcribed with hvtA, and PtrB had no influence on growth in low-iron CM9 medium supplemented with hemin, hemoglobin, or cytochrome C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heme and non-heme iron transporters in non-polarized and polarized cells

    Yasui Yumiko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme and non-heme iron from diet, and recycled iron from hemoglobin are important products of the synthesis of iron-containing molecules. In excess, iron is potentially toxic because it can produce reactive oxygen species through the Fenton reaction. Humans can absorb, transport, store, and recycle iron without an excretory system to remove excess iron. Two candidate heme transporters and two iron transporters have been reported thus far. Heme incorporated into cells is degraded by heme oxygenases (HOs, and the iron product is reutilized by the body. To specify the processes of heme uptake and degradation, and the reutilization of iron, we determined the subcellular localizations of these transporters and HOs. Results In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localizations of 2 isoenzymes of HOs, 4 isoforms of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, and 2 candidate heme transporters--heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1 and heme responsive gene-1 (HRG-1--in non-polarized and polarized cells. In non-polarized cells, HCP1, HRG-1, and DMT1A-I are located in the plasma membrane. In polarized cells, they show distinct localizations: HCP1 and DMT1A-I are located in the apical membrane, whereas HRG-1 is located in the basolateral membrane and lysosome. 16Leu at DMT1A-I N-terminal cytosolic domain was found to be crucial for plasma membrane localization. HOs are located in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and colocalize with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Conclusions HCP1 and DMT1A-I are localized to the apical membrane, and HRG-1 to the basolateral membrane and lysosome. These findings suggest that HCP1 and DMT1A-I have functions in the uptake of dietary heme and non-heme iron. HRG-1 can transport endocytosed heme from the lysosome into the cytosol. These localization studies support a model in which cytosolic heme can be degraded by HOs, and the resulting iron is exported into tissue fluids via the iron transporter ferroportin 1, which is

  1. Biochemical and biological properties of the binding of human fibrinogen to M protein in group A streptococci

    Whitnack, E.; Beachey, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Fibrinogen is known to bind to group A streptococci and precipitate with extracts containing streptococcal M protein. The authors have previously shown that the binding of fibrinogen to M-positive streptococci prevents opsonization by complement and protects that organism from phagocytosis in nonimmune blood. In the present study, they used 3 H-labeled fibrinogen, a highly purified peptide fragment of type 24 M protein (pep M24), and anti-pep M sera to show that fibrinogen binds to M-positive streptococci with high affinity; occupation of the high-affinity binding sites suffices to protect the organism from phagocytosis; proteolytic treatments that remove M protein from streptococcal cells abolish binding; binding is competitively inhibited by anti-pep M sera; pep M24 precipitates fibrinogen; and binding to type 24 cells is inhibited by pep M24. They conclude that M protein is the cell surface structure principally responsible for binding fibrinogen on the surface of M-positive streptococci and that this binding contributes to the known antiopsonic property of M proteins

  2. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS)

    Du, Y.; Liu, G.; Yan, Y.; Huang, D.; Luo, W.; Martínková, M.; Man, Petr; Shimizu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 839-852 ISSN 0966-0844 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Heme oxygenase * Heme protein * Hydrogen sulfide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.689, year: 2013

  3. Molecular hijacking of siroheme for the synthesis of heme and d1 heme.

    Bali, Shilpa; Lawrence, Andrew D; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Lígia M; Golding, Bernard T; Palmer, David J; Howard, Mark J; Ferguson, Stuart J; Warren, Martin J

    2011-11-08

    Modified tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, vitamin B(12), coenzyme F(430), and heme d(1) underpin a wide range of essential biological functions in all domains of life, and it is therefore surprising that the syntheses of many of these life pigments remain poorly understood. It is known that the construction of the central molecular framework of modified tetrapyrroles is mediated via a common, core pathway. Herein a further branch of the modified tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway is described in denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as the Archaea. This process entails the hijacking of siroheme, the prosthetic group of sulfite and nitrite reductase, and its processing into heme and d(1) heme. The initial step in these transformations involves the decarboxylation of siroheme to give didecarboxysiroheme. For d(1) heme synthesis this intermediate has to undergo the replacement of two propionate side chains with oxygen functionalities and the introduction of a double bond into a further peripheral side chain. For heme synthesis didecarboxysiroheme is converted into Fe-coproporphyrin by oxidative loss of two acetic acid side chains. Fe-coproporphyrin is then transformed into heme by the oxidative decarboxylation of two propionate side chains. The mechanisms of these reactions are discussed and the evolutionary significance of another role for siroheme is examined.

  4. RNA-binding properties and RNA chaperone activity of human peroxiredoxin 1

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Lee, Hae Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Bin; Ahn, Sung-Min; Jang, Ho Hee; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► hPrx1 has RNA-binding properties. ► hPrx1 exhibits helix-destabilizing activity. ► Cold stress increases hPrx1 level in the nuclear fraction. ► hPrx1 enhances the viability of cells exposed to cold stress. -- Abstract: Human peroxiredoxin 1 (hPrx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, detoxifies peroxide substrates and has been implicated in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and redox signaling. To date, Prx1 has not been implicated in RNA metabolism. Here, we investigated the ability of hPrx1 to bind RNA and act as an RNA chaperone. In vitro, hPrx1 bound to RNA and DNA, and unwound nucleic acid duplexes. hPrx1 also acted as a transcription anti-terminator in an assay using an Escherichia coli strain containing a stem–loop structure upstream of the chloramphenicol resistance gene. The overall cellular level of hPrx1 expression was not increased at low temperatures, but the nuclear level of hPrx1 was increased. In addition, hPrx1 overexpression enhanced the survival of cells exposed to cold stress, whereas hPrx1 knockdown significantly reduced cell survival under the same conditions. These findings suggest that hPrx1 may perform biological functions as a RNA-binding protein, which are distinctive from known functions of hPrx1 as a reactive oxygen species scavenger.

  5. Cucumber Metallothionein-Like 2 (CsMTL2 Exhibits Metal-Binding Properties

    Yu Pan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We identified a novel member of the metallothionein (MT family, Cucumis sativus metallothionein-like 2 (CsMTL2, by screening a young cucumber fruit complementary DNA (cDNA library. The CsMTL2 encodes a putative 77-amino acid Class II MT protein that contains two cysteine (Cys-rich domains separated by a Cys-free spacer region. We found that CsMTL2 expression was regulated by metal stress and was specifically induced by Cd2+ treatment. We investigated the metal-binding characteristics of CsMTL2 and its possible role in the homeostasis and/or detoxification of metals by heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, we produced a deletion mutant form of the protein, CsMTL2m, that contained the two Cys-rich clusters but lacked the spacer region, in E. coli. We compared the metal-binding properties of CsMTL2 with those of CsMTL2m, the β domain of human metallothionein-like protein 1 (HsMTXb, and phytochelatin-like (PCL heterologously expressed in E. coli using metal-binding assays. We found that E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 accumulated the highest levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ of the four transformed cell types, with levels being significantly higher than those of control cells containing empty vector. E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 had a higher tolerance for cadmium than for zinc ions. These findings show that CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance when heterologously expressed in E. coli. Future studies should examine whether CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance in planta.

  6. NirN Protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Novel Electron-bifurcating Dehydrogenase Catalyzing the Last Step of Heme d1 Biosynthesis*

    Adamczack, Julia; Hoffmann, Martin; Papke, Ulrich; Haufschildt, Kristin; Nicke, Tristan; Bröring, Martin; Sezer, Murat; Weimar, Rebecca; Kuhlmann, Uwe; Hildebrandt, Peter; Layer, Gunhild

    2014-01-01

    Heme d1 plays an important role in denitrification as the essential cofactor of the cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase NirS. At present, the biosynthesis of heme d1 is only partially understood. The last step of heme d1 biosynthesis requires a so far unknown enzyme that catalyzes the introduction of a double bond into one of the propionate side chains of the tetrapyrrole yielding the corresponding acrylate side chain. In this study, we show that a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain lacking the NirN protein does not produce heme d1. Instead, the NirS purified from this strain contains the heme d1 precursor dihydro-heme d1 lacking the acrylic double bond, as indicated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and resonance Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the dihydro-heme d1 was extracted from purified NirS and characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and finally identified by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Moreover, we show that purified NirN from P. aeruginosa binds the dihydro-heme d1 and catalyzes the introduction of the acrylic double bond in vitro. Strikingly, NirN uses an electron bifurcation mechanism for the two-electron oxidation reaction, during which one electron ends up on its heme c cofactor and the second electron reduces the substrate/product from the ferric to the ferrous state. On the basis of our results, we propose novel roles for the proteins NirN and NirF during the biosynthesis of heme d1. PMID:25204657

  7. Kidney injury and heme oxygenase-1

    Hai-xing MAI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available     Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is one of the main pathways to degrade heme in mammals, and the main degradation products are free iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO, and bilirubin. Heme plays an important role in promoting cell survival, circulation of intracellular substrates, and immune regulation. Previous studies suggest that HO-1 pathway is an important internal factor in determining the susceptibility and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. The induction of HO-1 expression can attenuate the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI, and the inhibition of HO-1 expression will aggravate IRI. The present article summarizes the latest advances in research abroad and at home on protective mechanism by which HO-1 prevents AKI to further deepen our understanding of the role of HO-1 in the treatment of AKI.   

  8. Heme and erythropoieis: more than a structural role

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is the biological process that consumes the highest amount of body iron for heme synthesis. Heme synthesis in erythroid cells is finely coordinated with that of alpha (α) and beta (β)-globin, resulting in the production of hemoglobin, a tetramer of 2α- and 2β-globin chains, and heme as the prosthetic group. Heme is not only the structural component of hemoglobin, but it plays multiple regulatory roles during the differentiation of erythroid precursors since it controls its own ...

  9. Decoding Structural Properties of a Partially Unfolded Protein Substrate: En Route to Chaperone Binding

    Nagpal, Suhani; Tiwari, Satyam; Mapa, Koyeli; Thukral, Lipi

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins comprising of complex topologies require molecular chaperones to achieve their unique three-dimensional folded structure. The E.coli chaperone, GroEL binds with a large number of unfolded and partially folded proteins, to facilitate proper folding and prevent misfolding and aggregation. Although the major structural components of GroEL are well defined, scaffolds of the non-native substrates that determine chaperone-mediated folding have been difficult to recognize. Here we performed all-atomistic and replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to dissect non-native ensemble of an obligate GroEL folder, DapA. Thermodynamics analyses of unfolding simulations revealed populated intermediates with distinct structural characteristics. We found that surface exposed hydrophobic patches are significantly increased, primarily contributed from native and non-native β-sheet elements. We validate the structural properties of these conformers using experimental data, including circular dichroism (CD), 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding measurements and previously reported hydrogen-deutrium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Further, we constructed network graphs to elucidate long-range intra-protein connectivity of native and intermediate topologies, demonstrating regions that serve as central “hubs”. Overall, our results implicate that genomic variations (or mutations) in the distinct regions of protein structures might disrupt these topological signatures disabling chaperone-mediated folding, leading to formation of aggregates. PMID:26394388

  10. Decoding Structural Properties of a Partially Unfolded Protein Substrate: En Route to Chaperone Binding.

    Nagpal, Suhani; Tiwari, Satyam; Mapa, Koyeli; Thukral, Lipi

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins comprising of complex topologies require molecular chaperones to achieve their unique three-dimensional folded structure. The E.coli chaperone, GroEL binds with a large number of unfolded and partially folded proteins, to facilitate proper folding and prevent misfolding and aggregation. Although the major structural components of GroEL are well defined, scaffolds of the non-native substrates that determine chaperone-mediated folding have been difficult to recognize. Here we performed all-atomistic and replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to dissect non-native ensemble of an obligate GroEL folder, DapA. Thermodynamics analyses of unfolding simulations revealed populated intermediates with distinct structural characteristics. We found that surface exposed hydrophobic patches are significantly increased, primarily contributed from native and non-native β-sheet elements. We validate the structural properties of these conformers using experimental data, including circular dichroism (CD), 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding measurements and previously reported hydrogen-deutrium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Further, we constructed network graphs to elucidate long-range intra-protein connectivity of native and intermediate topologies, demonstrating regions that serve as central "hubs". Overall, our results implicate that genomic variations (or mutations) in the distinct regions of protein structures might disrupt these topological signatures disabling chaperone-mediated folding, leading to formation of aggregates.

  11. NMR characterization of the DNA binding properties of a novel Hoechst 33258 analogue peptide building block

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Behrens, Carsten; Jacobsen, Jens Peter

    2002-01-01

    A novel aryl-bis-benzimidazole amino acid analogue of the DNA-binding compound Hoechst 33258 has recently been designed for incorporation in peptide combinatorial libraries by replacing the N-methylpiperazine group with a carboxyl group and the hydroxy group with an amino-methyl group. The DNA......-binding properties of the aryl-bis-benzimidazole monomer with the C-terminus derivatized with 3-(dimethylamino)-propylamine has been investigated in this paper by (1)H NMR studies of two different complexes with two different DNA sequences: A(5) d(5'-GCCA(5)CG-3'):d(5'-CGT(5)GGC-3') and A(3)T(3) d(5'-CGA(3)T(3)CG-3...... preference with the bis-benzimidazole moiety displaced toward the 3'-end from the center of the duplex. Two families of models of the complexes with A(5) and A(3)T(3) were derived with restrained molecular dynamics based on a large set of 70 and 61, respectively, intermolecular ligand NOEs. Both models give...

  12. Cell Surface Properties of Lactococcus lactis Reveal Milk Protein Binding Specifically Evolved in Dairy Isolates

    Mariya Tarazanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties of bacteria are determined by the molecular composition of the cell wall and they are important for interactions of cells with their environment. Well-known examples of bacterial interactions with surfaces are biofilm formation and the fermentation of solid materials like food and feed. Lactococcus lactis is broadly used for the fermentation of cheese and buttermilk and it is primarily isolated from either plant material or the dairy environment. In this study, we characterized surface hydrophobicity, charge, emulsification properties, and the attachment to milk proteins of 55 L. lactis strains in stationary and exponential growth phases. The attachment to milk protein was assessed through a newly developed flow cytometry-based protocol. Besides finding a high degree of biodiversity, phenotype-genotype matching allowed the identification of candidate genes involved in the modification of the cell surface. Overexpression and gene deletion analysis allowed to verify the predictions for three identified proteins that altered surface hydrophobicity and attachment of milk proteins. The data also showed that lactococci isolated from a dairy environment bind higher amounts of milk proteins when compared to plant isolates. It remains to be determined whether the alteration of surface properties also has potential to alter starter culture functionalities.

  13. Cell Surface Properties of Lactococcus lactis Reveal Milk Protein Binding Specifically Evolved in Dairy Isolates

    Tarazanova, Mariya; Huppertz, Thom; Beerthuyzen, Marke; van Schalkwijk, Saskia; Janssen, Patrick; Wels, Michiel; Kok, Jan; Bachmann, Herwig

    2017-01-01

    Surface properties of bacteria are determined by the molecular composition of the cell wall and they are important for interactions of cells with their environment. Well-known examples of bacterial interactions with surfaces are biofilm formation and the fermentation of solid materials like food and feed. Lactococcus lactis is broadly used for the fermentation of cheese and buttermilk and it is primarily isolated from either plant material or the dairy environment. In this study, we characterized surface hydrophobicity, charge, emulsification properties, and the attachment to milk proteins of 55 L. lactis strains in stationary and exponential growth phases. The attachment to milk protein was assessed through a newly developed flow cytometry-based protocol. Besides finding a high degree of biodiversity, phenotype-genotype matching allowed the identification of candidate genes involved in the modification of the cell surface. Overexpression and gene deletion analysis allowed to verify the predictions for three identified proteins that altered surface hydrophobicity and attachment of milk proteins. The data also showed that lactococci isolated from a dairy environment bind higher amounts of milk proteins when compared to plant isolates. It remains to be determined whether the alteration of surface properties also has potential to alter starter culture functionalities. PMID:28936202

  14. Structure prediction and activity analysis of human heme oxygenase-1 and its mutant.

    Xia, Zhen-Wei; Zhou, Wen-Pu; Cui, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Shen, Qing-Xiang; Li, Yun-Zhu; Yu, Shan-Chang

    2004-08-15

    To predict wild human heme oxygenase-1 (whHO-1) and hHO-1 His25Ala mutant (delta hHO-1) structures, to clone and express them and analyze their activities. Swiss-PdbViewer and Antheprot 5.0 were used for the prediction of structure diversity and physical-chemical changes between wild and mutant hHO-1. hHO-1 His25Ala mutant cDNA was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two plasmids of E. coli DH5alpha. Expression products were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, and their activities were measured. rHO-1 had the structure of a helical fold with the heme sandwiched between heme-heme oxygenase-1 helices. Bond angle, dihedral angle and chemical bond in the active pocket changed after Ala25 was replaced by His25, but Ala25 was still contacting the surface and the electrostatic potential of the active pocket was negative. The mutated enzyme kept binding activity to heme. Two vectors pBHO-1 and pBHO-1(M) were constructed and expressed. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography yielded 3.6-fold and 30-fold higher purities of whHO-1, respectively. The activity of delta hHO-1 was reduced 91.21% after mutation compared with whHO-1. Proximal His25 ligand is crucial for normal hHO-1 catalytic activity. delta hHO-1 is deactivated by mutation but keeps the same binding site as whHO-1. delta hHO-1 might be a potential inhibitor of whHO-1 for preventing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. High overexpression of dye decolorizing peroxidase TfuDyP leads to the incorporation of heme precursor protoporphyrin IX

    Colpa, Dana I.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Dye decolorizing peroxidase TfuDyP binds heme and protoporphyrin IX in vivo. • The activity of TfuDyP is dependent on the expression level in E. coli. • Expression of fully functional DyPs can be tuned by the type of expression host and expression conditions. The heterologous

  16. Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation

    IJssennagger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme

  17. Heme oxygenase activity increases after exercise in healthy volunteers

    AbstractHeme oxygenase (HO) is an essential, rate-limiting protein which participates in the catabolism of heme to iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin. The alpha methene bridge carbon of the heme is eliminated as CO which can be measured as blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)....

  18. Construction of a Bivalent Thrombin Binding Aptamer and Its Antidote with Improved Properties

    Quintin W. Hughes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short synthetic DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that adopt secondary and tertiary conformations based on Watson–Crick base-pairing interactions and can be used to target a range of different molecules. Two aptamers, HD1 and HD22, that bind to exosites I and II of the human thrombin molecule, respectively, have been extensively studied due to their anticoagulant potentials. However, a fundamental issue preventing the clinical translation of many aptamers is degradation by nucleases and reduced pharmacokinetic properties requiring higher dosing regimens more often. In this study, we have chemically modified the design of previously described thrombin binding aptamers targeting exosites I, HD1, and exosite II, HD22. The individual aptamers were first modified with an inverted deoxythymidine nucleotide, and then constructed bivalent aptamers by connecting the HD1 and HD22 aptamers either through a triethylene glycol (TEG linkage or four consecutive deoxythymidines together with an inverted deoxythymidine nucleotide at the 3′-end. The anticoagulation potential, the reversal of coagulation with different antidote sequences, and the nuclease stability of the aptamers were then investigated. The results showed that a bivalent aptamer RNV220 containing an inverted deoxythymidine and a TEG linkage chemistry significantly enhanced the anticoagulation properties in blood plasma and nuclease stability compared to the existing aptamer designs. Furthermore, a bivalent antidote sequence RNV220AD efficiently reversed the anticoagulation effect of RNV220 in blood plasma. Based on our results, we believe that RNV220 could be developed as a potential anticoagulant therapeutic molecule.

  19. Calcium ion binding properties of Medicago truncatula calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.

    Swainsbury, David J K; Zhou, Liang; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Bornemann, Stephen

    2012-09-04

    A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is essential in the interpretation of calcium oscillations in plant root cells for the establishment of symbiotic relationships with rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. Some of its properties have been studied in detail, but its calcium ion binding properties and subsequent conformational change have not. A biophysical approach was taken with constructs comprising either the visinin-like domain of Medicago truncatula CCaMK, which contains EF-hand motifs, or this domain together with the autoinhibitory domain. The visinin-like domain binds three calcium ions, leading to a conformational change involving the exposure of hydrophobic surfaces and a change in tertiary but not net secondary or quaternary structure. The affinity for calcium ions of visinin-like domain EF-hands 1 and 2 (K(d) = 200 ± 50 nM) was appropriate for the interpretation of calcium oscillations (~125-850 nM), while that of EF-hand 3 (K(d) ≤ 20 nM) implied occupancy at basal calcium ion levels. Calcium dissociation rate constants were determined for the visinin-like domain of CCaMK, M. truncatula calmodulin 1, and the complex between these two proteins (the slowest of which was 0.123 ± 0.002 s(-1)), suggesting the corresponding calcium association rate constants were at or near the diffusion-limited rate. In addition, the dissociation of calmodulin from the protein complex was shown to be on the same time scale as the dissociation of calcium ions. These observations suggest that the formation and dissociation of the complex between calmodulin and CCaMK would substantially mirror calcium oscillations, which typically have a 90 s periodicity.

  20. Dibromine radical anion reactions with heme enzymes

    Gebicka, L.; Gebicki, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions of Br 2 radical anion with heme enzymes, catalase horseradish peroxidase, have been studied by pulse radiolysis. It has been found that Br 2 - does not react with the heme centre of investigated enzymes. Dibromine radical anion reacts with tryptophan residues of catalase without any influence on the activity of catalase. It is suggested that in pulse radiolysis studies, where horseradish peroxidase is at about tenfold excess toward Br 2 - , the enzyme is modified rather by Br 2 , than by Br 2 - . (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  1. Heme Exporter FLVCR1a Regulates Heme Synthesis and Degradation and Controls Activity of Cytochromes P450

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We inv...

  2. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 suppresses Ebola virus replication.

    Hill-Batorski, Lindsay; Halfmann, Peter; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is the causative agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with reported case fatality rates as high as 90%. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to combat EBOV infections. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation, has antioxidative properties and protects cells from various stresses. Activated HO-1 was recently shown to have antiviral activity, potently inhibiting the replication of viruses such as hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus. However, the effect of HO-1 activation on EBOV replication remains unknown. To determine whether the upregulation of HO-1 attenuates EBOV replication, we treated cells with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a selective HO-1 inducer, and assessed its effects on EBOV replication. We found that CoPP treatment, pre- and postinfection, significantly suppressed EBOV replication in a manner dependent upon HO-1 upregulation and activity. In addition, stable overexpression of HO-1 significantly attenuated EBOV growth. Although the exact mechanism behind the antiviral properties of HO-1 remains to be elucidated, our data show that HO-1 upregulation does not attenuate EBOV entry or budding but specifically targets EBOV transcription/replication. Therefore, modulation of the cellular enzyme HO-1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against EBOV infection.

  3. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26

    Panayotis eThanos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, have shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working / recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26 or vehicle during a conditioned placed preference (CPP paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests (open field, novel object recognition (NOR, and social interaction (SI and novelty (SN paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce conditioned placed preference or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose, and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested.

  4. The Haptoglobin-CD163-Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway for Hemoglobin Scavenging

    Jens Haugbølle Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The haptoglobin- (Hp- CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity and put pressure on backup protecting systems such as the hemopexin-CD91-HO pathway. The Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway proteins are regulated by the acute phase mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6, but other regulatory factors indicate that this upregulation is a counteracting anti-inflammatory response during inflammation. The heme metabolites including bilirubin converted from biliverdin have overall an anti-inflammatory effect and thus reinforce the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway. Future studies of animal models of inflammation should further define the importance of the pathway in the anti-inflammatory response.

  5. PCBP1 and NCOA4 regulate erythroid iron storage and heme biosynthesis.

    Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Zhang, Deliang; Protchenko, Olga; Shakoury-Elizeh, Minoo; Philpott, Caroline C

    2017-05-01

    Developing erythrocytes take up exceptionally large amounts of iron, which must be transferred to mitochondria for incorporation into heme. This massive iron flux must be precisely controlled to permit the coordinated synthesis of heme and hemoglobin while avoiding the toxic effects of chemically reactive iron. In cultured animal cells, iron chaperones poly rC-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) and PCBP2 deliver iron to ferritin, the sole cytosolic iron storage protein, and nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) mediates the autophagic turnover of ferritin. The roles of PCBP, ferritin, and NCOA4 in erythroid development remain unclear. Here, we show that PCBP1, NCOA4, and ferritin are critical for murine red cell development. Using a cultured cell model of erythroid differentiation, depletion of PCBP1 or NCOA4 impaired iron trafficking through ferritin, which resulted in reduced heme synthesis, reduced hemoglobin formation, and perturbation of erythroid regulatory systems. Mice lacking Pcbp1 exhibited microcytic anemia and activation of compensatory erythropoiesis via the regulators erythropoietin and erythroferrone. Ex vivo differentiation of erythroid precursors from Pcbp1-deficient mice confirmed defects in ferritin iron flux and heme synthesis. These studies demonstrate the importance of ferritin for the vectorial transfer of imported iron to mitochondria in developing red cells and of PCBP1 and NCOA4 in mediating iron flux through ferritin.

  6. Up-regulation of A1M/α1-microglobulin in skin by heme and reactive oxygen species gives protection from oxidative damage.

    Olsson, Magnus G; Allhorn, Maria; Larsson, Jörgen; Cederlund, Martin; Lundqvist, Katarina; Schmidtchen, Artur; Sørensen, Ole E; Mörgelin, Matthias; Akerström, Bo

    2011-01-01

    During bleeding the skin is subjected to oxidative insults from free heme and radicals, generated from extracellular hemoglobin. The lipocalin α(1)-microglobulin (A1M) was recently shown to have reductase properties, reducing heme-proteins and other substrates, and to scavenge heme and radicals. We investigated the expression and localization of A1M in skin and the possible role of A1M in the protection of skin tissue from damage induced by heme and reactive oxygen species. Skin explants, keratinocyte cultures and purified collagen I were exposed to heme, reactive oxygen species, and/or A1M and investigated by biochemical methods and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that A1M is localized ubiquitously in the dermal and epidermal layers, and that the A1M-gene is expressed in keratinocytes and up-regulated after exposure to heme and reactive oxygen species. A1M inhibited the heme- and reactive oxygen species-induced ultrastructural damage, up-regulation of antioxidation and cell cycle regulatory genes, and protein carbonyl formation in skin and keratinocytes. Finally, A1M bound to purified collagen I (K(d) = 0.96×10(-6) M) and could inhibit and repair the destruction of collagen fibrils by heme and reactive oxygen species. The results suggest that A1M may have a physiological role in protection of skin cells and matrix against oxidative damage following bleeding.

  7. Coordination and redox state-dependent structural changes of the heme-based oxygen sensor AfGcHK associated with intraprotein signal transduction.

    Stranava, Martin; Man, Petr; Skálová, Tereza; Kolenko, Petr; Blaha, Jan; Fojtikova, Veronika; Martínek, Václav; Dohnálek, Jan; Lengalova, Alzbeta; Rosůlek, Michal; Shimizu, Toru; Martínková, Markéta

    2017-12-22

    The heme-based oxygen sensor histidine kinase Af GcHK is part of a two-component signal transduction system in bacteria. O 2 binding to the Fe(II) heme complex of its N-terminal globin domain strongly stimulates autophosphorylation at His 183 in its C-terminal kinase domain. The 6-coordinate heme Fe(III)-OH - and -CN - complexes of Af GcHK are also active, but the 5-coordinate heme Fe(II) complex and the heme-free apo-form are inactive. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the isolated dimeric globin domains of the active Fe(III)-CN - and inactive 5-coordinate Fe(II) forms, revealing striking structural differences on the heme-proximal side of the globin domain. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry to characterize the conformations of the active and inactive forms of full-length Af GcHK in solution, we investigated the intramolecular signal transduction mechanisms. Major differences between the active and inactive forms were observed on the heme-proximal side (helix H5), at the dimerization interface (helices H6 and H7 and loop L7) of the globin domain and in the ATP-binding site (helices H9 and H11) of the kinase domain. Moreover, separation of the sensor and kinase domains, which deactivates catalysis, increased the solvent exposure of the globin domain-dimerization interface (helix H6) as well as the flexibility and solvent exposure of helix H11. Together, these results suggest that structural changes at the heme-proximal side, the globin domain-dimerization interface, and the ATP-binding site are important in the signal transduction mechanism of Af GcHK. We conclude that Af GcHK functions as an ensemble of molecules sampling at least two conformational states. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of the binding effect of human serum albumin on the properties of granules.

    Kristó, Katalin; Bajdik, János; Eros, István; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of this study was the application of a solution of human serum albumin as a granulating fluid. The properties of the granules formed were evaluated and compared with those when a conventional binder was applied in the same concentration. The powder mixture contained a soluble (mannitol) and an insoluble component (different types of cellulose). The protein solution applied exerted an appropriate aggregating effect if the system contained microcrystalline celluloses. Powdered cellulose was not suitable for the granulation with human serum albumin solution. As compared with the same concentration of the conventionally applied cellulose ethers as binder, the prepared granules exhibited a larger particle size, a significantly better compressibility, a higher breaking hardness and a favourable deformation process. These findings mainly reflect the good adhesive properties of the protein. The best compressibility and mechanical behaviour were attained on the application of the microcrystalline cellulose Vivapur type 105. This favourable behaviour may be connected with the wettability of cellulose. These results suggest that the formulation of tablets may be easier from an active agent in the serum that binds to albumin (e.g. interferon) since the amount of additives (binder) can be reduced.

  9. Mutations in the FMN domain modulate MCD spectra of the heme site in the oxygenase domain of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Sempombe, Joseph; Elmore, Bradley O; Sun, Xi; Dupont, Andrea; Ghosh, Dipak K; Guillemette, J Guy; Kirk, Martin L; Feng, Changjian

    2009-05-27

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) output state for NO production is a complex of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding domain and the heme domain, and thereby it facilitates the interdomain electron transfer from the FMN to the catalytic heme site. Emerging evidence suggests that interdomain FMN-heme interactions are important in the formation of the output state because they guide the docking of the FMN domain to the heme domain. In this study, notable effects of mutations in the adjacent FMN domain on the heme structure in a human iNOS bidomain oxygenase/FMN construct have been observed by using low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The comparative MCD study of wild-type and mutant proteins clearly indicates that a properly docked FMN domain contributes to the observed L-Arg perturbation of the heme MCD spectrum in the wild-type protein and that the conserved surface residues in the FMN domain (E546 and E603) play key roles in facilitating a productive alignment of the FMN and heme domains in iNOS.

  10. Recent insights into the biological functions of liver fatty acid binding protein 1

    Wang, GuQi; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; de Lemos, Andrew; Burczynski, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Over four decades have passed since liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP)1 was first isolated. There are few protein families for which most of the complete tertiary structures, binding properties, and tissue occurrences are described in such detail and yet new functions are being uncovered for this protein. FABP1 is known to be critical for fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport and also has an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and cellular signaling pathways. FABP1 is an important endogenous cytoprotectant, minimizing hepatocyte oxidative damage and interfering with ischemia-reperfusion and other hepatic injuries. The protein may be targeted for metabolic activation through the cross-talk among many transcriptional factors and their activating ligands. Deficiency or malfunction of FABP1 has been reported in several diseases. FABP1 also influences cell proliferation during liver regeneration and may be considered as a prognostic factor for hepatic surgery. FABP1 binds and modulates the action of many molecules such as fatty acids, heme, and other metalloporphyrins. The ability to bind heme is another cytoprotective property and one that deserves closer investigation. The role of FABP1 in substrate availability and in protection from oxidative stress suggests that FABP1 plays a pivotal role during intracellular bacterial/viral infections by reducing inflammation and the adverse effects of starvation (energy deficiency). PMID:26443794

  11. Mononuclear non-heme iron(III)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 2. Mononuclear non-heme iron(III) complexes of linear and tripodal tridentate ligands as functional models for catechol dioxygenases: Effect of -alkyl substitution on regioselectivity and reaction rate. Mallayan Palaniandavar Kusalendiran Visvaganesan.

  12. Heme pathway evolution in kinetoplastid protists

    Cenci, U.; Moog, D.; Curtis, B.A.; Tanifuji, G.; Eme, L.; Lukeš, Julius; Archibald, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, MAY 18 (2016), č. článku 109. ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : heme * kinetoplastea * Paramoeba pemaquidensis * Perkinsela * evolution * endosymbiosis * Prokinetoplastina * lateral gene transfer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  13. Heme and erythropoieis: more than a structural role.

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Erythropoiesis is the biological process that consumes the highest amount of body iron for heme synthesis. Heme synthesis in erythroid cells is finely coordinated with that of alpha (α) and beta (β)-globin, resulting in the production of hemoglobin, a tetramer of 2α- and 2β-globin chains, and heme as the prosthetic group. Heme is not only the structural component of hemoglobin, but it plays multiple regulatory roles during the differentiation of erythroid precursors since it controls its own synthesis and regulates the expression of several erythroid-specific genes. Heme is synthesized in developing erythroid progenitors by the stage of proerythroblast, through a series of eight enzymatic reactions divided between mitochondria and cytosol. Defects of heme synthesis in the erythroid lineage result in sideroblastic anemias, characterized by microcytic anemia associated to mitochondrial iron overload, or in erythropoietic porphyrias, characterized by porphyrin deposition in erythroid cells. Here, we focus on the heme biosynthetic pathway and on human erythroid disorders due to defective heme synthesis. The regulatory role of heme during erythroid differentiation is discussed as well as the heme-mediated regulatory mechanisms that allow the orchestration of the adaptive cell response to heme deficiency. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. Adiponectin receptors form homomers and heteromers exhibiting distinct ligand binding and intracellular signaling properties.

    Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M

    2013-02-01

    Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes.

  15. Contractile effects and binding properties of endothelins/sarafotoxins in the guinea pig ileum.

    Wollberg, Z; Bdolah, A; Galron, R; Sokolovsky, M; Kochva, E

    1991-05-30

    Seven of the eight known isopeptides of the endothelin/sarafotoxin (ET/SRTX) family were tested on the isolated guinea pig ileum and found to cause a concentration-dependent increase in basal tone. The rate or the amplitude of the spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the ileal smooth muscle were essentially not affected by any of the peptides. The maximum contraction elicited by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) was slightly stronger than that induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) or sarafotoxin-b (SRTX-b), and significantly stronger than the maximal contractions elicited by sarafotoxin-a (SRTX-a), sarafotoxin-c (SRTX-c), or endothelin-3 (ET-3). Sarafotoxin-d (SRTX-d) caused, essentially, no contraction but a rather marked relaxation. The potencies of the various peptides to induce the increase in tension, in terms of EC50 values (cumulative effective concentrations that induce half-maximum response), ranged between 6 and 95 nM depending on the peptide. VIC, ET-1, SRTX-b and SRTX-a had similar potencies and were significantly more potent than SRTX-c and ET-3. A high concentration of SRTX-b elicited no additional response when applied to the organ bath after one of the other peptides had shown a maximal effect. Binding experiments with ileal membranes revealed similar binding properties for the various peptides. Competition with iodinated SRTX-b showed no meaningful differences between the various peptides. It is concluded that all the ET/SRTX peptides compete for the same receptor subtype in the ileum. In terms of efficacy, VIC can be considered as a full agonist of this receptor, SRTX-d is probably an antagonist, while all the other peptides behave as partial agonists.

