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Sample records for hematopoietic radiation sickness

  1. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  2. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake; Hannah, X.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  3. In vitro effects of recombinant human stem cell factor on hematopoietic cells from patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuansheng; Cheng Tao; Xu Yanqun

    1994-01-01

    The effects of rhSCF, rhPIXY 321, rhGM-CSF and rhIL-3 on clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from five cases of acute radiation sickness were studied. The results showed that rhSCF could stimulate clonal proliferation of normal hematopoietic cells and the best results were obtained when the concentration of rhSCF was 5 x 10 4 ng/L. Clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from four cases of acute radiation sickness was stimulated while that from one case was inhibited. Moreover, the responsiveness of cells to rhSCF was correlated with the doses of radiation. Analysis of cell surface antigen, cell morphology and histochemistry revealed that rhSCF promoted predominantly the proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage lineage. rhSCF in combination with other three factors could further enhance the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells. The effects of rhPIXY 321, a fusion protein of GM-CSF and IL-3, were also analysed and found it to be a novel valuable hematopoietic growth factor

  4. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Ishida, Yusei; Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1983-01-01

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  5. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to ionizing radiation. There are two main types of radiation: nonionizing and ionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. These forms usually don't cause tissue damage. ...

  7. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  8. Clinical characteristics of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Ye Genyao; Huang Shimin

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of subacute radiation sickness are analysed and discussed in this paper on the basis of clinical data from cases in a 137 Cs source accident in Mudanjiang and of a review of the literature. We consider that the subacute radiation sickness is a whole body disease caused by comparatively large dose of continuous or intermittent external irradiation in several weeks or months. it must be differentiated from acute radiation sickness, chronic radiation sickness, idiopathic aplastic anemia and other hematological diseases, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

  9. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  10. Study of prochlorperazine (Stemetil) in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of radiation sickness and the efficacy of prochlorperazine in alleviating it among the patients under radiotherapy have been investigated. 116 patients from those under radiotherapy were randomly chosen. 38% of this sample developed radiation sickness symptoms (nausea and vomiting). The onset of symptoms occurred in the earlier periods of radiotherapy. The younger and older group were more susceptible to side effects of radiation. Prochlorperazine was administered immediately after the onset of symptoms of radiation sickness in the dose schedule of 10 mg twice daily for adults and was continued for 5 to 10 days after the alleviation of the symptoms. This was found to be effective in all patients. (M.G.B.)

  11. Prospect for application of umbilical cord blood to clinical treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Tingzhen; Ke Xiaoyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To look forward to the prospect for application of umbilical cord blood to clinical treatment of radiation sickness by analyzing the results using umbilical cord blood in laboratory experiments and clinical research. Method: The data on umbilical cord blood published in literature are reviewed. Results: The umbilical blood is rich in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, low in immunological activity of lymphocytes, expanded significantly ex vivo under selected culture condition readily available and collected easily. Conclusion: With the above advantages, the prospect for application of umbilical cord blood is encouraging, particularly in the clinical treatment of radiation sickness

  12. Changes in reticulocyte in 2 patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuan; Chen Jiankui; Zheng Naxin; Kang Shuwei; Jin Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of routine blood and reticulocyte parameters in acute radiation sickness(ARS). Methods: Two patients with ARS were analyzed. White blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (Plt), reticulocyte count (RET), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR), middle fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR), and low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR) were measured using Sysmex XT-2000i automatic hematology analyzer. Results: During early days after exposure, an increase in WBC, decrease in lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET were observed, HFR and IRF were zero. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HFR and IRF recovered at first, 1 day before the rise in WBC, 2 days before the rise in RET and absolute RET, and 3 days before the rise in Plt. Conclusion: During early days, WBC, lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET are related to radiation dose. The rises of WBC, HFR and IRF can reflect marrow recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in ARS. (authors)

  13. The hematopoietic system of the acute radiation syndrome reconvalescents in post-accidental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, V.; Dyagil, I.; Yukhimuk, L.; Bilko, N.; Bebeshko, V.; Klimenko, S.; Oberenko, O.

    1996-01-01

    The state of hemopoietic system has been studied since 1986 up to now in 145 patients who had acute radiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. We studied clinical, morpho functional, histological, ultrastructural, biophysical, cultural, cytochemical indexes of the hematopoietic elements. The connection between hemopoietic microenvironment and hemopoiesis state was put up. The realization of the hematological disorders as myelodysplastic syndrome testified the most important problem in future

  14. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shoucheng; Chen Zhijian; Chen Youxin

    1989-01-01

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60 Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  15. Some problems of antibiotic therapy in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalnova, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Data on the application of antibiotics and the mechanism of their action in radiation sickness are reviewed. Questions are discussed, such as the effect of antibiotics on the course and outcome of radiation sickness, the development of dysbacteriosis following irradiation, the effect of antibiotics on endogenic infection, the development of resistance of autoflora microbes to antibiotics in an irradiated organism and various aspects of the mechanism of action of antibiotics in radiation sickness. (author)

  16. Suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guo; Mingyue, Zhu; Zhiqin, Zhao

    1984-08-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author).

  17. A suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yao; Zhu Mingyue; Zhao Zhiqin

    1984-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author)

  18. Effect of domperidone on radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, T; Sato, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Medicine; Watari, T; Tanaka, T; Furuta, A

    1981-07-01

    Domperidone was administered to 95 patients with radiation sickness following radiotherapy for various cancers. The chest and the mediastinum were irradiated in 43 patients, the upper and lower abdomen in 40 patients, and the head, neck, and supraclavicular region in 12 patients. As to radiation source, x-ray was used for 46 patients, ..gamma..-ray for 41 patients, electron beam for 3 patients, and more than one radiation was used for 5 patients. The dose given before the onset of radiation sickness totaled 3000 rad in 20 patients, 1000 rad -- 3000 rad in 41, and less than 1000 rad in 34. Domperidone was given to the patients one tablet (5 mg or 10 mg) P.O., 3 times per day before meals, for 1 -- 2 weeks. The overall effective rate of the drug was 68.4%. The 10 mg tablets were slightly more effective than the 5 mg ones. In the patients who were given the drug in a dose of 10 mg, the ameliorating rate of subjective symptoms was 68.1% for nausea, 88.9% for vomiting, 44.6% for anorexia, 17.5% for general fatigue, and 69.2% for dizziness. Laboratory findings showed no abnormal effects of the drug. One patient had itching with eruptions, which, however, was mild and disappeared immediately after withdrawal of the medication.

  19. Current problems of prevention diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of increasing interest to the problems of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness are presented. On the basis of recent publications some new aspects as quantitative criteria in radiobiology, organization problems of medical aid at radiation incidents estimation of efficiency of preventive medicine and radiation sickness therapy, theoretical development of radiotherapy of different organs et al., are characterized

  20. The characters and developments of therapy and research of neutron-induced acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinru; Luo Qingliang; Wang Baoqing; Dong Shukui

    2003-01-01

    Neutron radiation will exert seriously lesions on body and lead to acute radiation sickness (ARS). Neutron induced ARS is characterized by complicated symptoms of gastrointestinal, high earlier death rate and lacking of specially therapeutic approaches. The primarily curable method is to treat patients with comprehensive means such as anti-infection, anti-bleeding and blood infusion, et. Cytokines can improve the hematopoietic functions of bone marrow. With the rapid development of the molecular biology and the emergence of cytokines such as recombinant human interleukin-11 that could help the regeneration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, neutron-induced ARS will be treated with new methods

  1. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Du Jianying; Bai Guang

    2012-01-01

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  2. Thioredoxin mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic stem cell injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation exposure poses a significant threat to public health. Hematopoietic injury is one of the major manifestations of acute radiation sickness. Protection and/or mitigation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from radiation injury is an important goal in the development of medical countermeasure agents (MCM. We recently identified thioredoxin (TXN as a novel molecule that has marked protective and proliferative effects on HSCs. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of TXN in rescuing mice from a lethal dose of total body radiation (TBI and in enhancing hematopoietic reconstitution following a lethal dose of irradiation. Methods We used in-vivo and in-vitro methods to understand the biological and molecular mechanisms of TXN on radiation mitigation. BABL/c mice were used for the survival study and a flow cytometer was used to quantify the HSC population and cell senescence. A hematology analyzer was used for the peripheral blood cell count, including white blood cells (WBCs, red blood cells (RBCs, hemoglobin, and platelets. Colony forming unit (CFU assay was used to study the colongenic function of HSCs. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the bone marrow cellularity. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay was used for cell senescence. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the DNA damage and senescence protein expression. Immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the expression of γ-H2AX foci for DNA damage. Results We found that administration of TXN 24 h following irradiation significantly mitigates BALB/c mice from TBI-induced death: 70% of TXN-treated mice survived, whereas only 25% of saline-treated mice survived. TXN administration led to enhanced recovery of peripheral blood cell counts, bone marrow cellularity, and HSC population as measured by c-Kit+Sca-1+Lin– (KSL cells, SLAM + KSL cells and CFUs. TXN treatment reduced cell senescence and radiation

  3. Protracted radiation-induced alterations in hematopoietic repair and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Fritz, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pathologic predisposition of beagle dogs under chronic, low daily dose (7.5 cGy day -1 ) whole-body gamma irradiation has been studied relative to molecular repair and hematopoietic competency. Molecular repair, assessed by a microscopy-based unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) response, was measured within proliferative and nonproliferative marrow myeloid elements of dogs with markedly different hematopoietic capacities (low capacity, aplasia-prone [AA + ] versus high capacity, myeloproliferative disease-prone [MPD + ]) under protracted radiation stress. Results indicated that protracted exposure elicited a net increase in UDS-repair capacity that was largely independent of exposure duration. This enhanced capacity resulted from the increased strength of the UDS signal together with an expanded number of positively responding cells. The combined response was strong in primitive blasts and weak in more differentiated myelocytic cells. The UDS repair response of the MPD + dogs was significantly greater than that of the AA + animals and was clearly modified relative to the controls. These results suggest that both resiliency and pathologic potential of the hematopoietic system under protracted radiation stress is, in part, associated with an augmentable DNA repair within the more primitive myeloid marrow elements. (author)

  4. Mitigation of radiation induced hematopoietic injury via regulation of Nrf-2 and increasing hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, R.S.; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Santosh Kumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that can be delivered to tumors are restricted due to radiation induced damage to surrounding normal tissues thereby limiting the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Strategies to develop agents that selectively protect normal cells yielded limited success in the past. There is pressing need to develop safe, syndrome specific and effective radiation countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the harmful consequences of radiation exposure. Survival of bone marrow stem cells (HSCs) play a key role in protecting against IR induced hematopoietic injury. Many studies have shown manipulation of HSC frequency and/or survival as principal mechanism of radioprotection. It is known that, Nrf-2 plays crucial role in HSC survival and maintenance under oxidative stress conditions. In the present study, we have investigated the radioprotective ability of a flavonoid baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal plant traditionally used in Oriental medicine. There are numerous reports showing anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and neuroprotective properties of baicalein. Based on these reports, we have investigated the ability of baicalein to protect against radiation induced hematopoietic injury. Baicalein administration to mice protected against WBI induced mortality. Interestingly, the stem cell frequency increased in bone marrow cells obtained from baicalein administered mice as compared to vehicle treated mice. Baicalein treatment led to increased phospho-Nrf-2 levels in lineage negative BM-MNC. Administration of mice with Nrf-2 inhibitor prior to baicalein treatment led to significant abrogation of radioprotective ability of baicalein. This result suggests that, Nrf-2 may be playing a key role in baicalein mediated radioprotection. Here, we have shown that baicalein administration augments stem cell frequency, induces

  5. Award nomination for study of cell death in radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanitskiy, G

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of the work entitled Formulation of Theoretical Bases of the Phenomenon of Cell Death and Their Use in Explaining the Pathogenesis of Radiation Sickness, which has been nominated for the 1985 USSR State Prize. The author notes that the study of the nature and mechanisms of cell death from ionizing radiation consumed the efforts of researchers of various specialties for more than 20 years. The author observes that study of the molecular basis of the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes became the key to understanding the general biological phenomenon of cell death.

  6. Acute radiation sickness - morphology of CNS syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarad, V.

    1989-01-01

    The effect was studied of supralethal doses of 60 Co gamma radiation on morphological changes in the brains of laboratory animals. For experiments, female rats irradiated with doses of 15 to 960 Gy, female mice irradiated with doses of 50 to 300 Gy and dogs irradiated with 6 to 500 Gy were used. For evaluation of the changes, light microscopy, electron microscopy and histochemistry were employed. The findings generally agreed with the results by other authors whose numerous studies are reviewed in detail. They included brain edema, alterations in enzyme activities, dystrophic changes and hemorrhages in nerve cells, marked structural changes in blood capillaries, damage of endothelial cells, etc. The observed changes in the activities of blood-brain barrier enzymes, increased pinocytotic activity and the formation of endothelial tunnels accompanied with necrosis of part of endothelial cells are clear morphological manifestations of marked alterations in the function of the blood-brain barrier that result in brain edema development. The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier significantly worsens primary changes induced by radiation, especially in nerve cels, and adversely affects possible repair processes. (L.O.). 146 figs., 8 tabs., 352 refs

  7. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, A.; Zhou, D.; Geiger, H.; Zant, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study was to determine if ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor cells. Lin-cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow (BM) and pretreated with vehicle or 100 μM z-VAD 1 h prior to exposure to 4 Gy IR. The apoptotic and/or necrotic responses of these cells to IR were analyzed by measuring the annexin V and/or 7-AAD staining in HSC and progenitor populations using flow cytometry, and hematopoietic function of these cells was determined by CAFC assay. Exposure of Lin-cells to IR selectively decreased the numbers of HSC and progenitors in association with an increase in apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of Lin- cells with z-VAD significantly inhibited IR-induced apoptosis and the decrease in the numbers of HSC and progenitors. However, IR alone or in combination with z-VAD did not lead to a significant increase in necrotic cell death in either HSC or progenitors. In addition, pretreatment of BM cells with z-VAD significantly attenuated IR-induced reduction in the frequencies of day-7, -28 and -35 CAFC. Exposure of HSC and progenitors to IR induces apoptosis. The induction of HSC and progenitor apoptosis contributes to IR-induced suppression of their hematopoietic function

  8. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  9. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  10. Considerations on the classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.A.; Andreev, E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation disease is a well-defined and extensively studied entity with typical signs and symptomatology. A basic point in establishing a classification is dose absorbed by the organism. The pattern of pathology displayed will vary with dose distribution in time and space. Acute radiation disease after single, overall exposure to a radiation level ranging from 100 to 1000 rem and above may be manifested in four main forms, according to the prevailing pathogenetic mechanism: cerebral, toxemic, intestinal, and a typical form dominated by injury to the hematopoietic system. In the course of the disease, three major periods may be distinguished: development, recovery, and long-term effects and outcome. These three periods will not necessarily be represented in all forms of radiation disease. As for the clinical symptomatology of acute radiation disease, its evolution allows the delineation of four phases: primary general reactions, latent period, clinical manifestation, and apparent recovery. In a typical form of acute radiation disease, severity of effects is a function of dose. Chronic radiation disease may also be of two varieties, depending on space distribution of dose. In addition, a third variety has been distinguished, namely the case of a combination of external exposure with internal contamination. Similar to the acute radiation disease, periods and degrees of severity in chronic radiation disease will vary with cumulative radiation dose. In this case, degrees of severity overlap with phases in the development of the pathological process. A category by itself in the classification is alloted to combined lesions resulting from exposure to radiological plus nonradiological factors. (A.B.)

  11. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shulan; Ke Xiaoyan; Jia Tengzhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 10 9 /L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  12. Changes in mast cells during acute radiation sickness(a morphometric study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsenko, A.V.; Shikhodyrov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the morphometric parameters of rat mast cells during acute radiation sickness have been studied. The most significant deviation of the quantitative indices of mast cells from the control values were noted at the height of the bone-marrow, at the terminal stage of the intestinal, and during the first few hours of the cerebral forms of acute radiation sickness

  13. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  14. Characteristics of long-term consequences of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.; Belyj, D.A.; Bebeshko, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    In persons who suffered from acute radiation sickness (ARS) as a result of the Chernobyl accident in course of time there are revealed the stochastic and non-stochastic effects of irradiation both in 'critical' and 'non-critical' organism systems. It is connected with maintenance of somatic mutation high level and steady changes in membranes subcellular structures, biomolecules as well as metabolic disturbances. Stable changes of hemopoietic and immune system indexes have to be considered as pre-pathological status with high hazard of stochastic effects development. Frequency rate of typical radiation cataracts (posterior subcapsular) is correlated with ARS severity degree; fundus oculi vessel pathology have essential weight in total eye pathology. Chronic radiation dermatitis is an important clinical problem being a long-term consequence of irradiation. It demands a constant attention in order to prevent trophic secondary skin lesions. Radiation damage of eye and skin as well as high frequency of chronic somatic diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders conditioned the high level of disablement in ARS-patients

  15. Pyrimetin therapy of early symptoms of radiation sickness in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehky, F.; Dobsinska, E.

    1975-01-01

    The antiemetic effect of Pyrimetin in dogs whole-body irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 500 R, administered per os, intramuscularly, and subcutaneously, immediately before the exposure and after it in the course of the initial symptoms of radiation sickness was studied. A decreased emesis occurred after per os administration of Pyrimetin immediately before whole-body irradiation of the dogs. After the intramuscular application before whole-body irradiation two dogs vomitted, and in the case of the intramuscular administration after whole-body irradiation one dog vomitted. The subcutaneous application of Pyrimetin to dogs before whole-body irradiation and also after it produced only a 30% therapeutic effect. (author)

  16. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Fiala, N.; Boward, C.A.; Bogo, V.

    1988-01-01

    Currently available treatments for radiation-induced nausea and vomiting either are ineffective or reduce performance. The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cGy 60Co gamma-radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). We determined (1) gastric emptying rates; (2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and (3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. No vomiting, retching, or decreased performance was observed after either placebo or zacopride in the control state. Following irradiation plus placebo, 70 emeses were observed in 5 of 6 monkeys, and 353 retches were observed in all 6 monkeys. In contrast, only 1 emesis was observed in 1 of 6 monkeys and 173 retches were seen in 4 of 6 monkeys after irradiation plus zacopride (P less than 0.01). Zacopride also significantly inhibited radiation-induced suppression of gastric emptying. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. The present results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys. This observation has important implications in the treatment of radiation sickness

  17. Clinical report of one case of intestinal form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the irradiation course, estimation of radiation dosage, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment of the patient A in a 60 Co radiation accident on October 21, 2004 in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: According to the simulated test of the scene, chromosome aberration analysis, clinical course and tooth enamel ESR measurement, the total body dose of A was 20-25 Gy and diagnosed as intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. The patient was transferred to our hospital on day 3 post- irradiation, total environmental protection (TEP), antibiotics and emergency HLA-typing from his elder sister were given. On day 7 HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed. Results: On day 10 post-transplant (+ 10 d), the counts of WBC began to increase and up to 5.1 x 10 9 /L on + 12 d. Bone marrow feature showed hematopoietic recovery of the three lineage blood cells. Continuous detection of the implantation ratio of donor's cells by STR-PCR showed stable 100% donor-derived chimera. On day 13, severe acute peritonitis and intestinal obstruction occurred; imipenem was much effective to control intestinal bacteria infection. Three days later, hematopoiesis reconstructed rapidly, peritonitis and intestinal obstruction were cured. On day 19, chest X-ray picture and CT scanning suggested that pulmonary mixed infection of bacteria and fungi appeared. The most severe skin irradiation burn damage occurred on day 25 which occupied the 14% of whole body skin surface. The functions of lung, heart and kidney were deteriorated sequentially. On day 30, tracheotomy had to be conducted and respirator was used. The patient died of multiple organ failure (MOF) on day 33. Conclusions: Patient A was exposed to relative well-distributed high dose and high dose rate of irradiation up to 20-25 Gy. This is the first case report of successful HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for intestinal form of acute

  18. Clinical report of an extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Jianhui; Yu Changlin; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Zhang Xigang; Li Guang; Niu Wenkai; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ge Feijiao; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To sum up the experiences from the diagnosis and treatment of patient B subjected to an accidental 60 Co exposure on October 21st, 2004, in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: Radiation dose of B was assessed by analysis of chromosome aberration and microneucleus assay, simulation test of the accident site, autopsy and electron spin resonance (ESR). The ultimate clinical diagnosis was based on analysis of irradiation dose, clinical manifestations and laboratory results. In therapeutical aspects, total environmental protection, HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), anti- infection and protection managements of organs were given. Results: Patient B was diagnosed as extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT was performed on the patient from his brother on the 7th day after the accident. The hematopoietic recovery began on the 9th day after transplantation. The patient acquired permanent full donor' engraftment without graft versus host disease (GVHD), But the radiation injury was continuing and the patient complicated with polyinfection in lung, and cardiac insufficiency. On the 45th day after the accident, patient B was performed with tracheotomy and maintained ventilation with respirator. On the 75th day after the accident, patient B died of multiple organ failure. Conclusions: Early triage diagnosis and total environmental protection should be performed as soon as possible for extremely severe bone marrow form of ARS. It is very important to perform a successful HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT, in order to extend the life time of the patient. Multiple organ injuries and infections of bacteria and fungi usually occurred on this kind of patients, so intense measures of anti-infection and protection of multiple organs should be taken. The important and difficult point in the treatment of this kind ARS might be for help the immune-reconstruction and tissue

  19. Protracted Oxidative Alterations in the Mechanism of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Gorbunov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation [(thereafter, irradiation (IR] are attributed to primary oxidative breakage of biomolecule targets, mitotic, apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the dose-limiting tissues, clastogenic and epigenetic effects, and cascades of functional and reactive responses leading to radiation sickness defined as the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The range of remaining and protracted injuries at any given radiation dose as well as the dynamics of post-IR alterations is tissue-specific. Therefore, functional integrity of the homeostatic tissue barriers may decline gradually within weeks in the post-IR period culminating with sepsis and failure of organs and systems. Multiple organ failure (MOF leading to moribundity is a common sequela of the hemotapoietic form of ARS (hARS. Onset of MOF in hARS can be presented as “two-hit phenomenon” where the “first hit” is the underlying consequences of the IR-induced radiolysis in cells and biofluids, non-septic inflammation, metabolic up-regulation of pro-oxidative metabolic reactions, suppression of the radiosensitive hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues and the damage to gut mucosa and vascular endothelium. While the “second hit” derives from bacterial translocation and spread of the bacterial pathogens and inflammagens through the vascular system leading to septic inflammatory, metabolic responses and a cascade of redox pro-oxidative and adaptive reactions. This sequence of events can create a ground for development of prolonged metabolic, inflammatory, oxidative, nitrative, and carbonyl, electrophilic stress in crucial tissues and thus exacerbate the hARS outcomes. With this perspective, the redox mechanisms, which can mediate the IR-induced protracted oxidative post-translational modification of proteins, oxidation of lipids and carbohydrates and their countermeasures in hARS are subjects of the current review. Potential role of ubiquitous

  20. Response of hematopoietic stem cells to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, A.

    2008-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood and immune system throughout life and restore them after hematological injuries. Exposure of an organism to ionizing radiation (IR) causes rapid and acute myelosuppression and challenges the replenishment capacity of HSCs. Yet, the precise damages that are generated remain largely unexplored. To better understand these effects, phenotypic and functional changes in the stem/progenitor compartments of sublethally irradiated mice were monitored over a ten week period after radiation exposure. We report that shortly after sublethal IR-exposure, HSCs, defined by their repopulating ability, still segregate in the Hoechst dye excluding side population (SP); yet, their Sca-1 (S) and c-Kit (K) expression levels are increased and severely reduced, respectively, with a concurrent increase in the proportion of SP SK cells positive for established indicators of HSC presence: CD150 + and CD105 + . A great proportion of HSCs quickly but transiently enter the cell cycle to replenish the bone marrow of myelo-ablated mice. Ten weeks after, whereas bone marrow cellularity has recovered and hematopoietic homeostasis is restored, major phenotypic modifications can be observed within the Lin -/low Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) stem/progenitor compartment: CD150 + /Flk2 - and CD150 - /Flk2 + LSK cell frequencies are increased and dramatically reduced, respectively. CD150 + LSK cells also show impaired reconstitution capacity, accrued number of γ-H2AX foci and increased tendency to apoptosis. This demonstrates that the LSK compartment is not properly restored 10 weeks after sublethal exposure, and that long-term IR-induced injury to the bone marrow proceeds, at least partially, through direct damage to the stem cell pool. Thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to promote the survival of lethally irradiated mice when administrated quickly after exposure. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect, and found in a competitive transplant

  1. The pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhtaev, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    In this chapter author made conclusion that for understanding pathogenetic mechanisms lead to critical radiation sickness after influence ionizing radiation it is necessary to take into account the consecution of all reactions beginning from physical and chemical processes of interaction radiation with matter till displaying final radiation effect on cell level and organism

  2. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  3. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Zhang Ri; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Luo Qingliang; Zhang Xueguang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  4. Protective effect study of polysaccharides from tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenqing; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin; Gao Wenyuan; Shen Xiu; Wang Yueying; Liu Peixun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice. Methods; Colony-forming unit of spleen (CFU-S), number of nucleated cells in bone marrow (BMNC) and spleen index were used to investigated the effect of polysacharides from tremella fuciformis at 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg, 24 mg/kg on hematopoietic function of mice irradiated with 7.5 Gy 137 Cs γ-rays. Results: On the 9 the day after irradiation compared with the negative control group number of nucleated cells in bone marrow, colony-forming unit of spleen and spleen index of mice have treated with polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis intraperitoneally for three days prior to irradiation increased markedly. Conclusion: Polysaccharides of tremella fuciformis have protective effect on hematopoietic function of radiation-injured mice. (authors)

  5. Effect of combined 5-fluorouracil and radiation on murine hematopoietic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.S.; Overgaard, J.; Von der Maase, H.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation in hematopoietic tissue was assessed as the survival of hematopoietic stem cells (CFUs) by means of the spleen colony assay. 5-FU was given intraperitoneally in the dose range 50-500 mg/kg body weight. In this dose range, stem cell survival decreased exponentially as a function of 5-FU dose. After 150 mg/kg of 5-FU alone, the stem cell survival rapidly decreased, reaching a minimum after 1-2 days. A similar regeneration was observed after 0.75 Gy radiation alone 5-FU given 15 min before whole-body irradiation resulted in a pronounced reduction in stem cell survival due to an increase in the slope of the radiation survival curve by a factor of 2.1. After combined 5-FU and radiation, the survival rapidly decreased to a minimum at day 1, and it showed only a slight increase within the next 7 days. After this delay, the stem cells regenerated with a doubling time of about 30 h, reaching pretreatment values on day 15. The delayed stem cell regeneration was not seen following 3.5 Gy radiation alone or 225 mg/kg 5-FU alone, which resulted in the same nadir of CFUs survival as found after the combined treatment. Thus, 5-FU greatly enhances the hematopoietic damage after radiation by reducing the number of surviving stem cells and delaying the stem cell regeneration. 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 table

  6. Composition for the treatment of radiation sickness and topical bacterial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffin, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic composition for the theatment of radiation sickness comprises a carrier medium including one or more antibodies specific to gram negative bacteria chosen from the group Klebsiella, Pseudomoneas, Shigella, Salmonella and Escherichia species is discussed. The composition may by formed for oral administration or topical application

  7. Nicaraven attenuates radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Kawakatsu

    Full Text Available Nicaraven, a chemically synthesized hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger, has been demonstrated to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs. We investigated whether nicaraven can attenuate radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which is the conmen complication of radiotherapy and one of the major causes of death in sub-acute phase after accidental exposure to high dose radiation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1 Gy γ-ray radiation daily for 5 days in succession (a total of 5 Gy, and given nicaraven or a placebo after each exposure. The mice were sacrificed 2 days after the last radiation treatment, and the protective effects and relevant mechanisms of nicaraven in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with radiation-induced damage were investigated by ex vivo examination. We found that post-radiation administration of nicaraven significantly increased the number, improved the colony-forming capacity, and decreased the DNA damage of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. The urinary levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, a marker of DNA oxidation, were significantly lower in mice that were given nicaraven compared with those that received a placebo treatment, although the levels of intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the bone marrow cells did not differ significantly between the two groups. Interestingly, compared with the placebo treatment, the administration of nicaraven significantly decreased the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in the plasma of mice. Our data suggest that nicaraven effectively diminished the effects of radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which is likely associated with the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of this compound.

  8. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  9. Estimation of doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness from external occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Delin; Dai Guangfu

    1991-01-01

    The doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness who had engaged in diagnostic radiology have been estimated according to the radiation work load, type and capacity of X-ray equipment, protection conditions, data of nationwide survey on doses to X-ray workers in China, or the data of dose monitoring in working places. Based on the activities of radium sources, time taken up in performing radium therapy, distance to radium sources and radiation work load, the doses to patients who had engaged in radium therapy have been estimated. The results of estimated average doses for 29 cases of chronic radiation sickness are given. Their average red marrow dose, trunk dose and effective dose equivalent are 1.3 Gy, 1.2 Gy and 1.6 Sv, respectively

  10. Low-dose radiation (LDR) induces hematopoietic hormesis: LDR-induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells into peripheral blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Guanjun; Cui, Jiuwei; Xue, Lu; Cai, Lu

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stimulating effect of low-dose radiation (LDR) on bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) proliferation and peripheral blood mobilization. Mice were exposed to 25- to 100-mGy x-rays. Bone marrow and peripheral blood HPCs (BFU-E, CFU-GM, and c-kit+ cells) were measured, and GM-CSF, G-CSF, and IL-3 protein and mRNA expression were detected using ELISA, slot blot hybridization, and Northern blot methods. To functionally evaluate LDR-stimulated and -mobilized HPCs, repopulation of peripheral blood cells in lethally irradiated recipients after transplantation of LDR-treated donor HPCs was examined by WBC counts, animal survival, and colony-forming units in the recipient spleens (CFUs-S). 75-mGy x-rays induced a maximal stimulation for bone marrow HPC proliferation (CFU-GM and BFU-E formation) 48 hours postirradiation, along with a significant increase in HPC mobilization into peripheral blood 48 to 72 hours postradiation, as shown by increases in CFU-GM formation and proportion of c-kit+ cells in the peripheral mononuclear cells. 75-mGy x-rays also maximally induced increases in G-CSF and GM-CSF mRNA expression in splenocytes and levels of serum GM-CSF. To define the critical role of these hematopoietic-stimulating factors in HPC peripheral mobilization, direct administration of G-CSF at a dose of 300 microg/kg/day or 150 microg/kg/day was applied and found to significantly stimulate GM-CFU formation and increase c-kit+ cells in the peripheral mononuclear cells. More importantly, 75-mGy x-rays plus 150 microg/kg/day G-CSF (LDR/150-G-CSF) produced a similar effect to that of 300 microg/kg/day G-CSF alone. Furthermore, the capability of LDR-mobilized donor HPCs to repopulate blood cells was confirmed in lethally irradiated recipient mice by counting peripheral WBC and CFUs-S. These results suggest that LDR induces hematopoietic hormesis, as demonstrated by HPC proliferation and peripheral mobilization, providing a

  11. Role of reactive oxygen species in the radiation response of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, which are present in small numbers in hematopoietic tissues, can differentiate into all hematopoietic lineages and self-renew to maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. HSPCs are extremely sensitive to oxidative stressors such as anti-cancer agents, radiation, and the extensive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The quiescence and stemness of HSPCs are maintained by the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, ROS, and energy homeostasis in a special microenvironment called the stem cell niche. The present study evaluated the relationship between the production of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial function during the proliferation and differentiation of X-irradiated CD34(+ cells prepared from human placental/umbilical cord blood HSPCs. Highly purified CD34(+ HSPCs exposed to X-rays were cultured in liquid and semi-solid medium supplemented with hematopoietic cytokines. X-irradiated CD34(+ HSPCs treated with hematopoietic cytokines, which promote their proliferation and differentiation, exhibited dramatically suppressed cell growth and clonogenic potential. The amount of intracellular ROS in X-irradiated CD34(+ HSPCs was significantly higher than that in non-irradiated cells during the culture period. However, neither the intracellular mitochondrial content nor the mitochondrial superoxide production was elevated in X-irradiated CD34(+ HSPCs compared with non-irradiated cells. Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX expression was observed immediately following exposure to 4 Gy of X-rays and gradually decreased during the culture period. This study reveals that X-irradiation can increase persistent intracellular ROS in human CD34(+ HSPCs, which may not result from mitochondrial ROS due to mitochondrial dysfunction, and indicates that substantial DNA double-strand breakage can critically reduce the stem cell function.

  12. Effects of radiation and porphyrin on mitosis and chromosomes in human hematopoietic cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.C.; Huang, C.C.; Fiel, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect on mitosis of a human hematopoietic cell line RPMI-1788 treated with a metal chelate (Zn ++ ) of meso-tetra (p-carboxyphenyl) porphine (Zn-TCPP) alone at various concentrations or in combination with gamma-irradiation at various doses were studied. The results showed that both Zn-TCPP and radiation were effective in interfering with normal mitosis and that the effect of radiation was relatively more effective. Data also suggest interacting effects between Zn-TCPP and gamma-irradiation. At low doses of radiation, Zn-TCPP potentiated the effect of radiation. The reverse seemed to be true at a high dose of radiation. The effects of two porphyrins (Zn-TCPP and hematoporphyrin) and radiation on chromosomes were also studied. Chromosomal aberrations characteristic of radiation were observed. The porphyrins were found not to be effective chromosome-breaking agents under the experimental conditions tested

  13. Effect of radiation dose-rate on hematopoietic cell engraftment in adult zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J Glass

    Full Text Available Although exceptionally high radiation dose-rates are currently attaining clinical feasibility, there have been relatively few studies reporting the biological consequences of these dose-rates in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT. In zebrafish models of HCT, preconditioning before transplant is typically achieved through radiation alone. We report the comparison of outcomes in adult zebrafish irradiated with 20 Gy at either 25 or 800 cGy/min in the context of experimental HCT. In non-transplanted irradiated fish we observed no substantial differences between dose-rate groups as assessed by fish mortality, cell death in the kidney, endogenous hematopoietic reconstitution, or gene expression levels of p53 and ddb2 (damage-specific DNA binding protein 2 in the kidney. However, following HCT, recipients conditioned with the higher dose rate showed significantly improved donor-derived engraftment at 9 days post transplant (p ≤ 0.0001, and improved engraftment persisted at 31 days post transplant. Analysis for sdf-1a expression, as well as transplant of hematopoietic cells from cxcr4b -/- zebrafish, (odysseus, cumulatively suggest that the sdf-1a/cxcr4b axis is not required of donor-derived cells for the observed dose-rate effect on engraftment. Overall, the adult zebrafish model of HCT indicates that exceptionally high radiation dose-rates can impact HCT outcome, and offers a new system for radiobiological and mechanistic interrogation of this phenomenon. Key words: Radiation dose rate, Total Marrow Irradiation (TMI, Total body irradiation (TBI, SDF-1, Zebrafish, hematopoietic cell transplant.