  16. Double Properties of Novel Acylhydrazone Nanomaterials Based on a Conjugated System: Anion Binding Ability and Antibacterial Activity

    Xuefang Shang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of new compounds (1–12 containing 1,5-diaza-fluorenone, 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione, ferrocene-1,1ʹ-dione, anthracene-9-carbaldehyde have been synthesized and optimized. The nanomaterials were also developed successfully. The binding properties were evaluated for biologically important anions (F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, AcO−, and H2PO4− by theoretical investigation, UV-vis, and fluorescence experiments, and compound 6 displayed the strongest binding ability for AcO− ion among the synthesized compounds. Theoretical investigation analysis revealed that the intramolecular hydrogen bond existed in the structure of compound 6 and the roles of molecular frontier orbitals in molecular interplay. In addition, compound 6 showed wide antibacterial activity for colon bacillus, typhoid bacillus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and inferior activity for hay bacillus and Staphylococcus aureus. This series of acylhydrazone nanomaterials showed double properties, anion binding ability, and antibacterial activity.

  17. Comparison of solute-binding properties of plastic materials used as pharmaceutical product containers.

    Jenke, Dennis; Couch, Tom; Gillum, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Material/water equilibrium binding constants (E(b)) were determined for 11 organic solutes and 2 plastic materials commonly used in pharmaceutical product containers (plasticized polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin). In general, solute binding by the plasticized polyvinyl chloride material was greater, by nearly an order of magnitude, than the binding by the polyolefin (on an equal weight basis). The utilization of the binding constants to facilitate container compatibility assessments (e.g., drug loss by container binding) for drug-containing products is discussed.

  18. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties of albumin-binding and gold nanoparticle-bound Eu (III) chelates

    Melendez, Milleo Dalmacio

    CEST agents derived from paramagnetic complexes, commonly referred to as PARACEST agents represent a new class of MRI contrast agents that respond to biological information such as pH, temperature, redox, and metabolite levels. In this work, CEST properties of two novel PARACEST agents were investigated upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and conjugation to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). CEST properties of [EuDOTA(O-Et-Tyr)4] -when bound to HSA was studied to address the effect of proteins on CEST. The interaction of this Eu3+ complex to HSA was investigated by performing fluorescent probe displacement studies and it was found to bind HSA at two different binding pockets, the normal warfarin and dansyl glycine binding sites. The lipophilic pendant arms and the negative charge of this complex contribute to the favorable protein binding. However, the CEST signal was reduced 2-fold upon binding to HSA. The exchangeable protons on HSA provide a large proton pool that can exchange with the bound H 2O, competing for the exchange between bulk and bound water. Au NPs coated with [EuDOTA(CAM)4]3+ were prepared using the Brust method and characterized by measuring the CEST properties. The water residence lifetime for the Au-Eu NP conjugates increased 2-fold compared to the free Eu3+ complex presumably, as a result of the formation of hindered structure between the particle and the Eu3+ complex. Sensitivity enhancement in CEST was achieved by slowing down water exchange and increasing the number of exchangeable groups on the agent using Au-Eu NP conjugates. The CEST properties of small molecule PARACEST agents were shown to vary depending on the platform used in assembling larger adducts.

  19. A cDNA encoding a pRB-binding protein with properties of the transcription factor E2F

    Helin, K; Lees, J A; Vidal, M

    1992-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation, apparently by binding to and regulating cellular transcription factors such as E2F. Here we describe the characterization of a cDNA clone that encodes a protein with properties of E2F. This clone, RBP3...

  20. Ionic core–shell dendrimers with a polycationic core: structural aspects and host–guest binding properties

    van de Coevering, R.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The structural aspects and host–guest binding properties of ionic core–shell dendrimers [1]Br8 and [2]Br4, which bear a polycationic core and a neutral shell of Fréchet-type poly(benzyl aryl ether) dendrons, have been investigated by means of dendritic wedges [3]Br2 and [4]Br, that resemble one of

  1. Anticoagulant and calcium-binding properties of high molecular weight derivatives of human fibrinogen (plasmin fragments Y)

    Nieuwenhuizen, W.; Voskuilen, M.; Hermans, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present study was undertaken as a step to delineate further the localization of the calcium-binding sites in fibrinogen and to assess the anticlotting properties of fibrinogen degradation products. To this purpose, fragments Y were prepared by plasmin digestion of human fibrinogen in the

  2. In vivo binding properties of SH2 domains from GTPase-activating protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Cooper, J A; Kashishian, A

    1993-01-01

    We have used a transient expression system and mutant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors to study the binding specificities of the Src homology 2 (SH2) regions of the Ras GTPase-activator protein (GAP) and the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase). A number of fusion proteins, each tagged with an epitope allowing recognition by a monoclonal antibody, were expressed at levels comparable to those of endogenous GAP. Fusion proteins containing the central SH2-SH3-SH2 region of GAP or the C-terminal region of p85 alpha, which includes two SH2 domains, bound to PDGF receptors in response to PDGF stimulation. Both fusion proteins showed the same requirements for tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the PDGF receptor as the full-length proteins from which they were derived, i.e., binding of the GAP fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-771, and binding of the p85 fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-740, Tyr-751, or both residues. Fusion proteins containing single SH2 domains from either GAP or p85 alpha did not bind detectably to PDGF receptors in this system, suggesting that two SH2 domains in a single polypeptide cooperate to raise the affinity of binding. The sequence specificities of individual SH2 domains were deduced from the binding properties of fusion proteins containing one SH2 domain from GAP and another from p85. The results suggest that the C-terminal GAP SH2 domain specifies binding to Tyr-771, the C-terminal p85 alpha SH2 domain binds to either Tyr-740 or Tyr-751, and each protein's N-terminal SH2 domain binds to unidentified phosphorylation sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8382774

  3. Supramolecular Properties of Triazole-containing Two Armed Peptidomimetics: From Organogelators to Nucleotide-binding Tweezers

    Chui, Tin Ki

    of hydrogen bonds involved in the binding between the nucleotide phosphate moiety and the tweezer amides, triazole protons and guanidinium groups. In summary, this thesis reported a new class of branched peptidomimetics that were constructed from conventional peptide and non-classical triazole linkages. The resulting peptidomimetics exhibited very rich supramolecular chemistry, ranging from gel formation, self-association, host.guest complexation and anion recognition. All these properties were due to the presence of multiple hydrogen bonding units in the form of amide and triazole units along the tweezer backbone. Through hydrogen bonding interaction with various guest molecules, the multiple-arm architecture could fold itself into a complementary conformation that could bind to the guest molecules in a much more efficient manner.

  4. Heme exporter FLVCR1a regulates heme synthesis and degradation and controls activity of cytochromes P450.

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice. We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured. Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450. In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heme Exporter FLVCR1a Regulates Heme Synthesis and Degradation and Controls Activity of Cytochromes P450

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice. Methods We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured. Results Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450. Conclusions In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism. PMID:24486949

  6. Influence of binding material of PZT coating on microresonator's electrical and mechanical properties

    Janusas, Giedrius; Guobiene, Asta; Palevicius, Arvydas; Brunius, Alfredas; Cekas, Elingas; Baltrusaitis, Valentinas; Sakalys, Rokas

    2017-06-01

    Microresonators are fundamental components integrated in hosts of MEMS applications: covering the automotive sector, the telecommunication industry, electronic equipment for surface/material characterization and motion sensing, and etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of PZT film fabricated with three binding materials: polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) and to evaluate applicability in control of microresonators Q factor. Micro particles of PZT powder were mixed with 20% solution of PVB, PMMA and PS in benzyl alcohol. For investigation of mechanical and electrical properties multilayer cantilevers were made. Obtained PZT and polymer paste was screen printed on copper (thickness 40 μm) using polyester monofilament screen meshes (layer thickness 50 μm) and dried for 30 min at 100°C. Electric dipoles of the PZT particles in composite material were aligned using high voltage generator (5 kV) and a custom-made holder. Electric field was held for 30 min. Surfaces of the applied films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscope NanoWizard(R)3 NanoScience. Dynamic and electrical characteristics of the multilayer were investigated using laser triangular displacement sensor LK-G3000. The measured vibration amplitude and generated electrical potential was collected with USB oscilloscope PicoScope 3424. As the results showed, these cantilevers were able to transform mechanical strain energy into electric potential and, v.v. However, roughness of PZT coatings with PMMA and PS were higher, what could be the reason of the worse quality of the top electrode. However, the main advantage of the created composite piezoelectric material is the possibility to apply it on any uniform or non-uniform vibrating surface and to transform low frequency vibrations into electricity.

  7. Nucleic acid binding properties and intermediates of HCV core protein multimerization in Pichia pastoris

    Acosta-Rivero, Nelson; Rodriguez, Armando; Musacchio, Alexis; Falcon, Viviana; Suarez, Viana M.; Chavez, Liudmila; Morales-Grillo, Juan; Duenas-Carrera, Santiago

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the in vivo assembly pathway or structure of the hepatitis C virus nucleocapsid. In this work the intermediates of HCcAg multimerization in Pichia pastoris cells and the nucleic acid binding properties of structured nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) were studied. Extensive cross-linking was observed for HCcAg after glutaraldehyde treatment. Data suggest that HCcAg exists in dimeric forms probably representing P21-P21, P21-P23, and P23-P23 dimers. In addition, the presence of HCcAg species that might represent trimers and multimers was observed. After sucrose equilibrium density gradient purification and nuclease digestion, NLPs were shown to contain both RNA and DNA molecules. Finally, the analysis by electron microscopy indicated that native NLPs were resistant to nuclease treatment. These results indicated that HCcAg assembles through dimers, trimers, and multimers' intermediates into capsids in P. pastoris cells. Assembly of NLPs in its natural environment might confer stability to these particles by adopting a compact structure

  8. The interaction properties of the human Rab GTPase family--comparative analysis reveals determinants of molecular binding selectivity.

    Matthias Stein

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases constitute the largest subfamily of the Ras protein superfamily. Rab proteins regulate organelle biogenesis and transport, and display distinct binding preferences for effector and activator proteins, many of which have not been elucidated yet. The underlying molecular recognition motifs, binding partner preferences and selectivities are not well understood.Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic molecular interaction fields of 62 human Rab proteins revealed a wide range of binding properties with large differences between some Rab proteins. This analysis assists the functional annotation of Rab proteins 12, 14, 26, 37 and 41 and provided an explanation for the shared function of Rab3 and 27. Rab7a and 7b have very different electrostatic potentials, indicating that they may bind to different effector proteins and thus, exert different functions. The subfamily V Rab GTPases which are associated with endosome differ subtly in the interaction properties of their switch regions, and this may explain exchange factor specificity and exchange kinetics.We have analysed conservation of sequence and of molecular interaction fields to cluster and annotate the human Rab proteins. The analysis of three dimensional molecular interaction fields provides detailed insight that is not available from a sequence-based approach alone. Based on our results, we predict novel functions for some Rab proteins and provide insights into their divergent functions and the determinants of their binding partner selectivity.

  9. Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate with Cyclophilin B-binding Properties Is Determined by Cell Type-specific Expression of Sulfotransferases*

    Deligny, Audrey; Denys, Agnès; Marcant, Adeline; Melchior, Aurélie; Mazurier, Joël; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Allain, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) induces migration and adhesion of T lymphocytes via a mechanism that requires interaction with 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS). HS biosynthesis is a complex process with many sulfotransferases involved. N-Deacetylases/N-sulfotransferases are responsible for N-sulfation, which is essential for subsequent modification steps, whereas 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OSTs) catalyze the least abundant modification. These enzymes are represented by several isoforms, which differ in term of distribution pattern, suggesting their involvement in making tissue-specific HS. To elucidate how the specificity of CyPB binding is determined, we explored the relationships between the expression of these sulfotransferases and the generation of HS motifs with CyPB-binding properties. We demonstrated that high N-sulfate density and the presence of 2-O- and 3-O-sulfates determine binding of CyPB, as evidenced by competitive experiments with heparin derivatives, soluble HS, and anti-HS antibodies. We then showed that target cells, i.e. CD4+ lymphocyte subsets, monocytes/macrophages, and related cell lines, specifically expressed high levels of NDST2 and 3-OST3 isoforms. Silencing the expression of NDST1, NDST2, 2-OST, and 3-OST3 by RNA interference efficiently decreased binding and activity of CyPB, thus confirming their involvement in the biosynthesis of binding sequences for CyPB. Moreover, we demonstrated that NDST1 was able to partially sulfate exogenous substrate in the absence of NDST2 but not vice versa, suggesting that both isoenzymes do not have redundant activities but do have rather complementary activities in making N-sulfated sequences with CyPB-binding properties. Altogether, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism in which cell type-specific expression of certain HS sulfotransferases determines the specific binding of CyPB to target cells. PMID:19940140

  10. Synthesis of heparan sulfate with cyclophilin B-binding properties is determined by cell type-specific expression of sulfotransferases.

    Deligny, Audrey; Denys, Agnès; Marcant, Adeline; Melchior, Aurélie; Mazurier, Joël; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Allain, Fabrice

    2010-01-15

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) induces migration and adhesion of T lymphocytes via a mechanism that requires interaction with 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS). HS biosynthesis is a complex process with many sulfotransferases involved. N-Deacetylases/N-sulfotransferases are responsible for N-sulfation, which is essential for subsequent modification steps, whereas 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OSTs) catalyze the least abundant modification. These enzymes are represented by several isoforms, which differ in term of distribution pattern, suggesting their involvement in making tissue-specific HS. To elucidate how the specificity of CyPB binding is determined, we explored the relationships between the expression of these sulfotransferases and the generation of HS motifs with CyPB-binding properties. We demonstrated that high N-sulfate density and the presence of 2-O- and 3-O-sulfates determine binding of CyPB, as evidenced by competitive experiments with heparin derivatives, soluble HS, and anti-HS antibodies. We then showed that target cells, i.e. CD4+ lymphocyte subsets, monocytes/macrophages, and related cell lines, specifically expressed high levels of NDST2 and 3-OST3 isoforms. Silencing the expression of NDST1, NDST2, 2-OST, and 3-OST3 by RNA interference efficiently decreased binding and activity of CyPB, thus confirming their involvement in the biosynthesis of binding sequences for CyPB. Moreover, we demonstrated that NDST1 was able to partially sulfate exogenous substrate in the absence of NDST2 but not vice versa, suggesting that both isoenzymes do not have redundant activities but do have rather complementary activities in making N-sulfated sequences with CyPB-binding properties. Altogether, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism in which cell type-specific expression of certain HS sulfotransferases determines the specific binding of CyPB to target cells.

  11. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Ye, Jing-xue [Jilin Agricultural University, No.2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130021, Jilin (China); Si, Jian-yong [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Xu, Hui-bo [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Gongnongda road 1745, Changchun, 130021, Jiblin (China); Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Wang, Hong-wei, E-mail: hwang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Translational Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sunsubmit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Luteolin, a flavonoid that exhibits antioxidative properties, exerts myocardial protection effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of luteolin on myocardial injury protection and its possible mechanisms, a myocardial injury model was established with intragastric administration of 4 mg/kg isoproterenol (ISO) to male Sprague–Dawley rats (200–220 g) daily for 2 days. We found that pretreatment of luteolin (160, 80 and 40 mg/kg, i.g., respectively) daily for 15 days can prevent ISO-induced myocardial damage, including decrease of serum cardiac enzymes, improvement electrocardiography and heart vacuolation. Luteolin also improved the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential, suggesting one possible mechanism of luteolin-induced cardio-protection is mediated by blocking the oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanisms, we performed the in vitro study by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cytotoxicty model in H9c2 cells. We found that luteolin pretreatment prevented apoptosis, increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and enhanced the binding of Nrf2 to the antioxidant response element, providing an adaptive survival response against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-derived oxidative cytotoxicity. The addition of Znpp, a selective HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reduced the cytoprotective ability of luteolin, indicating the vital role of HO-1 on these effects. Luteolin also activated Akt and ERK, whereas the addition of LY294002 and U0126, the pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3K and ERK, attenuated luteolin-induced HO-1 expression and cytoprotective effect. Taken together, the above findings suggest that luteolin protects against myocardial injury and enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Akt and ERK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction. -- Highlights: ► Luteolin prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage.

  12. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min; Ye, Jing-xue; Si, Jian-yong; Xu, Hui-bo; Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing; Wang, Hong-wei; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2012-01-01

    Luteolin, a flavonoid that exhibits antioxidative properties, exerts myocardial protection effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of luteolin on myocardial injury protection and its possible mechanisms, a myocardial injury model was established with intragastric administration of 4 mg/kg isoproterenol (ISO) to male Sprague–Dawley rats (200–220 g) daily for 2 days. We found that pretreatment of luteolin (160, 80 and 40 mg/kg, i.g., respectively) daily for 15 days can prevent ISO-induced myocardial damage, including decrease of serum cardiac enzymes, improvement electrocardiography and heart vacuolation. Luteolin also improved the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential, suggesting one possible mechanism of luteolin-induced cardio-protection is mediated by blocking the oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanisms, we performed the in vitro study by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cytotoxicty model in H9c2 cells. We found that luteolin pretreatment prevented apoptosis, increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and enhanced the binding of Nrf2 to the antioxidant response element, providing an adaptive survival response against H 2 O 2 -derived oxidative cytotoxicity. The addition of Znpp, a selective HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reduced the cytoprotective ability of luteolin, indicating the vital role of HO-1 on these effects. Luteolin also activated Akt and ERK, whereas the addition of LY294002 and U0126, the pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3K and ERK, attenuated luteolin-induced HO-1 expression and cytoprotective effect. Taken together, the above findings suggest that luteolin protects against myocardial injury and enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Akt and ERK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction. -- Highlights: ► Luteolin prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage. ► Luteolin

  13. Detection and properties of A-factor-binding protein from Streptomyces griseus

    Miyake, K.; Horinouchi, S.; Yoshida, M.; Chiba, N.; Mori, K.; Nogawa, N.; Morikawa, N.; Beppu, T.

    1989-01-01

    The optically active form of tritium-labeled A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), a pleiotropic autoregulator responsible for streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and sporulation in Streptomyces griseus, was chemically synthesized. By using the radioactive A-factor, a binding protein for A-factor was detected in the cytoplasmic fraction of this organism. The binding protein had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 26,000, as determined by gel filtration. Scatchard analysis suggested that A-factor bound the protein in the molar ratio of 1:1 with a binding constant, Kd, of 0.7 nM. The number of the binding protein was roughly estimated to be 37 per genome. The inducing material virginiae butanolide C (VB-C), which has a structure very similar to that of A-factor and is essential for virginiamycin production in Streptomyces virginiae, did not inhibit binding. In addition, no protein capable of specifically binding 3 H-labeled VB-C was found in S. griseus. Together with the observation that VB-C had almost no biological activity on the restoration of streptomycin production or sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus, these results indicated that the binding protein had a strict ligand specificity. Examination for an A-factor-binding protein in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces lividans showed the absence of any specifically binding protein

  14. Differential binding properties of Gal/GalNAc specific lectins available for characterization of glycoreceptors.

    Wu, A M; Song, S C; Sugii, S; Herp, A

    1997-01-01

    Differentiating the binding properties of applied lectins should facilitate the selection of lectins for characterization of glycoreceptors on the cell surface. Based on the binding specificities studied by inhibition assays of lectin-glycan interactions, over twenty Gal and/or GalNAc specific lectins have been divided into eight groups according to their specificity for structural units (lectin determinants), which are the disaccharide as all or part of the determinants and of GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the peptide chain. A scheme of codes for lectin determinants is illustrated as follows: (1) F (GalNAc alpha 1-->3GalNAc), Forssman specific disaccharide--Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (2) A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3 Gal), blood group A specific disaccharide--Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides (CFT), Soy bean (SBL), Vicia villosa-A4 (VVL-A4), and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (3) Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the protein core)--Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4), Salvia sclarea (SSL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). (4) T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), the mucin type sugar sequences on the human erythrocyte membrane(T alpha), T antigen or the disaccharides at the terminal nonreducing end of gangliosides (T beta)--Peanut (PNA), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Sophora japonica (SJL), Artocarpus lakoocha (Artocarpin) lectins and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA).(5) I and II (Gal beta 1-->3(4)GlcNAc)--the disaccharide residue at the nonreducing end of the carbohydrate chains derived from either N- or O-glycosidic linkage--Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Datura stramonium (TAL, Thorn apple), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL, Coral tree), and Geodia cydonium (GCL). (6) B (Gal alpha 1-->3Gal), human blood group B specific disaccharide--Griffonia(Banderiaea) simplicifolia B4 (GSI-B4). (7) E (Gal alpha 1-->4Gal), receptors for pathogenic E

  15. One ring to rule them all: trafficking of heme and heme synthesis intermediates in the metazoans.

    Hamza, Iqbal; Dailey, Harry A

    2012-09-01

    The appearance of heme, an organic ring surrounding an iron atom, in evolution forever changed the efficiency with which organisms were able to generate energy, utilize gasses and catalyze numerous reactions. Because of this, heme has become a near ubiquitous compound among living organisms. In this review we have attempted to assess the current state of heme synthesis and trafficking with a goal of identifying crucial missing information, and propose hypotheses related to trafficking that may generate discussion and research. The possibilities of spatially organized supramolecular enzyme complexes and organelle structures that facilitate efficient heme synthesis and subsequent trafficking are discussed and evaluated. Recently identified players in heme transport and trafficking are reviewed and placed in an organismal context. Additionally, older, well established data are reexamined in light of more recent studies on cellular organization and data available from newer model organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells. The regulatory step for heme formation in the human erythron

    Gardner, L.C.; Cox, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Heme formation in reticulocytes from rabbits and rodents is subject to end product negative feedback regulation: intracellular free heme has been shown to control acquisition of transferrin iron for heme synthesis. To identify the site of control of heme biosynthesis in the human erythron, immature erythroid cells were obtained from peripheral blood and aspirated bone marrow. After incubation with human 59Fe transferrin, 2-[14C]glycine, or 4-[14C]delta-aminolevulinate, isotopic incorporation into extracted heme was determined. Addition of cycloheximide to increase endogenous free heme, reduced incorporation of labeled glycine and iron but not delta-aminolevulinate into cell heme. Incorporation of glycine and iron was also sensitive to inhibition by exogenous hematin (Ki, 30 and 45 microM, respectively) i.e. at concentrations in the range which affect cell-free protein synthesis in reticulocyte lysates. Hematin treatment rapidly diminished incorporation of intracellular 59Fe into heme by human erythroid cells but assimilation of 4-[14C]delta-aminolevulinate into heme was insensitive to inhibition by hematin (Ki greater than 100 microM). In human reticulocytes (unlike those from rabbits), addition of ferric salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone, to increase the pre-heme iron pool independently of the transferrin cycle, failed to promote heme synthesis or modify feedback inhibition induced by hematin. In human erythroid cells (but not rabbit reticulocytes) pre-incubation with unlabeled delta-aminolevulinate or protoporphyrin IX greatly stimulated utilization of cell 59Fe for heme synthesis and also attenuated end product inhibition. In human erythroid cells heme biosynthesis is thus primarily regulated by feedback inhibition at one or more steps which lead to delta-aminolevulinate formation

  17. Effect of lead on heme synthesis

    Neuberger, A.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a fair amount of work has been done on the effect of lead on porphobilinogen dehydratase, which has been used as a sensitive indicator of lead poisoning. How far this is in itself harmful depends on the Michaelis constants of both the aminolaevulinic synthetase and of the dehydratase, and in addition on the relative activities of the two enzymes in a cell and also on the tissue concentration of glycine. Information on some of these points is still fragmentary, and a reliable judgement is at the present not very easy. Another step in the heme synthesis, which is sensitive to low concentrations of lead, is the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. Inhibition of this step may be important in accounting to a large extent for the anaemia found in individuals with lead poisoning. Reduction in the tissue concentration of heme or of heme-like compounds may also explain, through the mechanism of de-repression, the excretion of increased amounts of aminolaevulinic acid in the urine observed in cases of lead poisoning. A third step in heme synthesis, which might be sensitive to lead, is the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrin to protoporphyrin, and this may explain why the former derivative is excreted in the urine. Recent work of the Harvard Medical School has indicated that greatly reduced levels of ALA dehydratase may be found in most cases of severe liver damage due to alcoholism. In most of these cases the level of lead in the blood is within normal limits, and there is no history of exposure to toxic amounts of lead. We therefore have to assume that a reduction in the blood level of this enzyme is not necessarily an indication of lead poisoning.

  18. Effects of heme-PrP complex on cell-free conversion and peroxidase-linked immunodetection of prions in blood-based assays.

    Soutyrine, Andrei; Yogasingam, Nishandan; Huang, Hongsheng; Mitchell, Gordon

    2015-08-01

    Prion protein (PrP) binding to natural and synthetic porphyrins has been previously demonstrated but the effects of endogenous heme interactions with PrP remain uncertain. This study investigated implications of this interaction in blood-based peroxidase-linked prion immunodetection and seeded conversion of cellular prion (PrP(C)) into disease associated form (PrP(Sc)). Heme binding to recombinant PrP(C) enhanced intrinsic peroxidase activity (POD) by 2.5-fold and POD inherent to denatured blood accounted for over 84% of luminol-based substrate oxidation in a prion immunodetection assay. An immuno-capture assay showed that 75-98% of blood POD was attributable to binding of PrP(C) with endogenous heme. Additionally, 10 μM heme inhibited (PPrP(C) to PrP(Sc) through the protein misfolding cycling amplification assay. We conclude that the observed effects can interfere with cell-free conversion and peroxidase-linked immunodetection of prions in blood-based assays. These results indicate that heme-PrP interactions could modulate intrinsic POD and protect PrP(C) from conversion into PrP(Sc). Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heme-based sensors in biological systems.

    Rodgers, K R

    1999-04-01

    The past several years have been witness to a staggering rate of advancement in the understanding of how organisms respond to changes in the availability of diatomic molecules that are toxic and/or crucial to survival. Heme-based sensors presently constitute the majority of the proteins known to sense NO, O2 and CO and to initiate the chemistry required to adapt to changes in their availabilities. Knowledge of the three characterized members of this class, soluble guanylate cyclase, FixL and CooA, has grown substantially during the past year. The major advances have resulted from a broad range of approaches to elucidation of both function and mechanism. They include growth in the understanding of the interplay between the heme and protein in soluble guanylate cyclase, as well as alternate means for its stimulation. Insight into the O2-induced structural changes in FixL has been supplied by the single crystal structure of the heme domain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Finally, the ligation environment and ligand interchange that facilitates CO sensing by CooA has been established by spectroscopic and mutagenesis techniques.

  20. Role of Heme and Heme-Proteins in Trypanosomatid Essential Metabolic Pathways

    Karina E. J. Tripodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, trypanosomatids are known for being etiological agents of several highly disabling and often fatal diseases like Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp., and African trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei. Throughout their life cycle, they must cope with diverse environmental conditions, and the mechanisms involved in these processes are crucial for their survival. In this review, we describe the role of heme in several essential metabolic pathways of these protozoans. Notwithstanding trypanosomatids lack of the complete heme biosynthetic pathway, we focus our discussion in the metabolic role played for important heme-proteins, like cytochromes. Although several genes for different types of cytochromes, involved in mitochondrial respiration, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and sterol biosynthesis, are annotated at the Tritryp Genome Project, the encoded proteins have not yet been deeply studied. We pointed our attention into relevant aspects of these protein functions that are amenable to be considered for rational design of trypanocidal agents.

  1. Oxygen binding properties, capillary densities and heart weights in high altitude camelids.

    Jürgens, K D; Pietschmann, M; Yamaguchi, K; Kleinschmidt, T

    1988-01-01

    The oxygen binding properties of the blood of the camelid species vicuna, llama, alpaca and dromedary camel were measured and evaluated with respect to interspecific differences. The highest blood oxygen affinity, not only among camelids but of all mammals investigated so far, was found in the vicuna (P50 = 17.6 Torr compared to 20.3-21.6 Torr in the other species). Low hematocrits (23-34%) and small red blood cells (21-30 microns 3) are common features of all camelids, but the lowest values are found in the Lama species. Capillary densities were determined in heart and soleus muscle of vicuna and llama. Again, the vicuna shows exceptional values (3720 cap/mm2 on average in the heart) for a mammal of this body size. Finally, heart weight as percent of body weight is higher in the vicuna (0.7-0.9%) than in the other camelids studied (0.5-0.7%). The possibility that these parameters, measured in New World tylopodes at sea level, are not likely to change considerably with transfer to high altitude, is discussed. In the vicuna, a unique combination of the following features seems to be responsible for an outstanding physical capability at high altitude: saturation of blood with oxygen in the lung is favored by a high blood oxygen affinity, oxygen supply being facilitated by low diffusion distances in the muscle tissue. Loading, as well as unloading, of oxygen is improved by a relatively high oxygen transfer conductance of the red blood cells, which is due to their small size and which compensates the negative effect of a low hematocrit on the oxygen conductance of blood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Structures of parasite calreticulins provide insights into their flexibility and dual carbohydrate/peptide-binding properties.

    Moreau, Christophe; Cioci, Gianluca; Iannello, Marina; Laffly, Emmanuelle; Chouquet, Anne; Ferreira, Arturo; Thielens, Nicole M; Gaboriaud, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifaceted protein, initially discovered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein, that is essential in calcium metabolism. Various implications in cancer, early development and immunology have been discovered more recently for CRT, as well as its role as a dominant 'eat-me' prophagocytic signal. Intriguingly, cell-surface exposure/secretion of CRT is among the infective strategies used by parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi , Entamoeba histolytica , Taenia solium , Leishmania donovani and Schistosoma mansoni . Because of the inherent flexibility of CRTs, their analysis by X-ray crystallography requires the design of recombinant constructs suitable for crystallization, and thus only the structures of two very similar mammalian CRT lectin domains are known. With the X-ray structures of two distant parasite CRTs, insights into species structural determinants that might be harnessed to fight against the parasites without affecting the functions of the host CRT are now provided. Moreover, although the hypothesis that CRT can exhibit both open and closed conformations has been proposed in relation to its chaperone function, only the open conformation has so far been observed in crystal structures. The first evidence is now provided of a complex conformational transition with the junction reoriented towards P-domain closure. SAXS experiments also provided additional information about the flexibility of T. cruzi CRT in solution, thus complementing crystallographic data on the open conformation. Finally, regarding the conserved lectin-domain structure and chaperone function, evidence is provided of its dual carbohydrate/protein specificity and a new scheme is proposed to interpret such unusual substrate-binding properties. These fascinating features are fully consistent with previous experimental observations, as discussed considering the broad spectrum of CRT sequence conservations and differences.

  3. Structures of parasite calreticulins provide insights into their flexibility and dual carbohydrate/peptide-binding properties

    Christophe Moreau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a multifaceted protein, initially discovered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER chaperone protein, that is essential in calcium metabolism. Various implications in cancer, early development and immunology have been discovered more recently for CRT, as well as its role as a dominant `eat-me' prophagocytic signal. Intriguingly, cell-surface exposure/secretion of CRT is among the infective strategies used by parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Entamoeba histolytica, Taenia solium, Leishmania donovani and Schistosoma mansoni. Because of the inherent flexibility of CRTs, their analysis by X-ray crystallography requires the design of recombinant constructs suitable for crystallization, and thus only the structures of two very similar mammalian CRT lectin domains are known. With the X-ray structures of two distant parasite CRTs, insights into species structural determinants that might be harnessed to fight against the parasites without affecting the functions of the host CRT are now provided. Moreover, although the hypothesis that CRT can exhibit both open and closed conformations has been proposed in relation to its chaperone function, only the open conformation has so far been observed in crystal structures. The first evidence is now provided of a complex conformational transition with the junction reoriented towards P-domain closure. SAXS experiments also provided additional information about the flexibility of T. cruzi CRT in solution, thus complementing crystallographic data on the open conformation. Finally, regarding the conserved lectin-domain structure and chaperone function, evidence is provided of its dual carbohydrate/protein specificity and a new scheme is proposed to interpret such unusual substrate-binding properties. These fascinating features are fully consistent with previous experimental observations, as discussed considering the broad spectrum of CRT sequence conservations and differences.

  4. Heme metabolism as an integral part of iron homeostasis

    Paweł Lipiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme, a ferrous iron protoporphyrin IX complex, is employed as a prosthetic group in a number of diverse heme proteins that participate in important cellular and systemic physiological processes. Provision of an adequate amount of iron for heme biosynthesis is one of the elemental hallmarks of intracellular iron homeostasis. In the cell the bioavailability of iron for the two main iron biological pathways – heme synthesis and the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters ([Fe-S] – is mainly regulated by the IRP/IRE posttranscriptional system. The biogenesis of [Fe-S] centers is crucial for heme synthesis because these co-factors determine the activity of IRP1 and that of ferrochelatase, an enzyme responsible for the insertion of an iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. On the other hand, delivery of iron for heme and hemoglobin synthesis in erythroblasts, precursors of erythrocytes in bone marrow, is an indispensable element of body iron homeostasis. This process relies on the recovery of iron from senescent red blood cells through the enzymatic degradation of heme molecules and recycling of iron to the circulation. Molecular coordination of these processes involves the activity of heme oxygenase 1, IRP1 and IRP2 as well as the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis. Recent studies show in mammals the existence of an expanded system of proteins involved in the transport of intact heme molecules at the cellular and systemic levels. The biological role of this system is of particular importance when the concentration of free heme reaches a toxic level in the body (intravascular hemolysis as well as locally in cells having intensive heme metabolism such as erythroblasts and macrophages.

  5. [Heme metabolism as an integral part of iron homeostasis].

    Lipiński, Paweł; Starzyński, Rafał R; Styś, Agnieszka; Gajowiak, Anna; Staroń, Robert

    2014-01-02

    Heme, a ferrous iron protoporphyrin IX complex, is employed as a prosthetic group in a number of diverse heme proteins that participate in important cellular and systemic physiological processes. Provision of an adequate amount of iron for heme biosynthesis is one of the elemental hallmarks of intracellular iron homeostasis. In the cell the bioavailability of iron for the two main iron biological pathways--heme synthesis and the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters ([Fe-S])--is mainly regulated by the IRP/IRE posttranscriptional system. The biogenesis of [Fe-S] centers is crucial for heme synthesis because these co-factors determine the activity of IRP1 and that of ferrochelatase, an enzyme responsible for the insertion of an iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. On the other hand, delivery of iron for heme and hemoglobin synthesis in erythroblasts, precursors of erythrocytes in bone marrow, is an indispensable element of body iron homeostasis. This process relies on the recovery of iron from senescent red blood cells through the enzymatic degradation of heme molecules and recycling of iron to the circulation. Molecular coordination of these processes involves the activity of heme oxygenase 1, IRP1 and IRP2 as well as the functioning of the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis. Recent studies show in mammals the existence of an expanded system of proteins involved in the transport of intact heme molecules at the cellular and systemic levels. The biological role of this system is of particular importance when the concentration of free heme reaches a toxic level in the body (intravascular hemolysis) as well as locally in cells having intensive heme metabolism such as erythroblasts and macrophages.

  6. Using sequence-specific chemical and structural properties of DNA to predict transcription factor binding sites.

    Amy L Bauer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the DNA binding sites recognized by each transcription factor (TF. Conventional approaches to prediction of TF binding sites involve the definition of consensus sequences or position-specific weight matrices and rely on statistical analysis of DNA sequences of known binding sites. Here, we present a method called SiteSleuth in which DNA structure prediction, computational chemistry, and machine learning are applied to develop models for TF binding sites. In this approach, binary classifiers are trained to discriminate between true and false binding sites based on the sequence-specific chemical and structural features of DNA. These features are determined via molecular dynamics calculations in which we consider each base in different local neighborhoods. For each of 54 TFs in Escherichia coli, for which at least five DNA binding sites are documented in RegulonDB, the TF binding sites and portions of the non-coding genome sequence are mapped to feature vectors and used in training. According to cross-validation analysis and a comparison of computational predictions against ChIP-chip data available for the TF Fis, SiteSleuth outperforms three conventional approaches: Match, MATRIX SEARCH, and the method of Berg and von Hippel. SiteSleuth also outperforms QPMEME, a method similar to SiteSleuth in that it involves a learning algorithm. The main advantage of SiteSleuth is a lower false positive rate.