  14. Response of hematopoietic stem cells to ionizing radiation; Reponse des cellules souches hematopoitiques aux radiations ionisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonnet, A

    2008-12-15

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood and immune system throughout life and restore them after hematological injuries. Exposure of an organism to ionizing radiation (IR) causes rapid and acute myelosuppression and challenges the replenishment capacity of HSCs. Yet, the precise damages that are generated remain largely unexplored. To better understand these effects, phenotypic and functional changes in the stem/progenitor compartments of sublethally irradiated mice were monitored over a ten week period after radiation exposure. We report that shortly after sublethal IR-exposure, HSCs, defined by their repopulating ability, still segregate in the Hoechst dye excluding side population (SP); yet, their Sca-1 (S) and c-Kit (K) expression levels are increased and severely reduced, respectively, with a concurrent increase in the proportion of SP{sup SK} cells positive for established indicators of HSC presence: CD150{sup +} and CD105{sup +}. A great proportion of HSCs quickly but transiently enter the cell cycle to replenish the bone marrow of myelo-ablated mice. Ten weeks after, whereas bone marrow cellularity has recovered and hematopoietic homeostasis is restored, major phenotypic modifications can be observed within the Lin{sup -/low} Sca-1{sup +} c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) stem/progenitor compartment: CD150{sup +}/Flk2{sup -} and CD150{sup -}/Flk2{sup +} LSK cell frequencies are increased and dramatically reduced, respectively. CD150{sup +} LSK cells also show impaired reconstitution capacity, accrued number of {gamma}-H2AX foci and increased tendency to apoptosis. This demonstrates that the LSK compartment is not properly restored 10 weeks after sublethal exposure, and that long-term IR-induced injury to the bone marrow proceeds, at least partially, through direct damage to the stem cell pool. Thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to promote the survival of lethally irradiated mice when administrated quickly after exposure. We investigated the mechanisms underlying

  15. Todralazine protects zebra fish from lethal doses of ionizing radiation: role of hematopoietic stem cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimri, Manali; Joshi, Jaidev; Indracanti, Prem Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced cell killing and hematopoietic stem cell depletion leads to compromised immune functions and opportunistic infections which significantly affect the recovery and survival upon irradiation. Any agent which can expand residual hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated organism can render protection from the effects of lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Johns Hopkins Clinical compound library (JHCCL) was screened for protection against lethal doses of ionizing radiation using developing zebra fish as a model organism. Modulation of radiation induced reactive oxygen species by the small molecules were done by DCFDA staining and for visual identification and quantification of apoptosis acridine orange assay, flow cytometry were employed respectively. Hematopoietic stem cell expansion potential was assessed by quantifying runx1 expression, a marker for definitive stem cells, were done by RT-PCR and by the kinetics of recovery from chemically induced anaemia. Todralazine hydrochloride from JHCCL exhibited promising results with potential anti radiation effects. A dose of 5μM was found to be the most effective and has rendered significant organ and whole body protection (100% survival advantage over a period of 6 days) against 20 Gy. However todralazine did not modulated radiation induced free radicals (monitored within 2 h of irradiation) and apoptosis in zebra fish embryos analysed at 8 and 24h post irradiation. Flow cytometric quantification of pre G1 population suggested the same. Chemoinformatics approaches were further carried out to elucidate possible targets which are contributing to its radioprotection potential. Structural similarity search suggested several targets and possible hematopoietic stem cell expanding potential. Treatment of zebra fish embryos with todralazine has lead to significant proliferation of hematopoietic stem cell as indicated by increase in expression of runx1. HSC expanding potential of todralazine was further supported by

  16. Effect of Miradol (Sulpiride) on radiation sickness studied by a double-blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yuko; Morita, Shinroku

    1981-01-01

    Effect of Miradol on radiation sickness was investigated by a double-blind test. The rate of ''effective'' was 66.7% of the patients given Miradol and 20.1% of those given placebo (p < 0.01). The drug was especially effective on the patients chiefly complaining of nausea and vomiting. Placebo was also effective in some of the cases with appetite loss etc. (Ueda, J.)

  17. The kinetic alteration of hematopoietic stem cells irradiated by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junya; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Kai, Michiaki

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) brings oxidative stress, and can cause damages not only on DNA but also proteins and lipids in mammalian cells, and increases the mitochondria-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the subsequent induction of cell death, cell cycle arrest, and stress related responses. It is well known that IR induces acute myeloid leukemia that originates in hematopoietic cells. However, the mechanisms of leukemogenesis following IR remain unclear. To clarify these mechanisms, it is necessary to quantify the several biological events induced by IR in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we focus and summarize several recent findings, especially survival/clonogenic potential, cell cycle distribution, generation of ROS, DNA damage/repair, chromosomal abbreviation, and senescence. (author)

  18. Effects of low level radiation upon the hematopoietic stem cell: Implications for leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bond, V.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Miller, M.E.; Bullis, J.E.; Inoue, T.; Yokohama City Univ.

    1987-01-01

    These studies have addressed firstly the effect of single small doses of X-rays upon murine hematopoietic stem cells to obtain a better estimate of the D q . It is small, of the order of 20 rad. Secondly, a dose fractionation schedule that does not kill or perturb the kinetcs of hemopoietic cell proliferation was sought in order to investigate the leukemogenic potential of low level radiation upon an unperturbed hemopoietic system. Doses used by others in past radiation leukemogenesis studies clearly perturb hemopoiesis and kill a detectable fraction of stem cells. The studies reported herein show that 1.25 rad every day decrease the CFU-S content of bone marrow by the time 80 rads are accumulated. Higher daily doses as used in published studies on radiation leukemogenesis produce greater effects. Studies on the effect of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 rad 3 times per week are under way. Two rad 3 times per week produced a modest decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow after an accumulation of 68 rad. With 3.0 rad 3 times per week an accumulation of 102 rad produced a significant decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow. Dose fractionation at 0.5 and 1.0 rad 3 times per week has not produced a CFU-S depression after accumulation of 17 and 34 rad. Radiation leukemogenesis studies published to date have utilized single doses and chronic exposure schedules that probably have significantly perturbed the kinetcs of hematopoietic stem cells. Whether radiation will produce leukemia in animal models with dose schedules that do not perturb kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells remains to be seen. (orig.)

  19. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Bo; Jiang Liping; Wu Ying; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai; Zhao Fengling; Fu Baohua; Istvan, Turai

    2008-01-01

    On 26 April 1999, three persons were accidentally exposed by high dose 60 Co irradiation. They suffered from severe (one case) or moderate (two cases) hemopoietic form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). As part of the comprehensive treatment, strict reverse isolation and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy were applied. All the patients recovered after an appropriate treatment for 83 days. In our experience, the correct diagnosis and effective treatment at an early stage proved to be helpful to the patients in pulling out from the critical stage of acute radiation sickness. To avoid menstruation by the female patient just in the critical stage, we modified her menstruation cycle by testosterone. In our view, GM-CSF should be given as early as possible with enough dosage for promoting early hematological reconstruction. The experience obtained from the medical management of these patients is valuable for the treatment of such patients in the future. (author)

  20. Immunological effects in acute radiation sickness reconvalescents - results of thirteen years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Belyaeva, N.V.; Azarskova, M.B.; Minchenko, Zh.N.; Pleskach, O.Ya.; Mishchenko, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    For immunological follow-up of people who had suffered from acute radiation sickness in 1986 connected with the Chernobyl NPP accident different immunological reactions were used. Both in the period of early recovery and remote reconvalescence period people had changes in expression of lymphocytes surface antigens, suggesting that even in the cases of satisfactory compensations functional reserves of immune system was narrow. Correlations with absorbed doses and somatic mutations in the locus of T-cell receptor were found. Results of the study suggested that individual characteristics of postirradiation recovery depended both on absorbed doses and genetically determined responses on the radiation hazard

  1. Delayed development of radiation sickness in animals following partial exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Causes of reduction of the life span of animals after partial exposure of the head, thorax, and abdomen are analyzed. Pulmonosclerosis and cardiosclerosis were mainly responsible for animal death following partial radiation exposure of the thorax; these conditions appreciably shortened the life span of the animals. After exposure of the head deaths were due to pneumonias which negligibly reduced the duration of life. Exposure of the abdomen led to the development of diabetes mellitus which shortened the life span by half. 18 refs., 1 tab

  2. Radioimmunologic analysis of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1975-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation (750 rad) and the secretory activity of the insular apparatus was studied radioimmunologically, using insulin labelled with iodine-125. The post-radiation dynamics of the insulin concentration in the blood were shown to have a phase character. The insulin level had risen after 1, 3 and 8 days. After 2 days the hormone concentration had dropped significantly and become two times lower than normal. After the other time intervals, the concentration of insulin in the blood varied within normal limits.

  3. Inhibition of proteolytic ferments by taurin in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Klimova, A.D.; Yartsev, E.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The application of taurin potassium phosphate (TKPh) as radioprotective remedy resulted in a considerable influence on the activity of the proteolytic ferments in the irradiated organism. White male rats with a weight of 160 to 180 g being kept in cages without any food for 12 hours before this experiment were irradiated with a gamma unit GUM-Co-60 with a dose of 700 rad (LDsub(70/30)). A 4% solution of the preparation was injected in an amount of 40 mg per rat 1, 3, 5, 7 days after irradiation. Under the effect of ionizing radiation there was a progredient increase of proteolytic ferment activity of liver and spleen which was detected already 30 min after irradiation with maximum rate of proteolysis on the 21st day. After injection of the preparation a two-phase reaction developed: on the 7th to 12th day an increased activity of cathepsins in the tissue and in the following time up to the 30th day of observation an inhibition of ferment activity was demonstrated. Simultaneously it was found that the radiation-induced corticosteroid level was prevented by the preparation. A similar effect was also shown by TKPh inhibiting proteolytic ferment activity in experiments with rats with preceding application of hydrocortisone in high doses. The obtained results permit the assumption that the radioprotective activity of taurin comes about by its effect in the direction of structural integrity of the cell membranes leading to a normalization of the hormonal and fermentative events

  4. Radiation responses of hematopoietic-cells and inducing acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, Mitsuaki; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia has consistently held the interest of researchers from the beginning of radiation carcinogenesis. One of the major reasons for this interest is the availability of several strains of mice that develop leukemia following radiation exposure after a short latency period that resemble those found in A-Bomb survivors. Previous studies have shown that rAML (Radiation-induced Acute Myeloid Leukemia) in mice show inactivation of Sfpi1 gene and a hemizygous deletion in chromosome 2. Leukemic stem cells in murine rAML have been reported to share some characteristics with common myeloid progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms in the development of rAML stem cells, focusing on the alterations found in the leukemic stem cells and as well as the environment in which these leukemic stem cells are developed, such cytokine expression, as Well as alterations that may be found in other cells residing in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cells respond to radiation exposure both as a single cell and as a part of the differentiating hematopoietic tissue for several months prior to its transformation to a rAML stem cell. It is however unclear how these 2 responses contribute to the development of the rAML stem cell. This review covers previous reports and examines the development of the rAML stem cell in detail. (author)

  5. Long-term follow-up observation of patients with chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shenyong; Sun Wenji; Zhang Aizhen; Ye Anfang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide the clinical data and prognosis judgement, the authors observed the results and progression of 11 cases of chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide. Methods: The clinical symptoms, hematopoiesis, T lymphocyte percentage and chromosome aberration rate were used as the judgement indexes for recovery from the chronic radiation sickness. Results: Thymopeptide treatment greatly improved the neurasthenic syndrome and increased the T lymphocyte percentage (P 0.05), and improvement of neurasthenic syndrome occurred 3.5 years after they left radiation work or diminished the exposure level. 5 to 8 years after, bone marrow hematopoiesis also restored to the normal level. However, the chromosome aberration rate restored to the normal level 10 years after. Conclusion: According to the judgement criteria, the chronic radiation sickness due to external radiation exposure can recover and thymopeptide is a helpful and simple means to treat it

  6. A clinical report on three cases of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shimin; Ye genyao; Liang Demin

    1989-01-01

    On April 20, 1985 a 137 Cs gamma-ray source of about 10 curies was taken into a family's bedroom. The son and both his parents were exposed to a nearly continuous irradiation for 150 days with estimated accumulated dose of 8-15 Gy. The father was complicated by skin radiation burn. The essential clinical findings on admission were general malaise, bleeding and pancytopenia (Hb 50g/l; WBC 0.4-0.7 x 10 9 /l; platelets 10 x 10 9 /l). The bone marrow was hypocellular with low colony yield in CFU-GM culture. The immunological examinations were essentially normal except for low E-RFC and lymphocyte transformation in all cases, and low IgA was seen only in the mother. Abnormalities were found in nail-bed microcirculation and thromboelastogram. Aspermia was detected twice in the son. The principal therapeutic measures were complete rest and adequated nutrition. The ward and nursing services were strictly controlled to avoid contamination. The son was transferred to LAFR for 2 weeks when the WBC was as low as 0.4 x 10 9 /l. Combined large doses of stanozolol and anisodamine were prescribed for all cases, while the son and his father received fetal liver transfusions in addition. All of them recovered well, especially the son

  7. Effects of low-level radiation upon the hematopoietic steam cell: implications for leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bond, V.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Miller, M.E.; Bullis, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    These studies have addressed firstly the effect of single small doses of x-ray upon murine hematopoietic stem cells to obtain a better estimate of the D/sub q/. It is small, of the order of 20 rads. Secondly, a dose fractionation schedule tht does not kill or perturb the kinetics of hemopoietic cell proliferation was sought in order to investigate the leukemogenic potential of low level radiation upon an unperturbed hemopoietic system. The studies reported herein show tht 1.25 rads every other day decrease the CFU-S content of bone marrow by the time 40 rads are accumulated. Studies on the effect of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 rads 3 times per week are under way. Two rads 3 times per week produced a modest decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow after an accumulation of 68 rads. With 3.0 rads 3 times per week an accumulation of 102 rads produces a significant decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow. Dose fractionation at 0.5 and 1.0 rad 3 times per week has not produced a CFU-S depression after accumulation of 17 and 34 rads. Radiation leukemogenesis studies published to date have utilized single doses and chronic exposure schedules that probably have significantly perturbed the kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells. Whether radiation will produce leukemia in animal models with dose schedules that do not perturb kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells remains to be seen

  8. Catalase inhibits ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Luo, Hongmei; Vanek, Kenneth N; LaRue, Amanda C; Schulte, Bradley A; Wang, Gavin Y

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic toxicity is a major cause of mortality in radiation emergency scenarios and a primary side effect concern in patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of novel and more effective approaches to manage this side effect. Catalase is a potent antioxidant enzyme that coverts hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of catalase as a protectant against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The results revealed that catalase treatment markedly inhibits IR-induced apoptosis in murine hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Subsequent colony-forming cell and cobble-stone area-forming cell assays showed that catalase-treated HSPCs can not only survive irradiation-induced apoptosis but also have higher clonogenic capacity, compared with vehicle-treated cells. Moreover, transplantation of catalase-treated irradiated HSPCs results in high levels of multi-lineage and long-term engraftments, whereas vehicle-treated irradiated HSPCs exhibit very limited hematopoiesis reconstituting capacity. Mechanistically, catalase treatment attenuates IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks and inhibits reactive oxygen species. Unexpectedly, we found that the radioprotective effect of catalase is associated with activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abolishes the protective activity of catalase, suggesting that catalase may protect HSPCs against IR-induced toxicity via promoting STAT3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which catalase inhibits IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HSPCs.

  9. The relationship of sick leave benefits, employment patterns, and individual characteristics to radiation therapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Patricia

    2006-05-03

    To examine the relationship among sick leave benefits, employment patterns, individual characteristics, and fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy. Prospective, longitudinal design. A community hospital radiation oncology department. 77 patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast, chest, head and neck, pelvis, or prostate. All were employed at the time of diagnosis. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided the study. The Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Brief Fatigue Inventory, and a single-item scale were used to measure five dimensions of subjective fatigue. Sick leave, employment, individual characteristics, and fatigue were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at one month post-treatment. Employment patterns, availability of sick leave benefits, and fatigue. Mean total fatigue scores on the PFS ranged from 0-4.77 at baseline (mean = 0.46, SD = 0.93), 0-8.77 at the completion of treatment (mean = 2.84, SD = 2.40), and 0-4.82 at one month post-treatment (mean = 0.77, SD = 1.20). Side effects, education, living situation, age, treatment site, and work were associated with fatigue along the trajectory of radiation therapy. Study participants who were working at the end of radiation had lower fatigue scores than those who were not. Availability of sick leave benefits was associated with employment patterns during treatment. Work may have benefits during radiation therapy but may be affected by radiation therapy-related fatigue. Management of treatment side effects, including fatigue, may help patients remain in the workforce during radiation.

  10. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event ''sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the ''immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Ionizing radiation effects on the KG1A primitive hematopoietic cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clave, Emmanuel; Carosella, Edgardo D.; Gluckman, Eliane; Dubray, Bernard; Socie, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Better understanding of radiation-induced effects on the hematopoietic system is important in both the context of therapeutic intervention and accidental exposure. However, direct study of these effects on the hematopoietic stem cell pool is hampered by the small number of accessible cells. We, thus, studied radiation-induced effects on the KG1a stem cell line. Methods and Materials: We confirmed and extended the immunophenotype of KG1a with monoclonal antibodies, established a radiation survival curve, and quantified mRNAs by Northern blotting 30 min after 1, 2, and 3 Gy of ionizing radiation (IR) and followed for up to 48 h after a 3 Gy dose. Cell cycle status and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, cell morphology, and DNA fragmentation. Results: KG1a was found to be CD34+, CD7+, Thy1 low, CD38 low, lineage negative (neg), C-KITneg and HLA-DRneg, a phenotype consistent with a primitive hematopoietic origin. This immunophenotype was not altered by x-ray irradiation. The D 0 value was 1.75 Gy. We showed a time-dependent variation of c-jun mRNA expression with an early and transient dose-dependent induction followed by a second increase at 24 and 48 h: a biphasic dose-dependent variation of bcl-2 expression 30 min after irradiation with a reduction of mRNA level at 1 Gy, and a normalization at higher doses and stable levels of mRNA for c-fos, c-myc, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, and MIP-1α genes. Cell cycle analysis showed the absence of G1/S phase arrest, a point consistent with the absence of detection of P53 mRNA by Northern blot analysis. The dose-dependent G2/M phase arrest was not followed by significant apoptotic cell death. Conclusion: Taken together, this data indicates that radiation-induced cell death of KG1a, a cell line that has a relatively high D 0 value, does not seem to be the result of the apoptotic pathway but occurs subsequent to a G2/M phase arrest

  13. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration After Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in a Murine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Jonathan [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Krueger, Sarah A.; Dilworth, Joshua T.; Torma, John T.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian [Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Madlambayan, Gerard J., E-mail: madlamba@oakland.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize the recruitment of bone marrow (BM)-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) within tumor microenvironment after radiation therapy (RT) in a murine, heterotopic tumor model. Methods and Materials: Lewis lung carcinoma tumors were established in C57BL/6 mice and irradiated with 30 Gy given as 2 fractions over 2 days. Tumors were imaged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and measured daily with digital calipers. The HSPC and myelomonocytic cell content was assessed via immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. Functionality of tumor-associated HSPCs was verified in vitro using colony-forming cell assays and in vivo by rescuing lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients. Results: Irradiation significantly reduced tumor volumes and tumor regrowth rates compared with nonirradiated controls. The number of CD133{sup +} HSPCs present in irradiated tumors was higher than in nonirradiated tumors during all stages of regrowth. CD11b{sup +} counts were similar. PET/CT imaging and growth rate analysis based on standardized uptake value indicated that HSPC recruitment directly correlated to the extent of regrowth and intratumor cell activity after irradiation. The BM-derived tumor-associated HSPCs successfully formed hematopoietic colonies and engrafted irradiated mice. Finally, targeted treatment with a small animal radiation research platform demonstrated localized HSPC recruitment to defined tumor subsites exposed to radiation. Conclusions: Hypofractionated irradiation resulted in a pronounced and targeted recruitment of BM-derived HSPCs, possibly as a mechanism to promote tumor regrowth. These data indicate for the first time that radiation therapy regulates HSPC content within regrowing tumors.

  14. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration After Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in a Murine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Jonathan; Krueger, Sarah A.; Dilworth, Joshua T.; Torma, John T.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian; Madlambayan, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the recruitment of bone marrow (BM)-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) within tumor microenvironment after radiation therapy (RT) in a murine, heterotopic tumor model. Methods and Materials: Lewis lung carcinoma tumors were established in C57BL/6 mice and irradiated with 30 Gy given as 2 fractions over 2 days. Tumors were imaged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and measured daily with digital calipers. The HSPC and myelomonocytic cell content was assessed via immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. Functionality of tumor-associated HSPCs was verified in vitro using colony-forming cell assays and in vivo by rescuing lethally irradiated C57BL/6 recipients. Results: Irradiation significantly reduced tumor volumes and tumor regrowth rates compared with nonirradiated controls. The number of CD133 + HSPCs present in irradiated tumors was higher than in nonirradiated tumors during all stages of regrowth. CD11b + counts were similar. PET/CT imaging and growth rate analysis based on standardized uptake value indicated that HSPC recruitment directly correlated to the extent of regrowth and intratumor cell activity after irradiation. The BM-derived tumor-associated HSPCs successfully formed hematopoietic colonies and engrafted irradiated mice. Finally, targeted treatment with a small animal radiation research platform demonstrated localized HSPC recruitment to defined tumor subsites exposed to radiation. Conclusions: Hypofractionated irradiation resulted in a pronounced and targeted recruitment of BM-derived HSPCs, possibly as a mechanism to promote tumor regrowth. These data indicate for the first time that radiation therapy regulates HSPC content within regrowing tumors

  15. Chronic restraint-induced stress has little modifying effect on radiation hematopoietic toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Katsube, Takanori; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Vares, Guillaume; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Liu Qiang; Morita, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Both radiation and stresses cause detrimental effects on humans. Besides possible health effects resulting directly from radiation exposure, the nuclear plant accident is a cause of social psychological stresses. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced stresses (CRIS) attenuated Trp53 functions and increased carcinogenesis susceptibility of Trp53-heterozygous mice to total-body X-irradiation (TBXI), having a big impact on the academic world and a sensational effect on the public, especially the residents living in radioactively contaminated areas. It is important to investigate the possible modification effects from CRIS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53wt) animals. Prior to a carcinogenesis study, effects of TBXI on the hematopoietic system under CRIS were investigated in terms of hematological abnormality in the peripheral blood and residual damage in the bone marrow erythrocytes using a mouse restraint model. Five-week-old male Trp53wt C57BL/6J mice were restrained 6 h per day for 28 consecutive days, and TBXI (4 Gy) was given on the 8th day. Results showed that CRIS alone induced a marked decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) and the white blood cell (WBC) count, while TBXI caused significantly lower counts of RBCs, WBCs and blood platelets, and a lower concentration of hemoglobin regardless of CRIS. CRIS alone did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte proliferation and on induction of micronucleated erythrocytes, whereas TBXI markedly inhibited erythrocyte proliferation and induced a significant increase in the incidences of micronucleated erythrocytes, regardless of CRIS. These findings suggest that CRIS does not have a significant impact on radiation-induced detrimental effects on the hematopoietic system in Trp53wt mice. (author)

  16. [Use of lithium carbonate as a leukocyte stimulant in acute radiation sickness in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchalovskiĭ, M V; Shishkova, T V; Chotiĭ, V G; Baranov, A E

    1989-03-01

    A total of 50 patients, who had suffered from acute radiation sickness (I-III degree of severity) as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, were followed up for hematological changes. The absorbed dose of relatively even gamma-irradiation assessed by karyometry fluctuated from 0.5 to 5.7 Gy. In 17 of the patients the influence of lithium carbonate on the course of radiation neutropenia was evaluated. No appreciable effect of the agent administration in a dose of 900 mg/patient/day was recorder from 9 to 42 day after irradiation. The authors have also considered the correlations of the values of irradiation doses calculated by varying methods of biological dosimetry.

  17. VARIATIONS IN RADIATION SENSITIVITY AND REPAIR AMONG DIFFERENT HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELL SUBSETS FOLLOWING FRACTIONATED-IRRADIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOWN, JD; BOUDEWIJN, A; VANOS, R; THAMES, HD; PLOEMACHER, RE

    1995-01-01

    The radiation dose-survival of various hematopoietic cell subsets in murine bone marrow (BM) was determined in the cobblestone area forming cell (CAFC) assay under conditions of single-, split-, and multiple-dose irradiation. A greater recovery in cell survival with decreasing dose per fraction, or

  18. New experimental approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Drouet, M.; Grenier, N.; Grange, L.; Bourin, P.; Vetillard, J.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental exposure to high doses of ionizing radiations requires new therapeutic protocols in addition to cytokine therapy. The in vitro incubation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from irradiated nonhuman primates with negative and positive regulators of hematopoiesis may lead to helpful products of transfusion. (author)

  19. Degree and therapy of acute radiation syndromes. Introduction of a suggestion on acute radiation sickness therapy made by strategic national stockpile radiation working group of USA. part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Pan Zhen; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines, blood transfusion, and stem-cell transplantation in selected cases. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents. (authors)

  20. Direct evaluation of radiation damage in human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; McCune, J.M.; Namikawa, Reiko

    1994-01-01

    We have developed techniques by which normal functional elements of human bone marrow can be implanted into immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (SCID) mice. Afterward, long-term multilineage human hematopoiesis is sustained in vivo. We evaluated the effect of irradiation on the function of human bone marrow with this in vivo model. After whole-body X irradiation of the engrafted animals, it was determined that the D 0 value of human committed progenitor cells within the human marrow was 1.00 ± 0.09 (SEM) Gy for granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) and 0.74 ± 0.12 Gy for erythroidburst-forming units (BFU-E). The effects of irradiation on the hematopoietic elements were reduced when the radioprotective agent WR-2721 was administered prior to irradiation. After low-dose irradiation, recovery of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This small animal model may prove amenable for the analysis of the risk of the exposure of humans to irradiation as well as for the development of new modalities for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced hematopoietic damage. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, J.H.; Rusek, A.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C.; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X.S.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  2. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J H; Sanzari, J; Avery, S; Sayers, C; Krigsfeld, G; Nuth, M; Wan, X S; Rusek, A; Kennedy, A R

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  3. RBE of 0,85 MeV neutrons in guinea pigs with intestinal form of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaporov, V.N.; Sokolova, T.I.; Nasonova, T.A.; Aleshin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) coefficient of 0.85 MeV neutrons was 1.87 in comparison with 0.66 MeV γ-radiation ( 137 Cs) when estimated by the death rate of guinea pigs with intestinal form of radiation sickness. LD 50/5 was 5.9 and 11.06 respectively. Features of the mortality rate dynamics, clinical picture and pathoanatomical changes are discussed

  4. RBE of 0.85 MeV neutrons in Guinea pigs with a cerebral form of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaporov, V.N.; Sokolova, T.I.; Nasonova, T.A.; Aleshin, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The RBE coefficient of neutrons (0.85 MeV) was 1.87 in comparison with that of electron radiation (8 MeV) as determined by the death rate of guinea pigs with the cerebral form of radiation sickness. LD 50/1.5 amounted to 43.2 and 80.7 Gy. The dynamics of clinical symptoms at the height of the disease is discussed

  5. Protective effect study of polysaccharides from tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wen-qing; Yang, Fu-jun; Shen, Xiu; Wang, Yue-ying; Liu, Pei-xun

    2008-01-01

    A kind of water-soluble homogeneous polysaccharide named as TFB was isolated and purified from Tremella Fuciformis by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and Sephadex G-150. Its chemical and physical characteristics was determined by chemical methods, gas chromatography, mass spectrum and size exclusion chromatography. Colony-forming unit of spleen(CFU-S), number of nucleated cells in bone marrow (BMNC) and spleen index were adopted to investigate the effect on hematopoietic function of TFB at 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg, 24 mg/kg in mice irradiated with 7.5 Gy 137 Cs γ-rays. The results indicated that TFB is composed of glucose, mannose and serine in closely molar ratios of 8:2:0.1. Its relative molecular weight is estimated to be 68,000 by HPGPC. Its main chain is comprised of 1,4 linked glucose and 1,2,3,4,6 linked mannose, the branch point is at the site of mannose. Side chain is comprised of terminal glucose, Serine, H 2 N-1,4,6 linked mannose. Glucose uronic acid may be in main chain because of its 32.88 % content. The numbers of nucleated cells in bone marrow, colony-forming unit of spleen and spleen index increased markedly compared with the negative control group in mice treated with WTF-B administered 6 mg/kg ip. for three days prior to 137 Cs-γray irradiation, and the number of nucleated cells in bone marrow increased markedly but the CFU-S manifested no difference in mice treated with WTF-B administered 12 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg ip. compared with the negative control group. We can make conclusion that Polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis has protective effects on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice, its optimal dose is 6 mg/kg. (author)

  6. Stochastic Threshold Exponential (TE) Model for Hematopoietic Tissue Reconstitution Deficit after Radiation Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B R; Potter, C A

    2014-07-01

    Whole-body exposure to large radiation doses can cause severe loss of hematopoietic tissue cells and threaten life if the lost cells are not replaced in a timely manner through natural repopulation (a homeostatic mechanism). Repopulation to the baseline level N 0 is called reconstitution and a reconstitution deficit (repopulation shortfall) can occur in a dose-related and organ-specific manner. Scott et al. (2013) previously introduced a deterministic version of a threshold exponential (TE) model of tissue-reconstitution deficit at a given follow-up time that was applied to bone marrow and spleen cellularity (number of constituent cells) data obtained 6 weeks after whole-body gamma-ray exposure of female C.B-17 mice. In this paper a more realistic, stochastic version of the TE model is provided that allows radiation response to vary between different individuals. The Stochastic TE model is applied to post gamma-ray-exposure cellularity data previously reported and also to more limited X-ray cellularity data for whole-body irradiated female C.B-17 mice. Results indicate that the population average threshold for a tissue reconstitution deficit appears to be similar for bone marrow and spleen and for 320-kV-spectrum X-rays and Cs-137 gamma rays. This means that 320-kV spectrum X-rays could successfully be used in conducting such studies.

  7. Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Protection by IGF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratou, K.; Karakantza, M.; Giannopoulou, E.; Antonacopoulou, A.; Adonakis, G.; Kardamakis, D.; Matsouka, P.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34 + irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34 + from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis. (author)

  8. Effect of adiponectin deficiency on intestinal damage and hematopoietic responses of mice exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja; Gove, Melissa E.; Pini, Maria [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Fantuzzi, Giamila, E-mail: giamila@uic.edu [Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-08-07

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and inflammation. It is also involved in modulation of cell proliferation by binding to various growth factors. Based on its known effects in modulating cell proliferation and oxidative stress, APN may potentially be involved in regulating tissue damage and repair following irradiation. Adiponectin KO mice and their WT littermates were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 3 or 6 Gy gamma radiation. Radiation-induced alterations were studied in jejunum, blood, bone marrow and thymus at days 1 and 5 post-irradiation and compared with sham-irradiated groups. In WT mice, irradiation did not significantly alter serum APN levels while inducing a significant decrease in serum leptin. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in thymocyte cellularity, with concomitant decrease in CD4{sup +}, CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cell populations, with no significant differences between WT and APN KO mice. Irradiation resulted in a significantly higher increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the blood of APN KO compared with WT mice, whereas frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow at day 5 was significantly higher in WT compared with APN KO mice. Finally, irradiation induced similar alterations in villus height and crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum of WT and APN KO mice. Jejunum explants from sham-irradiated APN KO mice produced higher levels of IL-6 compared with tissue from WT animals, but the difference was no longer apparent following irradiation. Our data indicate that APN deficiency does not play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in mice, while it may participate in regulation of damage to the hematopoietic system.

  9. Effect of adiponectin deficiency on intestinal damage and hematopoietic responses of mice exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja; Gove, Melissa E.; Pini, Maria; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and inflammation. It is also involved in modulation of cell proliferation by binding to various growth factors. Based on its known effects in modulating cell proliferation and oxidative stress, APN may potentially be involved in regulating tissue damage and repair following irradiation. Adiponectin KO mice and their WT littermates were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 3 or 6 Gy gamma radiation. Radiation-induced alterations were studied in jejunum, blood, bone marrow and thymus at days 1 and 5 post-irradiation and compared with sham-irradiated groups. In WT mice, irradiation did not significantly alter serum APN levels while inducing a significant decrease in serum leptin. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in thymocyte cellularity, with concomitant decrease in CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + CD8 + T cell populations, with no significant differences between WT and APN KO mice. Irradiation resulted in a significantly higher increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the blood of APN KO compared with WT mice, whereas frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow at day 5 was significantly higher in WT compared with APN KO mice. Finally, irradiation induced similar alterations in villus height and crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum of WT and APN KO mice. Jejunum explants from sham-irradiated APN KO mice produced higher levels of IL-6 compared with tissue from WT animals, but the difference was no longer apparent following irradiation. Our data indicate that APN deficiency does not play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in mice, while it may participate in regulation of damage to the hematopoietic system.

  10. Changes of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psycholeptic drugs in radiation sickness. Part 3. Changes of pharmacodynamics of thioridazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazaryn, I.; Wojciakowa, Z.; Chodera, A.; Szczawinska, K.

    1977-01-01

    The cataleptic actions of thioridazine, its effect on the exploring mobility of rats and the hexobarbital-induced sleep in radiation sickness were studied. Irradiation of animals causes deepening and prolongation of catatonic state after thioridazine (20 mg/kg), and considerably reduces the mobility of rats after the drug (7 mg/kg). Irradiation increases also the influence of thioridazine (10 mg/kg) on prolongation of sleep after hexobarbital (150 mg/kg). (author)

  11. Pathological findings in the fatal case (the late Mr. Kuboyama) of the radiation sickness caused by Bikini ashes. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, S; Hashimoto, K; Fukushima, N; Tashiro, K; Sugano, H; Mori, W

    1955-01-01

    Autopsy findings and the case history are summarized from a case diagnosed as radiation sickness caused by exposure to fall-out from a thermonuclear explosion. The patient died 207 days following exposure while on a fishing boat said to be located about 100 mi east of Bikini at the time of the explosion. Evidence was also found of a secondary virus hepatitis and aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia.