  7. Moessbauer spectroscopic study of polymer-bound heme complexes

    Tsuchida, Eishun; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Hidenari; Shirai, Tsuneo.

    1984-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra were measured on the heme complexes of poly(1-vinyl- and 1-vinyl-2-methylimidazole)(PVI and PMI) and heme derivatives with covalently bound imidazoleligand (IH) and 2-methylimidazole-ligand (MIH) embedded in poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) film. Quadrupole splitting (ΔE sub(Q)) for the carbon monoxide adduct of PMI-heme indicated large electronic field gradient at the iron nucleus, probably due to steric hindrance of the polymer chain, and this behavior agreed with its low affinity with carbon monoxide. PMI-heme formed an oxygen adduct and its isomer shift and ΔE sub(Q) values were obtained. (author)

  8. Gas-phase spectroscopy of ferric heme-NO complexes

    Wyer, J.A.; Jørgensen, Anders; Pedersen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    and significantly blue-shifted compared to ferric heme nitrosyl proteins (maxima between 408 and 422 nm). This is in stark contrast to the Q-band absorption where the protein microenvironment is nearly innocent in perturbing the electronic structure of the porphyrin macrocycle. Photodissociation is primarily...... maxima of heme and its complexes with amino acids and NO. Not so innocent: Weakly bound complexes between ferric heme and NO were synthesised in the gas phase, and their absorption measured from photodissociation yields. Opposite absorption trends in the Soret-band are seen upon NO addition to heme ions...

  9. A urokinase receptor-associated protein with specific collagen binding properties

    Behrendt, N; Jensen, O N; Engelholm, L H

    2000-01-01

    membrane-bound lectin with hitherto unknown function. The human cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The protein, designated uPARAP, is a member of the macrophage mannose receptor protein family and contains a putative collagen-binding (fibronectin type II) domain in addition to 8 C-type carbohydrate recognition...... domains. It proved capable of binding strongly to a single type of collagen, collagen V. This collagen binding reaction at the exact site of plasminogen activation on the cell may lead to adhesive functions as well as a contribution to cellular degradation of collagen matrices....

  10. Expression and characterization of truncated human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) and a fusion protein of hHO-1 with human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Wilks, A; Black, S M; Miller, W L; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1995-04-04

    A human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) gene without the sequence coding for the last 23 amino acids has been expressed in Escherichia coli behind the pho A promoter. The truncated enzyme is obtained in high yields as a soluble, catalytically-active protein, making it available for the first time for detailed mechanistic studies. The purified, truncated hHO-1/heme complex is spectroscopically indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme and converts heme to biliverdin when reconstituted with rat liver cytochrome P450 reductase. A self-sufficient heme oxygenase system has been obtained by fusing the truncated hHO-1 gene to the gene for human cytochrome P450 reductase without the sequence coding for the 20 amino acid membrane binding domain. Expression of the fusion protein in pCWori+ yields a protein that only requires NADPH for catalytic turnover. The failure of exogenous cytochrome P450 reductase to stimulate turnover and the insensitivity of the catalytic rate toward changes in ionic strength establish that electrons are transferred intramolecularly between the reductase and heme oxygenase domains of the fusion protein. The Vmax for the fusion protein is 2.5 times higher than that for the reconstituted system. Therefore, either the covalent tether does not interfere with normal docking and electron transfer between the flavin and heme domains or alternative but equally efficient electron transfer pathways are available that do not require specific docking.

  11. Density-functional tight-binding investigation of the structure, stability and material properties of nickel hydroxide nanotubes

    Jahangiri, Soran; Mosey, Nicholas J.

    2018-01-01

    Nickel hydroxide is a material composed of two-dimensional layers that can be rolled up to form cylindrical nanotubes belonging to a class of inorganic metal hydroxide nanotubes that are candidates for applications in catalysis, energy storage, and microelectronics. The stabilities and other properties of this class of inorganic nanotubes have not yet been investigated in detail. The present study uses self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding calculations to examine the stabilities, mechanical properties, and electronic properties of nickel hydroxide nanotubes along with the energetics associated with the adsorption of water by these systems. The tight-binding model was parametrized for this system based on the results of first-principles calculations. The stabilities of the nanotubes were examined by calculating strain energies and performing molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that single-walled nickel hydroxide nanotubes are stable at room temperature, which is consistent with experimental investigations. The nanotubes possess size-dependent mechanical properties that are similar in magnitude to those of other inorganic nanotubes. The electronic properties of the nanotubes were also found to be size-dependent and small nickel oxyhydroxide nanotubes are predicted to be semiconductors. Despite this size-dependence, both the mechanical and electronic properties were found to be almost independent of the helical structure of the nanotubes. The calculations also show that water molecules have higher adsorption energies when binding to the interior of the nickel hydroxide nanotubes when compared to adsorption in nanotubes formed from other two-dimensional materials such as graphene. The increased adsorption energy is due to the hydrophilic nature of nickel hydroxide. Due to the broad applications of nickel hydroxide, the nanotubes investigated here are also expected to be used in catalysis, electronics, and clean energy production.

  12. Molecular Properties of Globin Channels and Pores: Role of Cholesterol in Ligand Binding and Movement

    Gene A Morrill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Globins contain one or more cavities that control or affect such functions as ligand movement and ligand binding. Here we report that the extended globin family [cytoglobin (Cygb; neuroglobin (Ngb; myoglobin (Mb; hemoglobin (Hb subunits Hba(α and Hbb(β] contain either a transmembrane (TM helix or pore-lining region as well as internal cavities. Protein motif/domain analyses indicate that Ngb and Hbb each contain 5 cholesterol-binding (CRAC/CARC domains and 1 caveolin binding motif, whereas the Cygb dimer has 6 cholesterol-binding domains but lacks caveolin-binding motifs. Mb and Hba each exhibit 2 cholesterol-binding domains and also lack caveolin-binding motifs. The Hb αβ-tetramer contains 14 cholesterol-binding domains. Computer algorithms indicate that Cygb and Ngb cavities display multiple partitions and C-terminal pore-lining regions, whereas Mb has three major cavities plus a C-terminal pore-lining region. The Hb tetramer exhibits a large internal cavity but the subunits differ in that they contain a C-terminal TM helix (Hba and pore-lining region (Hbb. The cavities include 43 of 190 Cygb residues, 38 of 151 of Ngb residues, 55 of 154 Mb residues and 137 of 688 residues in the Hb tetramer. Each cavity complex includes 6 to 8 residues of the TM helix or pore-lining region and CRAC/CARC domains exist within all cavities. Erythrocyte Hb αβ-tetramers are largely cytosolic but also bind to a membrane anion exchange protein, band 3, which contains a large internal cavity and 12 TM helices (5 being pore-lining regions. The Hba TM helix may be the erythrocyte membrane band 3 attachment site. Band 3 contributes 4 caveolin binding motifs and 10 CRAC/CARC domains. Cholesterol binding may create lipid-disordered phases that alter globin cavities and facilitate ligand movement, permitting ion channel formation and conformational changes that orchestrate anion and ligand (O2, CO2, NO movement within the large internal cavities and

  13. Allosteric regulation by oleamide of the binding properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptors.

    Hedlund, P B; Carson, M J; Sutcliffe, J G; Thomas, E A

    1999-12-01

    Oleamide belongs to a family of amidated lipids with diverse biological activities, including sleep induction and signaling modulation of several 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C, and 5-HT7. The 5-HT7 receptor, predominantly localized in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, stimulates cyclic AMP formation and is thought to be involved in the regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Recently, it was proposed that oleamide acts at an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor to regulate cyclic AMP formation. We have further investigated the interaction between oleamide and 5-HT7 receptors by performing radioligand binding assays with HeLa cells transfected with the 5-HT7 receptor. Methiothepin, clozapine, and 5-HT all displaced specific [3H]5-HT (100 nM) binding, with pK(D) values of 7.55, 7.85, and 8.39, respectively. Oleamide also displaced [3H]5-HT binding, but the maximum inhibition was only 40% of the binding. Taking allosteric (see below) cooperativity into account, a K(D) of 2.69 nM was calculated for oleamide. In saturation binding experiments, oleamide caused a 3-fold decrease in the affinity of [3H]5-HT for the 5-HT7 receptor, without affecting the number of binding sites. A Schild analysis showed that the induced shift in affinity of [3H]5-HT reached a plateau, unlike that of a competitive inhibitor, illustrating the allosteric nature of the interaction between oleamide and the 5-HT7 receptor. Oleic acid, the product of oleamide hydrolysis, had a similar effect on [3H]5-HT binding, whereas structural analogs of oleamide, trans-9,10-octadecenamide, cis-8,9-octadecenamide, and erucamide, did not alter [3H]5-HT binding significantly. The findings support the hypothesis that oleamide acts via an allosteric site on the 5-HT7 receptor regulating receptor affinity.

  14. Role of distal arginine in early sensing intermediates in the heme domain of the oxygen sensor FixL.

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Balland, Veronique; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula

    2006-05-16

    FixL is a bacterial heme-based oxygen sensor, in which release of oxygen from the sensing PAS domain leads to activation of an associated kinase domain. Static structural studies have suggested an important role of the conserved residue arginine 220 in signal transmission at the level of the heme domain. To assess the role of this residue in the dynamics and properties of the initial intermediates in ligand release, we have investigated the effects of R220X (X = I, Q, E, H, or A) mutations in the FixLH heme domain on the dynamics and spectral properties of the heme upon photolysis of O(2), NO, and CO using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparison of transient spectra for CO and NO dissociation with steady-state spectra indicated less strain on the heme in the ligand dissociation species for all mutants compared to the wild type (WT). For CO and NO, the kinetics were similar to those of the wild type, with the exception of (1) a relatively low yield of picosecond NO rebinding to R220A, presumably related to the increase in the free volume of the heme pocket, and (2) substantial pH-dependent picosecond to nanosecond rebinding of CO to R220H, related to formation of a hydrogen bond between CO and histidine 220. Upon excitation of the complex bound with the physiological sensor ligand O(2), a 5-8 ps decay phase and a nondecaying (>4 ns) phase were observed for WT and all mutants. The strong distortion of the spectrum associated with the decay phase in WT is substantially diminished in all mutant proteins, indicating an R220-induced role of the heme in the primary intermediate in signal transmission. Furthermore, the yield of dissociated oxygen after this phase ( approximately 10% in WT) is increased in all mutants, up to almost unity in R220A, indicating a key role of R220 in caging the oxygen near the heme through hydrogen bonding. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate these findings and suggest motions of O(2) and arginine 220 away from the heme

  15. Electrochemistry and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of cytochrome c and its heme-disrupted analogs.

    Novak, David; Mojovic, Milos; Pavicevic, Aleksandra; Zatloukalova, Martina; Hernychova, Lenka; Bartosik, Martin; Vacek, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) is one of the most studied conjugated proteins due to its electron-transfer properties and ability to regulate the processes involved in homeostasis or apoptosis. Here we report an electrochemical strategy for investigating the electroactivity of cyt c and its analogs with a disrupted heme moiety, i.e. apocytochrome c (acyt c) and porphyrin cytochrome c (pcyt c). The electrochemical data are supplemented with low-temperature and spin-probe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The main contribution of this report is a complex evaluation of cyt c reduction and oxidation at the level of surface-localized amino acid residues and the heme moiety in a single electrochemical scan. The electrochemical pattern of cyt c is substantially different to both analogs acyt c and pcyt c, which could be applicable in further studies on the redox properties and structural stability of cytochromes and other hemeproteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A tetrodotoxin-binding protein in the hemolymph of shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus: purification and properties.

    Nagashima, Yuji; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-06-01

    The shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus hemolymph contains soluble proteins that bind tetrodotoxin (TTX) and are responsible for high resistance of the crab to TTX. The TTX-binding protein was purified from the hemolymph by ultrafiltration, lectin affinity chromatography and gel filtration HPLC. The purified protein gave only one band in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), confirming its homogeneity. Its molecular weight was estimated to be about 400k by gel filtration HPLC, while it was estimated to be about 82k under non-reducing conditions and about 72 and 82k under reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE, indicating that the TTX-binding protein was composed of at least two distinct subunits. The TTX-binding protein was an acidic glycoprotein with pI 3.5, abundant in Asp and Glu but absent in Trp, and contained 6% reducing sugar and 12% amino sugar. The protein selectively bound to TTX, with a neutralizing ability of 6.7 mouse unit TTX/mg protein, but not to paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. However, its neutralizing activity was almost lost by treatments with enzymes (protease XIV, thermolysin, trypsin, amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase) and denaturing agents (1% SDS, 1% dithiothreitol, 8 M urea and 6 M guanidine hydrochloride), suggesting the involvement of both proteinaceous and sugar moieties in the binding to TTX and the importance of the steric conformation of the TTX-binding protein. Copright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Energetic and binding properties of DNA upon interaction with dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Bathaie, S Z; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Saboury, A A

    1999-02-15

    The interaction of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), a cationic surfactant, with calf thymus DNA has been studied by various methods, including potentiometric technique using DTAB-selective plastic membrane electrode at 27 and 37 degreesC, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and UV spectrophotometry at 27 degreesC using 0.05 M Tris buffer and 0.01 M NaCl at pH 7.4. The free energy is calculated from binding isotherms on the basis of Wyman binding potential theory and the enthalpy of binding according to van't Hoff relation. The enthalpy of unfolding has been determined by subtraction of the enthalpy of binding from the microcalorimetric enthalpy. The results show that, after the interaction of first DTAB molecule to DNA (base molarity) through the electrostatic interaction, the second DTAB molecule also binds to DNA through electrostatic interaction. At this stage, the predom-inant DNA conformational change occurs. Afterwards up to 20 DTAB molecules, below the critical micelle concentration of DTAB, bind through hydrophobic interactions.

  18. Prediction of small molecule binding property of protein domains with Bayesian classifiers based on Markov chains.

    Bulashevska, Alla; Stein, Martin; Jackson, David; Eils, Roland

    2009-12-01

    Accurate computational methods that can help to predict biological function of a protein from its sequence are of great interest to research biologists and pharmaceutical companies. One approach to assume the function of proteins is to predict the interactions between proteins and other molecules. In this work, we propose a machine learning method that uses a primary sequence of a domain to predict its propensity for interaction with small molecules. By curating the Pfam database with respect to the small molecule binding ability of its component domains, we have constructed a dataset of small molecule binding and non-binding domains. This dataset was then used as training set to learn a Bayesian classifier, which should distinguish members of each class. The domain sequences of both classes are modelled with Markov chains. In a Jack-knife test, our classification procedure achieved the predictive accuracies of 77.2% and 66.7% for binding and non-binding classes respectively. We demonstrate the applicability of our classifier by using it to identify previously unknown small molecule binding domains. Our predictions are available as supplementary material and can provide very useful information to drug discovery specialists. Given the ubiquitous and essential role small molecules play in biological processes, our method is important for identifying pharmaceutically relevant components of complete proteomes. The software is available from the author upon request.

  19. Expression of binding properties of Gal/GalNAc reactive lectins by mammalian glycotopes (an updated report).

    Wu, A M

    2001-01-01

    Expression of the binding properties of Gal/GalNAc specific lectins, based on the affinity of decreasing order of mammalian glycotopes (determinants) rather than monosaccharide inhibition pattern, is probably one of the best ways to express carbohydrate specifity and should facilitate the selection of lectins as structural probes for studying mammalian glycobiology. Eleven mammalian structural units have been selected to express the binding domain of applied lectins. They are: 1. F, GalNAcalpha1 --> 3GalNAc; 2. A, GalNAcalpha1 --> 3Gal; 3. T, Galbeta1 --> 3GalNAc; 4. I, Galbeta 1 --> 3GlcNAc; 5. II, Galbeta1 --> 4GlcNAc; 6. B, Galalpha1 --> 3Gal; 7. E, Galalpha1--> 4Gal; 8. L, Galbeta1 --> 4Glc; 9. P, GalNAcbeta1 --> 3Gal; 10. S, GalNAcbeta1 --> 4Gal and 11. Tn, GalNAcalpha1 --> 4Ser (Thr) of the peptide chain. Thus, the carbohydrate specificity of Gal/GalNAc reactive lectins can be divided into classes according to their highest affinity for the above disaccharides and/or Tn residue. Examples of the binding properties of these lectins can be demonstrated by Ricimus communis agglutinin (RCA1), grouped as II specific lectin and its binding property is II > I > B > T; Ahrus precatorius agglutinin (APA), classified as T and its carbohydrate specificity is T > I/II > E > B > Tn; Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin, AIL), as T/Tn specific and its binding reactivity is T > Tn > I (II) and Geodia cydonium (GCL), as F/A specific, and with affinity for F > Ah [GalNAcalpha1-->43(L(Fuc)alpha1-->2)Gal] > I > L. Due to the multiple reactivity of lectins toward mammalian glycotopes, the possible existence of different combining sites or subsites in the same molecule has to be examined, and the differential binding properties of these combining sites (if any) have to be characterized. To establish the relationship among the amino acid sequences of the combining sites of plant lectins and mammalian glycotopes should be an important direction to be addressed in lectinology.

  20. LC-MS/MS suggests that hole hopping in cytochrome c peroxidase protects its heme from oxidative modification by excess H2O2.

    Kathiresan, Meena; English, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    We recently reported that cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) functions as a H 2 O 2 sensor protein when H 2 O 2 levels rise in respiring yeast. The availability of its reducing substrate, ferrocytochrome c (Cyc II ), determines whether Ccp1 acts as a H 2 O 2 sensor or peroxidase. For H 2 O 2 to serve as a signal it must modify its receptor so we employed high-performance LC-MS/MS to investigate in detail the oxidation of Ccp1 by 1, 5 and 10 M eq. of H 2 O 2 in the absence of Cyc II to prevent peroxidase activity. We observe strictly heme-mediated oxidation, implicating sequential cycles of binding and reduction of H 2 O 2 at Ccp1's heme. This results in the incorporation of ∼20 oxygen atoms predominantly at methionine and tryptophan residues. Extensive intramolecular dityrosine crosslinking involving neighboring residues was uncovered by LC-MS/MS sequencing of the crosslinked peptides. The proximal heme ligand, H175, is converted to oxo-histidine, which labilizes the heme but irreversible heme oxidation is avoided by hole hopping to the polypeptide until oxidation of the catalytic distal H52 in Ccp1 treated with 10 M eq. of H 2 O 2 shuts down heterolytic cleavage of H 2 O 2 at the heme. Mapping of the 24 oxidized residues in Ccp1 reveals that hole hopping from the heme is directed to three polypeptide zones rich in redox-active residues. This unprecedented analysis unveils the remarkable capacity of a polypeptide to direct hole hopping away from its active site, consistent with heme labilization being a key outcome of Ccp1-mediated H 2 O 2 signaling. LC-MS/MS identification of the oxidized residues also exposes the bias of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detection toward transient radicals with low O 2 reactivity.

  1. Distinctive receptor binding properties of the surface glycoprotein of a natural Feline Leukemia Virus isolate with unusual disease spectrum

    Albritton Lorraine M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV-945, a member of the FeLV-A subgroup, was previously isolated from a cohort of naturally infected cats. An unusual multicentric lymphoma of non-T-cell origin was observed in natural and experimental infection with FeLV-945. Previous studies implicated the FeLV-945 surface glycoprotein (SU as a determinant of disease outcome by an as yet unknown mechanism. The present studies demonstrate that FeLV-945 SU confers distinctive properties of binding to the cell surface receptor. Results Virions bearing the FeLV-945 Env protein were observed to bind the cell surface receptor with significantly increased efficiency, as was soluble FeLV-945 SU protein, as compared to the corresponding virions or soluble protein from a prototype FeLV-A isolate. SU proteins cloned from other cohort isolates exhibited increased binding efficiency comparable to or greater than FeLV-945 SU. Mutational analysis implicated a domain containing variable region B (VRB to be the major determinant of increased receptor binding, and identified a single residue, valine 186, to be responsible for the effect. Conclusions The FeLV-945 SU protein binds its cell surface receptor, feTHTR1, with significantly greater efficiency than does that of prototype FeLV-A (FeLV-A/61E when present on the surface of virus particles or in soluble form, demonstrating a 2-fold difference in the relative dissociation constant. The results implicate a single residue, valine 186, as the major determinant of increased binding affinity. Computational modeling suggests a molecular mechanism by which residue 186 interacts with the receptor-binding domain through residue glutamine 110 to effect increased binding affinity. Through its increased receptor binding affinity, FeLV-945 SU might function in pathogenesis by increasing the rate of virus entry and spread in vivo, or by facilitating entry into a novel target cell with a low receptor density.

  2. Comparison of in vitro cell binding characteristics of four monoclonal antibodies and their individual tumor localization properties in mice

    Andrew, S.M.; Johnstone, R.W.; Russell, S.M.; McKenzie, I.F.; Pietersz, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Although many antibodies are being used for imaging studies, it is not clear which in vitro properties of antibodies will best reflect their in vivo characteristics. The ability to correlate in vitro binding characteristics of monoclonal antibodies to tumor antigens with their in vivo localization characteristics, particularly with respect to tumor localization properties, is desirable for rapid selection of monoclonal antibodies with potential for clinical use. The in vitro binding characteristics of three monoclonal antibodies to the murine Ly-2.1 antigen and one to the Ly-3.1 antigen have been studied on cultured tumor cells bearing these antigens. The association and dissociation rate constants, apparent affinity, and immunoreactivity of each antibody in vitro were compared with their ability to localize the s.c. tumors from the same cell line growing in Ly-2.1-/Ly-3.1-mice. The antibody with the highest affinity and fastest association rate localized to tumor at the earliest time (16-20 h after injection) and had the highest percentage of the injected dose/g in the tumor (greater than 25%). The antibody with the lowest affinity showed significantly less localization to tumor cells, compared with the other three antibodies. The ranking of the antibodies by affinity agreed with the ranking in terms of their ability to localize to tumors, but the in vitro immunoreactivity of the antibodies, as measured by a cell binding assay, did not correlate with their tumor localization properties. Immunoscintigraphic studies did not precisely correlate with biodistribution data or in vitro binding characteristics, because tumors could be satisfactorily imaged with each antibody, although it was noted that the antibody with the highest affinity gave the best image

  3. Mistletoe lectin I in complex with galactose and lactose reveals distinct sugar-binding properties

    Mikeska, Ruth; Wacker, Roland; Arni, Raghuvir; Singh, Tej P.; Mikhailov, Albert; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat; Voelter, Wolfgang; Betzel, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The structures of mistletoe lectin I in complex with lactose and galactose reveal differences in binding by the two known sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 and suggest the presence of a third low-affinity site in subdomain β1. The structures of mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album complexed with lactose and galactose have been determined at 2.3 Å resolution and refined to R factors of 20.9% (R free = 23.6%) and 20.9 (R free = 24.6%), respectively. ML-I is a heterodimer and belongs to the class of ribosome-inactivating proteins of type II, which consist of two chains. The A-chain has rRNA N-glycosidase activity and irreversibly inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes. The B-chain is a lectin and preferentially binds to galactose-terminated glycolipids and glycoproteins on cell membranes. Saccharide binding is performed by two binding sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 of the ML-I B-chain separated by ∼62 Å from each other. The favoured binding of galactose in subdomain α1 is achieved via hydrogen bonds connecting the 4-hydroxyl and 3-hydroxyl groups of the sugar moiety with the side chains of Asp23B, Gln36B and Lys41B and the main chain of 26B. The aromatic ring of Trp38B on top of the preferred binding pocket supports van der Waals packing of the apolar face of galactose and stabilizes the sugar–lectin complex. In the galactose-binding site II of subdomain γ2, Tyr249B provides the hydrophobic stacking and the side chains of Asp235B, Gln238B and Asn256B are hydrogen-bonding partners for galactose. In the case of the galactose-binding site I, the 2-hydroxyl group also stabilizes the sugar–protein complex, an interaction thus far rarely detected in galactose-specific lectins. Finally, a potential third low-affinity galactose-binding site in subunit β1 was identified in the present ML-I structures, in which a glycerol molecule from the cryoprotectant buffer has bound, mimicking the sugar compound

  4. Properties of Folate Binding Protein Purified from Cow’s Milk

    SUBANDRATE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid played an important role in the metabolism of the body. To measure the serum folic acid levels could use the folate binding protein (FBP from cow’s milk with a technique analogous to ELISA. The aims of this study were to identify characteristics of FBP from cow’s milk and binding capacity of FBP to folic acid and to purify FBP from other whey protein passed through DEAE-cellulose chromatography column. Each of DEAE-cellulose peaks was passed in affinity chromatography column. FBP was released from affinity column with sodium acetate buffer pH 3.5. The purity of obtained FBP was demonstrated by a single spot in SDS-PAGE analysis and the estimated molecular weight of FBP was around 31 kDa. Our study indicated that 1 mol FBP bound 1 mol folic acid. Alkylation with iodoacetic acid decreased the binding capacity of FBP which suggested the presence of a–SH or imidazol group in its active site. The importance of disulfide bridge was proven by decreasing of folate binding capacity of FBP after -mercaptoethanol treatment. In contrary, the folate binding didn need Ca2+ ion, as indicated by EDTA test which gave the same result as control.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1, oxidation, inflammation and atherosclerosis

    Jesus A Araujo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process of the vascular wall characterized by the infiltration of lipids and inflammatory cells. Oxidative modifications of infiltrating low density lipoproteins and induction of oxidative stress play a major role in lipid retention in the vascular wall, uptake by macrophages and generation of foam cells, a hallmark of this disorder. The vasculature has a plethora of protective resources against oxidation and inflammation, many of them regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a Nrf2-regulated gene that plays a critical role in the prevention of vascular inflammation. It is the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase, responsible for the oxidative cleavage of heme groups leading to the generation of biliverdin, carbon monoxide and release of ferrous iron. HO-1 has important antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, most of which play a significant role in the protection against atherogenesis. HO-1 may also be an important feature in macrophage differentiation and polarization to certain subtypes. The biological effects of HO-1 are largely attributable to its enzymatic activity, which can be conceived as a system with three arms of action, corresponding to its three enzymatic byproducts. HO-1 mediated vascular protection may be due to a combination of systemic and vascular local effects. It is usually expressed at low levels but can be highly upregulated in the presence of several proatherogenic stimuli. The HO-1 system is amenable for use in the development of new therapies, some of them currently under experimental and clinical trials. Interestingly, in contrast to the HO-1 antiatherogenic actions, the expression of its transcriptional regulator Nrf2 leads to proatherogenic effects instead. This article reviews the evidence that supports the antiatherogenic role of HO-1, potential pathways and mechanisms mediating

  6. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite

    Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

  7. Dietary heme-mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon.

    Noortje Ijssennagger

    Full Text Available Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome analysis of mucosa of heme-fed mice showed, besides stress- and proliferation-related genes, many upregulated lipid metabolism-related PPARα target genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PPARα in heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia. Male PPARα KO and WT mice received a purified diet with or without heme. As PPARα is proposed to protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, we hypothesized that the absence of PPARα leads to more surface injury and crypt hyperproliferation in the colon upon heme-feeding. Heme induced luminal cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation and colonic hyperproliferation and hyperplasia to the same extent in WT and KO mice. Transcriptome analysis of colonic mucosa confirmed similar heme-induced hyperproliferation in WT and KO mice. Stainings for alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of Vanin-1 and Nrf2-targets indicated a compromised antioxidant defense in heme-fed KO mice. Our results suggest that the protective role of PPARα in antioxidant defense involves the Nrf2-inhibitor Fosl1, which is upregulated by heme in PPARα KO mice. We conclude that PPARα plays a protective role in colon against oxidative stress, but PPARα does not mediate heme-induced hyperproliferation. This implies that oxidative stress of surface cells is not the main determinant of heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia.

  8. Heme acquisition mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis - strategies used in a polymicrobial community in a heme-limited host environment.

    Smalley, J W; Olczak, T

    2017-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a main etiologic agent and key pathogen responsible for initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis requires heme as a source of iron and protoporphyrin IX for its survival and the ability to establish an infection. Porphyromonas gingivalis is able to accumulate a defensive cell-surface heme-containing pigment in the form of μ-oxo bisheme. The main sources of heme for P. gingivalis in vivo are hemoproteins present in saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and erythrocytes. To acquire heme, P. gingivalis uses several mechanisms. Among them, the best characterized are those employing hemagglutinins, hemolysins, and gingipains (Kgp, RgpA, RgpB), TonB-dependent outer-membrane receptors (HmuR, HusB, IhtA), and hemophore-like proteins (HmuY, HusA). Proteins involved in intracellular heme transport, storage, and processing are less well characterized (e.g. PgDps). Importantly, P. gingivalis may also use the heme acquisition systems of other bacteria to fulfill its own heme requirements. Porphyromonas gingivalis displays a novel paradigm for heme acquisition from hemoglobin, whereby the Fe(II)-containing oxyhemoglobin molecule must first be oxidized to methemoglobin to facilitate heme release. This process not only involves P. gingivalis arginine- and lysine-specific gingipains, but other proteases (e.g. interpain A from Prevotella intermedia) or pyocyanin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Porphyromonas gingivalis is then able to fully proteolyze the more susceptible methemoglobin substrate to release free heme or to wrest heme from it directly through the use of the HmuY hemophore. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Proton and aluminum binding properties of organic acids in surface waters of the northeastern U.S.

    Fakhraei, Habibollah; Driscoll, Charles T

    2015-03-03

    A variety of mathematical estimators have been used to quantify the degree of protonation of naturally occurring organic acids. These estimators range from monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic analog models to the discrete and continuous (Gaussian) distributions of a single proton binding-dissociation. Natural water samples from two long-term monitoring programs in the northeastern U.S. were used to quantify proton- and aluminum-binding properties of naturally occurring organic matter. Water chemistry observations were clustered into 0.05 pH intervals (over 3.75-7.35 pH range) and fit to a triprotic analog model. The model optimization indicates that about 5% of dissolved organic carbon participates in ion binding, and organic acids are composed of both strong and weak acids (i.e., pKa1 = 2.54, pKa2 = 6.19, and pKa3 = 7.52 for Adirondack samples). Binding between organic acids and aluminum can substantially influence the acid behavior of dissolved organic matter and the availability of the toxic form of aluminum (i.e., inorganic monomeric aluminum).

  10. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  11. Solution properties of the archaeal CRISPR DNA repeat-binding homeodomain protein Cbp2

    Kenchappa, Chandra; Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Kragelund, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) form the basis of diverse adaptive immune systems directed primarily against invading genetic elements of archaea and bacteria. Cbp1 of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophilic order Sulfolobales, carrying three imperfect repeats, binds...... specifically to CRISPR DNA repeats and has been implicated in facilitating production of long transcripts from CRISPR loci. Here, a second related class of CRISPR DNA repeat-binding protein, denoted Cbp2, is characterized that contains two imperfect repeats and is found amongst members of the crenarchaeal...... in facilitating high affinity DNA binding of Cbp2 by tethering the two domains. Structural studies on mutant proteins provide support for Cys(7) and Cys(28) enhancing high thermal stability of Cbp2(Hb) through disulphide bridge formation. Consistent with their proposed CRISPR transcriptional regulatory role, Cbp2...

  12. Insulin binding properties of normal and transformed human epidermal cultured keratinocytes

    Verrando, P.; Ortonne, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Insulin binding to its receptors was studied in cultured normal and transformed (A431 line) human epidermal keratinocytes. The specific binding was a temperature-dependent, saturable process. Normal keratinocytes possess a mean value of about 80,000 receptors per cell. Fifteen hours exposure of the cells to insulin lowered their receptor number (about 65% loss in available sites); these reappeared when the hormone was removed from the culture medium. In the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, there is a net decrease in insulin binding (84% of the initial bound/free hormone ratio in comparison with normal cells) essentially related to a loss in receptor affinity for insulin. Thus, cultured human keratinocytes which express insulin receptors may be a useful tool in understanding skin pathology related to insulin disorders

  13. Role of heme in bromine-induced lung injury

    Lam, Adam; Vetal, Nilam; Matalon, Sadis; Aggarwal, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Bromine (Br2) gas inhalation poses an environmental and occupational hazard resulting in high morbidity and mortality. In this review, we underline the acute lung pathology (within 24 hours of exposure) and potential therapeutic interventions that may be utilized to mitigate Br2-induced human toxicity. We will discuss our latest published data, which suggests that an increase in heme-dependent tissue injury underlies the pathogenesis of Br2 toxicity. Our study was based on previous findings that demonstrated that Br2 upregulates the heme-degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which converts toxic heme into billiverdin. Interestingly, following Br2 inhalation, heme levels were indeed elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, plasma, and whole lung tissue in C57BL/6 mice. High heme levels correlated with increased lung oxidative stress, lung inflammation, respiratory acidosis, lung edema, higher airway resistance, and mortality. However, therapeutic reduction of heme levels, by either scavenging with hemopexin or degradation by HO-1, improved lung function and survival. Therefore, heme attenuation may prove a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients after Br2 exposure. PMID:27244263

  14. The binding characteristics and orientation of a novel radioligand with distinct properties at 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors

    Thompson, Andrew J; Verheij, Mark H P; Verbeek, Joost; Windhorst, Albert D; de Esch, Iwan J P; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    VUF10166 (2-chloro-3-(4-methyl piperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline) is a ligand that binds with high affinity to 5-HT3 receptors. Here we synthesise [(3)H]VUF10166 and characterise its binding properties at 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors. At 5-HT3A receptors [(3)H]VUF10166 displayed saturable binding with a Kd

  15. Tuning of Hemes b Equilibrium Redox Potential Is Not Required for Cross-Membrane Electron Transfer.

    Pintscher, Sebastian; Kuleta, Patryk; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2016-03-25

    In biological energy conversion, cross-membrane electron transfer often involves an assembly of two hemesb The hemes display a large difference in redox midpoint potentials (ΔEm_b), which in several proteins is assumed to facilitate cross-membrane electron transfer and overcome a barrier of membrane potential. Here we challenge this assumption reporting on hemebligand mutants of cytochromebc1in which, for the first time in transmembrane cytochrome, one natural histidine has been replaced by lysine without loss of the native low spin type of heme iron. With these mutants we show that ΔEm_b can be markedly increased, and the redox potential of one of the hemes can stay above the level of quinone pool, or ΔEm_b can be markedly decreased to the point that two hemes are almost isopotential, yet the enzyme retains catalytically competent electron transfer between quinone binding sites and remains functionalin vivo This reveals that cytochromebc1can accommodate large changes in ΔEm_b without hampering catalysis, as long as these changes do not impose overly endergonic steps on downhill electron transfer from substrate to product. We propose that hemesbin this cytochrome and in other membranous cytochromesbact as electronic connectors for the catalytic sites with no fine tuning in ΔEm_b required for efficient cross-membrane electron transfer. We link this concept with a natural flexibility in occurrence of several thermodynamic configurations of the direction of electron flow and the direction of the gradient of potential in relation to the vector of the electric membrane potential. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Explaining the atypical reaction profiles of heme enzymes with a novel mechanistic hypothesis and kinetic treatment.