  12. Disturbance of binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins during acute radiation sickness of different experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Omel'chuk, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    In experiments on different animals a study was made of the effect of total-body γ-irradiation on binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins. It was demonstrated that the increase in the number of physiologically active corticosteroids at the peak of radiation sickness is due to diminution of linking ability of corticosteroid-binding globulin of blood plasma and independent ot the total concentration of hormones in blood which is, evidently, a general radiobiological law

  13. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Daniela, E-mail: d.kraft@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Ritter, Sylvia, E-mail: s.ritter@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco, E-mail: m.durante@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Physics Department, Technical University Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Seifried, Erhard, E-mail: e.seifried@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Fournier, Claudia, E-mail: c.fournier@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonn, Torsten, E-mail: t.tonn@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Med. Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Transfusion Medicine Dresden, German Red Cross Blood Donation Service North-East, Blasewitzer Straße 68/70, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induced formation and transmission of chromosomal aberrations were assessed. • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in human CD34+ HSPC by mFISH. • We report transmission of stable aberrations in irradiated, clonally expanded HSPC. • Unstable aberrations in clonally expanded HSPC occur independently of irradiation. • Carbon ions and X-rays bear a similar risk for propagation of cytogenetic changes. - Abstract: In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34{sup +} cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60–85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼30–35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼70% and

  14. Radioprotective effect of hematopoietic growth factor gene therapy regulated by Egr-1 promoter on radiation injury of SCID mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Nan; Pei Xuetao; Luo Chengji; Su Yongping; Cheng Tianmin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the radioprotective effect of the expression of hematopoietic growth factors regulated by radio-inducible promoter on radiation injury. Methods: The human FL cDNA and EGFP cDNA were linked together with an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and then inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pCI-neo with the Egr-1 promoter (Egr-EF), and further transduced into bone marrow stromal cell lines HFCL (HFCL/EF). The HFCL/EF and CD34 + cells from human umbilical cord blood were transplanted i.v. one after the other into sublethally irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The number of peripheral blood WBC and human cells engrafted in recipient mice were detected by flow cytometry and CFU-GM assay. Results: In contrast to two control groups (HFCL and HFCL/F), HFCL/EF (the Egr-1 regulatory element-driven expression of FL gene therapy) resulted in a proportionally obvious increase in the number of the WBC at early stage after irradiation. Significant differences were found for CD45 + , CD34 + , CFU-GM, and nucleated cells in the bone marrow. Conclusion: Hematopoietic growth factor gene therapy regulated by radio-inducible promoter has radioprotective effect on radiation hematopoietic injury

  15. Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in radiation sickness and its repair under the effect of therapeutic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Silaeva, T.Yu.; Yartsev, E.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of taurin (200mg/kg) in combination with insulin (0.2 IU/kg) on the repair of hormonal activity and of carbohydrate metabolism in an experimentally released radiation sickness was examined. White rats of both sexes weighting 180-200 g were irradiated with a gamma-unit GUM-Co-50 with 700 rad, that corresponds to LDsub(70/30). The preparations were simultaneously administered intraperitoneally every other day altogether 8 times from the 5th day after irradiation. Survival rate in the groups of treated animals was by about 27% higher than in the control. With the administration of therapeutic preparations a repair of the insulin-like plasma activity to the normal levels and a considerable inhibition of liver phosphorylase activity could be observed. Different from insulin action alone a combined use of insulin and taurin led to decrease in blood level of 11-oxycorticosteroids the metabolism of which being essentially impaired by irradiation to the normal value. The restoration of correlation between hormonal activity of adrenal cortex and of the insular apparatus favoured glycogen reproduction in the liver and the decrease in blood-sugar level. Experiments with intact animals as well as in vitro experiments reveal that taurin acts insulin-like

  16. Dose Response for Radiation Cataractogenesis: A Meta-Regression of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Regimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Matthew D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Schultheiss, Timothy E., E-mail: schultheiss@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Smith, David D. [Division of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Nguyen, Khanh H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Bayhealth Cancer Center, Dover, Delaware (United States); Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a meta-regression on published data and to model the 5-year probability of cataract development after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with and without total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: Eligible studies reporting cataract incidence after HSCT with TBI were identified by a PubMed search. Seventeen publications provided complete information on radiation dose schedule, fractionation, dose rate, and actuarial cataract incidence. Chemotherapy-only regimens were included as zero radiation dose regimens. Multivariate meta-regression with a weighted generalized linear model was used to model the 5-year cataract incidence and contributory factors. Results: Data from 1386 patients in 21 series were included for analysis. TBI was administered to a total dose of 0 to 15.75 Gy with single or fractionated schedules with a dose rate of 0.04 to 0.16 Gy/min. Factors significantly associated with 5-year cataract incidence were dose, dose times dose per fraction (D•dpf), pediatric versus adult status, and the absence of an ophthalmologist as an author. Dose rate, graft versus host disease, steroid use, hyperfractionation, and number of fractions were not significant. Five-fold internal cross-validation showed a model validity of 83% ± 8%. Regression diagnostics showed no evidence of lack-of-fit and no patterns in the studentized residuals. The α/β ratio from the linear quadratic model, estimated as the ratio of the coefficients for dose and D•dpf, was 0.76 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-1.55). The odds ratio for pediatric patients was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.7-4.6) relative to adults. Conclusions: Dose, D•dpf, pediatric status, and regimented follow-up care by an ophthalmologist were predictive of 5-year cataract incidence after HSCT. The low α/β ratio indicates the importance of fractionation in reducing cataracts. Dose rate effects have been observed in single institution studies but not in the

  17. Dose Response for Radiation Cataractogenesis: A Meta-Regression of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Matthew D.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Smith, David D.; Nguyen, Khanh H.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a meta-regression on published data and to model the 5-year probability of cataract development after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with and without total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: Eligible studies reporting cataract incidence after HSCT with TBI were identified by a PubMed search. Seventeen publications provided complete information on radiation dose schedule, fractionation, dose rate, and actuarial cataract incidence. Chemotherapy-only regimens were included as zero radiation dose regimens. Multivariate meta-regression with a weighted generalized linear model was used to model the 5-year cataract incidence and contributory factors. Results: Data from 1386 patients in 21 series were included for analysis. TBI was administered to a total dose of 0 to 15.75 Gy with single or fractionated schedules with a dose rate of 0.04 to 0.16 Gy/min. Factors significantly associated with 5-year cataract incidence were dose, dose times dose per fraction (D•dpf), pediatric versus adult status, and the absence of an ophthalmologist as an author. Dose rate, graft versus host disease, steroid use, hyperfractionation, and number of fractions were not significant. Five-fold internal cross-validation showed a model validity of 83% ± 8%. Regression diagnostics showed no evidence of lack-of-fit and no patterns in the studentized residuals. The α/β ratio from the linear quadratic model, estimated as the ratio of the coefficients for dose and D•dpf, was 0.76 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-1.55). The odds ratio for pediatric patients was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.7-4.6) relative to adults. Conclusions: Dose, D•dpf, pediatric status, and regimented follow-up care by an ophthalmologist were predictive of 5-year cataract incidence after HSCT. The low α/β ratio indicates the importance of fractionation in reducing cataracts. Dose rate effects have been observed in single institution studies but not in the

  18. Automyelotherapy efficiency limit in treatment for acute radiation sickness as determined by experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Automyelotherapy is the most effective method for treatment of acute radiation sickness. Therapy with use of frozen long-storage hemopoietic cells owing to their complex procurement and storage may be recommended only to a limited cohort with a high risk for uncontrolled irradiation. Prognosis of substitution therapy outcome is based, firstly, on knowledge of a maximum irradiation dose at which a therapeutic effect is manifested. Such information may be obtained only in experiment. The object of research is to establish the upper limit of irradiation dose at which therapeutic results of automyelotherapy are manifested. Research was performed on guinea pigs irradiated with doses from 5 to 10 Gy. A bone marrow cell suspension was obtained from anesthetizied animals by diaphysis puncture and lavage of 2 tibial bones. An effective therapeutic dose of cells (120 mln) was transplanted which guaranteed 100% survival of animals irradiated with the dose of 8.5 Gy exceeding the minimum absolute lethal dose by 7%. As the irradiation dose was further increased up to 10, 11 and 13 Gy survival of treated animals decreased to 61, 55 and 22% respectively. Although all treated guinea pigs perished after irradiation with the dose of 15 Gy, their life span increased twice as much versus control and reached 9.5 days. Experimental data have confirmed that there is a limit of automyelotherapy efficacy. In the described experiment, it amounted to 15 Gy. The analysis of dose-effect'' relationship in treated and control animals has demonstrated DRF being equal to 1.8. This index characterizes the maximum therapeutic result of automyelotherapy. (author)

  19. Phenotypic and Functional Changes Induced in Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells After Gamma-Ray Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonnet, A.J.; Nehme, J.; Leboulch, Ph.; Tronik-Le Roux, D. [Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Functional Bioengineering Laboratory, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Evry (France); Simonnet, A.J.; Nehme, J.; Leboulch, Ph.; Tronik-Le Roux, D. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U733 (Unite Mixte de Recherche) - UMR INSERM CEA Paris XI (France); Vaigot, P. [Institute of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Genetic Instability, Recombination and Repair, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Vaigot, P. [UMR 217, UMR-CEA-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France); Barroca, V. [Laboratory of Gametogenesis, Apoptosis, Genotoxicity, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Biology, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Barroca, V. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U566 - UMR INSERM-CEA-PARIS VII (France); Leboulch, Ph. [Genetics Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (US)

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure causes rapid and acute bone marrow (BM) suppression that is reversible for nonlethal doses. Evidence is accumulating that IR can also provoke long-lasting residual hematopoietic injury. To better understand these effects, we analyzed phenotypic and functional changes in the stem/progenitor compartment of irradiated mice over a 10-week period. We found that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) identified by their repopulating ability continued to segregate within the Hoechst dye excluding 'side population (SP)' early after IR exposure. However, transient phenotypic changes were observed within this cell population: Sca-1 (S) and c-Kit (K) expression levels were increased and severely reduced, respectively, with a concurrent increase in the proportion of SPSK cells positive for established indicators of the presence of HSCs: CD150 and CD105. Ten weeks after IR exposure, expression of Sca-1 and c-Kit at the SP cell surface returned to control levels, and BM cellularity of irradiated mice was restored. However, the c-Kit{sup +}Sca-1{sup +}Lin{sup -/low} (KSL) stem/progenitor compartment displayed major phenotypic modifications, including an increase and a severe decrease in the frequencies of CD150{sup +}Flk2{sup -} and CD150{sup -}Flk2{sup +} cells, respectively. CD150{sup +} KSL cells also showed impaired reconstituting ability, an increased tendency to apoptosis, and accrued DNA damage. Finally, 15 weeks after exposure, irradiated mice, but not age matched controls, allowed engraftment and significant hematopoietic contribution from transplanted con-genic HSCs without additional host conditioning. These results provide novel insight in our understanding of immediate and delayed IR-induced hematopoietic injury and highlight similarities between HSCs of young irradiated and old mice. (authors)

  20. Phenotypic and Functional Changes Induced in Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells After Gamma-Ray Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, A.J.; Nehme, J.; Leboulch, Ph.; Tronik-Le Roux, D.; Simonnet, A.J.; Nehme, J.; Leboulch, Ph.; Tronik-Le Roux, D.; Vaigot, P.; Vaigot, P.; Barroca, V.; Barroca, V.; Leboulch, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure causes rapid and acute bone marrow (BM) suppression that is reversible for nonlethal doses. Evidence is accumulating that IR can also provoke long-lasting residual hematopoietic injury. To better understand these effects, we analyzed phenotypic and functional changes in the stem/progenitor compartment of irradiated mice over a 10-week period. We found that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) identified by their repopulating ability continued to segregate within the Hoechst dye excluding 'side population (SP)' early after IR exposure. However, transient phenotypic changes were observed within this cell population: Sca-1 (S) and c-Kit (K) expression levels were increased and severely reduced, respectively, with a concurrent increase in the proportion of SPSK cells positive for established indicators of the presence of HSCs: CD150 and CD105. Ten weeks after IR exposure, expression of Sca-1 and c-Kit at the SP cell surface returned to control levels, and BM cellularity of irradiated mice was restored. However, the c-Kit + Sca-1 + Lin -/low (KSL) stem/progenitor compartment displayed major phenotypic modifications, including an increase and a severe decrease in the frequencies of CD150 + Flk2 - and CD150 - Flk2 + cells, respectively. CD150 + KSL cells also showed impaired reconstituting ability, an increased tendency to apoptosis, and accrued DNA damage. Finally, 15 weeks after exposure, irradiated mice, but not age matched controls, allowed engraftment and significant hematopoietic contribution from transplanted con-genic HSCs without additional host conditioning. These results provide novel insight in our understanding of immediate and delayed IR-induced hematopoietic injury and highlight similarities between HSCs of young irradiated and old mice. (authors)

  1. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on the hematopoietic niche and treatment of acute radiation syndrome by gene therapy in highly-irradiated monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrigou, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The hematopoietic stem cell niche represents a complex radiosensitive compartment whose protection is required for recovery from radiation-induced myelosuppression. We initially studied RI effects on endothelial and mesenchymal progenitors by an evaluating radiosensitivity and cell death. Then, we have proposed a new gene therapy strategy based on local and short term secretion of Sonic hedgehog morphogen to favour vascular niche repair and to stimulate residual hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We investigated the hematopoietic response of 8-Gy gamma irradiated monkeys to a single intra-osseous injection of xenogeneic multipotent mesenchymal stem cells transduced with a Shh pIRES2 plasmid. Thrombocytopenia and neutropenia duration were significantly reduced in grafted animals and clonogenics normalized from day 42. Areas under the curve of PLTs and ANCs between day 0 and day 30 were significantly higher in treated animals than in controls. Grafting Matrigel TM colonized or not with ASC in immunocompromised mice demonstrated a notable pro-angiogenic activity for Shh-ASC. Long term follow up (180-300 days) confirmed a durable recovery in the four grafted monkeys. Globally this study suggests that grafting Shh-multipotent stem cells may represent a new strategy to cure radiation-induced niche damage. (author)

  3. Effects of different 137Cs γ radiation dose on mouse hematopoietic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yueying; Wu Hongying; Li Deguan; Wang Xiaochun; Song Naling; Lu Lu; Zhang Junling; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effects of different dose of radiation on the mouse's hematopoietic system. Methods: Mice of 615 strain, ICR strain and IRM-2 strain were given a one-time 4.0 Gy total body irradiation,and then the changes of peripheral white blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) among those mice were observed at different time points. Mice of IRM-2 and C57BL/6 were given a one-time 6.0 Gy total body irradiation and the changes of peripheral hematological between the two strains were observed forty-five days after irradiation. Results: Two days after irradiation,white blood cell and BMNC counts decreased to the lowest level in all the mice of 615 strain, ICR strain and IRM-2 strain. During the following days,white blood cell and BMNC counts raised again. Nine days after irradiation, BMNC count in IRM-2 mice was significantly higher than that in 615 and ICR mice (t=3.725, P<0.01; t=8.487, P<0.001). Twelve days after irradiation,white blood cell count in IRM-2 mice was significantly higher than that in the 615 and ICR mice (t=4.811 and 4.302, both P <0.001). Twenty-one days after irradiation,compared to the control group,white blood cell count was recovered to 52.0%, 60.7% and 50.8% of the normal range in IRM-2, ICR and 615 mice separately and BMNC count was recovered to 90.8%, 82.1%, 75.4% of the normal range in IRM-2, ICR and 615 mice separately. Forty-five days after 6.0 Gy irradiation,white blood cell, BMNC, hemoglobin and hematocrit counts in IRM-2 mice were significantly higher than those indexes in C57BL/6 strain (t=5.629, 7.788, 4.9289, 6.064, all P<0.001). Compared to the control group, white blood cells, red blood cells,hemoglobin and hematocrit were recovered to 75.0%, 98.9%, 98.7%, and 97.5% of the normal range separately in IRM-2 mice. And white blood cells, red blood cells,hemoglobin and hematocrit were recovered to 40.6%, 93.8%, 93.3%, and 93.8% of the normal range separately in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion: There are similar

  4. Changes in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psycholeptic drugs in radiation-sickness. Effect of X-ray radiation on pharmacodynamic activity of nitrazepam in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinska, K.; Chodera, A.; Wojciak, Z.; Kozaryn, I.

    1975-01-01

    The anticonvulsive effect of nitrazepam was determined in animals exposed to a single 600 R radiation and the exploring activity of the animals was studied after nitrazepam administered during radiation sickness caused by this exposure. On the 1st day after exposure the activity, reducing effect was slightly weaker but on days 3rd and 6th this effect was significantly stronger. The anticonvulsant effect of nitrazepam on the 3rd day after exposure was significantly greater as compared with control animals, but on the 6th day no difference in the power of anticonvulsant activity between the two groups of animals was found. (author)

  5. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D. A.; Khomenko, V. I.; Bebeshko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  6. Mathematical model of cellular kinetics in long term marrow culture with specific application to the effect of ionizing radiation on the hematopoietic microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, an in vitro system for the culturing of hematopoietic stem cells and precursor cells over extended time periods has been developed. It has been clearly demonstrated that these cultures are supporting ongoing hematopoiesis, which makes them an ideal model system for investigating questions relating to both normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. The most easily measured aspect of this culture system is its ongoing production of hematopoietic cells which are recoverable at weekly culture feedings. The current study develops a mathematical model of the production of cells in these cultures and then applies that model in the form of a computer simulation to several experimental protocols, particularly those involving the exposure of the culture system to ionizing radiation. Extensive experimental testing is described, which verifies the validity of the mathematical description presented, and further supports the hypothesis of a radiation insensitive hematopoietic microenvironment

  7. In vitro and in vivo assessment of direct effects of simulated solar and galactic cosmic radiation on human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, C; Almeida-Porada, G; George, S K; Moon, J; Soker, S; Pardee, T; Beaty, M; Guida, P; Sajuthi, S P; Langefeld, C D; Walker, S J; Wilson, P F; Porada, C D

    2017-06-01

    Future deep space missions to Mars and near-Earth asteroids will expose astronauts to chronic solar energetic particles (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation, and likely one or more solar particle events (SPEs). Given the inherent radiosensitivity of hematopoietic cells and short latency period of leukemias, space radiation-induced hematopoietic damage poses a particular threat to astronauts on extended missions. We show that exposing human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC) to extended mission-relevant doses of accelerated high-energy protons and iron ions leads to the following: (1) introduces mutations that are frequently located within genes involved in hematopoiesis and are distinct from those induced by γ-radiation; (2) markedly reduces in vitro colony formation; (3) markedly alters engraftment and lineage commitment in vivo; and (4) leads to the development, in vivo, of what appears to be T-ALL. Sequential exposure to protons and iron ions (as typically occurs in deep space) proved far more deleterious to HSC genome integrity and function than either particle species alone. Our results represent a critical step for more accurately estimating risks to the human hematopoietic system from space radiation, identifying and better defining molecular mechanisms by which space radiation impairs hematopoiesis and induces leukemogenesis, as well as for developing appropriately targeted countermeasures.

  8. Probable reasons for the lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness accompanied by combination of radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, R.S.; Ul'yanova, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanism underlying a lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness in the case of combined radiation and thermal injuries are studied. Experiments were carried out on mice. Animals had been subjected to either a 3B degree thermal burn covering 10% of the body surface or a single whole body gamma-irradiation of 7 Gy dose or a combined injury (radiation exposure + burn), and changes of the blood serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were investigated by means of ELISA kits. Modifying influence of remedies for early therapy (a synthetic analogue of dicorynomycolate trehalose and a preparation based on killed Lacobacillus acidophilus) on the endogenous serum level of IL-6 and on the 30-day survival was evaluated. In accordance with the degree and duration of increased levels of IL-6 in blood serum, the investigated groups of animals were ranged as follows: combined action > burn only > irradiation only. L. acidophilus based preparation rendered a transient modifying action on the IL-6 level at the combined injury and contributed to increasing the 30-day survival. Lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness may be associated with too excessive levels of IL-6 in the blood serum [ru

  9. The potential benefits of nicaraven to protect against radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with relative low dose exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Haytham [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Galal, Omima [Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Luo, Lan [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Abdelrahim, Eman [Department of Medical Histology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Ono, Yusuke [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Mostafa, Emtethal [Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Li, Tao-Sheng, E-mail: litaoshe@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Nicaraven mitigated the radiation-induced reduction of c-kit{sup +} stem cells. • Nicaraven enhanced the function of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. • Complex mechanisms involved in the protection of nicaraven to radiation injury. - Abstract: Nicaraven, a hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger has been demonstrated to attenuate radiation injury in hematopoietic stem cells with 5 Gy γ-ray exposures. We explored the effect and related mechanisms of nicaraven for protecting radiation injury induced by sequential exposures to a relatively lower dose γ-ray. C57BL/6 mice were given nicaraven or placebo within 30 min before exposure to 50 mGy γ-ray daily for 30 days in sequences (cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy). Mice were victimized 24 h after the last radiation exposure, and the number, function and oxidative stress of hematopoietic stem cells were quantitatively estimated. We also compared the gene expression in these purified stem cells from mice received nicaraven and placebo treatment. Nicaraven increased the number of c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood, with a recovery rate around 60–90% of age-matched non-irradiated healthy mice. The potency of colony forming from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as indicator of function was completely protected with nicaraven treatment. Furthermore, nicaraven treatment changed the expression of many genes associated to DNA repair, inflammatory response, and immunomodulation in c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. Nicaraven effectively protected against damages of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells induced by sequential exposures to a relatively low dose radiation, via complex mechanisms.

  10. The potential benefits of nicaraven to protect against radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with relative low dose exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Haytham; Galal, Omima; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Luo, Lan; Abdelrahim, Eman; Ono, Yusuke; Mostafa, Emtethal; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nicaraven mitigated the radiation-induced reduction of c-kit + stem cells. • Nicaraven enhanced the function of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. • Complex mechanisms involved in the protection of nicaraven to radiation injury. - Abstract: Nicaraven, a hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger has been demonstrated to attenuate radiation injury in hematopoietic stem cells with 5 Gy γ-ray exposures. We explored the effect and related mechanisms of nicaraven for protecting radiation injury induced by sequential exposures to a relatively lower dose γ-ray. C57BL/6 mice were given nicaraven or placebo within 30 min before exposure to 50 mGy γ-ray daily for 30 days in sequences (cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy). Mice were victimized 24 h after the last radiation exposure, and the number, function and oxidative stress of hematopoietic stem cells were quantitatively estimated. We also compared the gene expression in these purified stem cells from mice received nicaraven and placebo treatment. Nicaraven increased the number of c-kit + stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood, with a recovery rate around 60–90% of age-matched non-irradiated healthy mice. The potency of colony forming from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as indicator of function was completely protected with nicaraven treatment. Furthermore, nicaraven treatment changed the expression of many genes associated to DNA repair, inflammatory response, and immunomodulation in c-kit + stem/progenitor cells. Nicaraven effectively protected against damages of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells induced by sequential exposures to a relatively low dose radiation, via complex mechanisms

  11. Macroarray analysis of gene expression in hematopoietic tissues from mice continuously irradiated by low dose-rate ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Mikio; Nakamura, Shingo; Shirata, Katsutoshi; Yanai, Takanori; Izumi, Jun; Sugihara, Takashi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kimio; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We found that the number of hematopoietic progenitor cells in bone marrow and spleen from 4 - 8 Gy-irradiated mice decreased about 50%, in spite of no change in the number of peripheral blood cells. To evaluate the effects of chronic irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the gene expression in mice hematopoietic cells from bone marrow and spleen, the RNA expressions of more than 500 genes such as cytokine genes and oncogenes were measured on the membranes by the RNA macroarray analysis method at accumulated doses at 4.7 and 8 Gy in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C3H/HeN female mice irradiated by {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays with the dose rate of 20 mGy/day. The RNA macroarray analysis in spleens from 8 Gy-irradiated mice showed that the expressions in 16 genes including noggin were more than 1.5 times larger than that of control, while those in 64 genes including shh (sonic hedgehog) and BMP-4 (bone morphogenesis protein 4) were more than 1.5 times smaller than that of control. (author)

  12. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  13. Effect of low dose radiation on expression of hematopoietic growth factors secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan; Wang Guanjun; Zhu Jingyan; Wang Juan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of hematopoietic growth factors secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow (BM-MSC) pretreated with low dose radiation (LDR). Methods: The cultured P4 and P5 BM-MSCs were exposed to X rays at the doses of 50, 75 and 100 mGy (dose rate 12.5 mGy·min -1 ). The changes of levels of stem cell factor (SCF), IL-6, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted by BM- MSCs pretreated with LDR were determined by ELISA method. Results: As compared with control group at the same time, the levels of SCF in experimental group had a tendency of increasing after 24 h and 48 h radiation, but only in 75 mGy group the SCF level was obviously increased (P<0.05). The levels of IL-6 in 50 and 75 mGy groups at 24 h and 48 h, in 100 mGy group at 24 h were obviously increased compared with control group (P< 0.05). The levels of M-CSF in all the groups at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h except for the 50 mGy dose at 72 h were also increased (P<0.05), it increased markedly in 75 mGy dose group at 72 h. Conclusion: LDR has hormesis effect on BM-MSCs. After LDR, the BM-MSCs grow faster and in a certain phase the expression levels of hematopoietic growth factors are increased. (authors)

  14. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 10 8 /kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  15. Therapeutic effect of rhIL-11 administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jing; Luo Qingliang; Xiong Guolin; Liu Xiaolan; Qiu Liling; Chen Guozhi; Huang Ying; Ge Ping; Geng Yu; Sun Liansheng; Dong Bo; Li Yuanmin; Chen Wangqiu; Shen Chun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The author describes the therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in monkeys. Methods: Rhesus monkeys irradiated with 3.0 Gy 60 Co γ rays were divided into 3 groups. One group was the control administered with vehicle, the second one was subjected to administer rhIL-11 on days 0-13 after TBI (60 μg·kg -1 ·d -1 , sc) and the third one to administer rhIL-11 on days 13-26 after TBI at the same doses. Results: The early treated group had higher platelet nadirs compared with that of the other two. The duration of platelet and leukocyte numbers below 50% of their baseline values shortened significantly in animals treated with rhIL-11, especially in the early treated group. During the first week after irradiation, the early treated group had lower erythrocyte count compared with the control, but it began to rise at day 19 after irradiation. Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture demonstrated that rhIL-11 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-MK, CFU-Mix, CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM in vitro. The authors also got the same results in histopathological observation. Conclusion: rhIL-11 administered at different times can not only accelerate the haematopoietic recovery of acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys, but also result in better therapeutic effect when administered earlier

  16. Physical working ability in persons who survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident (the data of 16-year follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, O.M.; Byilij, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable reduction in physical working ability (PWA) in persons who survived acute radiation sickness in the early period is chiefly caused by negative influence of ionizing radiation and is not determined by the degree of severity of bone-marrow syndrome. Further restoration of PWA does not occur which can be explained by development of neurosomatic pathology against a background of age-related changes in the organs and systems of the victims

  17. Radioresistant canine hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, T.G.; Shimizu, J.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Goldman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Survival of dogs that are continuously exposed to a moderate dose-rate of gamma radiation (10 cGy/day) is dependent on the age of the dog at the time of exposure. Most dogs exposed postpartum to gamma radiation suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and died of aplasia. On the other hand, none of the in utero-exposed dogs suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and most became long-term survivors, tolerating 10-fold greater total dose, but dying of myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Using acute gamma irradiation of hematopoietic cells and colony forming unit cell assay (CFU), they observed that a canine hematopoietic cell line established from a myeloid leukemic dog that was a long-term survivor of continuous irradiation was approximately 4-fold more radioresistant than a hematopoietic cell line established from a dog with nonradiation-induced myeloid leukemia or hematopoietic cells from normal canine bone marrow. In utero dogs that are long-term survivors of continuous irradiation have radioresistant hematopoietic cells, and radioresistance that is a constitutive property of the cells

  18. Clustered DNA damages induced in human hematopoietic cells by low doses of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Betsy M.; Bennett, Paula V.; Cintron-Torres, Nela; Hada, Megumi; Trunk, John; Monteleone, Denise; Sutherland, John C.; Laval, Jacques; Stanislaus, Marisha; Gewirtz, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces clusters of DNA damages--oxidized bases, abasic sites and strand breaks--on opposing strands within a few helical turns. Such damages have been postulated to be difficult to repair, as are double strand breaks (one type of cluster). We have shown that low doses of low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induce such damage clusters in human cells. In human cells, DSB are about 30% of the total of complex damages, and the levels of DSBs and oxidized pyrimidine clusters are similar. The dose responses for cluster induction in cells can be described by a linear relationship, implying that even low doses of ionizing radiation can produce clustered damages. Studies are in progress to determine whether clusters can be produced by mechanisms other than ionizing radiation, as well as the levels of various cluster types formed by low and high LET radiation.

  19. Umbelliferone suppresses radiation induced DNA damage and apoptosis in hematopoietic cells of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Bhilwade, H.N.; Chaubey, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the major modes of treatment for different types of cancers. But the success of radiotherapy is limited by injury to the normal cells. Protection of the normal cells from radiation damage by radioprotectors can increase therapeutic efficiency. These radioprotectors can also be used during nuclear emergency situations. Umbelliferone (UMB) is a wide spread natural product of the coumarin family. It occurs in many plants from the Apiaceae family. In the present study radioprotective effect of UMB was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Anti genotoxic effect of Umbelliferone was tested by treating the splenic lymphocytes with various doses of UMB (6.5 μM - 50 μM) prior to radiation (6Gy) exposure. After the radiation exposure, extent of DNA damage was assessed by comet assay at 5 mm and two hours after radiation exposure. At both the time points, it was observed that the pretreatment of UMB reduced the radiation induced DNA damage to a significant extent in comparison to radiation control. UMB pretreatment also significantly reduced the radiation induced apoptosis enumerated by propidium iodide staining assay. Results of clonogenic survival assay using intestinal cell line showed that pretreatment with UMB significantly protected against radiation induced loss of colony forming units. To assess the anti genotoxic role of umbelliferone in vivo two different doses of UMB (20 mg/Kg and 40 mg/Kg of body weight) were injected into Swiss mice or with vehicle and exposed to radiation. Thirty minutes after the radiation comet assay was performed in peripheral leukocytes. Frequency of micro nucleated erythrocytes was scored in bone marrow cells. It was observed that UMB alone did not cause any significant increase in DNA damage in comparison to control. Animals which are exposed to radiation alone showed significant increase in DNA damage and micronuclei frequency. But animals treated with UMB prior to the radiation exposure showed significant decrease

  20. Effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.-P.; Cheng, T.-M.; Guo, C.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Qu, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To observe the effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury, burn injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Methods Rats were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy γ-ray of 60Co, combined with 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) generated under a 5 KW bromo-tungsten lamp for 25 s. Lavage fluid from the peritoneum was collected 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury. Then the lavage fluid was added to the culture media of erythrocyte progenitor cells (CFU-E, BFE-E) or of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) at 40 mg/ml final concentration. Results The formed clones of CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM of the lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury or combined radiation-burn injury at 3h, 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h time points were significantly higher than those from normal. They reached their peaks at 24h after injury (215.7%, 202.3%, or 241.2% from burned rats and 188.1%, 202.3% or 204.6% from rats inflected with combined radiation-burn injury as compared with those from normal rats). However, few CFU-E, BFU-E or CFU-GM clones were found after addition of lavage fluid from irradiated rats. Conclusion Peritoneal lavage fluid from rats with burn injury or combined radiation-burn injury enhances the growth of erythrocytes and granulocyte progenitor cells. On the contrary, the lavage fluid from irradiated rats shows inhibitory effects

  1. Principles of medical rehabilitation of survivors of acute radiation sickness induced by gamma and beta and gumma and neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Sachkov, A.V.; Rtisheva, J.N.; Uvatcheva, I.V.; Filin, S.V. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the principles of medical rehabilitation different degree acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors, who exposed {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-irradiation in different radiation accidents. The main reasons of working disability in the late consequences of ARS period are consequences of local radiation injures (LRI) and joining somatic diseases. Its revealing and treatment considerably improves quality of life of the patients. The heaviest consequence of LRI of a skin at {gamma}{beta}- radiation exposure is the development of late radiation ulcers and radiation fibrosis, which require repeated plastic surgery. LRI at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure differ by the greater depth of destruction of a underlying tissues and similar defects require the early amputations. Last 10 years microsurgery methods of plastic surgery allow to save more large segments of extremities and to decrease expression of the late consequences (radiation fibrosis and late radiation ulcers) LRI severe and extremely severe degrees. Medical rehabilitation of radiation cataract (development at doses more than 2.0 Gy) includes its extraction and artificial lens implantation, if acuity of vision is considerably decreased. Changes of peripheral blood, observed at the period of the long consequences, as a rule, different, moderate, transient and not requiring treatment. Only one ARS survivor dead from chronic myeloid leukemia. Thyroid nodes, not requiring operative intervention, are found out in Chernobyl survivors. Within the time course the concurrent somatic disease become the major importance for patients disability growth, which concurrent diseases seem to be unrelated to radiation dose and their structure does not differ from that found in general public of Russia. The rehabilitation of the persons who have transferred ARS as a result of radiating failure, should be directed on restoration of functions critical for ionizing of radiation of bodies and

  2. Single thrombopoietin dose alleviates hematopoietic stem cells intrinsic short- and long-term ionizing radiation damage. In vivo identification of anatomical cell expansion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronik-Le Roux, Diana; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Vaigot, Pierre; Nurden, Paquita

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are essential for maintaining the integrity of complex and long-lived organisms. HSC, which are self-renewing, reconstitute the hematopoietic system through out life and facilitate long-term repopulation of myeloablated recipients. We have previously demonstrated that when mice are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, subsets of the stem/progenitor compartment are affected. In this study we examine the role of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the regenerative capacities of HSC after irradiation and report the first demonstration of efficacy of a single injection of TPO shortly after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation for reducing HSC injury and improving their functional outcome. Our results demonstrate that TPO treatment not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells but also induced a significant modification of their intrinsic characteristics. These findings were supported by transplantation assays with long-term HSC that were irradiated or unirradiated, TPO treated or untreated, in CD45.1/CD45.2 systems and by using luciferase-labeled HSC for direct bioluminescence imaging in living animals. Of particular importance, our data demonstrate the skull to be a highly favorable site for the TPO-induced emergence of hematopoietic cells after irradiation, suggesting a TPO-mediated relationship of primitive hematopoietic cells to an anatomical component. Together, the data presented here: provide novel findings about aspects of TPO action on stem cells, open new areas of investigation for therapeutic options in patients who are treated with radiation therapy, and show that early administration of a clinically suitable TPO-agonist counteracts the previously observed adverse effects.

  3. Consequences and outcomes of chronic radiation sickness induced by external γ-rays(50 years of clinical follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, Nadezhda D.; Sumina, Margarita V.; Pesternikova, Valentina S.

    2002-01-01

    Health was analyzed for 673 workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. These nuclear workers had CRS induced by external overall exposure to γ -rays in high doses (total, 1.0-9.76 Gy). The study was focused on evaluation of the post-exposure recovery in most radiosensitive systems and organs, consequences and outcomes of chronic radiation sickness (CRS). The complex evaluation of peripheral blood data and results of bone marrow studies revealed a moderately pronounced bone marrow hypoplasia for 2% of cases and partial hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis for 4.9% of cases (most patients aged over 70). The changes were clinically compensated and did not require any special treatment. Chromosome aberrations in somatic cells are still indicators of radiation past-exposures; their frequency has a correlation with total dose and 239 Pu incorporation. No high incidence of complications such as cerebrovasciular diseases (CVD) was revealed for CRS patients with high doses (total dose exceeded 4.0 Gy, maximum annual dose exceeded 2.0 Gy) and clinical symptoms of the early (up to 45 years) cerebral atherosclerosis (CAS). The retrospective analysis of clinical data for 370 CRS cases registered during 1950-60ss among workers with lower doses indicated that the moderately pronounced symptoms of CRS were formed at dose not less than 1.4 Gy accumulated during the first 1-2 years of work and annual dose, 0.73 Gy. Cardiovascular diseases prevailed followed by malignant neoplasms in the structure of death causes during 50 years of follow-up. Presented results for the cohort of individuals exposed in high doses can be used in health examination of those, who were involved in radiation accidents or exposure incidents

  4. Proliferative compensation of residual radiation damage in the compartment of hematopoietic early progenitor cells of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.E.; Wangenheim, K.H. von; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of cell entry from the compartment of hematopoietic early progenitor cells into differentiation was determined in sublethally irradiated mice. By use of the criterion of repopulating ability, transplantation of 5-( 125 I) iodo-2'-deoxyuridine labeled bone marrow cells into fatally irradiated syngeneic recipients allows to measure the relative number of early progenitor cells lodging in the spleen and the turnover of these cells in the donors. Following 450 rad the relative number of transplantable early progenitor cells in S-phase recovers to normal within 2 weeks and stabilizes after 5 weeks. At this time, the labeled progenitors turn over with a half-time of 1.4-2.2 days; the respective times for unirradiated mice are 1.5-1.8 days. This, quantitative and qualitative residual radiation damage that is known to exist in the compartment of CFU-S, is disguised within 2-5 weeks after irradiation by proliferative compensation in the entirety of early hemopoietic precursor cells which are here defined by their capacity of selfrenewal and delivery of differentiated cells and of seeding to spleens of lethally irradiated recipients. (orig.)

  5. Dynamic characteristics of serum bioluminescence in dogs with bone marrow radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Douwan

    1990-01-01

    A theory of competition between biological light and heat, the principle of shift of serum peak and valley and the shift constant ( -0.333) are proposed. The principle of shift of peak and valley may be used as a simple, quick and accurate method for the classification of radiation dose in nuclear accident

  6. Special investigations of hemoglobin in the dynamics of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravko, B.J.; Panasyuk, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of penetrating radiation into the UV, visible and IR spectra of hemoglobin obtained from guinea-pigs being irradiated by the 300 and 600 cGy doses is studied. The change of the absorption intensity in the range of 275 nm of aqueous hemoglobin solutions depending on the stage and duration of the radiation pathology is revealed. The displacement of amide absorption bands into a shorter area of hemoglobin fluctuations frequencies of irradiated animals in the period from the 1 to 19-th day after the irradiation by the 300 cGy dose and during the whole period of the acute radiation pathology after the irradiation by the 600 cGy dose is established by the use of the IR-spectroscopy method. For the relative quantitative estimation of the denaturized hemoglobins by radiation, radiotoxins and by other physical and chemical factors, one suggests to use the formulas of the hem optical density relation coefficient to the globin optical density

  7. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  8. Pre-administration of safe exogenous substance minimizes radiation induced bone-marrow aplsia which may otherwise lead to hematopoietic disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manju Lata; Verma, Savita; Ranjan, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Radiation induces injuries to biological system primarily by producing free radicals and also by directly interacting with cellular entities. In irradiated animals hematopoietic system gets severely affected leading to inactive microenvironment, damaged blood vessels and non functional endothelial cells of the marrow. Vascular damage inhibits the efficacy of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of fibroblast further contribute to the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. Various findings have revealed the occurrence of radiation induced aplasia and vascular damage cause large number of RBCs occupying the space and intrusion of fibrotic cells in the marrow of irradiated mice. Administration of effective radioprotective agents prior to irradiation has been amply reported for significant decline in the grade of vascular damage and inclusion of marrow fibrous tissues in these animals. In addition the formulations have also shown the presence stem cell population which is efficient to proliferate, differentiate and ultimately enrich bone marrow cellularity within 25-40 days depending on type of radiation and its dose and dose rate. Protection to bone marrow is multi-factorial phenomenon out of which inhibition of radiation induced free radical generation has been recognized as the key factor but essentially not the lone one. Protection to colony forming ability of bone marrow is also critically important which occurs mainly due to DNA protection and up-regulation of repair pathways. Preservation of microenvironment for providing stem cells to remain functional is lately reported as equally prominent factor. Our studies on a combination of two compounds of natural origin, administered to lethally irradiated animals have shown recovery in stem/precursor cells of all hematopoietic lineages. Major entities related to hematopoietic system were found nearly 90% recovered within 30 days. Current talk is focused

  9. Remote effects in treated dogs survived acute radiation sickness. Hemodynamics at various times after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostesha, N.Ya.; Lopukhova, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Dogs were exposed to X-radiation at a dose of 15 Gy; part of them received a complex treatment. The morphological of internal organs of control dogs were made before death (on days 4 to 15 after irradiation). The treated dogs were killed 0.5-2 years following irradiation. Hemodynamics normalization was noted in 1.5-2 years in the liver, brain cortex, adrenals, insular tissue of the pancreas, and lymph nodes

  10. Analysis of Chronic Radiation Sickness Cases in the Population of the Southern Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    manufacturing plant. She usually felt very tired by the end of her work- day. Her medical history included flu, parotitis, measles, scarlet fever , and...childhood. He had typhoid fever at the berg et al. [271, external radiation at the patient’s age of 17 and malaria at the age of 22. The onset of...introduced for natural 40K radioactivity. With the ena ( petechial skin eruption, hemorihages into the deduction of this value, the net activity of beta

  11. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  12. Morning sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not predict how you will feel in future pregnancies. Causes The exact cause of morning sickness is unknown. It may be caused by hormone changes or lower blood sugar during early pregnancy. Emotional stress, fatigue, traveling, or some foods can ...

  13. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Revskaya, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD 90/45 [ru

  14. The effect of non-steroid antiphlogistics on the course of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchelkova, L.; Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.

    1998-01-01

    A number of new non-steroid antiphlogistics have been synthesized recently with a view to reducing their side effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Among them is a derivative of one of conventional antiphlogistics, flurbiprofen 4-nitroxybutyl ester, from which nitrogen oxide (NO) is released in the gastrointestinal tract. NO has a protective effect on the mucous membrane. Experiments gave evidence that this modification of the flurbiprofen molecule does not bring about reduction of the stimulating effect on the post-irradiation recovery of blood formation. Owing to its low toxicity towards the gastrointestinal tract, flurbiprofen 4-nitroxybutyl ester appears to be a promising drug for protection against radiation-induced myelosuppression

  15. Effect of radiation sickness on the progress and treatment of mechanical and thermal injuries. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K

    1964-04-01

    It has been estimated that 70 or 75% of persons exposed to atomic weapons would suffer mechanical and thermal injuries, and that 30% receive radiation injuries. Of the total persons injured, 75% would suffer combinations of these injuries. As a result the various injurious agents, complexes of injury conditions, would be observed. These include leukopenia and impaired resistance to infection, shortened delay in appearance o irradiation symptoms, intensified evidence of shock, and an increased tendency toward hemorrhage, with increased sensitivity to blood loss. The author discusses a wide range of general and specific medical procedures and drugs that can be used to treat and support recovery of persons with combined radiation and mechanical or thermal injuries. Some general treatment procedures include absolute isolation and rest, special dietetic supplementation, strict medical supervision to prevent acute hemorrhage or circulatory failure, and parenteral administration of fluids. Other special measures include treatment of the primary reactions to injury by antihistamines, sedatives, antibiotics, hormones, support of circulation, blood transfusions, etc.

  16. Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in γ-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M.; El-Shebly, Abdallah A.; Pan, Deyu; Assanah, Edward; Lawson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against γ-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to γ-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to γ-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  17. 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol Promotes Recovery of Immature Hematopoietic Cells Following Myelosuppressive Radiation and Synergizes With Thrombopoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts-Kaya, Fatima S.F.; Visser, Trudi P.; Arshad, Shazia [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Frincke, James; Stickney, Dwight R.; Reading, Chris L. [Harbor Therapeutics, Inc, San Diego, California (United States); Wagemaker, Gerard, E-mail: g.wagemaker@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol (5-AED) stimulates recovery of hematopoiesis after exposure to radiation. To elucidate its cellular targets, the effects of 5-AED alone and in combination with (pegylated) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and thrombopoietin (TPO) on immature hematopoietic progenitor cells were evaluated following total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were exposed to radiation delivered as a single or as a fractionated dose, and recovery of bone marrow progenitors and peripheral blood parameters was assessed. Results: BALB/c mice treated with 5-AED displayed accelerated multilineage blood cell recovery and elevated bone marrow (BM) cellularity and numbers of progenitor cells. The spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) assay, representing the life-saving short-term repopulating cells in BM of irradiated donor mice revealed that combined treatment with 5-AED plus TPO resulted in a 20.1-fold increase in CFU-S relative to that of placebo controls, and a 3.7 and 3.1-fold increase in comparison to 5-AED and TPO, whereas no effect was seen of Peg-G-CSF with or without 5-AED. Contrary to TPO, 5-AED also stimulated reconstitution of the more immature marrow repopulating (MRA) cells. Conclusions: 5-AED potently counteracts the hematopoietic effects of radiation-induced myelosuppression and promotes multilineage reconstitution by stimulating immature bone marrow cells in a pattern distinct from, but synergistic with TPO.

  18. Chronic radiation-induced leukemogenesis: alterations of hematopoietic progenitor repair functions during preclinical phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Grdina, D.J.; Frazier, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic exposure to low daily doses of whole-body gamma irradiation elicits a high incidence of myeloid leukemia (ML) and related myeloproliferative diseases (MPD) in beagles. Previously, the authors identified and partially characterized a four-phase sequence of evolving MPD as a consequence of chronic radiation exposure. With a focus on preclinical alterations in granulocyte/monocyte-committed stem cells, they have identified two critical events in the process: (i) an early event, involving the coupling of acquired radioresistance of the stem cell with renewed proliferative capacity; and (ii) a late event, involving acquired autocrine functions and associated change in stem cell clonality. In terms of the early event, repair-associated parameters are currently being examined on the cellular level by both split-dose and low dose-rate-type assays with survival enhancement used as the measured end point. On the molecular level, these parameters are examined by microfluorometric alkaline elution assays with DNA damage and repair used as end points

  19. Protection of radiation-induced damage to the hematopoietic system, small intestine and salivary glands in rats by JNJ7777120 compound, a histamine H4 ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Martinel Lamas

    Full Text Available Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose of 5 Gy on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed 3 or 30 days after irradiation. Tissues were removed, fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin or PAS staining and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferative and apoptotic markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Submandibular gland (SMG function was evaluated by methacholine-induced salivation. Results indicate that JNJ7777120 treatment diminished mucosal atrophy and preserved villi and the number of crypts after radiation exposure (240±8 vs. 165±10, P<0.01. This effect was associated to a reduced apoptosis and DNA damage in intestinal crypts. JNJ7777120 reduced radiation-induced aplasia, preserving medullar components and reducing formation of micronucleus and also it accelerated bone marrow repopulation. Furthermore, it reduced micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood (27±8 vs. 149±22, in 1,000 erythrocytes, P<0.01. JNJ7777120 completely reversed radiation-induced reduced salivation, conserving glandular mass with normal histological appearance and reducing apoptosis and atrophy of SMG. JNJ7777120 exhibits radioprotective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in small intestine, SMG and hematopoietic tissues and, thus, could be of clinical value for patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  20. The study on the preparation of rhIL-6 and its effects on recovery of mice from radiation-induced hematopoietic aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jicheng; Zhang Yun; Sheng Weihua

    1997-08-01

    The E coil highly expressing rhIL-6 constructed by our department was fermented and rhIL-6 products were extracted and purified. The specific activity of the purified rhIL-6 products reached 4.83 x 10 8 IU/mg. The rhIL-6 products were used to treat BALB/c mice injured by 60 Co irradiation for six days (2 μg/big/each). The results showed that the bleeding time, coagulation time and prothrombin time of the rhIL-6 treatment group were significantly shorter than those of the control group (P<0.01), the platelet count and WBC increased by 130% and 165% in the treatment group as compared with the control, the numbers of CFU-Mix cultured in vitro and CFU-s in spleen were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). These results suggest that rhIL-6 exerts beneficial effects on the recovery of mice from radiation-induced injuries of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and thus helps recovery from radiation injury of bone marrow and hematopoietic function. (17 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  1. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  2. New experimental approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells; Nouvelle approche experimentale du traitement de l`aplasie medullaire radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Drouet, M.; Grenier, N.; Grange, L.; Bourin, P.; Vetillard, J.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental exposure to high doses of ionizing radiations requires new therapeutic protocols in addition to cytokine therapy. The in vitro incubation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from irradiated nonhuman primates with negative and positive regulators of hematopoiesis may lead to helpful products of transfusion. (author).

  3. Characterization of changes in composition and function of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wei Shanjian; Hu Xiaojian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The delayed effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane protein, the composition and function of the membrane proteins in five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were follow up at six years after the Shanghai 60 Co irradiation accident. Methods: Percoll centrifugation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of NO 2 - transport rate and DIDS inhibition rate were performed. Results: The injuries of the membrane proteins induced by radiation, characterized by reduced content of band 8 and declined anion transport function of band 3 protein remained the same as initially observed. The further study showed that the inhibition of DIDS on the anion transport of the ARS erythrocytes was decreased and the transport time for NO 2 - by band 3 was significantly prolonged in younger erythrocytes than those in middle-or old-aged cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that the radiation damage to erythrocyte membrane proteins might occur at the stage of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. The exo-facial site in band 3 may be changed after radiation, which could result in the abnormalities in anion transport. It is believed that the aging of erythrocytes might be present in advanced stage of ARS

  4. CXCL12 expression in hematopoietic tissues of mice exposed to sublethal dose of ionizing radiation in the presence od iNOS inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Vieira, Daniel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Hermida, Felipe Pessoa de Melo; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: We study the production of CXCL12, a stem cell homing chemokine, in spleen and bone marrow of mice exposed at LD50% of {gamma}-radiation, w/wo a iNOS blocker, aminoguanidine, to test if inflammatory nitric oxide is involved in necrotic processes of stem cell death after ionizing radiation exposure. Groups of 10 male 6-week old C57Bl/6j mice were killed at specific time points after a 8Gy dose irradiation ({sup 60}Co source; 4,22kGy/h dose rate) and spleen and bone marrow samples were immersed and stored in TriZOL for total mRNA extraction. RT-PCR assays were performed to determine the production of CXCL12 as compared to murine {beta}-actin at days 2nd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 15th days after radiation in a semiquantitative way. PCR was performed after cDNA synthesis using Oligo-dT primers and specific primers for CXCL12 and {beta}-actin. Artificial optical density was determined in silver-stained PAGE resolved specific amplification products of CXCL12, using amplification of murine {beta}-actin as standard, and measurements obtained by the Image J freeware. CXCL12 production in spleen samples reached its maximum at 5th day after radiation exposure in animals not treated with aminoguanidine, but this peak was extended to at 7th day in treated animals. Non treated animals presented a decrease of CXCL12 expression up to 15th day of experiment, and aminoguanidine treated animals showed sustained increase of expression levels between 9th and 15th days. In bone marrow samples, the main difference among the two different experimental groups was a maintenance of CXCL12 mRNA expression between 7th and 9th days, persisting until the end of the experiment. Our data demonstrates that the effect of aminoguanidine appears to sustain the CXCL12 mRNA synthesis in hematopoietic tissues of irradiated mice, providing some evidences that the axis iNOS -NO - inflammation must be involved in stem cell death, aside to the direct radiation effect, suggesting

  5. Catecholamine and electrolyte content in the animal vascular wall in radiation sickness and during administration of radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of adrenaline upon the balance of catecholamines and electrolytes in blood vessels in different time periods after whole-body X-ray irradiation and also under conditions of prophylactic prescription of cystamine is studied. The work is conducted in 90 adult cats of both sexes with the mass 2-4 kg. The whole-body X-ray irradiation is carried out at a dose of 400 R. It is shown that X-ray irradiation depending on the stage of radiaiton sickness causes quantitative and qualitative changes of normal biochemical response of vessel tissue for the introduction of different doses of adrenaline. Cystamine decreses the expression of quantitative changes and frequency of qualitative non-adequate changes of electrolyte composition and balance of catecholamines in vessel tissue of irradiated animals when introducing adrenaline in a dose of 15 μg/kg

  6. Inhibition of G1-phase arrest induced by ionizing radiation in hematopoietic cells by overexpression of genes involved in the G1/S-phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, M.; Berry, L.; Halloran, A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk-4) are likely involved in regulating passage of cells through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. A decrease in the proportion of cells in G 1 , a relatively radiation-sensitive phase of the cell cycle, should result in increased resistance to ionizing radiation; however, the effect of such overexpression on X-ray-induced G 1 -phase arrest is not known. Radiation survival curves were obtained at a dose rate of either 8 cGy/min or 1 Gy/min for subclones of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 expressing transgenes for either cyclin-D1, D2 or D3 or cdk-4. We compared the results to those with overexpression of the transgene for Bcl-2, whose expression enhances radiation survival and delays apoptosis. Cells overexpressing transgenes for each D-type cyclin or Bcl-2 had an increased number of cells in S phase compared to parent line 32D cl 3; however, overexpression of cdk-4 had no effect on cell cycle distribution. Cell death resulting from withdrawal of IL-3 was not affected by overexpression of D2, cdk-4 or Bcl-2. Flow cytometry 24 h after 5 Gy irradiation demonstrated that overexpression of each G 1 -phase regulatory transgene decreased the proportion of cells at the G 1 /S-phase border. Western analysis revealed induction of cyclin-D protein levels by irradiation, but no change in the D O , but a significant increase in the rvec n for cyclin-D or cdk-4 transgene-overexpressing clones at 1 Gy/min (P 1 /S-phase arrest. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Numbers and dispersion of repopulating hematopoietic cell clones in radiation chimeras as functions of injected cell dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklem, H.S.; Lennon, J.E.; Ansell, J.D.; Gray, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lethally irradiated mice were repopulated with low (10(5)), medium (10(6)) or high (10(7)) doses of congenic bone marrow cells. Marrow donors were heterozygous for the X-chromosome-encoded allozyme marker phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK-1). A second allozyme marker, phosphoglucose isomerase (GPI-1), distinguished between donor and radioresistant host cells. Use of these markers allowed the numbers and dispersion of repopulating hematopoietic clones to be estimated by binomial statistics. The number of major repopulating clones was related to the injected cell dose in a linear fashion, the inferred frequency of clonogenic cells in donor bone marrow being about 1:40,000. In high-dose recipients, the clones grew locally, with little or no dispersion between bones. Low-dose recipients, in contrast, carried widely dispersed clones; these tended to become reduced in number with increasing time after repopulation. Most of the (few) bone marrow clones present in low-dose recipients were also present in the thymus. In contrast, only about 10% of bone marrow clones in high-dose recipients were substantially represented in the thymus at any one time--about 16 clones in each lobe

  8. Diagnostic value of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan assay and galactomannan test for invasive fungal infection in patients of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Jiang Hongmei; Wang Jijun; Liu Yan; Zhao Wei; Ning Yongzhong; Zhang Jie; Ke Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic values of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan (G) and galactomannan (GM) for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients of acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: Samples of periogeral blood, pharyngeal secretion, urine, and feces were collected from 316 patients with ARS and suspected to suffer from IFI, 192 males and 124 females, aged 60.50 (1-96), with the underlying diseases of blood or respiration systems. Platelia Aspergillus EIA kit was used to detect the plasma BG (G test), and ELISA was used to detect the serum GM (GM test). Fungal culture and bacterial culture were performed. Results: The positive rates of G test, GM test, and fungal culture were 36.33%, 35.84%, and 34.18% respectively, but the positive rate of fungal culture of blood sample was 1-316 only. Pearson correlation analysis showed that G test, GM test and fungal culture test were positively correlated with IFI clinical diagnosis respectively (χ 2 =0.564, 0.357, 0.727, P<0.05). Conclusions: Easy to operate, rapid, and highly sencitive, G test and GM test can be used as adjunctive methods for early IFI diagnosis in ARS patients. (authors)

  9. Effect of neonatal administration of mono-sodium glutamate in rats on adult body weight and some blood lipids during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moneim, A.E.; Shousha, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    When a single dose of 4.0 mg MSG/g body weight was administered subcutaneously in new rats, they showed increased body weight (P< 0.01) than vehicle-injected control animals of the same strain at 1,2 and 3 months post-natal. This syndrome was most remarkable during the suckling period. At various time intervals of the trial, a marked sex difference (P< 0.01) was also observed. Experimental males were greater in weight than females. Two days following irradiation of one half the treated animals, serum triglycerides (T G) and total. cholesterol (Ch) in MSG-irradiated rats were significantly (P 0.01)) higher by comparison with MSG-treated and saline injected groups of their own sex. Although, sex has no significant effect on serum T G and Ch, MSG-irradiated males (the heavier in body weight) showed lower levels of these lipid fractions than females during the period of acute radiation sickness. 2 tabs

  10. UMF-synthetase activity in rat tissue extracts with the bone 4 marrow form of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitova, E.N.; Koshcheenko, N.N.; Romantsev, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Whole-body γ-irradiation of rats with a dose inducing bone marrow radiation syndrome caused phase organospecific chages in UMP-synthase activity. Disturbances of enzymic activity in the bone marrow and spleen well correlated with the dynamics of interphase and reproductive cell death. In brain extracts, UMP biosynthesis from orotic acid did not undergo essential changes

  11. Pharmacological Modulation of Radiation Damage. Does It Exist a Chance for Other Substances than Hematopoietic Growth Factors and Cytokines?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Hoferová, Zuzana; Falk, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2017) E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12454S; GA MZd NV16-29835A Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : acute radiation syndrome * radioprotectors * radiomitigators Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  12. Quality control of sickness rate registration of the Chernobil accident liquidators into a different radiation dose groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukov, A.P.; Ivanov, V.K.; Bolokhonenkova, M.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kruglova, Z.G.; Zelenskaya, N.S.; Ukraintsev, V.F.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of the dose factor on the quality of registration of the liquidator health state is studied. It is shown that the efficiency of prophylactic system and monitoring intensity in the different dose groups are equal, are determined by general legislative acts on the all territory of the Russian Federation and do not influence the results of carrying out the radiation-epidemic analysis [ru

  13. Low Radiation Dose and Low Cell Dose Increase the Risk of Graft Rejection in a Canine Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sandra; Steder, Anne; Glass, Änne; Killian, Doreen; Wittmann, Susanne; Machka, Christoph; Werner, Juliane; Schäfer, Stephanie; Roolf, Catrin; Junghanss, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The canine hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) model has become accepted in recent decades as a good preclinical model for the development of new transplantation strategies. Information on factors associated with outcome after allogeneic HSCT are a prerequisite for designing new risk-adapted transplantation protocols. Here we report a retrospective analysis aimed at identifying risk factors for allograft rejection in the canine HSCT model. A total of 75 dog leukocyte antigen-identical sibling HSCTs were performed since 2003 on 10 different protocols. Conditioning consisted of total body irradiation at 1.0 Gy (n = 20), 2.0 Gy (n = 40), or 4.5 Gy (n = 15). Bone marrow was infused either intravenously (n = 54) or intraosseously (n = 21). Cyclosporin A alone or different combinations of cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, and everolimus were used for immunosuppression. A median cell dose of 3.5 (range, 1.0 to 11.8) total nucleated cells (TNCs)/kg was infused. Cox analyses were used to assess the influence of age, weight, radiation dose, donor/recipient sex, type of immunosuppression, and cell dose (TNCs, CD34(+) cells) on allograft rejection. Initial engraftment occurred in all dogs. Forty-two dogs (56%) experienced graft rejection at median of 11 weeks (range, 6 to 56 weeks) after HSCT. Univariate analyses revealed radiation dose, type of immunosuppression, TNC dose, recipient weight, and recipient age as factors influencing long-term engraftment. In multivariate analysis, low radiation dose (P rejection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell chimerism ≥30% (P = .008) and granulocyte chimerism ≥70% (P = .023) at 4 weeks after HSCT were independent predictors of stable engraftment. In summary, these data indicate that even in low-dose total body irradiation-based regimens, the irradiation dose is important for engraftment. The level of blood chimerism at 4 weeks post-HSCT was predictive of long-term engraftment in the canine HSCT

  14. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  16. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes

  17. Nuclear radiation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The manifestations of acute radiation sickness in the post-nuclear attack period must be recognized and understood in order to apply therapeutic measure appropriately. The syndromes observed-hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system-are dose dependent and vary in the degree of patient impairment and lethality. Estimates of mortality and morbidity following a massive exchange vary profoundly, depending on the targeting scenarios, the modes employed, and the meteorologic conditions anticipated. Even the LD-50 dose remain the subject of controversy. Using a US Government model of such an exchange, an estimated 23 million survivors would have radiation sickness, frequently complicated by trauma and burns. Among these survivors, an overriding consideration will be the presence and extent of infection, associated with alterations in the immune system, malnutrition, dehydration, exposure and hardship. Triage and treatment will be extraordinarily complex, requiring patient relocation, massive fluid replacement, antibiotics, a sterile environment , and many other measures. Massive disparities between supply and demand for physicians, nurses, other health workers, hospital beds, supplies and equipment, antibiotics, and other pharmaceutical agents will render a coherent physician response virtually impossible. Such disparities will be compounded by the destruction of transport systems and intolerably high radiation levels in many areas. If it is true that the meliorative efforts of physicians in post-attack radiation damage will be incapable of addressing this massive health care problem meaningfully, then clearly their most effective role is to prevent the threat from materializing. (authors)

  18. Fear of movement, passive coping, manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of sick leave due to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Schluter, Philip J; Hodges, Paul W; Stewart, Simon; Turner, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Sick leave due to low back pain (LBP-SL) is costly and compromises workforce productivity. The fear-avoidance model asserts that maladaptive pain-related cognitions lead to avoidance and disuse, which can perpetuate ongoing pain. Staying home from work is an avoidant behavior, and hence pain-related psychological features may help explain LBP-SL. We examined the relative contribution of pain catastrophizing, fear of movement, and pain coping (active and passive) in LBP-SL in addition to pain characteristics and other psychosocial, occupational, general health, and demographic factors. Two-way interactions between age and gender and candidate exposures were also considered. Our sample comprised 2164 working nurses and midwives with low back pain in the preceding year. Binary logistic regression was performed on cross-sectional data by manual backward stepwise elimination of nonsignificant terms to generate a parsimonious multivariable model. From an extensive array of exposures assessed, fear of movement (women, odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.08; men, OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.29), passive coping (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11), pain severity (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50-1.72), pain radiation (women, OR=1.45, 95% CI 1.10-1.92; men, OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.15-7.95), and manual handling frequency (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) increased the likelihood of LBP-SL in the preceding 12 months. Administrators and managers were less likely to report LBP-SL (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71), and age had a protective effect in individuals in a married or de facto relationship (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98). In summary, fear of movement, passive coping, frequent manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of LBP-SL. Gender-specific responses to pain radiation and fear of movement are evident. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Worried sick? Sickness absence during organizational turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. An explanation put forward is that a tougher labour market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that...

  20. Therapeutic approaches of hematopoietic syndrome after serious accidental global irradiation. Ex vivo expansion interest of hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry, D.

    1994-01-01

    Aplasia is one of the main syndrome, appearing after one global accidental irradiation by one ionizing radiation source. The hematopoietic syndrome is characterized by a peripheric blood cell number fall; the cell marrow is reduced too

  1. Analyses of Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, S.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is an empirical phenomenon of all time. Generally, it has a medical cause. However, other factors also appear to have an impact on the actual rate of sickness absence, such as the institutional setting, the business cycle and the economic structure. Many questions on the different

  2. Presenteeism among sick workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on absenteeism. However, ‘presenteeism’ is also an issue, i.e. staying at work even when feeling sick. Analyses have shown that, the greater the work pressure, the higher the percentage of people who keep working when feeling sick.

  3. Acute Radiation Sickness Amelioration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Emetic Drugs 16. PRICE CODE Antagonists 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19, SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF...102 UNCLASSIFIED mcuIw IA IIIcaIIin or Isis PAW CLASSFIED BY: N/A since Unclassified. DECLASSIFY ON: N/A since Unclassified. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Approximately 2000 documents relevant to the development of the candidate anti-emetic drugs ondansetron (Zofran, Glaxo Pharmaceuticals) and granisetron

  4. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  5. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  6. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  7. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Acute mountain sickness URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  8. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  9. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  10. Dynamics of extra-genital pathology formation in exposed to radiation women of the reproductive age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.; Pivina, L.M.; Kenzhina, L.B.; Ryzhenkova, O.N.; Mansarina, A.E.; Bajbusinov, O.N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an extra-genital sickness rate analysis in exposed women of reproductive age that live on territories adjacent to the Semipalatinsk test site, for the period from 1963 to 2000. The average dose of women exposed to radiation is more than 0.5 Sv. Significant exceeding of age-specific standardized factor for the period from 1963 to 1990 was found. Among nosologic classes, representing exceeding of age-specific standardized factors in women of reproductive age, there were revealed diseases of blood circulation system, blood and hematopoietic organs, endocrine system, nervous system and sense organs. (author)

  11. Sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.; Stenner, R.D.; Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the aspect of indoor air pollution referred to as sick building syndrome. Covered are sources and health effects of various indoor air pollutants, and methods for mitigation of the problem, plus suggested analytical methods for environmental carcinogens found in indoor air

  12. Stimulation of murine stem cell proliferation by circulating activities produced during the recovery of a radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Estimulacion proliferativa de celulas madre hematopoyeticas de raton por actividades circulantes producidas durante la recuperacion de un dano hematopoyetico radioinducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande Azanedo, M.T.

    1989-02-01

    The proliferative activity of CFU-S, low in normal steady state, increases after treatment with different aggressors, i.e., radiation. This stimulation has been attributed in part to a local regulation system of stem cell proliferation, and at least in part to a humoral regulatory system. In the present work it has been investigated the role that circulating activities have in the CFU-S stimulation, by means of in vitro and in vivo incubation assays with diffusion chambers. The results show that bone marrow of mice irradiated with 5 Gy produces in vitro diffusible activities capable of stimulating the CFU-S proliferation. As well with this same dose circulating activities are also produced in vivo. In addition we have observed that these activities are only released during the periods of active hematopoietic regeneration that follow irradiation with moderate doses (1.5 and 5 Gy). In another set of experiments we saw that the stimulating activities are also detected in serum of mice irradiated with 5 Gy. These serum activities modify the proliferative state of very primitive precursors (12 d CFU-S). When the serum activities are added to long term bone marrow cultures the CFU-S are also stimulated to proliferate. Finally, we observed that the radiation-induced serum activities stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow CFU-S when injected into normal mice, suggesting that such activities are involved in the regulation of CFU-S proliferation.

  13. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  14. Successful Large-volume Leukapheresis for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Collection in a Very-low-weight Brain Tumor Infant with Coagulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Liao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral apheresis has become a safe procedure to collect hematopoietic stem cells, even in pediatric patients and donors. However, the apheresis procedure for small and sick children is more complicated due to difficult venous access, relatively large extracorporeal volume, toxicity of citrate, and unstable hemostasis. We report a small and sick child with refractory medulloblastoma, impaired liver function, and coagulopathy after several major cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. She successfully received large-volume leukapheresis for hematopoietic stem cell collection, although the patient experienced severe coagulopathy during the procedures. Health care providers should be alert to this potential risk.

  15. Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancers of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1974--May 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunewick, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Studies carried out during the above period on viral leukemia have conclusively shown that the pluripotent hematopoietic colony forming stem cell (CFU-S) is a target cell for the leukemia virus. Treatment of this cell population with antiserum prepared in syngeneic mice against the disease resulted in inactivation of up to 50 percent of the CFU-S obtained from the spleens of viral leukemic mice. At the same time, normal serum had no effect on these cells, nor did the antiserum have any effect on normal CFU-S. Data indicated that a considerable time delay, on the order of a week, preceded the expression of the viral antigen in the leukemic CFU-S, but that it could be seen at all times after that up to the terminal point of the disease. We examined the effect of the virus on DNA synthesis (S-phase cells) in the CFU-S immediately after virus injection. The results showed that a doubling of the number of cells in S could be seen as early as four hours after introduction of the virus into the animal. Studies with ethidium bromide, an inhibitor of viral reverse transcriptase, were found to be in agreement with this observation. When given to viral leukemic animals in combination with fractionated exposure to x-ray, the data suggested that ethidium bromide did act to extend survival somewhat, but not much over that seen through the use of x-ray alone

  16. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...... consistent results. They analyze data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC); health was measured by limiting longstanding illness (LLSI). Results show that for both men and women reporting LLSI in combination with low educational level, the probabilities of non......-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude...

  17. ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most likely pathophysiological causes of the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS, also known as altitude sickness, its pulmonary form i.e. high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE, and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE. These diseases constitute extraordinary environmental hazards because they are directly connected with low atmospheric pressure, and thus low partial oxygen pressure. The above adverse atmospheric conditions start to affect humans already at an altitude of 2,500 meters above the sea level and, coupled with extreme physical exertion, can quickly lead to respiratory alkalosis, which is not present under any other conditions in the lowlands. Mountaineering above 4,500 m a.s.l. leads to hypoxia of internal organs and, primarily, reduced renal perfusion with all its consequences. The above adverse changes, combined with inadequate acclimatization, can lead to a situation of imminent danger to life and health. This paper describes in detail the consequences of acute mountain sickness, which can ultimately lead to the development of AMS and one of severe forms of HACE and/or HAPE.

  18. Studies on hematopoietic cell apoptosis and the relative gene expression in irradiated mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Ruiyun; Wang Dewen; Xiong Chengqi; Gao Yabing; Yang Hong; Cui Yufang; Wang Baozhen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study apoptosis and expressions bcl-2 and p53 in irradiated mouse bone marrow. Methods: LACA mice were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays. By means of in situ terminal labelling, in situ hybridization and image analysis, the authors studied radiation-induced apoptosis of hematopoietic cells and the expressions of bcl-2 and p53. Results: The characteristics of apoptosis appeared in hematopoietic cells at 6 hrs after irradiation. The expression of bcl-2 was obviously decreased when apoptosis of hematopoietic cells occurred, whereas it increased in the early recovery phase; p53 protein increased during both apoptosis of hematopoietic cells and the recovery phase, and mutant type p53 DNA was positive only in the recovery phase. Conclusion: Radiation may induced apoptosis of hematopoietic cells in a dose-dependent manner; Both bcl-2 and p53 genes play an important role in apoptosis and recovery phase

  19. 20 CFR 218.28 - Sick pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sick pay. 218.28 Section 218.28 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.28 Sick pay. (a) From railroad employer. If the employee is carried on the payroll while sick, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the last day of sick pay. However, sick...

  20. Prostaglandin E2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yingying; Zhou Daohong; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a bioactive lipid molecule produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays an important role on hematopoiesis. While it can block differentiation of myeloid progenitors but enhance proliferation of erythroid progenitors. Recent research found that PGE2 have the effects on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and these effects were independent from effects on progenitor cells. Exposure of HSC cells to PGE2 in vitro can increase homing efficiency of HSC to the murine bone marrow compartment and decrease HSC apoptosis, meanwhile increase long-term stem cell engraftment. In-vivo treatment with PGE2 expands short-term HSC and engraftment in murine bone marrow but not long-term HSC.In addition, PGE2 increases HSC survival after radiation injury and enhance hematopoietic recovery, resulting maintains hematopoietic homeostasis. PGE2 regulates HSC homeostasis by reactive oxygen species and Wnt pathway. Clinical beneficial of 16, 16-dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 treatment to enhance engraftment of umbilical cord blood suggest important improvements to therapeutic strategies. (authors)

  1. Therapeutic effects of combined cytokines on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy γ-rays irradiation in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Hu Zhiqing; Xiong Guolin; Xie Ling; Ou Hongling; Huang Haixiao; Zhao Zhenhu; Wang Ning; Wang Jinxiang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang; Zhang Xueguang; Cong Yuwen; Zhang Ri; Luo Qingliang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of combined cytokines on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays irradiation in beagles, and to provide experimental evidences for the clinical treatment of extremely severe myeloid acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: 16 beagles were given 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays total body irradiation, and then randomly assigned into irradiation control group, supportive care group and cytokines group. In addition to supportive care, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) were administered subcutaneouly to dogs in cytokines group. Peripheral blood hemogram was examined once every two days. Bone marrow and peripheral blood were collected to proceed colony cultivation 4 d pre-irradiation and 1 and 45 d post-irradiation. Conventional histopathological sections sternum were prepared to observe the histomorphology changes. Results: After irradiation, the population of all kinds of cells in peripheral blood declined sharply. WBC nadir was elevated (1.04 x 10 9 /L, but 0.28 x 10 9 /L and 0.68 x 10 9 /L for the irradiation control group and the supportive care group separately), the duration of thrombocytopenia was shortened (24 days, but 33 days for the supportive care group) and red blood cell counts were maintained in the range of normal values after cytokines treatment in combination. The colony forming efficiency of haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow and peripheral blood decreased obviously 1 d post irradiation, but recovered to the level of that before irradiation 45 d post irradiation after supportive care and cytokines treatment. Hematopoietic cells disappeared in bone marrow of animals in irradiation control group, but hematopoietic functions were recovered after cytokines were administrated. Conclusions: RhG-CSF, rhIL-11 and rhIL-2 used in combination could elevate WBC nadir, accelerate the

  2. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR. All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM observation, forced swim test (FST, the open field test (OFT, the chromosome aberration (CA, the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA, the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR.

  3. Investigation of radioprotective effect of indraline of hematopoietic system in different species of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, M.V.; Antipov, V.V.; Chernov, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The experiments were made on mice, guinea pigs and dogs. Radioprotector indraline increased radioresistant state of hematopoietic stem cells in vivo and in vitro, decreased the amount of post-radiation chromosome aberrations in marrow, induced more early and intensive post-radiation proliferative repair of marrow and spleen, faster regeneration of the initial amount of leukocytes thrombocytes and erytrocytes in blood of mice, guinea pigs and dogs. Antiradiation efficiency of indraline in hematopoietic system is equal to 1.5-2 by FMD. Radioprotective mechanism of indraline effect on hematopoietic system is discussed. 22 refs.; 8 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  5. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  6. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to

  7. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d -1 ). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 ampersand 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity

  8. Motion sickness in ancient China: Seasickness and cart-sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Bauer, Matthias; Benson, Judy; Huppert, Doreen

    2016-07-19

    To find and analyze descriptions of motion sickness in Chinese historical sources. Databases and dictionaries were searched for various terms for seasickness and travel sickness, which were then entered into databases of full texts allowing selection of relevant passages from about the third to the 19th century ad. Already in 300 ad the Chinese differentiated cart-sickness, particularly experienced by persons from the arid north of China, from a ship-illness experienced by persons from the south, where rivers were important for transportation and travel. In the Middle Ages, a third form of motion sickness was called litter-influence experienced by persons transported in a bed suspended between 2 long poles. The ancient Chinese recognized the particular susceptibility of children to motion sickness. Therapeutic recommendations include drinking the urine of young boys, swallowing white sand-syrup, collecting water drops from a bamboo stick, or hiding some earth from the middle of the kitchen hearth under the hair. The Chinese medical classics distinguished several forms of travel sickness, all of which had their own written characters. The pathophysiologic mechanism was explained by the medicine of correspondences, which was based on malfunctions within the body, its invasion by external pathogens like wind, or the deficit or surfeit of certain bodily substances such as the life force Qi. The concept of motion as the trigger of sickness initially appeared in a chapter on warding off the influence of demons and corpses, e.g., ancient magic and beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancers of the hematopoietic system. Three-year technical progress report, August 1, 1973--April 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OKunewick, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In studies conducted during the first three-year segment of this contract, it was observed that in the process of viral leukemogenesis the affected animals became more radioresistant than normal. Initial studies into the reason for the enhanced radioresistance implicated an increase in the number of pluripotent stem cells as one possible cause. During the current period, studies were carried out to further define the effect of the virus on stem cells and their kinetics using exposure to tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR) in vivo and in vitro. In addition, separate studies were initiated in an attempt to determine if the immune system played a part in the radioresistance, as well as what the effects might be of immune manipulations on the disease during the oncogenic period. Finally, studies were also undertaken to assess the sensitivity of the virus itself to radiation in vitro and in vivo to radiation and treatment with cells transplanted from viral resistant mice

  10. Sick boat syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowiecki Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic micro-organisms are likely to attack passengers of cruise ships and other vessels or travel between continents as a peculiar type of a “stowaway”. The epidemiological tests conducted since 1987 with regard to watercraft led to the coining of a term known as the Sick Boat Syndrome (SBS. The main illnesses encountered on watercraft include gastrointestinal diseases (foodborne and Legionellosis. Additionally, the ventilation and airconditioning systems of old commercial ships (the so-called Tramps constitute a real technical challenge. Conditioned air (with removed undesired odour and micro-organisms should constitute ca. 25% of circulating air. In practice this situation is not typical for vessels of this class. Unclean air poses a real hazard for the crew.