    Kelath Murali Manoj

    Full Text Available Many heme enzymes show remarkable versatility and atypical kinetics. The fungal extracellular enzyme chloroperoxidase (CPO characterizes a variety of one and two electron redox reactions in the presence of hydroperoxides. A structural counterpart, found in mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP, uses molecular oxygen plus NADPH for the oxidative metabolism (predominantly hydroxylation of substrate in conjunction with a redox partner enzyme, cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we employ the two above-mentioned heme-thiolate proteins to probe the reaction kinetics and mechanism of heme enzymes. Hitherto, a substrate inhibition model based upon non-productive binding of substrate (two-site model was used to account for the inhibition of reaction at higher substrate concentrations for the CYP reaction systems. Herein, the observation of substrate inhibition is shown for both peroxide and final substrate in CPO catalyzed peroxidations. Further, analogy is drawn in the "steady state kinetics" of CPO and CYP reaction systems. New experimental observations and analyses indicate that a scheme of competing reactions (involving primary product with enzyme or other reaction components/intermediates is relevant in such complex reaction mixtures. The presence of non-selective reactive intermediate(s affords alternate reaction routes at various substrate/product concentrations, thereby leading to a lowered detectable concentration of "the product of interest" in the reaction milieu. Occam's razor favors the new hypothesis. With the new hypothesis as foundation, a new biphasic treatment to analyze the kinetics is put forth. We also introduce a key concept of "substrate concentration at maximum observed rate". The new treatment affords a more acceptable fit for observable experimental kinetic data of heme redox enzymes.

  17. Subpicosecond oxygen trapping in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL observed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Kruglik, Sergei G; Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Yamashita, Taku; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2007-05-01

    Dissociation of oxygen from the heme domain of the bacterial oxygen sensor protein FixL constitutes the first step in hypoxia-induced signaling. In the present study, the photodissociation of the heme-O2 bond was used to synchronize this event, and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution was implemented to characterize the heme configuration of the primary photoproduct. TR(3) measurements on heme-oxycomplexes are highly challenging and have not yet been reported. Whereas in all other known six-coordinated heme protein complexes with diatomic ligands, including the oxymyoglobin reported here, heme iron out-of-plane motion (doming) occurs faster than 1 ps after iron-ligand bond breaking; surprisingly, no sizeable doming is observed in the oxycomplex of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL sensor domain (FixLH). This assessment is deduced from the absence of the iron-histidine band around 217 cm(-1) as early as 0.5 ps. We suggest that efficient ultrafast oxygen rebinding to the heme occurs on the femtosecond time scale, thus hindering heme doming. Comparing WT oxy-FixLH, mutant proteins FixLH-R220H and FixLH-R220Q, the respective carbonmonoxy-complexes, and oxymyoglobin, we show that a hydrogen bond of the terminal oxygen atom with the residue in position 220 is responsible for the observed behavior; in WT FixL this residue is arginine, crucially implicated in signal transmission. We propose that the rigid O2 configuration imposed by this residue, in combination with the hydrophobic and constrained properties of the distal cavity, keep dissociated oxygen in place. These results uncover the origin of the "oxygen cage" properties of this oxygen sensor protein.

  18. Ligand exchange reactions of the heme group in hemoglobin and myoglobin as studied by pulse radiolysis

    Raap, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis, the kinetic aspects of the ligand exchange reactions of hemoglobin are studied using the pulse radiolysis technique, in particular, the reactions of hydrated electrons with methemoglobin. A hitherto unobserved transient state of the heme group is observed which appears immediately after the rapid reduction process. The absorption spectrum of this new species has the characteristics of a ferrous low-spin state and can therefore be ascribed to the formation of a hemochrome non-equilibrium state. The subsequent relaxation of this intermediate structure into a deoxy-conformation is dependent on the amount of proton activity in the solution and on the presence of organic and inorganic phosphate anions. The final absorption spectrum of the heme group is shown to correspond to a ferrous high-spin state in the relaxed quaternary conformation. This is in agreement with the kinetics observen the binding of carbon monoxide and oxygen to partially reduced methemoglobin. At reduction degrees of methemoglobin as well as of valncy 8ybrids where there is an important contribution from species with two reduced subunits, the binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin occurs with on-rate constants characteristic for the tensed quaternary conformation. It is argued that this conformational change of hemoglobin (the R-to-T transition) takes place very rapidly, which suggests the participation of an activated relaxed conformation. In addition, it is found that there is a distinct heterogeneity in the binding of oxygen to partially reduced methemoglobin even at low degrees of reduction

  19. The effect of z-binding yarns on the electrical properties of 3D woven composites

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    Electrical resistance monitoring (ERM) has been used to study the effect of the z-binding yarns on the initial electrical resistance (ER) and its change of three architectures of 3D woven carbon fibre composites namely (orthogonal “ORT”, layer

  20. Expression and divalent cation binding properties of the novel chemotactic inflammatory protein psoriasin

    Vorum, H; Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H

    1996-01-01

    Psoriasin is a novel chemotactic inflammatory protein that possesses weak similarity to the S100 family members of Ca(2+)-binding proteins, and that is highly up-regulated in hyperproliferative psoriatic keratinocytes. Here we have used the psoriasin cDNA to express recombinant human (rh) psorias...

  1. Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and binding properties of GaSe

    Sarkisov, Sergey Y., E-mail: sarkisov@mail.tsu.ru [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kosobutsky, Alexey V., E-mail: kosobutsky@kemsu.ru [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kemerovo State University, Krasnaya 6, 650043 Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Shandakov, Sergey D. [Kemerovo State University, Krasnaya 6, 650043 Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The influence of van der Waals interactions on the lattice parameters, band structure, elastic moduli and binding energy of layered GaSe compound has been studied using projector-augmented wave method within density functional theory. We employed the conventional local/semilocal exchange-correlation functionals and recently developed van der Waals functionals which are able to describe dispersion forces. It is found that application of van der Waals density functionals allows to substantially increase the accuracy of calculations of the lattice constants a and c and interlayer distance in GaSe at ambient conditions and under hydrostatic pressure. The pressure dependences of the a-parameter, Ga–Ga, Ga–Se bond lengths and Ga–Ga–Se bond angle are characterized by a relatively low curvature, while c(p) has a distinct downward bowing due to nonlinear shrinking of the interlayer spacing. From the calculated binding energy curves we deduce the interlayer binding energy of GaSe, which is found to be in the range 0.172–0.197 eV/layer (14.2–16.2 meV/Å{sup 2}). - Highlights: • Effects of van der Waals interactions are analyzed using advanced density functionals. • Calculations with vdW-corrected functionals closely agree with experiment. • Interlayer binding energy of GaSe is estimated to be 14.2–16.2 meV/Å{sup 2}.

  2. Novel RNA-binding properties of the MTG chromatin regulatory proteins

    S. Rossetti (Stefano); L. van Unen (Leontine); N. Sacchi; A.T. Hoogeveen (Andre)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are non-DNA-binding transcriptional regulators capable of interacting with chromatin modifying proteins. As a consequence of leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations, two of the MTG proteins, MTG8 and MTG16, are fused to the

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rho is an NTPase with distinct kinetic properties and a novel RNA-binding subdomain.

    Anirban Mitra

    Full Text Available Two mechanisms--factor independent and dependent termination--ensure the completion of RNA synthesis in eubacteria. Factor-dependent mechanism relies on the Rho protein to terminate transcription by interacting with RNA polymerase. Although well studied in Escherichia coli, the properties of the Rho homologs from most bacteria are not known. The rho gene is unusually large in genus Mycobacterium and other members of actinobacteria, having ∼150 additional residues towards the amino terminal end. We describe the distinct properties of Rho from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is an NTPase with a preference for purine nucleoside triphosphates with kinetic properties different from E. coli homolog and an ability to use various RNA substrates. The N-terminal subdomain of MtbRho can bind to RNA by itself, and appears to contribute to the interaction of the termination factor with RNAs. Furthermore, the interaction with RNA induces changes in conformation and oligomerization of MtbRho.

  4. Covalent heme attachment to the protein in human heme oxygenase-1 with selenocysteine replacing the His25 proximal iron ligand.

    Jiang, Yongying; Trnka, Michael J; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Ouellet, Hugues; Wang, Yongqiang; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-03-01

    To characterize heme oxygenase with a selenocysteine (SeCys) as the proximal iron ligand, we have expressed truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) His25Cys, in which Cys-25 is the only cysteine, in the Escherichia coli cysteine auxotroph strain BL21(DE3)cys. Selenocysteine incorporation into the protein was demonstrated by both intact protein mass measurement and mass spectrometric identification of the selenocysteine-containing tryptic peptide. One selenocysteine was incorporated into approximately 95% of the expressed protein. Formation of an adduct with Ellman's reagent (DTNB) indicated that the selenocysteine in the expressed protein was in the reduced state. The heme-His25SeCys hHO-1 complex could be prepared by either (a) supplementing the overexpression medium with heme, or (b) reconstituting the purified apoprotein with heme. Under reducing conditions in the presence of imidazole, a covalent bond is formed by addition of the selenocysteine residue to one of the heme vinyl groups. No covalent bond is formed when the heme is replaced by mesoheme, in which the vinyls are replaced by ethyl groups. These results, together with our earlier demonstration that external selenolate ligands can transfer an electron to the iron [Y. Jiang, P.R. Ortiz de Montellano, Inorg. Chem. 47 (2008) 3480-3482 ], indicate that a selenyl radical is formed in the hHO-1 His25SeCys mutant that adds to a heme vinyl group.

  5. Different characteristics and nucleotide binding properties of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH isoforms.

    Elaine C Thomas

    Full Text Available We recently reported that Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH, a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, clustered into macrostructures in response to decreased nucleotide levels and that there were differences between the IMPDH isoforms, IMPDH1 and IMPDH2. We hypothesised that the Bateman domains, which are present in both isoforms and serve as energy-sensing/allosteric modules in unrelated proteins, would contribute to isoform-specific differences and that mutations situated in and around this domain in IMPDH1 which give rise to retinitis pigmentosa (RP would compromise regulation. We employed immuno-electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructure of IMPDH macrostructures and live-cell imaging to follow clustering of an IMPDH2-GFP chimera in real-time. Using a series of IMPDH1/IMPDH2 chimera we demonstrated that the propensity to cluster was conferred by the N-terminal 244 amino acids, which includes the Bateman domain. A protease protection assay suggested isoform-specific purine nucleotide binding characteristics, with ATP protecting IMPDH1 and AMP protecting IMPDH2, via a mechanism involving conformational changes upon nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain without affecting IMPDH catalytic activity. ATP binding to IMPDH1 was confirmed in a nucleotide binding assay. The RP-causing mutation, R224P, abolished ATP binding and nucleotide protection and this correlated with an altered propensity to cluster. Collectively these data demonstrate that (i the isoforms are differentially regulated by AMP and ATP by a mechanism involving the Bateman domain, (ii communication occurs between the Bateman and catalytic domains and (iii the RP-causing mutations compromise such regulation. These findings support the idea that the IMPDH isoforms are subject to distinct regulation and that regulatory defects contribute to human disease.

  6. [11C]Harmine Binding to Brain Monoamine Oxidase A: Test-Retest Properties and Noninvasive Quantification.

    Zanderigo, Francesca; D'Agostino, Alexandra E; Joshi, Nandita; Schain, Martin; Kumar, Dileep; Parsey, Ramin V; DeLorenzo, Christine; Mann, J John

    2018-02-08

    Inhibition of the isoform A of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters, is useful in treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. [ 11 C]harmine, a MAO-A PET radioligand, has been used to study mood disorders and antidepressant treatment. However, [ 11 C]harmine binding test-retest characteristics have to date only been partially investigated. Furthermore, since MAO-A is ubiquitously expressed, no reference region is available, thus requiring arterial blood sampling during PET scanning. Here, we investigate [ 11 C]harmine binding measurements test-retest properties; assess effects of using a minimally invasive input function estimation on binding quantification and repeatability; and explore binding potentials estimation using a reference region-free approach. Quantification of [ 11 C]harmine distribution volume (V T ) via kinetic models and graphical analyses was compared based on absolute test-retest percent difference (TRPD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and identifiability. The optimal procedure was also used with a simultaneously estimated input function in place of the measured curve. Lastly, an approach for binding potentials quantification in absence of a reference region was evaluated. [ 11 C]harmine V T estimates quantified using arterial blood and kinetic modeling showed average absolute TRPD values of 7.7 to 15.6 %, and ICC values between 0.56 and 0.86, across brain regions. Using simultaneous estimation (SIME) of input function resulted in V T estimates close to those obtained using arterial input function (r = 0.951, slope = 1.073, intercept = - 1.037), with numerically but not statistically higher test-retest difference (range 16.6 to 22.0 %), but with overall poor ICC values, between 0.30 and 0.57. Prospective studies using [ 11 C]harmine are possible given its test-retest repeatability when binding is quantified using arterial blood. Results with SIME of

  7. Increase on the initial soluble heme levels in acidic conditions is an important mechanism for spontaneous heme crystallization in vitro.

    Renata Stiebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemozoin (Hz is a heme crystal that represents a vital pathway for heme disposal in several blood-feeding organisms. Recent evidence demonstrated that β-hematin (βH (the synthetic counterpart of Hz formation occurs under physiological conditions near synthetic or biological hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. This seems to require a heme dimer acting as a precursor of Hz crystals that would be formed spontaneously in the absence of the competing water molecules bound to the heme iron. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of medium polarity on spontaneous βH formation in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the effect of water content on spontaneous βH formation by using the aprotic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and a series of polyethyleneglycols (PEGs. We observed that both DMSO and PEGs (3.350, 6.000, 8.000, and 22.000 increased the levels of soluble heme under acidic conditions. These compounds were able to stimulate the production of βH crystals in the absence of any biological sample. Interestingly, the effects of DMSO and PEGs on βH formation were positively correlated with their capacity to promote previous heme solubilization in acidic conditions. Curiously, a short chain polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300 caused a significant reduction in both soluble heme levels and βH formation. Finally, both heme solubilization and βH formation strongly correlated with reduced medium water activity provided by increased DMSO concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here support the notion that reduction of the water activity is an important mechanism to support spontaneous heme crystallization, which depends on the previous increase of soluble heme levels.

  8. Calcium binding properties of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1) from Cicer arietinum.

    Dixit, Ajay Kumar; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2015-05-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role as a secondary messenger in all aspects of plant growth, development and survival. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are the major calcium decoders, which couple the changes in calcium level to an appropriate physiological response. The mechanism by which calcium regulates CDPK protein is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the interactions of Ca(2+) ions with the CDPK1 isoform of Cicer arietinum (CaCDPK1) using a combination of biophysical tools. CaCDPK1 has four different EF hands as predicted by protein sequence analysis. The fluorescence emission spectrum of CaCDPK1 showed quenching with a 5 nm red shift upon addition of calcium, indicating conformational changes in the tertiary structure. The plot of changes in intensity against calcium concentrations showed a biphasic curve with binding constants of 1.29 μM and 120 μM indicating two kinds of binding sites. Isothermal calorimetric (ITC) titration with CaCl2 also showed a biphasic curve with two binding constants of 0.027 μM and 1.7 μM. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed two prominent peaks at 208 and 222 nm indicating that CaCDPK1 is a α-helical rich protein. Calcium binding further increased the α-helical content of CaCDPK1 from 75 to 81%. Addition of calcium to CaCDPK1 also increased fluorescence of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) indicating exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. Thus, on the whole this study provides evidence for calcium induced conformational changes, exposure of hydrophobic surfaces and heterogeneity of EF hands in CaCDPK1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The whole blood oxygen binding properties of a large but presumably sluggish polar elasmobranch, the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    ) is the most notable example. These extremely large and long-lived sharks are thought to be sluggish but their active hunting lifestyle has recently been questioned by the finding of mobile prey species in their stomach (i.e. squid, fish and seal). The whole blood oxygen binding property of S. microcephalus......Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Auckland, N.Z., December 2012. Herbert, N.A.1, Skov, p.V.l, Tirsgaard, B.z and Steffensen, J.F. Z Only a few species of elasmobranch live in cold polar waters and the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus...

  10. Investigation on the protein-binding properties of icotinib by spectroscopic and molecular modeling method

    Zhang, Hua-xin; Xiong, Hang-xing; Li, Li-wei

    2016-05-01

    Icotinib is a highly-selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with preclinical and clinical activity in non-small cell lung cancer, which has been developed as a new targeted anti-tumor drug in China. In this work, the interaction of icotinib and human serum albumin (HSA) were studied by three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, ultraviolet spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, molecular probe and molecular modeling methods. The results showed that icotinib binds to Sudlow's site I in subdomain IIA of HSA molecule, resulting in icotinib-HSA complexes formed at ground state. The number of binding sites, equilibrium constants, and thermodynamic parameters of the reaction were calculated at different temperatures. The negative enthalpy change (ΔHθ) and entropy change (ΔSθ) indicated that the structure of new complexes was stabilized by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals power. The distance between donor and acceptor was calculated according to Förster's non-radiation resonance energy transfer theory. The structural changes of HSA caused by icotinib binding were detected by synchronous spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Molecular modeling method was employed to unfold full details of the interaction at molecular level, most of which could be supported by experimental results. The study analyzed the probability that serum albumins act as carriers for this new anticarcinogen and provided fundamental information on the process of delivering icotinib to its target tissues, which might be helpful in understanding the mechanism of icotinib in cancer therapy.

  11. cap alpha. -bungarotoxin binding properties of a central nervous system nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Lukasiewicz, R J; Bennett, E L

    1978-01-01

    High-affinity, specific binding of radiolabeled ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin to particulate fractions derived from rat brain shows saturability (B/sub max/ approx. = 37fmol/mg, K/sub D//sup app/ = 1.7 nM) and insensitivity to ionic strength, and is essentially irreversible (K/sub on/ = 5 x 10/sup 6/ min/sup -1/ x mol/sup -1/; K(displacement) = 1.9 x 10/sup -4/ min/sup -1/, tau/sub 1/2/ = 62 h). Subcellular distribution of specific sites is consistent with their location on synaptic junctional complex and post-synaptic membranes. These membrane-bound binding sites exhibit unique sensitivity to cholinergic ligands; pretreatment of membranes with cholinergic agonists (but not antagonists) induces transformation of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin binding sites to a high affinity form toward agonist. The effect is most marked for the natural agonist, acetylcholine. These results strongly support the notion that the entity under study is an authentic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

  12. Conjugation of Benzylvanillin and Benzimidazole Structure Improves DNA Binding with Enhanced Antileukemic Properties

    Al-Mudarris, Ban A.; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Liang, Po-Huang; Osman, Hasnah; Jamal Din, Shah Kamal Khan; Abdul Majid, Amin M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Benzyl-o-vanillin and benzimidazole nucleus serve as important pharmacophore in drug discovery. The benzyl vanillin (2-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) compound shows anti-proliferative activity in HL60 leukemia cancer cells and can effect cell cycle progression at G2/M phase. Its apoptosis activity was due to disruption of mitochondrial functioning. In this study, we have studied a series of compounds consisting of benzyl vanillin and benzimidazole structures. We hypothesize that by fusing these two structures we can produce compounds that have better anticancer activity with improved specificity particularly towards the leukemia cell line. Here we explored the anticancer activity of three compounds namely 2-(2-benzyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazole, 2MP, N-1-(2-benzyloxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-2-(2-benzyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazole, 2XP, and (R) and (S)-1-(2-benzyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl benzenesulfonate, 3BS and compared their activity to 2-benzyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (Bn1), the parent compound. 2XP and 3BS induces cell death of U937 leukemic cell line through DNA fragmentation that lead to the intrinsic caspase 9 activation. DNA binding study primarily by the equilibrium binding titration assay followed by the Viscosity study reveal the DNA binding through groove region with intrinsic binding constant 7.39 µM/bp and 6.86 µM/bp for 3BS and 2XP respectively. 2XP and 3BS showed strong DNA binding activity by the UV titration method with the computational drug modeling showed that both 2XP and 3BS failed to form any electrostatic linkages except via hydrophobic interaction through the minor groove region of the nucleic acid. The benzylvanillin alone (Bn1) has weak anticancer activity even after it was combined with the benzimidazole (2MP), but after addition of another benzylvanillin structure (2XP), stronger activity was observed. Also, the combination of benzylvanillin with benzenesulfonate (3BS) significantly improved the

  13. [Update on the biology of heme synthesis in erythroid cells].

    Fujiwara, Tohru; Harigae, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    Heme is a prosthetic group of hemoproteins playing important roles in oxygen transport, detoxification, circadian rhythm, microRNA processing, regulation of transcription, and translation. The majority of heme (-85%) is synthesized in red blood cells mainly for hemoglobin production, whereas hepatocytes account for most of the rest, functioning primarily in the synthesis of cytochrome P450 enzymes and mitochondrial respiratory enzymes. Thus, failure of heme biosynthesis causes severe inherited or acquired disorders in humans, including porphyria and sideroblastic anemia. The heme biosynthetic pathway is composed of eight enzymes that work in either mitochondria or the cytoplasm, which have been extensively researched and frequently reviewed. On the other hand, the mechanisms governing transport and intracellular trafficking of heme intermediates, as well as their potential links to human diseases, are poorly understood. Herein, we focus on recent understanding of the heme biosynthetic pathway and on human disorders due to defective heme synthesis in erythroid cells, such as X-linked sideroblastic anemia and erythropoietic protoporphyria.

  14. A Novel Carbohydrate-binding Module from Sugar Cane Soil Metagenome Featuring Unique Structural and Carbohydrate Affinity Properties*

    Campos, Bruna Medeia; Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Ematsu, Gabriela Cristina; Barud, Hernane; Polikarpov, Igor; Ruller, Roberto; Gilbert, Harry J.; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are appended to glycoside hydrolases and can contribute to the degradation of complex recalcitrant substrates such as the plant cell wall. For application in bioethanol production, novel enzymes with high catalytic activity against recalcitrant lignocellulosic material are being explored and developed. In this work, we report the functional and structural study of CBM_E1, which was discovered through a metagenomics approach and is the founding member of a novel CBM family, CBM81. CBM_E1, which is linked to an endoglucanase, displayed affinity for mixed linked β1,3-β1,4-glucans, xyloglucan, Avicel, and cellooligosaccharides. The crystal structure of CBM_E1 in complex with cellopentaose displayed a canonical β-sandwich fold comprising two β-sheets. The planar ligand binding site, observed in a parallel orientation with the β-strands, is a typical feature of type A CBMs, although the expected affinity for bacterial crystalline cellulose was not detected. Conversely, the binding to soluble glucans was enthalpically driven, which is typical of type B modules. These unique properties of CBM_E1 are at the interface between type A and type B CBMs. PMID:27621314

  15. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  16. Rhenium complexes of chromophore-appended dipicolylamine ligands: syntheses, spectroscopic properties, DNA binding and X-ray crystal structure

    Mullice, L.A.; Buurma, N.J.; Pope, S.J.A.; Laye, R.H.; Harding, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    The syntheses of two chromophore-appended dipicolylamine-derived ligands and their reactivity with penta-carbonyl-chloro-rhenium have been studied. The resultant complexes each possess the fac-Re(CO) 3 core. The ligands L 1 1-[bis(pyridine-2-yl-methyl)amino]methyl-pyrene and L 2 2-[bis(pyridine-2-yl-methyl)amino]methyl-quinoxaline were isolated via a one-pot reductive amination in moderate yield. The corresponding rhenium complexes were isolated in good yields and characterised by 1 H NMR, MS, IR and UV-Vis studies. X-Ray crystallographic data were obtained for fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ), C 34 H 26 BF 4 N 4 O 3 Re: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a 18.327(2) Angstroms, α = 90.00 degrees, b 14.1537(14) Angstroms, β96.263(6) degrees, c = 23.511(3) Angstroms, γ 90.00 Angstroms, 6062.4(11) (Angstroms) 3 , Z=8. The luminescence properties of the ligands and complexes were also investigated, with the emission attributed to the appended chromophore in each case. Isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ) self-aggregates cooperatively in aqueous solution, probably forming micelle-like aggregates with a cmc of 0.18 mM. Investigations into the DNA-binding properties of fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ) were undertaken and revealed that fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ) binding to fish sperm DNA (binding constant 1.5 ± 0.2 * 10 5 M -1 , binding site size 3.2 ± 0.3 base pairs) is accompanied by changes in the UV-Vis spectrum as typically observed for pyrene-based intercalators while the calorimetrically determined binding enthalpy (-14 ± 2 kcal mol -1 ) also agrees favourably with values as typically found for intercalators. (authors)

  17. Electronic transport properties of fullerene functionalized carbon nanotubes: Ab initio and tight-binding calculations

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Hashemi, J.; Markussen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    Fullerene functionalized carbon nanotubes-NanoBuds-form a novel class of hybrid carbon materials, which possesses many advantageous properties as compared to the pristine components. Here, we report a theoretical study of the electronic transport properties of these compounds. We use both ab init...

  18. The effect of proteins from animal source foods on heme iron bioavailability in humans.

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Valenzuela, Carolina; Brito, Alex; Weinborn, Valerie; Flores, Sebastián; Arredondo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Forty-five women (35-45 year) were randomly assigned to three iron (Fe) absorption sub-studies, which measured the effects of dietary animal proteins on the absorption of heme Fe. Study 1 was focused on heme, red blood cell concentrate (RBCC), hemoglobin (Hb), RBCC+beef meat; study 2 on heme, heme+fish, chicken, and beef; and study 3 on heme and heme+purified animal protein (casein, collagen, albumin). Study 1: the bioavailability of heme Fe from Hb was similar to heme only (∼13.0%). RBCC (25.0%) and RBCC+beef (21.3%) were found to be increased 2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, when compared with heme alone (pProteins from animal source foods and their digestion products did not enhance heme Fe absorption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Holocytochrome c Synthase and the Key Roles Played by Cysteines and Histidine of the Heme Attachment Site, Cys-XX-Cys-His*

    Babbitt, Shalon E.; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L.; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c assembly requires the covalent attachment of heme by thioether bonds between heme vinyl groups and a conserved CXXCH motif of cytochrome c/c1. The enzyme holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) binds heme and apocytochrome c substrate to catalyze this attachment, subsequently releasing holocytochrome c for proper folding to its native structure. We address mechanisms of assembly using a functional Escherichia coli recombinant system expressing human HCCS. Human cytochrome c variants with individual cysteine, histidine, double cysteine, and triple cysteine/histidine substitutions (of CXXCH) were co-purified with HCCS. Single and double mutants form a complex with HCCS but not the triple mutant. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy support the proposal that heme puckering induced by both thioether bonds facilitate release of holocytochrome c from the complex. His-19 (of CXXCH) supplies the second axial ligand to heme in the complex, the first axial ligand was previously shown to be from HCCS residue His-154. Substitutions of His-19 in cytochrome c to seven other residues (Gly, Ala, Met, Arg, Lys, Cys, and Tyr) were used with various approaches to establish other roles played by His-19. Three roles for His-19 in HCCS-mediated assembly are suggested: (i) to provide the second axial ligand to the heme iron in preparation for covalent attachment; (ii) to spatially position the two cysteinyl sulfurs adjacent to the two heme vinyl groups for thioether formation; and (iii) to aid in release of the holocytochrome c from the HCCS active site. Only H19M is able to carry out these three roles, albeit at lower efficiencies than the natural His-19. PMID:25170082

  20. Mechanisms of mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase and the key roles played by cysteines and histidine of the heme attachment site, Cys-XX-Cys-His.

    Babbitt, Shalon E; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Rodgers, Kenton R; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

    2014-10-17

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c assembly requires the covalent attachment of heme by thioether bonds between heme vinyl groups and a conserved CXXCH motif of cytochrome c/c1. The enzyme holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) binds heme and apocytochrome c substrate to catalyze this attachment, subsequently releasing holocytochrome c for proper folding to its native structure. We address mechanisms of assembly using a functional Escherichia coli recombinant system expressing human HCCS. Human cytochrome c variants with individual cysteine, histidine, double cysteine, and triple cysteine/histidine substitutions (of CXXCH) were co-purified with HCCS. Single and double mutants form a complex with HCCS but not the triple mutant. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy support the proposal that heme puckering induced by both thioether bonds facilitate release of holocytochrome c from the complex. His-19 (of CXXCH) supplies the second axial ligand to heme in the complex, the first axial ligand was previously shown to be from HCCS residue His-154. Substitutions of His-19 in cytochrome c to seven other residues (Gly, Ala, Met, Arg, Lys, Cys, and Tyr) were used with various approaches to establish other roles played by His-19. Three roles for His-19 in HCCS-mediated assembly are suggested: (i) to provide the second axial ligand to the heme iron in preparation for covalent attachment; (ii) to spatially position the two cysteinyl sulfurs adjacent to the two heme vinyl groups for thioether formation; and (iii) to aid in release of the holocytochrome c from the HCCS active site. Only H19M is able to carry out these three roles, albeit at lower efficiencies than the natural His-19. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Insulin receptor in mouse neuroblastoma cell line N18TG2: binding properties and visualization with colloidal gold.

    Sartori, C; Stefanini, S; Bernardo, A; Augusti-Tocco, G

    1992-08-01

    Insulin function in the nervous system is still poorly understood. Possible roles as a neuromodulator and as a growth factor have been proposed (Baskin et al., 1987, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 49, 335-347). Stable cell lines may provide an appropriate experimental system for the analysis of insulin action on the various cellular components of the central nervous system. We report here a study to investigate the presence and the properties of insulin specific binding sites in the murine neuroblastoma line, N18TG2, together with insulin action on cell growth and metabolism. Also, receptor internalization has been studied. Binding experiments, carried out in standard conditions at 20 degrees C, enabled us to demonstrate that these cells bind insulin in a specific manner, thus confirming previous findings on other cell lines. Saturation curves showed the presence of two binding sites with Kd 0.3 and 9.7 nM. Competition experiments with porcine and bovine insulin showed an IC50 of 1 and 10 nM, respectively. Competition did not occur in the presence of the unrelated hormones ACTH and FSH. Dissociation experiments indicated the existence of an internalization process of the ligand-receptor complex; this was confirmed by an ultrastructural study using gold conjugated insulin. As far as the insulin action in N18TG2 cells is concerned, physiological concentrations stimulate cell proliferation, whereas no stimulation of glucose uptake was observed, indicating that insulin action in these cells is not mediated by general metabolic effects. On the basis of these data, N18TG2 line appears to be a very suitable model for further studies of the neuronal type insulin receptors, and possibly insulin specific action on the nervous system.

  2. Revealing kinetics and state-dependent binding properties of IKur-targeting drugs that maximize atrial fibrillation selectivity

    Ellinwood, Nicholas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Morotti, Stefano; Grandi, Eleonora

    2017-09-01

    The KV1.5 potassium channel, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (IKur) and is predominantly expressed in atria vs. ventricles, has emerged as a promising target to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). However, while numerous KV1.5-selective compounds have been screened, characterized, and tested in various animal models of AF, evidence of antiarrhythmic efficacy in humans is still lacking. Moreover, current guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of candidate drugs heavily rely on steady-state concentration-response curves or IC50 values, which can overlook adverse cardiotoxic effects. We sought to investigate the effects of kinetics and state-dependent binding of IKur-targeting drugs on atrial electrophysiology in silico and reveal the ideal properties of IKur blockers that maximize anti-AF efficacy and minimize pro-arrhythmic risk. To this aim, we developed a new Markov model of IKur that describes KV1.5 gating based on experimental voltage-clamp data in atrial myocytes from patient right-atrial samples in normal sinus rhythm. We extended the IKur formulation to account for state-specificity and kinetics of KV1.5-drug interactions and incorporated it into our human atrial cell model. We simulated 1- and 3-Hz pacing protocols in drug-free conditions and with a [drug] equal to the IC50 value. The effects of binding and unbinding kinetics were determined by examining permutations of the forward (kon) and reverse (koff) binding rates to the closed, open, and inactivated states of the KV1.5 channel. We identified a subset of ideal drugs exhibiting anti-AF electrophysiological parameter changes at fast pacing rates (effective refractory period prolongation), while having little effect on normal sinus rhythm (limited action potential prolongation). Our results highlight that accurately accounting for channel interactions with drugs, including kinetics and state-dependent binding, is critical for developing safer and more effective pharmacological anti

  3. Coating of Dacron vascular grafts with an ionic polyurethane: a novel sealant with protein binding properties.

    Phaneuf, M D; Dempsey, D J; Bide, M J; Quist, W C; LoGerfo, F W

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sealant that would seal prosthetic vascular graft interstices and be accessible for protein binding. Crimped knitted Dacron vascular grafts were cleaned (CNTRL) and hydrolyzed in boiling sodium hydroxide (HYD). These HYD grafts were sealed using an 11% solids solution of a polyether-based urethane with carboxylic acid groups (PEU-D) via a novel technique that employs both trans-wall and luminal perfusion. Carboxylic acid content, determined via methylene blue dye uptake, was 2.3- and 4.2-fold greater in PEU-D segments (1.0+/-0.27 nmol/mg) as compared to HYD and CNTRL segments, respectively. Water permeation through PEU-D graft (1.1+/-2 ml/cm2 min(-1)) was comparable to collagen-impregnated Dacron (9.8+/-10 ml/cm2 min(-1)). Non-specific 125I-albumin (125I-Alb) binding to PEU-D segments (18+/-3 ng/mg) was significantly lower than HYD and CNTRL segments. 125I-Alb linkage to PEU-D using the crosslinker EDC resulted in 5.7-fold greater binding (103+/-2 ng/mg) than non-specific PEU-D controls. However, covalent linkage of 125I-Alb to PEU-D was 4.9- and 5.9-fold less than CNTRL and HYD segments with EDC, respectively. Thus, ionic polyurethane can be applied to a pre-formed vascular graft, seal the interstices and create "anchor" sites for protein attachment.