  11. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...

  12. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  13. Industrial Sickness in Indian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Rahel

    2005-01-01

    In India, the term ‘sick units’ refers to economically unviable firms which are kept alive ‘in the public interest’ by means of subsidies of various kinds. Since this practice is common, and large parts of the industrial sector are affected, this phenomenon is referred to as industrial sickness. As of March 2001, the Reserve Bank of India counted over a quarter of a million of sick units with outstanding credit worth more than a quarter of a trillion of Indian Rupees, i.e. about 1.2 percent o...

  14. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells

  16. JCCRER Project 2.3 -- Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M. [Inst. of Biophysics, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness.

  17. JCCRER Project 2.3 - Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M.

    1998-01-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness

  18. Space sickness on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooij, S. A. E.; Bos, J. E.; Groen, E. L.; Bles, W.; Ockels, W. J.

    2007-09-01

    During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they experienced after a 1 hour centrifuge run on Earth, i.e., after a transition from 3G to 1G (denoted by Sickness Induced by Centrifugation, SIC). During several space missions, we related susceptibility to SAS and to SIC in 11 astronauts and found 4 of them being susceptible to both SIC and SAS, and 7 being not susceptible to SIC nor to SAS. This correspondence in susceptibility suggests that SIC and SAS share the same underlying mechanism. To further study this mechanism, several vestibular parameters have been investigated (e.g. postural stability, vestibularly driven eye movements, subjective vertical). We found some striking changes in individual cases that are possibly due to the centrifuge run. However, the variability between subjects generally is very large, making physiological links to SIC and SAS still hard to find.

  19. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  20. The sick-building syndrome; Das Sick-Building-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henne, A.; Neumann, H.F.; Winneke, G.

    1992-12-31

    The sick-building syndrome is characterized by the presence of general, non-specific symptoms (e.g., headache, tiredness, respiratory problems, eye trouble, vertigo, nausea, unspecific hypersensitivity) in association with a particular indoor ambience. It is clearly distinguishable from `building-related illness`, referring to a well-defined clinical syndrome due to staying in a building and for which a cause can, in general, be established. Disorders in the case of the sick-building syndrome are manifold and confirmed objectifiable results are hardly available so far. Yet there are some organ-related methods for the confirmation of findings concerning, for instance, the eyes, the skin and the area of the nose. The causes of the incidence of sick-building syndrome are more or less unclear. It is a multifactorial phenomenon involving physical, biological, chemical, individual-specific and psychological factors. Buildings where sick-building syndrome occurs typically exhibit certain properties. The European Community has already made proposals for the investigation of incriminated buildings. A systematic survey by questionnaire together with individual interviews plays an import part towards clarifying the syndrome. (orig./UWA) [Deutsch] Das Sick-Building-Syndrom beschreibt das Vorhandensein von allgemeinen, nicht spezifischen Symptomen (z.B. Kopfschmerzen, Muedigkeit, Atembeschwerden, Augenreizungen, Schwindelgefuehl, Uebelkeit, unspezifische Ueberempfindlichkeit), assoziiert mit einer besonderen Innenraumumgebung. Deutlich hiervon abzugrenzen ist die ``Building related illness``, bei der ein klinisch definiertes Krankheitsbild vorliegt, das durch den Aufenthalt im Gebaeude verursacht wird und fuer das im allgemeinen eine Ursache ermittelt werden kann. Das Beschwerdebild beim Sick-Building-Syndrom ist vielfaeltig, und gesicherte, objektivierbare Befunde liegen hierzu bisher kaum vor. Dennoch gibt es einige organbezogenen Methoden zur Befundabsicherung, z.B. fuer das

  1. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  2. Sleeping Sickness Surveillance In The Abraka Sleeping Sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confirmation of sleeping sickness (ss) was by the detection of trypanosomes in blood, body fluids and biopsy tissues. Thirteen (0.8%) seropositive subjects were parasitologically confirmed and treated with melasoprol at the Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku. One (0.06%) patient died during the course of treatment.

  3. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  4. Accelerated postirradiation recovery of hematopoietic marrow following priming with low doses of vincristine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnke, R.M.; Abernathy, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The present investigation is a continuation of efforts to characterize the radioprotective potential of priming with vincristine (VcR). In this study, the postirradiation recovery kinetics of the marrow's hematopoietic stem cell, progenitor cell, and stromal cell compartments were monitored following exposure to a range of sublethal radiation doses to determine (a) the optimal VcR/radiation intertreatment interval for achieving maximal hematopoietic protection, (b) whether this optimal interval is influenced by the dose of radiation administered, and (c) whether the radioprotection observed involves the hematopoietic stroma. The results demonstrate that the degree of radioprotection observed was significantly influenced by the scheduling of the VcR priming dose with respect to the radiation exposure. An intertreatment interval of 24 h provided maximal radioprotective benefit irrespective of the radiation dose administered. Additionally, the radioprotection following VcR priming appeared to be more the result of an accelerated recovery in the hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell compartments than a change in their intrinsic radiosensitivity. The data also suggest that this accelerated recovery was not a consequence of greater radioprotection of marrow stroma. Finally, the radioprotection observed following VcR priming did not appear to involve a selective lineage response by either the erythroid or the granulomonocytic progenitor compartments

  5. Tight or sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P; Shanmuganadan, S [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India). Dept. of Geography; Uma, A [Madurai Medical Coll. (India). Dept. of Medicine and Microbiology

    1991-01-01

    Modern buildings are designed with the usual heating, air-conditioning and ventilation equipment. In most of these buildings, air is continuously recirculated and, as a result, workers suffer from tight or sick building syndrome. This syndrome is discussed with reference to symptoms of air contamination, ventilation system standards and research needs. The most common symptoms of tight building syndrome are eye, nose and throat irritation, headache, fatigue, sneezing, difficulty in wearing contact lenses, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness and dermatitis. Symptoms experienced by 50 doctors and 50 paramedical personnel working in an air-conditioned intensive care unit and operating theatres of the Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai in India were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. In the present study, respiratory and ocular symptoms were observed more in those working in operating theatres and were believed to be due to excessive use of formaldehyde used for sterilization. Various suggestions were made to prevent sick building syndrome. Moreover, the physicians treating sick individuals should be aware of the symptoms caused by indoor air pollutants as sufferers invariably require a change of environment rather than drugs. (orig.).

  6. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  7. Prostaglandis and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romantsev, E.F.; Blokhina, V.D.; Zhulanova, Z.I.; Koshcheenko, I.N.; Nikol'skij, A.V.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1984-01-01

    It was established that some biochemical distortions in the brain of animals, subjected to superlethal doses of ionizing radiation don't develope; the starting mechanisms of a radiation damage can be fundamentally another, as compared to the medullar and intestinal forms of radiation sickness. It enables to assume that observed changes in activity of prostaglandin-synthetase system during irradiation by 250 Gr dose are based on earlier formed changes in membrane permeability and distortion of receptor cell activity. Investigations of the effect of radiation damage modificators give additional information when studying the primary biochemical processes, initiating radiation sickness

  8. Hematopoietic stem cell expansion : challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walasek, Marta A.; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald; Kanz, L; Fibbe, WE; Lengerke, C; Dick, JE

    2012-01-01

    Attempts to improve hematopoietic reconstitution and engraftment potential of ex vivo-expanded hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have been largely unsuccessful due to the inability to generate sufficient stem cell numbers and to excessive differentiation of the starting cell

  9. The biochemistry of hematopoietic stem cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kaimakis (Polynikis); M. Crisan (Mihaela); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The cornerstone of the adult hematopoietic system and clinical treatments for blood-related disease is the cohort of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that is harbored in the adult bone marrow microenvironment. Interestingly, this cohort of HSCs is generated only during a short

  10. General practitioners' use of sickness certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roope, Richard; Parker, Gordon; Turner, Susan

    2009-12-01

    At present, sickness certification is largely undertaken by general practitioners (GPs). Guidance from the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) is available to help with this task; however, there has been little formal evaluation of the DWP's guidance in relation to day-to-day general practice. To assess GPs' training, knowledge and application of the DWP's sickness certification guidelines. A structured questionnaire was sent to GPs within a (former) primary care trust (PCT). It probed demographics, training and knowledge of sickness certification guidelines. Case histories and structured questions were used to assess current practice. In this group of 113 GPs, there was a low awareness and use of the DWP's guidelines and Website relating to sickness certification. The majority of the GPs (63%) had received no training in sickness certification, and the mean length of time for those who had received training was 4.1 h. Most GPs also felt that patients and GPs have equal influence on the duration of sickness certification. This evidence of variable practice indicates that GPs should have more guidance and education in sickness certification. Closer sickness certification monitoring through existing GP computer systems may facilitate an improvement in practice that benefits patients and employers. The DWP, medical educators and PCTs may all have an additional role in further improving sickness certification practice.

  11. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  12. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  13. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  14. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  15. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  16. Biological implications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays

  17. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J P

    1997-12-31

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively.

  18. GENETIC PREDICTORS OF IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  19. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  20. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  1. Health care worker decompression sickness: incidence, risk and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Inadvertent exposure to radiation, chemical agents and biological factors are well recognized hazards associated with the health care delivery system. Less well appreciated yet no less harmful is risk of decompression sickness in those who accompany patients as inside attendants (IAs) during provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Unlike the above hazards where avoidance is practiced, IA exposure to decompression sickness risk is unavoidable. While overall incidence is low, when calculated as number of cases over number of exposures or potential for a case during any given exposure, employee cumulative risk, defined here as number of cases over number of IAs, or risk that an IA may suffer a case, is not. Commonly, this unique occupational environmental injury responds favorably to therapeutic recompression and a period of recuperation. There are, however, permanent and career-ending consequences, and at least two nurses have succumbed to their decompression insults. The intent of this paper is to heighten awareness of hyperbaric attendant decompression sickness. It will serve as a review of reported cases and reconcile incidence against largely ignored individual worker risk. Mitigation strategies are summarized and an approach to more precisely identify risk factors that might prompt development of consensus screening standards is proposed. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  2. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Jarque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However, they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. Increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complications in hematopoietic transplant recipients. In this review, we will focus on parasitic diseases occurring in this population especially those with major clinical relevance including toxoplasmosis, American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, and strongyloidiasis, among others, highlighting the diagnosis and management in hematopoietic transplant recipients.

  4. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nicolucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  5. Reconstruction of hematopoietic inductive microenvironment after transplantation of VCAM-1-modified human umbilical cord blood stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    Full Text Available The hematopoietic inductive microenvironment (HIM is where hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells grow and develop. Hematopoietic stromal cells were the key components of the HIM. In our previous study, we had successfully cultured and isolated human cord blood-derived stromal cells (HUCBSCs and demonstrated that they could secret hemopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF, TPO, and SCF. However, it is still controversial whether HUCBSCs can be used for reconstruction of HIM. In this study, we first established a co-culture system of HUCBSCs and cord blood CD34(+ cells and then determined that using HUCBSCs as the adherent layer had significantly more newly formed colonies of each hematopoietic lineage than the control group, indicating that HUCBSCs had the ability to promote the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells/progenitor cells. Furthermore, the number of colonies was significantly higher in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1-modified HUCBSCs, suggesting that the ability of HUCBSCs in promoting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells/progenitor cells was further enhanced after having been modified with VCAM-1. Next, HUCBSCs were infused into a radiation-damaged animal model, in which the recovery of hematopoiesis was observed. The results demonstrate that the transplanted HUCBSCs were "homed in" to bone marrow and played roles in promoting the recovery of irradiation-induced hematopoietic damage and repairing HIM. Compared with the control group, the HUCBSC group had significantly superior effectiveness in terms of the recovery time for hemogram and myelogram, CFU-F, CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-Meg. Such differences were even more significant in VCAM-1-modified HUCBSCs group. We suggest that HUCBSCs are able to restore the functions of HIM and promote the recovery of radiation-induced hematopoietic damage. VCAM-1 plays an important role in supporting the repair of HIM damage.

  6. Evaluation of the sickness rate for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, Y. V.; Litvinenko, T. M.; Takhanov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.

    2004-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases seem to be the main cause of people's death in industrial developed countries. That is why the active study of factors and conditions affecting the sickness and death rate for this group of diseases is being continued at present. Apart from the well-known risk factors, there is a group of technogenic factors the contribution of which to genesis of the examined group of diseases is not clear enough and requires a detailed study. One of such factors appears to be ionizing radiaiton, especially in case of a prolonged effect with the so-called small doses. The sickness rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period 1999-2001 has been studied in the closed population ZATO Seversk. To conduct examinations there was created the towns AMI register to be a structural component of the regional medico-dosimetric register (RMDR) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personnel and population of ZATO Seversk. Information on coronary disasters among adult population above 20 is being collected according to the program AMI Register created by WHO in 1968 with our additional results of modern methods of examining patients with ischemic heart disease and prospective observation. The analysis of data obtained testifies to the tendency towards the sickness rate increase in the period under study both among residents of the town (2,011-2,014-2,238 per 1000 people in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively) and among SGCE workers (4,354-4,572-5,006 per 1000) that corresponds to general tendencies of AMI sickness rate on the territory of Russian Federation. it is noted that in the group of workers at the main production the AMI sickness rate exceeds similar indices by the plant as a whole (6,205-7, 176-6,518 per 1000). Great prevalence of this AMI form among workers of a large industrial enterprise can be conditioned by a predominance of male contingent high emotional mental load (shift work on complex technological equipment with

  7. Evaluation of the sickness rate for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Y. V.; Litvinenko, T. M.; Takhanov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases seem to be the main cause of people's death in industrial developed countries. That is why the active study of factors and conditions affecting the sickness and death rate for this group of diseases is being continued at present. Apart from the well-known risk factors, there is a group of technogenic factors the contribution of which to genesis of the examined group of diseases is not clear enough and requires a detailed study. One of such factors appears to be ionizing radiaiton, especially in case of a prolonged effect with the so-called small doses. The sickness rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period 1999-2001 has been studied in the closed population ZATO Seversk. To conduct examinations there was created the towns AMI register to be a structural component of the regional medico-dosimetric register (RMDR) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personnel and population of ZATO Seversk. Information on coronary disasters among adult population above 20 is being collected according to the program AMI Register created by WHO in 1968 with our additional results of modern methods of examining patients with ischemic heart disease and prospective observation. The analysis of data obtained testifies to the tendency towards the sickness rate increase in the period under study both among residents of the town (2,011-2,014-2,238 per 1000 people in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively) and among SGCE workers (4,354-4,572-5,006 per 1000) that corresponds to general tendencies of AMI sickness rate on the territory of Russian Federation. it is noted that in the group of workers at the main production the AMI sickness rate exceeds similar indices by the plant as a whole (6,205-7, 176-6,518 per 1000). Great prevalence of this AMI form among workers of a large industrial enterprise can be conditioned by a predominance of male contingent high emotional mental load (shift work on complex technological equipment with

  8. Generation of axolotl hematopoietic chimeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound repair is an extremely complex process that requires precise coordination between various cell types including immune cells.  Unfortunately, in mammals this usually results in scar formation instead of restoration of the original fully functional tissue, otherwise known as regeneration.  Various animal models like frogs and salamanders are currently being studied to determine the intracellular and intercellular pathways, controlled by gene expression, that elicit cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration of cells during regenerative healing.  Now, the necessary genetic tools to map regenerative pathways are becoming available for the axolotl salamander, thus allowing comparative studies between scarring and regeneration.  Here, we describe in detail three methods to produce axolotl hematopoietic cell-tagged chimeras for the study of hematopoiesis and regeneration.

  9. Studies on mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant human interleukin-11 and recombinant human interleukin-2 on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy γ-rays irradiation in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Ou Hongling; Xing Shuang; Huang Haixiao; Xiong Guolin; Xie Ling; Zhao Yanfang; Zhao Zhenhu; Wang Ning; Wang Jinxiang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang; Luo Qingliang; Cong Yuwen; Zhang Xueguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation in beagles, and to provide experimental evidence for the clinical treatment of extremely severe myeloid acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: Sixteen beagle dogs were given 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray total body irradiation (TBI), then randomly assigned into irradiation control group, supportive care group or cytokines + supportive care (abbreviated as cytokines) group. In addition to supportive care, rhG-CSF, rhIL-11 and rhIL-2 were administered subcutaneously to treat dogs in cytokines group. The percentage of CD34 + cells, cell cycle and apoptosis of nucleated cells in peripheral blood were examined by Flow cytometry. Results: After 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, the CD34 + cells in peripheral blood declined obviously (61.3% and 52.1% of baseline for irradiation control and supportive care group separately). The cell proportion of nucleated cells in G 0 /G 1 phase was increased notably notably (99.27% and 99.49% respectively). The rate of apoptosis (26.93% and 21.29% separately) and necrosis (3.27% and 4.14%, respectively) of nucleated cells were elevated significantly when compared with values before irradiation (P 0 /G 1 phase blockage of nucleated cells became more serious (99.71%). The rate of apoptosis (5.66%) and necrosis (1.60%) of nucleated cells were significantly lower than that of irradiation control and supportive care groups 1 d after exposure. Conclusions: Cytokines maybe mobilize CD34 + cells in bone marrow to peripheral blood, indce cell block at G 0 /G 1 phase and reduce apoptosis, and eventually cure hematopoietic injuries induced by irradiation. (authors)

  10. Acute high-altitude sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Luks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At any point 1–5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  11. Decompression sickness in caisson workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawabi, Samir H. El; Mansour, Mohamed B.; Youssef, Fatma L.; Ghawabi, Mohamed H. El; Latif, Mohamed M. Abd El

    1971-01-01

    El Ghawabi, S. H., Mansour, M. B., Youssef, F. L., El Ghawabi, M. H., and Abd El Latif, M. M. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 323-329. Decompression sickness in caisson workers. An investigation of 55 bridge construction workers is reported. The overall bends rate was 0·97%. (The term `bends' as used in this study is defined in the paper.) Chokes were encountered in 67·27% of workers. A clinical, haematological, and radiological study was performed. Definite bony changes were found in 43·6% of all workers; 91·6% of these had lesions around the elbow. The presence of dense areas in the neck of the scapula is reported in two cases for the first time. The relatively high haematocrit value is thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of bone infarction through its relation with blood viscosity. Images PMID:5124832

  12. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  13. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  14. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  15. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  16. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged...

  17. The effect of carbon beam on the survival of hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Atsushi; Kojima, Eiichi; Tanaka, Kaoru

    1993-01-01

    The new cyclotron for heavy ion radiotherapy will be completed in the very near future at NIRS. High LET radiations having different qualities are known to produce differences in biological effectiveness. It is necessary to determine the biological effectiveness of this new radiation source in both normal and tumor tissues. In this paper, the effects of 200 kVp x-rays and a 135 MeV/u carbon 12 beam on hematopoietic stem cells (CFU-S and GM-CFC) are described. The rationale for this experimental approach is that the sensitivity of hematopoietic stem cells and the committed stem cells to radiation is often the treatment limiting-factor for radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Healthy change processes - Relations with job insecurity, sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism and turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Bødal, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a healthy change process (HCPI) could predict negative outcomes that normally follow organisational change, such as qualitative job insecurity, total sickness (sickness absenteeism and -presenteesim) and turnover intention. It was hypothesised that negative relationships existed between a healthy change process and qualitative job insecurity, total sickness and turnover intention. In addition, it was believed that experienced st...

  19. When healthcare workers get sick: exploring sickness absenteeism in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Yu, Shicheng; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2010-01-01

    To determine the demographic and work characteristics of healthcare workers who were more likely to take sickness absences from work in British Columbia, Canada. Payroll data were analyzed for three health regions. Sickness absence rates were determined per person-year and then compared across demographic and work characteristics using multivariate Poisson regression models. The direct costs to the employer due to sickness absences were also estimated. Female, older, full-time workers, long-term care workers and those with a lower hourly wage were more likely to take sickness absences and had similar trends with respect to the costs due to sickness absence. For occupations, licensed practical nurses, care aides and facility support workers had higher rates of sickness absence. Registered nurses, and those workers paid high hourly wages were associated with highest sickness related costs. It is important to understand the demographic and work characteristics of those workers who are more likely to take sickness absences in order to make sure that they are not experiencing additional hazards at work or facing detrimental workplace conditions. Policy makers need to establish healthy, safe and in turn more productive workplaces. Further research is needed on how interventions can reduce sickness absence.

  20. General Automatic Components of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, S.; Toscano, W. B.; Kamiya, J.; Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A body of investigations performed in support of experiments aboard the space shuttle, and designed to counteract the symptoms of Space Adaptation Syndrome, which resemble those of motion sickness on Earth is reviewed. For these supporting studies, the automatic manifestations of earth-based motion sickness was examined. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during and after exposure to nauseogenic rotating chair tests. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests. Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed. Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome on Earth and in Space.

  1. Sick of inequality: gender and support for paid sick days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Danielle J; Houser, Linda; White, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The availability of paid sick days (PSD) is on the forefront of policy issues relating to women's health and well-being. Previous research regarding PSD and other forms of family-work balance legislation has linked access to paid time off from work for addressing one's own or another's health concerns to a range of health benefits for working women and their families. In general, public support for such policies is high, but little work has tested the extent to which support extends to PSD. Researchers have yet to engage in a rigorous statistical analysis of public opinion on PSD, including whether opinion varies by gender. Using data from a 2013 poll of adults in New Jersey (n = 925), we bridged this research gap by conducting the first multivariate analysis of public attitudes toward PSD. As expected, we found markedly high levels of support for PSD across all respondents, with a preponderance of most sociodemographic categories supporting proposed PSD legislation in New Jersey. We also found that gender was a strong predictor of support for PSD, with women significantly (odds ratio, 1.916; p ≤ .01) more likely than men to be in favor of such legislation. We discuss the implications of our findings for future work on PSD as well as for research concerning women, wellness, and work-life legislation more broadly. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  3. WORRIED SICK? WORKER RESPONSES TO ORGANIZATIONAL TURMOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. One explanation put forward is that a tougher labor market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that si...

  4. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  5. Evaluation of hematopoietic potential generated by transplantation of muscle-derived stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Francoise; Prestoz, Laetitita; Badaoui, Sabrina; Guillier, Martine; Haond, Celine; Opolon, Paule; Thomas, Jean-Leon; Zalc, Bernard; Vainchenker, William; Turhan, Ali G

    2004-02-01

    Muscle tissue of adult mice has been shown to contain stem cells with hematopoietic repopulation ability in vivo. To determine the functional characteristics of stem cells giving rise to this hematopoietic activity, we have performed hematopoietic reconstitution experiments by the use of muscle versus marrow transplantation in lethally irradiated mice and followed the fate of transplanted cells by Y-chimerism using PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. We report here that transplantation of murine muscle generate a major hematopoietic chimerism at the level of CFU-C, CFU-S, and terminally-differentiated cells in three generations of lethally irradiated mice followed up to 1 year after transplantation. This potential is totally abolished when muscle grafts were performed by the use of muscle from previously irradiated mice. As compared to marrow transplantation, muscle transplants were able to generate similar potencies to give rise to myeloid, T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. Interestingly, marrow stem cells that have been generated in primary and then in secondary recipients were able to contribute efficiently to myofibers in the muscle tissue of tertiary recipients. Altogether, our data demonstrate that muscle-derived stem cells present a major hematopoietic repopulating ability with evidence of self-replication in vivo. They are radiation-sensitive and similar to marrow-derived stem cells in terms of their ability to generate multilineage hematopoiesis. Finally, our data demonstrate that muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells do not lose their ability to contribute to myofiber generation after at least two rounds of serial transplantation, suggesting a potential that is probably equivalent to that generated by marrow transplantation.

  6. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  8. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  9. Prognosis for a sick planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Global warming is the most important science issue of the 21st century, challenging the very structure of our global society. The study of past climate has shown that the current global climate system is extremely sensitive to human-induced climate change. The burning of fossil fuels since the beginning of the industrial revolution has already caused changes with clear evidence for a 0.75 degrees C rise in global temperatures and 22 cm rise in sea level during the 20th century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change synthesis report (2007) predicts that global temperatures by 2100 could rise by between 1.1 degrees C and 6.4 degrees C. Sea level could rise by between 28 cm and 79 cm, more if the melting of the polar ice caps accelerates. In addition, weather patterns will become less predictable and the occurrence of extreme climate events, such as storms, floods, heat waves and droughts, will increase. The potential effects of global warming on human society are devastating. We do, however, already have many of the technological solutions to cure our sick planet.

  10. Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.; Fleischman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation chimeras, and (b) fetal chimeras, produced by placental injection of bone marrow into genetically anemic Wx/Wv fetuses, a technique that essentially precludes engraftment of nonhematopoietic cells. Using two-color indirect immunofluorescence, the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow culture derived from these chimeras were analyzed for donor or host origin by strain-specific H-2 antigens, and for cell lineage by a variety of other specific markers. 75-95% of the stromal cells were shown to be hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, based upon donor origin, phagocytosis, and expression of specific hematopoietic surface antigens. The remaining 5-25% of the stromal cells were exclusively host in origin. Apart from occasional fat cells, these cells uniformly expressed collagen type IV, laminin, and a surface antigen associated with endothelial cells. Since these endothelial-like cells are not transplantable into radiation or fetal chimeras, they are not derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The contrast between our findings and human studies suggests either unexpected species differences in the origin of stromal lineages or limitations in the previous methodology used to detect nonhematopoietic stromal cells

  11. Virtual reality sickness questionnaire (VRSQ): Motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun K; Park, Jaehyun; Choi, Yeongcheol; Choe, Mungyeong

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device. The SSQ was administered immediately after each task, and the order of work was determined using the Latin square design. The existing SSQ was revised to develop a VR sickness questionnaire, which is used as the measurement index in a VR environment. In addition, the target selection method and button size were found to be significant factors that affect motion sickness in a VR environment. The results of this study are expected to be used for measuring and designing simulator sickness using VR devices in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Ionizing Radiation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel K. Sharma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR from terrestrial sources is continually an unprotected peril to human beings. However, the medical radiation and global radiation background are main contributors to human exposure and causes of radiation sickness. At high-dose exposures acute radiation sickness occurs, whereas chronic effects may persist for a number of years. Radiation can increase many circulatory, age related and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases occur a long time after exposure to radiation, as demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors, and are still controversial. This review discuss the role of IR in neurodegenerative diseases and proposes an association between neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to IR.

  13. Role of Ionizing Radiation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neel K.; Sharma, Rupali; Mathur, Deepali; Sharad, Shashwat; Minhas, Gillipsie; Bhatia, Kulsajan; Anand, Akshay; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) from terrestrial sources is continually an unprotected peril to human beings. However, the medical radiation and global radiation background are main contributors to human exposure and causes of radiation sickness. At high-dose exposures acute radiation sickness occurs, whereas chronic effects may persist for a number of years. Radiation can increase many circulatory, age related and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases occur a long time after exposure to radiation, as demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors, and are still controversial. This review discuss the role of IR in neurodegenerative diseases and proposes an association between neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to IR. PMID:29867445

  14. Sick but yet at work. An empirical study of sickness presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, G; Gustafsson, K; Dallner, M

    2000-07-01

    The study is an empirical investigation of sickness presenteeism in relation to occupation, irreplaceability, ill health, sickness absenteeism, personal income, and slimmed down organisation. Cross sectional design. Swedish workforce. The study group comprised a stratified subsample of 3801 employed persons working at the time of the survey, interviewed by telephone in conjunction with Statistics Sweden's labour market surveys of August and September 1997. The response rate was 87 per cent. A third of the persons in the total material reported that they had gone to work two or more times during the preceding year despite the feeling that, in the light of their perceived state of health, they should have taken sick leave. The highest presenteeism is largely to be found in the care and welfare and education sectors (nursing and midwifery professionals, registered nurses, nursing home aides, compulsory school teachers and preschool/primary educationalists. All these groups work in sectors that have faced personnel cutbacks during the 1990s). The risk ratio (odds ratio (OR)) for sickness presenteeism in the group that has to re-do work remaining after a period of absence through sickness is 2.29 (95% CI 1.79, 2.93). High proportions of persons with upper back/neck pain and fatigue/slightly depressed are among those with high presenteeism (pwork when sick. The link between difficulties in replacement or finding a stand in and sickness presenteeism is confirmed by study results. The categories with high sickness presenteeism experience symptoms more often than those without presenteeism. The most common combination is low monthly income, high sickness absenteeism and high sickness presenteeism.

  15. In Utero Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tippi C. Mackenzie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCTx is a promising strategy to circumvent the challenges of postnatal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation. The goal of IUHCTx is to introduce donor cells into a naïve host prior to immune maturation, thereby inducing donor–specific tolerance. Thus, this technique has the potential of avoiding host myeloablative conditioning with cytotoxic agents. Over the past two decades, several attempts at IUHCTx have been made to cure numerous underlying congenital anomalies with limited success. In this review, we will briefly review the history of IUHCTx and give a perspective on alpha thalassemia major, one target disease for its clinical application.

  16. Financial burden in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Nandita; Chang, Yu-hui; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Slack, James; Beebe, Timothy; Roy, Vivek; Noel, Pierre; Fauble, Veena; Sproat, Lisa; Tilburt, Jon; Leis, Jose F; Mikhael, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an expensive treatment for hematological disorders, little is known about the financial consequences for the patients who undergo this procedure. We analyzed factors associated with its financial burden and its impact on health behaviors of allogeneic HCT recipients. A questionnaire was retrospectively mailed to 482 patients who underwent allogeneic HCT from January 2006 to June 2012 at the Mayo Clinic, to collect information regarding current financial concerns, household income, employment, insurance, out-of-pocket expenses, and health and functional status. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with financial burden and treatment nonadherence. Of the 268 respondents (56% response rate), 73% reported that their sickness had hurt them financially. All patients for whom the insurance information was available (missing, n = 13) were insured. Forty-seven percent of respondents experienced financial burden, such as household income decreased by >50%, selling/mortgaging home, or withdrawing money from retirement accounts. Three percent declared bankruptcy. Younger age and poor current mental and physical functioning increased the likelihood of financial burden. Thirty-five percent of patients reported deleterious health behaviors because of financial constraints. These patients were likely to be younger, have lower education, and with a longer time since HCT. Being employed decreased the likelihood of experiencing financial burden and treatment nonadherence due to concern about costs. A significant proportion of allogeneic HCT survivors experience financial hardship despite insurance coverage. Future research should investigate potential interventions to help at-risk patients and prevent adverse financial outcomes after this life-saving procedure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life....... METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected...

  18. Attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Johnsen, Roar; Risør, Mette Bech

    2014-08-27

    In the health and care sector, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism are frequent phenomena and constitute a field in need of exploration. Attitudes towards sickness absence involve also attitudes towards sickness presenteeism, i.e. going to work while sick, confirmed by previous studies. Sickness behavior, reflecting attitudes on work absence, could differ between countries and influence absence rates. But little is known about attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. The aim of the present paper is therefore to explore attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees in both countries. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, the main attention of which was attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism. FGDs were conducted in two nursing homes in Norway and two in Denmark, with different geographic locations: one in a rural area and one in an urban area in each country. FGDs were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis to identify major themes and explanatory patterns. Four major significant themes were identified from the FGDs: a) sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, b) acceptable causes of sickness absence, c) job identity, and d) organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace. Our analyses showed that social commitment and loyalty to residents and colleagues was important for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, as were perceived acceptable and non-acceptable reasons for sickness absence. Organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace were also found to have an influence on attitudes towards sickness absence. The general interpretation of the findings was that attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees were embedded in situational patterns of moral relationships and were

  19. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Jensen, Chris; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2012-08-15

    Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1).The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 - 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 - 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 - 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 - 99.3) %. The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at least 15 days among eldercare employees. Pregnancy

  20. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapelfeldt Christina Malmose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1 validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2 validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6. Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100. The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9 weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1. The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5 % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6 % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6 % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3 %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick

  1. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  2. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi. ... Sera from 160 game ranger volunteers and from 82 suspected cases_of Rhodesian sleeping sickness were tested by use of ELISA, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerman, J.M.; Brennan, P.C.; Chubb, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: protracted gamma-irradiation of young adult beagles; effect of radiation dose rate on the development of th reproductive and endocrine systems of fetal and young growing beagles; and cellular effects of myelosuppressive agents on hematopoietic tissue structure and function; mechanisms of leukemia induction

  4. The acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami Filho, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symptoms and signs from medical aspects resulting from whole body exposure, or in the main part, to ionizing radiation are described. The dose-response relationship is studied and the exposure is divided in three parts: central nervous system syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome and hematopoietic syndrome. Brief comments about the treatment are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Radioprotective activity of Mentha piperita (Linn) against radiation induced alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, R.M.; Goyal, P.K.; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Mentha piperita (Linn.) (RUBL 19443) against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) (1 gm/kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (10 Gy) without ME pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 10 days post-irradiation. Conversely, animals pre-treated with ME showed 58 percent survival until 30 days after exposure. A significant decline in hematological constituents was evident until day 5, at later period of observation (day 5 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in ME pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. The results from the present study suggest that Mentha piperita (Linn.) has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral blood of mice against lethal dose of gamma radiation. (author)

  6. Risk of Hematopoietic and Lymphoproliferative Malignancies among U. S. Radiologic Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, M. S.; Fredman, D. M.; Mohan, A.; Morin Doody, M.; Ron, E.; Mabuchi, K.; Alexander, B. B.; Sigurdson, A.; Matanoski, G.; Hauptmann, M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate risks of hematopoietic and lymphoproliferative malignancies among medical workers exposed to protracted low-to-moderate-dose radiation exposures, a follow-up investigation was conducted in a nation wide cohort of U. S. radiologic technologists. eligible for this study were 71.894 technologists (78% female) certified for at least 2 years during 1926-82, who had responded to a baseline mail questionnaire during 1983-89, were cancer-free except for non-melanoma skin cancer at completion of the questionnaire, and completed a second questionnaire during 1994-98 or died through August 1998. There were 241 technologists with hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative malignancies, including 41 with leukemia subtypes associated with radiation exposures (specifically acute myeloid, acute lymphoid and chronic myeloid leukemias, hereafter designated radiogenic leukemias), 23 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with multiple myeloma, 118 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 31 with Hodgkin lymphoma. Of the 241 hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative malignancies identified among radiologic technologists, 85 percent were confirmed by medical records or death certificates, including 98 percent of radiogenic leukemia. Risks of the hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative malignancies were evaluated in relation to questionnaire-derived information on employment as a radiologic technologist, including procedures, work practices, and protective measures. cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to compute relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, using age at diagnosis as the response, stratifying at baseline for birth cohort in 5-year intervals, and adjusting for potential confounding. Risks were not increased for any of the hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative neoplasms according to year first worked or total duration of years worked as radiologic technologist. For the combined radiogenic leukemias, risks rose significantly with an increasing number of years worked

  7. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    's Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer...