  4. Immunological properties of prolactin and studies on a gonadotropin binding inhibitor

    Chang, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological role of prolactin in horses has not yet been well defined. With the availability of highly purified ePRL for inducing antibody formation in rabbits and for radiolabeling with Na 125 I, a very sensitive (0.4-0.6 ng/ml) and highly specific homologous RIA for ePRL was developed. A heterologous RIA using 125 I-labeled ovine PRL and anti-ePRL antiserum was also developed and compared to the homologous RIA for ePRL. Of the two systems, it is concluded that this homologous RIA system is more suitable and more reliable for measuring prolactin concentration in horse serum samples. Until now, biochemical information on PRL has not been available for reptilian species. Sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) prolactin was purified from pituitary extracts by selective precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. Similar to other species of PRL, sea turtle PRL is a 22,000-24,000 daltons protein and contains a high content of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine and leucine, the N-terminal amino acid residue. Gonadotropin (FSH) binding inhibitor was partially purified from sheep testes by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion exchange chromatography. The FSH-BI (molecular weight: 50,000 daltons, estimated by gel filtration) contains a protein moiety necessary for binding inhibitory activity. The inhibition of the binding of 125 I-labeled ovine FSH to its receptor by the FSH-BI is not competitive. Both in vivo and in vitro biological studies of FSH-BI preparations in rats indicated various effects on FSH and LH activities at the gonadal level. These findings suggest a physiological role for FSH-BI in the regulation of reproduction

  5. Some properties of a unique cadmium-binding moiety in the soluble fraction of rat testes

    Chen, R.W.; Ganther, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    A 30000 molecular weight testicular Cd-binding peak (30000 MW CdBP) previously implicated in Cd-induced testicular injury was unstable during storage with respect to apparent molecular weight determined by Sephadex G-75 chromatography. Storage of testicular cytosol labeled with 109 Cd in vivo or in vitro for several days at 4degC under nitrogen resulted in disappearance of the 30000 MW Cd-BP and increased 109 Cd uptake in other protein fractions. Rechromatography of the previously isolated 30000 MW Cd-BP after storage gave rise to a 109 Cd peak eluting in the higher molecular weight region. The latter effect was prevented by 1 mM dithiothreitol, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups were involved in the apparent aggregation. The 30000 MW Cd-BP found in testes of rats was not present in testes of roosters, nor in liver and kidney of either species, providing further evidence of a correlation between the occurrence of 30000 MW Cd-BP protein in the tissue and susceptibility to Cd-injury. The inability of parenterally administered HgCl 2 to induce testicular injury compared to the same dose of CdCl 2 (0.011mmol/kg) is apparently related to the poor uptake of Hg in the testes (one-eighteenth that of Cd) rather than to an inability of Hg to bind to the 30000 MW Cd-BP. Our studies indicate that binding of Cd to this unique 30000 MW testicular component, as yet unidentified, is a possible basis for the unique sensitivity of the testis to Cd injury. (author)

  6. Synthesis and binding properties of new selective ligands for the nucleobase opposite the AP site.

    Abe, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Rie; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2012-06-01

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidative stress or DNA alkylating agents. These damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase and form apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) as intermediates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. AP sites are also representative DNA damages formed by spontaneous hydrolysis. The AP sites block DNA polymerase and a mismatch nucleobase is inserted opposite the AP sites by polymerization to cause acute toxicities and mutations. Thus, AP site specific compounds have attracted much attention for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we have developed nucleobase-polyamine conjugates as the AP site binding ligand by expecting that the nucleobase part would play a role in the specific recognition of the nucleobase opposite the AP site by the Watson-Crick base pair formation and that the polyamine part should contribute to the access of the ligand to the AP site by a non-specific interaction to the DNA phosphate backbone. The nucleobase conjugated with 3,3'-diaminodipropylamine (A-ligand, G-ligand, C-ligand, T-ligand and U-ligand) showed a specific stabilization of the duplex containing the AP site depending on the complementary combination with the nucleobase opposite the AP site; that is A-ligand to T, G-ligand to C, C-ligand to G, T- and U-ligand to A. The thermodynamic binding parameters clearly indicated that the specific stabilization is due to specific binding of the ligands to the complementary AP site. These results have suggested that the complementary base pairs of the Watson-Crick type are formed at the AP site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New ELISA technique for analysis of p53 protein/DNA binding properties

    Jagelská, Eva; Brázda, Václav; Pospíšilová, Š.; Vojtěšek, B.; Paleček, Emil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 267, č. 2 (2002), s. 227-235 ISSN 0022-1759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/00/D001; GA AV ČR IAB5004203; GA ČR GA301/00/P094; GA ČR GA301/02/0831; GA MZd NC6404; GA MZd NC5343; GA AV ČR IAA4004110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : ELISA * p53 * DNA-binding Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2002

  8. Cyanobacteria contain a structural homologue of the Hfq protein with altered RNA binding properties

    Bøggild, Andreas; Overgaard, Martin; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Hfq proteins are common in many species of enterobacteria, where they participate in RNA folding and translational regulation through pairing of small RNAs and messenger RNAs. Hfq proteins share the distinctive Sm fold, and form ring-shaped structures similar to those of the Sm/Lsm proteins...... proteins from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena PCC 7120 at 1.3 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively, and show that they retain the classic Sm fold despite low sequence conservation. In addition, the intersubunit contacts and RNA-binding site are divergent, and we show biochemically...

  9. Cyanobacteria contain a structural homologue of the Hfq protein with altered RNA-binding properties

    Bøggild, Andreas; Overgaard, Martin; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Hfq proteins are common in many species of enterobacteria, where they participate in RNA folding and translational regulation through pairing of small RNAs and messenger RNAs. Hfq proteins share the distinctive Sm fold, and form ring-shaped structures similar to those of the Sm/Lsm proteins...... proteins from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena PCC 7120 at 1.3 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively, and show that they retain the classic Sm fold despite low sequence conservation. In addition, the intersubunit contacts and RNA-binding site are divergent, and we show biochemically...

  10. Study of binding properties of lanthanum to wheat roots by INAA

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Li, F.L.; Xiao, H.Q.; Chai, Z.F.; Xu, L.; Liu, N.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical behavior of lanthanum in root tips excized from wheat seedlings growing at both promotional and inhibitory levels of LaCl 3 in culture solutions was investigated by a sequential leaching procedure combined with instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results indicate that most of La exists in non-exchangeable species and the binding of La 3+ to the root tips is extremely stable. The root tips during growing at the inhibitory level of LaCl 3 absorb much more La than those at the promotional level. However, the La proportion in each fraction is similar for both groups. (author)

  11. The antimalarial activity of Ru-chloroquine complexes against resistant Plasmodium falciparum is related to lipophilicity, basicity, and heme aggregation inhibition ability near water/n-octanol interfaces.

    Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S K; Jalloh, Dalanda; Dautriche, Cula; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A

    2009-08-01

    We have measured water/n-octanol partition coefficients, pK(a) values, heme binding constants, and heme aggregation inhibition activity of a series of ruthenium-pi-arene-chloroquine (CQ) complexes recently reported to be active against CQ-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Measurements of heme aggregation inhibition activity of the metal complexes near water/n-octanol interfaces qualitatively predict their superior antiplasmodial action against resistant parasites, in relation to CQ; we conclude that this modified method may be a better predictor of antimalarial potency than standard tests in aqueous acidic buffer. Some interesting tendencies emerge from our data, indicating that the antiplasmodial activity is related to a balance of effects associated with the lipophilicity, basicity, and structural details of the compounds studied.

  12. The antimalarial activity of Ru–chloroquine complexes against resistant Plasmodium falciparum is related to lipophilicity, basicity, and heme aggregation inhibition ability near water/n-octanol interfaces

    Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S. K.; Jalloh, Dalanda; Dautriche, Cula

    2012-01-01

    We have measured water/n-octanol partition coefficients, pKa values, heme binding constants, and heme aggregation inhibition activity of a series of ruthenium–πarene–chloroquine (CQ) complexes recently reported to be active against CQ-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Measurements of heme aggregation inhibition activity of the metal complexes near water/n-octanol interfaces qualitatively predict their superior antiplasmodial action against resistant parasites, in relation to CQ; we conclude that this modified method may be a better predictor of antimalarial potency than standard tests in aqueous acidic buffer. Some interesting tendencies emerge from our data, indicating that the antiplasmodial activity is related to a balance of effects associated with the lipophilicity, basicity, and structural details of the compounds studied. PMID:19343380

  13. Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) expresses several nsLTP isoforms characterized by different immunoglobulin E-binding properties.

    Bolla, Michela; Zenoni, Sara; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan; San Miguel Moncin, Maria Del Mar; Olivieri, Mario; Antico, Andrea; Ferrer, Marta; Berroa, Felicia; Enrique, Ernesto; Avesani, Linda; Marsano, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate allergy is associated with sensitization to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). Our aim was to identify and characterize the non-specific nsLTPs expressed in pomegranate at the molecular level and to study their allergenic properties in terms of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding and cross-reactivity with peach nsLTP (Pru p 3). A non-equilibrium two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoretic approach based on acid-urea PAGE and sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE was set up to separate pomegranate nsLTPs. Their immunoreactivity was tested by immunoblotting carried out with anti-Pru p 3 polyclonal antibodies and sera from pomegranate-allergic patients. For final identification, pomegranate nsLTPs were purified by chromatography and subjected to trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. For this purpose, the sequences obtained by cDNA cloning of three pomegranate nsLTPs were integrated in the database that was subsequently searched for MS data interpretation. Four nsLTPs were identified by 2-D immunoblotting. The detected proteins showed different IgE-binding capacity and partial cross-reactivity with Pru p 3. cDNA cloning and MS analyses led to the identification of three nsLTP isoforms with 66-68% amino acid sequence identity named Pun g 1.0101, Pun g 1.0201 and Pun g 1.0301. By 2-D electrophoresis, we could separate different nsLTP isoforms possessing different IgE-binding properties, which might reflect peculiar allergenic potencies. The contribution of Pru p 3 to prime sensitization is not central as in other plant nsLTPs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The prion protein has RNA binding and chaperoning properties characteristic of nucleocapsid protein NCP7 of HIV-1.

    Gabus, C; Derrington, E; Leblanc, P; Chnaiderman, J; Dormont, D; Swietnicki, W; Morillas, M; Surewicz, W K; Marc, D; Nandi, P; Darlix, J L

    2001-06-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the prion protein (PrP). Although PrP is conserved in vertebrates, its function remains to be identified. In vitro PrP binds large nucleic acids causing the formation of nucleoprotein complexes resembling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid-RNA complexes and in vivo MuLV replication accelerates the scrapie infectious process, suggesting possible interactions between retroviruses and PrP. Retroviruses, including HIV-1 encode a major nucleic acid binding protein (NC protein) found within the virus where 2000 NC protein molecules coat the dimeric genome. NC is required in virus assembly and infection to chaperone RNA dimerization and packaging and in proviral DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase (RT). In HIV-1, 5'-leader RNA/NC interactions appear to control these viral processes. This prompted us to compare and contrast the interactions of human and ovine PrP and HIV-1 NCp7 with HIV-1 5'-leader RNA. Results show that PrP has properties characteristic of NCp7 with respect to viral RNA dimerization and proviral DNA synthesis by RT. The NC-like properties of huPrP map to the N-terminal region of huPrP. Interestingly, PrP localizes in the membrane and cytoplasm of PrP-expressing cells. These findings suggest that PrP is a multifunctional protein possibly participating in nucleic acid metabolism.

  15. Binding of peptides to HLA-DQ molecules: peptide binding properties of the disease-associated HLA-DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201) molecule

    Johansen, B H; Buus, S; Vartdal, F

    1994-01-01

    Peptide binding to DQ molecules has not previously been described. Here we report a biochemical peptide-binding assay specific for the DQ2 [i.e. DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201)] molecule. This molecule was chosen since it shows a strong association to diseases such as celiac disease and insulin...

  16. Introduction of a covalent histidine-heme linkage in a hemoglobin: a promising tool for heme protein engineering.

    Rice, Selena L; Preimesberger, Matthew R; Johnson, Eric A; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2014-12-01

    The hemoglobins of the cyanobacteria Synechococcus and Synechocystis (GlbNs) are capable of spontaneous and irreversible attachment of the b heme to the protein matrix. The reaction, which saturates the heme 2-vinyl by addition of a histidine residue, is reproduced in vitro by preparing the recombinant apoprotein, adding ferric heme, and reducing the iron to the ferrous state. Spontaneous covalent attachment of the heme is potentially useful for protein engineering purposes. Thus, to explore whether the histidine-heme linkage can serve in such applications, we attempted to introduce it in a test protein. We selected as our target the heme domain of Chlamydomonas eugametos LI637 (CtrHb), a eukaryotic globin that exhibits less than 50% sequence identity with the cyanobacterial GlbNs. We chose two positions, 75 in the FG corner and 111 in the H helix, to situate a histidine near a vinyl group. We characterized the proteins with gel electrophoresis, absorbance spectroscopy, and NMR analysis. Both T111H and L75H CtrHbs reacted upon reduction of the ferric starting material containing cyanide as the distal ligand to the iron. With L75H CtrHb, nearly complete (>90%) crosslinking was observed to the 4-vinyl as expected from the X-ray structure of wild-type CtrHb. Reaction of T111H CtrHb also occurred at the 4-vinyl, in a 60% yield indicating a preference for the flipped heme orientation in the starting material. The work suggests that the His-heme modification will be applicable to the design of proteins with a non-dissociable heme group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative stress modulates heme synthesis and induces peroxiredoxin-2 as a novel cytoprotective response in β-thalassemic erythropoiesis.

    De Franceschi, Lucia; Bertoldi, Mariarita; De Falco, Luigia; Santos Franco, Sara; Ronzoni, Luisa; Turrini, Franco; Colancecco, Alessandra; Camaschella, Clara; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Iolascon, Achille

    2011-11-01

    β-thalassemic syndromes are inherited red cell disorders characterized by severe ineffective erythropoiesis and increased levels of reactive oxygen species whose contribution to β-thalassemic anemia is only partially understood. We studied erythroid precursors from normal and β-thalassemic peripheral CD34(+) cells in two-phase liquid culture by proteomic, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. We measured intracellular reactive oxygen species, heme levels and the activity of δ-aminolevulinate-synthase-2. We exposed normal cells and K562 cells with silenced peroxiredoxin-2 to H(2)O(2) and generated a recombinant peroxiredoxin-2 for kinetic measurements in the presence of H(2)O(2) or hemin. In β-thalassemia the increased production of reactive oxygen species was associated with down-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 and biliverdin reductase and up-regulation of peroxiredoxin-2. In agreement with these observations in β-thalassemic cells we found decreased heme levels related to significantly reduced activity of the first enzyme of the heme pathway, δ-aminolevulinate synthase-2 without differences in its expression. We demonstrated that the activity of recombinant δ-aminolevulinate synthase-2 is inhibited by both reactive oxygen species and hemin as a protective mechanism in β-thalassemic cells. We then addressed the question of the protective role of peroxiredoxin-2 in erythropoiesis by exposing normal cells to oxidative stress and silencing peroxiredoxin-2 in human erythroleukemia K562 cells. We found that peroxiredoxin-2 expression is up-regulated in response to oxidative stress and required for K562 cells to survive oxidative stress. We then showed that peroxiredoxin-2 binds heme in erythroid precursors with high affinity, suggesting a possible multifunctional cytoprotective role of peroxiredoxin-2 in β-thalassemia. In β-thalassemic erythroid cells the reduction of δ-aminolevulinate synthase-2 activity and the increased

  18. Different Binding Properties and Function of CXXC Zinc Finger Domains in Dnmt1 and Tet1

    Meilinger, Daniela; Bultmann, Sebastian; Fellinger, Karin; Hasenöder, Stefan; Wang, Mengxi; Qin, Weihua; Söding, Johannes; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Several mammalian proteins involved in chromatin and DNA modification contain CXXC zinc finger domains. We compared the structure and function of the CXXC domains in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 and the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet1. Sequence alignment showed that both CXXC domains have a very similar framework but differ in the central tip region. Based on the known structure of a similar MLL1 domain we developed homology models and designed expression constructs for the isolated CXXC domains of Dnmt1 and Tet1 accordingly. We show that the CXXC domain of Tet1 has no DNA binding activity and is dispensable for catalytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the CXXC domain of Dnmt1 selectively binds DNA substrates containing unmethylated CpG sites. Surprisingly, a Dnmt1 mutant construct lacking the CXXC domain formed covalent complexes with cytosine bases both in vitro and in vivo and rescued DNA methylation patterns in dnmt1−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs) just as efficiently as wild type Dnmt1. Interestingly, neither wild type nor ΔCXXC Dnmt1 re-methylated imprinted CpG sites of the H19a promoter in dnmt1−/− ESCs, arguing against a role of the CXXC domain in restraining Dnmt1 methyltransferase activity on unmethylated CpG sites. PMID:21311766

  19. Different binding properties and function of CXXC zinc finger domains in Dnmt1 and Tet1.

    Carina Frauer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several mammalian proteins involved in chromatin and DNA modification contain CXXC zinc finger domains. We compared the structure and function of the CXXC domains in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 and the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet1. Sequence alignment showed that both CXXC domains have a very similar framework but differ in the central tip region. Based on the known structure of a similar MLL1 domain we developed homology models and designed expression constructs for the isolated CXXC domains of Dnmt1 and Tet1 accordingly. We show that the CXXC domain of Tet1 has no DNA binding activity and is dispensable for catalytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the CXXC domain of Dnmt1 selectively binds DNA substrates containing unmethylated CpG sites. Surprisingly, a Dnmt1 mutant construct lacking the CXXC domain formed covalent complexes with cytosine bases both in vitro and in vivo and rescued DNA methylation patterns in dnmt1⁻/⁻ embryonic stem cells (ESCs just as efficiently as wild type Dnmt1. Interestingly, neither wild type nor ΔCXXC Dnmt1 re-methylated imprinted CpG sites of the H19a promoter in dnmt1⁻/⁻ ESCs, arguing against a role of the CXXC domain in restraining Dnmt1 methyltransferase activity on unmethylated CpG sites.

  20. Heme oxygenase is not involved in the anti-proliferative effects of statins on pancreatic cancer cells

    Vanova, K.; Boukalova, S.; Gbelcova, H.; Muchova, L.; Neuzil, J.; Gurlich, R.; Ruml, T.; Vitek, L.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is recognized as one of the most fatal tumors due to its aggressiveness and resistance to therapy. Statins were previously shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells via various signaling pathways. In healthy tissues, statins activate the heme oxygenase pathway, nevertheless the role of heme oxygenase in pancreatic cancer is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether anti-proliferative effects of statins in pancreatic cancer cells are mediated via the heme oxygenase pathway. In vitro effects of various statins and hemin, a heme oxygenase inducer, on cell proliferation were evaluated in PA-TU-8902, MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The effect of statins on heme oxygenase activity was assessed and heme oxygenase-silenced cells were used for pancreatic cancer cell proliferation studies. Cell death rate and reactive oxygen species production were measured in PA-TU-8902 cells, followed by evaluation of the effect of cerivastatin on GFP-K-Ras trafficking and expression of markers of invasiveness, osteopontin (SPP1) and SOX2. While simvastatin and cerivastatin displayed major anti-proliferative properties in all cell lines tested, pravastatin did not affect the cell growth at all. Strong anti-proliferative effect was observed also for hemin. Co-treatment of cerivastatin and hemin increased anti-proliferative potential of these agents, via increased production of reactive oxygen species and cell death compared to individual treatment. Heme oxygenase silencing did not prevent pancreatic cancer cells from the tumor-suppressive effect of cerivastatin or hemin. Cerivastatin, but not pravastatin, protected Ras protein from trafficking to the cell membrane and significantly reduced expressions of SPP1 (p < 0.05) and SOX2 (p < 0.01). Anti-proliferative effects of statins and hemin on human pancreatic cancer cell lines do not seem to be related to the heme oxygenase pathway. While hemin triggers reactive

  1. Implication for using heme methyl hyperfine shifts as indicators of heme seating as related to stereoselectivity in the catabolism of heme by heme oxygenase: in-plane heme versus axial his rotation.

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N

    2008-01-08

    The triple mutant of the solubilized, 265-residue construct of human heme oxygenase, K18E/E29K/R183E-hHO, has been shown to redirect the exclusive alpha-regioselectivity of wild-type hHO to primarily beta,delta-selectivity in the cleavage of heme (Wang, J., Evans, J. P., Ogura, H., La Mar, G. N., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 61-73). The 1H NMR hyperfine shift pattern for the substrate and axial His CbetaH's and the substrate-protein contacts of the cyanide-inhibited protohemin and 2,4-dimethyldeuterohemin complexes of the triple mutant have been analyzed in detail and compared to data for the WT complex. It is shown that protein contacts for the major solution isomers for both substrates in the mutant dictate approximately 90 degrees in-plane clockwise rotation relative to that in the WT. The conventional interpretation of the pattern of substrate methyl hyperfine shifts, however, indicates substrate rotations of only approximately 50 degrees . This paradox is resolved by demonstrating that the axial His25 imidazole ring also rotates counterclockwise with respect to the protein matrix in the mutant relative to that in the WT. The axial His25 CbetaH hyperfine shifts are shown to serve as independent probes of the imidazole plane orientation relative to the protein matrix. The analysis indicates that the pattern of heme methyl hyperfine shifts cannot be used alone to determine the in-plane orientation of the substrate as it relates to the stereospecificity of heme cleavage, without explicit consideration of the orientation of the axial His imidazole plane relative to the protein matrix.

  2. Structures of the multicomponent Rieske non-heme iron toluene 2, 3-dioxygenase enzyme system

    Friemann, Rosmarie [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 590, 751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Lee, Kyoung [Department of Microbiology, Changwon National University, Changwon, Kyoungnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Brown, Eric N. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Gibson, David T. [Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Eklund, Hans [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 590, 751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: s-ramaswamy@uiowa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 590, 751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structures of the three-component toluene 2, 3-dioxygenase system provide a model for electron transfer among bacterial Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases. Bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases catalyze the initial hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The structures of all three components of one such system, the toluene 2, 3-dioxygenase system, have now been determined. This system consists of a reductase, a ferredoxin and a terminal dioxygenase. The dioxygenase, which was cocrystallized with toluene, is a heterohexamer containing a catalytic and a structural subunit. The catalytic subunit contains a Rieske [2Fe–2S] cluster and mononuclear iron at the active site. This iron is not strongly bound and is easily removed during enzyme purification. The structures of the enzyme with and without mononuclear iron demonstrate that part of the structure is flexible in the absence of iron. The orientation of the toluene substrate in the active site is consistent with the regiospecificity of oxygen incorporation seen in the product formed. The ferredoxin is Rieske type and contains a [2Fe–2S] cluster close to the protein surface. The reductase belongs to the glutathione reductase family of flavoenzymes and consists of three domains: an FAD-binding domain, an NADH-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. A model for electron transfer from NADH via FAD in the reductase and the ferredoxin to the terminal active-site mononuclear iron of the dioxygenase is proposed.

  3. Improved catalytic properties of halohydrin dehalogenase by modification of the halide-binding site.

    Tang, Lixia; Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E; Fraaije, Marco W; de Jong, René M; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Janssen, Dick B

    2005-05-03

    Halohydrin dehalogenase (HheC) from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 catalyzes the dehalogenation of vicinal haloalcohols by an intramolecular substitution reaction, resulting in the formation of the corresponding epoxide, a halide ion, and a proton. Halide release is rate-limiting during the catalytic cycle of the conversion of (R)-p-nitro-2-bromo-1-phenylethanol by the enzyme. The recent elucidation of the X-ray structure of HheC showed that hydrogen bonds between the OH group of Tyr187 and between the Odelta1 atom of Asn176 and Nepsilon1 atom of Trp249 could play a role in stabilizing the conformation of the halide-binding site. The possibility that these hydrogen bonds are important for halide binding and release was studied using site-directed mutagenesis. Steady-state kinetic studies revealed that mutant Y187F, which has lost both hydrogen bonds, has a higher catalytic activity (k(cat)) with two of the three tested substrates compared to the wild-type enzyme. Mutant W249F also shows an enhanced k(cat) value with these two substrates, as well as a remarkable increase in enantiopreference for (R)-p-nitro-2-bromo-1-phenylethanol. In case of a mutation at position 176 (N176A and N176D), a 1000-fold lower catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) was obtained, which is mainly due to an increase of the K(m) value of the enzyme. Pre-steady-state kinetic studies showed that a burst of product formation precedes the steady state, indicating that halide release is still rate-limiting for mutants Y187F and W249F. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments revealed that the rate of halide release is 5.6-fold higher for the Y187F mutant than for the wild-type enzyme and even higher for the W249F enzyme. Taken together, these results show that the disruption of two hydrogen bonds around the halide-binding site increases the rate of halide release and can enhance the overall catalytic activity of HheC.

  4. Relationship of binding specificity and structural property of the technetium-99m complexes for tumor hypoxia and tumor angiogenesis imaging

    Su, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    The growth of tumor requires nutrition and oxygen. Tumor cells will become hypoxic when the supply of oxygen is insufficient. Hypoxic tumor cells will not only resist radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but also induce angiogenesis for oxygen supply and for metastasis. Therefore, detection of tumor hypoxia and tumor angiogenesis with high sensitive radio labeled imaging agents is important. Hypoxic tumor cells may display some molecules as tumor markers for the specific binding with radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals, unlike the non-radioactive drugs, are trace compounds in a given dosage. Due to the extreme low concentration, the non-specific accumulation of the radiotracers by blood cells and proteins, tissues, and organs can be even more serious compared to the non-radioactive drugs. The non-specific accumulation of the radiotracers can make the ratios of tumor/tissue (in terms of i.d.%/g) falling to the range of 2∼7 [1-2]. Non-specific binding of radiopharmaceuticals is common, but detailed studies on it are poor documented. This presentation reports the study of the relationship of non-specific accumulation and the structural property of two type of 99m TC labeled compounds: (a) 99m Tc-(amine o xime) containing either 2-nitroimidazole (2-NI, as hypoxia tumor cells specific agents), or 4-nitro- imidazole (4-NI, as control), or aniline (as reference) groups; (b) 99m Tc-(arginine-glycine- aspartic acid, RGD, as tumor angiogenesis specific agents) and 99m Tc-(arginine-glycine- glutarmic acid, RGE, as control). The 99m Tc-(amine-oxime) complexes, in addition to the 2-NI, 4-NI, and aniline groups, contain methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, iso-butyl-, t-butyl-, phenyl-, and Benzyl- groups as well to make the radiotracers differing in structure and in lipophilicity , while the lipophilicity of a radiotracer plays an important role in non-specific cellular accumulation and protein binding, The results demonstrated that (1) the complex containing 2-NI showed specific

  5. Predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains using a systematic approach to identifying a set of informative physicochemical and biochemical properties

    2011-01-01

    Background Existing methods of predicting DNA-binding proteins used valuable features of physicochemical properties to design support vector machine (SVM) based classifiers. Generally, selection of physicochemical properties and determination of their corresponding feature vectors rely mainly on known properties of binding mechanism and experience of designers. However, there exists a troublesome problem for designers that some different physicochemical properties have similar vectors of representing 20 amino acids and some closely related physicochemical properties have dissimilar vectors. Results This study proposes a systematic approach (named Auto-IDPCPs) to automatically identify a set of physicochemical and biochemical properties in the AAindex database to design SVM-based classifiers for predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains/proteins. Auto-IDPCPs consists of 1) clustering 531 amino acid indices in AAindex into 20 clusters using a fuzzy c-means algorithm, 2) utilizing an efficient genetic algorithm based optimization method IBCGA to select an informative feature set of size m to represent sequences, and 3) analyzing the selected features to identify related physicochemical properties which may affect the binding mechanism of DNA-binding domains/proteins. The proposed Auto-IDPCPs identified m=22 features of properties belonging to five clusters for predicting DNA-binding domains with a five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 87.12%, which is promising compared with the accuracy of 86.62% of the existing method PSSM-400. For predicting DNA-binding sequences, the accuracy of 75.50% was obtained using m=28 features, where PSSM-400 has an accuracy of 74.22%. Auto-IDPCPs and PSSM-400 have accuracies of 80.73% and 82.81%, respectively, applied to an independent test data set of DNA-binding domains. Some typical physicochemical properties discovered are hydrophobicity, secondary structure, charge, solvent accessibility, polarity, flexibility, normalized Van Der

  6. Heme synthesis in the lead-intoxicated mouse embryo

    Gerber, G B; Maes, J

    1978-02-01

    Incorporation of /sup 55/Fe and of (/sup 14/C) glycine was studied in control embryos and mothers and in those which had received lead in the diet from day 7 of pregnancy. Incorporation of Fe into heme of embryonic liver which increases markedly for controls on day 17 of pregnancy was depressed greatly and showed no such increase in lead-intoxicated embryos. These embryos were retarded in growth but had normal heme concentrations in body and liver. Incorporation of glycine into embryonic heme and proteins was not affected. Data on incorporation in the mothers are also presented. It is thought that the impaired synthesis of heme in lead-intoxicated embryos limits their body growth during the late phase of pregnancy.

  7. Effect of a heme oxygenase-1 inducer on NADPH oxidase ...

    Effect of a heme oxygenase-1 inducer on NADPH oxidase expression in ... and immunohistochemistry of hepatic NOX1 and NOX4 were investigated in week 4. ... (HO-1 inhibitor) administration caused upregulation of NOX gene expression ...

  8. Heme and blood-feeding parasites: friends or foes?

    Glanfield Amber

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemoparasites, like malaria and schistosomes, are constantly faced with the challenges of storing and detoxifying large quantities of heme, released from their catabolism of host erythrocytes. Heme is an essential prosthetic group that forms the reactive core of numerous hemoproteins with diverse biological functions. However, due to its reactive nature, it is also a potentially toxic molecule. Thus, the acquisition and detoxification of heme is likely to be paramount for the survival and establishment of parasitism. Understanding the underlying mechanism involved in this interaction could possibly provide potential novel targets for drug and vaccine development, and disease treatment. However, there remains a wide gap in our understanding of these mechanisms. This review summarizes the biological importance of heme for hemoparasite, and the adaptations utilized in its sequestration and detoxification.

  9. Heme and blood-feeding parasites: friends or foes?

    2010-01-01

    Hemoparasites, like malaria and schistosomes, are constantly faced with the challenges of storing and detoxifying large quantities of heme, released from their catabolism of host erythrocytes. Heme is an essential prosthetic group that forms the reactive core of numerous hemoproteins with diverse biological functions. However, due to its reactive nature, it is also a potentially toxic molecule. Thus, the acquisition and detoxification of heme is likely to be paramount for the survival and establishment of parasitism. Understanding the underlying mechanism involved in this interaction could possibly provide potential novel targets for drug and vaccine development, and disease treatment. However, there remains a wide gap in our understanding of these mechanisms. This review summarizes the biological importance of heme for hemoparasite, and the adaptations utilized in its sequestration and detoxification. PMID:21087517

  10. Wiring of heme enzymes by methylene-blue labeled dendrimers

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh; Ferapontova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme- and moli......Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme......- and molibdopterin-containing sulfite oxidase (SOx), wired to gold by the methylene blue (MB)-labeled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The enzymes’ electrochemical transformation and bioelectrocatalytic function could be followed at both unlabeled and MB-labeled dendrimer-modified electrodes with the formal redox......, optimization of bioelectrocatalysis of complex intermembrane and, possibly, membrane enzymes....

  11. Immunolocalization of heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal diseases

    G Gayathri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study is an increasing evidence of involvement of antioxidant enzymes like heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal inflammation and their implication for treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  12. Electrophoretic and immunological properties of folate-binding protein isolated from bovine milk

    Iwai, Kazuo; Tani, Masako; Fushiki, Tohru

    1983-01-01

    Changes of the folate-binding protein (FBP) concentration in bovine milk after parturition were investigated. The FBP was highly purified from mature milk by affinity chromatography. The purified FBP showed a single protein band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was immunologically homogenous in double immunodiffusion. However, in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the FBP was separated into several spots in isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, and each spot also showed two molecular weights in SDS-gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. But these FBP molecules were immunologically identical with each other. The neuraminidase treatment obviously diminished the number of isoelectric points of the FBP. Thus, the variety of FBP molecules was at least partially due to the variability of the sialic acid content in the carbohydrate moieties. Moreover, the milk FBP showed species-specificity among mammals immunologically as well as physicochemically. (author)

  13. Cholesterol Promotes Protein Binding by Affecting Membrane Electrostatics and Solvation Properties.

    Doktorova, Milka; Heberle, Frederick A; Kingston, Richard L; Khelashvili, George; Cuendet, Michel A; Wen, Yi; Katsaras, John; Feigenson, Gerald W; Vogt, Volker M; Dick, Robert A

    2017-11-07

    Binding of the retroviral structural protein Gag to the cellular plasma membrane is mediated by the protein's matrix (MA) domain. Prominent among MA-PM interactions is electrostatic attraction between the positively charged MA domain and the negatively charged plasma membrane inner leaflet. Previously, we reported that membrane association of HIV-1 Gag, as well as purified Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) MA and Gag, depends strongly on the presence of acidic lipids and is enhanced by cholesterol (Chol). The mechanism underlying this enhancement was unclear. Here, using a broad set of in vitro and in silico techniques we addressed molecular mechanisms of association between RSV MA and model membranes, and investigated how Chol enhances this association. In neutron scattering experiments with liposomes in the presence or absence of Chol, MA preferentially interacted with preexisting POPS-rich clusters formed by nonideal lipid mixing, binding peripherally to the lipid headgroups with minimal perturbation to the bilayer structure. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a stronger MA-bilayer interaction in the presence of Chol, and a large Chol-driven increase in lipid packing and membrane surface charge density. Although in vitro MA-liposome association is influenced by disparate variables, including ionic strength and concentrations of Chol and charged lipids, continuum electrostatic theory revealed an underlying dependence on membrane surface potential. Together, these results conclusively show that Chol affects RSV MA-membrane association by making the electrostatic potential at the membrane surface more negative, while decreasing the penalty for lipid headgroup desolvation. The presented approach can be applied to other viral and nonviral proteins. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of calcium depletion on iron-binding properties of milk.

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Das, S; Singh, H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of calcium depletion on the binding of iron in milk. A weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was used to remove 3 different levels (18-22, 50-55, and 68-72%) of calcium from milk. Five levels of iron (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mM) were added to each of these calcium-depleted milks (CDM) and the resultant milks were analyzed for particle size, microstructure, and the distribution of protein and minerals between the colloidal and soluble phases. The depletion of calcium affected the distribution of protein and minerals in normal milk. Iron added to normal milk and low-CDM (~20% calcium depletion) bound mainly to the colloidal phase (material sedimented at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 20 °C), with little effect on the integrity of the casein micelles. Depletion of ~70% of the calcium from milk resulted in almost complete disintegration of the casein micelles, as indicated by all the protein remaining in the soluble phase upon ultracentrifugation. Addition of up to ~20 mM iron to high CDM resulted in the formation of small fibrous structures that remained in the soluble phase of milk. It appeared that the iron bound to soluble (nonsedimentable) caseins in high-CDM. We observed a decrease in the aqueous phosphorus content of all milks upon iron addition, irrespective of their calcium content. We considered the interaction between aqueous phosphorus and added iron to be responsible for the high iron-binding capacity of the proteins in milk. The soluble protein-iron complexes formed in high-CDM (~70% calcium depletion) could be used as an effective iron fortificant for a range of food products because of their good solubility characteristics. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacill...

  16. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up 59 Fe from [ 59 Fe]SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of [ 59 Fe]transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates [2- 14 C]glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate 59 Fe incorporation into heme from either [ 59 Fe]transferrin or [ 59 Fe]SIH but does reverse the inhibition of 59 Fe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes

  17. TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism.

    Yien, Yvette Y; Robledo, Raymond F; Schultz, Iman J; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel E; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Cooney, Jeffrey D; Pierce, Eric L; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A; Miyata, Non; Kingsley, Paul D; Garone, Caterina; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Huang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Keenan, Ellen M; Shah, Dhvanit I; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; DiMauro, Salvatore; Orkin, Stuart H; Cantor, Alan B; Palis, James; Koehler, Carla M; Lodish, Harvey F; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M; Dailey, Harry A; Phillips, John D; Peters, Luanne L; Paw, Barry H

    2014-10-01

    The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias.

  18. Kinetic and equilibrium properties of regulatory Ca(2+)-binding domains in sodium-calcium exchangers 2 and 3.

    Tal, Inbal; Kozlovsky, Tom; Brisker, Dafna; Giladi, Moshe; Khananshvili, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    In mammals, three sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) protein isoforms (NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3) mediate Ca(2+) fluxes across the membrane to maintain cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. NCX isoforms and their splice variants are expressed in a tissue-specific manner to meet physiological demands. NCX1 is ubiquitously expressed, NCX2 is expressed in the brain and spinal cord, and NCX3 is expressed in the brain and skeletal muscle. Eukaryotic NCXs contain two cytosolic regulatory Ca(2+)-binding domains, CBD1 and CBD2, which form a two-domain tandem (CBD12) through a short linker. Ca(2+) binding to the CBDs underlies allosteric regulation of NCX. Previous structural and functional studies in NCX1 have shown that the CBDs synergistically interact, where their interactions are modulated in a splice variant-specific manner by splicing segment at CBD2. Here, we analyze the equilibrium and kinetic properties of Ca(2+) binding to purified preparations of CBD1, CBD2, and CBD12 from NCX2 and from NCX3 splice variants. We show that CBD1 interacts with CBD2 in the context of the CBD12 tandem in all NCX isoforms, where these interactions specifically modulate Ca(2+) sensing at the primary sensor of CBD1 to meet the physiological requirements. For example, the rate-limiting slow dissociation of "occluded" Ca(2+) from the primary allosteric sensor of variants expressed in skeletal muscle is ∼10-fold slower than that of variants expressed in the brain. Notably, these kinetic differences between NCX variants occur while maintaining a similar Ca(2+) affinity of the primary sensor, since the resting [Ca(2+)]i levels are similar among different cell types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compaction and binding properties of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of Henipavirus nucleoprotein as unveiled by deletion studies.