  8. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  9. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  10. Cellular memory and, hematopoietic stem cell aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Leonie M.; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) balance self-renewal and differentiation in order to sustain lifelong blood production and simultaneously maintain the HSC pool. However, there is clear evidence that HSCs are subject to quantitative and qualitative exhaustion. In this review, we briefly discuss

  11. Comparison of chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-19

    Feb 19, 2013 ... scores before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients undergoing HSCT were included in the study. A pre-HSCT dental treatment protocol was implemented that consisted of restoration of all active carious lesions, treatment of ...

  12. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogojan, C; Frederiksen, J L

    2009-01-01

    Intensive immunosuppresion followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been suggested as potential treatment in severe forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Since 1995 ca. 400 patients have been treated with HSCT. Stabilization or improvement occurred in almost 70% of cases at least...

  13. Hematopoiesis and hematopoietic organs in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, Melina; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-03-01

    Hemocytes (blood cells) are motile cells that move throughout the extracellular space and that exist in all clades of the animal kingdom. Hemocytes play an important role in shaping the extracellular environment and in the immune response. Developmentally, hemocytes are closely related to the epithelial cells lining the vascular system (endothelia) and the body cavity (mesothelia). In vertebrates and insects, common progenitors, called hemangioblasts, give rise to the endothelia and blood cells. In the adult animal, many differentiated hemocytes seem to retain the ability to proliferate; however, in most cases investigated closely, the bulk of hemocyte proliferation takes place in specialized hematopoietic organs. Hematopoietic organs provide an environment where undifferentiated blood stem cells are able to self-renew, and at the same time generate offspring that differentiate into different blood cell types. Hematopoiesis in vertebrates, taking place in the bone marrow, has been subject to intensive research by immunologists and stem cell biologists. Much less is known about blood cell formation in invertebrate animals. In this review, we will survey structural and functional properties of invertebrate hematopoietic organs, with a main focus on insects and other arthropod taxa. We will then discuss similarities, at the molecular and structural level, that are apparent when comparing the development of blood cells in hematopoietic organs of vertebrates and arthropods. Our comparative review is intended to elucidate aspects of the biology of blood stem cells that are more easily missed when focusing on one or a few model species.

  14. Molecular regulation of human hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, P.L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peter van Galen focuses on understanding the determinants that maintain the stem cell state. Using human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a model, processes that govern self-renewal and tissue regeneration were investigated. Specifically, a role for microRNAs in balancing the human HSC

  15. Human hematopoietic cell culture, transduction, and analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Wirthlin, Louisa; Kohn, Donald B

    2008-01-01

    This unit provides methods for introducing genes into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Basic Protocol describes isolation of CD34(+) cells, transduction of these cells with a retroviral vector on fibronectin-coated plates, assaying the efficiency of transduction, and establishing long-te...

  16. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  17. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  18. Increased radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in SRC-3 knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jie; Wang Yu; Xu Yang; Chen Shilei; Wang Junping; Ran Xinze; Su Yongping; Wang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a multifunctional transcriptional coactivator, plays an important role in regulation of cell apoptosis in chemoresistant cancer cells. However, its role in radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic cells is still unclear. In this study, we used SRC-3 knockout (SRC-3 -/- ) mice to assess the role of SRC-3 in radiation-induced hematopoietic injury in vivo. After a range of doses of irradiation, SRC-3 -/- mice exhibited lower counts of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells and excessive BM depression, which resulted in a significantly higher mortality compared with wildtype mice. Moreover, BM mononuclear cells obtained from SRC-3 -/- mice showed a remarkable increase in radiation-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that SRC-3 plays a role in radiation-induced apoptosis of BM hematopoietic cells. Regulation of SRC-3 might influence the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic cells, which highlights a potential therapeutic target for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. (author)

  19. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  20. How Safe Is Measles Immunization Of Sick Children? | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study to ascertain how safe is maeales immunization of sick children was carried out in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Family Health Centre. Out of 125 children who were vaccinated against measles 17(16%) were sick at the time of vaccination. Two (12%) of the sick children had post vaccination reaction.

  1. Reliability of sickness certificates in detecting potential sick leave reduction by modifying working conditions: a clinical epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen Roar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical sickness certificates are generally the main source for information when scrutinizing the need for aimed intervention strategies to avoid or reduce the individual and community side effects of sick leave. This study explored the value of medical sickness certificates related to daily work in Norwegian National Insurance Offices to identify sick-listed persons, where modified working conditions might reduce the ongoing sick leave. Methods The potential for reducing the ongoing sick leave by modifying working conditions was individually assessed on routine sickness certificates in 999 consecutive sick leave episodes by four Norwegian National Insurance collaborators, two with and two without formal medical competence. The study took place in Northern Norway in 1997 and 1998. Agreement analysed with differences against mean, kappa, and proportional-agreement analysis within and between groups of assessors was used in the judgement. Agreements between the assessors and the self-assessment of sick-listed subjects were additionally analysed in 159 sick-leave episodes. Results Both sick-listed subjects and National Insurance collaborators anticipated a potential reduction in sick leave in 20–30% of cases, and in another 20% the potential was assessed as possible. The chance corrected agreements, however, were poor (k Conclusion Information in medical sickness certificates proved ineffective in detecting cases where modified working conditions may reduce sick leave, and focusing on medical certificates may prevent identification of needed interventions. Strategies on how to communicate directly with sick-listed subjects would enable social authorities to exploit more of the sick leave reduction potential by modifying the working conditions than strategies on improving medical information.

  2. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  3. [The sick individual as a concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo López, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We start from the premise, shared by some current philosophical movements and by the author, which states that philosophy is not contemplation, or reflection, or introspection or communication. Philosophy is the art of shaping, inventing and creating concepts. It is an explicit way of introducing new differences in life, a different reading level, a specific jargon, which may imply revealing the flip side of the coin, or a dissimilar view of the side facing us. The philosopher is the friend of the concept, he holds it in his power, which means, basically and in all honesty, that philosophy is the discipline of creating concepts. Let us remember the brilliant idea of the Russian director Tarkovsky, who announced his greatest ambition as an artist: "To capture time". At the same time, we must recall one of the sayings of this director: "Every film I have directed and I intend to direct is always tied to characters who have something to overcome". The healthy individual lives in a specific time, with precise coordinates, aware that his life consists only of living that time. That is, living as defined by Josep María Esquirol: "Then we could also see that the best way of living the present is not to run after the fleeing time, but to see and live the opportunity that appears before us". One of the many circumstances that can intercept the way we see and live the opportunity that appears before us is sickness, one of those inescapable experiences we have not been taught how to pay an adequate attention to, and the meaning of which can, in a way, go unnoticed. As "time" goes by, the circumstance that we consider to be the basis on which existence is founded, sickness can appear, thus introducing a new dimension in the time of the healthy individual. For this reason we, as doctors and professionals, know that sickness "is tied to characters who have something to overcome". In view of the fact that a sickness invades a healthy individual and transforms him into a sick one

  4. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.; de Bruin-Weller, MS

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify

  5. The differential role of pain, work characteristics and pain and sick leave in occupational settings

    OpenAIRE

    GHELDOF, Els; VINCK, Jan; Vlaeyen, J.; Hidding, A.; Crombez, G.

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional questionnaire study investigated the role of pain (pain severity, radiating pain), work characteristics (physical workload, job stressors, job satisfaction), negative affect and pain-related fear in accounting for low back pain (LBP) and sick leave (SL) in 1294 employees from 10 companies in Belgium and the Netherlands. An increased risk for short-term LBP (1–30 days during the last year) was observed for workers reporting high physical workload (OR=2.39), high task exert...

  6. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  7. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  8. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  9. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  10. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  11. The biochemistry of hematopoietic stem cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimakis, P; Crisan, M; Dzierzak, E

    2013-02-01

    The cornerstone of the adult hematopoietic system and clinical treatments for blood-related disease is the cohort of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that is harbored in the adult bone marrow microenvironment. Interestingly, this cohort of HSCs is generated only during a short window of developmental time. In mammalian embryos, hematopoietic progenitor and HSC generation occurs within several extra- and intraembryonic microenvironments, most notably from 'hemogenic' endothelial cells lining the major vasculature. HSCs are made through a remarkable transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to a hematopoietic fate that is long-lived and self-renewable. Recent studies are beginning to provide an understanding of the biochemical signaling pathways and transcription factors/complexes that promote their generation. The focus of this review is on the biochemistry behind the generation of these potent long-lived self-renewing stem cells of the blood system. Both the intrinsic (master transcription factors) and extrinsic regulators (morphogens and growth factors) that affect the generation, maintenance and expansion of HSCs in the embryo will be discussed. The generation of HSCs is a stepwise process involving many developmental signaling pathways, morphogens and cytokines. Pivotal hematopoietic transcription factors are required for their generation. Interestingly, whereas these factors are necessary for HSC generation, their expression in adult bone marrow HSCs is oftentimes not required. Thus, the biochemistry and molecular regulation of HSC development in the embryo are overlapping, but differ significantly from the regulation of HSCs in the adult. HSC numbers for clinical use are limiting, and despite much research into the molecular basis of HSC regulation in the adult bone marrow, no panel of growth factors, interleukins and/or morphogens has been found to sufficiently increase the number of these important stem cells. An understanding of the biochemistry of HSC

  12. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  13. Models of hemapoietic changes on the basis of systematically collected case histories of radiation accident victims as well as pathophysiologically evaluated patients after chronic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The research project ''Models of Hematopoietic Changes on the Basis of Systematically Collected Case Histories of Radiation Accident Victims as well as Pathophysiologically Evaluated Patients after Chronic Radiation Exposure'' required the investigation of four major research problem areas. First of all, biomathematical models were improved or newly developed allowing the simulation of the radiation induced response patterns of granulocytes, lymphocytes and blood platelets. The compartment model approach allowed the establishment of the correlation of such blood cell changes to the extent of damage at the level of hemopoietic stem cells distributed throughout the skeleton. The utilization of neural-network techniques resulted in a ''synergetic'' model that enables the medical doctor - using blood cell changes within the first 5-6 days after exposure - to predict the further course of illness and to allow a rational approach to clinical management. Secondly, available information on the clinical consequences of radiation exposure on more than 800 accident victims enabled the team to develop an entirely new concept to recognize and treat such persons. For this approach the biomathematical models were used to identify ''response categories'' (rather than dosimetrically defined ''exposure categories'') with an organ specific grading code of the severity of radiation-induced damage. This grading allowed the semi-quantitative damage assessment of the hemopoiesis, the neurovascular system, the gastrointestinal as well as the cutaneous system. It forms the basis for a ''weighted'' prognosis and for the logistics of radiation accident medical management. In the third project domain, models were developed to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of biological consequences of chronic radiation in human beings (former USSR) as well as in a preclinical dog study (USA). From a large group of patients with the diagnosis of ''Chronic Radiation Sickness'' more than 80 were

  14. Factors related to resistance to hematopoietic death in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuko; Okumoto, Masaaki; Yonezawa, Morio; Nishikawa, Ryosuke; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Esaki, Kozaburo.

    1994-01-01

    Mouse strain difference in the radiosensitivity to hematopoietic death is thought to be determined by several factors besides radiosensitivity and the initial number of hematopoietic stem cells. Factors related to the survival of mice exposed to X-irradiation were analyzed using BALB/cHeA and STS/A strains whose LD 50/30 values differ markedly (BALB/cHeA, 5.55 Gy; STS/A, 8.45 Gy). STS/A mice exposed to 4 Gy of X-irradiation showed a small reduction but rapid recovery of blood cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes) when compared with BALB/cHeA mice. The survival of endogenous and exogenous CFU-S was much higher, by a magnitude of one log or more, in STS/A mice than those in BALB/cHeA mice; whereas the initial numbers of femoral CFU-S were similar for the two strains. The recovery of exogenous CFU-S was much more rapid in STS/A mice than it was in BALB/cHeA mice after 4 Gy of X-irradiation. Furthermore, spleen colonies produced by the transfusion of STS/A marrow cells into syngeneic recipients were significantly larger than those produced by BALB/cHeA marrow cells, regardless of whether the mice used for sources of marrow cells had been irradiated. But, there was no such difference when unirradiated marrow cells from the two strains were transfused into (BALB/cHeA X STS/A) F 1 recipients. These results indicate the possible contribution of a host factor (s) that stimulates the growth of spleen colonies after radiation to the radioresistance of STS/A mice, in addition to the primary effect of higher number of survivals of endogenous and exogenous CFU-S in STS/A mice. (author)

  15. Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizer J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery.

  16. Hematopoietic stem cell origin of connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makio; Larue, Amanda C; Watson, Patricia M; Watson, Dennis K

    2010-07-01

    Connective tissue consists of "connective tissue proper," which is further divided into loose and dense (fibrous) connective tissues and "specialized connective tissues." Specialized connective tissues consist of blood, adipose tissue, cartilage, and bone. In both loose and dense connective tissues, the principal cellular element is fibroblasts. It has been generally believed that all cellular elements of connective tissue, including fibroblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and bone cells, are generated solely by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, a number of studies, including those from our laboratory based on transplantation of single hematopoietic stem cells, strongly suggested a hematopoietic stem cell origin of these adult mesenchymal tissues. This review summarizes the experimental evidence for this new paradigm and discusses its translational implications. Copyright 2010 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...... in the context of stem cell tracking in vivo. This review concludes with a section on the unexpected potential of bone marrow-derived stem cells to contribute to the repair of damaged tissues. The contribution of cell fusion to explain the latter phenomenon is discussed. SUMMARY: Because of exciting discoveries...

  18. Proliferative capacity of murine hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, S.; Botnick, L.E.; Hannon, E.C.; Vigneulle, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a decrease in self-renewal capacity with serial transfer of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Production of differentiated cell progeny is maintained longer than stem cell self-renewal. In normal animals the capacity for self-renewal is not decreased with increasing donor age. The stem cell compartment in normal animals, both young and old, appears to be proliferatively quiescent. After apparent recovery from the alkylating agent busulfan, the probability of stem cell self-renewal is decreased, there is a permanent defect in the capacity of the bone marrow for serial transplantation, and the stem cells are proliferatively active. These findings support a model of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment as a continuum of cells with decreasing capacities for self-renewal, increasing likelihood for differentiation, and increasing proliferative activity. Cells progress in the continuum in one direction and such progression is not reversible

  19. Proteomic cornerstones of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimmeck, Daniel; Hansson, Jenny; Raffel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative tissues such as the skin epidermis, the intestinal mucosa or the hematopoietic system are organized in a hierarchical manner with stem cells building the top of this hierarchy. Somatic stem cells harbor the highest self-renewal activity and generate a series of multipotent progenitors...... which differentiate into lineage committed progenitors and subsequently mature cells. In this report, we applied an in-depth quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare the full proteomes of ex vivo isolated and FACS-sorted populations highly enriched for either multipotent hematopoietic stem....../progenitor cells (HSPCs, Lin(neg)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)) or myeloid committed precursors (Lin(neg)Sca-1(-)c-Kit(+)). By employing stable isotope dimethyl labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry, more than 5,000 proteins were quantified. From biological triplicate experiments subjected to rigorous statistical...

  20. Hematopoietic cell phosphatase is recruited to CD22 following B cell antigen receptor ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankester, A. C.; van Schijndel, G. M.; van Lier, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell phosphatase is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cell lineages. Motheaten mice, which are devoid of (functional) hematopoietic cell phosphatase, have severe disturbances in the regulation of B cell activation and

  1. Two Hemocyte Lineages Exist in Silkworm Larval Hematopoietic Organ

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, Yuichi; Kanamori, Yasushi; Kiuchi, Makoto; Kamimura, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO) into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocyto...

  2. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  4. Sickness absence and sickness attendance--what people with neck or back pain think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Margareta; Boström, Carina; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin

    2006-05-01

    This study explores the decision of 33 men and women to be sick-listed from work for neck pain or low-back pain. Qualitative interviews with the subjects, who lived in a city or a sparsely populated area of Sweden, were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed in the interpretive tradition by the three authors. New, intense and threatening pain quickly made persons report sick. For other pain, sickness absence, its timing and duration, were negotiated on the basis of the subjects' self-image, work-duty norms, organisational and extra-organisational work factors. Thirty-one people aimed to return to work, but spine-related pain was a hindrance. Five strategies to avoid, delay or shorten sickness absence were identified. Concepts of the illness flexibility model well described how the workers balanced the factors driving them from work and those forcing them or attracting them to remain. The conclusion is that reporting sick is neither undertaken lightly nor for short-term reasons only. Instead, personal history and anticipated future, spine-related pain, workplace and labour market factors are also important considerations.

  5. Prediction of sickness absenteeism, disability pension and sickness presenteeism among employees with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Gunnar; Hagberg, Jan; Busch, Hillevi; Jensen, Irene; Björklund, Christina

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) concerning long-term sick leave, sickness presenteeism and disability pension during a follow-up period of 2 years. The study group consisted of 195 employees visiting the occupational health service (OHS) due to back pain. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the area under the curve (AUC) varied from 0.67 to 0.93, which was from less accurate for sickness presenteeism to highly accurate for the prediction of disability pension. For registered sick leave during 6 months following the baseline the AUC from the ROC analyses was moderately accurate (0.81) and a cut off score of 90 rendered a high sensitivity of 0.89 but a low specificity of 0.46 whereas a cut off score of 105 improves the specificity substantially but at the cost of some sensitivity. The predictive ability appears to decrease with time. Several workplace factors beyond those included in the ÖMPSQ were considered but only social support at the workplace was significantly related to future long-term sick leave besides the total score of the ÖMPSQ. The results of this study extend and confirm the findings of earlier research on the ÖMPSQ. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors among employees seeking help for back pain at the OHS could be helpful in the prevention of work disabling problems.

  6. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    ’s particular circumstances in deciding whether that patient is legitimately sick. The doctor is thus a gatekeeper of legitimacy. This article presents results from a qualitative interview study conducted in Denmark with GPs concerning their approach to patients with MUS. We employ a symbolic interaction...... to which GPs are able to constitute these patients as people with social problems and problematic personality traits....

  7. Absenteeism due to sickness in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczykiewicz, K.

    1980-01-01

    During two consecutive years sickness absence of 8005 miners from two pit coal mines (A and B) of different geological structure and mechanization degree was analysed. It was found that in mine ''A'' 37% had no sick leaves, whereas in mine ''B''--28%. Absence rate was similar in both mines (though the miners' work and living conditions differed), i.e. 5.21% in mine ''A'', and 5.98% in mine ''B''. Thus work and living conditions do not determine general sickness absence rate. The highest absence in both mines was that of miners frequently falling ill for a long time (approx. 5.5% miners). For the group the number of work disablement days was 28.8 and 26.7, respectively. Underground miners' sickness absence was higher than that of surface workers, the rate being 3.8 and 4.0 and 1.1 and 2.1, respectively. The highest absence was that of miners travelling to work on motor cycles (7.1 and 7.3) and bicycles (6.4 and 6.7). Those working regularly in the first shift were more frequently absent from work than those working in different shifts. Miners living in worse conditions had higher absence rate than those living in flats of a higher standard. Also elderly employees and those having children represented a higher absence rate. The highest absence rate was that of workers having four children, the lowest--that of single persons. In addition, specific absence rate of men, especially due to respiratory and circulatory system diseases, was found to be enhanced by smoking. Absence rate of smokers was 2--3 times higher than that of non-smokers.

  8. Sickness Absence: a Pan-European Study

    OpenAIRE

    Livanos, Ilias; Zangelidis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    This study, using the EU-LFS, examines the determinants of sickness absence in 26 EU countries. The analysis highlights the importance of demographic and workplace characteristics and of institutional and societal conditions. Female workers aged 26-35 exhibit higher absenteeism, possibly reflecting the level of high household labour pressure. Increased job insecurity, captured by temporary contracts, and labour market uncertainty, reflected in higher unemployment rates, have a negative effect...

  9. Work, Sickness, Absence, and Identity-Work

    OpenAIRE

    Trude Gjernes

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how a group of industrial workers experience long-term sickness absence and how they cope with this situation. The article presents data from in-depth interviews with male industrial workers employed in a Norwegian factory. The findings suggest that the factory workers handle their failing health by engaging in activities other than wage work. They did not accept a social situation characterized by passivity, social isolation, marginalization, or loss of self. The worker...

  10. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  11. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certifi cates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results: TheGPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  12. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Simon N; van Os, Ronald P; Bunting, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Animal models have added significantly to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. Such models suggest that changes in the interaction between the HSPC and the hematopoietic microenvironmental 'niche' (cellular and extracellular components)

  13. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Karim; Patel, Nihar; Jain, Maneesh; El-Amm, Joelle; Amro, Farah; Tabbara, Imad A

    2014-08-01

    Infection, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and to a lesser extent sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) represent the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). During the last decade, progress in prevention and treatment of these complications led to improvement in the outcome of these patients. Despite the fact that nonmyeloablative regimens have been increasingly used in elderly patients and in patients with co-morbidities, the nonrelapse related mortality remains a challenge and long-term follow-up is required. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an updated concise review of the complications of AHSCT and of the available treatment interventions.

  15. Turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorie, M J; Maloney, M A; Patt, H M

    1979-10-01

    Short-term parabiosis of male and female CBA/CaJ mice was used to investigate the turnover of circulating hematopoietic stem cells. The change and subsequent disappearance of donor stem cells were monitored by spleen colony assay and chromosome analysis of individual colonies. The results revealed an exponential disappearance of pluripotent stem cells from blood with a characteristic half time of 1.7 h. Blood-borne stem cells were shown to be equilibrated with a subpopulation of marrow stem cells exhibiting a disappearance half time of 9.5 h. Splenectomy did not change the apparent rate of stem cell removal from the blood.

  16. [Clinical roles of vitamins in hematopoietic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Kanamaru, A

    1999-10-01

    Vitamins are essential organisms which promote various metabolisms and physiological systems. Several vitamins play important roles in hematopoietic system. Vitamin B12, C and folic acid are associated with DNA synthesis of erythroid nucleus, the deficiency of which causes the megaloblastic anemia. Some megaloblatic anemia and sideroblastic anemia might response to vitamin B1 and B6, respectively. Vitamin K participates in some coagulation factors in coagulation-fibrinogenolysis system. It has been reported that vitamins A, D and K potentially differentiate leukemic cells and then induce the apoptosis, suggesting that they would be new therapeutic agents in acute leukemia.

  17. Mechanism of hematopoietic stem cell homing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fuquan

    2000-01-01

    The clinical transplantation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) originating from many sources such as bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood has been widely applied in recent years. At the same time, the development of the study on the mechanism of HSC homing which involves multi-procedures has been achieved. And a lot of molecular and cytokines on the surface or in the microenvironment of HSC are functioning in homing. The purpose of is to review those molecular and cytokines on which more studies have been focused in the past

  18. Effect of single lithium doses on haemopoiesis regeneration after radiation exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, K.

    1988-01-01

    The reported experiment failed to demonstrate any effect of single doses of lithium carbonate on haemopoiesis regeneration in experimental haematological syndrome of acute radiation sickness. The effects of gamma radiation on blood formation are shown. 3 figs., 6 refs. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Reproductive Function for Patients with Chronic Radiation Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    diseases: diseases of the respiratory organs (bronchoectasis), diabetes , hepatic and renal insufficiency. The method of choice used to identify the causes...of the patients was infantilism , i.e., retarded and insufficient sexual development. As is indicated in publication [29], in 4 cases out of 940 the...both legs and left forearm after a railway disaster. The two remaining women, twins born in 1944, were diagnosed with infantilism which is

  20. Radioimmunologic study of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkalaya, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    Insulin secretion in irradiated (750 R) albino rats has been studied radioimmunologically. The data obtained were correlated with the corticosterone and glucose contents of blood. It has been shown that there is a risk of relative incompetence of insulin secretion during the hypercorticoidism and hyperglycemia

  1. Radioimmunologic study of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1977-01-01

    Insulin secretion in irradiated (750 R) albino rats has been studied radioimmunologically. The data obtained were correlated with the corticosterone and glucose contents of blood. It has been shown that there is a risk of relative incompetence of insulin secretion during the hypercorticoidism and hyperglycemia.

  2. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmieke van Os-Medendorp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD. The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40 or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96 may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  3. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-03-27

    Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  4. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  5. Paid Sick Leave as a Means to Reduce Sickness Presenteeism Among Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Steen Rostad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent international data show that physicians often attend work while ill, termed sickness presenteeism. The current study investigated if sickness presenteeism scores among European physicians varied according to national paid sick leave legislation. We hypothesized that prevalence of presenteeism was higher in countries with lower levels of paid sick leave. We used repeated cross-sectional survey data, phase I (2004/2005, N = 1326 and phase II (2012/2013, N = 1403, among senior consultants at university hospitals in Sweden, Norway, and Italy. Analyses of variances assessed cross-country differences in presenteeism. To assess the impact of country on presenteeism, we used multiple regression analyses controlled for sex, age, family status, work hours, and work content. The results from phase I supported the initial hypothesis. At phase II, presenteeism scores had decreased among the Italian and Swedish sample. The results are discussed with regard to changes in legislation on workhours and medical liability in Italy and Sweden between phase I and II.

  6. Identifying the Subtle Presentation of Decompression Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Kenneth

    2015-12-01

    Decompression sickness is an inherent occupational hazard that has the possibility to leave its victims with significant long-lasting effects that can potentially impact an aircrew's flight status. The relative infrequency of this hazard within the military flying community along with the potentially subtle presentation of decompression sickness (DCS) has the potential to result in delayed diagnosis and treatment, leading to residual deficits that can impact a patient's daily life or even lead to death. The patient presented in this work was diagnosed with a Type II DCS 21 h after a cabin decompression at 35,000 ft (10,668 m). The patient had been asymptomatic with a completely normal physical/neurological exam following his flight. The following day, he presented with excessive fatigue and on re-evaluation was recommended for hyperbaric therapy, during which his symptoms completely resolved. He was re-evaluated 14 d later and cleared to resume flight duties without further incident. The manifestation of this patient's decompression sickness was subtle and followed an evaluation that failed to identify any focal findings. A high index of suspicion with strict follow-up contributed to the identification of DCS in this case, resulting in definitive treatment and resolution of the patient's symptoms. Determination of the need for hyperbaric therapy following oxygen supplementation and a thorough history and physical is imperative. If the diagnosis is in question, consider preemptive hyperbaric therapy as the benefits of treatment in DCS outweigh the risks of treatment. Finally, this work introduces the future potential of neuropsychological testing for both the diagnosis of DCS as well as assessing the effectiveness of hyperbaric therapy in Type II DCS.

  7. Changes in alcohol drinking and subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Sick-visit immunizations and delayed well-baby visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-07-01

    Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.

  9. Hematopoietic stem cell fate through metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke

    2018-05-25

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain a quiescent state in the bone marrow to preserve their self-renewal capacity, but also undergo cell divisions as required. Organelles such as the mitochondria sustain cumulative damage during these cell divisions, and this damage may eventually compromise the cells' self-renewal capacity. HSC divisions result in either self-renewal or differentiation, with the balance between the two directly impacting hematopoietic homeostasis; but the heterogeneity of available HSC-enriched fractions, together with the technical challenges of observing HSC behavior, has long hindered the analysis of individual HSCs, and prevented the elucidation of this process. However, recent advances in genetic models, metabolomics analyses and single-cell approaches have revealed the contributions made to HSC self-renewal by metabolic cues, mitochondrial biogenesis, and autophagy/mitophagy, which have highlighted mitochondrial quality as a key control factor in the equilibrium of HSCs. A deeper understanding of precisely how specific modes of metabolism control HSC fate at the single cell level is therefore not only of great biological interest, but will have clear clinical implications for the development of therapies for hematological disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerman, Isabel; Rossi, Derrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging

  11. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerman, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.beerman@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States); Rossi, Derrick J. [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging.

  12. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  13. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  14. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeen, M; Magnussen, L H; Maeland, S; Larun, L; Eriksen, H R; Tveito, T H

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT.

  15. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers

  16. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  17. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  18. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  19. Job satisfaction and sickness absence: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Koopmans, Petra C; Notenbomer, Annette; Groothoff, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. A sample of workers was randomly drawn from a population of employees who had an episode of absence between January and April 2003. Job satisfaction was measured using a validated single question with a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction levels were linked to the number of recorded sickness absence days and episodes in 2003, distinguishing between short (1-7 days) episodes and long (>7 days) episodes. Of 898 questionnaires distributed, 518 (58%) were returned. The mean+/-standard deviation job satisfaction level was 5.1+/-1.4 and negatively related to the number of sickness absence days. Job satisfaction was also negatively related to the number of short episodes and long episodes of absence, but these associations were not significant. Job satisfaction was significantly related to total sickness absence duration. The association with the number of sickness absence episodes was weak and just below the level of statistical significance. Assessing work satisfaction levels might usefully identify those workers most likely to have the greatest sickness absence duration.

  20. SICK SINUS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Kazakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a clinical case of 2 patients with heart arrhythmias of the sick sinus syndrome type, who were implanted electriccardiac pacemakers in the acute period of cerebrovascular accidents. There were no cardiac complaints in the clinical manifestation, however, a comprehensive assessment confirmed the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome.

  1. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  2. Motion sickness and postural sway in console video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Faugloire, Elise; Yoshida, Ken; Flanagan, Moira B; Merhi, Omar

    2008-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that (a) participants might develop motion sickness while playing "off-the-shelf" console video games and (b) postural motion would differ between sick and well participants, prior to the onset of motion sickness. There have been many anecdotal reports of motion sickness among people who play console video games (e.g., Xbox, PlayStation). Participants (40 undergraduate students) played a game continuously for up to 50 min while standing or sitting. We varied the distance to the display screen (and, consequently, the visual angle of the display). Across conditions, the incidence of motion sickness ranged from 42% to 56%; incidence did not differ across conditions. During game play, head and torso motion differed between sick and well participants prior to the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness. The results indicate that console video games carry a significant risk of motion sickness. Potential applications of this research include changes in the design of console video games and recommendations for how such systems should be used.

  3. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  4. Artificial horizon effects on motion sickness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Dror; Gonen, Adi; Wiener, Guy; Bar, Ronen; Gil, Amnon; Nachum, Zohar; Shupak, Avi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate whether the projection of Earth-referenced scenes during provocative motion can alleviate motion sickness severity and prevent motion sickness-induced degradation of performance. Exposure to unfamiliar motion patterns commonly results in motion sickness and decreased performance. Thirty subjects with moderate-to-severe motion sickness susceptibility were exposed to the recorded motion profile of a missile boat under moderate sea conditions in a 3-degrees-of-freedom ship motion simulator. During a 120-minute simulated voyage, the study participants were repeatedly put through a performance test battery and completed a motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire, while self-referenced and Earth-referenced visual scenes were projected inside the closed simulator cabin. A significant decrease was found in the maximal motion sickness severity score, from 9.83 ± 9.77 (mean ± standard deviation) to 7.23 ± 7.14 (p pitch, and heave movements of the simulator. Although there was a significant decrease in sickness severity, substantial symptoms still persisted. Decision making, vision, concentration, memory, simple reasoning, and psychomotor skills all deteriorated under the motion conditions. However, no significant differences between the projection conditions could be found in the scores of any of the performance tests. Visual information regarding the vessel's movement provided by an artificial horizon device might decrease motion sickness symptoms. However, although this device might be suitable for passive transportation, the continued deterioration in performance measures indicates that it provides no significant advantage for personnel engaged in the active operation of modern vessels.

  5. Sickness Behaviour: Causes and Effects | Viljoen | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sickness behaviour as a central motivational state. It deals with the adaptational value and underlying mechanisms of sickness behaviour and with the consequences of the body's failure to terminate the activity of the symptoms-producing cytokines. SA Fam Pract 2003;45(10):15-18 ...

  6. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  7. Subjective health complaints in relation to sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Dutch population is healthy in terms of living and working conditions, but the levels of subjective health complaints (SHC) and sickness absence are high in the Dutch workforce. Are SHC related to sickness absence? Participants: The study population included the personnel of four

  8. Avoidable sickness absence in a dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers

  9. [Vestibular testing abnormalities in individuals with motion sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Ou, Yongkang; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Yiqing

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the vestibular function of motion sickness. VNG, which tests the vestibular function of horizontal semicircular canal, and CPT, which tests vestibulospinal reflex and judge proprioceptive, visual and vestibular status, were performed in 30 motion sickness patients and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). Graybiel score was recorded at the same time. Two groups' Graybiel score (12.67 +/- 11.78 vs 2.10 +/- 6.23; rank test P<0.05), caloric test labyrinth value [(19.02 +/- 8.59) degrees/s vs (13.58 +/- 5.25) degrees/s; t test P<0.05], caloric test labyrinth value of three patients in motion sickness group exceeded 75 degrees/s. In computerized posturography testing (CPT), motion sickness patients were central type (66.7%) and disperse type (23.3%); all of control group were central type. There was statistical significance in two groups' CTP area, and motion sickness group was obviously higher than control group. While stimulating vestibulum in CPT, there was abnormality (35%-50%) in motion sickness group and none in control group. Generally evaluating CPT, there was only 2 proprioceptive hypofunction, 3 visual hypofunction, and no vestibular hypofunction, but none hypofunction in control group. Motion sickness patients have high vestibular susceptible, some with vestibular hyperfunction. In posturography, a large number of motion sickness patients are central type but no vestibular hypofunction, but it is hard to keep balance when stimulating vestibulum.

  10. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of

  11. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  12. The study of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, I.; Hassan, K.A.; Ahmad, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number of cases and manifestations of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates. Subjects and Methods: A total of 365 neonates from 0-28 days of age admitted with different clinical problems irrespective of birth weight and gestational age were evaluated for thrombocytopenia. These neonates were categorized into five different groups (A-E), which were of neonatal infections, asphyxia neonatorum, preterm and smallness for gestational age, jaundice and miscellaneous respectively. Results: Out of 365 cases, 88 were found to have thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 150,000 per mm/sup 3/) which was 24.1% of the total. In group A (neonatal infections), out of 152 neonates, 62 had low platelet counts (40.78%). In group B (neonatal asphyxia), out of 90 only 11 had thrombocytopenia (12.2%). In group C (preterm and small for gestational age), out of 60 cases only 9 had thrombocytopenia. In group D (jaundice), all 33 cases had normal platelet counts. In group E (miscellaneous), out of 30 cases only 6 had thrombocytopenia. The common manifestations in thrombocytopenic babies were petechiae and bruises followed by gastrointestinal hemorrhages. The percentage of manifest thrombocytopenia cases was 56.8% and of occult thrombocytopenia 43.1 %. Conclusion: The leading causes of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates are infections, asphyxia, complicated pre- maturity and smallness for gestational age. Apart from the platelet counts the bleeding mainfestations also depend upon the underlying ailments. (author)

  13. Parental availability for the care of sick children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Earle, A; Egleston, B

    1996-08-01

    Parents have always played a critical role in the care of sick children. Although parents' roles remain crucial to children's health, parental availability has declined during the past half century. The percentage of women with preschool children who work has risen almost fivefold in 45 years from 12% in 1947 to 58% in 1992. The percentage of women in the paid work force with school-aged children has almost tripled in the same period, from 27.3% to 75.9%. Research has examined the effects of a variety of parental work conditions on children. However, past research has not examined how working conditions affect the ability of parents to care for their sick children. In this article, we examine how often the children of working parents get sick and whether parents receive enough paid leave to care for their sick children. This analysis makes use of two national surveys, which provide complementary information regarding the care of sick children. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative probability sample of 12,686 men and women; the National Medical Expenditure Survey is a panel survey of 34,459 people. First, we estimated the family illness burden. Second, we looked in detail at the number of days of sick leave mothers had. Third, we examined whether mothers who had sick leave had it consistently during a 5-year period. Finally, we conducted a logistic regression to determine what factors were significant predictors of both lacking sick leave. More than one in three families faced a family illness burden of 2 weeks or more each year. Yet, 28% of mothers had sick leave none of the time they were employed between 1985 and 1990. Employed mothers of children with chronic conditions had less sick leave than other employed mothers. Thirty-six percent of mothers whose children had chronic conditions had sick leave none of the time they were employed. Although 20% of working parents who did not live in poverty lacked

  14. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  15. Plerixafor (a CXCR4 antagonist following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation enhances hematopoietic recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. B. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of CXCR4 with its ligand (stromal-derived factor-1 maintains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in a quiescent state. We hypothesized that blocking CXCR4/SDF-1 interaction after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT promotes hematopoiesis by inducing HSC proliferation. Methods We conducted a phase I/II trial of plerixafor on hematopoietic cell recovery following myeloablative allogeneic HSCT. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving myeloablative conditioning were enrolled. Plerixafor 240 μg/kg was administered subcutaneously every other day beginning day +2 until day +21 or until neutrophil recovery. The primary efficacy endpoints of the study were time to absolute neutrophil count >500/μl and platelet count >20,000/μl. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment of the study cohort was compared to that of a cohort of 95 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipients treated during the same period of time and who received similar conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Results Thirty patients received plerixafor following peripheral blood stem cell (n = 28 (PBSC or bone marrow (n = 2 transplantation. Adverse events attributable to plerixafor were mild and indistinguishable from effects of conditioning. The kinetics of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, as demonstrated by cumulative incidence, from the 28 study subjects receiving PBSC showed faster neutrophil (p = 0.04 and platelet recovery >20 K (p = 0.04 compared to the controls. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that plerixafor can be given safely following myeloablative HSCT. It provides proof of principle that blocking CXCR4 after HSCT enhances hematopoietic recovery. Larger, confirmatory studies in other settings are warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280955

  16. Sickness benefit cuts mainly affect blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaviksoo, E; Kiivet, R-A

    2014-08-01

    To analyse the impact of sick-pay cuts on the use of sickness absence by employees of different socioeconomic groups. In 2009 cuts in sick pay were implemented in reaction to an economic crisis in Estonia. Nationwide health survey data from the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 were used to evaluate sickness absence among blue-collar and white-collar workers. The dataset comprised 7,449 employees of 20-64 years of age. Difference in prevalence of absentees before and after the reform was assessed using the chi-squared test. Odds ratios (OR) for sickness absence were calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. After the reform, the proportion of blue-collar workers who had been on sick leave decreased from 51% to 40% (pgender, age, self-rated health, and presence of chronic disease, especially among those with low incomes; in white-collar employees it reached statistical significance only in those with good self-rated health (p=0.033). In a multivariate model the odds of having lower sickness absence were highly significant only in blue-collar employees (OR 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.77, p<0.001). The cuts in sickness benefits had a major impact on the use of sickness absence by blue-collar employees with low salaries. This indicates that lower income was a major factor hindering the use of sick leave as these employees are most vulnerable to the loss of income. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. How physicians have learned to handle sickness-certification cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anna; Silén, Charlotte; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2011-05-01

    Sickness absence is a common ''prescription'' in health care in many Western countries. Despite the significance of sick-listing for the life situation of patients, physicians have limited training in how to handle sickness-certification cases and the research about sickness-certification practices is scarce. Gain knowledge on physicians' learning regarding management of sickness certification of patients in formal, informal, and non-formal learning situations, respectively, and possible changes in this from 2004 to 2008. Data from two comprehensive questionnaires to physicians in Sweden about their sickness-certification practice in 2004 (n = 7665) and 2008 (n = 36,898); response rates: 71% and 61%, respectively. Answers from all the physicians ≤64 years old and who had sickness certification tasks (n = 4019 and n = 14,210) were analysed. ratings of importance of different types of learning situations for their sickness-certification competence. Few physicians stated that formal learning situations had contributed to a large or fairly large extent to their competence in sickness certification, e.g. undergraduate studies had done that for 17%, internship for 37%, and resident training for 46%, respectively. Contacts with colleagues had been helpful for 65%. One-third was helped by training arranged by social insurance offices. There was a significant increase between 2004 and 2008 in all items related to formal and non-formal learning situations, while there were no changes regarding informal learning situations. This study of all physicians in Sweden shows that physicians primarily attain competence in sickness certification in their daily clinical practice; through contacts with colleagues and patients.

  18. Medically certified sickness absence among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Rajab Ali; Sikander, Raheel; Khawaja, Asad Ali; Jareno, Rechel Joy Macadaan; Halepota, Aurangzeb Taj

    2012-09-01

    To compare the days and spells of sickness absence among males versus females and Saudi nationals versus expatriate employees of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, and to identify the cause of sickness absence. The cross-sectional, descriptive study comprised 3117 King Khalid University Hospital employees. Records of physician-certified sickness absence from January 1 to June 30, 2009, were obtained from the employee health clinic's register. Absence rate, frequency, duration and severity were assessed and compared between genders and nationalities, and causes were noted. SPSS version 16 and student's t test were used for statistical analyses and comparison. A total of 377 (12.1 %) employees had 416 spells of sickness absence with 639 sick-off days (mean: 1.54 +/- 0.85). The probability of sickness absence was higher among Saudi (OR=1.33) and female (OR=1.39) employees. The association of sickness absence was not found among the absentees with either gender (p= 0.335) or nationality (p = 0.086). Almost all spells of sick-off days were of short duration. Longer spells were mainly due to chicken pox which was found to be more among the expatriates. Heavy absenteeism was found only among the Saudis. The most common causes of sickness absence were acute upper respiratory infection, diseases of musculoskeletal system and the digestive system. The rate, frequency and duration of absence due to sickness in the study were higher among Saudi and female employees. The rate of absence, with passage of time, has increased significantly among Saudi nationals.

  19. Tritium contamination of hematopoietic stem cells alters long-term hematopoietic reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giacomo, F.; Barroca, V.; Laurent, D.; Lewandowski, D.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Granotier, Ch.; Boussin, F.D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In vivo effects of tritium contamination are poorly documented. Here, we study the effects of tritiated Thymidine ([ 3 H] Thymidine) or tritiated water (HTO) contamination on the biological properties of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Materials and methods: Mouse HSC were contaminated with concentrations of [ 3 H] Thymidine ranging from 0.37-37.03 kBq/ml or of HTO ranging from 5-50 kBq/ml. The biological properties of contaminated HSC were studied in vitro after HTO contamination and in vitro and in vivo after [ 3 H] Thymidine contamination. Results: Proliferation, viability and double-strand breaks were dependent on [ 3 H] Thymidine or HTO concentrations used for contamination but in vitro myeloid differentiation of HSC was not affected by [ 3 H] Thymidine contamination. [ 3 H] Thymidine contaminated HSC showed a compromised long-term capacity of hematopoietic reconstitution and competition experiments showed an up to two-fold decreased capacity of contaminated HSC to reconstitute hematopoiesis. These defects were not due to impaired homing in bone marrow but to an initial decreased proliferation rate of HSC. Conclusion: These results indicate that contaminations of HSC with doses of tritium that do not result in cell death, induce short-term effects on proliferation and cell cycle and long-term effects on hematopoietic reconstitution capacity of contaminated HSC. (authors)

  20. Physiologic mechanisms in radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichard, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: role of the reticuloendothelial system in the regeneration of the hematopoietic system; uptake of colloidal agents by liver and spleen cells following graded doses of x radiation; effects of x radiation on peritoneal macrophages of rats; stimulation of phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system by estrogens, serum albumin, and bacterial endotoxins; and sequestration of particulate material within the reticuloendothelial organs following x irradiation

  1. Protective effects of HemoHIM on immune and hematopoietic systems against γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effect of HemoHIM on the protective efficacy of hematopoietic stem cells and on the recovery of immune cells against sublethal doses of ionizing radiation. Two-month-old mice were exposed to γ-rays at a dose of 8, 6.5, or 5 Gy for a30-day survival study, endogenous spleen colony formation, or other experiments, respectively. HemoHIM was injected intraperitoneally before and after irradiation. Our results showed that HemoHIM significantly decreased the mortality of sublethally irradiated mice. The HemoHIM administration decreased the apoptosis of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice. On the other hand, HemoHIM increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony in irradiated mice. In irradiated mice, the recovery of total leukocytes in the peripheral blood and lymphocytes in the spleen were enhanced significantly by HemoHIM. Moreover, the function of B cells, T cells, and NK cells regenerated in irradiated mice were significantly improved by the administration of HemoHIM. HemoHIM showed an ideal radioprotector for protecting hematopoietic stem cells and for accelerating the recovery of immune cells. We propose HemoHIM as a beneficial supplement drug during radiotherapy to alleviate adverse radiation-induced effects for cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Home care services for sick children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castor, Charlotte; Hallström, Inger; Hansson, Eva Helena

    2017-01-01

    as challenging for healthcare professionals in home care services used to providing care predominately for adults. DESIGN: An inductive qualitative design. METHOD: Seven focus group interviews were performed with 36 healthcare professionals from multidisciplinary home care services. Data were analysed stepwise......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare professionals' conceptions of caring for sick children in home care services. BACKGROUND: Families often prefer home care to hospital care, and the number of home care services for children is increasing. Caring for children at home has been recognised...... using a phenomenographic analysis. RESULTS: Three description categories emerged: "A challenging opportunity", "A child perspective", and "Re-organise in accordance with new prerequisites." Providing home care services for children was conceived to evoke both professional and personal challenges...

  3. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  4. Associations between work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, R M; Nijhuis, F J; Kok, G

    1998-02-01

    To test an interactional model on the associations between work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Cross-sectional survey. The study was part of a Worksite Health Project including an Employee Assistance Programme and a Health Promotion Programme in the Netherlands. Participants were blue-collar workers from two Municipal Garbage Collecting Departments and white-collar workers from a Pharmaceutical Company (N = 471). Measurements included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status), work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Type of work-site (blue- or white-collar) and smoking behaviour were used as covariates. Regression analyses resulted in three major findings. First, in the presence of stress, abstinence increased the risk of sickness absence compared with moderate drinking. We failed to find a significant relationship between excessive drinking and sickness absence. Secondly, stress mediated the associations between stressor and alcohol consumption, and between stressor and sickness absence, although stressors also directly predicted sickness absence. The association between abstinence and sickness absence could reflect medical problems of abstainers or a lack of skills for coping with stress. The failure to find a significant detrimental effect of excessive drinking may have been due to use of a low threshold for excessive drinking and/or low power. Prospective studies are needed to gain insight in causal relationships between the variables concerned.

  5. Work health determinants in employees without sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, E; Theorell, T; Nilsson, B; Saraste, H

    2013-01-01

    Working ability is known to be related to good physical condition, clear work tasks, positive feedback and other occupational, organizational and psychosocial factors. In Sweden, high levels of sickness absence are due to stress-related disorders and musculoskeletal pain. To identify work health characteristics in a working population with a large variety of professional skills and occupational tasks. Employers' data on occupation, sickness absence, age and gender in a working population of 11 occupational groups and questionnaire responses regarding work-organization, environment, work stress, pain, health, and socio-demographic factors were collected. Employees with no history of sick-leave were compared with those with a history of sick-leave (1-182 days, mean 25 days). Of 2641 employees, 1961 participated. Those with no history of sick-leave reported less work-related pain, work-related stress, sleep disturbances, worry about their health, 'sick-presenteeism', monotonous work, bent and twisted working positions and exposure to disturbing noise than those with a history of sick-leave (P health, support from superiors, having influence on their working hours and evening and week-end working, longer working hours per week (P health and less neck, shoulder and back pain and more support from their superiors and influence on their working hours.

  6. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  7. Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E

    2009-12-01

    To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.

  8. Biology and flow cytometry of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan A; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    During development, hematopoiesis and neovascularization are closely linked to each other via a common bipotent stem cell called the hemangioblast that gives rise to both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In postnatal life, this functional connection between the vasculature and hematopoiesis is maintained by a subset of hematopoietic progenitor cells endowed with the capacity to differentiate into potent proangiogenic cells. These proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors comprise a specific subset of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells that homes to sites of neovascularization and possess potent paracrine angiogenic activity. There is emerging evidence that this subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitors plays a critical role in vascular health and disease. Their angiogenic activity is distinct from putative "endothelial progenitor cells" that become structural cells of the endothelium by differentiation into endothelial cells. Proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell research requires multidisciplinary expertise in flow cytometry, hematology, and vascular biology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell biology and flow cytometric methods to detect these cells in the peripheral blood circulation and BM. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. The Role of Toll Like Receptors in Hematopoietic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Monlish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that shape the innate immune system by identifying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS and host-derived damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPS. TLRs are widely expressed on both immune cells and non-immune cells, including hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, effector immune cell populations, and endothelial cells. In addition to their well-known role in the innate immune response to acute infection or injury, accumulating evidence supports a role for TLRs in the development of hematopoietic and other malignancies. Several hematopoietic disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders and myelodysplastic syndromes, which possess a high risk of transformation to leukemia, have been linked to aberrant TLR signaling. Furthermore, activation of TLRs leads to the induction of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which can promote tumorigenesis by driving cell proliferation and migration and providing a favorable microenvironment for tumor cells. Beyond hematopoietic malignancies, the upregulation of a number of TLRs has been linked to promoting tumor cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis in a variety of cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and lung. This review focuses on the contribution of TLRs to hematopoietic malignancies, highlighting the known direct and indirect effects of TLR signaling on tumor cells and their microenvironment. In addition, the utility of TLR agonists and antagonists as potential therapeutics in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies is discussed.

  10. [Assistance and care of the sick in early Christianity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritano, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Christianity presents a new vision of man (personalistic anthropology) and refers to the example and words of Jesus, highlighting the inseparable relationship between the love of God and the love of man. The article describes the assistance and care of the sick in the East and West in the early Christian centuries; the 'places of care'- nosokomia for the sicks, gerontokomia for the olders, brephotropia for abandoned children, orphanage structures; the managers of hospitals, ecclesistical dignitaries, lay personnel, monks, operators and employees. Christianity gave dignity to the sick and opportunity to serve humanity to the healthy.

  11. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  12. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    's salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...

  13. Managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (women. Autocratic leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.

  14. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  15. Effects of Autonomic Conditioning on Motion Sickness Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human Physiological- responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and test-only controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  16. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick......, employees have the choice of whether to go to work or to stay at home. Therefore, determinants of (sickness) absenteeism and presenteeism should be examined simultaneously. Nursing homes are faced with a particularly high prevalence of both absenteeism and presenteeism and are therefore a relevant object...... of investigation. PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants...

  17. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... to it. Former Alabama lead singer Randy Owen sings his new song, "Braid My Hair." Photo courtesy ...

  18. Gut Feelings About Gastritis: When Your Stomach's Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... November 2012 Print this issue Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Send us your comments ... protective response to injury or infection. is called gastritis, and it can cause long-term problems. Some ...

  19. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is an ever-increasing burden on the health sector. With reported incidences .... schedule to reduce the likelihood of AMS. The data ... of Health and. Multidisciplinary Board on Exercise to identify individuals who.

  1. A model for hematopoietic death in man from irradiation of bone marrow during radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B R; Dillehay, L E

    1990-11-01

    There are numerous institutions worldwide performing clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for cancer. For RIT, an exponentially decaying radionuclide is attached by using a chelating agent to a specific monoclonal or polyclonal tumour antibody (e.g. antiferritin IgG). The major limitation to RIT is toxicity to normal tissue in organs other than the one containing the tumour (e.g. bone marrow). The focus of this manuscript is on modelling the risk (or probability) of hematopoietic death in man for exponentially decaying patterns of high-energy beta irradiation (e.g. 90Y) of bone marrow by radioimmunoglobulin injected into the blood. The analytical solutions presented are only applicable to protocols for which significant uptake of radioactivity by the bone marrow does not occur, and only for high energy beta emitters. However, the generic equation used to obtain the analytical solutions is applicable to any continuous pattern of high energy beta irradiation. A model called the "normalized dose model" was used to generate calculated values for the LD50 as a function of the effective half-time for the radioimmunoglobulin in the blood. A less complicated empirical model was used to describe the calculated values. This model is presumed to be valid for effective half-times in blood of up to about 20 days. For longer effective half-times, the LD50 can be estimated using the normalized-dose model presented. In this manuscript, we also provide a modified Weibull model that allows estimation of the risk of hematopoietic death for single or multiple injections (in one cycle) of radioimmunoglobulin, for patients with normal susceptibility to irradiation and for patients with heightened susceptibility. With the modified Weibull model, the risk of hematopoietic death depends on the level of medical treatment provided to mitigate radiation injuries.

  2. [Teacher sick leave: Prevalence, duration, reasons and covariates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercambre-Jacquot, M-N; Gilbert, F; Billaudeau, N

    2018-02-01

    Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %). Besides questions on work environment and health, teachers were asked to describe their eventual sick leave(s) since the beginning of the school year: duration, type and medical reasons. Self-reported information was reinforced by administrative data from ministerial databases and weighted to be extrapolated to all French teachers. Tobit models adjusted for individual factors of a private nature were used to investigate different occupational risk factors of teacher sick leave, taking into account both the estimated effect on the probability of sick leave and the length of it. More than one in three teachers (36 %) reported having had at least one day of sick leave since the beginning of the school year. Respiratory/ENT diseases were the leading reason for sick leave (37 %). However, and because sick leave duration depended on the underlying health problem, such diseases came in third place among justifications of sick leave days (14 %), far behind musculoskeletal problems (27 %) and neurological and psychological disorders (25 %). Tobit models suggested that some occupational factors significantly associated with the risk of sick leave may represent promising preventive targets, including high psychological demand, workplace violence and unfavorable socio-environmental context. Our study provides objective evidence about the issue of sick leave among French teachers, highlighting the usefulness of implementing actions to minimize its weight. To this end, the study findings point-out the importance of

  3. You’re the Flight Surgeon: Pulmonary Decompression Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    follow-up of this patient Diagnosis: Decompression sickness (DeS) with pulmonary symptoms (Type Il DeS, older nomenclature). Treatment: Hyperbaric ...is quite clear thai any case of suspected decompression sickness in the USAF be discussed with the hyperbariC medicine specialists at Brooks City...physician in as respectful manner as you can that you suspect the patient’s condition is likely related to his hypobaric exposure. B. Agree with

  4. Worried sick? Worker Responses to a Financial Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Excessive sickness absence may hurt productivity and put a strain on public finances. One explanation put forward for increasing absence rates is that a tougher labour market represents a health hazard. A competing hypothesis is that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. We use a financial shock that hit the public sector in Norway in 2007 in some, but not all, municipalities to identify the effect of reduced job security on sickness absence. Public sector workers i...

  5. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  6. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Odeen, Magnus; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Mæland, Silje; Larun, Lillebeth; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2013-01-01

    Background: The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims: To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with ...

  7. Decompression sickness in breath-hold divers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Frederic; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardette, Bernard; Kohshi, Kiyotaka

    2009-12-01

    Although it has been generally assumed that the risk of decompression sickness is virtually zero during a single breath-hold dive in humans, repeated dives may result in a cumulative increase in the tissue and blood nitrogen tension. Many species of marine mammals perform extensive foraging bouts with deep and long dives interspersed by a short surface interval, and some human divers regularly perform repeated dives to 30-40 m or a single dive to more than 200 m, all of which may result in nitrogen concentrations that elicit symptoms of decompression sickness. Neurological problems have been reported in humans after single or repeated dives and recent necropsy reports in stranded marine mammals were suggestive of decompression sickness-like symptoms. Modelling attempts have suggested that marine mammals may live permanently with elevated nitrogen concentrations and may be at risk when altering their dive behaviour. In humans, non-pathogenic bubbles have been recorded and symptoms of decompression sickness have been reported after repeated dives to modest depths. The mechanisms implicated in these accidents indicate that repeated breath-hold dives with short surface intervals are factors that predispose to decompression sickness. During deep diving, the effect of pulmonary shunts and/or lung collapse may play a major role in reducing the incidence of decompression sickness in humans and marine mammals.

  8. Some notes on radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    1977-01-01

    Immunological movement related to radiation immunology were reviewed. Basic items about cell mechanism of immunological reaction were explained, and then, relationship between immunity and radiation was given an outline. As to radiation effects on immunological lymphatic system, radiosensitivity of lymphocytes and immunological reaction, radiation effects on T and B cells, and radiosensitivity of lymphatic system, especially thymus were mentioned, and furthermore, delayed effects of radiation on immunological system were described. Radiation effects on relationship between bone marrow transplantation and genesis of reticulum cell tumor and delayed effects of radiation on them were mentioned, and genetic resistance against hematopoietic cell transplantation and its radiosensitivity were also described. Relationship between carcinogenesis due to radiation and immunity, and a state of specific immunological in an individual non-responsiveness having cancer, were also referred to. (Kanao, N.)

  9. Hematopoietic stem cell function in motheaten mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, L.D.; Bailey, C.L.; Coman, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation ''motheaten'' have normal numbers of multipotential hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and spleen as determined by spleen colony assay. Histologic examination shows no qualitative abnormality in morphology of stem cell colonies in recipients of bone marrow or spleen cells from motheaten mice. Despite the apparently normal ontogeny, distribution, and differentiative capacity of CFU stem cells, bone marrow and spleen cells from motheaten mice fail to save congenic +/+ lethally gamma-irradiated hosts. This impaired lifesparing capacity is not due to defective self-renewal but appears to be due in part to pulmonary hemorrhage from alveolar capillaries in the gamma-irradiated hosts. Treatment of motheaten mice with 500 R gamma-irradiation followed by reconstitution with normal bone marrow cells increases the lifespan of this mutant to 10 months of age. The early onset of pneumonitis and subsequent short lifespan of motheaten mice is determined at the level of progenitor cells in the bone marrow

  10. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohne, Kariann; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2011-03-18

    To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  11. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohne Kariann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Methods Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. Results The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Conclusions Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  12. A Kink that Makes you Sick: the Effect of Sick Pay on Absence in a Social Insurance System

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Bockerman; Ohto Kanninen; Ilpo Suoniemi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of the replacement rule of a social insurance system on sickness absence. The elasticity of absence with respect to the benefit level is a critical parameter in defining the optimal sickness insurance scheme. A pre-determined, piecewise linear policy rule in which the replacement rate is determined by past earnings allows identification of the causal effect using a regression kink design. Using a large administrative dataset, we find a substantial and robust behavioral r...

  13. Direct observation of hematopoietic progenitor chimerism in fetal freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taponen Juhani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle twins are well known as blood chimeras. However, chimerism in the actual hematopoietic progenitor compartment has not been directly investigated. Here, we analyzed fetal liver of chimeric freemartin cattle by combining a new anti-bovine CD34 antibody and Y-chromosome specific in situ hybridization. Results Bull-derived CD34+ cells were detected in the liver of the female sibling (freemartin at 60 days gestation. The level of bull-derived CD34+ cells was lower in the freemartin than in its male siblings. Bull (Y+ and cow hematopoietic cells often occurred in separate clusters. Around clusters of Y+CD34+ cells, Y+CD34- cells were typically observed. The thymi were also strongly chimeric at 60 days of gestation. Conclusion The fetal freemartin liver contains clusters of bull-derived hematopoietic progenitors, suggesting clonal expansion and differentiation. Even the roots of the hematopoietic system in cattle twins are thus strongly chimeric from the early stages of fetal development. However, the hematopoietic seeding of fetal liver apparently started already before the onset of functional vascular anastomosis.

  14. Hematopoietic defects in response to reduced Arhgap21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Xavier-Ferrucio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arhgap21 is a member of the Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP family, which function as negative regulators of Rho GTPases. Arhgap21 has been implicated in adhesion and migration of cancer cells. However, the role of Arhgap21 has never been investigated in hematopoietic cells. Herein, we evaluated functional aspects of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC using a haploinsufficient (Arhgap21+/− mouse. Our results show that Arhgap21+/− mice have an increased frequency of phenotypic HSC, impaired ability to form progenitor colonies in vitro and decreased hematopoietic engraftment in vivo, along with a decrease in LSK cell frequency during serial bone marrow transplantation. Arhgap21+/− hematopoietic progenitor cells have impaired adhesion and enhanced mobilization of immature LSK and myeloid progenitors. Arhgap21+/− mice also exhibit reduced erythroid commitment and differentiation, which was recapitulated in human primary cells, in which knockdown of ARHGAP21 in CMP and MEP resulted in decreased erythroid commitment. Finally, we observed enhanced RhoC activity in the bone marrow cells of Arhgap21+/− mice, indicating that Arhgap21 functions in hematopoiesis may be at least partially mediated by RhoC inactivation. Keywords: Arhgap21, Hematopoiesis, Erythroid cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, Fate decision

  15. Bone marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the hematopoietic microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveiras, Olaia; Nardi, Valentina; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Fahey, Frederic; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoblasts and endothelium constitute functional niches that support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in mammalian bone marrow (BM) 1,2,3 . Adult BM also contains adipocytes, whose numbers correlate inversely with the hematopoietic activity of the marrow. Fatty infiltration of hematopoietic red marrow follows irradiation or chemotherapy and is a diagnostic feature in biopsies from patients with marrow aplasia 4. To explore whether adipocytes influence hematopoiesis or simply fill marrow space, we compared the hematopoietic activity of distinct regions of the mouse skeleton that differ in adiposity. By flow cytometry, colony forming activity, and competitive repopulation assay, HSCs and short-term progenitors are reduced in frequency in the adipocyte-rich vertebrae of the mouse tail relative to the adipocyte-free vertebrae of the thorax. In lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F1 “fatless” mice, which are genetically incapable of forming adipocytes8, and in mice treated with the PPARγ inhibitor Bisphenol-A-DiGlycidyl-Ether (BADGE), which inhibits adipogenesis9, post-irradiation marrow engraftment is accelerated relative to wild type or untreated mice. These data implicate adipocytes as predominantly negative regulators of the bone marrow microenvironment, and suggest that antagonizingmarrow adipogenesis may enhance hematopoietic recovery in clinical bone marrow transplantation. PMID:19516257

  16. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  17. Osteoclasts derive from hematopoietic stem cells according to marker, giant lysosomes of beige mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, P.; Loutit, J.F.; Townsend, K.M.

    1981-01-01

    To ascertain the origin of multinucleated osteoclasts from hematopoietic stem cells, giant lysosomes peculiar to cells of beige mice (bg bg) were used as marker cells of that provenance. Radiation chimeras were established reciprocally between bg bg mice and osteopetrotic mi mi mice with defective osteoclasts. As a result, all the derivative cells of the hematopoietic stem cell would depend on the donor's cell line, whereas osteogenesis would remain the province of the host. It was affirmed in the chimeras mi mi/bg bg that the osteopetrosis was cured within six weeks. Thereafter the definitive osteoclasts of the chimeras contained giant lysosomes attributable to the beige cell line. However, the cure was well advanced before donor osteoclasts were prominent, for which several reasons are offered. In the mouse chimeras, bg bg/mi mi, there was a delay of some six weeks before osteopetrosis became evident, histologically before radiologically, at the major metaphyseal growth centers. During the period one to two months after establishment, osteoclasts appeared to be a mixture of two cell lines according to quantitative assessments for giant lysosomes. Assessments consisted of measurements of the percentage area of osteoclasts occupied by lysosomes over 1 micrometer diameter. The means were 0.018% +/- 0.008% for nonbeige stock and 2.09% +/- 0.58% for beige stock

  18. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy to Countermeasure Cancer in Astronauts during Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Kindred, R. P.; Roach, A-N.; Edossa, A.; Kim, B. C.; Gonda, S. R.; Emami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause chromosomal mutations, which may lead to cancer in astronauts engaged in space exploration. Therefore, our goals are to develop countermeasures to prevent space-induced cancer using hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and gene therapy. This presentation focuses on HSCT for cancer. Our previous experiments on a simulated, space-induced immuno-deficiency model (mouse hind limb unloading ) indicated that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could enhance the host's immunity by effectively eliminating bacterial infection (Ohi S, et. al. J Grav Physiol 10, P63-64, 2003; Ohi S, et. al. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) . American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 938-950, 2004). Hence, we hypothesized that the HSCs might be effective in combating cancer as well. Studies of cocultured mouse HSCs with beta-galactosidase marked rat gliosarcoma spheroids (9L/lacZ), a cancer model, indicated antagonistic interactions , resulting in destruction of the spheroids by HSCs. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assays were consistent with the conclusion. These results show potential usehlness of HSCT for cancer. Currently, the NASA Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB), a space analog tissue/cell culture system, is being used to study invasion of the gliosarcoma (GS) spheroids into mouse brain with or without co-cultured HSCs. This may simulate the metastasis of gliosarcoma to brain. There is a tendency for the HSCs to inhibit invasion of GS spheroids into brain, as evidenced by the X-gal staining.

  19. Bmi1 confers resistance to oxidative stress on hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nakamura

    Full Text Available The polycomb-group (PcG proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed.In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1. Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS.Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.

  20. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in γ-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in γ-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by γ-irradiation

  1. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha}, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha} in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by {gamma}-irradiation.

  2. Related-to-receptor tyrosine kinase receptor regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor sensitivity to myelosuppressive injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Benjamin J; Srivastava, Pragya; Nemeth, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining a careful balance between quiescence and proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is necessary for lifelong blood formation. Previously, we demonstrated that the Wnt5a ligand inhibits HSPC proliferation through a functional interaction with a noncanonical Wnt ligand receptor termed 'related-to-receptor tyrosine kinase' (Ryk). Expression of Ryk on HSPCs in vivo is associated with a lower rate of proliferation, and, following treatment with fluorouracil (5-FU), the percentage of Ryk(+/high) HSPCs increased and the percentage of Ryk(-/low) HSPCs decreased. Based on these data, we hypothesized that one function of the Ryk receptor is to protect HSPCs from the effects of myeloablative agents. We found that Ryk expression on HSPCs is associated with lower rates of apoptosis following 5-FU and radiation. Transient inhibition of Ryk signaling in vivo resulted in increased hematopoietic-stem-cell proliferation and decreased hematopoietic-stem-cell function in bone marrow transplant assays. Furthermore, inhibition of Ryk signaling sensitized HSPCs to 5-FU treatment in association with increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results demonstrated an association between Ryk expression and survival of HSPCs following suppressive injury. Copyright © 2015 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. The aim of this paper is to examine if it is beneficial for individuals on sick leave due to MSDs to be on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave. A sample of 1,170 employees from the RFV-LS (register) database of the Social Insurance Agency of Sweden is used. The effect of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave is estimated for the probability of returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity. A two-stage recursive bivariate probit model is used to deal with the endogeneity problem. The results indicate that employees assigned to part-time sick leave do recover to full work capacity with a higher probability than those assigned to full-time sick leave. The average treatment effect of part-time sick leave is 25 percentage points. Considering that part-time sick leave may also be less expensive than assigning individuals to full-time sick leave, this would imply efficiency improvements from assigning individuals, when possible, to part-time sick leave.

  4. Hematopoietic (stem) cell development — how divergent are the roads taken?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-L. Kauts (Mari-Liis); C.S. Vink (Chris); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe development of the hematopoietic system during early embryonic stages occurs in spatially and temporally distinct waves. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), the most potent and self-renewing cells of this system, are produced in the final ‘definitive’ wave of hematopoietic cell

  5. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Genetic Landscape of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Frequency in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior efforts to identify regulators of hematopoietic stem cell physiology have relied mainly on candidate gene approaches with genetically modified mice. Here we used a genome-wide association study (GWAS strategy with the hybrid mouse diversity panel to identify the genetic determinants of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC frequency. Among 108 strains, we observed ∼120- to 300-fold variation in three HSPC populations. A GWAS analysis identified several loci that were significantly associated with HSPC frequency, including a locus on chromosome 5 harboring the homeodomain-only protein gene (Hopx. Hopx previously had been implicated in cardiac development but was not known to influence HSPC biology. Analysis of the HSPC pool in Hopx−/− mice demonstrated significantly reduced cell frequencies and impaired engraftment in competitive repopulation assays, thus providing functional validation of this positional candidate gene. These results demonstrate the power of GWAS in mice to identify genetic determinants of the hematopoietic system.

  7. Neural Crossroads in the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Sobhika; Tamplin, Owen J

    2018-05-29

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche supports steady-state hematopoiesis and responds to changing needs during stress and disease. The nervous system is an important regulator of the niche, and its influence is established early in development when stem cells are specified. Most research has focused on direct innervation of the niche, however recent findings show there are different modes of neural control, including globally by the central nervous system (CNS) and hormone release, locally by neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and intrinsically by hematopoietic cells that express neural receptors and neurotransmitters. Dysregulation between neural and hematopoietic systems can contribute to disease, however new therapeutic opportunities may be found among neuroregulator drugs repurposed to support hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Nobuyuki

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  9. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Arai, Nobuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  10. Complications of hematopoietic stem transplantation: Fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ali S; Almaghrabi, Reem S

    2017-12-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients. The improved diagnostic performance of serum biomarkers such as galactomannan and β-D-glucan, as well as polymerase chain reaction assays has allowed the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy strategies for high risk patients. Diagnostic-driven approaches have resulted in reduced unnecessary antifungal exposure, improved diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, and reduced costs without increased risk of mortality. The appropriateness of diagnostic-driven antifungal strategy for individual HSCT centers depends on the availability and turnaround times for diagnostics, multidisciplinary expertise, and the local epidemiology of invasive fungal infections. Echinocandins are the treatment of choice for invasive candidiasis in most HSCT recipients. Fluconazole may be used for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in hemodynamically stable patients with no prior azole exposure. The primary treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis is voriconazole. Alternatives include isavuconazole and lipid formulations of amphotericin. Currently available evidence does not support routine primary combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. However, combination salvage antifungal therapy may be considered in selected patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for the majority of HSCT recipients on itraconazole, posaconazole, or voriconazole. Copyright © 2017

  11. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  12. Strength Training Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Larson, Janet; Kujath, Amber; Peace, David; Rondelli, Damiano; Gaston, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience considerable reductions in physical activity and deterioration of their health status. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of strength training compared to usual activity on physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions, and quality of life following HSCT. Interventions/Methods Nineteen subjects were randomized to the exercise or control group. Moderate intensity strength training began following discharge from the hospital. Dependent variables included physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions and quality of life. Variables were measured prior to admission to the hospital for HSCT, day 8 following HSCT, and six weeks following discharge from the hospital. Results Significant time effects were noted for many variables with anticipated declines in physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, and health status perceptions immediately after HSCT with subsequent improvements six weeks following hospital discharge. One group effect was noted with subjects in the exercise group reporting less fatigue than subjects in the control group. Although no significant interactions were detected, the trends suggest that the exercise group may be more physically active following the intervention compared to the usual activity group. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential positive effects of strength training on physical activity, fatigue, and quality of life in people receiving high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT. Implications for Practice Preliminary evidence is provided for using strength training to enhance early recovery following HSCT. Elastic resistance bands are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. PMID:21116175

  13. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  14. The probability and severity of decompression sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Ethan A.; Vann, Richard D.; Denoble, Petar J.