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Gruet, Antoine; Blangy, Stéphanie; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Henipaviruses are recently emerged severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Their genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the phosphoprotein (P). We have previously shown that in Henipaviruses the N protein possesses an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), which undergoes α-helical induced folding in the presence of the C-terminal domain (P(XD)) of the P protein. Using computational approaches, we previously identified within N(TAIL) four putative molecular recognition elements (MoREs) with different structural propensities, and proposed a structural model for the N(TAIL)-P(XD) complex where the MoRE encompassing residues 473-493 adopt an α-helical conformation at the P(XD) surface. In this work, for each N(TAIL) protein, we designed four deletion constructs bearing different combinations of the predicted MoREs. Following purification of the N(TAIL) truncated proteins from the soluble fraction of E. coli, we characterized them in terms of their conformational, spectroscopic and binding properties. These studies provided direct experimental evidence for the structural state of the four predicted MoREs, and showed that two of them have clear α-helical propensities, with the one spanning residues 473-493 being strictly required for binding to P(XD). We also showed that Henipavirus N(TAIL) and P(XD) form heterologous complexes, indicating that the P(XD) binding regions are functionally interchangeable between the two viruses. By combining spectroscopic and conformational analyses, we showed that the content in regular secondary structure is not a major determinant of protein compaction.

  20. Synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine: crystal structure of the non-heme iron(II and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase EctD.

    Klaus Reuter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a response to high osmolality, many microorganisms synthesize various types of compatible solutes. These organic osmolytes aid in offsetting the detrimental effects of low water activity on cell physiology. One of these compatible solutes is ectoine. A sub-group of the ectoine producer's enzymatically convert this tetrahydropyrimidine into a hydroxylated derivative, 5-hydroxyectoine. This compound also functions as an effective osmostress protectant and compatible solute but it possesses properties that differ in several aspects from those of ectoine. The enzyme responsible for ectoine hydroxylation (EctD is a member of the non-heme iron(II-containing and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11. These enzymes couple the decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate with the formation of a high-energy ferryl-oxo intermediate to catalyze the oxidation of the bound organic substrate. We report here the crystal structure of the ectoine hydroxylase EctD from the moderate halophile Virgibacillus salexigens in complex with Fe(3+ at a resolution of 1.85 A. Like other non-heme iron(II and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, the core of the EctD structure consists of a double-stranded beta-helix forming the main portion of the active-site of the enzyme. The positioning of the iron ligand in the active-site of EctD is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved 2-His-1-carboxylate iron-binding motif. The side chains of the three residues forming this iron-binding site protrude into a deep cavity in the EctD structure that also harbours the 2-oxoglutarate co-substrate-binding site. Database searches revealed a widespread occurrence of EctD-type proteins in members of the Bacteria but only in a single representative of the Archaea, the marine crenarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The EctD crystal structure reported here can serve as a template to guide further biochemical and structural studies of this biotechnologically interesting enzyme family.

  1. Differential Control of Heme Reactivity in Alpha and Beta Subunits of Hemoglobin: A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Computational Study

    2015-01-01

    The use of hybrid hemoglobin (Hb), with mesoheme substituted for protoheme, allows separate monitoring of the α or β hemes along the allosteric pathway. Using resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy in silica gel, which greatly slows protein motions, we have observed that the Fe–histidine stretching frequency, νFeHis, which is a monitor of heme reactivity, evolves between frequencies characteristic of the R and T states, for both α or β chains, prior to the quaternary R–T and T–R shifts. Computation of νFeHis, using QM/MM and the conformational search program PELE, produced remarkable agreement with experiment. Analysis of the PELE structures showed that the νFeHis shifts resulted from heme distortion and, in the α chain, Fe–His bond tilting. These results support the tertiary two-state model of ligand binding (Henry et al., Biophys. Chem.2002, 98, 149). Experimentally, the νFeHis evolution is faster for β than for α chains, and pump–probe rR spectroscopy in solution reveals an inflection in the νFeHis time course at 3 μs for β but not for α hemes, an interval previously shown to be the first step in the R–T transition. In the α chain νFeHis dropped sharply at 20 μs, the final step in the R–T transition. The time courses are fully consistent with recent computational mapping of the R–T transition via conjugate peak refinement by Karplus and co-workers (Fischer et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.2011, 108, 5608). The effector molecule IHP was found to lower νFeHis selectively for α chains within the R state, and a binding site in the α1α2 cleft is suggested. PMID:24991732

  2. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  3. Structural properties of the intrinsically disordered, multiple calcium ion-binding otolith matrix macromolecule-64 (OMM-64).

    Poznar, Monika; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Wojtas, Magdalena; Gapiński, Jacek; Banachowicz, Ewa; Patkowski, Adam; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Dobryszycki, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Fish otoliths are calcium carbonate biominerals that are involved in hearing and balance sensing. An organic matrix plays a crucial role in their formation. Otolith matrix macromolecule-64 (OMM-64) is a highly acidic, calcium-binding protein (CBP) found in rainbow trout otoliths. It is a component of high-molecular-weight aggregates, which influence the size, shape and polymorph of calcium carbonate in vitro. In this study, a protocol for the efficient expression and purification of OMM-64 was developed. For the first time, the complete structural characteristics of OMM-64 were described. Various biophysical methods were combined to show that OMM-64 occurs as an intrinsically disordered monomer. Under denaturing conditions (pH, temperature) OMM-64 exhibits folding propensity. It was determined that OMM-64 binds approximately 61 calcium ions with millimolar affinity. The folding-unfolding experiments showed that calcium ions induced the collapse of OMM-64. The effect of other counter ions present in trout endolymph on OMM-64 conformational changes was studied. The significance of disordered properties of OMM-64 and the possible function of this protein is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stk1-mediated phosphorylation stimulates the DNA-binding properties of the Staphylococcus aureus SpoVG transcriptional factor.

    Bischoff, Markus; Brelle, Solène; Minatelli, Sabrina; Molle, Virginie

    2016-05-13

    The stage V sporulation protein G (SpoVG) homolog of Staphylococcus aureus is a modulator of virulence factor synthesis and antibiotic resistance in this clinically important gram-positive pathogen. Here we demonstrate that SpoVG can be phosphorylated by the staphylococcal Ser/Thr protein kinase Stk1 and that phosphorylation positively affects its DNA-binding properties. Mass spectrometric analyses and site directed mutagenesis identified Thr4, Thr13, Thr24 and Ser41 as phospho-acceptors. Stk1-mediated phosphorylation markedly enhanced the DNA binding activity of SpoVG towards the promoter regions of target genes such as capA, lip, and nuc1. Similarly, trans-complementation of the S. aureus ΔyabJ-spoVG mutant SM148 with a SpoVG derivative that mimics constitutive phosphorylation, SpoVG_Asp, exhibited capA, lip, and nuc1 transcript levels that were comparable to the levels seen with the wild-type, whereas trans-complementation with a phosphoablative variant of SpoVG (SpoVG_Ala) produced transcript levels similar to the ones seen in SM148. Our data suggest that the expression/activity of this transcription factor is tightly controlled in S. aureus by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and molecular properties of SUMO-binding proteins in arabidopsis

    Park, Hyeongcheol

    2011-05-20

    Reversible conjugation of the small ubiquitin modifier (SUMO) peptide to proteins (SUMOylation) plays important roles in cellular processes in animals and yeasts. However, little is known about plant SUMO targets. To identify SUMO substrates in Arabidopsis and to probe for biological functions of SUMO proteins, we constructed 6xHis-3xFLAG fused AtSUMO1 (HFAtSUMO1) controlled by the CaMV35S promoter for transformation into Arabidopsis Col-0. After heat treatment, an increased sumoylation pattern was detected in the transgenic plants. SUMO1-modified proteins were selected after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) image analysis and identified using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 27 proteins involved in a variety of processes such as nucleic acid metabolism, signaling, metabolism, and including proteins of unknown functions. Binding and sumoylation patterns were confirmed independently. Surprisingly, MCM3 (At5G46280), a DNA replication licensing factor, only interacted with and became sumoylated by AtSUMO1, but not by SUMO1ΔGG or AtSUMO3. The results suggest specific interactions between sumoylation targets and particular sumoylation enzymes. ©2011 KSMCB.

  6. The effect of z-binding yarns on the electrical properties of 3D woven composites

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2017-09-28

    Electrical resistance monitoring (ERM) has been used to study the effect of the z-binding yarns on the initial electrical resistance (ER) and its change of three architectures of 3D woven carbon fibre composites namely (orthogonal “ORT”, layer-to-layer “LTL” and angle interlock “AI”) when tested in tension. Specimens are loaded in on-axis “warp” and off-axis “45°” directions. In-situ ERM is achieved using the four-probe technique. Monotonic and cyclic “load/unload” tests are performed to investigate the effect of piezo-resistivity and residual plasticity on resistance variation. The resistance increase for the off-axis loaded specimens (∼90%) is found to be higher than that of their on-axis counterparts (∼20%). In the case of cyclic testing, the resistance increase upon unloading is irreversible which suggests permanent damage presence not piezo-resistive effect. At the moment, it is difficult to obtain a direct correlation between resistance variation and damage in 3D woven composites due to the complexity of the conduction path along the three orthogonal directions, however this study demonstrates the potential of using ERM for damage detection in 3D woven carbon fibre-based composites and highlights the challenges that need to be overcome to establish ERM as a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for such material systems.

  7. Antivascular and antitumor properties of the tubulin-binding chalcone TUB091.

    Canela, María-Dolores; Noppen, Sam; Bueno, Oskía; Prota, Andrea E; Bargsten, Katja; Sáez-Calvo, Gonzalo; Jimeno, María-Luisa; Benkheil, Mohammed; Ribatti, Domenico; Velázquez, Sonsoles; Camarasa, María-José; Díaz, J Fernando; Steinmetz, Michel O; Priego, Eva-María; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; Liekens, Sandra

    2017-02-28

    We investigated the microtubule-destabilizing, vascular-targeting, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of a new series of chalcones, whose prototype compound is (E)-3-(3''-amino-4''-methoxyphenyl)-1-(5'-methoxy-3',4'-methylendioxyphenyl)-2-methylprop-2-en-1-one (TUB091). X-ray crystallography showed that these chalcones bind to the colchicine site of tubulin and therefore prevent the curved-to-straight structural transition of tubulin, which is required for microtubule formation. Accordingly, TUB091 inhibited cancer and endothelial cell growth, induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis at 1-10 nM. In addition, TUB091 displayed vascular disrupting effects in vitro and in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay at low nanomolar concentrations. A water-soluble L-Lys-L-Pro derivative of TUB091 (i.e. TUB099) showed potent antitumor activity in melanoma and breast cancer xenograft models by causing rapid intratumoral vascular shutdown and massive tumor necrosis. TUB099 also displayed anti-metastatic activity similar to that of combretastatin A4-phosphate. Our data indicate that this novel class of chalcones represents interesting lead molecules for the design of vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). Moreover, we provide evidence that our prodrug approach may be valuable for the development of anti-cancer drugs.

  8. Tuning the electronic properties of gated multilayer phosphorene: A self-consistent tight-binding study

    Li, L. L.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    By taking account of the electric-field-induced charge screening, a self-consistent calculation within the framework of the tight-binding approach is employed to obtain the electronic band structure of gated multilayer phosphorene and the charge densities on the different phosphorene layers. We find charge density and screening anomalies in single-gated multilayer phosphorene and electron-hole bilayers in dual-gated multilayer phosphorene. Due to the unique puckered lattice structure, both intralayer and interlayer charge screenings are important in gated multilayer phosphorene. We find that the electric-field tuning of the band structure of multilayer phosphorene is distinctively different in the presence and absence of charge screening. For instance, it is shown that the unscreened band gap of multilayer phosphorene decreases dramatically with increasing electric-field strength. However, in the presence of charge screening, the magnitude of this band-gap decrease is significantly reduced and the reduction depends strongly on the number of phosphorene layers. Our theoretical results of the band-gap tuning are compared with recent experiments and good agreement is found.

  9. Immobilized sialyltransferase fused to a fungal biotin-binding protein: Production, properties, and applications.

    Kajiwara, Hitomi; Tsunashima, Masako; Mine, Toshiki; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    A β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST) from the marine bacterium Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224 with a broad acceptor substrate specificity was fused to a fungal biotin-binding protein tamavidin 2 (TM2) to produce immobilized enzyme. Specifically, a gene for the fusion protein, in which ST from Photobacterium sp. JT-ISH-224 and TM2 were connected via a peptide linker (ST-L-TM2) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The ST-L-TM2 was produced in the soluble form with a yield of approximately 15,000 unit/300 ml of the E. coli culture. The ST-L-TM2 was partially purified and part of it was immobilized onto biotin-bearing magnetic microbeads. The immobilized ST-L-TM2 onto microbeads could be used at least seven consecutive reaction cycles with no observed decrease in enzymatic activity. In addition, the optimum pH and temperature of the immobilized enzyme were changed compared to those of a free form of the ST. Considering these results, it was strongly expected that the immobilized ST-L-TM2 was a promising tool for the production of various kind of sialoligosaccharides. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Properties and biotechnological applications of ice-binding proteins in bacteria.

    Cid, Fernanda P; Rilling, Joaquín I; Graether, Steffen P; Bravo, Leon A; Mora, María de La Luz; Jorquera, Milko A

    2016-06-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and ice-nucleating proteins (INPs), have been described in diverse cold-adapted organisms, and their potential applications in biotechnology have been recognized in various fields. Currently, both IBPs are being applied to biotechnological processes, primarily in medicine and the food industry. However, our knowledge regarding the diversity of bacterial IBPs is limited; few studies have purified and characterized AFPs and INPs from bacteria. Phenotypically verified IBPs have been described in members belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Flavobacteriia classes, whereas putative IBPs have been found in Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli classes. Thus, the main goal of this minireview is to summarize the current information on bacterial IBPs and their application in biotechnology, emphasizing the potential application in less explored fields such as agriculture. Investigations have suggested the use of INP-producing bacteria antagonists and AFPs-producing bacteria (or their AFPs) as a very attractive strategy to prevent frost damages in crops. UniProt database analyses of reported IBPs (phenotypically verified) and putative IBPs also show the limited information available on bacterial IBPs and indicate that major studies are required. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Anti-Inflammatory properties of interleukin 18 binding protein in ...

    This study pointed out that IL-18BPa has additional anti-inflammatory property through downregulating the expression of IFN-ã and IL-12, at the same time, upregulating the expression of IL-4 and IL-10. Both IFN-ã and IL-12 could upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of IL-18BPa in both the normal and RA subjects.

  12. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: subunit structure, functional binding sites, and ion transport properties

    Raftery, M.A.; Dunn, S.M.J.; Conti-Tronconi, B.M.; Middlemas, D.S.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been highly conserved during animal evolution, and in all the species and tissues studied so far, including mammals, it is a pseudosymmetric, pentameric complex of related subunits with very similar physical properties. All subunits of these nicotinic receptors were derived from a common ancestral gene, probably by way of gene duplications occurring very early in animal evolution. 45 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Electronic Properties of SiNTs Under External Electric and Magnetic Fields Using the Tight-Binding Method

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the electronic properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) under external transverse electric fields and axial magnetic fields using the tight-binding approximation. It was found that, after switching on the electric and magnetic fields, band modifications such as distortion of degeneracy, change in energy dispersion and subband spacing, and bandgap size reduction occur. The bandgap of silicon gear-like nanotubes (Si g-NTs) decreases linearly with increasing electric field strength, but the bandgap for silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs) first increases and then decreases (metallic) or first remains constant and then decreases (semiconducting). Our results show that the bandgap of Si h-NTs is very sensitive to both electric and magnetic fields, unlike Si g-NTs, which are more sensitive to electric than magnetic fields.

  14. Electro-optical properties of zigzag and armchair boron nitride nanotubes under a transverse electric field: Tight binding calculations

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2012-02-01

    The electro-optical properties of zigzag and armchair BNNTs in a uniform transverse electric field are investigated within tight binding approximation. It is found that the electric field modifies the band structure and splits band degeneracy where these effects reflect in the DOS and JDOS spectra. A decrease in the band gap, as a function of the electric field, is observed. This gap reduction increases with the diameter and it is independent of chirality. An analytic function to estimate the electric field needed for band gap closing is proposed which is in good agreement with DFT results. In additional, we show that the larger diameter tubes are more sensitive than small ones. Number and position of peaks in DOS and JDOS spectra for armchair and zigzag tubes with similar radius are dependent on electric field strength.

  15. Lactose-containing starburst dendrimers: influence of dendrimer generation and binding-site orientation of receptors (plant/animal lectins and immunoglobulins) on binding properties.

    André, S; Ortega, P J; Perez, M A; Roy, R; Gabius, H J

    1999-11-01

    Starburst glycodendrimers offer the potential to serve as high-affinity ligands for clinically relevant sugar receptors. In order to define areas of application, their binding behavior towards sugar receptors with differential binding-site orientation but identical monosaccharide specificity must be evaluated. Using poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimers of five generations, which contain the p-isothiocyanato derivative of p-aminophenyl-beta-D-lactoside as ligand group, four different types of galactoside-binding proteins were chosen for this purpose, i.e., the (AB)(2)-toxic agglutinin from mistletoe, a human immunoglobulin G fraction, the homodimeric galectin-1 with its two binding sites at opposite ends of the jelly-roll-motif-harboring protein and monomeric galectin-3. Direct solid-phase assays with surface-immobilized glycodendrimers resulted in obvious affinity enhancements by progressive core branching for the plant agglutinin and less pronounced for the antibody and galectin-1. High density of binding of galectin-3 with modest affinity increases only from the level of the 32-mer onwards points to favorable protein-protein interactions of the monomeric lectin and a spherical display of the end groups without a major share of backfolding. When the inhibitory potency of these probes was evaluated as competitor of receptor binding to an immobilized neoglycoprotein or to asialofetuin, a marked selectivity was detected. The 32- and 64-mers were second to none as inhibitors for the plant agglutinin against both ligand-exposing matrices and for galectin-1 on the matrix with a heterogeneous array of interglycoside distances even on the per-sugar basis. In contrast, a neoglycoprotein with the same end group was superior in the case of the antibody and, less pronounced, monomeric galectin-3. Intimate details of topological binding-site presentation and the ligand display on different generations of core assembly are major operative factors which determine the potential

  16. A macrocyclic ligand as receptor and Zn(II)-complex receptor for anions in water: binding properties and crystal structures.

    Ambrosi, Gianluca; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Pontellini, Roberto; Rossi, Patrizia

    2011-02-01

    Binding properties of 24,29-dimethyl-6,7,15,16-tetraoxotetracyclo[19.5.5.0(5,8).0(14,17)]-1,4,9,13,18,21,24,29-octaazaenatriaconta-Δ(5,8),Δ(14,17)-diene ligand L towards Zn(II) and anions, such as the halide series and inorganic oxoanions (phosphate (Pi), sulfate, pyrophosphate (PPi), and others), were investigated in aqueous solution; in addition, the Zn(II)/L system was tested as a metal-ion-based receptor for the halide series. Ligand L is a cryptand receptor incorporating two squaramide functions in an over-structured chain that connects two opposite nitrogen atoms of the Me(2)[12]aneN(4) polyaza macrocyclic base. It binds Zn(II) to form mononuclear species in which the metal ion, coordinated by the Me(2)[12]aneN(4) moiety, lodges inside the three-dimensional cavity. Zn(II)-containing species are able to bind chloride and fluoride at the physiologically important pH value of 7.4; the anion is coordinated to the metal center but the squaramide units play the key role in stabilizing the anion through a hydrogen-bonding network; two crystal structures reported here clearly show this aspect. Free L is able to bind fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfate, Pi, and PPi in aqueous solution. The halides are bound at acidic pH, whereas the oxoanions are bound in a wide range of pH values ranging from acidic to basic. The cryptand cavity, abundant in hydrogen-bonding sites at all pH values, allows excellent selectivity towards Pi to be achieved mainly at physiological pH 7.4. By joining amine and squaramide moieties and using this preorganized topology, it was possible, with preservation of the solubility of the receptor, to achieve a very wide pH range in which oxoanions can be bound. The good selectivity towards Pi allows its discrimination in a manner not easily obtainable with nonmetallic systems in aqueous environment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of membrane properties on the binding activities of the HN and HC heavy-chain domains of botulinum neurotoxin A.

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2016-12-01

    Binding behaviors of the H N and the H C domains of BoNT/A were investigated individually to identify if there exist any differences in their interaction with the cell membrane. Recombinant fragments corresponding to both BoNT/A H N and H C regions were prepared (H N 519-845 and H C 967-1296) and their binding to synaptic proteins was verified. The binding behaviors of these heavy-chain domains were analyzed by treating the Neuro 2a, a murine neuroblastoma cell line, with compounds known to alter membrane properties. Cholesterol depletion and lipid raft inhibition increased the binding of H N 519-845 to Neuro 2a cells without affecting H C 967-1296-cell interaction. Sphingolipid depletion decreased the binding of cells to both H C 967-1296 and H N 519-845 whereas, loading exogenous GD1a, on to the Neuro 2a cells, increased the binding of both the peptides to cells. Microtubule disruption of the Neuro 2a cells by nocodazole decreased the binding of both H C 967-1296 and H N 519-845 to the treated cells. Inhibition of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis using dynasore, chlorpromazine or potassium (K + ) depletion buffer lowered the binding of both H C 967-1296 and H N 519-845 to the cells, but seemed to exert a more pronounced effect on the binding of H C 967-1296 than on the binding of H N 519-845. Results indicate that while both the H N and H C domains are involved in the binding of the toxin to neuronal cells there are differences in their behavior which probably stem from their respective amino acid composition and structural location in the toxin three-dimensional structure along with their intended role in translocation and internalization into the cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of N- and C-terminal domains in the ligand-binding properties of cytoglobin.

    Hanai, Shumpei; Tsujino, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Taku; Torii, Ryo; Sawai, Hitomi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Oohora, Koji; Hayashi, Takashi; Uno, Tadayuki

    2018-02-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a member of the hexacoordinated globin protein family and is expressed ubiquitously in rat and human tissues. Although Cygb is reportedly upregulated under hypoxic conditions both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a physiological function to protect cells under hypoxic/ischemic conditions by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by signal transduction, the mechanisms associated with this function have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies comparing Cygbs among several species suggest that mammalian Cygbs show a distinctly longer C-terminal domain potentially involved in unique physiological functions. In this study, we prepared human Cygb mutants (ΔC, ΔN, and ΔNC) with either one or both terminal domains truncated and investigated the enzymatic functions and structural features by spectroscopic methods. Evaluation of the superoxide-scavenging activity between Cygb variants showed that the ΔC and ΔNC mutants exhibited slightly higher activity involving superoxide scavenging as compared with wild-type Cygb. Subsequent experiments involving ligand titration, flash photolysis, and resonance Raman spectroscopic studies suggested that the truncation of the C- and N-terminal domains resulted in less effective to dissociation constants and binding rates for carbon monoxide, respectively. Furthermore, structural stability was assessed by guanidine hydrochloride and revealed that the C-terminal domain might play a vital role in improving structure, whereas the N-terminal domain did not exert a similar effect. These findings indicated that long terminal domains could be important not only in regulating enzymatic activity but also for structural stability, and that the domains might be relevant to other hypothesized physiological functions for Cygb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Binding properties of a blood group Le(a+) active sialoglycoprotein, purified from human ovarian cyst, with applied lectins.

    Wu, A M; WU, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Tsai, M C

    1996-06-07

    Studies on the structures and binding properties of the glycoproteins, purified from human ovarian cyst fluids, will aid the understanding of the carbohydrate alterations occurring during the biosynthesis of blood group antigens and neoplasm formation. These glycoproteins can also serve as important biological materials to study blood group A, B, H, Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), Le(y), T and Tn determinants, precursor type I and II sequences and cold agglutinin I and i epitopes. In this study, the binding property of a cyst glycoprotein from a human blood group Le(a+) nonsecretor individual, that contains an unusually high amount (18%) of sialic acid (HOC 350) was characterized by quantitative precipitin assay with a panel of lectins exhibiting a broad range of carbohydrate-binding specificities. Native HOC 350 reacted well only with three out of nineteen lectins tested. It precipitated about 80% of Ricinus communis (RCA1), 50% of Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and 37% of Bauhinia purpurea aba (BPA) agglutinins, respectively. However, its asialo product had dramatically enhanced reactivity and reacted well with many I/II (Gal beta1 --> 3/4GcNAc), T(Gal beta1 --> 3GalNAc) and Tn(GaNIAc alphaI --> Ser/Thr) active lectins. It bound best to Jacalin, BPA, and abrin-a and completely precipitated all the lectins added. Asialo-HOC 350 also reacted strongly with Wistaria floribunda, Abrus precatorius agglutinin, ricin and RCA1 and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, and moderately with Arachis hypogaea, Maclura pomifera, WGA, Vicia viosa-B4, Codium fragile tomentosoides and Ulex europaeus-II. But native HOC 350 and its asialo product reacted not at all or poorly with Dolichos biflorus, Helix pomatia, Lotus tetra-gonolobus, Ulex europaeus-I, Lens culinaris lectins and Con A. The lectin-glycoform interactions through bioactive sugars were confirmed by precipitin inhibition assay. Mapping the precipitation profiles of the interactions have led to the conclusion that HOC 350

  20. Cloning and characterization of a heme oxygenase-2 gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Jin, Qi-Jiang; Lin, Yu-Ting; Feng, Jian-Fei; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Zheng, Tian-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO, EC 1.14.99.3) catalyzes the oxidation of heme and performs vital roles in plant development and stress responses. Two HO isozymes exist in plants. Between these, HO-1 is an oxidative stress-response protein, and HO-2 usually exhibited constitutive expression. Although alfalfa HO-1 gene (MsHO1) has been investigated previously, HO2 is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of HO2 gene, MsHO2, from alfalfa (Medica sativa L.). The full-length cDNA of MsHO2 contains an ORF of 870 bp and encodes for 290 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33.3 kDa. Similar to MsHO1, MsHO2 also appears to have an N-terminal transit peptide sequence for chloroplast import. Many conserved residues in plant HO were also conserved in MsHO2. However, unlike HO-1, the conserved histidine (His) required for heme-iron binding and HO activity was replaced by tyrosine (Tyr) in MsHO2. Further biochemical activity analysis of purified mature MsHO2 showed no HO activity, suggesting that MsHO2 may not be a true HO in nature. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed its maximum expression in the germinating seeds. Importantly, the expression levels of MsHO2 were up-regulated under sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and H(2)O(2) (especially) treatment, respectively.

  1. SDS-binding assay based on tyrosine fluorescence as a tool to determine binding properties of human serum albumin in blood plasma

    Zhdanova, Nadezda; Shirshin, Evgeny; Fadeev, Victor; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Among all plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) is the most studied one as it is the main transport protein and can bind a wide variety of ligands especially fatty acids (FAs). The concentration of FAs bound to HSA in human blood plasma differs by three times under abnormal conditions (fasting, physical exercises or in case of social important diseases). In the present study a surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to simulate FAs binding to HSA. It was shown that the increase of Tyr fluorescence of human blood plasma due to SDS addition can be completely explained by HSA-SDS complex formation. Binding parameters of SDS-HSA complex (average number of sites and apparent constant of complex formation) were determined from titration curves based on tyrosine (Tyr) fluorescence.

  2. Analysis of physical and magnetic properties of composite NdFeB bind with polyvinyl alcohol

    Ramlan; Sardjono, P.; Muljadi; Setiabudidaya, D.; Gulo, F.

    2018-03-01

    The composite magnet NdFeB has been made using magnetic powder MQP-B and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the binder. The mixing compositions of raw materials used are: 95 wt% NdFeB - 5 wt% PVA, 92.5 wt% NdFeB - 7.5 wt% PVA, 90 wt.% NdFeB - 10 wt% PVA, and 87.5 wt% NdFeB - 12.5 wt% PVA. Both raw materials are weighed according to the composition, and then mixed until homogeneous. Furthermore, pellet forming was made using dry pressing at 50 kgf/cm2 pressures and continued with drying at 100 °C and 10 mmbar for 4 hours. The characterization includes bulk density, hardness, compressive strength measurements, and magnetic properties testing. The characterization results show that the optimal composition of binder PVA is achieved at 5–7.5 wt% NdFeB composite magnet with following properties: bulk density = 5.21–5.25 g/cm3, hardness = 302.17 - 304.32 Hv, compressive strength = 25.17–3.17 kgf/cm2, magnetic flux = 1150-1170 Gauss, remanence = 70.90–74.97 emu/g or 4.7–5.0 kGauss, coercivity = 8.68–8.76 kOe, and energy product = 2.89–3.04 MgOe.

  3. The "Janus face" of the thrombin binding aptamer: Investigating the anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties through straightforward chemical modifications.

    Esposito, Veronica; Russo, Annapina; Amato, Teresa; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Mayol, Luciano; Russo, Giulia; Virgilio, Antonella; Galeone, Aldo

    2018-02-01

    The thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is endowed with both anticoagulant and antiproliferative activities. Its chemico-physical and/or biological properties can be tuned by the site-specific replacement of selected residues. Four oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) based on the TBA sequence (5'-GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG-3') and containing 2'-deoxyuridine (U) or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (B) residues at positions 4 or 13 have been investigated by NMR and CD techniques. Furthermore, their anticoagulant (PT assay) and antiproliferative properties (MTT assay) have been tested and compared with two further ODNs containing 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (H) residues in the same positions, previously investigated. The CD and NMR data suggest that all the investigated ODNs are able to form G-quadruplexes strictly resembling that of TBA. The introduction of B residues in positions 4 or 13 increases the melting temperature of the modified aptamers by 7 °C. The replacement of thymidines with U in the same positions results in an enhanced anticoagulant activity compared to TBA, also at low ODN concentration. Although all ODNs show antiproliferative properties, only TBA derivatives containing H in the positions 4 and 13 lose the anticoagulant activity and remarkably preserve the antiproliferative one. All ODNs have shown antiproliferative activities against two cancer cell lines but only those with U and B are endowed with anticoagulant activities similar or improved compared to TBA. The appropriate site-specific replacement of the residues in the TT loops of TBA with commercially available thymine analogues is a useful strategy either to improve the anticoagulant activity or to preserve the antiproliferative properties by quenching the anticoagulant ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Heme Chirality in the Circular Dichroism of Heme Proteins

    Woody, Robert W.; Pescitelli, Gennaro

    2014-07-01

    The rotational strength (R) of the Soret transition in sperm-whale myoglobin (SW Mb), the hemoglobin from Chironomus thummi thummi (CTT Hb), and human hemoglobin (hHb) has been calculated using 20 high-resolution ( Raro > Rpep. For CTT Hb and hHB, the orders were, respectively, Rint > Rpep > Raro and Rint > Raro ≈ Rpep. Human Hb ɑ chains showed the same trend as CTT Hb. Only in the hHb β chains did Raro predominate, with the order Raro > Rint > Rpep. The total predicted Rtot for SW Mb, CTT Hb, and hHb averaged +0.77±0.10 (0.56 - 0.80), -0.37±0.12 (-0.5), and +0.31±0.17 DBM (0.23 - 0.50), respectively. (Values in parentheses are experimental values.) Thus, contrary to the currently accepted view, coupling with aromatic side-chain or peptide transitions is not the dominant factor in the Soret circular dichroism (CD) of these proteins. The Soret CD is dominated by intrinsic CD of the heme chromophore, of which vinyl torsion is the major determinant. This result suggests an explanation for the large effect of heme isomerism on the Soret CD of Mb and Hb. Rotation about the ɑ-γ axis may be associated with large changes in vinyl torsion and thus substantially alter the intrinsic CD, even reversing its sign.

  5. Influence of Binding Rates on Strength Properties of Moulding Sands with the GEOPOL Binder

    Holtzer M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of moulding sands with an inorganic binder called GEOPOL, developed by the SAND TEAM Company are presented in the paper. Hardeners of various hardening rates are used for moulding sands with this binder. The main aim of investigations was determination of the influence of the hardening rate of moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder on technological properties of these sands (bending strength, tensile strength, permeability and grindability. In addition, the final strength of moulding sands of the selected compositions was determined by two methods: by splitting strength and shear strength measurements. No essential influence of the hardening rate on such parameters as: permeability, grindability and final strength was found. However, the sand in which the slowest hardener (SA 72 were used, after 1 hour of holding, had the tensile and bending strength practically zero. Thus, the time needed for taking to pieces the mould made of such moulding sand will be 1.5 - 2 hours.

  6. Disruption of a hydrogen bond network in human versus spider monkey cytochrome c affects heme crevice stability.

    Goldes, Matthew E; Jeakins-Cooley, Margaret E; McClelland, Levi J; Mou, Tung-Chung; Bowler, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    The hypothesis that the recent rapid evolution of primate cytochromes c, which primarily involves residues in the least stable Ω-loop (Ω-loop C, residues 40-57), stabilizes the heme crevice of cytochrome c relative to other mammals, is tested. To accomplish this goal, we have compared the properties of human and spider monkey cytochrome c and a set of four variants produced in the process of converting human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability of all variants has been measured by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. The stability of the heme crevice has been assessed with the alkaline conformational transition. Structural insight into the effects of the five amino acid substitutions needed to convert human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c is provided by a 1.15Å resolution structure of spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability for all variants is near 9.0kcal/mol at 25°C and pH7, which is higher than that observed for other mammalian cytochromes c. The heme crevice stability is more sensitive to the substitutions required to produce spider monkey cytochrome c with decreases of up to 0.5 units in the apparent pKa of the alkaline conformational transition relative to human cytochrome c. The structure of spider monkey cytochrome c indicates that the Y46F substitution destabilizes the heme crevice by disrupting an extensive hydrogen bond network that connects three surface loops including Ω-loop D (residues 70-85), which contains the Met80 heme ligand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Transition-Metal Oxide Nanocomposites: A Tight-Binding Modeling at Mesoscale

    Tai, Yuan-Yen; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) exhibit many emergent phenomena ranging from high-temperature superconductivity and giant magnetoresistance to magnetism and ferroelectricity. In addition, when TMOs are interfaced with each other, new functionalities can arise, which are absent in individual components. In this talk, I will present an overview on our recent efforts in theoretical understanding of the electronic and magnetic properties TMO nanocomposites. In particular, I will introduce our recently developed tight-binding modeling of these properties arising from the interplay of competing interactions at the interfaces of planar and pillar nanocomposites. Our theoretical tool package will provide a unique capability to address the emergent phenomena in TMO nanocomposites and their mesoscale response to such effects like strain and microstructures at the interfaces, and ultimately help establish design principles of new multifunctionality with TMOs. This work was carried out under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396, and was supported by the LANL LDRD Program.

  8. Intracellular Zn(II) Intoxication Leads to Dysregulation of the PerR Regulon Resulting in Heme Toxicity in Bacillus subtilis

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal ions (Zn(II), Cu(II)/(I), Fe(III)/(II), Mn(II)) are essential for life and participate in a wide range of biological functions. Cellular Zn(II) levels must be high enough to ensure that it can perform its essential roles. Yet, since Zn(II) binds to ligands with high avidity, excess Zn(II) can lead to protein mismetallation. The major targets of mismetallation, and the underlying causes of Zn(II) intoxication, are not well understood. Here, we use a forward genetic selection to identify targets of Zn(II) toxicity. In wild-type cells, in which Zn(II) efflux prevents intoxication of the cytoplasm, extracellular Zn(II) inhibits the electron transport chain due to the inactivation of the major aerobic cytochrome oxidase. This toxicity can be ameliorated by depression of an alternate oxidase or by mutations that restrict access of Zn(II) to the cell surface. Conversely, efflux deficient cells are sensitive to low levels of Zn(II) that do not inhibit the respiratory chain. Under these conditions, intracellular Zn(II) accumulates and leads to heme toxicity. Heme accumulation results from dysregulation of the regulon controlled by PerR, a metal-dependent repressor of peroxide stress genes. When metallated with Fe(II) or Mn(II), PerR represses both heme biosynthesis (hemAXCDBL operon) and the abundant heme protein catalase (katA). Metallation of PerR with Zn(II) disrupts this coordination, resulting in depression of heme biosynthesis but continued repression of catalase. Our results support a model in which excess heme partitions to the membrane and undergoes redox cycling catalyzed by reduced menaquinone thereby resulting in oxidative stress. PMID:27935957

  9. Atypical profiles and modulations of heme-enzymes catalyzed outcomes by low amounts of diverse additives suggest diffusible radicals' obligatory involvement in such redox reactions.

    Manoj, Kelath Murali; Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Goyal, Sahil; Satyalipsu; Singh, Preeti Gunjan; Gade, Sudeep K; Periyasami, Kalaiselvi; Jacob, Reeba Susan; Sardar, Debosmita; Singh, Shanikant; Kumar, Rajan; Gideon, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    Peroxidations mediated by heme-enzymes have been traditionally studied under a single-site (heme distal pocket), non-sequential (ping-pong), two-substrates binding scheme of Michaelis-Menten paradigm. We had reported unusual modulations of peroxidase and P450 reaction outcomes and explained it invoking diffusible reactive species [Manoj, 2006; Manoj et al., 2010; Andrew et al., 2011, Parashar et al., 2014 & Venkatachalam et al., 2016]. A systematic investigation of specific product formation rates was undertaken to probe the hypothesis that involvement of diffusible reactive species could explain undefined substrate specificities and maverick modulations (sponsored by additives) of heme-enzymes. When the rate of specific product formation was studied as a function of reactants' concentration or environmental conditions, we noted marked deviations from normal profiles. We report that heme-enzyme mediated peroxidations of various substrates are inhibited (or activated) by sub-equivalent concentrations of diverse redox-active additives and this is owing to multiple redox equilibriums in the milieu. At low enzyme and peroxide concentrations, the enzyme is seen to recycle via a one-electron (oxidase) cycle, which does not require the substrate to access the heme centre. Schemes are provided that explain the complex mechanistic cycle, kinetics & stoichiometry. It is not obligatory for an inhibitor or substrate to interact with the heme centre for influencing overall catalysis. Roles of diffusible reactive species explain catalytic outcomes at low enzyme and reactant concentrations. The current work highlights the scope/importance of redox enzyme reactions that could occur "out of the active site" in biological or in situ systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. Dansyl-naphthalimide dyads as molecular probes: effect of spacer group on metal ion binding properties.

    Shankar, Balaraman H; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2011-11-17

    Interaction of a few dansyl-naphthalimide conjugates 1a-e linked through polymethylene spacer groups with various metal ions was investigated through absorption, fluorescence, NMR, isothermal calorimetric (ITC), and laser flash photolysis techniques. The characteristic feature of these dyads is that they exhibit competing singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes, both of which decrease with the increase in spacer length. Depending on the spacer group, these dyads interact selectively with divalent Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions, as compared to other mono- and divalent metal ions. Jobs plot analysis showed that these dyads form 2:3 complexes with Cu(2+) ions, while 1:1 complexes were observed with Zn(2+) ions. The association constants for the Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) complexes were determined and are found to be in the order 10(3)-10(5) M(-1). Irrespective of the length of the spacer group, these dyads interestingly act as fluorescence ratiometric molecular probes for Cu(2+) ions by altering the emission intensity of both dansyl and naphthalimide chromophores. In contrast, only the fluorescence intensity of the naphthalimide chromophore of the lower homologues (n = 1-3) was altered by Zn(2+) ions. (1)H NMR and ITC measurements confirmed the involvement of both sulfonamide and dimethylamine groups in the complexation with Cu(2+) ions, while only the latter group was involved with Zn(2+) ions. Laser excitation of the dyads 1a-e showed formation of a transient absorption which can be attributed to the radical cation of the naphthalimide chromophore, whereas only the triplet excited state of the dyads 1a-e was observed in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. Uniquely, the complexation of 1a-e with Cu(2+) ions affects both PET and SSET processes, while only the PET process was partially inhibited by Zn(2+) ions in the lower homologues (n = 1-3) and the higher homologues exhibited negligible changes in their emission properties. Our results

  11. The application and properties of composite sorbents of inorganic ion exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix.

    Nilchi, A; Khanchi, A; Atashi, H; Bagheri, A; Nematollahi, L

    2006-10-11

    A description is given of the preparation and properties of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) (KCFC) and the composite, potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II)-polyacrylonitrile (KCFC-PAN). The materials were dried at high temperatures and characterized by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma and infrared. The ion exchange of alkaline earth metals and molybdenum on a nonstoichiometric compound K(2)[CoFe(CN)(6)] and its PAN based absorber was examined by batch methods. The adsorption of molybdenum from aqueous solutions on KCFC-PAN was investigated and optimized as a function of equilibration time and pH. The materials which were dried at optimum high temperature of 110 degrees C were found to be stable in water, dilute acids, alkaline solutions and relatively high temperature. The distribution coefficient values K(d) for alkaline earth metals, followed the same trend of increase for both sets of absorbers studied, i.e. Ba(2+)>Sr(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+), which closely resembles to the order of the size of the hydrated cations. However, the K(d) values show a significant increase for PAN based absorbers in comparison to KCFC absorbers.

  12. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Structure of the Mitochondrial Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase, a Key Heme Biosynthetic Enzyme.

    Brown, Breann L; Kardon, Julia R; Sauer, Robert T; Baker, Tania A

    2018-04-03

    5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis. We present the crystal structure of a eukaryotic ALAS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this homodimeric structure, one ALAS subunit contains covalently bound cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), whereas the second is PLP free. Comparison between the subunits reveals PLP-coupled reordering of the active site and of additional regions to achieve the active conformation of the enzyme. The eukaryotic C-terminal extension, a region altered in multiple human disease alleles, wraps around the dimer and contacts active-site-proximal residues. Mutational analysis demonstrates that this C-terminal region that engages the active site is important for ALAS activity. Our discovery of structural elements that change conformation upon PLP binding and of direct contact between the C-terminal extension and the active site thus provides a structural basis for investigation of disruptions in the first step of heme biosynthesis and resulting human disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring the binding properties and structural stability of an opsin in the chytrid Spizellomyces punctatus using comparative and molecular modeling

    Steven R. Ahrendt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes. Opsins characterized in the Dikarya (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes are of the type 1 bacteriorhodopsin family but the early diverging fungal lineages have not been as well surveyed. We identified by sequence similarity a rhodopsin-like GPCR in genomes of early diverging chytrids and examined the structural characteristics of this protein to assess its likelihood to be homologous to animal rhodopsins and bind similar chromophores. Methods We used template-based structure modeling, automated ligand docking, and molecular modeling to assess the structural and binding properties of an identified opsin-like protein found in Spizellomyces punctatus, a unicellular, flagellated species belonging to Chytridiomycota, one of the earliest diverging fungal lineages. We tested if the sequence and inferred structure were consistent with a solved crystal structure of a type 2 rhodopsin from the squid Todarodes pacificus. Results Our results indicate that the Spizellomyces opsin has structural characteristics consistent with functional animal type 2 rhodopsins and is capable of maintaining a stable structure when associated with the retinaldehyde chromophore, specifically the 9-cis-retinal isomer. Together, these results support further the homology of Spizellomyces opsins to animal type 2 rhodopsins. Discussion This represents the first test of structure/function relationship of a type 2 rhodopsin

  15. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs

    Mochalova, Larisa; Gambaryan, Alexandra; Romanova, Julia; Tuzikov, Alexander; Chinarev, Alexander; Katinger, Dietmar; Katinger, Herman; Egorov, Andrej; Bovin, Nicolai

    2003-01-01

    To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs. All Vero-derived viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) sequences indistinguishable from original viruses present in clinical samples, but HAs of three of seven tested MDCK-derived isolates had one or two amino acid substitutions. Despite these host-dependent mutations and differences in the structure of HA molecules of individual strains, all studied Vero- and MDCK-isolated viruses bound to Neu5Ac α2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'SLN) essentially stronger than to Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (6'SL). Such receptor-binding specificity has been typical for earlier isolated H1N1 human influenza viruses, but there is a new property of H3N2 viruses that has been circulating in the human population during recent years. Propagation of human viruses in chicken embryonated eggs resulted in a selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the HA receptor-binding site, namely Gln226Arg or Asp225Gly for H1N1 viruses and Leu194Ile and Arg220Ser for H3N2 viruses. These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses

  16. Bacterial exopolysaccharides as a modern biotechnological tool for modification of fungal laccase properties and metal ion binding.

    Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jaszek, Magdalena; Starosielec, Magdalena; Sulej, Justyna; Matuszewska, Anna; Janczarek, Monika; Bancerz, Renata; Wydrych, Jerzy; Wiater, Adrian; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2018-03-26

    Four bacterial EPSs extracted from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Rt24.2, Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110, and Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA76 were determined towards their metal ion adsorption properties and possible modification of Cerrena unicolor laccase properties. The highest magnesium and iron ion-sorption capacity (~ 42 and ~ 14.5%, respectively) was observed for EPS isolated from B. japonicum USDA110. An evident influence of EPSs on the stability of laccase compared to the control values (without EPSs) was shown after 30-day incubation at 25 °C. The residual activity of laccases was obtained in the presence of Rh76EPS and Rh1021EPS, i.e., 49.5 and 41.5% of the initial catalytic activity, respectively. This result was confirmed by native PAGE electrophoresis. The EPS effect on laccase stability at different pH (from 3.8 to 7.0) was also estimated. The most significant changes at the optimum pH value (pH 5.8) was observed in samples of laccase stabilized by Rh76EPS and Rh1021EPS. Cyclic voltamperometry was used for analysis of electrochemical parameters of laccase stabilized by bacterial EPS and immobilized on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with aryl residues. Laccases with Rh76EPS and Rh1021EPS had an evident shift of the value of the redox potential compared to the control without EPS addition. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work present a new potential use of bacterial EPSs as a metal-binding component and a modulator of laccase properties especially stability of enzyme activity, which can be a very effective tool in biotechnology and industrial applications.

  17. In vitro evidence for RNA binding properties of the coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus and their comparison to related and unrelated viruses.

    Pallás, V; Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Díez, J

    1999-01-01

    The RNA binding properties of the prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) coat protein (CP) were demonstrated by northwestern and dot-blot analyses. The capability to bind PNRSV RNA 4 was compared with viruses representing three different interactions prevailing in the assembly and architecture of virions. The results showed that cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and PNRSV CPs, which stabilise their virions mainly through RNA-protein interactions bound PNRSV RNA 4 even at very high salt concentrations. The CP of cherry leaf roll nepovirus, whose virions are predominantly stabilised by protein-protein interactions did not bind even at the lowest salt concentration tested. Finally the CP of carnation mottle carmovirus, that has an intermediate position in which both RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions are equally important showed a salt-dependent RNA binding.

  18. Antigen-binding properties of monoclonal antibodies reactive with EBNA1 and use in immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Sarah J Duellman

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were prepared that react with EBNA1. Eleven high affinity mAbs were recovered. Nine mAbs are isotype IgG (all subisotype IgG(1 and two mAbs are isotype IgM. All mAbs react strongly with EBNA1 in an ELISA assay while only one mAb (designated 1EB6 fails to react in a Western blot assay. The epitopes for these mAbs were mapped to seven different regions, providing good coverage of the entire EBNA1 protein. The mAbs had differing affinity for an EBNA1/DNA complex with four mAbs able to supershift the complex completely. All mAbs can immunoprecipitate EBNA1 from E. coli overexpressing EBNA1. A modified ELISA assay, termed ELISA-elution assay, was used to screen for mAbs that release EBNA1 in the presence of a low molecular weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol and a nonchaotropic salt. MAbs with this property, termed polyol-responsive (PR-mAbs, allow gentle elution of labile proteins and protein complexes. Four mAbs are polyol-responsive with two showing usefulness in gentle immunoaffinity chromatography. Purification with these PR-mAbs may be useful in purifying EBNA1 complexes and elucidating EBNA1-associated proteins. This panel of anti-EBNA1 mAbs will advance the study of EBV by providing new tools to detect and purify EBNA1.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effectiveness and Moisture Binding Properties of Wound Dressings

    Teerapol Srichana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of silver-coated dressings and some impregnated with other chemicals are now available in the market; however, there have been few studies analyzing their comparative efficacies as antimicrobial agents. Moreover, their properties for retaining an appropriate level of moisture that is critical for effective wound healing have never been reported. Five commercially available silver-containing and chlorhexidine dressings, Urgotul SSD®, Bactigras®, Acticoat®, Askina Calgitrol Ag® and Aquacel Ag®, were tested to determine their comparative antimicrobial effectiveness in vitro against five common wound pathogens, namely methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mepitel®, a flexible polyamide net coated with soft silicone, was used as a control. The zones of inhibition and both the rapidity and the extent of killing of these pathogens were evaluated. All five antimicrobial dressings investigated exerted some bactericidal activity, particularly against E. coli. The spectrum and rapidity of action ranged widely for the different dressings. Acticoat® had a broad spectrum of action against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Other dressings demonstrated a narrower range of bactericidal activities. Regarding the absorption and release of moisture, Askina Calgitrol Ag® absorbed and released the most moisture from the environment. Aquacel Ag® also exhibited good moisture absorption and moisture release, but to a lower degree. The other tested dressings absorbed or released very little moisture. Askina Calgitrol Ag® and Aquacel Ag® are good alternative dressings for treating wounds with high exudates and pus. An understanding of the characteristics of these dressings will be useful for utilizing them for specific requirements under specified conditions.

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis.We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations.As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  1. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  2. Comparison of the crystal structure and function to wild-type and His25Ala mutant human heme oxygenase-1.

    Zhou, Wen-Pu; Zhong, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zi-Li; Xia, Zhen-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in heme metabolism. It regulates serum bilirubin level. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that the proximal residue histidine 25 (His25) plays a key role in hHO-1 activity. A highly purified hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was generated and crystallized with a new expression system. The crystal structure of the mutant was determined by X-ray diffraction technology and molecular replacement at the resolution of 2.8 A, and the model of hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was refined. The final crystallographic and free R factors were 0.245 and 0.283, respectively. The standard bond length deviation was 0.007 A, and the standard bond angle deviation was 1.3 degrees . The mutation of His25 to Ala led to an empty pocket underneath the ferric ion in the heme, leading to loss of binding iron ligand. Although this did not cause an overall structural change, the enzymatic activity of the mutant hHO-1 was reduced by 90%. By supplementing imidazole, the HO-1 activity was restored approximately 90% to its normal level. These data suggest that Ala25 remains unchanged in the structure compared to His25, but the important catalytic function of hHO-1 is lost. Thus, it appears that His25 is a crucial residue for proper hHO-1 catalysis.

  3. Influence of template/functional monomer/cross‐linking monomer ratio on particle size and binding properties of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles

    Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2012-01-01

    A series of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles have been synthesized employing various template/functional monomer/crosslinking monomer ratio and characterized in detail to elucidate the correlation between the synthetic conditions used and the properties (e.g., particle size and templat...... tuning of particle size and binding properties are required to fit practical applications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012...

  4. QSAR, docking, dynamic simulation and quantum mechanics studies to explore the recognition properties of cholinesterase binding sites.

    Correa-Basurto, J; Bello, M; Rosales-Hernández, M C; Hernández-Rodríguez, M; Nicolás-Vázquez, I; Rojo-Domínguez, A; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Miranda, René; Flores-Sandoval, C A

    2014-02-25

    despite the multiple conformations obtained through MD simulations on both ChEs, the ligand recognition properties were conserved. In fact, the complex formed between ChEs and the best N-aryl compound reproduced the binding mode experimentally reported, where the ligand was coupled into the choline-binding site and stabilized through π-π interactions with Trp82 or Trp86 for BChE and AChE, respectively, suggesting that this compound could be an efficient inhibitor and supporting our model. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Novel Insights in Mammalian Catalase Heme Maturation: Effect of NO and Thioredoxin-1

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Majors, Alana; Ruple, Lisa; Aronica, Mark; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Catalase is a tetrameric heme-containing enzyme with essential antioxidant functions in biology. Multiple factors including nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to attenuate its activity. However, the possible impact of NO in relation to the maturation of active catalase, including its heme acquisition and tetramer formation, has not been investigated. We found that NO attenuates heme insertion into catalase in both short-term and long-term incubations. The NO inhibition in catalase heme incorpo...

  6. Heme in pathophysiology: a matter of scavenging, metabolism and trafficking across cell membranes

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Vinchi, Francesca; Fiorito, Veronica; Mercurio, Sonia; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Heme (iron-protoporphyrin IX) is an essential co-factor involved in multiple biological processes: oxygen transport and storage, electron transfer, drug and steroid metabolism, signal transduction, and micro RNA processing. However, excess free-heme is highly toxic due to its ability to promote oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, thus leading to membrane injury and, ultimately, apoptosis. Thus, heme metabolism needs to be finely regulated. Intracellular heme amount is controlled at multi...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus HemX Modulates Glutamyl-tRNA Reductase Abundance To Regulate Heme Biosynthesis

    Jacob E. Choby; Caroline M. Grunenwald; Arianna I. Celis; Svetlana Y. Gerdes; Jennifer L. DuBois; Eric P. Skaar; Kimberly A. Kline

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a significant amount of devastating disease. Its ability to colonize the host and cause infection is supported by a variety of proteins that are dependent on the cofactor heme. Heme is a porphyrin used broadly across kingdoms and is synthesized de novo from common cellular precursors and iron. While heme is critical to bacterial physiology, it is also toxic in high concentrations, requiring that organisms encode regulatory processes to control heme hom...

  8. Apolar Distal Pocket Mutants of Yeast Cytochrome c Peroxidase: Hydrogen Peroxide Reactivity and Cyanide Binding of the TriAla, TriVal, and TriLeu Variants

    Bidwai, Anil K.; Meyen, Cassandra; Kilheeney, Heather; Wroblewski, Damian; Vitello, Lidia B.; Erman, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Three yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) variants with apolar distal heme pockets have been constructed. The CcP variants have Arg48, Trp51, and His52 mutated to either all alanines, CcP(triAla), all valines, CcP(triVal), or all leucines, CcP(triLeu). The triple mutants have detectable enzymatic activity at pH 6 but the activity is less than 0.02% that of wild-type CcP. The activity loss is primarily due to the decreased rate of reaction between the triple mutants and H2O2 compared to wild-type CcP. Spectroscopic properties and cyanide binding characteristics of the triple mutants have been investigated over the pH stability region of CcP, pH 4 to 8. The absorption spectra indicate that the CcP triple mutants have hemes that are predominantly five-coordinate, high-spin at pH 5 and six-coordinate, low-spin at pH 8. Cyanide binding to the triple mutants is biphasic indicating that the triple mutants have two slowly-exchanging conformational states with different cyanide affinities. The binding affinity for cyanide is reduced at least two orders of magnitude in the triple mutants compared to wild-type CcP and the rate of cyanide binding is reduced by four to five orders of magnitude. Correlation of the reaction rates of CcP and 12 distal pocket mutants with H2O2 and HCN suggests that both reactions require ionization of the reactants within the distal heme pocket allowing the anion to bind the heme iron. Distal pocket features that promote substrate ionization (basic residues involved in base-catalyzed substrate ionization or polar residues that can stabilize substrate anions) increase the overall rate of reaction with H2O2 and HCN while features that inhibit substrate ionization slow the reactions. PMID:23022490

  9. Covalent bindings in proteins following UV-C irradiation

    Diezel, W.; Meffert, H.; Soennichsen, N.; Reinicke, C.

    1980-01-01

    Following a UV-C irradiation of catalase cross-linked catalase subunits could be detected by sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. The subunits of aldolase were not cross-linked. The origin of covalent bindings in the catalase molecule is suggested to be effected by a free radical chain reaction induced by the heme component of catalase after UV-C irradiation. (author)

  10. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  11. Effects of egg-adaptation on receptor-binding and antigenic properties of recent influenza A (H3N2) vaccine viruses.

    Parker, Lauren; Wharton, Stephen A; Martin, Stephen R; Cross, Karen; Lin, Yipu; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Daniels, Rodney S; McCauley, John W

    2016-06-01

    Influenza A virus (subtype H3N2) causes seasonal human influenza and is included as a component of influenza vaccines. The majority of vaccine viruses are isolated and propagated in eggs, which commonly results in amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. These substitutions can affect virus receptor-binding and alter virus antigenicity, thereby, obfuscating the choice of egg-propagated viruses for development into candidate vaccine viruses. To evaluate the effects of egg-adaptive substitutions seen in H3N2 vaccine viruses on sialic acid receptor-binding, we carried out quantitative measurement of virus receptor-binding using surface biolayer interferometry with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to correlate changes in receptor avidity with antigenic properties. Included in these studies was a panel of H3N2 viruses generated by reverse genetics containing substitutions seen in recent egg-propagated vaccine viruses and corresponding cell culture-propagated wild-type viruses. These assays provide a quantitative approach to investigating the importance of individual amino acid substitutions in influenza receptor-binding. Results show that viruses with egg-adaptive HA substitutions R156Q, S219Y, and I226N, have increased binding avidity to α2,3-linked receptor-analogues and decreased binding avidity to α2,6-linked receptor-analogues. No measurable binding was detected for the viruses with amino acid substitution combination 156Q+219Y and receptor-binding increased in viruses where egg-adaptation mutations were introduced into cell culture-propagated virus. Substitutions at positions 156 and 190 appeared to be primarily responsible for low reactivity in HI assays with post-infection ferret antisera raised against 2012-2013 season H3N2 viruses. Egg-adaptive substitutions at position 186 caused substantial differences in binding avidity with an insignificant effect on antigenicity.

  12. Rearrangement of the distal pocket accompanying E7 His → Gln substitution in elephant carbonmonoxy- and oxymyoglobin: 1H NMR identification of a new aromatic residue in the heme pocket

    Yu, L.P.; La Mar, G.N.; Mizukami, H.

    1990-01-01

    Two-dimensional 1 H NMR methods have been used to assign side-chain resonances for the residues in the distal heme pocket of elephant carbonmonoxymyoglobin (MbCO) and oxymyoglobin (MbO 2 ). It is shown that, while the other residues in the heme pocket are minimally perturbed, the Phe CD4 residue in elephant MbCO and MbO 2 resonates considerably upfield compared to the corresponding residue in sperm whale MbCO. The new NOE connectivities to Val E11 and heme-induced ring current calculations indicate that Phe CD4 has been inserted into the distal heme pocket by reorienting the aromatic side chain and moving the CD corner closer to the heme. The CζH proton of the Phe CD4 was found to move toward the iron of the heme by ∼4 angstrom relative to the position in sperm whale MbCO, requiring minimally a 3-angstrom movement of the CD helical backbone. The significantly altered distal conformation in elephant myoglobin, rather than the single distal E7 substitution, forms a plausible basis for its altered functional properties of lower autoxidation rate, higher redox potential, and increased affinity for CO ligand. These results demonstrate that one-to-one interpretation of amino acid residue substitution (E7 His → Gln) is oversimplified and that conformational changes of substituted proteins which are not readily predicted have to be considered for interpretation of their functional properties

  13. Human heme oxygenase oxidation of 5- and 15-phenylhemes.

    Wang, Jinling; Niemevz, Fernando; Lad, Latesh; Huang, Liusheng; Alvarez, Diego E; Buldain, Graciela; Poulos, Thomas L; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2004-10-08

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. Previous work indicated that electrophilic addition of the terminal oxygen of the ferric hydroperoxo complex to the alpha-meso-carbon gives 5-hydroxyheme. Earlier efforts to block this reaction with a 5-methyl substituent failed, as the reaction still gave biliverdin IXalpha. Surprisingly, a 15-methyl substituent caused exclusive cleavage at the gamma-meso-rather than at the normal, unsubstituted alpha-meso-carbon. No CO was formed in these reactions, but the fragment cleaved from the porphyrin eluded identification. We report here that hHO-1 cleaves 5-phenylheme to biliverdin IXalpha and oxidizes 15-phenylheme at the alpha-meso position to give 10-phenylbiliverdin IXalpha. The fragment extruded in the oxidation of 5-phenylheme is benzoic acid, one oxygen of which comes from O2 and the other from water. The 2.29- and 2.11-A crystal structures of the hHO-1 complexes with 1- and 15-phenylheme, respectively, show clear electron density for both the 5- and 15-phenyl rings in both molecules of the asymmetric unit. The overall structure of 15-phenylheme-hHO-1 is similar to that of heme-hHO-1 except for small changes in distal residues 141-150 and in the proximal Lys18 and Lys22. In the 5-phenylheme-hHO-1 structure, the phenyl-substituted heme occupies the same position as heme in the heme-HO-1 complex but the 5-phenyl substituent disrupts the rigid hydrophobic wall of residues Met34, Phe214, and residues 26-42 near the alpha-meso carbon. The results provide independent support for an electrophilic oxidation mechanism and support a role for stereochemical control of the reaction regiospecificity.

  14. Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin. Identification of the binding site for chloroquine and related compounds and influence of the binding site on properties of the C2II channel.

    Neumeyer, Tobias; Schiffler, Bettina; Maier, Elke; Lang, Alexander E; Aktories, Klaus; Benz, Roland

    2008-02-15

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin belongs to the family of binary AB type toxins that are structurally organized into distinct enzyme (A, C2I) and binding (B, C2II) components. The proteolytically activated 60-kDa C2II binding component is essential for C2I transport into target cells. It oligomerizes into heptamers and forms channels in lipid bilayer membranes. The C2II channel is cation-selective and can be blocked by chloroquine and related compounds. Residues 303-330 of C2II contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, which has been implicated in the formation of two amphipathic beta-strands involved in membrane insertion and channel formation. In the present study, C2II mutants created by substitution of different negatively charged amino acids by alanine-scanning mutagenesis were analyzed in artificial lipid bilayer membranes. The results suggested that most of the C2II mutants formed SDS-resistant oligomers (heptamers) similar to wild type. The mutated negatively charged amino acids did not influence channel properties with the exception of Glu(399) and Asp(426), which are probably localized in the vestibule near the channel entrance. These mutants show a dramatic decrease in their affinity for binding of chloroquine and its analogues. Similarly, F428A, which represents the Phi-clamp in anthrax protective antigen, was mutated in C2II in several other amino acids. The C2II mutants F428A, F428D, F428Y, and F428W not only showed altered chloroquine binding but also had drastically changed single channel properties. The results suggest that amino acids Glu(399), Asp(426), and Phe(428) have a major impact on the function of C2II as a binding protein for C2I delivery into target cells.

  15. The hydroxyl functionality and a rigid proximal N are required for forming a novel non-covalent quinine-heme complex.

    Alumasa, John N; Gorka, Alexander P; Casabianca, Leah B; Comstock, Erica; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    Quinoline antimalarial drugs bind both monomeric and dimeric forms of free heme, with distinct preferences depending on the chemical environment. Under biological conditions, chloroquine (CQ) appears to prefer to bind to μ-oxo dimeric heme, while quinine (QN) preferentially binds monomer. To further explore this important distinction, we study three newly synthesized and several commercially available QN analogues lacking various functional groups. We find that removal of the QN hydroxyl lowers heme affinity, hemozoin (Hz) inhibition efficiency, and antiplasmodial activity. Elimination of the rigid quinuclidyl ring has similar effects, but elimination of either the vinyl or methoxy group does not. Replacing the quinuclidyl N with a less rigid tertiary aliphatic N only partially restores activity. To further study these trends, we probe drug-heme interactions via NMR studies with both Fe and Zn protoporphyrin IX (FPIX, ZnPIX) for QN, dehydroxyQN (DHQN), dequinuclidylQN (DQQN), and deamino-dequinuclidylQN (DADQQN). Magnetic susceptibility measurements in the presence of FPIX demonstrate that these compounds differentially perturb FPIX monomer-dimer equilibrium. We also isolate the QN-FPIX complex formed under mild aqueous conditions and analyze it by mass spectrometry, as well as fluorescence, vibrational, and solid-state NMR spectroscopies. The data elucidate key features of QN pharmacology and allow us to propose a refined model for the preferred binding of QN to monomeric FPIX under biologically relevant conditions. With this model in hand, we also propose how QN, CQ, and amodiaquine (AQ) differ in their ability to inhibit Hz formation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural properties of metal-organic frameworks within the density-functional based tight-binding method

    Lukose, Binit; Supronowicz, Barbara; Kuc, Agnieszka B.; Heine, Thomas [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen (Germany); Petkov, Petko S.; Vayssilov, Georgi N. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Frenzel, Johannes [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Seifert, Gotthard [Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Density-functional based tight-binding (DFTB) is a powerful method to describe large molecules and materials. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), materials with interesting catalytic properties and with very large surface areas, have been developed and have become commercially available. Unit cells of MOFs typically include hundreds of atoms, which make the application of standard density-functional methods computationally very expensive, sometimes even unfeasible. The aim of this paper is to prepare and to validate the self-consistent charge-DFTB (SCC-DFTB) method for MOFs containing Cu, Zn, and Al metal centers. The method has been validated against full hybrid density-functional calculations for model clusters, against gradient corrected density-functional calculations for supercells, and against experiment. Moreover, the modular concept of MOF chemistry has been discussed on the basis of their electronic properties. We concentrate on MOFs comprising three common connector units: copper paddlewheels (HKUST-1), zinc oxide Zn{sub 4}O tetrahedron (MOF-5, MOF-177, DUT-6 (MOF-205)), and aluminum oxide AlO{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} octahedron (MIL-53). We show that SCC-DFTB predicts structural parameters with a very good accuracy (with less than 5% deviation, even for adsorbed CO and H{sub 2}O on HKUST-1), while adsorption energies differ by 12 kJ mol{sup -1} or less for CO and water compared to DFT benchmark calculations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Experimental and Computational Evidence for the Mechanism of Intradiol Catechol Dioxygenation by Non-Heme Iron(III) Complexes

    Jastrzebski, Robin; Quesne, Matthew G; Weckhuysen, Bert M; de Visser, Sam P; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A

    2014-01-01

    Catechol intradiol dioxygenation is a unique reaction catalyzed by iron-dependent enzymes and non-heme iron(III) complexes. The mechanism by which these systems activate dioxygen in this important metabolic process remains controversial. Using a combination of kinetic measurements and computational modelling of multiple iron(III) catecholato complexes, we have elucidated the catechol cleavage mechanism and show that oxygen binds the iron center by partial dissociation of the substrate from the iron complex. The iron(III) superoxide complex that is formed subsequently attacks the carbon atom of the substrate by a rate-determining C=O bond formation step. PMID:25322920

  18. Influence of Molecular Structure on O2-Binding Properties and Blood Circulation of Hemoglobin‒Albumin Clusters.

    Kana Yamada

    Full Text Available A hemoglobin wrapped covalently by three human serum albumins, a Hb-HSA3 cluster, is an artificial O2-carrier with the potential to function as a red blood cell substitute. This paper describes the synthesis and O2-binding properties of new hemoglobin‒albumin clusters (i bearing four HSA units at the periphery (Hb-HSA4, large-size variant and (ii containing an intramolecularly crosslinked Hb in the center (XLHb-HSA3, high O2-affinity variant. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the Hb-HSA4 diameter is greater than that of either Hb-HSA3 or XLHb-HSA3. The XLHb-HSA3 showed moderately high O2-affinity compared to the others because of the chemical linkage between the Cys-93(β residues in Hb. Furthermore, the blood circulation behavior of 125I-labeled clusters was investigated by assay of blood retention and tissue distribution after intravenous administration into anesthetized rats. The XLHb-HSA3 was metabolized faster than Hb-HSA3 and Hb-HSA4. Results suggest that the molecular structure of the protein cluster is a factor that can influence in vivo circulation behavior.

  19. Double enzymatic hydrolysis preparation of heme from goose blood and microencapsulation to promote its stability and absorption.

    Wang, Baowei; Cheng, Fansheng; Gao, Shun; Ge, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingai

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. This deficiency could be solved by preparing stable, edible, and absorbable iron food ingredients using environmentally friendly methods. This study investigated enzymatic hydrolysis and microencapsulation process of goose blood. The physicochemical properties, stabilities of the microencapsulated goose blood hydrolysate (MGBH) and a supplement for rats with IDA were also evaluated. The results showed that the synergetic hydrolytic action of neutrase and alkaline protease significantly increased the heme-releasing efficiency. The heme was then microencapsulated using sodium caseinate, maltodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the edible wall material, and the encapsulation efficiency of the product reached 98.64%. Meanwhile, favorable thermal, storage and light stabilities were observed for the microencapsulation. It was found that MGBH can significantly improve the body weight and hematological parameters of IDA Wistar rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Upregulation of human heme oxygenase gene expression by Ets-family proteins.

    Deramaudt, B M; Remy, P; Abraham, N G

    1999-03-01

    Overexpression of human heme oxygenase-1 has been shown to have the potential to promote EC proliferation and angiogenesis. Since Ets-family proteins have been shown to play an important role in angiogenesis, we investigated the presence of ETS binding sites (EBS), GGAA/T, and ETS protein contributing to human HO-1 gene expression. Several chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs were examined in order to analyze the effect of ETS family proteins on the transduction of HO-1 in Xenopus oocytes and in microvessel endothelial cells. Heme oxygenase promoter activity was up-regulated by FLI-1ERGETS-1 protein(s). Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays demonstrated that the promoter region (-1500 to +19) contains positive and negative control elements and that all three members of the ETS protein family were responsible for the up-regulation of HHO-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), performed with nuclear extracts from endothelial cells overexpressing HHO-1 gene, and specific HHO-1 oligonucleotides probes containing putative EBS resulted in a specific and marked bandshift. Synergistic binding was observed in EMSA between AP-1 on the one hand, FLI-1, ERG, and ETS-1 protein on the other. Moreover, 5'-deletion analysis demonstrated the existence of a negative control element of HHO-1 expression located between positions -1500 and -120 on the HHO-1 promoter. The presence of regulatory sequences for transcription factors such as ETS-1, FLI-1, or ERG, whose activity is associated with cell proliferation, endothelial cell differentiation, and matrix metalloproteinase transduction, may be an indication of the important role that HO-1 may play in coronary collateral circulation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and hemoglobin-induced endothelial cell injuries.

  1. Characterization of the sterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding properties of Golgi-associated OSBP-related protein 9 (ORP9.

    Xinwei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP and OSBP-related proteins (ORPS have a conserved lipid-binding fold that accommodates cholesterol, oxysterols and/or phospholipids. The diversity of OSBP/ORPs and their potential ligands has complicated the analysis of transfer and signalling properties of this mammalian gene family. In this study we explored the use of the fluorescent sterol cholestatrienol (CTL to measure sterol binding by ORP9 and competition by other putative ligands. Relative to cholesterol, CTL and dehydroergosterol (DHE were poor ligands for OSBP. In contrast, both long (ORP9L and short (ORP9S variants of ORP9 rapidly extracted CTL, and to a lesser extent DHE, from liposomes. ORP9L and ORP9S also extracted [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P from liposomes, which was inhibited by mutating two conserved histidine residues (HH488,489AA at the entrance to the binding pocket but not by a mutation in the lid region that inhibited cholesterol binding. Results of direct binding and competition assays showed that phosphatidylserine was poorly extracted from liposomes by ORP9 compared to CTL and PI-4P. ORP9L and PI-4P did not co-localize in the trans-Golgi/TGN of HeLa cells, and siRNA silencing of ORP9L expression did not affect PI-4P distribution in the Golgi apparatus. However, transient overexpression of ORP9L or ORP9S in CHO cells, but not the corresponding PI-4P binding mutants, prevented immunostaining of Golgi-associated PI-4P. The apparent sequestration of Golgi PI-4P by ORP9S was identified as a possible mechanism for its growth inhibitory effects. These studies identify ORP9 as a dual sterol/PI-4P binding protein that could regulate PI-4P in the Golgi apparatus.

  2. Characterization of the sterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding properties of Golgi-associated OSBP-related protein 9 (ORP9).

    Liu, Xinwei; Ridgway, Neale D

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPS) have a conserved lipid-binding fold that accommodates cholesterol, oxysterols and/or phospholipids. The diversity of OSBP/ORPs and their potential ligands has complicated the analysis of transfer and signalling properties of this mammalian gene family. In this study we explored the use of the fluorescent sterol cholestatrienol (CTL) to measure sterol binding by ORP9 and competition by other putative ligands. Relative to cholesterol, CTL and dehydroergosterol (DHE) were poor ligands for OSBP. In contrast, both long (ORP9L) and short (ORP9S) variants of ORP9 rapidly extracted CTL, and to a lesser extent DHE, from liposomes. ORP9L and ORP9S also extracted [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) from liposomes, which was inhibited by mutating two conserved histidine residues (HH488,489AA) at the entrance to the binding pocket but not by a mutation in the lid region that inhibited cholesterol binding. Results of direct binding and competition assays showed that phosphatidylserine was poorly extracted from liposomes by ORP9 compared to CTL and PI-4P. ORP9L and PI-4P did not co-localize in the trans-Golgi/TGN of HeLa cells, and siRNA silencing of ORP9L expression did not affect PI-4P distribution in the Golgi apparatus. However, transient overexpression of ORP9L or ORP9S in CHO cells, but not the corresponding PI-4P binding mutants, prevented immunostaining of Golgi-associated PI-4P. The apparent sequestration of Golgi PI-4P by ORP9S was identified as a possible mechanism for its growth inhibitory effects. These studies identify ORP9 as a dual sterol/PI-4P binding protein that could regulate PI-4P in the Golgi apparatus.

  3. Evolution of function in the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins.

    Sunil Ojha

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural and biochemical constraints force some segments of proteins to evolve more slowly than others, often allowing identification of conserved structural or sequence motifs that can be associated with substrate binding properties, chemical mechanisms, and molecular functions. We have assessed the functional and structural constraints imposed by cofactors on the evolution of new functions in a superfamily of flavoproteins characterized by two-dinucleotide binding domains, the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins (tDBDF superfamily. Although these enzymes catalyze many different types of oxidation/reduction reactions, each is initiated by a stereospecific hydride transfer reaction between two cofactors, a pyridine nucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD. Sequence and structural analysis of more than 1,600 members of the superfamily reveals new members and identifies details of the evolutionary connections among them. Our analysis shows that in all of the highly divergent families within the superfamily, these cofactors adopt a conserved configuration optimal for stereospecific hydride transfer that is stabilized by specific interactions with amino acids from several motifs distributed among both dinucleotide binding domains. The conservation of cofactor configuration in the active site restricts the pyridine nucleotide to interact with FAD from the re-side, limiting the flow of electrons from the re-side to the si-side. This directionality of electron flow constrains interactions with the different partner proteins of different families to occur on the same face of the cofactor binding domains. As a result, superimposing the structures of tDBDFs aligns not only these interacting proteins, but also their constituent electron acceptors, including heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Thus, not only are specific aspects of the cofactor-directed chemical mechanism conserved across the superfamily, the constraints they impose are

  4. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

    Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS, and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC, in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb. The wild-type and knockout (KO parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA. We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  5. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.; Smit, B.; Santos, dos F.; Riel, van J.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait.

  6. Heme and HO-1 inhibition of HCV, HBV, and HIV

    Warren N Schmidt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis B virus are chronic viral infections that cause considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In the decades following the identification and sequencing of these viruses, in vitro experiments demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1, its oxidative products, and related compounds of the heme oxygenase system are virucidal for all three viruses. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate and summarize the seminal studies that described and characterized this remarkable behavior. It will also discuss more recent work that discovered the antiviral mechanisms and target sites of these unique antiviral agents. In spite of the fact that these viruses are diverse pathogens with quite profound differences in structure and life cycle, it is significant that heme and related compounds show striking similarity for viral target sites across all three species. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that we should move forward and develop heme and related tetrapyrroles into versatile antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically in patients with single or multiple viral infections.

  7. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l ) Abstract A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  8. Introduction of lysine and clot binding properties in the kringle one domain of tissue-type plasminogen activator

    Bakker, A.H.F.; Greef, W. van der; Rehberg, E.F.; Marotti, K.R.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the high overall similarity in primary structure between kringle one (K1) and kringle two (K2) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) there exists an enormous functional difference. It is thought that, in contrast to K1, K2 mediates lysine binding and fibrin binding and is involved in

  9. The heme biosynthetic pathway of the obligate Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a potential anti-filarial drug target.

    Bo Wu

    2009-07-01

    '-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD, the second step. Similarly, Escherichia coli hemH (FC deficient strains transformed with human and Wolbachia FC homologues showed significantly different sensitivities to NMMP. This approach enables functional complementation in E. coli heme deficient mutants as an alternative E. coli-based method for drug screening.Our studies indicate that the heme biosynthetic genes in the Wolbachia of B. malayi (wBm might be essential for the filarial host survival. In addition, the results suggest they are likely candidate drug targets based upon significant differences in phylogenetic distance, biochemical properties and sensitivities to heme biosynthesis inhibitors, as compared to their human homologues.

  10. Improved Method for the Incorporation of Heme Cofactors into Recombinant Proteins Using Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.

    Fiege, Kerstin; Querebillo, Christine Joy; Hildebrandt, Peter; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2018-05-15

    Recombinant production of heme proteins in Escherichia coli is often limited by the availability of heme in the host. Therefore, several methods, including the reconstitution of heme proteins after production but prior to purification or the HPEX system, conferring the ability to take up external heme have been developed and used in the past. Here we describe the use of the apathogenic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) as a suitable host for the recombinant production of heme proteins. EcN has an advantage over commonly used lab strains in that it is able to take up heme from the environment through the heme receptor ChuA. Expression of several heme proteins from different prokaryotic sources led to high yield and quantitative incorporation of the cofactor when heme was supplied in the growth medium. Comparative UV-vis and resonance Raman measurements revealed that the method employed has significant influence on heme coordination with the EcN system representing the most native situation. Therefore, the use of EcN as a host for recombinant heme protein production represents an inexpensive and straightforward method to facilitate further investigations of structure and function.

  11. Coordinate expression of heme and globin is essential for effective erythropoiesis.

    Doty, Raymond T; Phelps, Susan R; Shadle, Christina; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Keel, Siobán B; Abkowitz, Janis L

    2015-12-01

    Erythropoiesis requires rapid and extensive hemoglobin production. Heme activates globin transcription and translation; therefore, heme synthesis must precede globin synthesis. As free heme is a potent inducer of oxidative damage, its levels within cellular compartments require stringent regulation. Mice lacking the heme exporter FLVCR1 have a severe macrocytic anemia; however, the mechanisms that underlie erythropoiesis dysfunction in these animals are unclear. Here, we determined that erythropoiesis failure occurs in these animals at the CFU-E/proerythroblast stage, a point at which the transferrin receptor (CD71) is upregulated, iron is imported, and heme is synthesized--before ample globin is produced. From the CFU-E/proerythroblast (CD71(+) Ter119(-) cells) stage onward, erythroid progenitors exhibited excess heme content, increased cytoplasmic ROS, and increased apoptosis. Reducing heme synthesis in FLVCR1-defient animals via genetic and biochemical approaches improved the anemia, implying that heme excess causes, and is not just associated with, the erythroid marrow failure. Expression of the cell surface FLVCR1 isoform, but not the mitochondrial FLVCR1 isoform, restored normal rbc production, demonstrating that cellular heme export is essential. Together, these studies provide insight into how heme is regulated to allow effective erythropoiesis, show that erythropoiesis fails when heme is excessive, and emphasize the importance of evaluating Ter119(-) erythroid cells when studying erythroid marrow failure in murine models.

  12. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Anticancer Properties of Bis-Naphthalimide Derivatives with Lysine-Modified Polyamine Linkers

    Yu Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of bis-naphthalimide derivatives with different diamine linkers were designed and synthesized. All of the synthesized bis-naphthalimide derivatives were characterized by NMR and HRMS spectra. The binding ability between the compounds and CT DNA was evaluated by using UV–Vis titration experiments. The bis-naphthalimide compound with an ethylenediamine linker showed the largest binding constant with CT DNA. Hence, it was used as the model compound to study the DNA binding selectivity by UV–Vis titration aiming at different DNA duplexes. As a result, this compound showed binding preference to AT-rich duplexes. The DNA binding modes of the compounds were also measured by viscosity titration. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated by MTT assay. Compounds with 1,6-diaminohexane or 1,4-phenylenedimethanamine linkers showed higher cytotoxicity compared with other bis-naphthalimide derivatives.

  13. Cytochrome c and c1 heme lyases are essential in Plasmodium berghei.

    Posayapisit, Navaporn; Songsungthong, Warangkhana; Koonyosying, Pongpisid; Falade, Mofolusho O; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Shaw, Philip J; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    Malaria parasites possess a de novo heme synthetic pathway. Interestingly, this pathway is dispensable during the blood stages of development in mammalian hosts. The assembly of the two most important hemeproteins, cytochromes c and c1, is mediated by cytochrome heme lyase enzymes. Plasmodium spp. possess two cytochrome heme lyases encoded by separate genes. Given the redundancy of heme synthesis, we sought to determine if heme lyase function also exhibits redundancy. To answer this question, we performed gene knockout experiments. We found that the PBANKA_143950 and PBANKA_0602600 Plasmodium berghei genes encoding cytochrome c (Pbcchl) and cytochrome c1 (Pbcc 1 hl) heme lyases, respectively, can only be disrupted when a complementary gene is present. In contrast, four genes in the de novo heme synthesis pathway can be disrupted without complementation. This work provides evidence that Pbcchl and Pbcc 1 hl are both essential and thus may be antimalarial targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CYTOCHROME P450 REGULATION: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ITS HEME AND APOPROTEIN MOIETIES IN SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, REPAIR AND DISPOSAL123

    Correia, Maria Almira; Sinclair, Peter R.; De Matteis, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Heme is vital to our aerobic universe. Heme cellular content is finely tuned through an exquisite control of synthesis and degradation. Heme deficiency is deleterious to cells, whereas excess heme is toxic. Most of the cellular heme serves as the prosthetic moiety of functionally diverse hemoproteins, including cytochromes P450 (P450s). In the liver, P450s are its major consumers with >50% of hepatic heme committed to their synthesis. Prosthetic heme is the sine qua non of P450 catalytic biot...

  15. Binding properties of oxacalix[4]arenes derivatives toward metal cations; Interactions entre cations metalliques et derives des oxacalix[4]arenes

    Mellah, B

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this work was to establish the binding properties of oxacalix[4]arene derivatives with different numbers of the oxa bridges, functional groups (ketones, pyridine, ester, amide and methoxy) and conformations. Their interactions with alkali and alkaline-earth, heavy and transition metal cations have been evaluated according to different approaches: (i) extraction of corresponding picrates from an aqueous phase into dichloromethane; (ii) determination of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation in methanol and/or acetonitrile by UV-spectrophotometry and micro-calorimetry; (iii) determination of the stoichiometry of the complexes by ESI-MS; (iv) {sup 1}H-NMR titrations allowing to localize the metal ions in the ligand cavity. In a first part dealing on homo-oxacalix[4]arenes, selectivities for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} of ketones derivatives was shown. The presence of oxa bridge in these derivatives increases their efficiency while decreasing their selectivity with respect to related calixarenes. The pyridine derivative prefers transition and heavy metal cations, in agreement with the presence of the soft nitrogen atoms. In the second part, di-oxacalix[4]arene ester and secondary amide derivatives were shown to be less effective than tertiary amide counterparts but to present high selectivities for Li{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. A third part devoted to the octa-homo-tetra-oxacalix[4]arene tetra-methoxy shows that the 1:1 metal complexes formed are generally more stable than those of calixarenes, suggesting the participation of the oxygen atoms of the bridge in the complexation. Selectivity for Cs{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} were noted. (author)

  16. Synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties, and protein-binding studies of luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) bipyridine estradiol conjugates.

    Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Chung, Chi-Keung; Kwok, Karen Ying

    2007-01-01

    A new series of luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) bipyridine estradiol conjugates [Ir(N-C)2(N-N)](PF6) (N-N = 5-(4-(17alpha-ethynylestradiolyl)phenyl)-2,2'-bipyridine, bpy-est, HN-C = 2-phenylpyridine, Hppy (1 a), 1-phenylpyrazole, Hppz (2 a), 7,8-benzoquinoline, Hbzq (3 a), 2-phenylquinoline, Hpq (4 a), 2-((1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl)benzothiazole, Hbsb (5 a); N-N = 4-(N-(6-(4-(17alpha-ethynylestradiolyl)benzoylamino)hexyl)aminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine, bpy-C6-est, HN-C = Hppy (1 b), Hppz (2 b), Hbzq (3 b), Hpq (4 b), Hbsb (5 b)) was synthesized, characterized, and their photophysical and electrochemical properties studied. Upon photoexcitation, all the complexes displayed intense and long-lived emission in fluid solutions at 298 K and in low-temperature glass. The emission of complexes 1 a-3 a and 1 b-3 b was assigned to a triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) (dpi(Ir)-->pi*(bpy-est and N-C-)) state mixed with some triplet intraligand ((3)IL) (pi-->pi*) (N-C- and N-N) character. However, the emissive states of the pq- and bsb- complexes 4 a, 4 b, 5 a, and 5 b showed substantial (3)IL (pi-->pi*) (pq-/bsb-) character. The lipophilicity of all the complexes was determined by reversed-phase HPLC. Upon binding to estrogen receptor alpha, all of these iridium(III) estradiol conjugates exhibited emission enhancement and lifetime extension, rendering them a novel series of luminescent probes for this receptor.

  17. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress.

    Surdel, Matthew C; Dutter, Brendan F; Sulikowski, Gary A; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within the vertebrate host, S. aureus requires heme as a nutrient iron source and as a cofactor for multiple cellular processes. Although required for pathogenesis, excess heme is toxic. S. aureus employs a two-component system, the heme sensor system (HssRS), to sense and protect against heme toxicity. Upon activation, HssRS induces the expression of the heme-regulated transporter (HrtAB), an efflux pump that alleviates heme toxicity. The ability to sense and respond to heme is critical for the pathogenesis of numerous Gram-positive organisms, yet the mechanism of heme sensing remains unknown. Compound '3981 was identified in a high-throughput screen as an activator of staphylococcal HssRS that triggers HssRS independently of heme accumulation. '3981 is toxic to S. aureus; however, derivatives of '3981 were synthesized that lack toxicity while retaining HssRS activation, enabling the interrogation of the heme stress response without confounding toxic effects of the parent molecule. Using '3981 derivatives as probes of the heme stress response, numerous genes required for '3981-induced activation of HssRS were uncovered. Specifically, multiple genes involved in the production of nitric oxide were identified, including the gene encoding bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). bNOS protects S. aureus from oxidative stress imposed by heme. Taken together, this work identifies bNOS as crucial for the S. aureus heme stress response, providing evidence that nitric oxide synthesis and heme sensing are intertwined.

  18. Dietary heme mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Wit, de Nicole; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  19. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  20. Ipomoelin, a Jacalin-Related Lectin with a Compact Tetrameric Association and Versatile Carbohydrate Binding Properties Regulated by Its N Terminus

    Chang, Wei-Chieh; Liu, Kai-Lun; Hsu, Fang-Ciao; Jeng, Shih-Tong; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Many proteins are induced in the plant defense response to biotic stress or mechanical wounding. One group is lectins. Ipomoelin (IPO) is one of the wound-inducible proteins of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Tainung 57) and is a Jacalin-related lectin (JRL). In this study, we resolved the crystal structures of IPO in its apo form and in complex with carbohydrates such as methyl α-D-mannopyranoside (Me-Man), methyl α-D-glucopyranoside (Me-Glc), and methyl α-D-galactopyranoside (Me-Gal) in different space groups. The packing diagrams indicated that IPO might represent a compact tetrameric association in the JRL family. The protomer of IPO showed a canonical β-prism fold with 12 strands of β-sheets but with 2 additional short β-strands at the N terminus. A truncated IPO (ΔN10IPO) by removing the 2 short β-strands of the N terminus was used to reveal its role in a tetrameric association. Gel filtration chromatography confirmed IPO as a tetrameric form in solution. Isothermal titration calorimetry determined the binding constants (KA) of IPO and ΔN10IPO against various carbohydrates. IPO could bind to Me-Man, Me-Glc, and Me-Gal with similar binding constants. In contrast, ΔN10IPO showed high binding ability to Me-Man and Me-Glc but could not bind to Me-Gal. Our structural and functional analysis of IPO revealed that its compact tetrameric association and carbohydrate binding polyspecificity could be regulated by the 2 additional N-terminal β-strands. The versatile carbohydrate binding properties of IPO might play a role in plant defense. PMID:22808208

  1. Receptor binding properties and antinociceptive effects of chimeric peptides consisting of a micro-opioid receptor agonist and an ORL1 receptor antagonist.

    Kawano, Susumu; Ito, Risa; Nishiyama, Miharu; Kubo, Mai; Matsushima, Tomoko; Minamisawa, Motoko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke

    2007-07-01

    Receptor binding properties and antinociceptive activities of chimeric peptides linked by spacers were investigated. The peptides consisted of the micro-opioid receptor ligand dermorphin (Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Gly-Tyr-Pro-Ser-NH(2)) or its analog YRFB (Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-betaAla-NH(2)) linked to the ORL1 receptor ligand Ac-Arg-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-Ile-Lys-NH(2) (Ac-RYYRIK-NH(2)). All chimeric peptides were found to possess high receptor binding affinities for both micro-opioid and ORL1 receptors in mouse brain membranes although their binding affinities for both receptors in spinal membranes were significantly lower. Among them, chimeric peptide 2, which consists of dermorphin and Ac-RYYRIK-NH(2) connected by a long spacer, had the highest binding affinity towards both receptors. In the tail-flick test following intrathecal (i.t.) administration to mice, all chimeric peptides showed potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive activities with an ED(50) of 1.34-4.51 (pmol/mouse), nearly comparable to dermorphin alone (ED(50); 1.08 pmol/mouse). In contrast to their micro-opioid receptor binding profiles, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the chimeric peptides resulted in much less potent antinociceptive activity (ED(50) 5.55-100peptides, and the regulation of mu-opioid receptor-mediated antinociception in brain. The present chimeric peptides may be useful as pharmacological tools for studies on micro-opioid receptor/ORL1 receptor heterodimers.

  2. Fabrication of NdCeCuO and effects of binding agents on the growth, micro-structural and electrical properties

    Altin, S., E-mail: serdar.altin@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Superiletkenlik Arastirma Grubu, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Aksan, M.A.; Turkoglu, S.; Yakinci, M.E. [Inonu Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Superiletkenlik Arastirma Grubu, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2011-12-15

    NdCeCuO system is a superconducting system which is dominated by electrons different from other HTc systems. Preparation of the NdCeCuO system under optimum conditions is very important for transport properties. Large grains can be obtained in NdCeCuO by employing wet-chemical route. NdCeCuO superconducting samples were fabricated using ethyl alcohol, acetone and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as binding agents. For evaporation of binding agents, the samples were heat treated at 1050 Degree-Sign C for 24 h and then at 950 Degree-Sign C for 6-48 h under argon atmosphere to obtain the superconducting phase. The best superconducting performance was found in the sample heat treated at 1050 Degree-Sign C for 24 h and then 950 Degree-Sign C for 12 h which was fabricated by using acetone as binding agent. The T{sub c} and T{sub 0} value was found to be {approx}25 K and 23.4 K, respectively. Grain size in the samples fabricated was calculated using Scherer equation and SEM data. It was found that grain size strongly depends on the binding agents and heat treatment conditions. Some cracks and voids on the surface of the samples were observed, which influences the superconducting and electrical transport properties of the samples.

  3. Dual DNA binding property of ABA insensitive 3 like factors targeted to promoters responsive to ABA and auxin.

    Nag, Ronita; Maity, Manas Kanti; Dasgupta, Maitrayee

    2005-11-01

    The ABA responsive ABI3 and the auxin responsive ARF family of transcription factors bind the CATGCATG (Sph) and TGTCTC core motifs in ABA and auxin response elements (ABRE and AuxRE), respectively. Several evidences indicate ABI3s to act downstream to auxin too. Because DNA binding domain of ABI3s shows significant overlap with ARFs we enquired whether auxin responsiveness through ABI3s could be mediated by their binding to canonical AuxREs. Investigations were undertaken through in vitro gel mobility shift assays (GMSA) using the DNA binding domain B3 of PvAlf (Phaseolus vulgaris ABI3 like factor) and upstream regions of auxin responsive gene GH3 (-267 to -141) and ABA responsive gene Em (-316 to -146) harboring AuxRE and ABRE, respectively. We demonstrate that B3 domain of PvAlf could bind AuxRE only when B3 was associated with its flanking domain B2 (B2B3). Such strict requirement of B2 domain was not observed with ABRE, where B3 could bind with or without being associated with B2. This dual specificity in DNA binding of ABI3s was also demonstrated with nuclear extracts of cultured cells of Arachis hypogea. Supershift analysis of ABRE and AuxRE bound nuclear proteins with antibodies raised against B2B3 domains of PvAlf revealed that ABI3 associated complexes were detectable in association with both cis elements. Competition GMSA confirmed the same complexes to bind ABRE and AuxRE. This dual specificity of ABI3 like factors in DNA binding targeted to natural promoters responsive to ABA and auxin suggests them to have a potential role in conferring crosstalk between these two phytohormones.

  4. In Premature Newborns Intraventricular Hemorrhage Causes Cerebral Vasospasm and Associated Neurodisability via Heme-Induced Inflammasome-Mediated Interleukin-1 Production and Nitric Oxide Depletion

    Michael Eisenhut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIntraventricular hemorrhage (IVH occurs in 60–70% of neonates weighing 500–750 g and 10–20% of those weighing 1,000–1,500 g. All forms of IVH have been associated with neurocognitive deficits. Both subarachnoid and IVHs have been associated with delayed vasospasm leading to neurological deficits. Pathways linking hemoglobin release from blood clots to vasospasm include heme-induced activation of inflammasomes releasing interleukin-1 (IL-1 that can cause calcium dependent and independent vasospasm. Free hemoglobin is a potent scavenger of nitric oxide (NO. Depletion of NO, a potent endogenous vasodilator, has been associated with features of vasospasm.HypothesisIn premature newborns, IVH causes cerebral vasospasm and associated neurodisability via heme-induced increased inflammasome-mediated IL-1 production and NO depletion.Confirmation of hypothesis and implicationsThis hypothesis could be confirmed in the IVH animal model with visualization of any associated vasospasm by angiography and in newborns with IVH by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and correlation with cerebrospinal fluid IL-1 and NO metabolite levels. Confirmation of the role of heme in activation of inflammasomes causing IL-1 production and NO binding could be achieved by measuring the effect of heme scavenging interventions on IL-1 levels and levels of NO metabolites. In addition to removal of the accumulated blood of an IVH by drainage, irrigation, and fibrinolytic therapy intrathecal application of vasodilators and heme scavenging agents like haptoglobin and haemopexin and systemic treatment with inhibitors of inflammasomes like telmisartan could be used to prevent and treat cerebral vasospasm, and thus reduce the risk of associated brain injury in premature neonates.

  5. Heme-dependent up-regulation of the α-globin gene expression by transcriptional repressor Bach1 in erythroid cells

    Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Sun Jiying; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Taketani, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    The transcriptional factor Bach1 forms a heterodimer with small Maf family, and functions as a repressor of the Maf recognition element (MARE) in vivo. To investigate the involvement of Bach1 in the heme-dependent regulation of the expression of the α-globin gene, human erythroleukemia K562 cells were cultured with succinylacetone (SA), a heme biosynthetic inhibitor, and the level of α-globin mRNA was examined. A decrease of α-globin mRNA was observed in SA-treated cells, which was restored by the addition of hemin. The heme-dependent expression of α-globin occurred at the transcriptional level since the expression of human α-globin gene promoter-reporter gene containing hypersensitive site-40 (HS-40) was decreased when K562 cells were cultured with SA. Hemin treatment restored the decrease of the promoter activity by SA. The regulation of the HS-40 activity by heme was dependent on the NF-E2/AP-1 (NA) site, which is similar to MARE. The NA site-binding activity of Bach1 in K562 increased upon SA-treatment, and the increase was diminished by the addition of hemin. The transient expression of Bach1 and mutated Bach1 lacking CP motifs suppressed the HS-40 activity, and cancellation of the repressor activity by hemin was observed when wild-type Bach1 was expressed. The expression of NF-E2 strengthened the restoration of the Bach1-effect by hemin. Interestingly, nuclear localization of Bach1 increased when cells were treated with SA, while hemin induced the nuclear export of Bach1. These results indicated that heme plays an important role in the induction of α-globin gene expression through disrupting the interaction of Bach1 and the NA site in HS-40 enhancer in erythroid cells

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cAMP Receptor Protein (Rv3676) Differs from the Escherichia coli Paradigm in Its cAMP Binding and DNA Binding Properties and Transcription Activation Properties*

    Stapleton, Melanie; Haq, Ihtshamul; Hunt, Debbie M.; Arnvig, Kristine B.; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Buxton, Roger S.; Green, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a burst of cAMP upon infection of macrophages. Bacterial cyclic AMP receptor proteins (CRP) are transcription factors that respond to cAMP by binding at target promoters when cAMP concentrations increase. Rv3676 (CRPMt) is a CRP family protein that regulates expression of genes (rpfA and whiB1) that are potentially involved in M. tuberculosis persistence and/or emergence from the dormant state. Here, the CRPMt homodimer is shown to bind two molecules of cAMP (one per protomer) at noninteracting sites. Furthermore, cAMP binding by CRPMt was relatively weak, entropy driven, and resulted in a relatively small enhancement in DNA binding. Tandem CRPMt-binding sites (CRP1 at −58.5 and CRP2 at −37.5) were identified at the whiB1 promoter (PwhiB1). In vitro transcription reactions showed that CRP1 is an activating site and that CRP2, which was only occupied in the presence of cAMP or at high CRPMt concentrations in the absence of cAMP, is a repressing site. Binding of CRPMt to CRP1 was not essential for open complex formation but was required for transcription activation. Thus, these data suggest that binding of CRPMt to the PwhiB1 CRP1 site activates transcription at a step after open complex formation. In contrast, high cAMP concentrations allowed occupation of both CRP1 and CRP2 sites, resulting in inhibition of open complex formation. Thus, M. tuberculosis CRP has evolved several distinct characteristics, compared with the Escherichia coli CRP paradigm, to allow it to regulate gene expression against a background of high concentrations of cAMP. PMID:20028978

  7. Native Alanine Substitution in the Glycine Hinge Modulates Conformational Flexibility of Heme Nitric Oxide/Oxygen (H-NOX) Sensing Proteins.

    Hespen, Charles W; Bruegger, Joel J; Guo, Yirui; Marletta, Michael A

    2018-06-15

    Heme nitric oxide/oxygen sensing (H-NOX) domains are direct NO sensors that regulate a variety of biological functions in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Previous work on H-NOX proteins has shown that upon NO binding, a conformational change occurs along two glycine residues on adjacent helices (termed the glycine hinge). Despite the apparent importance of the glycine hinge, it is not fully conserved in all H-NOX domains. Several H-NOX sensors from the family Flavobacteriaceae contain a native alanine substitution in one of the hinge residues. In this work, the effect of the increased steric bulk within the Ala-Gly hinge on H-NOX function was investigated. The hinge in Kordia algicida OT-1 ( Ka H-NOX) is composed of A71 and G145. Ligand-binding properties and signaling function for this H-NOX were characterized. The variant A71G was designed to convert the hinge region of Ka H-NOX to the typical Gly-Gly motif. In activity assays with its cognate histidine kinase (HnoK), the wild type displayed increased signal specificity compared to A71G. Increasing titrations of unliganded A71G gradually inhibits HnoK autophosphorylation, while increasing titrations of unliganded wild type H-NOX does not inhibit HnoK. Crystal structures of both wild type and A71G Ka H-NOX were solved to 1.9 and 1.6 Å, respectively. Regions of H-NOX domains previously identified as involved in protein-protein interactions with HnoK display significantly higher b-factors in A71G compared to wild-type H-NOX. Both biochemical and structural data indicate that the hinge region controls overall conformational flexibility of the H-NOX, affecting NO complex formation and regulation of its HnoK.

  8. Development of a pH-responsive imprinted polymer for diclofenac and study of its binding properties in organic and aqueous media.

    Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Sadegh, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Three different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for drug delivery of diclofenac in gastrointestinal tract were synthesized employing bulk polymerization method and their binding and release properties were studied in different pH values. Methacrylic acid (MAA), methacrylamide (MAAM) and 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) were tested as functional monomers and ethylene glycole dimethacrylate (EDMA) was used as a cross-linker monomer in polymeric feed. Binding properties and imprinting factor (IF) of MIPs were studied in comparison with their non-imprinted ones (Blank) in organic and aqueous media. Diclofenac release in aqueous solvents at pH values of 1.5, 6.0 and 8.0, simulating gastrointestinal fluids, were also studied. The results indicated the specific binding of diclofenac to imprinted polymers. Duo to the stronger non-specific bounds in aqueous solutions, IF values decreased in water compared to acetonitrile as an organic medium. Our results proved that all polymers represented pH-responsive diclofenac delivery at above conditions. The data showed that imprinted polymer, prepared by MAA had superior properties, in comparison with other polymers, for minimum release (14%) of drug in gastric acid and maximum release (90%) in basic condition. The results indicated that diclofenac imprinted polymer could be used as a pH-responsive matrix in preparation of a new drug delivery system for diclofenac.

  9. Novel structural features drive DNA binding properties of Cmr, a CRP family protein in TB complex mycobacteria.

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Cheung, Jonah; Cassidy, Michael; Ginter, Christopher; Pata, Janice D; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2018-01-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes two CRP/FNR family transcription factors (TF) that contribute to virulence, Cmr (Rv1675c) and CRPMt (Rv3676). Prior studies identified distinct chromosomal binding profiles for each TF despite their recognizing overlapping DNA motifs. The present study shows that Cmr binding specificity is determined by discriminator nucleotides at motif positions 4 and 13. X-ray crystallography and targeted mutational analyses identified an arginine-rich loop that expands Cmr's DNA interactions beyond the classical helix-turn-helix contacts common to all CRP/FNR family members and facilitates binding to imperfect DNA sequences. Cmr binding to DNA results in a pronounced asymmetric bending of the DNA and its high level of cooperativity is consistent with DNA-facilitated dimerization. A unique N-terminal extension inserts between the DNA binding and dimerization domains, partially occluding the site where the canonical cAMP binding pocket is found. However, an unstructured region of this N-terminus may help modulate Cmr activity in response to cellular signals. Cmr's multiple levels of DNA interaction likely enhance its ability to integrate diverse gene regulatory signals, while its novel structural features establish Cmr as an atypical CRP/FNR family member. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Binding of a cyclic organoselenium compound with gold nanoparticles (GNP) and its effect on electron transfer properties.

    Kumar, Pavitra V; Singh, Beena G; Maiti, Nandita; Iwaoka, Michio; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2014-12-15

    Binding of a cyclic organoselenium compound, DL-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-1-selenolane (DHSred) with gold nanoparticles (GNP) of different sizes was studied by absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and zeta-potential (ζ) measurements. GNP of different size were synthesized by varying the reaction conditions and their size was determined by DLS and TEM techniques. The absorption spectral data showed red shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band indicating increase in the size of GNP on binding to DHSred. SERS studies confirmed that the binding of DHSred with GNP is through selenium center with planar orientation of DHSred on the GNP surface. The product of the number of binding sites (n) in GNP and the binding constant (K) was estimated for GNP of different particle size. The zeta potential (ζ) value of GNP decreased marginally in the presence of DHSred. Further, the binding of DHSred with GNP was found to enhance its reactivity with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals (ABTS(·-)) and the reactivity increased with decrease in the GNP size. Such enhancement in the reducing ability may have a greater impact on the antioxidant activity of DHSred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and properties of very high affinity brain membrane-binding sites for a neurotoxic phospholipase from the taipan venom

    Lambeau, G.; Barhanin, J.; Schweitz, H.; Qar, J.; Lazdunski, M. (Centre de Biochimie, Nice (France))

    1989-07-05

    Four new monochain phospholipases were purified from the Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan) venom. Three of them were highly toxic when injected into mice brain. One of these neurotoxic phospholipases, OS2, was iodinated and used in binding experiments to demonstrate the presence of two families of specific binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes. The affinities were exceptionally high, Kd1 = 1.5 +/- 0.5 pM and Kd2 = 45 +/- 10 pM, and the maximal binding capacities were Bmax 1 = 1 +/- 0.4 and Bmax 2 = 3 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. Both binding sites were sensitive to proteolysis and demonstrated to be located on proteins of Mr 85,000-88,000 and 36,000-51,000 by cross-linking and photoaffinity labeling techniques. The binding of {sup 125}I-OS2 to synaptic membranes was dependent on Ca2+ ions and enhanced by Zn2+ ions which inhibit phospholipase activity. Competition experiments have shown that, except for beta-bungarotoxin, a number of known toxic snake or bee phospholipases have very high affinities for the newly identified binding sites. A good correlation (r = 0.80) was observed between toxicity and affinity but not between phospholipase activity and affinity.

  12. Identification and properties of very high affinity brain membrane-binding sites for a neurotoxic phospholipase from the taipan venom

    Lambeau, G.; Barhanin, J.; Schweitz, H.; Qar, J.; Lazdunski, M.

    1989-01-01

    Four new monochain phospholipases were purified from the Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan) venom. Three of them were highly toxic when injected into mice brain. One of these neurotoxic phospholipases, OS2, was iodinated and used in binding experiments to demonstrate the presence of two families of specific binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes. The affinities were exceptionally high, Kd1 = 1.5 +/- 0.5 pM and Kd2 = 45 +/- 10 pM, and the maximal binding capacities were Bmax 1 = 1 +/- 0.4 and Bmax 2 = 3 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. Both binding sites were sensitive to proteolysis and demonstrated to be located on proteins of Mr 85,000-88,000 and 36,000-51,