    2017-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS), which is caused by inert gas bubbles in tissues, is an injury of concern for scuba divers, compressed air workers, astronauts, and aviators. Case reports for 3322 air and N2-O2 dives, resulting in 190 DCS events, were retrospectively analyzed and the outcomes were scored as (1) serious neurological, (2) cardiopulmonary, (3) mild neurological, (4) pain, (5) lymphatic or skin, and (6) constitutional or nonspecific manifestations. Following standard U.S. Navy medical definitions, the data were grouped into mild—Type I (manifestations 4–6)–and serious–Type II (manifestations 1–3). Additionally, we considered an alternative grouping of mild–Type A (manifestations 3–6)–and serious–Type B (manifestations 1 and 2). The current U.S. Navy guidance allows for a 2% probability of mild DCS and a 0.1% probability of serious DCS. We developed a hierarchical trinomial (3-state) probabilistic DCS model that simultaneously predicts the probability of mild and serious DCS given a dive exposure. Both the Type I/II and Type A/B discriminations of mild and serious DCS resulted in a highly significant (p probability of ‘mild’ DCS resulted in a longer allowable bottom time for the same 2% limit. However, for the 0.1% serious DCS limit, we found a vastly decreased allowable bottom dive time for all dive depths. If the Type A/B scoring was assigned to outcome severity, the no decompression limits (NDL) for air dives were still controlled by the acceptable serious DCS risk limit rather than the acceptable mild DCS risk limit. However, in this case, longer NDL limits were allowed than with the Type I/II scoring. The trinomial model mild and serious probabilities agree reasonably well with the current air NDL only with the Type A/B scoring and when 0.2% risk of serious DCS is allowed. PMID:28296928

  15. Hematopoietic Gene Therapies for Metabolic and Neurologic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    Increasingly, patients affected by metabolic diseases affecting the central nervous system and neuroinflammatory disorders receive hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the attempt to slow the course of their disease, delay or attenuate symptoms, and improve pathologic findings. The possible replacement of brain-resident myeloid cells by the transplanted cell progeny contributes to clinical benefit. Genetic engineering of the cells to be transplanted (hematopoietic stem cell) may endow the brain myeloid progeny of these cells with enhanced or novel functions, contributing to therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B

    2007-01-01

    follows a cohort of 5357 working employees and 106 long-term sickness absent employees in Denmark. They were interviewed in 2000 regarding self-efficacy and various co-variates, and followed for 78 weeks in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed in order to assess...... or with Return-to-Work. CONCLUSION: The results may suggest that lower self-efficacy among employees with sickness absence is a result of the sickness absence itself rather than a precursor of it. This indicates a need to investigate the potential change in self-efficacy in relation to the employee's change......AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  17. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  19. SICKNESS PRESENCE AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerjanc, Alenka; Fikfak, Metoda Dodič

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between sickness presence and stressful life events among health care workers. Data were gathered from all health care workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of two standardized international questionnaires. There were 57% of sickness present health care workers among the participants. The sickness present reported to have more diseases of family member than the non-sickness present (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), loan (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), their partner lost job (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), or they changed the place of living (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). The results of the study indicate that stressful life events with economic consequences might have an important influence on sickness presence.

  20. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  1. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  2. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausto, Johanna; Virta, Lauri; Luukkonen, Ritva; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2010-06-23

    Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007) were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16%) compared to those on full sick leave (1%) had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. This is the first follow up study of the newly adopted partial sickness benefit in

  3. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luukkonen Ritva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Methods Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007 were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Results Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16% compared to those on full sick leave (1% had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. Conclusions This is the first follow

  4. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  5. MRI diagnosis of acute spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaofeng; Yuan Fengmei; Ma Heng; Xu Yongzhong; Gai Qingzhu; Wang Ying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness. Methods: MRI findings of 5 cases with clinical definite acute spinal cord decompression sickness were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical informations included underwater performance history against regulations, short-term complete or incomplete spinal cord injury symptoms after fast going out of water, sensory disability and urinary and fecal incontinence, etc. Results: Spinal cord vacuole sign was found in all 5 cases. Iso-signal intensity (n=3), high signal intensity (n=1), and low signal intensity (n=1) was demonstrated on T 1 WI, and high signal intensity (n=5) was found on T 2 WI. Owl eye sign was detected in 3 cases, and lacune foci were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion: MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness had some characteristics, and it was easy to diagnose by combining diving history with clinical manifestations. (authors)

  6. Vection and visually induced motion sickness: How are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang eKeshavarz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of visually induced motion sickness has been frequently linked to the sensation of illusory self-motion (so-called vection, however, the precise nature of this relationship is still not fully understood. To date, it is still a matter of debate whether or not vection is a necessary prerequisite for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS. That is, can there be visually induced motion sickness without any sensation of self-motion? In this paper, we will describe the possible nature of this relationship, review the literature that may speak to this relationship (including theoretical accounts of vection and VIMS, and offer suggestions with respect to operationally defining and reporting these phenomena in future.

  7. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...

  8. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    Every third child and many adults in Sweden have allergic reactions caused by indoor environmental problems. A lot of buildings constructed during the building-boom period of 1950 - 1990 expose the sick-house-syndrome, due to built-in moisture problems and poor ventilation performance of the building. Leaky building construction, transport of humid air condensing on thermal bridges within the construction gives rise to a humid environment, and forms a base for a microbial deterioration process of organic materials, with emissions hazardous for human health. So far there are no universal and cost efficient techniques or methods developed which could be used to reveal the sick-house-syndrome. In this paper we present the results of a case-study of the sick-house-syndrome, and an investigation concept with a combination of different techniques and methods to detect and to map underlying factors that form the base for microbial activities. The concept includes mobile and indoor thermography, functional control of ventilation systems, tracer gas techniques for measurement of air flow exchange rate in different rooms, microbial investigation of emissions, field inspections within the building construction and the building envelope, and medical investigation of the health status of the people working in the building. Mobile thermography of the exterior facades has been performed with a longwave AGEMA THV 900, respectively THV 1000 infrared system, during the period December 1994 - June 1995, at different and similar weather and radiation conditions, and with the building pressurized at one accession. Indoor thermography has been performed with a shortwave AGEMA THV 470 system, for a selection of objects/surfaces with thermal deviations, indicated in thermograms from the different mobile thermographic surveys. Functional control was performed for the ventilation systems, and air flow rates were measured using tracer gas technique for a selection of rooms with different

  9. Measures of work-family conflict predict sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clays, Els; Kittel, France; Godin, Isabelle; Bacquer, Dirk De; Backer, Guy De

    2009-08-01

    To examine the relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence. The BELSTRESS III study comprised 2983 middle-aged workers. Strain-based work-home interference (WHI) and home-work interference (HWI) were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12-months follow-up were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration (at least 10 sick leave days) and high sickness absence frequency (at least 3 sick leave episodes) in men and women, also after adjustments were made for sociodemographic variables, health indicators, and environmental psychosocial factors. In multivariate analysis, no association between WHI and sickness absence was found. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration and frequency during 12-months follow-up in male and female workers.

  10. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment : Active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J. F.; van der Bles, W.; Bos, J. E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is

  11. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    reduces the duration until employees with mental disorders end their sick leave by reporting ready for returning to regular working hours. The programme allows fully sick-listed employees to resume work at reduced hours. When the sick-listed employee’s health improves, working hours are increased until...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...

  12. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  13. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship

  14. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to

  15. Reexamination of the role of hematopoietic organs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd. Shanghai 200032, P.R. China. ... Key words: Hematopoietic organ, wing disc, hemocytes, surgical operation, silkworm, ... They were reared on artificial diet at 25°C under a 16 h ..... The image was.

  16. Mismatch repair deficient hematopoietic stem cells are preleukemic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Qing

    Full Text Available Whereas transformation events in hematopoietic malignancies may occur at different developmental stages, the initial mutation originates in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, creating a preleukemic stem cell (PLSC. Subsequent mutations at either stem cell or progenitor cell levels transform the PLSC into lymphoma/leukemia initiating cells (LIC. Thymic lymphomas have been thought to develop from developing thymocytes. T cell progenitors are generated from HSCs in the bone marrow (BM, but maturation and proliferation of T cells as well as T-lymphomagenesis depends on both regulatory mechanisms and microenvironment within the thymus. We studied PLSC linked to thymic lymphomas. In this study, we use MSH2-/- mice as a model to investigate the existence of PLSC and the evolution of PLSC to LIC. Following BM transplantation, we found that MSH2-/- BM cells from young mice are able to fully reconstitute multiple hematopoietic lineages of lethally irradiated wild-type recipients. However, all recipients developed thymic lymphomas within three and four months post transplantation. Transplantation of different fractions of BM cells or thymocytes from young health MSH2-/- mice showed that an HSC enriched fraction always reconstituted hematopoiesis followed by lymphoma development. In addition, lymphomas did not occur in thymectomized recipients of MSH2-/- BM. These results suggest that HSCs with DNA repair defects such as MSH2-/- are PLSCs because they retain hematopoietic function, but also carry an obligate lymphomagenic potential within their T-cell progeny that is dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  17. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many

  18. Hematopoietic stem cell aging and self-renewal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Brad; de Haan, Gerald

    A functional decline of the immune system occurs during organismal aging that is attributable, in large part, to changes in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. In the mouse, several hallmark age-dependent changes in the HSC compartment have been identified, including an increase in HSC

  19. Childhood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation involves the infusion of blood stem cells (peripheral/umbilical cord blood, bone marrow) into a patient to reconstitute the blood system. Get detailed information about autologous and allogeneic transplant, including cell selection, HLA matching, and preparative regimens, and the acute complications and late effects of treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  20. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  1. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm, E-mail: timm.schroeder@bsse.ethz.ch

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  2. Sexual function 1-year after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noerskov, K. H.; Schjødt, I.; Syrjala, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with short and long-term toxicities that can result in alterations in sexual functioning. The aims of this prospective evaluation were to determine: (1) associations between HSCT and increased sexual dysfunction...

  3. Longitudinal Assessment of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Hyposalivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaksonen, Matti; Ramseier, Adrian; Rovó, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Hyposalivation is a common adverse effect of anti-neoplastic therapy of head and neck cancer, causing impaired quality of life and predisposition to oral infections. However, data on the effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on salivary secretion are scarce. The present study...

  4. Depression and anxiety following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuba, K; Esser, P; Mehnert, A

    2017-01-01

    In this prospective multicenter study, we investigated the course of depression and anxiety during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) until 5 years after transplantation adjusting for medical information. Patients were consulted before HSCT (n=239), at 3 months (n=150), 12 months (n=102...

  5. Lung function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Larsen Bang, Cæcilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in pulmonary function (PF) has been reported in up to 85% of pediatric patients during the first year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our understanding of the etiology for this decrease in lung function is, however, sparse. The aim of this study was to describe PF...

  6. Fetal liver stromal cells promote hematopoietic cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kun; Hu, Caihong; Zhou, Zhigang; Huang, Lifang; Liu, Wenli; Sun, Hanying

    2009-01-01

    Future application of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in clinical therapies largely depends on their successful expansion in vitro. Fetal liver (FL) is a unique hematopoietic organ in which hematopoietic cells markedly expand in number, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Stromal cells (StroCs) have been suggested to provide a suitable cellular environment for in vitro expansion of HSPCs. In this study, murine StroCs derived from FL at E14.5, with a high level of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt expression, were found to have an increased ability to support the proliferation of HSPCs. This effect was inhibited by blocking Shh signaling. Supplementation with soluble Shh-N promoted the proliferation of hematopoietic cells by activating Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest that FL-derived StroCs support proliferation of HSPCs via Shh inducing an autocrine Wnt signaling loop. The use of FL-derived StroCs and regulation of the Shh pathway might further enhance HPSC expansion.

  7. Two hemocyte lineages exist in silkworm larval hematopoietic organ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Nakahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherulocytes. Five days after implantation of enzymatically-dispersed HPO cells from a GFP-expressing transgenic line into the hemocoel of normal larvae, differentiation into plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, but not spherulocytes, was observed. When the HPO cells were cultured in vitro, plasmatocytes appeared rapidly, and oenocytoids possessing prophenol oxidase activity appeared several days later. HPO cells were also able to differentiate into a small number of granulocytes, but not into spherulocytes. When functionally mature plasmatocytes were cultured in vitro, oenocytoids were observed 10 days later. These results suggest that the hemocyte precursors in HPO first differentiate into plasmatocytes, which further change into oenocytoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From these results, we propose that B. mori hemocytes can be divided into two major lineages, a granulocyte lineage and a plasmatocyte-oenocytoid lineage. The origins of the spherulocytes could not be determined in this study. We construct a model for the hematopoietic lineages at the larval stage of B. mori.

  8. Two hemocyte lineages exist in silkworm larval hematopoietic organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yuichi; Kanamori, Yasushi; Kiuchi, Makoto; Kamimura, Manabu

    2010-07-28

    Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO) into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherulocytes. Five days after implantation of enzymatically-dispersed HPO cells from a GFP-expressing transgenic line into the hemocoel of normal larvae, differentiation into plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, but not spherulocytes, was observed. When the HPO cells were cultured in vitro, plasmatocytes appeared rapidly, and oenocytoids possessing prophenol oxidase activity appeared several days later. HPO cells were also able to differentiate into a small number of granulocytes, but not into spherulocytes. When functionally mature plasmatocytes were cultured in vitro, oenocytoids were observed 10 days later. These results suggest that the hemocyte precursors in HPO first differentiate into plasmatocytes, which further change into oenocytoids. From these results, we propose that B. mori hemocytes can be divided into two major lineages, a granulocyte lineage and a plasmatocyte-oenocytoid lineage. The origins of the spherulocytes could not be determined in this study. We construct a model for the hematopoietic lineages at the larval stage of B. mori.

  9. Dynamic changes in mouse hematopoietic stem cell numbers during aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G; Van Zant, G

    1999-01-01

    To address the fundamental question of whether or not stem cell populations age, we performed quantitative measurements of the cycling status and frequency of hematopoietic stem cells in long-lived C57BL/6 (B6) and short-lived DBA/2 (DBA) mice at different developmental and aging stages. The

  10. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  11. Bone marrow transplantations to study gene function in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, Menno P. J.; Heeringa, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Immune cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Experimental replacement of bone marrow offers the unique possibility to replace immune cells, to study gene function in mouse models of disease. Over the past decades, this technique has been used extensively to study, for

  12. Is Sickness Presenteeism a Risk Factor for Depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Hogh, Annie; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2014-01-01

    was associated with an increased risk of depression among initially nondepressed participants (odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 5.64). No significant sex-related differences were observed in this relationship. CONCLUSION:: Adding to previous evidence on the health effects of SP, this study......OBJECTIVE:: To examine the prospective association between sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, working while ill, and the onset of depression. METHODS:: We carried out a two-wave (2006 to 2008) questionnaire-based study among 1271 employees from 60 Danish workplaces. Sickness presenteeism...... suggests that working while ill may also be a significant risk factor for the development of depression....

  13. Some determinants of sick leave for respiratory disease : Occupation, asthma, obesity, smoking and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nathell, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    The cost to society of sick leave and disability pensions is currently the most urgent economic problem in Sweden. The availability of a large sick-listing database, Collective Group Health Insurance, AGS (in Swedish: Avtalsgruppsjukförsäkring) provides a rare opportunity to study sick leave in Sweden. Periods of sick leave exceeding 14 days are recorded together with a mandatory diagnosis by a physician, gender, age, residential area, name of the employer, and occupation. ...

  14. Predictive validity of common mental disorders screening questionnaire as a screening instrument in long sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick...... in Denmark there is not a legal requirement that sick-listed persons are certified as sick by a physician....

  15. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  16. Symptoms after hospital discharge following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purposes of this study were to assess the symptoms of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients after hospital discharge, and to determine the needs of transplant patients for symptom management. Materials and Methods: The study adopted a descriptive design. The study sample comprised of 66 hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. The study was conducted in Istanbul. Data were collected using Patient Information Form and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS. Results: The frequency of psychological symptoms in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients after discharge period (PSYCH subscale score 2.11 (standard deviation (SD = 0.69, range: 0.93-3.80 was higher in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients than frequency of physical symptoms (PHYS subscale score: 1.59 (SD = 0.49, range: 1.00-3.38. Symptom distress caused by psychological and physical symptoms were at moderate level (Mean = 1.91, SD = 0.60, range: 0.95-3.63 and most distressing symptoms were problems with sexual interest or activity, difficulty sleeping, and diarrhea. Patients who did not have an additional chronic disease obtained higher MSAS scores. University graduates obtained higher Global Distress Index (GDI subscale and total MSAS scores with comparison to primary school graduates. Total MSAS, MSAS-PHYS subscale, and MSAS-PSYCH subscale scores were higher in patients with low level of income (P < 0.05. The patients (98.5% reported to receive education about symptom management after hospital discharge. Conclusions: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients continue to experience many distressing physical or psychological symptoms after discharge and need to be supported and educated for the symptom management.

  17. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  18. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (CD143) marks hematopoietic stem cells in human embryonic, fetal, and adult hematopoietic tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokubaitis, Vanta J.; Sinka, Lidia; Driessen, Rebecca; Whitty, Genevieve; Haylock, David N.; Bertoncello, Ivan; Smith, Ian; Peault, Bruno; Tavian, Manuela; Simmons, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that mAb BB9 reacts with a subset of CD34(+) human BM cells with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) characteristics. Here we map B89 expression throughout hernatopoietic development and show that the earliest definitive HSCs that arise at the ventral wall of the aorta and

  20. Differential Requirements for c-Myc in Chronic Hematopoietic Hyperplasia and Acute Hematopoietic Malignancies in Pten-null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Yechen; Guo, Yinshi; Breslin, Peter; Zhang, Shubin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Jiwang

    2011-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), acute T-lymphocytic or myeloid leukemia and T-lymphocytic lymphoma were developed in inducible Pten-knockout (Pten−/−) mice. The appearance of these multiple diseases in one animal model provides an opportunity to study the pathogenesis of multiple diseases simultaneously. To study whether Myc function is required for the development of these hematopoietic disorders in Pten−/− mice, we generated inducible Pten/Myc double-knockout mice (Pten−/−/Myc−/−). By comparing the hematopoietic phenotypes of these double-knockout mice with those of Pten−/− mice, we found that both sets of animals developed MPDs and LPDs. However, none of the compound-mutant mice developed acute leukemia or lymphoma. Interestingly, in contrast to the MPDs which developed in Pten−/− mice which are dominated by granulocytes, megakaryocytes predominate in the MPDs of Pten−/−/Myc−/− mice. Our study suggests that the deregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling in Pten−/− hematopoietic cells protects these cells from apoptotic cell death, resulting in chronic proliferative disorders. But due to the differential requirement for Myc in granulocyte as compared to megakaryocyte proliferation, Myc deletion converts Pten−/− MPDs from granulocyte-dominated to megakaryocyte-dominated conditions. Myc is absolutely required for the development of acute hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:21926961

  1. The hematologist and radiation casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Waselenko, Jamie K; Armitage, James O; MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, preparation by the health care system for an act of terrorism has been mandated by leaders of governments. Scenarios for terrorist acts involving radioactive material have been identified, and approaches to management (based on past experience from atomic weapons detonations and radiation accidents) have been developed. Because of their experience in managing patients with profound cytopenia and/or marrow aplasia, hematologists will be asked to play a significant role in evaluating and treating victims of mass accidental or deliberate exposure to radiation. This review provides a framework for understanding how radiation levels are quantified, how radiation alters the function of hematopoietic (and nonhematopoietic) cells and tissues, and how victims receiving a significant radiation dose can be identified and managed. In Section I, Dr. Nicholas Dainiak reviews four components of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: the hematopoietic, neurovascular, gastrointestinal and cutaneous subsyndromes. Clinical signs and symptoms are discussed for exposed individuals at the time of initial presentation (the prodromal phase) and during their course of disease (the manifest illness). In Section II, he presents clinical and laboratory methods to assess radiation doses, including time to onset and severity of vomiting, rate of decline in absolute blood lymphocyte count and the appearance of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics and ring forms. Potential scenarios of a radiation terrorist event are reviewed, and methods for initial clinical assessment, triage, and early management of the acute radiation syndrome and its component subsyndromes are summarized. In Section III, Dr. Jamie Waselenko reviews the hematopoietic syndrome, and presents guidelines for the use of cytokine therapy, antibiotics, and supportive care that have been developed by the Strategic National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Working Group. Results of preclinical and

  2. Epidemiology: the future is sickness and death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, H.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear world war of the type outlined in this issue would kill nearly 750 million people outright, leaving some 340 million seriously injured, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Of the 200 million initial survivors, many of them would perish from the latent effects of radiation as well as infectious diseases like cholera, typhus, tuberculosis and dysentery. Caring for the vast number of injured would greatly hamper post-war recovery efforts.

  3. Sick-listing adherence: a register study of 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit 2010-2013 in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Josephson, Malin; Österlund, Niklas

    2015-04-14

    This register study aims to increase the knowledge on how common it is that sickness benefit recipients are sick-listed for as long as their physician prescribes in their medical sickness certificate, i.e. sick-listing adherence, or wholly/partly bring return-to-work (RTW) forward, i.e. early RTW. The unit for analysis was an episode of 100% sickness benefit, commenced between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013. Completed episodes of sickness benefit and full or partial early RTW was analysed by comparing the prescribed length of sick leave in medical sickness certificates and benefit days disbursed by the sickness insurance system. Probability for a full and partial early RTW was estimated with hazard ratio (HR) using the Cox proportional hazard model. In total, about 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit (60% women) were included in the study. The overall sick-listing adherence was 84% for women and 82% for men during the first year of sick leave. Adherence varied between 82 and 87% among women and between 79 and 86% among men with regard to ICD-10 diagnosis chapter. The probability of an early RTW varied between diagnosis chapters, where mental disorders was associated with a lower probability of a full early RTW among women and men (HR 0.52 and HR 0.47) as well as a partial early RTW (HR 0.51 and HR 0.46). Younger age (16-29 years), high educational level and high income was associated with a higher probability of an early RTW, while older age (≥ 50 years), not native-born, low educational level, unemployment and parental leave were associated with a lower probability. The study demonstrates that sick-listing adherence is relatively high. Probability of an early RTW differs with regard to diagnosis chapter, demographic, socioeconomic and labour market characteristics of the sickness benefit recipients. Interventions intended to improve the sick-listing process, and to affect the length and degree of sick leave in certain target groups, should include

  4. Are environmental characteristics in the municipal eldercare, more closely associated with frequent short sick leave spells among employees than with total sick leave: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that frequent-, short-term sick leave is associated with work environment factors, whereas long-term sick leave is associated mainly with health factors. However, studies of the hypothesis of an association between a poor working environment and frequent short spells of sick leave are few and results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to explore associations between self-reported psychosocial work factors and workplace-registered frequency and length of sick leave in the eldercare sector. Methods Employees from the municipal eldercare in Aarhus (N = 2,534) were included. In 2005, they responded to a work environment questionnaire. Sick leave records from 2005 were dichotomised into total sick leave days (0–14 and above 14 days) and into spell patterns (0–2 short, 3–9 short, and mixed spells and 1–3 long spells). Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations; adjusted for age, gender, occupation, and number of spells or sick leave length. Results The response rate was 76%; 96% of the respondents were women. Unfavourable mean scores in work pace, demands for hiding emotions, poor quality of leadership and bullying were best indicated by more than 14 sick leave days compared with 0–14 sick leave days. For work pace, the best indicator was a long-term sick leave pattern compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. A frequent short-term sick leave pattern was a better indicator of emotional demands (1.62; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5) and role conflict (1.50; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) than a short-term non-frequent pattern. Age (= 40 years) statistically significantly modified the association between the 1–3 long-term sick leave spell pattern and commitment to the workplace compared with the 3–9 frequent short-term pattern. Conclusions Total sick leave length and a long-term sick leave spell pattern were just as good or even better indicators of unfavourable work factor scores than a frequent short-term sick leave

  5. Basic principles of medical aid in cases of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, E.; Mikhajlov, M.A.; Bliznakov, V.

    1979-01-01

    A model scheme has been presented of medical aid organization in emergency cases of irradiation. The tasks of medical service have been pointed out in connection with evacuation stages, bulk of medical aid depending on the natur of radiation damages, first aid and some general principles of radiation sickness treatment. (author)

  6. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...

  7. [Sick teachers? --Analysis of disability data from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierjürgen, R; Paulus, P

    2002-11-01

    Based on a review of the latest research results on teachers' health, the review shows the extent as well as the structure of sick-leave of people working in schools in the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Data concerning diseases of more than 7,000 employees who are insured by the Barmer Ersatzkasse were analysed. The results show that teachers are more often sick than all the persons insured by the Barmer Ersatzkasse. Differences between sexes show disadvantages for women. The sick-leave rates increase with age. Dominant diseases reflect very well the job routine of people working in schools: The most frequent diseases concern the respiratory organs, the skeleton, muscles and the connective tissue and mental illness issues; mental illnesses cause the longest periods of disablement. The conclusion refers to the restrictions of sick-leave statistics. It is argued that it is necessary to combine different data sources (e. g. work-place health reports) in order to get a more differentiated picture of factors of demand and strain on teachers' health.

  8. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (> 7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level.

  9. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  10. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  11. Motion Cues in Flight Simulation and Simulator Induced Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    military F7 .. vehicles, surface excavation equipment, underground mining devices, railway locomotives, .A space vehicles, shiv bridges, and submarines. Of...Evaluatort Rleference to Fukuda is: Fukuda, T. Postural behavior and motion sickness. Acca Otolaryngol. (Stockholm), 1976, B1:37-241.) %kI RTD-5

  12. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed

  13. Common mental disorders : Prediction of sickness absence durations and recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Lammechiena

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders cause a considerable proportion of long-term sickness absence and constitute the most significant reason for disability pensions of employees under 55 years of age. Knowledge of the risk factors will help occupational physicians to initiate treatments and interventions at an

  14. A LITERATURE REVIEW ON SICK LEAVE DETERMINANTS (1984-2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemsterboer, Willibrord; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan; Nijhuis, Frans

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: A literature review for the years 1984-2004 was performed to identify the determinants of the sick leave frequency and duration over that period and to establish the continuity in the character of those determinants. Materials and Methods: The review referred to national and

  15. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  16. Potential non-pharmacological countermeasures for motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.M.J.; Bos, J.E.; Groen, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness can occur in any motion environment to which a person is not adapted, varying from cars, boats, and planes to fun rides and virtual reality. With symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, lethargy, dizziness, and loss of concentration it causes discomfort for passengers but also a

  17. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or in the case of a female employee, pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth, an employee must file the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT...

  18. Mental disorder sick leave in Sweden: A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Bill, Sofia; Palmer, Edward; Olsson Bohlin, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors. The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders. The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.

  19. Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Vroome, E.M. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods: Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one

  20. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H

    1988-01-01

    of the respiratory alkalosis normally seen at high altitude. Symptoms of acute mountain sickness were rapidly relieved. In three subjects cerebral blood flow increased by 17-39%, so that oxygen delivery to the brain would have been considerably improved. This study confirms earlier suggestions of the beneficial...

  1. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency

  2. Atrial fibrillation in patients with sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Thomsen, Poul Erik B; Højberg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    between minimal-paced programmed AVI = 100 and >100 ms (median value), respectively (P= 0.60).ConclusionsThe present study indicates that a longer baseline PQ-interval is associated with an increased risk of AF in patients with sick sinus syndrome. Atrial fibrillation burden is not associated...

  3. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Faber (Elske)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are

  4. Dexmedetomidine reduces lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation, sickness behavior, and anhedonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    Full Text Available Peripheral innate immune response may induce sickness behavior through activating microglia, excessive cytokines production, and neuroinflammation. Dexmedetomidine (Dex has anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the effects of Dex on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice.BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with Dex (50 ug/kg or vehicle. One hour later, the mice were injected (i.p. with Escherichia coli LPS (0.33 mg/kg or saline (n = 6 in each group. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the mice for 24h. We also determined microglia activation and cytokines expression in the brains of the mice. In vitro, we determine cytokines expression in LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells with or without Dex treatment.In the Dex-pretreated mice, LPS-induced sickness behavior (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal were attenuated and microglial activation was lower than vehicle control. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO, caspase-3, and iNOS were increased in the brain of LPS-challenged mice, which were reduced by Dex but not vehicle.Dexmedetomidine diminished LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in sickness behavior.

  5. Sickness absenteeism at an all-time low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.

    2011-01-01

    Absenteeism in the Netherlands rose steadily in the 1960s and 70s, driven by legislation that made it attractive for employees to take long-term sick leave. Changes in laws on absenteeism and disability seem to have been a driving force behind the fall in rates since the early 1980s and employers

  6. Is there a suburban sleeping sickness in Libreville? | Kohagne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The transmission of sleeping sickness occurs primarily in rural areas, and exposed populations are those living from rural activities such as agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry or hunting. However, urban and suburban foci are more and more reported in T. b. gambiense areas. In Libreville town, sleeping ...

  7. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  8. The sweating sickness in England | Sloan | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An acute infect;ous fever, called the sweating sickness, broke out in England in five major epidemics in the years 1485, 1508, 1517, 1528 and 1551. Only one epidemic, that of 1528, spread also on the continent of Europe. The disease I-vas characterized by headache, pain in the chest, and profuse sweating, and frequently ...

  9. Studies on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hee Yong; Sohn, Young Sook

    1998-04-01

    We studied on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage in animal system. To this end we studied following areas of research (1) mechanisms involved in bone marrow damage after total body irradiation, (2) extraction of components that are useful in protecting hematopoietic system from radiation damage, (3) cell therapy approach in restoring the damaged tissue, (4) development of radioprotective chemical reagent, and (5) epidemiological study on the population that had been exposed to radiation.

  10. Studies on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hee Yong; Sohn, Young Sook

    1998-04-01

    We studied on the strategies of minimizing radiation damage in animal system. To this end we studied following areas of research 1) mechanisms involved in bone marrow damage after total body irradiation, 2) extraction of components that are useful in protecting hematopoietic system from radiation damage, 3) cell therapy approach in restoring the damaged tissue, 4) development of radioprotective chemical reagent, and 5) epidemiological study on the population that had been exposed to radiation

  11. Understanding the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic stem cells through CDNA micro-arrays profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlik, A.; Cebo, Ch.; Vaigot, P.; Tronik-Le Roux, D. [Evry Univ., Lab. de Genomique et Radiobiologie de l' Hematopoiese, Service de Genomique Fonctionnelle, CEA, 91 (France)

    2006-07-01

    Eradication of circulating hematopoietic cells has been long known to be the first noticeable somatic effect following total body ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Among these hematopoietic cells a marked differences in sensitivity to IR have been documented reflecting the remarkable degree of heterogeneity in cell type, proliferative capacity and cell cycle status within the bone marrow cells. From all the hematopoietic cells, the small lymphocyte has the greatest radiosensitivity. In fact, a decline in absolute lymphocyte count has been used to assess IR dose in the early phase of observation after IR exposure. At moderate doses, bone marrow recovery is triggered by the differentiation of stem/early progenitor cells, which confirms further their differential sensitivity to radiation exposure. Although differences in radiosensitivity of the stem cell pool have also been documented, little is known from a molecular viewpoint. To gain insight into the molecular programs underlying the response o f hematopoietic cells to radiation exposure, we have applied a genome wide analysis strategy based on cDNA micro arrays. This technology offers a unique opportunity to dissect complex biological process by assessing three types of questions, which are, in order of complexity: Which genes are differentially expressed among the samples studied:Which genes are expressed in a coordinated manner and what are the regulators involved,what are the global biological pathways mobilized. To answer these questions transcriptional changes occurring after exposure of mice to whole body irradiation (2 Gy) were monitored in bone marrow and spleen. The time course was established in vivo and encompassed the reversible eradication of cells. For each kinetic point RNA was collected from both, spleen or sorted B.M. populations from irradiated and sham irradiated mice. The sham irradiated mice were used to eliminate stress modifications due to handling.The results highlight numerous

  12. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. However, to date only few studies have estimated the effect of using part-time sick leave in contrast to full-time sick leave. In thi...

  13. Ventilation in day-care centres and sick leave among nursery children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ibfelt, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  14. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10-2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of Space Motion Sickness were graded as mild, moderate or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through Private Medical Conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for 19 crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and 15 crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular (IM) or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophaxis for Space Motion Sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in 9 crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in 7. Only three crewmembers who took scopdex had no symptoms inflight. Fourteen out of 15 crewmembers treated with IM promethazine and 6 of 8 treated with promethazine suppositories after symptom development had immediate (within 12 h) symptom relief and required no additional medication. There were no cases of delayed symptom presentation in the crewmembers treated with promethazine. This response is in contrast to untreated crewmembers who typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h. We conclude that promethazine is an effective treatment of Space Motion Sickness symptoms inflight. NASA policy currently recommends treating crewmembers with Space Motion Sickness after symptom development, and no longer recommends prophylaxis with scopdex due to delayed symptom development and apparent variable absorption of oral medications during early flight days.

  16. Dissecting the hematopoietic microenvironment. V: Limitations of repair following damage to the hematopoietic support stroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    Damage and repair of the hematopoietic microenvironment of the spleen was studied using X-irradiation, anoxic necrosis induced by splenic ligation, or a combination of the two, as the destructive agents. Spleen colony number, size and type, /sup 59/Fe uptake, and microscopic study of splenic structure were used as means of assessment. The most severe or least repaired damage was induced by high dose irradiation (4000 r), by 1000 r followed immediately by splenic ligation, and by two successive splenic ligations separated by a 30 day recovery period. It was seen that reduction of CFUlt. slashsub slt. slash lodgment, as measured by f factor, played a very major role in the lesser number of spleen colonies formed after either kind of damage. Following the several treatments, the numbers of spleen colonies formed, their size and their typing as erythrocytic or granulocytic varied independently of each other, suggesting that these functions of the microenvironment, and the cell types responsible for them, are independent of each other. The exhaustion of regenerative capacity displayed by repeatedly ligated spleens suggested a maximal limit for stromal cell replications commensurate with Hayflick's hypothesis.

  17. Exercise increases the frequency of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells, but reduces hematopoietic colony-forming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroepfl, Julia Maria; Pekovits, Karin; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Fuchs, Robert; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Hofmann, Peter; Sedlmayr, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfram

    2012-11-01

    Circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) may be triggered by physical exercise and/or normobaric hypoxia from the bone marrow. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise and normobaric hypoxia on CPC number and functionality in the peripheral blood as well as the involvement of oxidative stress parameters as possibly active agents. Ten healthy male subjects (25.3±4.4 years) underwent a standardized cycle incremental exercise test protocol (40 W+20 W/min) under either normoxic (FiO2 ∼0.21) or hypoxic conditions (FiO2exercise. The number of CPCs in the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry (CD34/CD45-positive cells). The functionality of cells present was addressed by secondary colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) assays. To determine a possible correlation between the mobilization of CPCs and reactive oxygen species, parameters for oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were obtained. Data showed a significant increase of CPC release under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions after 10 min of recovery (Pexercise (Pexercise, possibly due to the influence of increased oxidative stress levels.

  18. Protective effects of E838 on hematopoietic damage induced by radiaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yueying; Liu, Qiang; Li, Deguan; Meng, Aimin; Wu, Hongying; Lu, Lu; Wang, Yong; Wang, Ruqin; Zhang, Liangan

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose E838 was a new Ethinyl estradiol derivative with radioprotective property which could significantly elevate the irradiated mice survival rate of 30d. E838 also showed prevention and therapeutical effect in the leucopenia caused by radio-chemotherapy, but exhibit little estrogenic-like effects. In this study, we examined the protective effects of E838 on DNA damage and hematopoietic injury induced by irradiation in IRM-2 mice. Methods: IRM-2 mice were randomized into six groups: control, E838 5 mg/kg, E838 7.5 mg/kg, E838 10 mg/kg, ethinyl estradiol and nilestriol. After intraperitoneal injection 3 consecutive days, mice were exposed 1 Gy whole body γ-irradiation. Then the peripheral blood lymphocyte was collected to observe DNA double-strand breaks by neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Comet images were analyzed by CASP software. Two indexes were choiced, i.e. amount of DNA in the comet tail (tDNA %), Olive Tail Moment (OTM ). In the another experiment, treatment regimen same to the above experiment but the mice were exposed to 7.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation. Bone marrow nucleated cell (BMC) per femur and endogenous spleen colony (CFU-S) were determined to evaluate the hematopoietic function at 9 days after irradiation. Results: tDNA % in different dose E838 (5, 7.5, 10 mg/kg) treated mice were decreased 67.6 %, 82.7 %, 74.9 % compared to the radiation control, respectively(P<0.001). The tDNA % reduction in 7.5mg/kg group were greater than those in ethinyl' estradiol (66.7 %) and nilestriol (66.7 %) treated mice significantly(P<0.01). OTM in E838 (5, 7.5, 10 mg/kg) treated irradiated mice were decreased 88.1 %, 95.3 %, 92.5 %(P<0.01), the OTM reduction in 5, 7.5mg/kg group were greater than those in ethinyl estradiol (86.3 %) and nilestriol(87.5 %) treated irradiated mice (P<0.01). BMC and CFU-S in E838 treated irradiated mice were 40 %∼60% higher than those in irradiated control mice (P<0.05∼0.01). Conclusion: The results

  19. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Rhenen, W.; de Boer, M.R.; Bultmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  20. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental