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Sample records for hemagglutinin globular head

  1. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

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    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Koksunan, Sarawut [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya [National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Prachasupap, Apichai [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, Tadahiro [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa (Japan); Yasugi, Mayo [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Ono, Ken-ichiro [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Yasuha [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  2. Properly folded bacterially expressed H1N1 hemagglutinin globular head and ectodomain vaccines protect ferrets against H1N1 pandemic influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Khurana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 "Spanish Flu". The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic.Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1-330 and HA (1-480, were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1-330 protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1-330 protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1-480. Protein yield for the HA1 (1-330 ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1-480 yield was 0.4-0.8 mg/Liter.This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large scale production of influenza vaccines in the face of influenza pandemic

  3. Addition of N-glycosylation sites on the globular head of the H5 hemagglutinin induces the escape of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from vaccine-induced immunity.

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    Hervé, Pierre-Louis; Lorin, Valérie; Jouvion, Grégory; Da Costa, Bruno; Escriou, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain endemic in poultry in several countries and still constitute a pandemic threat. Since the early 20th century, we experienced four influenza A pandemics. H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 viruses that respectively emerged during 1968 and 2009 pandemics are still responsible for seasonal epidemics. These viruses evolve regularly by substitutions in antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin (HA), which prevent neutralization by antibodies directed against previous strains (antigenic drift). For seasonal H3N2 viruses, an addition of N-glycosylation sites (glycosites) on H3 contributed to this drift. Here, we questioned whether additional glycosites on H5 could induce an escape of H5N1 virus from neutralization, as it was observed for seasonal H3N2 viruses. Seven H5N1 mutants were produced by adding glycosites on H5. The most glycosylated virus escaped from neutralizing antibodies, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a single additional glycosite was responsible for this escape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influenza virus H1N1pdm09 infections in the young and old: evidence of greater antibody diversity and affinity for the hemagglutinin globular head domain (HA1 Domain) in the elderly than in young adults and children.

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    Verma, Nitin; Dimitrova, Milena; Carter, Donald M; Crevar, Corey J; Ross, Ted M; Golding, Hana; Khurana, Surender

    2012-05-01

    The H1N1 2009 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) pandemic had several unexpected features, including low morbidity and mortality in older populations. We performed in-depth evaluation of antibody responses generated following H1N1pdm09 infection of naïve ferrets and of 130 humans ranging from the very young (0 to 9 years old) to the very old (70 to 89 years old). In addition to hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, we used H1N1pdm09 whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDL) to evaluate the antibody repertoires against internal genes, hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) and also measured antibody affinity for antigenic domains within HA. GFPDL analyses of H1N1pdm09-infected ferrets demonstrated gradual development of antibody repertoires with a focus on M1 and HA1 by day 21 postinfection. In humans, H1N1pdm09 infection in the elderly (>70 years old) induced antibodies with broader epitope recognition in both the internal genes and the HA1 receptor binding domain (RBD) than for the younger age groups (0 to 69 years). Importantly, post-H1N1 infection serum antibodies from the elderly demonstrated substantially higher avidity for recombinant HA1 (rHA1) (but not HA2) than those from younger subjects (50% versus elderly following H1N1pdm09 infection, indicative of recall of long-term memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells. These findings may help explain the age-related morbidity and mortality pattern observed during the H1N1pdm09 pandemic.

  5. Conserved epitope on influenza-virus hemagglutinin head defined by a vaccine-induced antibody

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    Raymond, Donald D.; Bajic, Goran; Ferdman, Jack; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Settembre, Ethan C.; Moody, M. Anthony; Schmidt, Aaron G.; Harrison, Stephen C. (Duke-MED); (CH-Boston); (Seqirus)

    2017-12-18

    Antigenic variation requires frequent revision of annual influenza vaccines. Next-generation vaccine design strategies aim to elicit a broader immunity by directing the human immune response toward conserved sites on the principal viral surface protein, the hemagglutinin (HA). We describe a group of antibodies that recognize a hitherto unappreciated, conserved site on the HA of H1 subtype influenza viruses. Mutations in that site, which required a change in the H1 component of the 2017 vaccine, had not previously “taken over” among circulating H1 viruses. Our results encourage vaccine design strategies that resurface a protein to focus the immune response on a specific region.

  6. Re-emergence of H3N2 strains carrying potential neutralizing mutations at the N-linked glycosylation site at the hemagglutinin head, post the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

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    Ushirogawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Tadasuke; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ohuchi, Masanobu; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-08

    Seasonally prevalent H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses have evolved by antigenic drift; this evolution has resulted in the acquisition of asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA), thereby affecting the antigenic and receptor-binding properties, as well as virulence. An epidemiological survey indicated that although the traditional seasonal H1N1 strain had disappeared, H3N2 became predominant again in the seasons (2010-11 and 2011-12) immediately following the H1N1 pandemic of 2009. Interestingly, although the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) lacks additional NGSs, clinically isolated H3N2 strains obtained during these seasons gained N (Asn) residues at positions 45 and 144 of HA that forms additional NGSs. To investigate whether these NGSs are associated with re-emergence of H3N2 within the subtype, we tested the effect of amino acid substitutions on neutralizing activity by using the antisera raised against H3N2 strains with or without additional NGSs. Furthermore, because the N residue at position 144 of HA was identified as the site of mismatch between the vaccine and epidemic strains of 2011-2012, we generated mutant viruses by reverse genetics and tested the functional importance of this particular NGS for antibody-mediated neutralization by intranasal inoculation of mice. The results indicated that amino acid substitution at residue 144 significantly affected neutralization activity, acting as an escape mutation. Our data suggest that the newly acquired NGSs in the HA globular head may play an important role in the re-emergence of endemic seasonal H3N2 strain by aiding the escape from humoral immunity.

  7. Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Suman R.; Hensley, Scott E.; Ince, William L.; Brooke, Christopher B.; Subba, Anju; Delboy, Mark G.; Russ, Gustav; Gibbs, James S.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by “antigenic drift,” rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined ...

  8. Chimeric hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine constructs elicit broadly protective stalk-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian; Pica, Natalie; Hai, Rong; Margine, Irina; Palese, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current influenza virus vaccine strategies stimulate immune responses toward the globular head domain of the hemagglutinin protein in order to inhibit key steps of the virus life cycle. Because this domain is highly variable across strains, new vaccine formulations are required in most years. Here we demonstrate a novel vaccine strategy that generates immunity to the highly conserved stalk domain by using chimeric hemagglutinin constructs that express unique head and stalk combinations. By repeatedly immunizing mice with constructs that expressed the same stalk but an irrelevant head, we specifically stimulated a stalk-directed response that provided broad-based heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity in mice. Notably, our vaccination scheme provides a universal vaccine approach that protects against challenge with an H5 subtype virus. Furthermore, through in vivo studies using passively transferred antibodies or depletion of CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated the critical role that humoral mechanisms of immunity play in the protection observed. The present data suggest that a vaccine strategy based on the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin protein could be used in humans to broadly protect against a variety of influenza virus subtypes.

  9. Chimeric Hemagglutinin Constructs Induce Broad Protection against Influenza B Virus Challenge in the Mouse Model.

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    Ermler, Megan E; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Sun, Weina; Hai, Rong; Amanat, Fatima; Chromikova, Veronika; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-06-15

    Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeric hemagglutinins, consisting of globular head domains from exotic influenza A viruses and stalk domains from influenza B viruses. Sequential vaccination with these constructs in mice leads to the induction of broadly reactive antibodies that bind to the conserved stalk domain of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated mice are protected from lethal challenge with diverse influenza B viruses. Results from serum transfer experiments and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays indicate that this protection is antibody mediated and based on Fc effector functions. The present data suggest that chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccination is a viable strategy to broadly protect against influenza B virus infection.IMPORTANCE While current influenza virus vaccines are effective, they are affected by mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Furthermore, the antiviral drug oseltamivir is less effective for treating influenza B virus infections than for treating influenza A virus infections. A vaccine that induces broad and long-lasting protection against influenza B viruses is therefore urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Defining influenza A virus hemagglutinin antigenic drift by sequential monoclonal antibody selection.

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    Das, Suman R; Hensley, Scott E; Ince, William L; Brooke, Christopher B; Subba, Anju; Delboy, Mark G; Russ, Gustav; Gibbs, James S; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2013-03-13

    Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by "antigenic drift," rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined by monoclonal or polyclonal Abs. Sequential mutants grow robustly, showing the structural plasticity of HA, although several hemagglutinin substitutions required an epistatic substitution in the neuraminidase glycoprotein to maximize growth. Selecting escape mutants from parental versus sequential variants with the same mAb revealed distinct escape repertoires, attributed to contextual changes in antigenicity and the mutation landscape. Since each hemagglutinin mutation potentially sculpts future mutation space, drift can follow many stochastic paths, undermining its unpredictability and underscoring the need for drift-insensitive vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the early stages of the pH-induced conformational change of influenza hemagglutinin.

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    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Chao; Zhao, Lifeng; Huang, Niu

    2014-10-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) mediates the membrane fusion process of influenza virus through its pH-induced conformational change. However, it remains challenging to study its structure reorganization pathways in atomic details. Here, we first applied continuous constant pH molecular dynamics approach to predict the pK(a) values of titratable residues in H2 subtype HA. The calculated net-charges in HA1 globular heads increase from 0e (pH 7.5) to +14e (pH 4.5), indicating that the charge repulsion drives the detrimerization of HA globular domains. In HA2 stem regions, critical pH sensors, such as Glu103(2), His18(1), and Glu89(1), are identified to facilitate the essential structural reorganizations in the fusing pathways, including fusion peptide release and interhelical loop transition. To probe the contribution of identified pH sensors and unveil the early steps of pH-induced conformational change, we carried out conventional molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water with determined protonation state for each titratable residue in different environmental pH conditions. Particularly, energy barriers involving previously uncharacterized hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are identified in the fusion peptide release pathway. Nevertheless, comprehensive comparisons across HA family members indicate that different HA subtypes might employ diverse pH sensor groups along with different fusion pathways. Finally, we explored the fusion inhibition mechanism of antibody CR6261 and small molecular inhibitor TBHQ, and discovered a novel druggable pocket in H2 and H5 subtypes. Our results provide the underlying mechanism for the pH-driven conformational changes and also novel insight for anti-flu drug development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo, Fernando; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 radio pulsars have been detected in 24 globular clusters. The largest observed samples are in Terzan 5 and 47 Tucanae, which together contain 45 pulsars. Accurate timing solutions, including positions in the cluster, are known for many of these pulsars. Here we provide an observational overview of some properties of pulsars in globular clusters, as well as properties of the globular clusters with detected pulsars. The many recent detections also provide a new opportunity to re-e...

  13. Protection against respiratory syncytial virus by inactivated influenza virus carrying a fusion protein neutralizing epitope in a chimeric hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Na; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, F Eun-Hyung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-04-01

    A desirable vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should induce neutralizing antibodies without eliciting abnormal T cell responses to avoid vaccine-enhanced pathology. In an approach to deliver RSV neutralizing epitopes without RSV-specific T cell antigens, we genetically engineered chimeric influenza virus expressing RSV F262-276 neutralizing epitopes in the globular head domain as a chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Immunization of mice with formalin-inactivated recombinant chimeric influenza/RSV F262-276 was able to induce RSV protective neutralizing antibodies and lower lung viral loads after challenge. Formalin-inactivated RSV immune mice showed high levels of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, IL-4-producing T cells, and extensive histopathology. However, RSV-specific T cell responses and enhancement of pulmonary histopathology were not observed after RSV infection of inactivated chimeric influenza/RSV F262-276. This study provides evidence that an inactivated vaccine platform of chimeric influenza/RSV virus can be developed into a safe RSV vaccine candidate without priming RSV-specific T cells and immunopathology. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract illness and morbidity in children. Hence, there is a need to develop an effective vaccine against this virus. In this article, the authors engineered chimeric influenza virus to express RSV neutralizing epitopes. The positive findings in in-vivo experiments provide a beginning for future clinical trials and perhaps eventual product realization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in universal influenza virus vaccine design and antibody mediated therapies based on conserved regions of the hemagglutinin.

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    Krammer, Florian; Palese, Peter; Steel, John

    2015-01-01

    The threat of novel influenza viruses emerging into the human population from animal reservoirs, as well as the short duration of protection conferred by licensed vaccines against human seasonal strains has spurred research efforts to improve upon current vaccines and develop novel therapeutics against influenza viruses. In recent years these efforts have resulted in the identification of novel, highly conserved epitopes for neutralizing antibodies on the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein, which are present in both the stalk and globular head domains of the molecule. The existence of such epitopes may allow for generation of novel therapeutic antibodies, in addition to serving as attractive targets of novel vaccine design. The aims of developing improved vaccines include eliciting broader protection from drifted strains, inducing long-lived immunity against seasonal strains, and allowing for the rational design of vaccines that can be stockpiled for use as pre-pandemic vaccines. In addition, an increased focus on influenza virus vaccine research has prompted an improved understanding of how the immune system responds to influenza virus infection.

  15. Globular clusters - FADS and fallacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The types of globular clusters observed in the Milky Way Galaxy are described together with their known characteristics, with special attention given to correcting the erroneous statements made earlier about globular clusters. Among these are the following statements: the Galaxy is surrounded by many hundreds of globular clusters; all globular clusters are located toward the Galactic center, all globular clusters are 'metal poor' and move about the Galaxy in highly elliptical paths; all globular clusters contain RR Lyrae-type variable stars, and the RR Lyrae stars found outside of globulars have come from cluster dissolution or ejection; all of the stars in a given cluster were born at the same time and have the same chemical composition; X-ray globulars are powered by central black holes; and the luminosity functions for globular clusters are well defined and well determined. Consideration is given to the fact that globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds differ from those in the Milky Way by their age distribution and that the globulars of the SMC differ from those of the LMC.

  16. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  17. Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins

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    Suzanne R. Kalb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC, alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH, and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC, but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex.

  18. Glycosylation Characterization of an Influenza H5N7 Hemagglutinin Series with Engineered Glycosylation Patterns: Implications for Structure-Function Relationships.

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    Parsons, Lisa M; An, Yanming; de Vries, Robert P; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Cipollo, John F

    2017-02-03

    The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide asialo-complex glycoforms, (iii) HEK293S GnTI(-) cells with predominantly the canonical Man5GlcNAc2 glycoform, and (iv) Drosophila S2 insect cells producing primarily paucimannose glycoforms. Previously, these HAs were used to investigate the effect of different glycosylation states on the immune responses in chicken and mouse systems. Evidence was found that high-mannose glycans diminished antibody response via DC-SIGN interactions. We performed two semiquantitative analyses including MALDI-TOF MS permethylation analysis of released glycans and LC-MSE analysis of glycosylation site microheterogeneity. Glycosylation site occupancy was also determined by LC-MSE. Our major findings include (1) decreasing complexity of glycosylation from the stem to the globular head, (2) absence of glycosylation at N10 and N193, (3) complex glycans at N165 in HEK293T cell HA but high mannose glycans at this site in HEK293S and S2 cells, and (4) differences between the three-dimensional structures of H3 and H5 HAs that may explain glycan type preferences at selected sites. Biological implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

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    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  20. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  1. Site-specific glycosylation profile of influenza A (H1N1) hemagglutinin through tandem mass spectrometry.

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    Cruz, Esteban; Cain, Joel; Crossett, Ben; Kayser, Veysel

    2017-10-19

    The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines. Sequence-based analysis of viral RNA has provided great insight into the role of glycosite modifications in altering virulence and pathogenicity. Nonetheless, this sequence-based approach can only predict potential glycosylation sites. Due to experimental challenges, experimental confirmation of the occupation of predicted glycosylation sites has only been carried out for a few strains. Herein, we utilized HCD/CID-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry to characterize the site-specific profile of HA of an egg-grown H1N1 reference strain (A/New Caledonia/20/1999). We confirmed experimentally the occupancy of glycosylation sites identified by primary sequence analysis and determined the heterogeneity of glycan structures. Four glycosylation sequons on the stalk region (N28, N40, N304 and N498) and four on the globular head (N71, N104, N142 and N177) of the protein are occupied. Our results revealed a broad glycan microheterogeneity, i.e., a great diversity of glycan compositions present on each glycosite. The present methodology can be applied to characterize other viruses, particularly different influenza strains, to better understand the impact of glycosylation on biological activities and aid the improvement of influenza vaccines.

  2. Globular clusters with Gaia

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    Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Giuffrida, G.; Marinoni, S.

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of crowded fields in Gaia data will only be a reality in a few years from now. In particular, for globular clusters, only the end-of-mission data (public in 2022-2023) will have the necessary full crowding treatment and will reach sufficient quality for the faintest stars. As a consequence, the work on the deblending and decontamination pipelines is still ongoing. We describe the present status of the pipelines for different Gaia instruments, and we model the end-of-mission crowding errors on the basis of available information. We then apply the nominal post-launch Gaia performances, appropriately worsened by the estimated crowding errors, to a set of 18 simulated globular clusters with different concentration, distance and field contamination. We conclude that there will be 103-104 stars with astrometric performances virtually untouched by crowding (contaminated by <1 mmag) in the majority of clusters. The most limiting factor will be field crowding, not cluster crowding: the most contaminated clusters will only contain 10-100 clean stars. We also conclude that (i) the systemic proper motions and parallaxes will be determined to 1 per cent or better up to ≃15 kpc, and the nearby clusters will have radial velocities to a few km s-1; (ii) internal kinematics will be of unprecedented quality, cluster masses will be determined to ≃10 per cent up to 15 kpc and beyond, and it will be possible to identify differences of a few km s-1 or less in the kinematics (if any) of cluster sub-populations up to 10 kpc and beyond; (iii) the brightest stars (V ≃ 17 mag) will have space-quality, wide-field photometry (mmag errors), and all Gaia photometry will have 1-3 per cent errors on the absolute photometric calibration.

  3. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  4. Influenza hemagglutinin stem-fragment immunogen elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies and confers heterologous protection

    OpenAIRE

    Mallajosyula, Vamsee V. A.; Citron, Michael; Ferrara, Francesca; Lu, Xianghan; Callahan, Cheryl; Heidecker, Gwendolyn J.; Sarma, Siddhartha P.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Temperton, Nigel J.; Liang, Xiaoping; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary target of the humoral response during infection/vaccination. Current influenza vaccines typically fail to elicit/boost broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), thereby limiting their efficacy. Although several bnAbs bind to the conserved stem domain of HA, focusing the immune response to this conserved stem in the presence of the immunodominant, variable head domain of HA is challenging. We report the design of a thermotolerant, disulfide-free, and ...

  5. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  6. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in

  7. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  8. Featured Image: Globular Cluster Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    This figure (click for the full view) shows the meridional galactic orbits of 12 globular clusters that orbit the Milky Way. The recent release of stellar parallax data from Gaia allowed a team of scientists at Dartmouth College to improve measurements of a number of galactic globular clusters very old clusters of stars that can either orbit within the galactic disk and bulge or more distantly in the galactic halo. In a recent publication led by Erin OMalley, the team presents their findings and combines their new measurements for the clusters with proper motions from past studies to calculate the orbits that these globulars take. These calculations show us whether the clusters reside in the galactic disk and bulge (as only NGC 104 does in the sample shown here, since its orbit is confined to 8 kpc radially and 4 kpc vertically of the galactic center), or if they are halo clusters. To learn more about the authors work, you can check out the paper below!CitationErin M. OMalley et al 2017 ApJ 838 162. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6574

  9. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  10. 'a'-Position-mutated and G4-mutated hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of Newcastle disease virus impair fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-fusion interaction by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-lu; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhang, Wen-qiang; Lin, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Cheng-xi; Ren, Gui-jie; Song, Yan-yan; Wang, Zhiyu

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of heptad repeat regions (HRs) and N-linked carbohydrate sites of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein on fusion of HN and fusion (F) proteins and HN-F interaction. We mutated six 'a' residues in the HRs and four asparagines in N-linked carbohydrate sites to alanine in the HN protein. A vaccinia-T7 RNA polymerase expression system was used to express HN cDNAs in BHK-21 cells to determine the HN functions. Deglycosylation was treated with PGNase F digestion. The formation of HN-F protein complexes was determined by the coimmunoprecipitation assay. Each HR-mutated protein interfered with fusion and the HN-F interaction. The G4-mutated protein not only impaired fusion and HN-F interaction but also decreased activities in cell fusion promotion, hemadsorption and neuraminidase. It is assumed that two different mechanisms for mutations in these two regions are responsible for the decreased fusion promotion activity and the reduced ability of interaction with F protein. Mutations in the HRs impair fusion and HN-F interaction by altering the transmission of a signal from the globular domain to the F-specific region in the stalk, but the G4 mutation modulates fusion and HN-F interaction by the misfolding of some important structures. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Pak-Hin T.; Hui, Chung Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs). Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC) emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  12. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hin T. Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  13. Globular cluster X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, D.

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual binary systems, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs), with formation rates per unit mass exceeding those in the Galactic disk by orders of magnitude. The high stellar densities in globular clusters trigger various dynamical interactions: exchange encounters, direct collisions, destruction of binaries, and tidal capture. This binary population is, in turn, critical to the stabilization of globular clusters against gravitational collapse; the long-term stability of a cluster is thought to depend on tapping into the gravitational binding energy of such close binaries. I will present an overview of the current state of globular cluster X-ray observations, as well as our work on deep Chandra observations of M4, where we reach some of the lowest X-ray luminosities in any globular cluster (comparable to the deep observations of 47 Tuc and NGC 6397). One of M4 X-ray sources previously classified as a white dwarf binary is likely a neutron star binary, and another X-ray source is a sub-subgiant, the nature of which is still unclear. skip=3pt

  14. Globular Cluster Messier 2 in Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the Globular cluster Messier 2 (M2) was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on August 20, 2003. This image is a small section of a single All Sky Imaging Survey exposure of only 129 seconds in the constellation Aquarius. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors (colored red). Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems of hundreds of thousands of stars that orbit in the halos of galaxies. The globular clusters in out Milky Way galaxy contain some of the oldest stars known. M2 lies 33,000 light years from our Sun with stars distributed in a spherical system with a radius of approximately 100 light years.

  15. Massive star archeology in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.

  16. Membrane Fusion and Infection of the Influenza Hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrt, Sean T; Lorieau, Justin L

    2017-01-01

    The influenza virus is a major health concern associated with an estimated 5000 to 30,000 deaths every year (Reed et al. 2015) and a significant economic impact with the development of treatments, vaccinations and research (Molinari et al. 2007). The entirety of the influenza genome is comprised of only eleven coding genes. An enormous degree of variation in non-conserved regions leads to significant challenges in the development of inclusive inhibitors for treatment. The fusion peptide domain of the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) is a promising candidate for treatment since it is one of the most highly conserved sequences in the influenza genome (Heiny et al. 2007), and it is vital to the viral life cycle. Hemagglutinin is a class I viral fusion protein that catalyzes the membrane fusion process during cellular entry and infection. Impediment of the hemagglutinin's function, either through incomplete post-translational processing (Klenk et al. 1975; Lazarowitz and Choppin 1975) or through mutations (Cross et al. 2001), leads to non-infective virus particles. This review will investigate current research on the role of hemagglutinin in the virus life cycle, its structural biology and mechanism as well as the central role of the hemagglutinin fusion peptide (HAfp) to influenza membrane fusion and infection.

  17. New Millisecond Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amico, N.; Possenti, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Sarkissian, J.; Lyne, A. G.; Camilo, F.

    2001-01-01

    A new search of globular clusters for millisecond pulsars is in progress at Parkes. In this paper we describe the motivation, the new hardware and software systems adopted, the survey plan and the preliminary results. So far, we have discovered ten new millisecond pulsars in four clusters for which no associated pulsars were previously known.

  18. Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Boyles, Jason R.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J.; Ransom, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

  19. Isolation of influenza virus A hemagglutinin C-terminal domain by hemagglutinin proteolysis in octylglucoside micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radyukhin, Victor A; Serebryakova, Marina V; Ksenofontov, Alexander L; Lukashina, Elena V; Baratova, Lyudmila A

    2006-01-01

    A method of isolation of hydrophobic membrane-bound C-terminal domain of influenza virus A hemagglutinin (HA) is suggested. The method is based on the insertion of HA into octylglucoside micelles followed by pepsin or thermolysin hydrolysis. Subsequent treatment of proteolytic digests with chloroform-hexafluoroisopropanol mixture resulted in the extraction of a few hydrophobic peptides into organic phase. Mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed that the peptides with ion masses corresponding to the anchoring C-terminal domain with or without modifications predominated in the organic solution. The data obtained confirmed our speculation on the possibility of the suggested isolation scheme following from the strong interactions of anchoring domains in compact trimeric structure of HA spikes combined with micelle protection effect. Several appropriate peptides presence in the organic phase apparently arises from the presence of a few accessible proteolytic sites in HA transmembrane region.

  20. VARIABLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonova, M.; Stalin, C. S., E-mail: rita@iiap.res.in, E-mail: stalin@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

    2011-12-15

    We present the results of a commissioning campaign to observe Galactic globular clusters for the search of microlensing events. The central 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' region of the globular cluster NGC 5024 was monitored using the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope in R-band for a period of about 8 hr on 2010 March 24. Light curves were obtained for nearly 10,000 stars using a modified Differential Image Analysis technique. We identified all known variables within our field of view and revised the periods and status of some previously reported short-period variables. We report about 70 new variable sources and present their equatorial coordinates, periods, light curves, and possible types. Out of these, 15 are SX Phe stars, 10 are W UMa-type stars, and 14 are probable RR Lyrae stars. Nine of the newly discovered SX Phe stars and one eclipsing binary belong to the blue straggler star population.

  1. Color and population gradients in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S.; Piotto, G.; Mallen-Ornelas, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a survey for color and population gradients in globular cluster cores. Color gradients, in the sense of becoming bluer inwards, are always found in post-core-collapse clusters. They seem to be caused by the demise of red giants, and possibly an increased number of blue stragglers. This may be a consequence of stellar interactions during and after the core collapse. No gradients are seen in clusters with King-model morphology.

  2. Formation Mechanisms of IMBH in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Giersz, M.; Leigh, N; Hypki, A.P.; A Askar; Lützgendorf, N.

    2016-01-01

    We very briefly discuss proposed in the literature possible scenarios for intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) formation in globular clusters. We also discuss the results of the MOCCA simulations of about 2000 models (BigSurvey) regarding the distribution of events connected with electromagnetic and gravitational radiations, namely: mass transfer on IMBH, collisions and mergers with IMBH and mergers with IMBH due to gravitational radiation. The rates of these events are very small, so their o...

  3. Pulsars in Globular Clusters with the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, J.; Possenti, A.; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Stairs, I. H.

    2015-04-01

    Globular clusters are highly efficient radio pulsar factories. These pulsars can be used as precision probes of the clusters' structure, gas content, magnetic field, and formation history; some of them are also highly interesting in their own right because they probe exotic stellar evolution scenarios as well as the physics of dense matter, accretion, and gravity. Deep searches with SKA1-MID and SKA1-LOW will plausibly double to triple the known population. Such searches will only require one to a few tied-array beams, and can be done during early commissioning of the telescope - before an all-sky pulsar survey using hundreds to thousands of tied-array beams is feasible. With SKA2 it will be possible to observe most of the active radio pulsars within a large fraction of the Galactic globular clusters, an estimated population of 600 - 3700 observable pulsars (those beamed towards us). This rivals the total population of millisecond pulsars that can be found in the Galactic field; fully characterizing it will provide the best-possible physical laboratories as well as a rich dynamical history of the Galactic globular cluster system.

  4. Influenza Virus-specific CD8+ T Cells : -longevity, cross-reactivity and viral evasion-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van de Sandt (Carolien)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractInfluenza viruses are among the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infections worldwide. Natural influenza virus infections elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although, neutralizing antibodies directed to the hemagglutinin (HA) globular head domain prevent

  5. Dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario; Cote, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A combination of V-band CCD images and echelle spectra of member red giants is presently used to examine the internal dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362. A total of 285 stellar spectra were obtained of 215 stars for radial velocity determinations, and the true cluster binary fraction was determined from simulations to be 0.15 for circular orbits and 0.27 for orbits with an f(e) = e (eccentricity) distribution function. An overabundance of binaries is surmised for NGC 362 on this basis.

  6. Analytical Solution for Stellar Density in Globular Clusters MA Sharaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galactic globular clusters, which are ancient building blocks of our Galaxy, rep- resent a very interesting family of stellar systems in which some fundamental dynamical processes have taken place on time scale shorter than the age of the universe. For example, horizontal branch (HB) stars in globular clusters offer an.

  7. Dynamics of Globular Clusters with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, M. V.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, E. O.

    2017-06-01

    Recent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of several Galactic globular clusters have shown that they may contain black holes of intermediate mass (around 1% of the cluster mass). Using N-body simulations we follow dynamical evolution of globular clusters in the presence of such an intermediate-mass black hole.

  8. Models of globular proteins in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Nathaniel James

    Protein crystallization is a continuing area of research. Currently, there is no universal theory for the conditions required to crystallize proteins. A better understanding of protein crystallization will be helpful in determining protein structure and preventing and treating certain diseases. In this thesis, we will extend the understanding of globular proteins in aqueous solutions by analyzing various models for protein interactions. Experiments have shown that the liquid-liquid phase separation curves for lysozyme in solution with salt depend on salt type and salt concentration. We analyze a simple square well model for this system whose well depth depends on salt type and salt concentration, to determine the phase coexistence surfaces from experimental data. The surfaces, calculated from a single Monte Carlo simulation and a simple scaling argument, are shown as a function of temperature, salt concentration and protein concentration for two typical salts. Urate Oxidase from Asperigillus flavus is a protein used for studying the effects of polymers on the crystallization of large proteins. Experiments have determined some aspects of the phase diagram. We use Monte Carlo techniques and perturbation theory to predict the phase diagram for a model of urate oxidase in solution with PEG. The model used includes an electrostatic interaction, van der Waals attraction, and a polymerinduced depletion interaction. The results agree quantitatively with experiments. Anisotropy plays a role in globular protein interactions, including the formation of hemoglobin fibers in sickle cell disease. Also, the solvent conditions have been shown to play a strong role in the phase behavior of some aqueous protein solutions. Each has previously been treated separately in theoretical studies. Here we propose and analyze a simple, combined model that treats both anisotropy and solvent effects. We find that this model qualitatively explains some phase behavior, including the existence of

  9. LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  10. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  11. Most Massive Globular Cluster in Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Far down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus, a diffuse spot of light can be perceived with the unaided eye. It may be unimpressive, but when seen through a telescope, it turns out to be a beautiful, dense cluster of innumerable stars [1]. Omega Centauri, as this object is called, is the brightest of its type in the sky. We refer to it as a "globular cluster", due to its symmetric form. It belongs to our Milky Way galaxy and astrophysical investigations have shown that it is located at a distance of about 16,500 light-years (1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 km). Nobody knows for sure how many individual stars it contains, but recent estimates run into the millions. Most of these stars are more than 10,000 million years old and it is generally agreed that Omega Centauri has a similar age. Measurements of its motion indicate that Omega Centauri plows through the Milky Way in an elongated orbit. It is not easy to understand how it has managed to keep its stars together during such an extended period. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITIES IN OMEGA CENTAURI A group of astronomers [2] have recently carried through a major investigation of Omega Centauri. After many nights of observations at the ESO La Silla observatory, they now conclude that not only is this globular cluster the brightest, it is indeed by far the most massive known in the Milky Way. The very time-consuming observations were made during numerous observing sessions over a period of no less than 13 years (1981-1993), with the photoelectric spectrometer CORAVEL mounted on the 1.5-m Danish telescope at La Silla. The CORAVEL instrument (COrelation RAdial VELocities) was built in a joint effort between the Geneva (Switzerland) and Marseilles (France) observatories. It functions according to the cross-correlation technique, by means of which the spectrum of the observed star is compared with a "standard stellar spectrum" [3]. HOW HEAVY IS OMEGA CENTAURI? In the present study, a total of 1701

  12. Hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF protein of influenza C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Influenza C virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, causes flu-like disease but typically only with mild symptoms. Humans are the main reservoir of the virus, but it also infects pigs and dogs. Very recently, influenza C-like viruses were isolated from pigs and cattle that differ from classical influenza C virus and might constitute a new influenza virus genus. Influenza C virus is unique since it contains only one spike protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF that possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying and membrane fusion activities, thus combining the functions of Hemagglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA of influenza A and B viruses. Here we briefly review the epidemiology and pathology of the virus and the morphology of virus particles and their genome. The main focus is on the structure of the HEF protein as well as on its co- and post-translational modification, such as N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, S-acylation and proteolytic cleavage into HEF1 and HEF2 subunits. Finally, we describe the functions of HEF: receptor binding, esterase activity and membrane fusion.

  13. The influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain is an amphipathic helical hairpin that functions by inducing membrane curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrt, Sean T; Draney, Adrian W; Lorieau, Justin L

    2015-01-02

    The highly conserved N-terminal 23 residues of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein, known as the fusion peptide domain (HAfp23), is vital to the membrane fusion and infection mechanism of the influenza virus. HAfp23 has a helical hairpin structure consisting of two tightly packed amphiphilic helices that rest on the membrane surface. We demonstrate that HAfp23 is a new class of amphipathic helix that functions by leveraging the negative curvature induced by two tightly packed helices on membranes. The helical hairpin structure has an inverted wedge shape characteristic of negative curvature lipids, with a bulky hydrophobic region and a relatively small hydrophilic head region. The F3G mutation reduces this inverted wedge shape by reducing the volume of its hydrophobic base. We show that despite maintaining identical backbone structures and dynamics as the wild type HAfp23, the F3G mutant has an attenuated fusion activity that is correlated to its reduced ability to induce negative membrane curvature. The inverted wedge shape of HAfp23 is likely to play a crucial role in the initial stages of membrane fusion by stabilizing negative curvature in the fusion stalk. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Insight into highly conserved H1 subtype-specific epitopes in influenza virus hemagglutinin.

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    Ki Joon Cho

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses continuously undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of mutations in hemagglutinin (HA that is a major determinant in subtype specificity. The identification of conserved epitopes within specific HA subtypes gives an important clue for developing new vaccines and diagnostics. We produced and characterized nine monoclonal antibodies that showed significant neutralizing activities against H1 subtype influenza viruses, and determined the complex structure of HA derived from a 2009 pandemic virus A/Korea/01/2009 (KR01 and the Fab fragment from H1-specific monoclonal antibody GC0587. The overall structure of the complex was essentially identical to the previously determined KR01 HA-Fab0757 complex structure. Both Fab0587 and Fab0757 recognize readily accessible head regions of HA, revealing broadly shared and conserved antigenic determinants among H1 subtypes. The β-strands constituted by Ser110-Glu115 and Lys169-Lys170 form H1 epitopes with distinct conformations from those of H1 and H3 HA sites. In particular, Glu112, Glu115, Lys169, and Lys171 that are highly conserved among H1 subtype HAs have close contacts with HCDR3 and LCDR3. The differences between Fab0587 and Fab0757 complexes reside mainly in HCDR3 and LCDR3, providing distinct antigenic determinants specific for 1918 pdm influenza strain. Our results demonstrate a potential key neutralizing epitope important for H1 subtype specificity in influenza virus.

  15. A rapid Flp-In system for expression of secreted H5N1 influenza hemagglutinin vaccine immunogen in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxin Lu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuing transmissions of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses in poultry and humans underscores the need for a rapid response to potential pandemic in the form of vaccine. Recombinant technologies for production of immunogenic hemagglutinin (HA could provide an advantage over the traditional inactivated vaccine manufacturing process. Generation of stably transfected mammalian cells secreting properly folded HA proteins is important for scalable controlled manufacturing.We have developed a Flp-In based 293 stable cell lines through targeted site-specific recombination for expression of secreted hemagglutinin (HA proteins and evaluated their immunogenicity. H5N1 globular domain HA1(1-330 and HA0(1-500 proteins were purified from the supernatants of 293 Flp-In stable cell lines. Both proteins were properly folded as confirmed by binding to H5N1-neutralizing conformation-dependent human monoclonal antibodies. The HA0 (with unmodified cleavage site was monomeric, while the HA1 contained oligomeric forms. Upon rabbit immunization, both HA proteins elicited neutralizing antibodies against the homologous virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004, clade 1 as well as cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous H5N1 clade 2 strains, including A/Indonesia/5/2005. These results exceeded the human antibody responses against the inactivated sub-virion H5N1 vaccine.Our data suggest that the 293 Flp-In system could serve as a platform for rapid expression of HA immunogens in mammalian cells from emerging influenza strains.

  16. Accreting Black Hole Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the formation of mass-transferring binary systems containing black holes (BHs) within globular clusters (GC). We show that it is possible to form mass-transferring BH binaries with main sequence, giant, and white dwarf companions with a variety of orbital parameters in GCs spanning a large range in present-day properties. All mass-transferring BH binaries found in our models at late times are dynamically created. The BHs in these systems experienced a median of ∼30 dynamical encounters within the cluster before and after acquiring the donor. Furthermore, we show that the presence of mass-transferring BH systems has little correlation with the total number of BHs within the cluster at any time. This is because the net rate of formation of BH–non-BH binaries in a cluster is largely independent of the total number of retained BHs. Our results suggest that the detection of a mass-transferring BH binary in a GC does not necessarily indicate that the host cluster contains a large BH population.

  17. THE TIMING OF NINE GLOBULAR CLUSTER PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S. [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4325 (United States); Jacoby, Bryan A., E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: pfreire@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: sransom@nrao.edu, E-mail: bryan.jacoby@gmail.com [Aerospace Corporation, 15049 Conference Center Drive, Chantilly, VA 20151-3824 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to time nine previously known pulsars without published timing solutions in the globular clusters (GCs) M62, NGC 6544, and NGC 6624. We have full timing solutions that measure the spin, astrometric, and (where applicable) binary parameters for six of these pulsars. The remaining three pulsars (reported here for the first time) were not detected enough to establish solutions. We also report our timing solutions for five pulsars with previously published solutions, and find good agreement with other authors, except for PSR J1701-3006B in M62. Gas in this system is probably responsible for the discrepancy in orbital parameters, and we have been able to measure a change in the orbital period over the course of our observations. Among the pulsars with new solutions we find several binary pulsars with very low mass companions (members of the so-called 'black widow' class) and we are able to place constraints on the mass-to-light ratio in two clusters. We confirm that one of the pulsars in NGC 6624 is indeed a member of the rare class of non-recycled pulsars found in GCs. We have also measured the orbital precession and Shapiro delay for a relativistic binary in NGC 6544. If we assume that the orbital precession can be described entirely by general relativity, which is likely, we are able to measure the total system mass (2.57190(73) M{sub Sun }) and companion mass (1.2064(20) M{sub Sun }), from which we derive the orbital inclination (sin i = 0.9956(14)) and the pulsar mass (1.3655(21) M{sub Sun }), the most precise such measurement ever obtained for a millisecond pulsar. The companion is the most massive known around a fully recycled pulsar.

  18. Globular Cluster formation in a collapsing supershell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchi, S.; Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Dinnbier, F.

    2017-10-01

    Primordial clouds are supposed to host the so-called population III stars. These stars are very massive and completely metal-free. The final stage of the life of population III stars with masses between 130 and 260 solar masses is a very energetic hypernova explosion. A hypernova drives a shock, behind which a spherically symmetric very dense supershell forms, which might become gravitationally unstable, fragment, and form stars. In this paper we study under what conditions can an expanding supershell become gravitationally unstable and how the feedback of these supershell stars (SSSs) affects its surroundings. We simulate, by means of a 1-D Eulerian hydrocode, the early evolution of the primordial cloud after the hypernova explosion, the formation of SSSs, and the following evolution, once the SSSs start to release energy and heavy elements into the interstellar medium. Our results indicate that a shell, enriched with nucleosynthetic products from SSSs, propagates inwards, towards the center of the primordial cloud. In a time span of a few Myr, this inward-propagating shell reaches a distance of only a few parsec away from the center of the primordial cloud. Its density is extremely high and its temperature very low, thus the conditions for a new episode of star formation are achieved. We study what fraction of these two distinct populations of stars can remain bound and survive until the present day. We study also under what conditions can this process repeat and form multiple stellar populations. We extensively discuss whether the proposed scenario can help to explain some open questions of the formation mechanism of globular clusters.

  19. CN Variations in High-Metallicity Globular and Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sarah L.; Smith, Graeme H.

    2009-06-01

    We present a comparison of CN band strength variations in the high-metallicity globular clusters NGC 6356 and NGC 6528 with those measured in the old open clusters NGC 188, NCG 2158 and NGC 7789. Star-to-star abundance variations, of which CN differences are a readily observable sign, are commonplace in moderate-metallicity halo globular clusters but are unseen in the field or in open clusters. We find that the open clusters have narrow, unimodal distributions of CN band strength, as expected from the literature, while the globular clusters have broad, bimodal distributions of CN band strength, similar to moderate-metallicity halo globular clusters. This result has interesting implications for the various mechanisms proposed to explain the origin of globular cluster abundance inhomogeneities, and suggests that the local environment at the epoch of cluster formation plays a vital role in regulating intracluster enrichment processes. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  20. Possible Streams of the Globular Clusters in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Jiang, Bi-Wei; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2007-02-01

    We aim to retrieve ghost streams under the assumption that all the globular clusters in our Galaxy were formed in very early merge events. Our results are based on two speculations: that the specific energy and angular momentum of the globular clusters after merge are not changed in the course of evolution and that the globular clusters with a common origin would stay in the same orbit plane as the parent galaxy. After taking into account the apogalacticum distance of the orbits, we suggest with some confidence five possible streams. The number of streams is consistent with the previous results. Three of the four well established members of the Sagittarius stream were found to be in one of our streams. Several other globular clusters in our result were also thought to come from accretion by previous researchers. The orbital parameters of the streams are derived, which provide a way to test whether these streams are true with the help of more accurate measurement of proper motions of the globular clusters.

  1. Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Kang, Young-Woon; Lee, Jina; Lee, Young-Wook

    2009-11-26

    The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae-a process known as metal enrichment. Although M 22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M 22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as 'pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy.

  2. Looking for tidal streams around Galactic globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Delgado D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The picture of building the Milky Way halo from merging protogalactic fragments is considered the local manifestation of the hierarchical galaxy formation process. In this scenario, some observational evidences have suggested that the outer young Galactic halo globular cluster population might be associated (or even the nuclei to tidal disrupted dwarf spheroidals, now extinct galaxies. If this hypothesis is true, these systems might be surrounded by a distinct and still detectable stellar population. We have carried out a systematic observation of Galactic globulars covering the galactocentric distance range 10 < RGC< 40 kpc in both hemispheres. We have used wide field instruments both in La Palma and in La Silla observatories to obtain deep photometry of wide areas around these globulars to unveil the possible remnants of their progenitor dwarf galaxies.

  3. Sistemas de cúmulos globulares extragalácticos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describen las características de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares asociados a galaxias elípticas en una variedad de medios y, en particular, aquellas vinculadas con la distribución espacial, frecuencia específica y composición química. Esta discusión se hace dentro de un conjunto de esquemas orientados a explicar las primeras fases de la formación de las galaxias dominantes en cúmulos y del rol de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares en esos procesos.

  4. Molecular Evolution and Characterization of Hemagglutinin (H in Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiang Liang

    Full Text Available Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, highly contagious, and febrile viral disease that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease has become a major obstacle to the development of sustainable Agriculture. Hemagglutinin (H, the envelope glycoprotein of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV, plays a crucial role in regulating viral adsorption and entry, thus determining pathogenicity, and release of newly produced viral particles. In order to accurately understand the epidemic of the disease and the interactions between the virus and host, we launch the work. Here, we examined H gene from all four lineages of the PPRV to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV by the Bayesian method. In addition, we predicted positive selection sites due to selective pressures. Finally, we studied the interaction between H protein and SLAM receptor based on homology model of the complex. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that H gene can also be used to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. Positive selection analysis identified four positive selection sites in H gene, in which only one common site (aa246 was detected by two methods, suggesting strong operation structural and/or functional constraint of changes on the H protein. This target site may be of interest for future mutagenesis studies. The results of homology modeling showed PPRVHv-shSLAM binding interface and MVH-maSLAM binding interface were consistent, wherein the groove in the B4 blade and B5 of the head domain of PPRVHv bound to the AGFCC' β-sheets of the membrane-distal ectodomain of shSLAM. The binding regions could provide insight on the nature of the protein for epitope vaccine design, novel drug discovery, and rational drug design against PPRV.

  5. Gnarled-trunk evolutionary model of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihito Ito

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemagglutinin (HA molecule. A strong antigenic mismatch between vaccine and epidemic strains often requires the replacement of influenza vaccines worldwide. To establish a practical model enabling us to predict the future direction of the influenza virus evolution, relative distances of amino acid sequences among past epidemic strains were analyzed by multidimensional scaling (MDS. We found that human influenza viruses have evolved along a gnarled evolutionary pathway with an approximately constant curvature in the MDS-constructed 3D space. The gnarled pathway indicated that evolution on the trunk favored multiple substitutions at the same amino acid positions on HA. The constant curvature was reasonably explained by assuming that the rate of amino acid substitutions varied from one position to another according to a gamma distribution. Furthermore, we utilized the estimated parameters of the gamma distribution to predict the amino acid substitutions on HA in subsequent years. Retrospective prediction tests for 12 years from 1997 to 2009 showed that 70% of actual amino acid substitutions were correctly predicted, and that 45% of predicted amino acid substitutions have been actually observed. Although it remains unsolved how to predict the exact timing of antigenic changes, the present results suggest that our model may have the potential to recognize emerging epidemic strains.

  6. Intermonomer Interactions in Hemagglutinin Subunits HA1 and HA2 Affecting Hemagglutinin Stability and Influenza Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; DeFeo, Christopher J; Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Vassell, Russell; Weiss, Carol D

    2015-10-01

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mediates virus entry by binding to cell surface receptors and fusing the viral and endosomal membranes following uptake by endocytosis. The acidic environment of endosomes triggers a large-scale conformational change in the transmembrane subunit of HA (HA2) involving a loop (B loop)-to-helix transition, which releases the fusion peptide at the HA2 N terminus from an interior pocket within the HA trimer. Subsequent insertion of the fusion peptide into the endosomal membrane initiates fusion. The acid stability of HA is influenced by residues in the fusion peptide, fusion peptide pocket, coiled-coil regions of HA2, and interactions between the surface (HA1) and HA2 subunits, but details are not fully understood and vary among strains. Current evidence suggests that the HA from the circulating pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] is less stable than the HAs from other seasonal influenza virus strains. Here we show that residue 205 in HA1 and residue 399 in the B loop of HA2 (residue 72, HA2 numbering) in different monomers of the trimeric A(H1N1)pdm09 HA are involved in functionally important intermolecular interactions and that a conserved histidine in this pair helps regulate HA stability. An arginine-lysine pair at this location destabilizes HA at acidic pH and mediates fusion at a higher pH, while a glutamate-lysine pair enhances HA stability and requires a lower pH to induce fusion. Our findings identify key residues in HA1 and HA2 that interact to help regulate H1N1 HA stability and virus infectivity. Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the principal antigen in inactivated influenza vaccines and the target of protective antibodies. However, the influenza A virus HA is highly variable, necessitating frequent vaccine changes to match circulating strains. Sequence changes in HA affect not only antigenicity but also HA stability, which has important implications for vaccine production, as well as viral adaptation

  7. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  8. A 500 PARSEC HALO SURROUNDING THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR NGC 1851

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  9. Limits on Ionized Gas in M81's Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Wrobel, J. M.; Johnson, K. E.

    2018-01-01

    We use NSF's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to constrain the mass of ionized gas in 206 globular star clusters (GCs) in M81, a nearby spiral galaxy. We detect none of the GCs and impose a typical gas-mass upper limit of 550 solar masses (3-sigma). These findings bear on GC evolution in M81.

  10. Supra-galactic colour patterns in globular cluster systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.

    2017-07-01

    An analysis of globular cluster systems associated with galaxies included in the Virgo and Fornax Hubble Space Telescope-Advanced Camera Surveys reveals distinct (g - z) colour modulation patterns. These features appear on composite samples of globular clusters and, most evidently, in galaxies with absolute magnitudes Mg in the range from -20.2 to -19.2. These colour modulations are also detectable on some samples of globular clusters in the central galaxies NGC 1399 and NGC 4486 (and confirmed on data sets obtained with different instruments and photometric systems), as well as in other bright galaxies in these clusters. After discarding field contamination, photometric errors and statistical effects, we conclude that these supra-galactic colour patterns are real and reflect some previously unknown characteristic. These features suggest that the globular cluster formation process was not entirely stochastic but included a fraction of clusters that formed in a rather synchronized fashion over large spatial scales, and in a tentative time lapse of about 1.5 Gy at redshifts z between 2 and 4. We speculate that the putative mechanism leading to that synchronism may be associated with large scale feedback effects connected with violent star-forming events and/or with supermassive black holes.

  11. Black hole binaries dynamically formed in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dawoo; Kim, Chunglee; Lee, Hyung Mok; Bae, Yeong-Bok; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    We investigate properties of black hole (BH) binaries formed in globular clusters via dynamical processes, using directN-body simulations. We pay attention to effects of BH mass function on the total mass and mass ratio distributions of BH binaries ejected from clusters. First, we consider BH populations with two different masses in order to learn basic differences from models with single-mass BHs only. Secondly, we consider continuous BH mass functions adapted from recent studies on massive star evolution in a low metallicity environment, where globular clusters are formed. In this work, we consider only binaries that are formed by three-body processes and ignore stellar evolution and primordial binaries for simplicity. Our results imply that most BH binary mergers take place after they get ejected from the cluster. Also, mass ratios of dynamically formed binaries should be close to 1 or likely to be less than 2:1. Since the binary formation efficiency is larger for higher-mass BHs, it is likely that a BH mass function sampled by gravitational-wave observations would be weighed towards higher masses than the mass function of single BHs for a dynamically formed population. Applying conservative assumptions regarding globular cluster populations such as small BH mass fraction and no primordial binaries, the merger rate of BH binaries originated from globular clusters is estimated to be at least 6.5 yr-1 Gpc-3. Actual rate can be up to more than several times of our conservative estimate.

  12. Nearby Spiral Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems. II. Globular Cluster Metallicities in NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Barmby, Pauline; Olsen, Knut A. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present new metallicity estimates for globular cluster (GC) candidates in the Sd spiral NGC 300, one of the nearest spiral galaxies outside the Local Group. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for 44 Sculptor Group GC candidates with the Boller and Chivens (B&C) spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. There are two GCs in NGC 253 and 12 objects in NGC 300 with globular-cluster-like spectral features, nine of which have radial velocities above 0 km s-1. The remaining three, due to their radial velocities being below the expected 95% confidence limit for velocities of NGC 300 halo objects, are flagged as possible foreground stars. The non-cluster-like candidates included 13 stars, 15 galaxies, and an H II region. One GC, four galaxies, two stars, and the H II region from our sample were identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope images. For the GCs, we measure spectral indices and estimate metallicities using an empirical calibration based on Milky Way GCs. The GCs of NGC 300 appear similar to those of the Milky Way. Excluding possible stars and including clusters from the literature, the GC system (GCS) has a velocity dispersion of 68 km s-1 and has no clear evidence of rotation. The mean metallicity for our full cluster sample plus one literature object is [Fe/H] = -0.94, lying above the relationship between mean GC metallicity and overall galaxy luminosity. Excluding the three low-velocity candidates, we obtain a mean [Fe/H] = -0.98, still higher than expected, raising the possibility of significant foreground star contamination even in this sample. Visual confirmation of genuine GCs using high-resolution space-based imagery could greatly reduce the potential problem of interlopers in small samples of GCSs in low-radial-velocity galaxies. Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint

  13. Co-evolution of galactic nuclei and globular cluster systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ostriker, Jeremiah P. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: ognedin@umich.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We revisit the hypothesis that dense galactic nuclei are formed from inspiraling globular clusters. Recent advances in the understanding of the continuous formation of globular clusters over cosmic time and the concurrent evolution of the galaxy stellar distribution allow us to construct a simple model that matches the observed spatial and mass distributions of clusters in the Galaxy and the giant elliptical galaxy M87. In order to compare with observations, we model the effects of dynamical friction and dynamical evolution, including stellar mass loss, tidal stripping of stars, and tidal disruption of clusters by the growing galactic nucleus. We find that inspiraling globular clusters form a dense central structure, with mass and radius comparable to the typical values in observed nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in late-type and low-mass early-type galaxies. The density contrast associated with the NSC is less pronounced in giant elliptical galaxies. Our results indicate that the NSC mass as a fraction of mass of the galaxy stellar spheroid scales as M{sub NSC}/M{sub ∗}≈0.0025 M{sub ∗,11}{sup −0.5}. Thus disrupted globular clusters could contribute most of the mass of NSCs in galaxies with stellar mass below 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The inner part of the accumulated cluster may seed the growth of a central black hole via stellar dynamical core collapse, thereby relieving the problem of how to form luminous quasars at high redshift. The seed black hole may reach ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} within ≲ 1 Gyr of the beginning of globular cluster formation.

  14. 78 FR 9355 - Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/ Guangdong/1... from the public regarding whether highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a... concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the...

  15. Influenza A virus transfectants with chimeric hemagglutinins containing epitopes from different subtypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S Q; Schulman, J L; Moran, T; Bona, C; Palese, P

    1992-01-01

    Influenza virus transfectants with chimeric hemagglutinins were constructed by using a ribonucleoprotein transfection method. Transfectants W(H1)-H2 and W(H1)-H3 contained A/WSN/33(H1N1) (WSN) hemagglutinins in which the six-amino-acid loop (contained in antigenic site B) was replaced by the corresponding structures of influenza viruses A/Japan/57(H2N2) and A/Hong Kong/8/68(H3N2) (HK), respectively. Serological analysis indicated that the W(H1)-H3 transfectant virus reacted with antibodies ag...

  16. The Globular Cluster System of NGC 4636 and Formation of Globular Clusters in Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Chul; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato

    2012-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the metallicities, ages, and alpha-elements of the globular clusters (GCs) in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo Cluster. Line indices of the GCs are measured from the integrated spectra obtained with Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope. We derive [Fe/H] values of 59 GCs based on the Brodie & Huchra method, and [Z/H], age, and [α/Fe] values of 33 GCs from the comparison of the Lick line indices with single stellar population models. The metallicity distribution of NGC 4636 GCs shows a hint of a bimodality with two peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.23(σ = 0.32) and -0.35(σ = 0.19). The age spread is large from 2 Gyr to 15 Gyr and the fraction of young GCs with age ages, and [α/Fe] values for the GCs in other nearby gEs (M87, M49, M60, NGC 5128, NGC 1399, and NGC 1407) from the line index data in the literature using the same methods as used for NGC 4636 GCs. The metallicity distribution of GCs in the combined sample of seven gEs including NGC 4636 is found to be bimodal, supported by the KMM test with a significance level of >99.9%. All these gEs harbor some young GCs with ages less than 5 Gyr. The mean age of the metal-rich GCs ([Fe/H] >-0.9) is about 3 Gyr younger than that of the metal-poor GCs. The mean value of [α/Fe] of the gE GCs is smaller than that of the Milky Way GCs. We discuss these results in the context of GC formation in gEs. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  17. Young Globular Clusters in Merging Galaxies: Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1995-07-01

    Cycle 2 HST observations by our team resulted in the discoveryof 40 blue pointlike objects in NGC 7252 (Whitmore et al.1993) and over 700 similar objects in NGC 4038/4039 (Whitmore& Schweizer 1994). These objects have the luminosities,colors, and radii of young globular clusters and must haveformed during the mergers. Because of their proximity andearly stage of merging, NGC 4038/4039 (``The Antennae'') isan ideal laboratory to study cluster formation in mergers.Here we propose to follow up the exploratory Cycle 2observations with a solid combination of deep UBVI photometry,H Alpha imaging, and UV spectroscopy. Our primary goals areto (1) determine the luminosity function (LF) to 3.5 magfainter than before to see whether it continues to rise like apower law or turns over and forms a Gaussian-like distributionsimilar to the classical LF of globular clusters, (2) age datethe clusters (carefully correcting for reddening) and studytheir age distribution, and (3) determine the structuralproperties of the clusters (e.g., radius, central surfacebrightness, concentration, and ellipticity). Theseobservations should allow us to better assess whether theultraluminous star clusters observed in recent mergers mayevolve to become typical globular clusters. The youngclusters' small radii and principal emissionin the UV require both the high resolution and improved UVcapability of the repaired Space Telescope.

  18. A SURVEY FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, George H. [Giant Magellan Telescope/Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ciardullo, Robin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong; Davies, James E. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kaplan, Evan, E-mail: gjacoby@gmto.org, E-mail: rbc@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: orsola.demarco@mq.edu.au, E-mail: mglee@astrog.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: herrmann@lowell.edu, E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jdavies@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: evanskaplan@gmail.com [Vassar College, 124 Raymond Ave., Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We report the results of an [O III] {lambda}5007 spectroscopic survey for planetary nebulae (PNe) located within the star clusters of M31. By examining R {approx} 5000 spectra taken with the WIYN+Hydra spectrograph, we identify 3 PN candidates in a sample of 274 likely globular clusters, 2 candidates in objects which may be globular clusters, and 5 candidates in a set of 85 younger systems. The possible PNe are all faint, between {approx}2.5 and {approx}6.8 mag down the PN luminosity function, and, partly as a consequence of our selection criteria, have high excitation, with [O III] {lambda}5007 to H{beta} ratios ranging from 2 to {approx}> 12. We discuss the individual candidates, their likelihood of cluster membership, and the possibility that they were formed via binary interactions within the clusters. Our data are consistent with the suggestion that PN formation within globular clusters correlates with binary encounter frequency, though, due to the small numbers and large uncertainties in the candidate list, this study does not provide sufficient evidence to confirm the hypothesis.

  19. Compact binaries in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Sandoval, Lilliana; Van Den Berg, Maureen; Heinke, Craig O.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M.; Freire, Paulo; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne; Grindlay, Jonanthan; Edmonds, Peter; Wijnands, Rudy; Ivanova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The high stellar interaction rates in globular clusters are ideal for studying the formation and evolution of compact binary stars. For this purpose, we have carried out a study of the cataclysmic variables (CVs) and millisecond pulsar (MSP) companions in the non core collapsed globular cluster 47 Tucanae. We used near-ultraviolet and optical (including H-alpha) images of the cluster obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), in combination with Chandra X-ray data.From this study we obtained the deepest measurements of the cluster CV luminosity function. We found that this luminosity function is different from those of core collapsed clusters. This result will help understanding how the stellar interactions affect the creation and destruction of CVs. I will discuss our results with respect to the models of formation and evolution of CVs, focusing on the predicted number of these binaries and their radial distribution in the cluster.I will also present the discovery of 2 likely He white dwarf (WD) companions to MSPs in the same cluster, as well as the confirmation of 2 tentative identifications. This represents a significant contribution to the total number of optical counterparts known in Galactic globular clusters so far. Based on our UV photometry and He WD cooling models we derived the ages, the masses and the bolometric luminosities for all the He WD companions. I will discuss these results and their implications in the context of the standard MSP formation scenario.

  20. Globular clusters in the far-ultraviolet: evidence for He-enriched second populations in extragalactic globular clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Kundu, Arunav; Chael, Julia

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the integrated far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission from globular clusters. We present new FUV photometry of M87's clusters based on archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 F170W observations. We use these data to test the reliability of published photometry based on HST space telescope imaging spectrograph FUV-MAMA observations, which are now known to suffer from significant red-leak. We generally confirm these previous FUV detections, but suggest they may be somewhat fainter. We compare the FUV emission from bright (MV Metal-rich globular clusters show a large spread in FUV - V, with some clusters in M31, M81 and M87 being much bluer than standard predictions. This requires that some metal-rich clusters host a significant population of blue/extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars. These hot HB stars are not traditionally expected in metal-rich environments, but are a natural consequence of multiple populations in clusters - since the enriched population is observed to be He enhanced and will therefore produce bluer HB stars, even at high metallicity. We conclude that the observed FUV emission from metal-rich clusters in M31, M81 and M87 provides evidence that He-enhanced second populations, similar to those observed directly in the Milky Way, may be a ubiquitous feature of globular clusters in the local Universe. Future HST FUV photometry is required to both confirm our interpretation of these archival data and provide constraints on He-enriched second populations of stars in extragalactic globular clusters.

  1. Gene transfer mediated by fusion protein hemagglutinin reconstituted in cationic lipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, P; Chonn, A; Cullis, PR; Wilschut, J; Scherrer, P

    Hemagglutinin, the membrane fusion protein of influenza virus,is known to mediate a low-pH-dependent fusion reaction between the viral envelope and the limiting membrane of the endosomal cell compartment following cellular uptake of the virus particles by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we

  2. Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study. AG Pose, ES Rodriguez, AC Mendez, JN Gomez, AV Redondo, ER Rodriguez, EMG Ramos, AA Gutierrez, MPR Molto, DG Roche, YS Ugalde, AM Lopez ...

  3. Correlating novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with significant biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Mark

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico study to determine characteristics of novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein from previously reported H3N2 strains isolated from Hong Kong from 1968–1999 to predict viral motifs involved in significant biological functions. Results 14 MEME blocks were generated and comparative analysis of the MEME blocks identified blocks 1, 2, 3 and 7 to correlate with several biological functions. Analysis of the different Hemagglutinin sequences elucidated that the single block 7 has the highest frequency of amino acid substitution and the highest number of co-mutating pairs. MEME 2 showed intermediate variability and MEME 1 was the most conserved. Interestingly, MEME blocks 2 and 7 had the highest incidence of potential post-translational modifications sites including phosphorylation sites, ASN glycosylation motifs and N-myristylation sites. Similarly, these 2 blocks overlap with previously identified antigenic sites and receptor binding sites. Conclusion Our study identifies motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with different amino acid substitution frequencies over a 31 years period, and derives relevant functional characteristics by correlation of these motifs with potential post-translational modifications sites, antigenic and receptor binding sites.

  4. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by

  5. Influenza-virus membrane fusion by cooperative fold-back of stochastically induced hemagglutinin intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Choi, Jason L.; Whelan, Sean P.; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus penetrates cells by fusion of viral and endosomal membranes catalyzed by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Structures of the initial and final states of the HA trimer define the fusion endpoints, but do not specify intermediates. We have characterized these transitions by analyzing

  6. Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin in insect cells is fast and efficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xin; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Braakman, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) in the endoplasmic reticulum has been well defined in mammalian cells. In different mammalian cell lines the protein follows the same folding pathway with identical folding intermediates, but folds with very different kinetics. To examine the effect of

  7. Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin in insect cells is fast and efficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Braakman, I.

    2015-01-01

    Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) in the endoplasmic reticulum has been well defined inmammalian cells. In different mammalian cell lines the protein follows the same folding pathway withidentical folding intermediates, but folds with very different kinetics. To examine the effect of

  8. Serological response to filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, D G; Baraff, L J; Peppler, M S; Leake, R D; St Geme, J; Manclark, C R

    1983-01-01

    Serum antibody responses to the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis after vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, adsorbed, were assayed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of early immunization, during the first week of life, on the antibody response also was determined. After vaccination, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM directed against both the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected. Generally, antibody titers increased with subsequent injections and the age of the children. Maternal antibodies against filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected in cord blood. The ability of an infant to produce serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin after vaccination with pertussis vaccine was inversely related to the cord blood serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin titer at birth. A good antibody response was observed in infants with low cord blood titers, and a poor antibody response was seen in infants with high cord blood values. The IgM anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin response was good in groups with both low and high cord blood titer, with no significant difference observed between the two groups. No IgA anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin or IgA anti-filamentous hemagglutinin titers were observed in vaccines. IgA antibodies were observed in convalescent sera from two adults and may be presumptive evidence of infection with B. pertussis. PMID:6309662

  9. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: a key adhesin with immunomodulatory properties?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romero, Rodrigo, Villarino; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2014), s. 1339-1360 ISSN 1746-0913 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) P302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella * adhesion * integrins * filamentous hemagglutinin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.275, year: 2014

  10. Dynamical evolution of globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzio, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    The dynamical processes that affect globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies are analyzed. Two-body and impulsive approximations are utilized to study dynamical friction, drag force, tidal stripping, tidal radii, globular-cluster swapping, tidal accretion, and galactic cannibalism. The evolution of galaxies and the collision of galaxies are simulated numerically; the steps involved in the simulation are described. The simulated data are compared with observations. Consideration is given to the number of galaxies, halo extension, location of the galaxies, distribution of the missing mass, nonequilibrium initial conditions, mass dependence, massive central galaxies, globular-cluster distribution, and lost globular clusters. 116 references.

  11. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  12. Microwave-enhanced folding and denaturation of globular proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Bohr, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that microwave irradiation can affect the kinetics of the folding process of some globular proteins, especially beta-lactoglobulin. At low temperature the folding from the cold denatured phase of the protein is enhanced, while at a higher temperature the denaturation of the protein from...... its folded state is enhanced. In the latter case, a negative temperature gradient is needed for the denaturation process, suggesting that the effects of the microwaves are nonthermal. This supports the notion that coherent topological excitations can exist in proteins. The application of microwaves...

  13. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER PALOMAR 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, J. D. [Department of Physics, Central Connecticut State University, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050 (United States); Geha, M.; Munoz, R. R.; Santana, F. A. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Simon, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cote, P.; Stetson, P. B. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kirby, E.; Djorgovski, S. G., E-mail: jeremydbradford@gmail.com, E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam photometry for the Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 13. We triple the number of spectroscopically confirmed members, including many repeat velocity measurements. Palomar 13 is the only known globular cluster with possible evidence for dark matter, based on a Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer 21 star velocity dispersion of {sigma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.4 km s{sup -1}. We reproduce this measurement, but demonstrate that it is inflated by unresolved binary stars. For our sample of 61 stars, the velocity dispersion is {sigma} = 0.7{sup +0.6}{sub -0.5} km s{sup -1}. Combining our DEIMOS data with literature values, our final velocity dispersion is {sigma} = 0.4{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3} km s{sup -1}. We determine a spectroscopic metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.6 {+-} 0.1 dex, placing a 1{sigma} upper limit of {sigma}{sub [Fe/H]} {approx} 0.2 dex on any internal metallicity spread. We determine Palomar 13's total luminosity to be M{sub V} = -2.8 {+-} 0.4, making it among the least luminous known globular clusters. The photometric isophotes are regular out to the half-light radius and mildly irregular outside this radius. The outer surface brightness profile slope is shallower than typical globular clusters ({Sigma}{proportional_to}r{sup {eta}}, {eta} = -2.8 {+-} 0.3). Thus at large radius, tidal debris is likely affecting the appearance of Palomar 13. Combining our luminosity with the intrinsic velocity dispersion, we find a dynamical mass of M{sub 1/2} = 1.3{sup +2:7}{sub -1.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} and a mass-to-light ratio of M/L{sub V} = 2.4{sup +5.0}{sub -2.4} M{sub Sun }/L{sub Sun }. Within our measurement errors, the mass-to-light ratio agrees with the theoretical predictions for a single stellar population. We conclude that, while there is some evidence for tidal stripping at large radius, the dynamical mass of Palomar 13 is consistent with its stellar mass and neither

  14. The WAGGS project - I. The WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Pastorello, Nicola; Bellstedt, Sabine; Alabi, Adebusola; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chevalier, Leonie; Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Penny, Samantha; Foster, Caroline; McDermid, Richard M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Villaume, Alexa

    2017-07-01

    We present the WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra, a library of integrated spectra of Milky Way and Local Group globular clusters. We used the WiFeS integral field spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope to observe the central regions of 64 Milky Way globular clusters and 22 globular clusters hosted by the Milky Way's low-mass satellite galaxies. The spectra have wider wavelength coverage (3300-9050 Å) and higher spectral resolution (R = 6800) than existing spectral libraries of Milky Way globular clusters. By including Large and Small Magellanic Cloud star clusters, we extend the coverage of parameter space of existing libraries towards young and intermediate ages. While testing stellar population synthesis models and analysis techniques is the main aim of this library, the observations may also further our understanding of the stellar populations of Local Group globular clusters and make possible the direct comparison of extragalactic globular cluster integrated light observations with well-understood globular clusters in the Milky Way. The integrated spectra are publicly available via the project website.

  15. Chandra X-ray Observations of 12 Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster M28

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanov, S.; van den Berg, M.C.; Servillat, M.; Heinke, C.O.; Grindlay, J.E.; Stairs, I.H.; Ransom, s.m.; Freire, P.C.C.; Bégin, S.; Becker, W.

    2011-01-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray Observatory investigation of the millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626). In what is one of the deepest X-ray observations of a globular cluster, we firmly detect seven and possibly detect two of the 12 known M28 pulsars. With the exception of PSRs

  16. Color Gradients Within Globular Clusters: Restricted Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a restricted numerical simulation for the color gradients within globular clusters have been presented. The standard luminosity function of M3 and Salpeter's initial mass functions were used to generate model clusters as a fundamental population. Color gradients with the sample clusters for both King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions are discussed in the case of using the standard luminosity function. The dependence of color gradients on several parameters for the simulations with Salpeter's initial mass functions, such as slope of initial mass functions, cluster ages, metallicities, concentration parameters of King model, and slopes of power law, are also discussed. No significant radial color gradients are shown to the sample clusters which are regenerated by a random number generation technique with various parameters in both of King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions. Dynamical mass segregation and stellar evolution of horizontal branch stars and blue stragglers should be included for the general case of model simulations to show the observed radial color gradients within globular clusters.

  17. Brain asymmetry in the white matter making and globularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina eTheofanopoulou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from the field of language genetics and evolutionary anthropology have put forward the hypothesis that the emergence of our species-specific brain is to be understood not in terms of size, but in light of developmental changes that gave rise to a more globular braincase configuration after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans. On the grounds that (i white matter myelination is delayed relative to other brain structures and in humans is protracted compared with other primates and (ii neural connectivity is linked genetically to our brain/skull morphology and language-ready brain, I take it that one significant evolutionary change in Homo sapiens’ lineage is the interhemispheric connectivity mediated by the Corpus Callosum. The size, myelination and fiber caliber of the Corpus Callosum presents an anterior-to-posterior increase, in a way that inter-hemispheric connectivity is more prominent in the sensory motor areas, whereas high- order areas are more intra-hemispherically connected. Building on evidence from language-processing studies that account for this asymmetry (‘lateralization’ in terms of brain rhythms, I present an evo-devo hypothesis according to which the myelination of the Corpus Callosum, Brain Asymmetry and Globularity are conjectured to make up the angles of a co-evolutionary triangle that gave rise to our language-ready brain.

  18. Globular clusters and the evolution of their multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2017-03-01

    Our knowledge of the formation and early evolution of globular clusters (GCs) has been totally shaken with the discovery of the peculiar chemical properties of their long-lived host stars. Therefore, the interpretation of the observed Colour Magnitude Diagrams (CMD) and of the properties of the GC stellar populations requires the use of new stellar models computed with relevant chemical compositions. In this paper we use the grid of evolution models for low-mass stars computed by Chantereau et al. (2015) with the initial compositions of second-generation stars as predicted by the fast rotating massive stars scenario to build synthesis models of GCs. We discuss the implications of the assumed initial chemical distribution on 13 Gyr isochrones. We build population synthesis models to predict the fraction of stars born with various helium abundances in present day globular clusters (assuming an age of 13 Gyr). With the current assumptions, 61 % of stars on the main sequence are predicted to be born with a helium abundance in mass fraction, Yini, smaller than 0.3 and only 11 % have a Yini larger than 0.4. Along the horizontal branch, the fraction of stars with Yini inferior to 0.3 is similar to that obtained along the main sequence band (63 %), while the fraction of very He-enriched stars is significantly decreased (only 3 % with Yini larger than 0.38).

  19. Designing allosteric peptide ligands targeting a globular protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selz, Karen A; Samoylova, Tatiana I; Samoylov, Alexandre M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J; Mandell, Arnold J

    2007-01-01

    Patented signal analytic algorithms applied to hydrophobically transformed, numerical amino acid sequences have previously been used to design short, protein-targeted, L or D retro-inverso peptides. These peptides have demonstrated allosteric and/or indirect agonist effects on a variety of G-protein and tyrosine kinase coupled membrane receptors with 30% to over 80% hit rates. Here we extend these approaches to a globular protein target. We designed eight peptide ligands targeting an ELISA antibody responsive protein, beta-galactosidase, betaGAL. Three of the eight 14mer peptides allosterically activated betaGAL with ELISA methodology. Using Bayesian statistics, this 38% hit rate would have occurred 2 x 10(-9) by chance. These peptides demonstrated binding site competitive or noncompetitive interactions, suggesting allosteric site multiplicity with respect to their betaGAL binding-mediated ELISA signal. Kinetic studies demonstrated the temperature dependence of the betaGAL peptide binding functions. Using the van't Hoff relation, we found evidence for enthalpy-entropy compensation. This relation is often found for hydrophobic interactions in aqueous media, and is consistent with the postulated hydrophobic series encoding underlying our protein-targeted, peptide design methods. It appears that our algorithmic, hydrophobic autocovariance eigenvector template approach to the design of allosteric peptides targeting membrane receptors may also be applicable to the design of peptide ligands targeting nonmembrane involved globular proteins. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Globular Cluster Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Nyland, K. E.; Maccarone, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    Theory suggests that globular clusters (GCs) of stars can host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses of about 100 to 100,000 solar masses. We invoke a semi-empirical model to predict the mass of an IMBH that, if undergoing accretion in the long-lived hard X-ray state, is consistent with the synchrotron radio luminosity of a GC. We apply this model to extant images from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and to simulated images from the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA). Guided by our VLA results for M81's system of 206 probable GCs at a distance of 3.6 Mpc, we consider using the ngVLA to study the hundreds of globular cluster systems out to a distance of 25 Mpc. With its sensitivity, spatial resolution, and field of view, we conclude that the ngVLA at 2cm will efficiently probe IMBH masses for tens of thousands of GCs. Finding IMBHs in GCs could validate a formation channel for seed BHs in the early universe, underpin gravitational wave predictions for space missions, and test scaling relations between stellar systems and the central BHs they host. The NRAO is a facility of the NSF, operated under cooperative agreement by AUI, Inc.

  1. Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster M 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacki, G.

    2013-03-01

    We present results of a search for variable stars in the globular cluster M 80. Application of the image subtraction method to the ground-based times-series of CCD frames resulted in finding nine new RR Lyr stars, six of the RRc and three of the RRab type, and four SX Phe variables. Revised mean period of RRab stars, ab=0.68 d, and relative percentage of RRc stars, Nc/(Nab+Nc)=53%, strongly confirm that M 80 belongs to the Oosterhoff II group of globular clusters. The mean V magnitude of the horizontal branch of M 80 based on the ten RR Lyr stars has been estimated to be VHB=RR=16.14±0.03 mag. In two pulsating stars, one of the RR Lyr type and the other of the SX Phe type, oscillations with two close frequencies were detected, indicating excitation of nonradial modes in these stars. Moreover, we discovered two W UMa or ellipsoidal systems, two periodic stars of unknown type, one of which is probably a field star, and detected light variations in three red giants of the cluster.

  2. Search for Variable Stars in Six Southern Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Dong-Jin; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Lee, Jae Woo; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Lee; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Lim, Beomdu; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2015-08-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has installed wide-field photometric survey systems called Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) at three Southern observatories of CTIO in Chile, SAAO in South Africa, and SSO in Australia. Each system consists of a wide-field optical telescope with 1.6m diameter and a mosaic CCD camera with 18k by 18k pixels, having a 2.0 by 2.0 square degree field of view. Its primary scientific goal is to search for extrasolar planets, especially Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone, by using the gravitational microlensing method. We have performed the pre-science run of these three telescopes, with attaching a 4k CCD camera for a few months at each site before installing the 18k mosaic CCD camera. Considering the rather small field of view of the 4k CCD camera, we chose six globular clusters NGC 288, NGC 1851, NGC 3201, NGC 4372, NGC 6752, and NGC 6809 to monitor photometrically. Difference Image Analysis (DIA) technique was applied to the time-series CCD images in order to minimize the blending effect in the crowded field of globular clusters. We will present the preliminary results to search for variable stars in the clusters.

  3. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1044-1047. Canyon, DV, Speare R, et al . “Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head ... for children. Natural products can give parents false sense of safety If using a natural product or ...

  4. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, Dante; Gómez, Matías [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geisler, Douglas; Fernández-Trincado, Jose G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Kurtev, Radostin; Pullen, Joyce [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba (Argentina); Cohen, Roger E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 2700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore (United States); Dias, Bruno [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hempel, Maren [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarszchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Lucas, Phillip W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Moni-Bidin, Christian; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile); and others

    2017-11-10

    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates by their color–magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color–magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color–magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A {sub Ks} < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color–magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way.

  5. Piezoresistive measurement of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding with microcantilever arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bajwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective detection of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide is crucial as it could be used as a positive control to screen for highly infectious flu strains such as Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1. Piezoresistive microcantilever arrays present a pathway towards highly sensitive and label-free detection of biomolecules by transducing the antigen-antibody binding into change in resistivity via induced surface stress variation. We demonstrate a mechanical transduction of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding and suggest the employed technique may offer a potential platform for detection of the H1N1 virus, which could be clinically used to diagnose and provide subsequent relief.

  6. Antigenic determinants of influenza virus hemagglutinin. XI. Conformational changes detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D C; Nestorowicz, A

    1985-08-01

    At pH 5 influenza virus hemagglutinin undergoes an irreversible conformational change (J.J. Skehel, P. M. Bayley, E. B. Brown, S. R. Martin, M. D. Waterfield, J. M. White, I. A. Wilson, and D. C. Wiley (1982). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 968-972) which parallels the appearance of fusion activity of this molecule. This paper describes experiments which explore the conformational change using a panel of monoclonal antibodies which define four of the major antigenic sites of this protein. The results indicate that three of the major antigenic sites of hemagglutinin undergo changes when exposed to acid pH. These changes have little effect on the binding avidity of influenza virus to glycophorin, the major receptor present on the red blood cell surface. These findings have been used to postulate a mechanism where the molecule flexes around a central region resulting in rearrangement in space of its component domains on exposure to low pH.

  7. Second Sialic Acid Binding Site in Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase: Implications for Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitsev, Viatcheslav; von Itzstein, Mark; Groves, Darrin; Kiefel, Milton; Takimoto, Toru; Portner, Allen; Taylor, Garry

    2004-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses are the leading cause of respiratory disease in children. Several paramyxoviruses possess a surface glycoprotein, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), that is involved in attachment to sialic acid receptors, promotion of fusion, and removal of sialic acid from infected cells and progeny virions. Previously we showed that Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN contained a pliable sialic acid recognition site that could take two states, a binding state and a catalytic state. Here we ...

  8. Computational design of protein interactions: designing proteins that neutralize influenza by inhibiting its hemagglutinin surface protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Sarel

    2012-02-01

    Molecular recognition underlies all life processes. Design of interactions not seen in nature is a test of our understanding of molecular recognition and could unlock the vast potential of subtle control over molecular interaction networks, allowing the design of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for basic and applied research. We developed the first general method for designing protein interactions. The method starts by computing a region of high affinity interactions between dismembered amino acid residues and the target surface and then identifying proteins that can harbor these residues. Designs are tested experimentally for binding the target surface and successful ones are affinity matured using yeast cell surface display. Applied to the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin we designed two unrelated proteins that, following affinity maturation, bound hemagglutinin at subnanomolar dissociation constants. Co-crystal structures of hemagglutinin bound to the two designed binders were within 1Angstrom RMSd of their models, validating the accuracy of the design strategy. One of the designed proteins inhibits the conformational changes that underlie hemagglutinin's cell-invasion functions and blocks virus infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that such proteins may in future serve as diagnostics and antivirals against a wide range of pathogenic influenza strains. We have used this method to obtain experimentally validated binders of several other target proteins, demonstrating the generality of the approach. We discuss the combination of modeling and high-throughput characterization of design variants which has been key to the success of this approach, as well as how we have used the data obtained in this project to enhance our understanding of molecular recognition. References: Science 332:816 JMB, in press Protein Sci 20:753

  9. Influenza A hemagglutinin C-terminal anchoring peptide: identification and mass spectrometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyukova, Larisa V; Ksenofontov, Aleksander L; Serebryakova, Marina V; Ovchinnikova, Tatyana V; Fedorova, Natalija V; Ivanova, Valeria T; Baratova, Ludmila A

    2004-08-01

    MALDI-TOF MS and N-terminal amino acid sequencing allowed us to identify several fragments of the C-terminal peptide of Influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) containing transmembrane domains (TMD). These fragments were detected in the organic phase of chloroform-methanol extracts from bromelain-treated virus particles. Heterogeneous fatty acylation of the C-terminus was revealed. Tritium bombardment technique might open an opportunity for 3D structural investigation of the HA TMD in situ.

  10. Sialyl alpha(2-->3) lactose clusters using carbosilane dendrimer core scaffolds as influenza hemagglutinin blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hiroyuki; Onaga, Tomotsune; Koyama, Tetsuo; Guo, Chao-Tan; Suzuki, Yasuo; Esumi, Yasuaki; Hatano, Ken; Terunuma, Daiyo; Matsuoka, Koji

    2008-08-01

    An efficient synthesis of a series of carbosilane dendrimers uniformly functionalized with sialyl alpha(2-->3) lactose (Neu5Acalpha(2-->3)Galbeta(1-->4)Glcbeta1-->) moieties was accomplished. The results of a preliminary study on biological responses against influenza virus hemagglutinin, using the sialyl lactose clusters showed unique biological activities on the basis of the structure-activity relationship according to the carbosilane scaffolds.

  11. An Amphibian Host Defense Peptide Is Virucidal for Human H1 Hemagglutinin-Bearing Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, David J; Lee, Song Hee; Kumar, Vineeth Tv; Bouvier, Nicole M; Krammer, Florian; Ellebedy, Ali H; Wrammert, Jens; Lowen, Anice C; George, Sanil; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Jacob, Joshy

    2017-04-18

    Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antivirals is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses. Using electron microscopy, we showed that this peptide physically destroyed influenza virions. It also protected naive mice from lethal influenza infection. Urumin represents a unique class of anti-influenza virucide that specifically targets the hemagglutinin stalk region, similar to targeting of antibodies induced by universal influenza vaccines. Urumin therefore has the potential to contribute to first-line anti-viral treatments during influenza outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical abundances in the old LMC globular cluster Hodge 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateluna, R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Grocholski, A.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A.; Smith, V.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The study of globular clusters is one of the most powerful ways to learn about a galaxy's chemical evolution and star formation history. They preserve a record of chemical abundances at the time of their formation and are relatively easy to age date. The most detailed knowledge of the chemistry of a star is given by high resolution spectroscopy, which provides accurate abundances for a wide variety of elements, yielding a wealth of information on the various processes involved in the cluster's chemical evolution. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in an old, metal-poor globular cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Hodge 11 (H11), in order to measure as many elements as possible. The goal is to compare its chemical trends to those in the Milky Way halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in order to help understand the formation history of the LMC and our own Galaxy. Methods: We have obtained high resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra of eight RGB stars in H11. The spectral range allowed us to measure a variety of elements, including Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, O, Ni, Cr, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Ba, La, Eu and Y. Results: We derived a mean [Fe/H] = -2.00 ± 0.04, in the middle of previous determinations. We found low [α/Fe] abundances for our targets, more comparable to values found in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the Galactic halo, suggesting that if H11 is representative of its ancient populations then the LMC does not represent a good halo building block. Our [Ca/Fe] value is about 0.3 dex less than that of halo stars used to calibrate the Ca IR triplet technique for deriving metallicity. A hint of a Na abundance spread is observed. Its stars lie at the extreme high O, low Na end of the Na:O anti-correlation displayed by Galactic and LMC globular clusters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal ID 082.B-0458).Table 4 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. The orbital eccentricities of binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Heggie, Douglas C.

    1995-01-01

    Low-mass binary millisecond pulsars (LMBPs) are born with very small orbital eccentricities, typically of order e(sub i) approximately 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3). In globular clusters, however, higher eccentricities e(sub f) much greater than e(sub i) can be induced by dynamical interactions with passing stars. Here we show that the cross section for this process is much larger than previously estimated. This is becuse, even for initially circular binaries, the induced eccentricity e(sub f) for an encounter with pericenter separation r(sub p) beyond a few times the binary semimajor axis a declines only as a power law (e(sub f) varies as (r(sub p)/a)(exp -5/2), and not as an exponential. We find that all currently known LMBPs in clusters were probably affected by interactions, with their current eccentricities typically greater than at birth by an order of magnitude or more.

  14. The Composition of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. M.; Caldwell, N.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I.; Crane, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  15. The STREGA survey - II. Globular cluster Palomar 12★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, I.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Marconi, M.; Raimondo, G.; Ripepi, V.; Cignoni, M.; Bono, G.; Brocato, E.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Grado, A.; Iannicola, G.; Limatola, L.; Molinaro, R.; Moretti, M. I.; Stetson, P. B.; Capaccioli, M.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Getman, F.; Schipani, P.

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the STREGA (STRucture and Evolution of the GAlaxy) survey, two fields around the globular cluster Pal 12 were observed with the aim of detecting the possible presence of streams and/or an extended halo. The adopted stellar tracers are the main sequence, turn-off and red giant branch stars. We discuss the luminosity function and the star counts in the observed region covering about 2 tidal radii, confirming that Pal 12 appears to be embedded in the Sagittarius Stream. Adopting an original approach to separate cluster and field stars, we do not find any evidence of significant extra-tidal Pal 12 stellar populations. The presence of the Sagittarius stream seems to have mimicked a larger tidal radius in previous studies. Indeed, adopting a King model, a redetermination of this value gives rT = 0.22 ± 0.1 deg.

  16. The Double Cooling Sequence of the Globular Cluster ω Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, E.; Sendra, L.; Torres, S.; Althaus, L. G.

    2017-03-01

    ω Centauri is a massive, old, globular cluster that has been extensively studied over the years because of its peculiar color-magnitude diagram. Specifically, the color-magnitude diagram of this cluster has evident signs of the existence of multiple populations, which are clearly seen in the morphologies of both the main sequence and of the degenerate sequence. Considerable theoretical efforts have been done so far to model the main sequence, which have led to discover several stellar populations. However, the degenerate sequence has not been hitherto modeled with sufficient detail. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence, and compare the properties of the modeled stellar populations with those derived from the analysis of the main-sequence number counts.

  17. The direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, A.; Noor, M. R.; Sweeney, J.; Casey, V.; Kholkin, A. L.; Silien, C.; Gandhi, A. A.; Soulimane, T.; Tofail, S. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Here, we present experimental evidence of the direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein, lysozyme. Piezoelectric materials are employed in many actuating and sensing applications because they can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Although originally studied in inorganic materials, several biological materials including amino acids and bone, also exhibit piezoelectricity. The exact mechanisms supporting biological piezoelectricity are not known, nor is it known whether biological piezoelectricity conforms strictly to the criteria of classical piezoelectricity. The observation of piezoelectricity in protein crystals presented here links biological piezoelectricity with the classical theory of piezoelectricity. We quantify the direct piezoelectric effect in monoclinic and tetragonal aggregate films of lysozyme using conventional techniques based on the Berlincourt Method. The largest piezoelectric effect measured in a crystalline aggregate film of lysozyme was approximately 6.5 pC N-1. These findings raise fundamental questions as to the possible physiological significance of piezoelectricity in lysozyme and the potential for technical applications.

  18. Kinematic fingerprint of core-collapsed globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, P.; Webb, J. J.; Sills, A.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical evolution drives globular clusters toward core collapse, which strongly shapes their internal properties. Diagnostics of core collapse have so far been based on photometry only, namely on the study of the concentration of the density profiles. Here we present a new method to robustly identify core-collapsed clusters based on the study of their stellar kinematics. We introduce the kinematic concentration parameter, ck, the ratio between the global and local degree of energy equipartition reached by a cluster, and show through extensive direct N-body simulations that clusters approaching core collapse and in the post-core collapse phase are strictly characterized by ck > 1. The kinematic concentration provides a suitable diagnostic to identify core-collapsed clusters, independent from any other previous methods based on photometry. We also explore the effects of incomplete radial and stellar mass coverage on the calculation of ck and find that our method can be applied to state-of-art kinematic datasets.

  19. Bayesian Analysis of Multiple Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel A.; Sarajedini, Ata; von Hippel, Ted; Stenning, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino; van Dyk, David A.; Robinson, Elliot; Stein, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    We use GO 13297 Cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and archival GO 10775 Cycle 14 HST ACS Treasury observations of Galactic Globular Clusters to find and characterize multiple stellar populations. Determining how globular clusters are able to create and retain enriched material to produce several generations of stars is key to understanding how these objects formed and how they have affected the structural, kinematic, and chemical evolution of the Milky Way. We employ a sophisticated Bayesian technique with an adaptive MCMC algorithm to simultaneously fit the age, distance, absorption, and metallicity for each cluster. At the same time, we also fit unique helium values to two distinct populations of the cluster and determine the relative proportions of those populations. Our unique numerical approach allows objective and precise analysis of these complicated clusters, providing posterior distribution functions for each parameter of interest. We use these results to gain a better understanding of multiple populations in these clusters and their role in the history of the Milky Way.Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers HST-GO-10775 and HST-GO-13297 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NNX11AF34G issued through the Office of Space Science. This project was supported by the National Aeronautics & Space Administration through the University of Central Florida's NASA Florida Space Grant Consortium.

  20. Far-ultraviolet observation of the globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieball, A.; Rasekh, A.; Knigge, C.; Shara, M.; Zurek, D.

    2017-07-01

    We present an observational far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) study of the core region of the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397. The observations were obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS, FUV) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (NUV) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Here, we focus on the UV-bright stellar populations such as blue stragglers (BSs), white dwarfs (WDs) and cataclysmic variables (CVs). We present the first FUV - NUV colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) for this cluster. To support our classification of the stellar populations, we compare our FUV - NUV CMD with optical data from the ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. The FUV - NUV CMD indicates 16 sources located in the WD area, and 10 BSs within the 25 × 25 arcsec2 of the STIS FUV data. 18 Chandra X-ray sources are located within the FUV field of view. 13 of those have an NUV counterpart, of which 9 sources also have an FUV counterpart. Out of those, five sources are previously suggested CVs, and indeed, all five are located in the WD/CV region in our FUV - NUV CMD. Another CV has only an FUV but no NUV counterpart. We also detect an NUV (but no FUV) counterpart to the millisecond pulsar (MSP) located in the core of this cluster. The NUV light curves of the CVs and MSP show flickering behaviour typical of CVs. We found that the BSs and CVs are the most centrally concentrated populations. This might be an effect of mass segregation or it might indicate the preferred birth place of BSs and CVs via dynamical interactions in the dense core region of GCs. Horizontal branch stars are the least centrally concentrated population and absent in the innermost area of the core.

  1. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2010-04-16

    Globular clusters are usually found in galaxies, and they are excellent tracers of dark matter. Long ago it was suggested that intracluster globular clusters (IGCs) may exist that are bound to a galaxy cluster rather than to any single galaxy. Here we present a map showing the large-scale distribution of globular clusters over the entire Virgo cluster. It shows that IGCs are found out to 5 million light years from the Virgo center and that they are concentrated in several substructures that are much larger than galaxies. These objects might have been mostly stripped off from low-mass dwarf galaxies.

  2. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  3. The ACS survey of Galactic globular clusters - XIV. Bayesian single-population analysis of 69 globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, A.; von Hippel, T.; Stenning, D. C.; van Dyk, D. A.; Jeffery, E.; Robinson, E.; Stein, N.; Anderson, J.; Jefferys, W. H.

    2017-06-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging from the ACS Treasury Survey to determine fits for single population isochrones of 69 Galactic globular clusters. Using robust Bayesian analysis techniques, we simultaneously determine ages, distances, absorptions and helium values for each cluster under the scenario of a 'single' stellar population on model grids with solar ratio heavy element abundances. The set of cluster parameters is determined in a consistent and reproducible manner for all clusters using the Bayesian analysis suite BASE-9. Our results are used to re-visit the age-metallicity relation. We find correlations with helium and several other parameters such as metallicity, binary fraction and proxies for cluster mass. The helium abundances of the clusters are also considered in the context of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances and the multiple population scenario.

  4. Interactions of phenolic compounds with globular proteins and their effects on food-related functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prigent, S.V.E.

    2005-01-01

    In order to modulate the functional properties of food proteins, the interactions between globular proteins and the monomeric phenolic, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA, chlorogenic acid), and the oligomeric phenolics, procyanidins, were characterized and investigated for their effect on protein functional

  5. Engineering Globular Protein Vesicles through Tunable Self-Assembly of Recombinant Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeongseon; Choi, Won Tae; Heller, William T; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Champion, Julie A

    2017-09-01

    Vesicles assembled from folded, globular proteins have potential for functions different from traditional lipid or polymeric vesicles. However, they also present challenges in understanding the assembly process and controlling vesicle properties. From detailed investigation of the assembly behavior of recombinant fusion proteins, this work reports a simple strategy to engineer protein vesicles containing functional, globular domains. This is achieved through tunable self-assembly of recombinant globular fusion proteins containing leucine zippers and elastin-like polypeptides. The fusion proteins form complexes in solution via high affinity binding of the zippers, and transition through dynamic coacervates to stable hollow vesicles upon warming. The thermal driving force, which can be tuned by protein concentration or temperature, controls both vesicle size and whether vesicles are single or bi-layered. These results provide critical information to engineer globular protein vesicles via self-assembly with desired size and membrane structure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Marasmioid and gymnopoid fungi of the Republic of Korea. 2. Marasmius sect. Globulares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonín, V; Ryoo, R; Shin, H-D

    2010-06-01

    Seven species of Marasmius sect. Globulares with smooth pileipellis cells (sect. Globulares s. Singer) have been collected in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) to date, viz. M. aurantioferrugineus, M. brunneospermus, M. maximus, M. nivicola, M. purpureostriatus, M. wynneae and M. fusicystidiosus. Descriptions of their macro- and microscopic features with a discussion of similar taxa are given. Their taxonomic position was confirmed using DNA data. Marasmius fusicystidiosus is described as a new species. A key to aid in their identification is also provided.

  7. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters. II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B.; Barbuy, B.; Saviane, I.; Held, E. V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Ortolani, S.; Gullieuszik, M.; Vásquez, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Globular clusters trace the formation and evolution of the Milky Way and surrounding galaxies, and outline their chemical enrichment history. To accomplish these tasks it is important to have large samples of clusters with homogeneous data and analysis to derive kinematics, chemical abundances, ages and locations. Aims: We obtain homogeneous metallicities and α-element enhancement for 51 Galactic bulge, disc, and halo globular clusters that are among the most distant and/or highly reddened in the Galaxy's globular cluster system. We also provide membership selection based on stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. The implications of our results are discussed. Methods: We observed R ~ 2000 spectra in the wavelength interval 456-586 nm for over 800 red giant stars in 51 Galactic globular clusters. We applied full spectrum fitting with the code ETOILE together with libraries of observed and synthetic spectra. We compared the mean abundances of all clusters with previous work and with field stars. We used the relation between mean metallicity and horizontal branch morphology defined by all clusters to select outliers for discussion. Results: [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], and [α/Fe] were derived in a consistent way for almost one-third of all Galactic globular clusters. We find our metallicities are comparable to those derived from high-resolution data to within σ = 0.08 dex over the interval -2.5integrated spectroscopy and photometry. Two other clusters, HP 1 and NGC 6558, are confirmed as candidates for the oldest globular clusters in the Milky Way. Conclusions: Stellar spectroscopy in the visible at R ~ 2000 for a large sample of globular clusters is a robust and efficient way to trace the chemical evolution of the host galaxy and to detect interesting objects for follow-up at higher resolution and with forthcoming giant telescopes. The technique used here can also be applied to globular cluster systems in nearby galaxies with current instruments and to

  8. Influence of additional acylation site(s) of influenza B virus hemagglutinin on syncytium formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujike, Makoto; Nakajima, Katsuhisa; Nobusawa, Eri

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of an increase in the hydrophobicity of the transmembrane domain (TM) and cytoplasmic tail (CT) of influenza B virus hemagglutinin (BHA) on fusion activities. For this purpose, we created mutant HAs with novel acylation site(s) in the TM and/or CT. All mutants were able to induce hemifusion and to form fusion pores as well as could wild type (wt) BHA. However, the ability of these mutants to form syncytia was impaired, indicating that the increase in the hydrophobicity of these domains (especially the CT) affected fusion pore dilation.

  9. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...

  10. The X-ray globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaino, G

    1976-01-01

    A BV photometric investigation of the Southern Globular Cluster NGC 1851, was carried out using the 1 m telescope of Cerro La Silla (ESO) for the photoelectric work and the 1 m telescope of Cerro Las Campanas (CARSO) for the photographic work. Nineteen stars were observed photoelectrically, the limiting magnitude being V=16.18. Using this sequence, 156 stars were measured photographically. The derived apparent distance modulus is (m-M)/sub app/=15/sup m/.50. The reddening is E(B-V)=0/sup m/.10. The true distance modulus is (m-M) /sub 0/=15/sup m/.20. The distance is 11 kpc from the sun, 6 kpc from the galactic plane and 17 kpc from the galactic centre. The main features of the colour-magnitude diagram are: a well defined horizontal branch abundant in red stars and deficient in blue stars, a rich subgiant and asymptotic branch and a moderately populated red giant branch of medium steepness rising to Delta V=2/sup m/.5 at (B-V) /sub 0/=1.4. At the distance of 11 kpc the maximum observed luminosity of the X-ray ...

  11. KINEMATICS OF OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Penarrubia, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Mackey, A. D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huxor, A. P. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universitat Heidelberg, Monchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cote, P. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Fardal, M. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Lewis, G. F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-05-10

    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of {approx}20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii {approx}> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 {+-} 19 km s{sup -1}. The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 {+-} 12 km s{sup -1}, which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M{sub M31} = (1.2-1.5) {+-} 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  12. The Globular Cluster Systems of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Annette

    2017-08-01

    We propose to obtain deep ACS and WFC3 imaging of 26 globular clusters (GCs) lying in three Local Group dwarf galaxies - NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 6822. These three galaxies possess the richest dwarf galaxy GC systems known within the Local Group and our sample represents their entire GC populations. We will characterize, in unprecedented detail, the properties of the GCs in these low mass systems and construct a reference dataset against which to compare the properties of suspected accreted families of GCs in the M31 and Milky Way halos. Our deep imaging will allow us to derive the properties of the constituent stellar populations (e.g. metallicities, HB morphologies) of the GCs, as well as their structural parameters and line-of-sight distances, and quantify the variation within and between GC systems in galaxies of the dE and dIrr classes. In addition, our imaging will facilitate the construction of deep colour-magnitude diagrams for a wide swathe of the field populations in these dwarf galaxies, from which we will extract detailed star formation histories. This will enable us to analyse spatial variations in their stellar mass assembly histories (complementing previous deep single field studies of these systems) and quantitatively compare the history of star formation as traced by field stars and GCs.

  13. Parameters of radio pulsars in binary systems and globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, A. A.; Malov, I. F.

    2017-02-01

    The parameters of radio pulsars in binary systems and globular clusters are investigated. It is shown that such pulsars tend to have short periods (of the order of several milliseconds). Themagnetic fields of most of the pulsars considered are weak (surface fields of the order of 108-109 G). This corresponds to the generally accepted view that short-period neutron stars are spun up by angular momentum associated with the stellar wind from a companion. However, the fields at the light cylinders in these objects are two to three orders of magnitude higher than for the main population of single neutron stars. The dependence of the pulse width on the period does not differ from the corresponding dependences for single pulsars, assuming the emission is generated inside the polar cap, at moderate distances from the surface or near the light cylinder. The radio luminosities of pulsars in binary systems do not show the correlation with the rate of loss of rotational energy that is characteristic for single pulsars, probably due to the influence of accreting matter from a companion. Moreover, accretion apparently decreases the power of the emergent radiation, and can explain the observed systematic excess of the radio luminosity of single pulsars compared to pulsars in binary systems. The distributions and dependences presented in the article support generally accepted concepts concerning the processes occurring in binary systems containing neutron stars.

  14. Accretion onto Protoplanetary Discs: Implications for Globular Cluster Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Thomas; Pols, Onno; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, observational evidence that Globular Clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations has grown steadily. These observations are hard to reconcile with the classic picture of star formation in GCs, which approximates them as a single generation of stars. However, Bastian et al. recently suggested an evolutionary scenario in which a second (and higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population. In this early disc accretion scenario the low-mass, pre-main sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster centre.Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can indeed accrete sufficient enriched material to account for the observed abundances in 'second generation' stars. We compare the outcome of two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and check for consistency. In particular, we focus on the lifetime and stability of the disc and on the gas accretion rate onto both the star and the disc.

  15. The origin of the Milky Way globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Florent; Agertz, Oscar; Gieles, Mark

    2017-03-01

    We present a cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy used to explore the formation and evolution of star clusters. We investigate in particular the origin of the bimodality observed in the colour and metallicity of globular clusters, and the environmental evolution through cosmic times in the form of tidal tensors. Our results self-consistently confirm previous findings that the blue, metal-poor clusters form in satellite galaxies that are accreted on to the Milky Way, while the red, metal-rich clusters form mostly in situ, or, to a lower extent, in massive, self-enriched galaxies merging with the Milky Way. By monitoring the tidal fields these populations experience, we find that clusters formed in situ (generally centrally concentrated) feel significantly stronger tides than the accreted ones, both in the present day, and when averaged over their entire life. Furthermore, we note that the tidal field experienced by Milky Way clusters is significantly weaker in the past than at present day, confirming that it is unlikely that a power-law cluster initial mass function like that of young massive clusters, is transformed into the observed peaked distribution in the Milky Way with relaxation-driven evaporation in a tidal field.

  16. Study of Remote Globular Cluster Satellites of M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Arushi; Shao, Andrew; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present a sample of “orphan” globular clusters (GCs) with previously unknown parent galaxies, which we determine to be remote satellites of M87, a massive elliptical galaxy at the center of the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies. Because GCs were formed in the early universe along with their original parent galaxies, which were cannibalized by massive galaxies such as M87, they share similar age and chemical properties. In this study, we first confirm that M87 is the adoptive parent galaxy of our orphan GCs using photometric and spectroscopic data to analyze spatial and velocity distributions. Next, we increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our samples’ spectra through a process known as coaddition. We utilize spectroscopic absorption lines to determine the age and metallicity of our orphan GCs through comparison to stellar population synthesis models, which we then relate to the GCs’ original parent galaxies using a mass-metallicity relation. Our finding that remote GCs of M87 likely developed in galaxies with ~1010 solar masses implies that M87’s outer halo is formed of relatively massive galaxies, serving as important parameters for developing theories about the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.This research was funded in part by NASA/STScI and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  17. Constraining the Mass & Radius of Neutron Stars in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Bogdanov, S.; Li, C.; Ho, W. C. G.; Bahramian, A.; Han, S.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze observations of eight quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters and combine them to determine the neutron star mass-radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. We determine the effect that several uncertainties may have on our results, including uncertainties in the distance, the atmosphere composition, the neutron star maximum mass, the neutron star mass distribution, the possible presence of a hotspot on the neutron star surface, and the prior choice for the equation of state of dense matter. The distance uncertainty is implemented in a new Gaussian blurring method which can be directly applied to the probability distribution over mass and radius. We find that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star is most likely from 10 to 14 km and that tighter constraints are only possible with stronger assumptions about the nature of the neutron stars, the systematics of the observations, or the nature of dense matter. Strong phase transitions in the equation of state are preferred, and in this case, the radius is likely smaller than 12 km. However, radii larger than 12 km are preferred if the neutron stars have uneven temperature distributions.

  18. Color Gradient in the King Type Globular Cluster NGC 7089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We use BV CCD images to investigate the reality of the color gradient within a King type globular cluster NGC 7089. Surface photometry shows that there is a strong radial color gradient in the central region of the cluster in the sense of bluer center with the amplitude of -0.39 +/- 0.07 mag/arcsec2 in (B - V. In the outer region of the cluster, however, the radial color gradient shows a reverse case, i.e., redder toward the center. (B - V color profile which was derived from resolved stars in VGC 7089 field also shows a significant color gradient in the central region of the clusters, indicating that lights from the combination of red giant stars and blue horizontal branch stars cause the radial color gradient. Color gradient of the outer region of NGC 7089 may be due to the unresolved background of the cluster. Similar color gradients in the central area of clusters have been previously observed exserved exclusively in highly concentrated systems classified as post core collapse clusters. We caution, however, to confirm the reality of the color gradient from resolved stars, we need more accurate imaging data of the cluster with exceptional seeing condition because the effect of completeness correlates with local density of stars.

  19. Optical companions to millisecond pulsars in globular clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanca, C.; Cosmic-Lab Team

    According to the ``canonical recycling scenario", millisecond pulsars (MSPs) form in binary systems containing a neutron star that is spun up through mass accretion from the evolving companion. Therefore, the final stage consists of a binary made of the MSP and the core of the deeply peeled star. In the last years, however, an increasing number of systems deviating from these expectations has been discovered, thus strongly indicating that our understanding of MSPs is far to be complete. Within the Cosmic-Lab project we identified 8 new companions to MSPs in Galactic globular clusters (GCs), more than doubling the number of previously known objects, and also reporting the first and unique detections of both a transitional-MSP and two Black-Widow companions in GCs. Moreover we performed a spectroscopic follow-up of the companion to PSRJ1740-5340A in NGC 6397, confirming that it is a deeply peeled star descending from a ˜0.8 M_⊙ progenitor.

  20. Denaturation and preservation of globular proteins: the role of DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliarelli, Alessandra; Paolantoni, Marco; Morresi, Assunta; Sassi, Paola

    2012-11-15

    The thermal denaturation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) in D(2)O was followed by IR absorption after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different molar fractions. Amide I intensity and position revealed that DMSO reduces the thermal stability of the native protein and favors the formation of ordered aggregates. The comparison with ethanol/water solutions evidenced that ethanol (partially deuterated ethanol EtOD) has a stronger effect on the thermal stability of HEWL: the same down-shift of melting temperature was measured at 0.18 and 0.30 molar fraction of ethanol and DMSO, respectively. This is probably due to lower polarity of EtOD/D(2)O with respect to DMSO/D(2)O solutions. A kinetic study of protein assembling at 0.30 DMSO molar fraction, was also performed at different temperatures. The high viscosity of the solvent was observed to cause a sensitive slowing down of aggregation rate in comparison to that of water/alcohol solutions. The evidence of a retarded self-assembling put forward a possible explanation for the use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a protectant of protein structure. In fact, for both organic solvents a nonspecific interaction with the protein and a water-mediated action is deduced, but the addition of DMSO reduces the irreversible denaturation due to kinetic effects and this can be exploited for lessening one of the main degradation routes of globular proteins during freezing-thawing cycles.

  1. Inhibition of influenza A virus (H1N1 fusion by benzenesulfonamide derivatives targeting viral hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinin (HA of the influenza virus plays a crucial role in the early stage of the viral life cycle by binding to sialic acid on the surface of host epithelial cells and mediating fusion between virus envelope and endosome membrane for the release of viral genomes into the cytoplasm. To initiate virus fusion, endosome pH is lowered by acidification causing an irreversible conformational change of HA, which in turn results in a fusogenic HA. In this study, we describe characterization of an HA inhibitor of influenza H1N1 viruses, RO5464466. One-cycle time course study in MDCK cells showed that this compound acted at an early step of influenza virus replication. Results from HA-mediated hemolysis of chicken red blood cells and trypsin sensitivity assay of isolated HA clearly showed that RO5464466 targeted HA. In cell-based assays involving multiple rounds of virus infection and replication, RO5464466 inhibited an established influenza infection. The overall production of progeny viruses, as a result of the compound's inhibitory effect on fusion, was dramatically reduced by 8 log units when compared with a negative control. Furthermore, RO5487624, a close analogue of RO5464466, with pharmacokinetic properties suitable for in vivo efficacy studies displayed a protective effect on mice that were lethally challenged with influenza H1N1 virus. These results might benefit further characterization and development of novel anti-influenza agents by targeting viral hemagglutinin.

  2. Formation and Growth Mechanism of Globular Crystal of ADC12 Aluminum Alloy by Near-Liquidus Squeeze Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-zhu Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method of near-liquidus squeeze casting (NLSC, which obtains globular crystal, has been developed. The research focuses on the formation and growth mechanism of globular crystals of ADC12 alloy by NLSC. Globular crystal transforms into rosette crystal, average grain size (AGS increases, and average globular coefficient (ASC decreases with the rise of pouring temperature. But AGS decreases to 17.8 μm directly and ASC increases directly to 0.46 when the pouring temperature is 650°C. NLSC globular crystal of different sizes (AGS is 22.5 μm; ASC is 0.73 distributes uniformly in matrix. Heterogeneous nucleation grows on the solid particles of metal walls and fusing grains. The formation and growth modes of globular crystal include normal grain growth, annexation of small globular crystal, and fracture and spherulization of rosette crystal. NLSC globular crystal critical radius is inversely proportional to degree of supercooling. The pressure has very little influence on critical radius by increase of melting point and thermal conductivity, but it affects critical radius greatly by changing the degree of supercooling. NLSC globular crystal has no enough time to exceed the critical radius.

  3. Interaction of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin with human TLR2: identification of the TLR2-binding domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Zeerleder, Sacha; Mahdavi, Marzieh; van Mierlo, Gerard; Solati, Shabnam; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Aarden, Leucien; Shokri, Fazel

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a major adhesion and virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis and also a main component of acellular pertussis vaccines. Interaction of FHA with different receptors on human epithelial and immune cells facilitates entrance and colonization of bacteria as well as

  4. ON THE DENSITY PROFILE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cecco, A.; Buonanno, R. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center (ASDC), c/o ESRIN, via G. Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Zocchi, A.; Varri, A. L.; Bertin, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Nonino, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-40131 Trieste (Italy); Kunder, A.; Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-04-15

    We present new number density and surface brightness profiles for the globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). These profiles are calculated from optical images collected with the CCD mosaic camera MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ground-based data were supplemented with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalog. Special care was taken to discriminate candidate cluster stars from field stars and to subtract the background contamination from both profiles. By examining the contour levels of the number density, we found that the stellar distribution becomes clumpy at radial distances larger than {approx}13', and there is no preferred orientation of contours in space. We performed detailed fits of King and Wilson models to the observed profiles. The best-fit models underestimate the number density inside the core radius. Wilson models better represent the observations, in particular in the outermost cluster regions: the good global agreement of these models with the observations suggests that there is no need to introduce an extra-tidal halo to explain the radial distribution of stars at large radial distances. The best-fit models for the number density and the surface brightness profiles are different, even though they are based on the same observations. Additional tests support the evidence that this fact reflects the difference in the radial distribution of the stellar tracers that determine the observed profiles (main-sequence stars for the number density, bright evolved stars for the surface brightness).

  5. Spatial Substructure in the M87 Globular Cluster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuting; Zhang, Yunhao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric; Lim, Sungsoon

    2018-01-01

    Based on the observation of Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) project, we obtained the u,g,r,i,z and Ks band photometric information of all the objects in the 2 degree × 2 degree area (Pilot Region) around M87, the major subcluster of Virgo. By adapting an Extreme Deconvolution method, which classifies objects into Globular Clusters (GCs), galaxies and foreground stars with their color and morphology data, we got a purer-than-ever GC distribution map with a depth to gmag=25 in Pilot Region. After masking galaxy GCs, smoothing with a 10arcmin Gaussian kernel and performing a flat field correction, we show the GC density map of M87, and got a good sersic fitting of GC radial distribution with a sersic index~2.2 in the central ellipse part (45arcmin semi major axis area of M87). We quantitatively compared our GC sample with a substructure-free mock data set, which was generated from the smoothed density map as well as the sersic fitting, by calculating the 2 point correlation function (TPCF) value in different parts of the map. After separately performing such comparison with mocks based on different galaxy masking radii which vary from 4 times g band effective radius to 10, we found signals of remarkable spatial enhancement in certain directions in the central ellipse of M87, as well as halo substructures shown as lumpiness and holes in the outer region. We present the estimated scales of these substructures from the TPCF results, and, managed to locate them with a statistical analysis of the pixelized GC map. Apart from all results listed above, we discuss the constant, extra-galactic substructure signal at a scale of ~3kpc, which does not diminish with masking sizes, as the evidence of merging and accretion history of M87.

  6. A Unified Picture of Mass Segregation in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The sensitivity, stability and longevity of HST have opened up an exciting new parameter space: we now have velocity measurements, in the form of proper motions (PMs), for stars from the tip of the red giant branch to a few magnitudes below the main-sequence turn off for a large sample of globular clusters (GCs). For the very first time, we have the opportunity to measure both kinematic and spatial dependences on stellar mass in GCs.The formation and evolution histories of GCs are poorly understood, so too are their intermediate-mass black hole populations and binary fractions. However, the current structure and dynamical state of a GC is directly determined by its past history and its components, so by understanding the former we can gain insight into the latter. Quantifying variations in spatial structure for stars of different mass is extremely difficult with photometry alone as datasets are inhomogenous and incomplete. We require kinematic data for stars that span a range of stellar masses, combined with proper dynamical modelling. We now have the data in hand, but still lack the models needed to maximise the scientific potential of our HST datasets.Here, we propose to extend existing single-mass discrete dynamical-modelling tools to include kinematic and spatial variations with stellar mass, and verify the upgrades using mock data generated from N-body models. We will then apply the models to HST PM data and directly quantify energy equipartition and mass segregation in the GCs. The theoretical phase of the project is vital for the success of the subsequent data analysis, and will serve as a benchmark for future observational campaigns with HST, JWST and beyond.

  7. The origin of discrete multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, K.; Jeřábková, T.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-10-01

    Recent observations have revealed that at least several old globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy have discrete distributions of stars along the Mg-Al anticorrelation. In order to discuss this recent observation, we construct a new one-zone GC formation model in which the maximum stellar mass (mmax) in the initial mass function of stars in a forming GC depends on the star formation rate, as deduced from independent observations. We investigate the star formation histories of forming GCs. The principal results are as follows. About 30 Myr after the formation of the first generation (1G) of stars within a particular GC, new stars can be formed from ejecta from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1G. However, the formation of this second generation (2G) of stars can last only for [10-20] Myr because the most massive SNe of 2G expel all of the remaining gas. The third generation (3G) of stars are then formed from AGB ejecta ≈30 Myr after the truncation of 2G star formation. This cycle of star formation followed by its truncation by SNe can continue until all AGB ejecta is removed from the GC by some physical process. Thus, it is inevitable that GCs have discrete multiple stellar populations in the [Mg/Fe]-[Al/Fe] diagram. Our model predicts that low-mass GCs are unlikely to have discrete multiple stellar populations, and young massive clusters may not have massive OB stars owing to low mmax (<[20-30] M⊙) during the secondary star formation.

  8. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  9. Comparison of solid particles, globular proteins and surfactants as emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Lips, A

    2008-03-28

    The aim of this paper is to present a short overview of the main mechanisms operative in the formation and stabilization of emulsions by solid particles and, on this basis, to make comparisons between solid particles, surfactants and globular proteins as emulsifiers. When available, simple quantitative relations are presented, with the respective numerical estimates and discussion of the applicability of these relations to particle-stabilized systems. Non-obvious similarities between the different types of emulsifiers are outlined in several cases in which the description of the system can be performed at a phenomenological level. Examples are presented for the process of emulsification, where we show that several simple theoretical expressions, derived originally in the studies of surfactants and protein emulsifiers, can be successfully applied to particle-stabilized emulsions. In contrast, for the phenomena in which the detailed mechanisms of particle adsorption and film stabilization are important, the differences between the various emulsifiers prevail, thus making it impossible to use the same theoretical description. The most important specific characteristics of the solid particles which strongly affect their behavior are the high barrier to particle adsorption, high desorption energy and strong capillary forces between particles trapped in liquid films, which all originate in the relatively large particle size (as compared to the size of surfactant and protein molecules). The capillary mechanism of stabilization of liquid films by solid particles is reviewed in some detail, to emphasize its specific features and to demonstrate the applicability of several simple expressions for approximate estimates. Interestingly, we found that the hypothesis for some exceptionally high coalescence stability of the particle-stabilized emulsions is not supported by the experimental data available in literature. On the other hand, the particles are able to completely arrest

  10. The globular cluster-dark matter halo connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-12-01

    I present a simple phenomenological model for the observed linear scaling of the stellar mass in old globular clusters (GCs) with $z=0$ halo mass in which the stellar mass in GCs scales linearly with progenitor halo mass at $z=6$ above a minimum halo mass for GC formation. This model reproduces the observed $M_{\\rm GCs}-M_{\\rm halo}$ relation at $z=0$ and results in a prediction for the minimum halo mass at $z=6$ required for hosting one GC: $M_{\\rm min}(z=6)=1.07 \\times 10^9\\,M_{\\odot}$. Translated to $z=0$, the mean threshold mass is $M_{\\rm halo}(z=0) \\approx 2\\times 10^{10}\\,M_{\\odot}$. I explore the observability of GCs in the reionization era and their contribution to cosmic reionization, both of which depend sensitively on the (unknown) ratio of GC birth mass to present-day stellar mass, $\\xi$. Based on current detections of $z \\gtrsim 6$ objects with $M_{1500} 10$ are strongly disfavored; this, in turn, has potentially important implications for GC formation scenarios. Even for low values of $\\xi$, some observed high-$z$ galaxies may actually be GCs, complicating estimates of reionization-era galaxy ultraviolet luminosity functions and constraints on dark matter models. GCs are likely important reionization sources if $5 \\lesssim \\xi \\lesssim 10$. I also explore predictions for the fraction of accreted versus in situ GCs in the local Universe and for descendants of systems at the halo mass threshold of GC formation (dwarf galaxies). An appealing feature of the model presented here is the ability to make predictions for GC properties based solely on dark matter halo merger trees.

  11. Globular Clusters Indicate That Ultra-diffuse Galaxies Are Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of archival HST/ACS imaging in the F475W (g 475), F606W (V 606), and F814W (I 814) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed to be located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5σ completeness limit of the imaging (I 814 = 27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of 27 ± 5 and a V-band specific frequency S N = 28 ± 5. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass ˜9.0 × 1010 M ⊙ and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio M vir/M star ˜ 1000. Based on the stellar mass growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky-Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large-Magellanic-Cloud-like systems. We find that the mean color of the GC population, g 475-I 814 = 0.91 ± 0.05 mag, coincides with the peak of the color distribution of intracluster GCs and is also similar to those of the blue GCs in the outer regions of massive galaxies. We suggest that both the intracluster GC population in Coma and the blue peak in the GC populations of massive galaxies may be fed—at least in part—by the disrupted equivalents of systems such as DF17.

  12. Mass evaporation rate of globular clusters in a strong tidal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-09-01

    The mass evaporation rate of globular clusters evolving in a strong Galactic tidal field is derived through the analysis of large, multimass N-body simulations. For comparison, we also study the same evaporation rates using mocca Monte Carlo models for globular cluster evolution. Our results show that the mass evaporation rate is a dynamical value, that is, far from a constant single number found in earlier analytical work and commonly used in the literature. Moreover, the evaporation rate derived with these simulations is higher than values previously published. These models also show that the value of the mass evaporation rate depends on the strength of the tidal field. We give an analytical estimate of the mass evaporation rate as a function of time and galactocentric distance ξ(RGC, t). Upon extrapolating this formula to smaller RGC values, our results provide tentative evidence for a very high ξ value at small RGC. Our results suggest that the corresponding mass-loss in the inner Galactic potential could be high and it should be accounted for when star clusters pass within it. This has direct relevance to nuclear cluster formation/growth via the infall of globular clusters through dynamical friction. As an illustrative example, we estimate how the evaporation rate increases for an ˜105 M⊙ globular cluster that decays through dynamical friction into the Galactic Centre. We discuss the findings of this work in relation to the formation of nuclear star clusters by inspiralling globular clusters.

  13. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C

    2012-10-04

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.

  14. Clues on the missing sources of reionization from self-consistent modelling of Milky Way and dwarf galaxy globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Harley; Ricotti, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Globular clusters are unique tracers of ancient star formation. We determine the formation efficiencies of globular clusters across cosmic time by modelling the formation and dynamical evolution of the globular cluster population of a Milky Way type galaxy in hierarchical cosmology, using the merger tree from the Via Lactea II simulation. All of the models are constrained to reproduce the observed specific frequency and initial mass function of globular clusters in isolated dwarfs. Globular cluster orbits are then computed in a time varying gravitational potential after they are either accreted from a satellite halo or formed in situ, within the Milky Way halo. We find that the Galactocentric distances and metallicity distribution of globular clusters are very sensitive to the formation efficiencies of globular clusters as a function of redshift and halo mass. Our most accurate models reveal two distinct peaks in the globular cluster formation efficiency at z ˜ 2 and 7-12 and prefer a formation efficiency that is mildly increasing with decreasing halo mass, the opposite of what expected for feedback-regulated star formation. This model accurately reproduces the positions, velocities, mass function, metallicity distribution, and age distribution of globular clusters in the Milky Way and predicts that ˜40 per cent formed in situ, within the Milky Way halo, while the other ˜60 per cent were accreted from about 20 satellite dwarf galaxies with vcir > 30 km s-1, and about 29 per cent of all globular clusters formed at redshifts z > 7. These results further strengthen the notion that globular cluster formation was an important mode of star formation in high-redshift galaxies and likely played a significant role in the reionization of the intergalactic medium.

  15. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  16. Dimerisation and structural integrity of Heparin Binding Hemagglutinin A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for bacterial agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Carla; Carullo, Paola; Pedone, Emilia; Graziano, Giuseppe; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Berisio, Rita

    2010-03-19

    Heparin Binding Hemagglutinin A (HBHA) is hitherto the sole virulence factor associated with tuberculosis dissemination from the lungs, the site of primary infection, to epithelial cells. We have previously reported the solution structure of HBHA, a dimeric and elongated molecule. Since oligomerisation of HBHA is associated with its ability to induce bacterial agglutination, we investigated this process using experimental and modelling techniques. We here identified a short segment of HBHA whose presence is mandatory for the stability of folded conformation, whose denaturation is a reversible two-state process. Our data suggest that agglutination-driven cell-cell interactions do not occur via association of HBHA monomers, nor via association of HBHA dimers and open the scenario to a possible trans-dimerisation process. Copyright 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A stable trimeric influenza hemagglutinin stem as a broadly protective immunogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impagliazzo, Antonietta; Milder, Fin; Kuipers, Harmjan; Wagner, Michelle V; Zhu, Xueyong; Hoffman, Ryan M B; van Meersbergen, Ruud; Huizingh, Jeroen; Wanningen, Patrick; Verspuij, Johan; de Man, Martijn; Ding, Zhaoqing; Apetri, Adrian; Kükrer, Başak; Sneekes-Vriese, Eveline; Tomkiewicz, Danuta; Laursen, Nick S; Lee, Peter S; Zakrzewska, Anna; Dekking, Liesbeth; Tolboom, Jeroen; Tettero, Lisanne; van Meerten, Sander; Yu, Wenli; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap; Ward, Andrew B; Meijberg, Wim; Wilson, Ian A; Radošević, Katarina

    2015-09-18

    The identification of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) stem revitalized hopes of developing a universal influenza vaccine. Using a rational design and library approach, we engineered stable HA stem antigens ("mini-HAs") based on an H1 subtype sequence. Our most advanced candidate exhibits structural and bnAb binding properties comparable to those of full-length HA, completely protects mice in lethal heterologous and heterosubtypic challenge models, and reduces fever after sublethal challenge in cynomolgus monkeys. Antibodies elicited by this mini-HA in mice and nonhuman primates bound a wide range of HAs, competed with human bnAbs for HA stem binding, neutralized H5N1 viruses, and mediated antibody-dependent effector activity. These results represent a proof of concept for the design of HA stem mimics that elicit bnAbs against influenza A group 1 viruses. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Neoechinulin B and its analogues as potential entry inhibitors of influenza viruses, targeting viral hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueqing; Si, Longlong; Liu, Dong; Proksch, Peter; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin; Lin, Wenhan

    2015-03-26

    A class of prenylated indole diketopiperazine alkaloids including 15 new compounds namely rubrumlines A-O obtained from marine-derived fungus Eurotium rubrum, were tested against influenza A/WSN/33 virus. Neoechinulin B (18) exerted potent inhibition against H1N1 virus infected in MDCK cells, and is able to inhibit a panel of influenza virus strains including amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant clinical isolates. Mechanism of action studies indicated that neoechinulin B binds to influenza envelope hemagglutinin, disrupting its interaction with the sialic acid receptor and the attachment of viruses to host cells. In addition, neoechinulin B was still efficient in inhibiting influenza A/WSN/33 virus propagation even after a fifth passage. The high potency and broad-spectrum activities against influenza viruses with less drug resistance make neoechinulin B as a new lead for the development of potential inhibitor of influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Roll of hemagglutinin gene in the biology of avian inflenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soltanialvar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hemagglutinin (HA, the major envelope glycoprotein of influenza, plays an important role during the early stage of infection, and changes in the HA gene prior to the emergence of pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The HA protein controls viral entry through membrane fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane and allows the genetic information released to initiate new virus synthesis. Sharp antigenic variation of HA remains the critical challenge to the development of effective vaccines. Therefore, we highlight the role of HA in need of review: structure of HA, the fusion process and the HA receptor binding specificity in interspecies transmission and the impact of multiple mutations at antigenic sites and host antibodies to the parental virus, and the host susceptibility to productive infection by the drift strains.

  20. Antibodies elicited by influenza virus hemagglutinin fail to bind to synthetic peptides representing putative antigenic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, A; Tregear, G W; Southwell, C N; Martyn, J; Murray, J M; White, D O; Jackson, D C

    1985-02-01

    A number of peptides of the hemagglutinin (HA) of X-31 influenza virus have been synthesised. The amino acid sequences of some of these peptides represent regions of HA which have been postulated [Wiley et al., Nature, Lond. 289, 373-378 (1981)] to form the antigenic sites of this molecule. Animals were immunized with free peptide or peptide conjugated to a carrier and the resulting antisera examined for their capacities to bind to homologous peptide, whole HA, reduced and alkylated HA, and intact virus. Not all peptides examined in this way were immunogenic. Only antibodies raised against the C-terminus of HA1 peptide displayed binding to virus. This antiserum bound to the intact HA but not to the reduced and alkylated form of the molecule. These results raise questions as to the feasibility of using synthetic peptides of the influenza HA in short linear sequences to elicit neutralising antibody.

  1. Detecting metal-rich intermediate-age globular clusters in NGC4570 using K-band photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotulla, R.; Fritze, U.; Anders, P.

    2009-01-01

    Globular cluster systems (GCSs) of most early-type galaxies feature two peaks in their optical colour distributions. Blue-peak globular clusters (GCs) are believed to be old and metal-poor, whereas the ages, metallicities, and the origin of the red-peak GCs are still being debated. We obtained deep

  2. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdo, A.A.; et al., [Unknown; Rea, N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of gamma-ray emissions above 200 megaelectron volts at a significance level of 17 sigma from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Globular clusters are expected to emit gamma rays

  3. Functional and structural characterization of neutralizing epitopes of measles virus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Maino; Ito, Yuri; Brindley, Melinda A; Ma, Xuemin; He, Jilan; Xu, Songtao; Fukuhara, Hideo; Sakai, Kouji; Komase, Katsuhiro; Rota, Paul A; Plemper, Richard K; Maenaka, Katsumi; Takeda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Effective vaccination programs have dramatically reduced the number of measles-related deaths globally. Although all the available data suggest that measles eradication is biologically feasible, a structural and biochemical basis for the single serotype nature of measles virus (MV) remains to be provided. The hemagglutinin (H) protein, which binds to two discrete proteinaceous receptors, is the major neutralizing target. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing distinct epitopes on the H protein were characterized using recombinant MVs encoding the H gene from different MV genotypes. The effects of various mutations on neutralization by MAbs and virus fitness were also analyzed, identifying the location of five epitopes on the H protein structure. Our data in the present study demonstrated that the H protein of MV possesses at least two conserved effective neutralizing epitopes. One, which is a previously recognized epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS), and thus MAbs that recognize this epitope blocked the receptor binding of the H protein, whereas the other epitope is located at the position distant from the RBS. Thus, a MAb that recognizes this epitope did not inhibit the receptor binding of the H protein, rather interfered with the hemagglutinin-fusion (H-F) interaction. This epitope was suggested to play a key role for formation of a higher order of an H-F protein oligomeric structure. Our data also identified one nonconserved effective neutralizing epitope. The epitope has been masked by an N-linked sugar modification in some genotype MV strains. These data would contribute to our understanding of the antigenicity of MV and support the global elimination program of measles.

  4. Enhancement of the safety of live influenza vaccine by attenuating mutations from cold-adapted hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Jae [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yo Han [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Baik Lin, E-mail: blseong@yonsei.ac.kr [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. - Highlights: • Cold-adaptation process induced four amino acid mutations in the HA of X-31 virus. • The four mutations in the HA also contributed to attenuation of the X-31ca virus • N81K mutation was the most significant marker for the attenuation of X-31ca virus. • Introduction of N81K mutation into H3N2 LAIV further attenuated the vaccine. • This approach provides a useful guideline for enhancing the safety of the LAIVs.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  6. A Search for Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT-Detected Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Ransom, Scott M.; Ray, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    We have searched for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in two globular clusters detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. These clusters contained no known MSPs prior to their detections in gamma rays. The discovery of gamma ray emission from many MSPs and the prevalence of MSPs in globular clusters points to a population of MSPs as the likely source of the detected GeV emission, directing our search for new cluster MSPs. We observed NGC 6652 and NGC 6388 at 2 GHz with the Green Bank Ultimate Puls...

  7. Surface Compositions of Red Giant Stars in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric; Lau, Marie; Smith, Graeme; Chen, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are excellent “laboratories” to study the formation and evolution of our galaxy. In order to understand, more specifically, the chemical compositions and stellar evolution of the stars in GCs, we ask whether or not deep internal mixing occurs in red giants or if in fact the compositions come from the primordial interstellar medium or previous generations of stars. It has been discovered that as a star evolves up the red giant branch, the surface carbon abundance decreases, which is evidence of deep internal mixing. We questioned whether these processes also affect O or Na abundance as a star evolves. We collected measurement data of red giants from GCs out of academic journals and sorted the data into catalogs. Then, we plotted the catalogs into figures, comparing surface O and Na each with stellar luminosity. Statistical tests were ran to quantify the amount of correlation between the variables. Out of 27 GCs, we concluded that eight show a positive correlation between Na and luminosity, and two show a negative correlation between O and luminosity. Properties of GCs were compared to determine if chemical distribution in stars depends on GCs as the self-enrichment scenario suggests. We created histograms of sodium distribution to test for bimodality to examine if there are separate trends in each GC. In six GCs, two different sequences of red giants appear for Na versus luminosity, suggesting evidence that the depth of mixing may differ among each red giant in a GC. This study has provided new evidence that the changing chemical abundances on the surfaces of red giants can be due to stellar evolutionary effects and deep internal mixing, which may not necessarily depend on the GC and may differ in depth among each red giant. Through this study, we learn more about stellar evolution which will eventually help us understand the origins of our universe. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of

  8. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  9. BtcA, A class IA type III chaperone, interacts with the BteA N-terminal domain through a globular/non-globular mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guttman

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of "whooping cough" disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry.

  10. Complement Protein C1q Interacts with DC-SIGN via Its Globular Domain and Thus May Interfere with HIV-1 Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Lina; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Paudyal, Basudev; Kaur, Anuvinder; Al-Mozaini, Maha Ahmed; Kouser, Lubna; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Mitchell, Daniel A; Madan, Taruna; Kishore, Uday

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells capable of priming naïve T-cells. Its C-type lectin receptor, DC-SIGN, regulates a wide range of immune functions. Along with its role in HIV-1 pathogenesis through complement opsonization of the virus, DC-SIGN has recently emerged as an adaptor for complement protein C1q on the surface of immature DCs via a trimeric complex involving gC1qR, a receptor for the globular domain of C1q. Here, we have examined the nature of interaction between C1q and DC-SIGN in terms of domain localization, and implications of C1q-DC-SIGN-gC1qR complex formation on HIV-1 transmission. We first expressed and purified recombinant extracellular domains of DC-SIGN and its homologue DC-SIGNR as tetramers comprising of the entire extra cellular domain including the α-helical neck region and monomers comprising of the carbohydrate recognition domain only. Direct binding studies revealed that both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR were able to bind independently to the recombinant globular head modules ghA, ghB, and ghC, with ghB being the preferential binder. C1q appeared to interact with DC-SIGN or DC-SIGNR in a manner similar to IgG. Mutational analysis using single amino acid substitutions within the globular head modules showed that TyrB175 and LysB136 were critical for the C1q-DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR interaction. Competitive studies revealed that gC1qR and ghB shared overlapping binding sites on DC-SIGN, implying that HIV-1 transmission by DCs could be modulated due to the interplay of gC1qR-C1q with DC-SIGN. Since C1q, gC1qR, and DC-SIGN can individually bind HIV-1, we examined how C1q and gC1qR modulated HIV-1-DC-SIGN interaction in an infection assay. Here, we report, for the first time, that C1q suppressed DC-SIGN-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to activated pooled peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although the globular head modules did not. The protective effect of C1q was negated by the addition of gC1qR. In fact, gC1qR enhanced DC

  11. THE RICH GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM OF ABELL 1689 AND THE RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER FORMATION EFFICIENCY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo-Martínez, K. A.; González-Lópezlira, R. A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Blakeslee, J. P.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Jordán, A. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Meurer, G. R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Peng, E. W. [Department of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); West, M. J., E-mail: k.alamo@crya.unam.mx [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-09-20

    We study the rich globular cluster (GC) system in the center of the massive cluster of galaxies Abell 1689 (z = 0.18), one of the most powerful gravitational lenses known. With 28 Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys orbits in the F814W bandpass, we reach a magnitude I{sub 814} = 29 with ∼>90% completeness and sample the brightest ∼5% of the GC system. Assuming the well-known Gaussian form of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we estimate a total population of N{sup total}{sub GC}= 162,850{sup +75,450}{sub -51,310} GCs within a projected radius of 400 kpc. As many as half of the GCs may comprise an intracluster component. Even with the sizable uncertainties, which mainly result from the uncertain GCLF parameters, this system is by far the largest GC population studied to date. The specific frequency S{sub N} is high, but not uncommon for central galaxies in massive clusters, rising from S{sub N} ≈ 5 near the center to ∼12 at large radii. Passive galaxy fading would increase S{sub N} by ∼20% at z = 0. We construct the radial mass profiles of the GCs, stars, intracluster gas, and lensing-derived total mass, and we compare the mass fractions as a function of radius. The estimated mass in GCs, M{sub GC}{sup total} = 3.9 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, is comparable to ∼80% of the total stellar mass of the Milky Way. The shape of the GC mass profile appears intermediate between those of the stellar light and total cluster mass. Despite the extreme nature of this system, the ratios of the GC mass to the baryonic and total masses, and thus the GC formation efficiency, are typical of those in other rich clusters when comparing at the same physical radii. The GC formation efficiency is not constant, but varies with radius, in a manner that appears similar for different clusters; we speculate on the reasons for this similarity in profile.

  12. Synthesis of a cluster-forming sialylthio-D-galactose fullerene conjugate and evaluation of its interaction with influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollas, Szilvia; Bereczki, Ilona; Borbás, Anikó; Batta, Gyula; Vanderlinden, Evelien; Naesens, Lieve; Herczegh, Pál

    2014-06-01

    In order to obtain self assembling, multivalent ligand for influenza virus hemagglutinin α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2-6)-D-galactopyranose has been synthesized and bonded to a water soluble fullerene derivative using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition click reaction. The aggregating amphiphilic compound did not inhibit the influenza virus hemagglutinin, but it proved to be an inhibitor of its neuraminidase with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 81 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A global phylogenetic analysis in order to determine the host species and geography dependent features present in the evolution of avian H9N2 influenza hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete phylogenetic analysis of all of the H9N2 hemagglutinin sequences that were collected between 1966 and 2012 was carried out in order to build a picture of the geographical and host specific evolution of the hemagglutinin protein. To improve the quality and applicability of the output data the sequences were divided into subsets based upon location and host species.The phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin reveals that the protein has distinct lineages between China and the Middle East, and that wild birds in both regions retain a distinct form of the H9 molecule, from the same lineage as the ancestral hemagglutinin. The results add further evidence to the hypothesis that the current predominant H9N2 hemagglutinin lineage might have originated in Southern China. The study also shows that there are sampling problems that affect the reliability of this and any similar analysis. This raises questions about the surveillance of H9N2 and the need for wider sampling of the virus in the environment.The results of this analysis are also consistent with a model where hemagglutinin has predominantly evolved by neutral drift punctuated by occasional selection events. These selective events have produced the current pattern of distinct lineages in the Middle East, Korea and China. This interpretation is in agreement with existing studies that have shown that there is widespread intra-country sequence evolution.

  14. Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, A.K.H.; Bassa, C.G.; Pooley, D.; Levin, W.H.G.; Homer, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Anderson, S.F.; Margon, B.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the globular cluster NGC 288.We detect four X-ray sources within the core radius and seven additional sources within the half-mass radius down to a limiting luminosity of LX ¼ 7 ; 1030 ergs s 1 (assuming cluster membership) in the 0.3Y7 keV

  15. Multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch of the globular cluster M 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.; Savino, A.; Donati, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all Galactic globular clusters host stars that display characteristic abundance anti-correlations, like the O-rich/Na-poor pattern typical of field halo stars, together with O-poor/Na-rich additional components. A recent spectroscopic investigation questioned the presence of O-poor/Na-rich

  16. A Fossil Bulge Globular Cluster Revealed by very Large Telescope Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Momany, Y.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Jílková, L.; Salerno, G.M.; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 737, č. 1 (2011), 31/1-31/9 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxy * globular cluster s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  17. NGC 6362: The Least Massive Globular Cluster with Chemically Distinct Multiple Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, Alessio; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Massari, Davide; Bellazzini, Michele; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara; Lardo, Carmela; Salaris, Maurizio; Cassisi, Santi

    2016-01-01

    We present the first measure of Fe and Na abundances in NGC 6362, a low-mass globular cluster (GC) where first- and second-generation stars are fully spatially mixed. A total of 160 member stars (along the red giant branch (RGB) and the red horizontal branch (RHB)) were observed with the

  18. Massive binaries as the source of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mink, S.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833231; Pols, O.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111811155; Langer, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829498; Izzard, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836052

    2009-01-01

    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We propose massive binaries as an

  19. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.

    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns

  20. No Evidence of Mass Segregation in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6101

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P.; Beccari, G.

    We used a combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based data to probe the dynamical state of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101. We have rederived the structural parameters of the cluster by using star counts and we find that it is about three times more extended than thought

  1. Three Ancient Halo Subgiants: Precise Parallaxes, Compositions, Ages, and Implications for Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2014-01-01

    very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ~1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied...

  2. A new X-ray transient in the globular cluster Terzan 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Heinke, C.O.; Sivakoff, G.R.; Pooley, D.

    2012-01-01

    As part of our program (PI: Altamirano) using Swift/XRT to monitor several globular clusters to detect transient behavior of X-ray binaries in those clusters, we obtained a 1.2 ksec observation of Terzan 5 on 6 July 2012. During this observation, we detect a clear excess of photons which was not

  3. Antibody mapping and tissue localization of globular and cysteine-rich regions of perlecan domain III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V; Sthanam, M

    1995-01-01

    Perlecan is the best-characterized basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It has a large (approximately 400 KD) core protein consisting of five distinct domains. Domain III, a centrally located domain, contains three globular domains separated by cysteine-rich epidermal growth factor (EG...

  4. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Turri, P.; Tolstoy, E.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way, and they probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. Aims: The aim of this work is to

  5. Globular clusters as probes of the evolutionary histories of E/S0 galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chies Santiago Santos, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314134743

    2011-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are gravitationally bound collections of millions of stars formed in a very short period of time from the same material. Located in galaxies, they serve as "fossil records" providing an easy diagnostic for determining the epoch and metallicity of major star formation events

  6. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  7. Protein cluster formation during enzymatic cross-linking of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saricay, Y.; Dhayal, S.K.; Wierenga, P.A.; Vries, de R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Work on enzymatic cross-linking of globular food proteins has mainly focused on food functional effects such as improvements of gelation and enhanced stabilization of emulsions and foams, and on the detailed biochemical characterization of the cross-linking chemistry. What is still lacking is a

  8. Disrupted Globular Clusters and the Gamma-Ray Excess in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Antonini, Fabio; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2018-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has provided the most detailed view toward the Galactic Centre (GC) in high-energy gamma rays. Besides the interstellar emission and point-source contributions, the data suggest a residual diffuse gamma-ray excess. The similarity of its spatial distribution with the expected profile of dark matter has led to claims that this may be evidence for dark matter particle annihilation. Here, we investigate an alternative explanation that the signal originates from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) formed in dense globular clusters and deposited at the GC as a consequence of cluster inspiral and tidal disruption. We use a semi-analytical model to calculate the formation, migration, and disruption of globular clusters in the Galaxy. Our model reproduces the mass of the nuclear star cluster and the present-day radial and mass distribution of globular clusters. For the first time, we calculate the evolution of MSPs from disrupted globular clusters throughout the age of the Galaxy and consistently include the effect of the MSP spin-down due to magnetic-dipole breaking. The final gamma-ray amplitude and spatial distribution are in good agreement with the Fermi observations and provide a natural astrophysical explanation for the GC excess.

  9. Swift-XRT globular cluster monitor: April 2016 Terzan 5 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, M.; Chenevez, J.

    2016-04-01

    As part of our Swift-XRT monitoring program of Galactic globular clusters, publicly available here, Swift observed Terzan 5 on 2016 April 17 for 3.2 ksec. Two additional 1.5-ksec-long observations were taken on April 21 and 23 (ATel #8982).

  10. New Constraints on a Complex Relation between Globular Cluster Colors and Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Schönebeck, Frederik; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ángel, Simón; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Grebel, Eva K.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kuntschner, Harald; Lim, Sungsoon; Liu, Chengze; Lyubenova, Mariya; Mihos, J. Christopher; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Spengler, Chelsea; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-quality photometry for globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster core region, based on data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) pilot field, and in the Milky Way (MW), based on Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrophotometry. We find significant

  11. The Age Of Globular Clusters In Light Of Hipparcos Resolving the Age Problem?

    CERN Document Server

    Chaboyer, B; Kernan, P J; Krauss, L M; Chaboyer, Brian; Kernan, Peter J.; Krauss, Lawrence M.

    1998-01-01

    We review five independent techniques which are used to set the distance scale to globular clusters, giving most weight to subdwarf main sequence fitting utilizing Hipparcos parallax results. These data indicate that globular clusters are farther away than previously believed, implying a reduction in age estimates. This new distance scale estimate is combined with a detailed numerical Monte Carlo study designed to assess the uncertainty associated with the theoretical age-turnoff luminosity relationship in order to estimate both the absolute age and uncertainty in age of the oldest globular clusters. Our best estimate for the mean age of the oldest globular clusters is now $11.7\\pm 1.4 $Gyr, with a one-sided, 95% confidence level lower limit of 9.6 Gyr. This now provides a lower limit on the age of the universe which is consistent with either an open universe, or a flat, matter dominated universe (the latter requiring $H_0 \\le 66 \\kmsmpc$). Simple formulae are provided which can be used to update our age esti...

  12. La galaxia NGC 6876 y su sistema de cúmulos globulares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, A. I.; Bassino, L. P.; Caso, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    We present preliminary results of the deep photometric study of the elliptical galaxy NGC6876, located at the center of the Pavo group, and its globular cluster system. We use images obtained with the GMOS camera mounted on the Gemini South telescope, in the and bands, with the purpose of disentangling the evolutionary history of the galaxy on the basis of their characteristics.

  13. A comparison of two mass distributions applicable to globular clusters and dwarf galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Slobodan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A particular case of mass distribution in stellar systems, already described in the literature, is compared to the King model of mass distribution. For the cases which would correspond to the description of real stellar systems such as the globular clusters and dwarf galaxies, one finds a satisfactory agreement between these two mass distributions.

  14. The kinematics of globular clusters systems in the outer halos of the Aquarius simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veljanoski, J.; Helmi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar halos and globular cluster (GC) systems contain valuable information regarding the assembly history of their host galaxies. Motivated by the detection of a significant rotation signal in the outer halo GC system of M 31, we investigate the likelihood of detecting such a rotation signal in

  15. Microstructure and rheology of globular protein gels in the presence of gelatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Bouwman, W.G.; Nieuwland, M.; Linden, van der E.; Venema, P.; Martin, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and rheological response of globular protein gels (whey protein isolate (WPI) and soy protein isolate (SPI)) in the presence of gelatin (type A, type B and hydrolyzed type A) was investigated. Microstructural information was obtained using a combination of confocal laser scanning

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  17. The receptor-binding site of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein itself constitutes a conserved neutralizing epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Maino; Ohno, Shinji; Sakai, Kouji; Ito, Yuri; Fukuhara, Hideo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Brindley, Melinda A; Rota, Paul A; Plemper, Richard K; Maenaka, Katsumi; Takeda, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Here, we provide direct evidence that the receptor-binding site of measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin protein itself forms an effective conserved neutralizing epitope (CNE). Several receptor-interacting residues constitute the CNE. Thus, viral escape from neutralization has to be associated with loss of receptor-binding activity. Since interactions with both the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) and nectin4 are critical for MV pathogenesis, its escape, which results from loss of receptor-binding activity, should not occur in nature.

  18. Expression of the hemagglutinin HA1 subunit of the equine influenza virus using a baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sguazza, Guillermo H; Fuentealba, Nadia A; Tizzano, Marco A; Galosi, Cecilia M; Pecoraro, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide. Disease prevention is by vaccination with inactivated whole virus vaccines. Most current influenza vaccines are generated in embryonated hens' eggs. Virions are harvested from allantoic fluid and chemically inactivated. Although this system has served well over the years, the use of eggs as the substrate for vaccine production has several well-recognized disadvantages (cost, egg supply, waste disposal and yield in eggs). The aim of this study was to evaluate a baculovirus system as a potential method for producing recombinant equine influenza hemagglutinin to be used as a vaccine. The hemagglutinin ectodomain (HA1 subunit) was cloned and expressed using a baculovirus expression vector. The expression was determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A high yield, 20μg/ml of viral protein, was obtained from recombinant baculovirus-infected cells. The immune response in BALB/c mice was examined following rHA1 inoculation. Preliminary results show that recombinant hemagglutinin expressed from baculovirus elicits a strong antibody response in mice; therefore it could be used as an antigen for subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. B cell response and hemagglutinin stalk-reactive antibody production in different age cohorts following 2009 H1N1 influenza virus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Mark Y; Baer, Jane; Santiago, Felix W; Fitzgerald, Theresa; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Sundararajan, Aarthi; Henn, Alicia D; Krammer, Florian; Yang, Hongmei; Luke, Catherine J; Zand, Martin S; Wright, Peter F; Treanor, John J; Topham, David J; Subbarao, Kanta

    2013-06-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus carried a swine-origin hemagglutinin (HA) that was closely related to the HAs of pre-1947 H1N1 viruses but highly divergent from the HAs of recently circulating H1N1 strains. Consequently, prior exposure to pH1N1-like viruses was mostly limited to individuals over the age of about 60 years. We related age and associated differences in immune history to the B cell response to an inactivated monovalent pH1N1 vaccine given intramuscularly to subjects in three age cohorts: 18 to 32 years, 60 to 69 years, and ≥70 years. The day 0 pH1N1-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) titers were generally higher in the older cohorts, consistent with greater prevaccination exposure to pH1N1-like viruses. Most subjects in each cohort responded well to vaccination, with early formation of circulating virus-specific antibody (Ab)-secreting cells and ≥4-fold increases in HAI and MN titers. However, the response was strongest in the 18- to 32-year cohort. Circulating levels of HA stalk-reactive Abs were increased after vaccination, especially in the 18- to 32-year cohort, raising the possibility of elevated levels of cross-reactive neutralizing Abs. In the young cohort, an increase in MN activity against the seasonal influenza virus A/Brisbane/59/07 after vaccination was generally associated with an increase in the anti-Brisbane/59/07 HAI titer, suggesting an effect mediated primarily by HA head-reactive rather than stalk-reactive Abs. Our findings support recent proposals that immunization with a relatively novel HA favors the induction of Abs against conserved epitopes. They also emphasize the need to clarify how the level of circulating stalk-reactive Abs relates to resistance to influenza.

  20. Pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and vaccination in humans induces cross-protective antibodies that target the hemagglutinin stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Ann Thomson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most monoclonal antibodies (mAbs generated from humans infected or vaccinated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1 influenza virus targeted the hemagglutinin (HA stem. These anti-HA stem mAbs mostly used IGHV1-69 and bound readily to epitopes on the conventional seasonal influenza and pdmH1N1 vaccines. The anti-HA stem mAbs neutralized pdmH1N1, seasonal influenza H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza viruses by inhibiting HA-mediated fusion of membranes and protected against and treated heterologous lethal infections in mice with H5N1 influenza virus. This demonstrated that therapeutic mAbs could be generated a few months after the new virus emerged. Human immunization with the pdmH1N1 vaccine induced circulating antibodies that protected mice from lethal, heterologous H5N1 influenza infections. We observed that the dominant heterosubtypic antibody response against the HA stem correlated with the relative absence of memory B cells against the HA head of pdmH1N1, thus enabling the rare heterosubtypic memory B cells induced by seasonal influenza and specific for conserved sites on the HA stem to compete for T-cell help. These results support the notion that broadly protective antibodies against influenza would be induced by successive vaccination with conventional influenza vaccines based on subtypes of HA in viruses not circulating in humans.

  1. The breadth of cross sub-type neutralisation activity of a single domain antibody to influenza hemagglutinin can be increased by antibody valency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon E Hufton

    Full Text Available The response to the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza pandemic has highlighted the need for additional strategies for intervention which preclude the prior availability of the influenza strain. Here, 18 single domain VHH antibodies against the 2009 A(H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA have been isolated from a immune alpaca phage displayed library. These antibodies have been grouped as having either (i non-neutralising, (ii H1N1 restricted neutralising or (iii broad cross-subtype neutralising activity. The ability to neutralise different viral subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1, correlated with the absence of hemagglutination inhibition activity, loss of binding to HA at acid pH and the absence of binding to the head domain containing the receptor binding site. This data supports their binding to epitopes in the HA stem region and a mechanism of action other than blocking viral attachment to cell surface receptors. After conversion of cross-neutralising antibodies R1a-B6 and R1a-A5 into a bivalent format, no significant enhancement in neutralisation activity was seen against A(H1N1 and A(H5N1 viruses. However, bivalent R1a-B6 showed an 18 fold enhancement in potency against A(H9N2 virus and, surprisingly, gained the ability to neutralise an A(H2N2 virus. This demonstrates that cross-neutralising antibodies, which make lower affinity interactions with the membrane proximal stem region of more divergent HA sub-types, can be optimised by bivalency so increasing their breadth of anti-viral activity. The broad neutralising activity and favourable characteristics, such as high stability, simple engineering into bivalent molecules and low cost production make these single domain antibodies attractive candidates for diagnostics and immunotherapy of pandemic influenza.

  2. Purification and production of monospecific antibody to the hemagglutinin from Subtype H5N1 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to purify the hemagglutinin from H5N1 virus and to generate monospecific antibody appropriate for production of sensitive and specific immunoassay for H5N1 avian influenza. For this purpose, a local isolate H5N1 virus (A/Ck/West Java/Hamd/2006 was propagated in chicken embryos. The viral pellet was dissolved in a Triton-X-100 solution, undissolved viral particles were pelleted by ultracentrifuge, and the supernatant containing viral surface glycoproteins (Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase was collected. The neuraminidase in the supernatant was absorbed by passing the supernatant through an Oxamic-acid-superose column. After dialyzing extensively, the filtrate was further fractionated with an anion exchange chromatography (Q-sepharose column. Proteins adsorbed by the column were eluted stepwisely with 0.10, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.75 M NaCl in 20 mM Tris, ph 8. Hemagglutinin (H5 was found to be eluted from the column with the 0.5 M NaCl elution buffer. The purified H5 was free from other viral proteins based on immunoassays using commercial antibodies to H5N1 nucleoprotein and neuraminidase. When used as ELISA’s coating antigen, the purified H5 proved to be sensitive and specific for hemagglutinin H5. Cross reactions with other type-A-influenza virus, H6, H7 dan H9, were negligibly low. For the production of monospecific antiserum, the purified H5 was separated with SDS-PAGE, the band containing the H5 monomer was cut out , homogenised and injected into rabbits. The antiserum was capable of detecting the presence of inactivated H5N1 virus in a very dilute suspension, with a detection limit of 0.04 heagglutination (HA unit. The purified hemagglutinin and the serum raised against it should be useful for developing specific, sensitive and affordable immunoassay for H5N1 avian influenza.

  3. Structure-function analysis of two variants of mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Santos-López

    Full Text Available A point mutation from guanine (G to adenine (A at nucleotide position 1081 in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene has been associated with neurovirulence of Urabe AM9 mumps virus vaccine. This mutation corresponds to a glutamic acid (E to lysine (K change at position 335 in the HN glycoprotein. We have experimentally demonstrated that two variants of Urabe AM9 strain (HN-A1081 and HN-G1081 differ in neurotropism, sialic acidbinding affinity and neuraminidase activity. In the present study, we performed a structure-function analysis of that amino acid substitution; the structures of HN protein of both Urabe AM9 strain variants were predicted. Based on our analysis, the E/K mutation changes the protein surface properties and to a lesser extent their conformations, which in turn reflects in activity changes. Our modeling results suggest that this E/K interchange does not affect the structure of the sialic acid binding motif; however, the electrostatic surface differs drastically due to an exposed short alpha helix. Consequently, this mutation may affect the accessibility of HN to substrates and membrane receptors of the host cells. Our findings appear to explain the observed differences in neurotropism of these vaccine strains.

  4. Genetic Predisposition To Acquire a Polybasic Cleavage Site for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naganori Nao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4. Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes.

  5. Evolutionary patterning of hemagglutinin gene sequence of 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rachana; Roy, Ayan; Ahmad, Fayaz; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first pandemic in decades. Infectivity of the influenza virus for human host depends largely on its ability to evade antibodies specific for viral protein called hemagglutinin (HA) that mediates attachment to the host. In the present study we analysed large number of HA gene sequences available in Flu Database maintained at NCBI. Our sequence based analysis clearly demonstrates that the amino acid usage pattern may dramatically change during the course of evolution, and there exists a clear link between a particular pattern of amino acid usage of HA genes and its potential to become infectious. Structural studies revealed how binding efficiency between the HA and sialic acid may alter the pandemic potential of infection. Our work highlights the evolutionary significance and biochemical basis of the selective advantage of certain amino acids of HA in 2009 and provides a link between the characteristics changes in HA protein and their potential to pronounce a global menace to public health.

  6. Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae: critical adhesins with unrealized vaccine potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erich V; Cotter, Peggy A

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is transmitted exclusively from human to human. While vaccination against B. pertussis has been successful, replacement of the whole cell vaccine with an acellular component vaccine has correlated with reemergence of the disease, especially in adolescents and infants. Based on their presumed importance in mediating adherence to host tissues, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbria (FIM) were selected as components of most acellular pertussis vaccines. In this review, we describe the biogenesis of FHA and FIM, recent data that show that these factors do, in fact, play critical roles in adherence to respiratory epithelium, and evidence that they also contribute to persistence in the lower respiratory tract by modulating the host immune response. We also discuss shortcomings of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and the possibility that FHA and FIM could serve as effective protective antigens in next-generation vaccines. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer.

  8. Stochastic acidification, activation of hemagglutinin and escape of influenza viruses from an endosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Thibault; Sieben, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Herrmann, Andreas; Holcman, David

    2017-06-01

    Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. It is still unclear how the interplay between acidification and HA conformation changes affects the kinetics of the viral endosomal escape. We develop here a stochastic model to estimate the change of conformation of HAs inside the endosome nanodomain. Using a Markov process, we model the arrival of protons to HA binding sites and compute the kinetics of their accumulation. We compute the Mean First Passage Time (MFPT) of the number of HA bound sites to a threshold, which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH concentration. The present analysis reveals that HA proton binding sites possess a high chemical barrier, ensuring a stability of the spike protein at sub-acidic pH. We predict that activating more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses from early endosomes

  9. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittle, James R.R.; Zhang, Ruijun; Khurana, Surender; King, Lisa R.; Manischewitz, Jody; Golding, Hana; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (Novartis); (US-FDA); (Duke)

    2011-09-20

    Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted single plasma cells, coming from a subject immunized with the 2007 trivalent influenza vaccine. The crystal structure of a complex of the hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 strain A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 with the Fab of CH65 shows that the tip of the CH65 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) inserts into the receptor binding pocket on HA1, mimicking in many respects the interaction of the physiological receptor, sialic acid. CH65 neutralizes infectivity of 30 out of 36 H1N1 strains tested. The resistant strains have a single-residue insertion near the rim of the sialic-acid pocket. We conclude that broad neutralization of influenza virus can be achieved by antibodies with contacts that mimic those of the receptor.

  10. Peptide sharing between influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin and human axon guidance proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, Guglielmo; Capone, Giovanni; Kanduc, Darja

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that maternal microbial infections may cause fetal neurodevelopmental disorders, potentially increasing susceptibility to heavy psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, autism, pervasive developmental disorders, bipolar disorders, psychosis, epilepsy, language and speech disorders, and cognitive impairment in adult offspring. However, the molecular pathomechanisms underlying such a relationship are not clear. Here we analyze the potential role of the maternal immune response to viral infection in determining fetal brain injuries that increase the risk of neurological disorders in the adult. We use influenza infection as a disease model and human axon guidance pathway, a key process in the formation of neural network during midgestation, as a potential fetal target of immune insults. Specifically, we examined influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA), an antigenic viral protein, for amino acid sequence similarity to a random library of 188 axon guidance proteins. We obtain the results that (1) contrary to any theoretical expectations, 45 viral pentapeptide matches are distributed throughout a subset of 36 guidance molecules; (2) in 24 guidance proteins, the peptide sharing with HA antigen involves already experimentally validated influenza HA epitopes; and (3) most of the axon guidance vs HA peptide overlap is conserved among influenza A viral strains and subsets. Taken together, our data indicate that immune cross-reactivity between influenza HA and axon guidance molecules is possible and may well represent a pathologic mechanism capable of determining neurodevelopmental disruption in the fetus.

  11. Influenza-virus membrane fusion by cooperative fold-back of stochastically induced hemagglutinin intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Choi, Jason L; Whelan, Sean P; van Oijen, Antoine M; Harrison, Stephen C

    2013-02-19

    Influenza virus penetrates cells by fusion of viral and endosomal membranes catalyzed by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Structures of the initial and final states of the HA trimer define the fusion endpoints, but do not specify intermediates. We have characterized these transitions by analyzing low-pH-induced fusion kinetics of individual virions and validated the analysis by computer simulation. We detect initial engagement with the target membrane of fusion peptides from independently triggered HAs within the larger virus-target contact patch; fusion then requires engagement of three or four neighboring HA trimers. Effects of mutations in HA indicate that withdrawal of the fusion peptide from a pocket in the pre-fusion trimer is rate-limiting for both events, but the requirement for cooperative action of several HAs to bring the fusing membranes together leads to a long-lived intermediate state for single, extended HA trimers. This intermediate is thus a fundamental aspect of the fusion mechanism. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00333.001.

  12. Modulation of NKp30- and NKp46-mediated natural killer cell responses by poxviral hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jarahian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are an important element in the immune defense against the orthopox family members vaccinia virus (VV and ectromelia virus (ECTV. NK cells are regulated through inhibitory and activating signaling receptors, the latter involving NKG2D and the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR, NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30. Here we report that VV infection results in an upregulation of ligand structures for NKp30 and NKp46 on infected cells, whereas the binding of NKp44 and NKG2D was not significantly affected. Likewise, infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV, the mousepox agent, enhanced binding of NKp30 and, to a lesser extent, NKp46. The hemagglutinin (HA molecules from VV and ECTV, which are known virulence factors, were identified as novel ligands for NKp30 and NKp46. Using NK cells with selectively silenced NCR expression and NCR-CD3ζ reporter cells, we observed that HA present on the surface of VV-infected cells, or in the form of recombinant soluble protein, was able to block NKp30-triggered activation, whereas it stimulated the activation through NKp46. The net effect of this complex influence on NK cell activity resulted in a decreased NK lysis susceptibility of infected cells at late time points of VV infection when HA was expression was pronounced. We conclude that poxviral HA represents a conserved ligand of NCR, exerting a novel immune escape mechanism through its blocking effect on NKp30-mediated activation at a late stage of infection.

  13. DC-SIGN and Influenza Hemagglutinin Dynamics in Plasma Membrane Microdomains Are Markedly Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Michelle S.; Neumann, Aaron K.; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Feng; Gratton, Enrico; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Thompson, Nancy L.; Jacobson, Ken

    2011-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a Ca2+-dependent transmembrane lectin, is found assembled in microdomains on the plasma membranes of dendritic cells. These microdomains bind a large variety of pathogens and facilitate their uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. In this study, DC-SIGN dynamics in microdomains were explored with several fluorescence microscopy methods and compared with dynamics for influenza hemagglutinin (HA), which is also found in plasma membrane microdomains. Fluorescence imaging indicated that DC-SIGN microdomains may contain other C-type lectins and that the DC-SIGN cytoplasmic region is not required for microdomain formation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that neither full-length nor cytoplasmically truncated DC-SIGN in microdomains appreciably exchanged with like molecules in other microdomains and the membrane surround, whereas HA in microdomains exchanged almost completely. Line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy indicated an essentially undetectable lateral mobility for DC-SIGN but an appreciable mobility for HA within their respective domains. Single-particle tracking with defined-valency quantum dots confirmed that HA has significant mobility within microdomains, whereas DC-SIGN does not. By contrast, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated that inner leaflet lipids are able to move through DC-SIGN microdomains. The surprising stability of DC-SIGN microdomains may reflect structural features that enhance pathogen uptake either by providing high-avidity platforms and/or by protecting against rapid microdomain endocytosis. PMID:21641311

  14. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Memczak

    Full Text Available Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  15. Modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvia Abramson

    Full Text Available Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection.Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells.These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.

  16. Computational Docking of Antibody-Antigen Complexes, Opportunities and Pitfalls Illustrated by Influenza Hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Pedotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies play an increasingly important role in both basic research and the pharmaceutical industry. Since their efficiency depends, in ultimate analysis, on their atomic interactions with an antigen, studying such interactions is important to understand how they function and, in the long run, to design new molecules with desired properties. Computational docking, the process of predicting the conformation of a complex from its separated components, is emerging as a fast and affordable technique for the structural characterization of antibody-antigen complexes. In this manuscript, we first describe the different computational strategies for the modeling of antibodies and docking of their complexes, and then predict the binding of two antibodies to the stalk region of influenza hemagglutinin, an important pharmaceutical target. The purpose is two-fold: on a general note, we want to illustrate the advantages and pitfalls of computational docking with a practical example, using different approaches and comparing the results to known experimental structures. On a more specific note, we want to assess if docking can be successful in characterizing the binding to the same influenza epitope of other antibodies with unknown structure, which has practical relevance for pharmaceutical and biological research. The paper clearly shows that some of the computational docking predictions can be very accurate, but the algorithm often fails to discriminate them from inaccurate solutions. It is of paramount importance, therefore, to use rapidly obtained experimental data to validate the computational results.

  17. Mouse-protecting and histamine-sensitizing activities of pertussigen and fimbrial hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J J; Arai, H; Cole, R L

    1981-01-01

    We compared the protective activities of fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertussigen and their respective antibodies in mice infected intracerebrally with Bordetella pertussis. We found that mice were protected by a 1.7-microgram/mouse dose of pertussigen which was free of detectable FHA and was detoxified by treatment with glutaraldehyde. A pertussigen preparation made from cells grown in shake cultures that did not contain demonstrable FHA protected mice at a dose of 1.4 microgram/mouse. FHA at a dose of 10 microgram/mouse protected mice from intracerebral infection, but it also sensitized mice to histamine at a dose of 2 micrograms/mouse, which indicated that it was contaminated with pertussigen. When FHA was obtained free of demonstrable pertussigen, it failed to sensitize mice to histamine at a dose of 30 micrograms/mouse and to protect mice from infection at a dose of 12 micrograms/mouse (largest doses tested). Passive protection tests with antisera known to contain antibodies to pertussigen protected mice from intracerebral infection, whereas sera lacking anti-pertussigen antibodies but containing high concentrations of anti-FHA antibodies did not protect mice. The most important antigen for the immunization of mice against intracerebral infection with B. pertussis appears to be pertussigen. Images PMID:6260681

  18. Prediction of common epitopes on hemagglutinin of the influenza A virus (H1 subtype).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Xie, Xin; Li, Huijin; Zhao, Penghua; Zhao, Xiangrong; Sun, Jingying; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Hu, Qiaoxia; Hu, Jun; Li, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Influenza A virus infection is a persistent threat to public health worldwide due to hemagglutinin (HA) variation. Current vaccines against influenza A virus provide immunity to viral isolates similar to vaccine strains. Antibodies against common epitopes provide immunity to diverse influenza virus strains and protect against future pandemic influenza. Therefore, it is vital to analyze common HA antigenic epitopes of influenza virus. In this study, 14 strains of monoclonal antibodies with high sensitivity to common epitopes of influenza virus antigens identified in our previous study were selected as the tool to predict common HA epitopes. The common HA antigenic epitopes were divided into four categories by ELISA blocking experiments, and separately, into three categories according to the preliminary results of computer simulation. Comparison between the results of computer simulations and ELISA blocking experiments indicated that at least two classes of common epitopes are present in influenza virus HA. This study provides experimental data for improving the prediction of HA epitopes of influenza virus (H1 subtype) and the development of a potential universal vaccine as well as a novel approach for the prediction of epitopes on other pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational design of trimeric influenza-neutralizing proteins targeting the hemagglutinin receptor binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bernard, Steffen M.; La, David; Bohn, Alan J.; Lee, Peter S.; Anderson, Caitlin E.; Nieusma, Travis; Holstein, Carly A.; Garcia, Natalie K.; Hooper, Kathryn A.; Ravichandran, Rashmi; Nelson, Jorgen W.; Sheffler, William; Bloom, Jesse D.; Lee, Kelly K.; Ward, Andrew B.; Yager, Paul; Fuller, Deborah H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Baker , David (UWASH); (Scripps); (FHCRC)

    2017-06-12

    Many viral surface glycoproteins and cell surface receptors are homo-oligomers1, 2, 3, 4, and thus can potentially be targeted by geometrically matched homo-oligomers that engage all subunits simultaneously to attain high avidity and/or lock subunits together. The adaptive immune system cannot generally employ this strategy since the individual antibody binding sites are not arranged with appropriate geometry to simultaneously engage multiple sites in a single target homo-oligomer. We describe a general strategy for the computational design of homo-oligomeric protein assemblies with binding functionality precisely matched to homo-oligomeric target sites5, 6, 7, 8. In the first step, a small protein is designed that binds a single site on the target. In the second step, the designed protein is assembled into a homo-oligomer such that the designed binding sites are aligned with the target sites. We use this approach to design high-avidity trimeric proteins that bind influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) at its conserved receptor binding site. The designed trimers can both capture and detect HA in a paper-based diagnostic format, neutralizes influenza in cell culture, and completely protects mice when given as a single dose 24 h before or after challenge with influenza.

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. XIII. ACS/WFC Parallel-Field Catalogues★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Aparicio, A.; Piotto, G.; Milone, A. P.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Cunial, A.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters, 110 parallel fields were observed with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys, in the outskirts of 48 globular clusters, plus the open cluster NGC 6791. Totalling about 0.3 square degrees of observed sky, this is the largest homogeneous Hubble Space Telescope photometric survey of Galalctic globular clusters outskirts to date. In particular, two distinct pointings have been obtained for each target on average, all centred at about 6.5 arcmin from the cluster centre, thus covering a mean area of about 23 arcmin2 for each globular cluster. For each field, at least one exposure in both F475W and F814W filters was collected. In this work, we publicly release the astrometric and photometric catalogues and the astrometrised atlases for each of these fields.

  1. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head is typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. ... hard time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to ...

  3. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002980.htm Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  6. Newborn head molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn cranial deformation; Molding of the newborn's head; Neonatal care - head molding ... The bones of a newborn baby's skull are soft and flexible, with gaps between the plates of bone. The spaces between the bony plates of ...

  7. Black Holes in Elliptical and Spiral Galaxies and in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Supermassive black holes have been discovered at the centers of galaxies, and also in globular clusters. The data shows correlations between the black hole mass and the elliptical galaxy mass or globular cluster mass. It is shown that this correlation is accurately predicted by a theory of gravity which includes the new dynamics of self-interacting space. In spiral galaxies this dynamics is shown to explain the so-called “dark matter” rotation-curve anomaly, and also explains the Earth based bore-hole g anomaly data. Together these effects imply that the strength of the self-interaction dynamics is determined by the fine structure constant. This has major implications for fundamental physics and cosmology.

  8. A detached stellar-mass black hole candidate in the globular cluster NGC 3201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesers, Benjamin; Dreizler, Stefan; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Anglada Escudé, Guillem; Brinchmann, Jarle; Carollo, C. Marcella; Roth, Martin M.; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2018-03-01

    As part of our massive spectroscopic survey of 25 Galactic globular clusters with MUSE, we performed multiple epoch observations of NGC 3201 with the aim of constraining the binary fraction. In this cluster, we found one curious star at the main-sequence turn-off with radial velocity variations of the order of 100 km s- 1, indicating the membership to a binary system with an unseen component since no other variations appear in the spectra. Using an adapted variant of the generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we could calculate the orbital parameters and found the companion to be a detached stellar-mass black hole with a minimum mass of 4.36 ± 0.41 M⊙. The result is an important constraint for binary and black hole evolution models in globular clusters as well as in the context of gravitational wave sources.

  9. Blue Stragglers and Other Stars of Mass Consumption in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panurach, Teresa; Leigh, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of globular clusters suggest that collisions between main-sequence (MS) stars happen frequently. Stellar evolution models show that these collision products can be photometrically identified, appearing off the MS locus. These collision products can appear brighter and bluer than the MS turnoff, called “blue stragglers,” or even less massive and redder than the MS. We use proper motion-cleaned photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope of 38 globular clusters to identify candidate collision products. We compare the spectral energy distributions of our candidates to theoretical templates for single and multiple star systems, to constrain the possible presence of a binary companion and test consistency with theoretical stellar evolution models for collision products. For the BSs, we also compare the observed velocities from the proper motion catalog along with mass estimates derived from isochrone-fitting to theoretical predictions for both the collision and binary mass transfer models and find better agreement with the former.

  10. SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR EXPANDING BLAST WAVES DURING THE EARLY EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Cassisi, Santi, E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cmt@iac.es, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF—Astronomical Observatory of Collurania, via M. Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2015-11-20

    Our arguments deal with the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters and show why only a few of the supernovae (SNe) products were retained within globular clusters and only in the most massive cases (M ≥ 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}), while less massive clusters were not contaminated at all by SNe. Here, we show that SN blast waves evolving in a steep density gradient undergo blowout and end up discharging their energy and metals into the medium surrounding the clusters. This inhibits the dispersal and the contamination of the gas left over from a first stellar generation. Only the ejecta from well-centered SNe that evolve into a high-density medium available for a second stellar generation (2SG) in the most massive clusters would be retained. These are likely to mix their products with the remaining gas, eventually leading in these cases to an Fe-contaminated 2SG.

  11. Intrachromosomal exchange aberrations predicted on the basis of globular interphase chromosome model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, S.G.; Eidelman, Yu.A

    2002-07-01

    One of the key questions in understanding mechanisms of chromosome aberration production is how does interphase chromosome structure affect aberration formation. To explore this a modelling approach is presented which combines Monte Carlo simulation of both a particle track and interphase chromosome structure. The structural state of interphase chromosome influences a dose-effect relationship for intrachromosomal exchange aberrations (intrachanges). It is shown that intrachanges are induced frequently by both X rays and a particles if the chromosome is in the condensed globular but not in the decondensed coiled state. Truly simple intra-arm intrachanges induced by X rays are dose squared in coiled chromosomes, but exhibit linear dose dependence in globular chromosomes. Experimental data on interarm intrachanges obtained by dual arm chromosome painting are analysed by means of the technique presented. Results of analysis support the conclusion about the arms proximity of chromosome 1 in human lymphocytes. (author)

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  13. A ground-based proper motion study of 12 nearby globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narloch, W.; Kaluzny, J.; Poleski, R.; Rozyczka, M.; Pych, W.; Thompson, I. B.

    2017-10-01

    We derive relative proper motions of stars in the fields of the globular clusters M12, NGC 6362, M4, M55, M22, NGC 6752, NGC 3201, M30, M10, NGC 362, M5 and 47 Tucanae based on data collected between 1997 and 2015 with the 1-m Swope telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. We determine membership class and membership probability for over 446 000 objects, and show that these are efficient methods for separating field stars from members of the cluster. In particular, membership probabilities of variable stars and blue/yellow/red stragglers are determined. Finally, we find absolute proper motions for six globular clusters from our sample: M55, NGC 3201, M10, NGC 362, M5 and 47 Tuc. An electronic catalogue of the derived proper motions is publicly available via the internet.

  14. From the Ultraviolet to the Infrared: The Stellar Population of the Globular Cluster M70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Sabrina; Zurek, David; Leigh, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Because of their dense stellar environments, globular clusters are an important place for investigating stellar evolution and stellar dynamics, but there is much yet to learn about their formation. In this project, we considered the globular cluster NGC 6681 (M70) with the goal of characterizing its stellar population. We used archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. The data was drawn from thirteen different filters ranging from the far-UV to the near infrared. Using this range of filters, we constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for each of the sources in our field of view. We then generated color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) in a variety of wavelengths which we used to identify a number of sources that fell outside the regions occupied by normal stars. We determined the likely stellar type of several of these unusual sources using the CMDs and by comparing their SEDs to a number of synthesized SEDs.

  15. Production of recycled pulsars in globular clusters via two-body tidal capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, R; Rappaport, S.

    1992-01-01

    The numbers of binary systems containing a neutron star that are formed in the cores of globular clusters via two-body tidal capture are investigated. The subsequent evolution of the resulting binary systems is examined. Monte Carlo techniques are employed to trace the histories of many neutron stars in the core of a model globular cluster. Various scenarios for mass stripping during capture and orbital circularization, and the effects of magnetic braking on the circularized orbits are explored. Calculations are carried out for two model clusters: 47 Tuc and Omega Cen. Distributions of orbital periods for newly formed binaries containing a neutron star in orbit with either a main-sequence star or a giant are presented. Each binary is followed until contact between the captured star and the neutron star is established. It is argued that these systems should be regarded as potential progenitors of 'recycled' pulsars.

  16. The Case of the Missing Cyanogen-rich AGB Stars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The handful of available observations of AGB stars in Galactic Globular Clusters suggest that the GC AGB populations are dominated by cyanogen-weak stars (eg. Norris et al. 1981; Sneden et al. 2000). This contrasts strongly with the distributions on the RGB (and other) populations, which generall......, since it is based on very small AGB sample sizes. To test whether this problem really exists we have carried out an observational campaign targeting AGB stars in GCs. Our preliminary results indicate there is indeed a lack of CN-strong AGB stars.......The handful of available observations of AGB stars in Galactic Globular Clusters suggest that the GC AGB populations are dominated by cyanogen-weak stars (eg. Norris et al. 1981; Sneden et al. 2000). This contrasts strongly with the distributions on the RGB (and other) populations, which generally...

  17. Characterization of the sialic acid binding activity of influenza A viruses using soluble variants of the H7 and H9 hemagglutinins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Sauer

    Full Text Available Binding of influenza viruses to target cells is mediated by the viral surface protein hemagglutinin. To determine the presence of binding sites for influenza A viruses on cells and tissues, soluble hemagglutinins of the H7 and H9 subtype were generated by connecting the hemagglutinin ectodomain to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G (H7Fc and H9Fc. Both chimeric proteins bound to different cells and tissues in a sialic acid-dependent manner. Pronounced differences were observed between H7Fc and H9Fc, in the binding both to different mammalian and avian cultured cells and to cryosections of the respiratory epithelium of different virus host species (turkey, chicken and pig. Binding of the soluble hemagglutinins was similar to the binding of virus particles, but showed differences in the binding pattern when compared to two sialic acid-specific plant lectins. These findings were substantiated by a comparative glycan array analysis revealing a very narrow recognition of sialoglycoconjugates by the plant lectins that does not reflect the glycan structures preferentially recognized by H7Fc and H9Fc. Thus, soluble hemagglutinins may serve as sialic acid-specific lectins and are a more reliable indicator of the presence of binding sites for influenza virus HA than the commonly used plant lectins.

  18. Hydrophobin fusion of an influenza virus hemagglutinin allows high transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, easy purification and immune response with neutralizing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Jacquet

    Full Text Available The expression of recombinant hemagglutinin in plants is a promising alternative to the current egg-based production system for the influenza vaccines. Protein-stabilizing fusion partners have been developed to overcome the low production yields and the high downstream process costs associated with the plant expression system. In this context, we tested the fusion of hydrophobin I to the hemagglutinin ectodomain of the influenza A (H1N1pdm09 virus controlled by the hybrid En2PMA4 transcriptional promoter to rapidly produce high levels of recombinant antigen by transient expression in agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The fusion increased the expression level by a factor of ∼ 2.5 compared to the unfused protein allowing a high accumulation level of 8.6% of the total soluble proteins. Hemagglutinin was located in ER-derived protein bodies and was successfully purified by combining an aqueous-two phase partition system and a salting out step. Hydrophobin interactions allowed the formation of high molecular weight hemagglutinin structures, while unfused proteins were produced as monomers. Purified protein was shown to be biologically active and to induce neutralizing antibodies after mice immunization. Hydrophobin fusion to influenza hemagglutinin might therefore be a promising approach for rapid, easy, and low cost production of seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines in plants.

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography ( ...

  1. A proposito di uno scarabeo da Colle del Forno: alcune considerazioni sulla produzione di stile globulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Giovanelli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’esemplare di scarabeo dalla necropoli di Colle del Forno presentato in questa sede fornisce lo spunto per alcune brevissime considerazioni in merito alla produzione di stile globulare anche a fronte del recente lavoro di sintesi di U. Hannson sul tema che costituisce ad oggi un utilissimo aggiornamento sulle questioni stilistiche, formali, iconografiche, sugli aspetti produttivi nonché una discreta integrazione del corpus che era già stato apprestato da Peter Zazoff.

  2. Evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in the globular cluster NGC 6624

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B. B. P.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Cognard, I.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Theureau, G.; Desvignes, G.

    2017-06-01

    PSR B1820-30A is located in the globular cluster NGC 6624 and is the closest known pulsar to the centre of any globular cluster. We present more than 25 yr of high-precision timing observations of this millisecond pulsar and obtain four rotational frequency time derivative measurements. Modelling these higher order derivatives as being due to orbital motion, we find solutions that indicate the pulsar is in either a low-eccentricity (0.33 ≲ e ≲ 0.4) smaller orbit with a low-mass companion (such as a main-sequence star, white dwarf, neutron star or stellar mass black hole) or a high-eccentricity (e ≳ 0.9) larger orbit with a massive companion. The cluster mass properties and the observed properties of 4U 1820-30 and the other pulsars in the cluster argue against the low-eccentricity possibility. The high-eccentricity solution reveals that the pulsar is most likely orbiting around an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass >7500 M⊙ located at the cluster centre. A gravitational model for the globular cluster, which includes such a central BH, predicts an acceleration that is commensurate with that measured for the pulsar. It further predicts that the model-dependent minimum mass of the IMBH is ˜60 000 M⊙. Accounting for the associated contribution to the observed period derivative indicates that the γ-ray efficiency of the pulsar should be between 0.08 and 0.2. Our results suggest that other globular clusters may also contain central BHs and they may be revealed by the study of new pulsars found sufficiently close to their centres.

  3. AS1411 Aptamer-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer G2-Iohexol Selective Nano-Theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadzadeh, Pardis; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Ghoreishi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Molecular theranostics is of the utmost interest for diagnosis as well as treatment of different malignancies. In the present study, anionic linear globular dendrimer G2 is employed as a suitable carrier for delivery and AS1411 aptamer is exploited as the targeting agent to carry Iohexol specifically to the human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Dendrimer G2 was prepared and conjugation of dendrimer and aptamer was carried out thereafter. Based on the data yielded by AFM, morphology of smooth and...

  4. NGC 6273: Towards Defining A New Class of Galactic Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, Robert Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario L.; Ira Bailey, John; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of observations have found that several Galactic globular clusters exhibit abundance dispersions beyond the well-known light element (anti-)correlations. These clusters tend to be very massive, have >0.1 dex intrinsic metallicity dispersions, have complex sub-giant branch morphologies, and have correlated [Fe/H] and s-process element enhancements. Interestingly, nearly all of these clusters discovered so far have [Fe/H]~-1.7. In this context, we have examined the chemical composition of 18 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the massive, metal-poor Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 using high signal-to-noise, high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph mounted on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that the cluster exhibits a metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30 and is composed of two dominant populations separated in [Fe/H] and [La/Fe] abundance. The increase in [La/Eu] as a function of [La/H] suggests that the increase in [La/Fe] with [Fe/H] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. The most metal-rich star in our sample is not strongly La-enhanced, but is α-poor and may belong to a third "anomalous" stellar population. The two dominant populations exhibit the same [Na/Fe]-[Al/Fe] correlation found in other "normal" globular clusters. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins ω Centauri, M 22, M 2, and NGC 5286 as a possible new class of Galactic globular clusters.

  5. A Deep X-ray Study of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, David

    2015-08-01

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual binary systems, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs), with formation rates per unit mass exceeding those in the Galactic disk by orders of magnitude. The high stellar densities in globular clusters trigger various dynamical interactions: exchange encounters, direct collisions, destruction of binaries, and tidal capture. This binary population is, in turn, critical to the stabilization of globular clusters against gravitational collapse; the long-term stability of a cluster is thought to depend on tapping into the gravitational binding energy of such close binaries.We have also learned that not all X-ray sources in a globular cluster are dynamically formed. Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of low-density clusters have shown that the magnetically active main-sequence binaries in those clusters are largely primordial, but few clusters have been observed deeply enough in X-rays to uncover a substantial fraction of these binaries.We report on the results of deep Chandra observations of M4 that were motivated, in part, to uncover a nearly complete census of its active binaries. These observations reach X-ray luminosities below 1029 erg/s, a sensitivity that should detect ~90% of the active main-sequence binary population. We detect ~100 X-ray sources within the half-light radius of M4 and characterize their nature by investigating their optical counterparts (or lack thereof) in deep Hubble Space Telescope observations. We compare the populations of X-ray sources in M4 to other well-studied clusters.

  6. The ribbon of hydrogen bonds in globular proteins. IV. The example of the papain family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David; Peters, Jane

    2004-02-05

    A study of the role of the hydrogen-bonding side chains in the ribbon of hydrogen bonds in globular proteins, using the papain family as an example, suggests that these side chains may be divided into three categories depending on their position in the molecule. In the first category, they form part of the local ribbon, in the second they form part of the ribbon at a site remote along the main chain, and in the third they play no role in the formation of the ribbon. The second case is particularly interesting because it provides a natural mechanism for the formation of the tertiary structure of the globular proteins. The results suggest that the robustness of the globular proteins towards mutations arises from the fact that many mutations that involve hydrogen-bonding side chains either leave the hydrogen bonding of the ribbon essentially unchanged or their hydrogen bonding plays no part in the formation of the ribbon in the first place. The results show that it is possible to obtain the ribbon of hydrogen bonds for a family of proteins whose data set's are of intermediate quality by studying the ribbons of several members of such a family and then taking an average over the different partial ribbons to create a standard ribbon of hydrogen bonds for the family as a whole. This method is used here to derive the standard ribbon for the papain family with papain itself, actinidin, and human liver cathepsin B as the representatives of the family. All three members of the family fit the standard ribbon with an accuracy of 85-91%. This result opens up the use of this technique for the study of a large number of globular proteins whose recorded data sets are of intermediate quality. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cataclysmic variables in Globular clusters: First results on the analysis of the MOCCA simulations database

    OpenAIRE

    Belloni, D.; Giersz, M.; A Askar; Hypki, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this first investigation of the MOCCA database with respect to cataclysmic variables, we found that for models with Kroupa initial distributions, considering the standard value of the efficiency of the common-envelope phase adopted in BSE, no single cataclysmic variable was formed only via binary stellar evolution, i. e., in order to form them, strong dynamical interactions have to take place. Our results also indicate that the population of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters are, ...

  8. Detecting the effect of Globular Cluster impacts on the disk of the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Putte, D. Vande; Cropper, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The crossing of the Galactic disk by a Globular Cluster could produce star formation due to gravitational focussing or compression of disk material. We report on simulations of the effect on disk material which reveal that the crossing can sometimes cause local gravitational focussing of disk material. We also present the salient points of a little-known paper by Levy (2000), that shows that strong compression can result from the shock wave generated by GC disk crossing. The main thrust of ou...

  9. La distribución multimodal de cúmulos globulares en la galaxia NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, J. C.; Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una discusión de las características del diagrama de dos colores para un muestreo de 400 cúmulos globulares asociados con NGC 1399. Los resultados indican la presencia de, por lo menos, tres familias de cúmulos. La naturaleza de una cuarta componente, muy azul, no es clara aunque podría tratarse de cúmulos ``sueltos" asociados con el sistema de Fornax.

  10. Charge State of the Globular Histone Core Controls Stability of the Nucleosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenley, Andrew T.; Adams, David A.; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2010-01-01

    Presented here is a quantitative model of the wrapping and unwrapping of the DNA around the histone core of the nucleosome that suggests a mechanism by which this transition can be controlled: alteration of the charge state of the globular histone core. The mechanism is relevant to several classes of posttranslational modifications such as histone acetylation and phosphorylation; several specific scenarios consistent with recent in vivo experiments are considered. The model integrates a description based on an idealized geometry with one based on the atomistic structure of the nucleosome, and the model consistently accounts for both the electrostatic and nonelectrostatic contributions to the nucleosome free energy. Under physiological conditions, isolated nucleosomes are predicted to be very stable (38 ± 7 kcal/mol). However, a decrease in the charge of the globular histone core by one unit charge, for example due to acetylation of a single lysine residue, can lead to a significant decrease in the strength of association with its DNA. In contrast to the globular histone core, comparable changes in the charge state of the histone tail regions have relatively little effect on the nucleosome's stability. The combination of high stability and sensitivity explains how the nucleosome is able to satisfy the seemingly contradictory requirements for thermodynamic stability while allowing quick access to its DNA informational content when needed by specific cellular processes such as transcription. PMID:20816070

  11. The Celestial Buffet: multiple populations and globular cluster formation in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Aaron J.; Wadsley, James; Couchman, H. M. P.; Sills, Alison

    2014-04-01

    We present a framework that explains the commonly observed variation in light element abundances in globular clusters. If globular clusters form in the centres of dwarf galaxies, they will be pumped on to larger orbits as star formation progresses. The potential well will only retain the moderate velocity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ejecta, the expected source of enrichment, but not supernova ejecta. There is no need to increase the initial cluster mass, a requirement of self-enrichment scenarios, as all the stars within the dwarf can contribute. As the clusters move through the dwarf centre they sweep up a mix of AGB ejecta and in-falling pristine gas to form a second generation of stars. The specific mix will vary in time and is thus able to explain the spread in second generation abundances observed in different clusters. The globular clusters will survive to the present day or be stripped as part of the hierarchical merging process of larger galaxies. We illustrate how this process may operate using a high-resolution simulation of a dwarf galaxy at high redshift.

  12. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Brito, Alan Alves; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz

    2018-02-01

    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high resolution and high quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  13. Hydrophobicity diversity in globular and nonglobular proteins measured with the Gini index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero

    2017-12-01

    Amino acids and their properties are variably distributed in proteins and different compositions determine all protein features, ranging from solubility to stability and functionality. Gini index, a tool to estimate distribution uniformity, is widely used in macroeconomics and has numerous statistical applications. Here, Gini index is used to analyze the distribution of hydrophobicity in proteins and to compare hydrophobicity distribution in globular and intrinsically disordered proteins. Based on the analysis of carefully selected high-quality data sets of proteins extracted from the Protein Data Bank (http://www.rcsb.org) and from the DisProt database (http://www.disprot.org/), it is observed that hydrophobicity is distributed in a more diverse way in intrinsically disordered proteins than in folded and soluble globular proteins. This correlates with the observation that the amino acid composition deviates from the uniformity (estimate with the Shannon and the Gini-Simpson indices) more in intrinsically disordered proteins than in globular and soluble proteins. Although statistical tools tike the Gini index have received little attention in molecular biology, these results show that they allow one to estimate sequence diversity and that they are useful to delineate trends that can hardly be described, otherwise, in simple and concise ways. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  15. High pressure effects on the structural functionality of condensed globular-protein matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Kasapis, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    High pressure technology is the outcome of consumer demand for better quality control of processed foods. There is great potential to apply HPP to condensed systems of globular proteins for the generation of industry-relevant biomaterials with advanced techno- and biofunctionality. To this end, research demonstrates that application of high hydrostatic pressure generates a coherent structure and preserves the native conformation in condensed globular proteins, which is an entirely unexpected but interesting outcome on both scientific and technological grounds. In microbiological challenge tests, high pressure at conventional commercial conditions, demonstrated to effectively reduce the concentration of typical Gram negative or Gram positive foodborne pathogens, and proteolytic enzymes in high-solid protein samples. This may have industrial significance in relation to the formulation and stabilisation of "functional food" products as well as in protein ingredients and concentrates by replacing spray dried powders with condensed HPP-treated pastes that maintain structure and bioactivity. Fundamental concepts and structural functionality of condensed matrices of globular proteins are the primary interest in this mini-review, which may lead to opportunities for industrial exploitation, but earlier work on low-solid systems is also summarised presently to put recent developments in context of this rapidly growing field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Individual globular domains and domain unfolding visualized in overstretched titin molecules with atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Mártonfalvi

    Full Text Available Titin is a giant elastomeric protein responsible for the generation of passive muscle force. Mechanical force unfolds titin's globular domains, but the exact structure of the overstretched titin molecule is not known. Here we analyzed, by using high-resolution atomic force microscopy, the structure of titin molecules overstretched with receding meniscus. The axial contour of the molecules was interrupted by topographical gaps with a mean width of 27.7 nm that corresponds well to the length of an unfolded globular (immunoglobulin and fibronectin domain. The wide gap-width distribution suggests, however, that additional mechanisms such as partial domain unfolding and the unfolding of neighboring domain multimers may also be present. In the folded regions we resolved globules with an average spacing of 5.9 nm, which is consistent with a titin chain composed globular domains with extended interdomain linker regions. Topographical analysis allowed us to allocate the most distal unfolded titin region to the kinase domain, suggesting that this domain systematically unfolds when the molecule is exposed to overstretching forces. The observations support the prediction that upon the action of stretching forces the N-terminal ß-sheet of the titin kinase unfolds, thus exposing the enzyme's ATP-binding site and hence contributing to the molecule's mechanosensory function.

  17. Quantitative characterization of glycan-receptor binding of H9N2 influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunya Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Avian influenza subtypes such as H5, H7 and H9 are yet to adapt to the human host so as to establish airborne transmission between humans. However, lab-generated reassorted viruses possessing hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes from an avian H9 isolate and other genes from a human-adapted (H3 or H1 subtype acquired two amino acid changes in HA and a single amino acid change in NA that confer respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets. We previously demonstrated for human-adapted H1, H2 and H3 subtypes that quantitative binding affinity of their HA to α2→6 sialylated glycan receptors correlates with respiratory droplet transmissibility of the virus in ferrets. Such a relationship remains to be established for H9 HA. In this study, we performed a quantitative biochemical characterization of glycan receptor binding properties of wild-type and mutant forms of representative H9 HAs that were previously used in context of reassorted viruses in ferret transmission studies. We demonstrate here that distinct molecular interactions in the glycan receptor-binding site of different H9 HAs affect the glycan-binding specificity and affinity. Further we show that α2→6 glycan receptor-binding affinity of a mutant H9 HA carrying Thr-189→Ala amino acid change correlates with the respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets conferred by this change. Our findings contribute to a framework for monitoring the evolution of H9 HA by understanding effects of molecular changes in HA on glycan receptor-binding properties.

  18. Impact of host cell line adaptation on quasispecies composition and glycosylation of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Verena Roedig

    Full Text Available The genome of influenza A viruses is constantly changing (genetic drift resulting in small, gradual changes in viral proteins. Alterations within antibody recognition sites of the viral membrane glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA result in an antigenetic drift, which requires the seasonal update of human influenza virus vaccines. Generally, virus adaptation is necessary to obtain sufficiently high virus yields in cell culture-derived vaccine manufacturing. In this study detailed HA N-glycosylation pattern analysis was combined with in-depth pyrosequencing analysis of the virus genomic RNA. Forward and backward adaptation from Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells to African green monkey kidney (Vero cells was investigated for two closely related influenza A virus PR/8/34 (H1N1 strains: from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC or the Robert Koch Institute (RKI. Furthermore, stability of HA N-glycosylation patterns over ten consecutive passages and different harvest time points is demonstrated. Adaptation to Vero cells finally allowed efficient influenza A virus replication in Vero cells. In contrast, during back-adaptation the virus replicated well from the very beginning. HA N-glycosylation patterns were cell line dependent and stabilized fast within one (NIBSC-derived virus or two (RKI-derived virus successive passages during adaptation processes. However, during adaptation new virus variants were detected. These variants carried "rescue" mutations on the genomic level within the HA stem region, which result in amino acid substitutions. These substitutions finally allowed sufficient virus replication in the new host system. According to adaptation pressure the composition of the virus populations varied. In Vero cells a selection for "rescue" variants was characteristic. After back-adaptation to MDCK cells some variants persisted at indifferent frequencies, others slowly diminished and even

  19. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Stevens, James; Schultz-Cherry, S.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential.

    IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.

  20. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous Targeting of Multiple Hemagglutinins to APCs for Induction of Broad Immunity against Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ane Marie; Baranowska-Hustad, Marta; Braathen, Ranveig; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne

    2018-02-02

    There is a need for vaccines that can confer broad immunity against highly diverse pathogens, such as influenza. The efficacy of conventional influenza vaccines is dependent on accurate matching of vaccines to circulating strains, but slow and limited production capacities increase the probability of vaccine mismatches. In contrast, DNA vaccination allows for rapid production of vaccines encoding novel influenza Ags. The efficacy of DNA vaccination is greatly improved if the DNA-encoded vaccine proteins target APCs. In this study, we have used hemagglutinin (HA) genes from each of six group 1 influenza viruses (H5, H6, H8, H9, H11, and H13), and inserted these into a DNA vaccine format that induces delivery of the HA protein Ags to MHC class II molecules on APCs. Each of the targeted DNA vaccines induced high titers of strain-specific anti-HA Abs. Importantly, when the six HA vaccines were mixed and injected simultaneously, the strain-specific Ab titers were maintained. In addition, the vaccine mixture induced Abs that cross-reacted with strains not included in the vaccine mixture (H1) and could protect mice against a heterosubtypic challenge with the H1 viruses A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) and A/California/07/2009 (H1N1). The data suggest that vaccination with a mixture of HAs could be useful for induction of strain-specific immunity against strains represented in the mixture and, in addition, confer some degree of cross-protection against unrelated influenza strains. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Identification of amino acid residues involved in hemin binding in Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q B; Yu, F Y; Sun, L; Zhang, Q X; Lin, M; Geng, X Y; Sun, X N; Li, J L; Liu, Y

    2015-10-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a major etiological agent in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. It produces cysteine proteases (gingipains), including a lysine-specific gingipain and two arginine-specific gingipains. Heme binding and uptake are fundamental to the growth and virulence of P. gingivalis. The recombinant hemagglutinin 2 domain (rHA2) of gingipain binds hemin with high affinity. The aim of the present work was to identify the key residues involved in its hemin-binding activity. A functional rHA2 was expressed and bound to hemin-agarose, and then digested with endopeptidases. The peptides bound to hemin-agarose were identified by mass spectrometry and the amino acids were assessed by mutation and peptide binding inhibition analysis. The DHYAVMISK sequence was identified in peptides derived from both Asp-N and Lys-C endopeptidase digestions of rHA2. A monoclonal antibody, mAb QB, was produced and its epitope was associated with the DGFPGDHYAVMISK peptide within the HA2 domain. Hemin was shown to competitively inhibit the immunoreactivity of rHA2 or the peptide to mAb QB. The peptide DHYAVMISK inhibited hemin-binding activity; although, this inhibition was not seen when the peptide contained the H1001E mutation (DEYAVMISK). Based on these results, we propose that residue His1001 is involved in the hemin-binding mechanism of the P. gingivalis rHA2 and the peptide containing this residue, DHYAVMISK, may be an inhibitor of hemin binding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Chung, Changik; Cyphers, Soreen Y.; Rinaldi, Vera D.; Marcano, Valerie C.; Whittaker, Gary R., E-mail: grw7@cornell.edu

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza HA cleavage activation. • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection. • Comparative analysis of HAI-2 for vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type-1. • Analysis of the activity of HAI-2 in a mouse model of influenza. - Abstract: Influenza virus remains a significant concern to public health, with the continued potential for a high fatality pandemic. Vaccination and antiviral therapeutics are effective measures to circumvent influenza virus infection, however, multiple strains have emerged that are resistant to the antiviral therapeutics currently on the market. With this considered, investigation of alternative antiviral therapeutics is being conducted. One such approach is to inhibit cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is an essential step in the viral replication cycle that permits viral-endosome fusion. Therefore, targeting trypsin-like, host proteases responsible for HA cleavage in vivo may prove to be an effective therapeutic. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2 (HAI-2) is naturally expressed in the respiratory tract and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, some of which have been determined to cleave HA. In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza.

  4. Single hemagglutinin mutations that alter both antigenicity and receptor binding avidity influence influenza virus antigenic clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bostick, David L; Sullivan, Colleen B; Myers, Jaclyn L; Griesemer, Sara B; Stgeorge, Kirsten; Plotkin, Joshua B; Hensley, Scott E

    2013-09-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay is the primary measurement used for identifying antigenically novel influenza virus strains. HAI assays measure the amount of reference sera required to prevent virus binding to red blood cells. Receptor binding avidities of viral strains are not usually taken into account when interpreting these assays. Here, we created antigenic maps of human H3N2 viruses that computationally account for variation in viral receptor binding avidities. These new antigenic maps differ qualitatively from conventional antigenic maps based on HAI measurements alone. We experimentally focused on an antigenic cluster associated with a single N145K hemagglutinin (HA) substitution that occurred between 1992 and 1995. Reverse-genetics experiments demonstrated that the N145K HA mutation increases viral receptor binding avidity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that the N145K HA mutation does not prevent antibody binding; rather, viruses possessing this mutation escape antisera in HAI assays simply by attaching to cells more efficiently. Unexpectedly, we found an asymmetric antigenic effect of the N145K HA mutation. Once H3N2 viruses acquired K145, an epitope involving amino acid 145 became antigenically dominant. Antisera raised against an H3N2 strain possessing K145 had reduced reactivity to H3N2 strains possessing N145. Thus, individual mutations in HA can influence antigenic groupings of strains by altering receptor binding avidity and by changing the dominance of antibody responses. Our results indicate that it will be important to account for variation in viral receptor binding avidity when performing antigenic analyses in order to identify genuine antigenic differences among influenza virus variants.

  5. Epitope dampening monotypic measles virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein results in resistance to cocktail of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J; Tobin, Gregory J; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P; Russell, Stephen J; Nara, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs.

  6. Antiviral activity of stachyflin on influenza A viruses of different hemagglutinin subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yurie; Igarashi, Manabu; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Noshi, Takeshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Ryu; Kida, Hiroshi

    2013-04-16

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses is a possible target for antiviral drugs because of its key roles in the initiation of infection. Although it was found that a natural compound, Stachyflin, inhibited the growth of H1 and H2 but not H3 influenza viruses in MDCK cells, inhibitory activity of the compound has not been assessed against H4-H16 influenza viruses and the precise mechanism of inhibition has not been clarified. Inhibitory activity of Stachyflin against H4-H16 influenza viruses, as well as H1-H3 viruses was examined in MDCK cells. To identify factors responsible for the susceptibility of the viruses to this compound, Stachyflin-resistant viruses were selected in MDCK cells and used for computer docking simulation. It was found that in addition to antiviral activity of Stachyflin against influenza viruses of H1 and H2 subtypes, it inhibited replication of viruses of H5 and H6 subtypes, as well as A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in MDCK cells. Stachyflin also inhibited the virus growth in the lungs of mice infected with A/WSN/1933 (H1N1) and A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2). Substitution of amino acid residues was found on the HA2 subunit of Stachyflin-resistant viruses. Docking simulation indicated that D37, K51, T107, and K121 are responsible for construction of the cavity for the binding of the compound. In addition, 3-dimensional structure of the cavity of the HA of Stachyflin-susceptible virus strains was different from that of insusceptible virus strains. Antiviral activity of Stachyflin was found against A(H1N1)pdm09, H5, and H6 viruses, and identified a potential binding pocket for Stachyflin on the HA. The present results should provide us with useful information for the development of HA inhibitors with more effective and broader spectrum.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  8. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  9. Antibodies to Antigenic Site A of Influenza H7 Hemagglutinin Provide Protection against H7N9 Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Falko Schmeisser; Anupama Vasudevan; Swati Verma; Wei Wang; Esmeralda Alvarado; Carol Weiss; Vajini Atukorale; Clement Meseda; Weir, Jerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying major antigenic and protective epitopes of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) will be important for understanding the antibody response to vaccines developed against the novel influenza H7N9 viruses that emerged in China in 2013. To facilitate antigenic characterization of the H7N9 HA and to develop reagents for evaluation of H7N9 candidate vaccines, we generated a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the HA of A/Shanghai/2/2013 using mammalian cell-derived virus-like particles ...

  10. Development of subtype-specific and heterosubtypic antibodies to the influenza A virus hemagglutinin after primary infection in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Burlington, D B; Wright, P F; van Wyke, K L; Phelan, M A; Mayner, R E; Murphy, B R

    1985-01-01

    Children undergoing primary infection with an H1N1 or H3N2 influenza A virus developed subtype-specific hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies to purified hemagglutinin (HA) of the infecting virus subtype. They also developed lower titered ELISA antibodies to the noninfecting H1 or H3 HA and to H8 (an avian strain) HA. Thus, after primary infection with an influenza A virus, children develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but not hemaggluti...

  11. Vectors based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin induce substantial cross-clade protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are continuing to evolve with a potential threat for an influenza pandemic. So far, the H5N1 influenza viruses have not widely circulated in humans and therefore constitute a high risk for the non immune population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-protective potential of the hemagglutinins of five H5N1 strains of divergent clades using a live attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vector vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The replication-deficient MVA virus was used to express influenza hemagglutinin (HA proteins. Specifically, recombinant MVA viruses expressing the HA genes of the clade 1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/1203, the clade 2.1.3 virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (IN5/05, the clade 2.2 viruses A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (TT01/05 and A/chicken/Egypt/3/2006 (CE/06, and the clade 2.3.4 virus A/Anhui/1/2005 (AH1/05 were constructed. These experimental live vaccines were assessed in a lethal mouse model. Mice vaccinated with the VN/1203 hemagglutinin-expressing MVA induced excellent protection against all the above mentioned clades. Also mice vaccinated with the IN5/05 HA expressing MVA induced substantial protection against homologous and heterologous AH1/05 challenge. After vaccination with the CE/06 HA expressing MVA, mice were fully protected against clade 2.2 challenge and partially protected against challenge of other clades. Mice vaccinated with AH1/05 HA expressing MVA vectors were only partially protected against homologous and heterologous challenge. The live vaccines induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies, mainly directed against the homologous challenge virus, and high levels of HA-specific IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T-cells against epitopes conserved among the H5 clades and subclades. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The highest level of cross-protection was induced by the HA derived from the VN/1203 strain, suggesting that pandemic H5 vaccines

  12. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  13. An induced pocket for the binding of potent fusion inhibitor CL-385319 with H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runming Li

    Full Text Available The influenza glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA plays crucial roles in the early stage of virus infection, including receptor binding and membrane fusion. Therefore, HA is a potential target for developing anti-influenza drugs. Recently, we characterized a novel inhibitor of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, CL-385319, which specifically inhibits HA-mediated viral entry. Studies presented here identified the critical binding residues for CL-385319, which clustered in the stem region of the HA trimer by site-directed mutagenesis. Extensive computational simulations, including molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM_GBSA calculations, charge density and Laplacian calculations, have been carried out to uncover the detailed molecular mechanism that underlies the binding of CL-385319 to H5N1 influenza virus HA. It was found that the recognition and binding of CL-385319 to HA proceeds by a process of "induced fit" whereby the binding pocket is formed during their interaction. Occupation of this pocket by CL-385319 stabilizes the neutral pH structure of hemagglutinin, thus inhibiting the conformational rearrangements required for membrane fusion. This "induced fit" pocket may be a target for structure-based design of more potent influenza fusion inhibitors.

  14. Domestic dog origin of canine distemper virus in free-ranging wolves in Portugal as revealed by hemagglutinin gene characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Silva, Eliane; Santos, Nuno; Thompson, Gertrude

    2011-07-01

    Serologic evidence for canine distemper virus (CDV) has been described in grey wolves but, to our knowledge, virus strains circulating in wolves have not been characterized genetically. The emergence of CDV in several non-dog hosts has been associated with amino acid substitutions at sites 530 and 549 of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. We sequenced the H gene of wild-type canine distemper virus obtained from two free-ranging Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus) and from one domestic dog (Canis familiaris). More differences were found between the two wolf sequences than between one of the wolves (wolf 75) and the dog. The latter two had a very high nucleotide similarity resulting in identical H gene amino acid sequences. Possible explanations include geographic and especially temporal proximity of the CDV obtained from wolf 75 and the domestic dog, taken in 2007-2008, as opposed to that from wolf 3 taken more distantly in 1998. Analysis of the deduced amino acids of the viral hemagglutinin revealed a glycine (G) and a tyrosine (Y) at amino acid positions 530 and 549, respectively, of the partial signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-receptor binding region which is typically found in viral strains obtained from domestic dogs. This suggests that the CDV found in these wolves resulted from transmission events from local domestic dogs rather than from wildlife species.

  15. Changes in the hemagglutinin of H5N1 viruses during human infection--influence on receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusat, Martin; Liu, Junfeng; Palma, Angelina S; Childs, Robert A; Liu, Yan; Wharton, Stephen A; Lin, Yi Pu; Coombs, Peter J; Martin, Stephen R; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Chen, Zi; Stevens, David J; Hien, Vo Minh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Nhu, Le Nguyen Truc; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Ha, Do Quang; van Doorn, H Rogier; Hien, Tran Tinh; Conradt, Harald S; Kiso, Makoto; Gamblin, Steve J; Chai, Wengang; Skehel, John J; Hay, Alan J; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D; Feizi, Ten

    2013-12-01

    As avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and Africa, global concerns of an imminent pandemic persist. Recent experimental studies suggest that efficient transmission between humans of current H5N1 viruses only requires a few genetic changes. An essential step is alteration of the virus hemagglutinin from preferential binding to avian receptors for the recognition of human receptors present in the upper airway. We have identified receptor-binding changes which emerged during H5N1 infection of humans, due to single amino acid substitutions, Ala134Val and Ile151Phe, in the hemagglutinin. Detailed biological, receptor-binding, and structural analyses revealed reduced binding of the mutated viruses to avian-like receptors, but without commensurate increased binding to the human-like receptors investigated, possibly reflecting a receptor-binding phenotype intermediate in adaptation to more human-like characteristics. These observations emphasize that evolution in nature of avian H5N1 viruses to efficient binding of human receptors is a complex multistep process. Copyright © 2013 The Authros. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and synthesis of glycoprotein-based multivalent glyco-ligands for influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen; Huang, Wei; Orwenyo, Jared; Banerjee, Aditi; Vasta, Gerardo R; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2013-04-01

    We report a facile synthesis of glycoprotein-based glyco-ligands and their binding with influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3. Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as the scaffold and an Asn-linked complex type N-glycan prepared from chicken eggs was used as the glycan building block. It was found that Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) between the alkyne-labeled glycan and the azide-tagged HSA led to an efficient formation of the glycoconjugates. The density of glycan ligands on the protein scaffold was readily varied by changing the molar ratios of the two reactants. Binding studies indicated that the sialylated and desialylated multivalent glycoligands could selectively bind to influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3, respectively, with high affinity. In the two glycan-lectin interactions, a clear multivalent effect was observed. Moreover, a cell-based assay showed that the synthetic multivalent glyco-ligands could efficiently inhibit the attachment of galectin-3 to human prostate cancer and lung cancer cell lines. This study suggests that the synthetic glycoprotein-based glyco-ligands can be useful for different applications, including blocking the function of galectin-3 in cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular signatures of hemagglutinin stem-directed heterosubtypic human neutralizing antibodies against influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Avnir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown high usage of the IGHV1-69 germline immunoglobulin gene for influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly-neutralizing antibodies (HV1-69-sBnAbs. Here we show that a major structural solution for these HV1-69-sBnAbs is achieved through a critical triad comprising two CDR-H2 loop anchor residues (a hydrophobic residue at position 53 (Ile or Met and Phe54, and CDR-H3-Tyr at positions 98±1; together with distinctive V-segment CDR amino acid substitutions that occur in positions sparse in AID/polymerase-η recognition motifs. A semi-synthetic IGHV1-69 phage-display library screen designed to investigate AID/polη restrictions resulted in the isolation of HV1-69-sBnAbs that featured a distinctive Ile52Ser mutation in the CDR-H2 loop, a universal CDR-H3 Tyr at position 98 or 99, and required as little as two additional substitutions for heterosubtypic neutralizing activity. The functional importance of the Ile52Ser mutation was confirmed by mutagenesis and by BCR studies. Structural modeling suggests that substitution of a small amino acid at position 52 (or 52a facilitates the insertion of CDR-H2 Phe54 and CDR-H3-Tyr into adjacent pockets on the stem. These results support the concept that activation and expansion of a defined subset of IGHV1-69-encoded B cells to produce potent HV1-69-sBnAbs does not necessarily require a heavily diversified V-segment acquired through recycling/reentry into the germinal center; rather, the incorporation of distinctive amino acid substitutions by Phase 2 long-patch error-prone repair of AID-induced mutations or by random non-AID SHM events may be sufficient. We propose that these routes of B cell maturation should be further investigated and exploited as a pathway for HV1-69-sBnAb elicitation by vaccination.

  18. Positive Selection on Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Li, Wenfu

    2011-04-21

    Abstract Background Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both HA and NA genes have evolved into five distinct clusters, with further analyses indicating that the pandemic 2009 strains have experienced the strongest positive selection. We also found evidence of strong selection acting on the seasonal human H1N1 isolates. However, swine viruses from North America and Eurasia were under weak positive selection, while there was no significant evidence of positive selection acting on the avian isolates. A site-by-site analysis revealed that the positively selected sites were located in both of the cleaved products of HA (HA1 and HA2), as well as NA. In addition, the pandemic 2009 strains were subject to differential selection pressures compared to seasonal human, North American swine and Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses. Conclusions Most of these positively and\\/or differentially selected sites were situated in the B-cell and\\/or T-cell antigenic regions, suggesting that selection at these sites might be responsible for the antigenic variation of the viruses. Moreover, some sites were also associated with glycosylation and receptor-binding ability. Thus, selection at these positions might have helped the pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses to adapt to the new hosts after they were introduced from pigs to humans. Positive selection on position 274 of NA protein, associated with drug resistance, might account for the prevalence of drug-resistant variants of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses, but there was no evidence that positive selection was responsible for the spread of the drug resistance of the pandemic H1N1 strains.

  19. Generation of monoclonal pan-hemagglutinin antibodies for the quantification of multiple strains of influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza P Manceur

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective course of action to prevent influenza. About 150 million doses of influenza vaccines were distributed for the 2015-2016 season in the USA alone according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine dosage is calculated based on the concentration of hemagglutinin (HA, the main surface glycoprotein expressed by influenza which varies from strain to strain. Therefore yearly-updated strain-specific antibodies and calibrating antigens are required. Preparing these quantification reagents can take up to three months and significantly slows down the release of new vaccine lots. Therefore, to circumvent the need for strain-specific sera, two anti-HA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against a highly conserved sequence have been produced by immunizing mice with a novel peptide-conjugate. Immunoblots demonstrate that 40 strains of influenza encompassing HA subtypes H1 to H13, as well as B strains from the Yamagata and Victoria lineage were detected when the two mAbs are combined to from a pan-HA mAb cocktail. Quantification using this pan-HA mAbs cocktail was achieved in a dot blot assay and results correlated with concentrations measured in a hemagglutination assay with a coefficient of correlation of 0.80. A competitive ELISA was also optimised with purified viral-like particles. Regardless of the quantification method used, pan-HA antibodies can be employed to accelerate process development when strain-specific antibodies are not available, and represent a valuable tool in case of pandemics. These antibodies were also expressed in CHO cells to facilitate large-scale production using bioreactor technologies which might be required to meet industrial needs for quantification reagents. Finally, a simulation model was created to predict the binding affinity of the two anti-HA antibodies to the amino acids composing the highly conserved epitope; different probabilities of interaction between a given amino acid and

  20. Heparin-binding-hemagglutinin-induced IFN-gamma release as a diagnostic tool for latent tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Hougardy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI is a major component of tuberculosis (TB control strategies. In addition to the tuberculosis skin test (TST, novel blood tests, based on in vitro release of IFN-gamma in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 (IGRAs, are used for TB diagnosis. However, neither IGRAs nor the TST can separate acute TB from LTBI, and there is concern that responses in IGRAs may decline with time after infection. We have therefore evaluated the potential of the novel antigen heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA for in vitro detection of LTBI. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HBHA was compared to purified protein derivative (PPD and ESAT-6 in IGRAs on lymphocytes drawn from 205 individuals living in Belgium, a country with low TB prevalence, where BCG vaccination is not routinely used. Among these subjects, 89 had active TB, 65 had LTBI, based on well-standardized TST reactions and 51 were negative controls. HBHA was significantly more sensitive than ESAT-6 and more specific than PPD for the detection of LTBI. PPD-based tests yielded 90.00% sensitivity and 70.00% specificity for the detection of LTBI, whereas the sensitivity and specificity for the ESAT-6-based tests were 40.74% and 90.91%, and those for the HBHA-based tests were 92.06% and 93.88%, respectively. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT test applied on 20 LTBI subjects yielded 50% sensitivity. The HBHA IGRA was not influenced by prior BCG vaccination, and, in contrast to the QFT-IT test, remote (>2 years infections were detected as well as recent (<2 years infections by the HBHA-specific test. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ESAT-6- and CFP-10-based IGRAs may underestimate the incidence of LTBI, whereas the use of HBHA may combine the operational advantages of IGRAs with high sensitivity and specificity for latent infection.

  1. Diagnostic potential of recombinant scFv antibodies generated against hemagglutinin protein of influenza A virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali eRajput

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses have been the cause of enormous socio-economic losses worldwide. In order to combat such a notorious pathogen, hemagglutinin protein (HA has been a preferred target for generation of neutralizing-antibodies, as potent therapeutic/ diagnostic agents. In the present study, recombinant anti-HA single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies were constructed using the phage display technology to aid in diagnosis and treatment of human influenza A virus infections. Spleen cells of mice hyper-immunized with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 virus were used as the source for recombinant antibody (rAb production. The antigen-binding phages were quantified after 6 rounds of bio-panning against A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1-like, or A/Udorn/307/72(H3N2 viruses. The phage yield was maximum for the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, however, considerable cross-reactivity was observed for the other virus strains as well. The HA-specific polyclonal rAb preparation was subjected to selection of single clones for identification of high reactive relatively conserved epitopes. The high affinity rAbs were tested against certain known conserved HA epitopes by peptide ELISA. Three recombinant mAbs showed reactivity with both the H1N1 strains and one (C5 showed binding with all the three viral strains. The C5 antibody was thus used for development of an ELISA test for diagnosis of influenza virus infection. Based on the sample size in the current analysis, the ELISA test demonstrated 83.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Thus, the ELISA, developed in our study, may prove as a cheaper alternative to the presently used real time RT-PCR test for detection of human influenza A viruses in clinical specimens, which will be beneficial, especially in the developing countries. Since, the two antibodies identified in this study are reactive to conserved HA epitopes; these may prove as potential therapeutic agents as well.

  2. Acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein regulates H5N1 influenza virus pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M DuBois

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to threaten agriculture and human health. Here, we use biochemistry and x-ray crystallography to reveal how amino-acid variations in the hemagglutinin (HA protein contribute to the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus in chickens. HA proteins from highly pathogenic (HP A/chicken/Hong Kong/YU562/2001 and moderately pathogenic (MP A/goose/Hong Kong/437-10/1999 isolates of H5N1 were found to be expressed and cleaved in similar amounts, and both proteins had similar receptor-binding properties. However, amino-acid variations at positions 104 and 115 in the vestigial esterase sub-domain of the HA1 receptor-binding domain (RBD were found to modulate the pH of HA activation such that the HP and MP HA proteins are activated for membrane fusion at pH 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. In general, an increase in H5N1 pathogenicity in chickens was found to correlate with an increase in the pH of HA activation for mutant and chimeric HA proteins in the observed range of pH 5.2 to 6.0. We determined a crystal structure of the MP HA protein at 2.50 Å resolution and two structures of HP HA at 2.95 and 3.10 Å resolution. Residues 104 and 115 that modulate the acid stability of the HA protein are situated at the N- and C-termini of the 110-helix in the vestigial esterase sub-domain, which interacts with the B loop of the HA2 stalk domain. Interactions between the 110-helix and the stalk domain appear to be important in regulating HA protein acid stability, which in turn modulates influenza virus replication and pathogenesis. Overall, an optimal activation pH of the HA protein is found to be necessary for high pathogenicity by H5N1 influenza virus in avian species.

  3. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  4. Bayesian Mass Estimates of the Milky Way: Inferring the Mass Profile from Globular Cluster Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Gwendolyn; Harris, William E.; Springford, Aaron; Widrow, Larry

    2017-01-01

    The mass and cumulative mass profile of the Milky Way's dark matter halo is a fundamental property of the Galaxy, and yet these quantities remain poorly constrained and span almost two orders of magnitude in the literature. There are a variety of methods to measure the mass of the Milky Way, and a common way to constrain the mass uses kinematic information of satellite objects (e.g. globular clusters) orbiting the Galaxy. One reason precise estimates of the mass and mass profile remain elusive is that the kinematic data of the globular clusters are incomplete; for some both line-of-sight and proper motion measurements are available (i.e. complete data), and for others there are only line-of-sight velocities (i.e. incomplete data). Furthermore, some proper motion measurements suffer from large measurement uncertainties, and these uncertainties can be difficult to take into account because they propagate in complicated ways. Past methods have dealt with incomplete data by using either only the line-of-sight measurements (and throwing away the proper motions), or only using the complete data. In either case, valuable information is not included in the analysis. During my PhD research, I have been developing a coherent hierarchical Bayesian method to estimate the mass and mass profile of the Galaxy that 1) includes both complete and incomplete kinematic data simultaneously in the analysis, and 2) includes measurement uncertainties in a meaningful way. In this presentation, I will introduce our approach in a way that is accessible and clear, and will also present our estimates of the Milky Way's total mass and mass profile using all available kinematic data from the globular cluster population of the Galaxy.

  5. New Cataclysmic Variables and other Exotic Binaries in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Sandoval, L. E.; van den Berg, M.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Anderson, J.; Cool, A. M.; Edmonds, P. D.; Wijnands, R.; Ivanova, N.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    We present 22 new (+3 confirmed) cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the non core-collapsed globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc). The total number of CVs in the cluster is now 43, the largest sample in any globular cluster so far. For the identifications we used near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope, in combination with X-ray results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This allowed us to build the deepest NUV CV luminosity function of the cluster to date. We found that the CVs in 47 Tuc are more concentrated towards the cluster center than the main sequence turnoff stars. We compared our results to the CV populations of the core-collapsed globular clusters NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. We found that 47 Tuc has fewer bright CVs per unit mass than those two other clusters. That suggests that dynamical interactions in core-collapsed clusters play a major role creating new CVs. In 47 Tuc, the CV population is probably dominated by primordial and old dynamically formed systems. We estimated that the CVs in 47 Tuc have total masses of ˜1.4 M⊙. We also found that the X-ray luminosity function of the CVs in the three clusters is bimodal. Additionally, we discuss a possible double degenerate system and an intriguing/unclassified object. Finally, we present four systems that could be millisecond pulsar companions given their X-ray and NUV/optical colors. For one of them we present very strong evidence for being an ablated companion. The other three could be CO- or He-WDs.

  6. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-02-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. If IMBHs exist, they could explain the rapid growth of supermassive black holes by acting as seeds in the early stage of galaxy formation. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. Our group investigated the presence of intermediate-mass black holes for a sample of 10 Galactic globular clusters. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes in each cluster. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M • - σ) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFUs). We ran N-body simulations of globular clusters containing IMBHs in a tidal field and studied their effects on mass-loss rates and remnant fractions and showed that an IMBH in the center prevents core collapse and ejects massive objects more rapidly. These simulations were further used to simulate IFU data cubes. For the specific case of NGC 6388 we simulated two different IFU techniques and found that velocity dispersion measurements from individual velocities are strongly biased towards lower values due to blends of neighboring stars and background light. In addition, we use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics to simulate the accretion of stellar winds onto a black hole.

  7. De novo structure prediction of globular proteins aided by sequence variation-derived contacts.

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    Tomasz Kosciolek

    Full Text Available The advent of high accuracy residue-residue intra-protein contact prediction methods enabled a significant boost in the quality of de novo structure predictions. Here, we investigate the potential benefits of combining a well-established fragment-based folding algorithm--FRAGFOLD, with PSICOV, a contact prediction method which uses sparse inverse covariance estimation to identify co-varying sites in multiple sequence alignments. Using a comprehensive set of 150 diverse globular target proteins, up to 266 amino acids in length, we are able to address the effectiveness and some limitations of such approaches to globular proteins in practice. Overall we find that using fragment assembly with both statistical potentials and predicted contacts is significantly better than either statistical potentials or contacts alone. Results show up to nearly 80% of correct predictions (TM-score ≥0.5 within analysed dataset and a mean TM-score of 0.54. Unsuccessful modelling cases emerged either from conformational sampling problems, or insufficient contact prediction accuracy. Nevertheless, a strong dependency of the quality of final models on the fraction of satisfied predicted long-range contacts was observed. This not only highlights the importance of these contacts on determining the protein fold, but also (combined with other ensemble-derived qualities provides a powerful guide as to the choice of correct models and the global quality of the selected model. A proposed quality assessment scoring function achieves 0.93 precision and 0.77 recall for the discrimination of correct folds on our dataset of decoys. These findings suggest the approach is well-suited for blind predictions on a variety of globular proteins of unknown 3D structure, provided that enough homologous sequences are available to construct a large and accurate multiple sequence alignment for the initial contact prediction step.

  8. The Slowest Spinning X-Ray Pulsar in an Extragalactic Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Ivan Yu.; Bachetti, Matteo; Sartore, Nicola; Chilingarian, Igor V.; Webb, Natalie A.

    2017-04-01

    Neutron stars are thought to be born rapidly rotating and then exhibit a phase of rotation-powered pulsations as they slow down to 1-10 s periods. The significant population of millisecond pulsars observed in our Galaxy is explained by the recycling concept: during an epoch of accretion from a donor star in a binary system, the neutron star is spun up to millisecond periods. However, only a few pulsars are observed during this recycling process, with relatively high rotational frequencies. Here we report the detection of an X-ray pulsar with {P}{spin}=1.20 {{s}} in the globular cluster B091D in the Andromeda galaxy, the slowest pulsar ever found in a globular cluster. This bright (up to 30% of the Eddington luminosity) spinning-up pulsar, persistent over the 12 years of observations, must have started accreting less than 1 Myr ago and has not yet had time to accelerate to hundreds of Hertz. The neutron star in this unique wide binary with an orbital period {P}{orb}=30.5 {hr} in a 12 Gyr old, metal-rich star cluster accretes from a low-mass, slightly evolved post-main-sequence companion. We argue that we are witnessing a binary formed at a relatively recent epoch by getting a ˜0.8 {M}⊙ star in a dynamical interaction—a viable scenario in a massive, dense globular cluster like B091D with high global and specific stellar encounter rates. This intensively accreting non-recycled X-ray pulsar therefore provides a long-sought missing piece in the standard pulsar recycling picture.

  9. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Turri, P.; Tolstoy, E.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way, and they probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. Aims: The aim of this work is to obtain an accurate estimate of the absolute age of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using deep IR data obtained with the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system operating at the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). Methods: This exquisite photometry, combined with that obtained in V and I-bands with HST, allowed us to detect the faint Main Sequence Knee feature in NGC 2808 colour magnitude diagram. The difference between this point and the main sequence turn-off is a good age estimator that provides ages with unprecedented accuracy. Results: We find that NGC 2808 has an age of t = 10.9 ± 0.7 (intrinsic) ±0.45 (metallicity term) Gyr. A possible contamination by He-enhanced population could make the cluster up to 0.25 Gyr older. Although this age estimate agrees with the age coming from the classical turn-off method (t = 11.0 Gyr), its uncertainty is a factor ~3 better, since it avoids systematics in reddening, distance assumptions, and photometric zero point determination. The final absolute age indicates that NGC 2808 is slightly younger than other Galactic globular clusters with similar metallicity. Tables of the photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A51

  10. Predictions of Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Cluster Millisecond Pulsars Above 100 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; de Jaker, O.C.; Clapson, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent Fermi detection of the globular cluster (GC) 47 Tucanae highlighted the importance of modeling collective gamma-ray emission of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in GCs. Steady flux from such populations is also expected in the very high energy (VHE) domain covered by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. We present pulsed curvature radiation (CR) as well as unpulsed inverse Compton (IC) calculations for an ensemble of MSPs in the GCs 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. We demonstrate that the CR from these GCs should be easily detectable for Fermi, while constraints on the total number of MSps and the nebular B-field may be derived using the IC flux components.

  11. Wide-Field Precision Kinematics of the M87 Globular Cluster System

    OpenAIRE

    Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron; Brodie, Jean; Spitler, Lee; Beasley, Michael; Arnold, Jacob; Tamura, Naoyuki; Sharples, Ray; Arimoto, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    We present the most extensive combined photometric and spectroscopic study to date of the enormous globular cluster (GC) system around M87, the central giant elliptical galaxy in the nearby Virgo cluster. Using observations from DEIMOS and LRIS at Keck, and Hectospec on the MMT, we derive new, precise radial velocities for 451 GCs around M87, with projected radii from ~ 5 to 185 kpc. We combine these measurements with literature data for a total sample of 737 objects, which we use for a re-ex...

  12. On the Variability of Blue Straggler Stars in the Globular Cluster M53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Chang Rey

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a search for photometric variable blue straggler stars (BSSs in the globular cluster M53. Six of the 151 probable BSSs are identified as variable candidates based on the robust variable star detection technique of Welch & Stetson (1993. Most variable BSS candidates appear to occupy the instability strip in the color-magnitude diagram, and they appear to have visual light amplitudes of 0.2 mag - 0.3 mag. Further observations are required, however, to resolve the nature of variability between pulsating stars and eclipsing binaries for these variable BSS candidates.

  13. Opening the Window on Galaxy Assembly: Ages and Dynamics of Inner Milky Way Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Roger

    2017-08-01

    We propose a systematic investigation of the ages and dynamics of the Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) located in the inner Milky Way. By targeting bulge GGCs that have a first epoch of deep archival ACS/WFC or WFC3/UVIS imaging and obtaining a second epoch of deep (S/N>100 at the main sequence turnoff) ACS/WFC F606W, F814W imaging, we will exploit 7-14 year time baselines to measure precise (Cohen) to 25 sightlines, allowing the first quantitative test for spatial variation in the bulge mass function.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Updated catalog of variable stars in globular clusters (Clement+ 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, C. M.

    2017-02-01

    This Catalogue is an update to Helen Sawyer Hogg's Third Catalogue on Variable Stars in Globular Clusters (1973, David Dunlap Observatory Publications, Volume 3, Number 6: 1973PDDO....3....6S; see Cat V/97; see also Clement+, 2001AJ....122.2587C). This catalogue is based on the individual cluster files downloaded on http://www.astro.utoronto.ca/~cclement/cat/listngc.html on the 01-Feb-2017. Later updates are indicated in clusters.dat; column "Update". (7 data files).

  15. Isolation and characterization of a French bean hemagglutinin with antitumor, antifungal, and anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activities and an exceptionally high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S K; Ng, T B

    2010-05-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa hemagglutinin was isolated with a high yield from dried Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar "French bean number 35" seeds using a chromatographic protocol that involved Blue-Sepharose, Q-Sepharose, and Superdex 75. The yield was exceptionally high (1.1g hemagglutinin per 100g seed), which is around 10-85 times higher than other Phaseolus cultivars. Its N-terminal sequence resembled those of other Phaseolus hemagglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the hemagglutinin was stable in the pH range 6-8, and in the temperature range 0 degrees C-50 degrees C. It inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 2microM. It suppressed mycelial growth in Valsa mali with an IC50 of 10microM. It inhibited proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 100 and 2microM, respectively. It had no antiproliferative effect on normal embryonic liver WRL68 cells. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Lemna (duckweed) expressed hemagglutinin from avian influenza H5N1 protects chickens against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last two decades, transgenic plants have been explored as safe and cost effective alternative expression platforms for producing recombinant proteins. In this study, a synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1)...

  17. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...

  18. Glycosylation Characterization of an Influenza H5N7 Hemagglutinin Series with Engineered Glycosylation Patterns : Implications for Structure-Function Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, Lisa M; An, Yanming; de Vries, Robert P; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Cipollo, John F

    2017-01-01

    The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide

  19. Hemagglutinins in Anopheles quadrimaculatus, strains susceptible and refractory to Brugia malayi, and their role in the immune response to filarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, J K; Knight, J W

    1997-01-01

    Hemagglutinins in the salivary gland extract and in the body fluid from strains of the mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, susceptible and refractory to the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, had higher titers against Human A+, B- and O+, and sheep erythrocytes than against rabbit and jird erythrocytes. Hemagglutination activity in the body fluid was low in newly emerged females but increased and stabilized as they became older. Hemagglutination activity of the body fluid was not reduced by freezing at -20 degrees C, but it was destroyed following heating the body fluid to 60 degrees C and 100 degrees C for 45 min, indicating that the hemagglutinins are heat labile, and they are proteins or glycoproteins. Hemagglutinins in the salivary glands exhibited specificities for a broader range of carbohydrate moieties on the surface of Human A+ and sheep erythrocytes than those in the body fluid. Injections of specific carbohydrates in saline solution into B. malayi-infected females of the refractory strain of An. quadrimaculatus 24 hr after the infective blood meal showed that galactose, N-acetyl-D-galacto-samine, sorbose and mannose inhibited the increase in encapsulation (melanization) of L1 of B. malayi in the thoracic muscles of An. quadrimaculatus females when compared to those females injected with saline and other carbohydrates. The results suggest that hemagglutinins are present in the salivary gland extract and the body fluid of both strains of An. quadrimaculatus females and they may be involved in the immune response (encapsulation) to filarial parasites in An. quadrimaculatus.

  20. Two single mutations in the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus confer hemagglutinin-neuraminidase independent fusion promotion and attenuate the pathogenicity in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in viral infection and pathogenicity through mediating membrane fusion between the virion and host cells in the presence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN). Previously, we obtained a velogenic NDV genotype VII muta...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  2. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  3. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of ...

  5. Head Start in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Clara M. D.; Epps, Frances M. J.

    Records and observations from a summer Head Start program, conducted in Los Angeles by Delta Sigma Theta, are delineated in this book. It relates firsthand experiences of the participating personnel as they developed and implemented a Head Start program for some 300 children. The book is divided into three sections. Section I,…

  6. The globularization hypothesis of the language-ready brain as a developmental frame for prosodic bootstrapping theories of language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz eIrurtzun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent research Boeckx & Benítez-Burraco (2014a,b have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al. (2010. In this paper, I show that Boeckx & Benítez-Burraco’s hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization. I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman & Wanner (1982; Mehler et al. (1988, et seq.; Gervain & Werker (2013, which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  7. The "Globularization Hypothesis" of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irurtzun, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  8. Efficacy of an influenza hemagglutinin-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in elderly nursing home subjects during an influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenstein, S; Drinka, P; Duthie, E H; Miller, B A; Brown, C S; Hensley, M; Circo, R; Langer, E; Ershler, W B

    1994-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of an influenza hemagglutinin-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine with the commercially available influenza hemagglutinin-subunit vaccine in preventing influenza in older adults living in a nursing home. A prospective, randomized, double-blind vaccine trial with 5 months of follow-up after vaccination. Fourteen Wisconsin nursing homes. Nursing home residents at least 65 years old who were able to give informed consent and were free of malignancy and not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Participants received, by intramuscular injection, 0.5 mL of a trivalent influenza vaccine containing 15 micrograms each of A/Leningrad/360/86 (H3N2), A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1), and B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (HA) or 0.5 mL of an influenza vaccine containing the same antigens conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (HA-D). Blood was obtained pre- and 1 month post-vaccination to assess for any vaccine-induced antibody titer change. Clinical surveillance for respiratory illness was performed twice weekly for 5 months. A record was kept of all signs and symptoms of new respiratory illness, and a viral culture and acute and convalescent sera were obtained. 204 participants received HA and 204 received HA-D. Both groups had similar baseline antibody levels to all influenza antigens. HA-D recipients seroconverted more frequently based on serum neutralizing activity (P < 0.05), had a greater increase in geometric mean titer (GMT), and sustained the increase in antibody titer longer than HA recipients. Vaccine hemagglutinin recall was greater in a subset of HA-D recipients as measured by lymphocyte proliferative assays (P < 0.05). During an outbreak of influenza A (H3N2 A/Shanghai/11/87-like and A/Victoria/7/87-like), fewer HA-D (29/195) than HA (43/204) recipients had laboratory-confirmed infection (P = 0.053), and, of these, fewer HA-D-treated subjects had lower respiratory tract involvement (5/29 HA-D and 17/43 HA) (P = 0.022). HA-D was more immunogenic in institutionalized elderly

  9. Broad protection against avian influenza virus by using a modified vaccinia Ankara virus expressing a mosaic hemagglutinin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlangdee, Attapon; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-11-01

    A critical failure in our preparedness for an influenza pandemic is the lack of a universal vaccine. Influenza virus strains diverge by 1 to 2% per year, and commercially available vaccines often do not elicit protection from one year to the next, necessitating frequent formulation changes. This represents a major challenge to the development of a cross-protective vaccine that can protect against circulating viral antigenic diversity. We have constructed a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that expresses an H5N1 mosaic hemagglutinin (H5M) (MVA-H5M). This mosaic was generated in silico using 2,145 field-sourced H5N1 isolates. A single dose of MVA-H5M provided 100% protection in mice against clade 0, 1, and 2 avian influenza viruses and also protected against seasonal H1N1 virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34). It also provided short-term (10 days) and long-term (6 months) protection postvaccination. Both neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were still detected at 5 months postvaccination, suggesting that MVA-H5M provides long-lasting immunity. Influenza viruses infect a billion people and cause up to 500,000 deaths every year. A major problem in combating influenza is the lack of broadly effective vaccines. One solution from the field of human immunodeficiency virus vaccinology involves a novel in silico mosaic approach that has been shown to provide broad and robust protection against highly variable viruses. Unlike a consensus algorithm which picks the most frequent residue at each position, the mosaic method chooses the most frequent T-cell epitopes and combines them to form a synthetic antigen. These studies demonstrated that a mosaic influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin expressed by a viral vector can elicit full protection against diverse H5N1 challenges as well as induce broader immunity than a wild-type hemagglutinin. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. La Función de Luminosidad de las poblaciones de cúmulos globulares alrededor de NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, P. G.; Forte, J. C.; Geisler, D.

    Mediante el empleo de una técnica especial para filtrar el pattern de fringing, se ha obtenido una función de luminosidad de los cúmulos globulares de NGC 1399 superando por ~ 1 mag el turn-over en la banda T1 del sistema de Washington. El análisis de los resultados de la fotometría multibanda (C, M, T1) permite determinar que las mitades mas brillantes de las funciones de luminosidad de las dos principales poblaciones de cúmulos globulares asociadas con esta galaxia son similares.

  11. TeV gamma rays from millisecond pulsars and the detectability of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. A.

    1993-01-01

    I investigate the detectability of TeV gamma rays from millisecond pulsars, assuming the energy source that powers this emission is the loss of rotational energy of the spinning neutron star. I show that although individual sources may be too weak to detect, the contribution of many (about 1000) active millisecond pulsars may lead to currently detectable TeV gamma-ray emissions from globular clusters, provided the average pulsar converts about 0.1 percent of its spin-down energy into TeV gamma rays. Future detections of TeV gamma rays from globular clusters (or more restrictive upper limits on the fluxes) will lead to better estimates of the number of active millisecond pulsars the clusters contain, and to a better understanding of the pulsar emission mechanism. I also derive flux estimates for the following sources: (1) the Crab Nebula, (2) PSR 19374-21, PSR 1953 4-29, and PSR 1855 4-09, and (3) nearby millisecond pulsars in the galactic disk.

  12. NEAR-IR PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HB, MSTO, AND SGB FOR METAL POOR GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  13. The effects of congenital deafness on auditory nerve synapses and globular bushy cells in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, E E; Pongstaporn, T; Ryugo, D K

    2000-09-01

    It is well known that auditory deprivation affects the structure and function of the central nervous system. Congenital deafness represents one form of deprivation, and in the adult white cat, it has been shown to have a clear effect upon the synaptic interface between endbulbs of Held and spherical bushy cells. It is not known, however, whether all primary synapses are affected and/or whether they are affected in the same way and to the same extent. Thus, we studied a second neuronal circuit in the deaf white cat involving modified (small) endbulbs and globular bushy cells. Compared to normal hearing cats, modified endbulbs of congenitally deaf cats were 52.2% smaller but unchanged in structural complexity. There was also a striking loss of extracellular space between ending and cell body. The somata of postsynaptic globular bushy cells were 13.4% smaller and had enlarged postsynaptic densities. These data reveal that axosomatic synapses demonstrate abnormal structure as a consequence of deafness and that the extent of the abnormalities can vary with respect to the circuits involved. The implication of these observations is that synaptic anomalies would introduce differential delays within separate circuits, thereby desynchronizing neural activity from sound stimuli. This loss of synchronization could in turn disrupt temporal processing and compromise a host of related functions, including language comprehension.

  14. AAOmega spectroscopy of 29 351 stars in fields centered on ten Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R. R.; Kiss, L. L.; Lewis, G. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Siebert, A.; Bedding, T. R.; Székely, P.; Szabó, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    Galactic globular clusters have been pivotal in our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena. Here we publish the extracted stellar parameters from a recent large spectroscopic survey of ten globular clusters. A brief review of the project is also presented. Stellar parameters have been extracted from individual stellar spectra using both a modified version of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) pipeline and a pipeline based on the parameter estimation method of RAVE. We publish here all parameters extracted from both pipelines. We calibrate the metallicity and convert this to [Fe/H] for each star and, furthermore, we compare the velocities and velocity dispersions of the Galactic stars in each field to the Besançon Galaxy model. We find that the model does not correspond well with the data, indicating that the model is probably of little use for comparisons with pencil beam survey data such as this. The data described in Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/530/A31

  15. Another Nonsegregated Blue Straggler Population in a Globular Cluster: the Case of NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Vespe, F.; Bellazzini, M.; Rood, R. T.

    2008-07-01

    We have used a combination of ACS HST high-resolution and wide-field Subaru data in order to study the blue straggler star (BSS) population over the entire extension of the remote Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419. The BSS population presented here is among the largest ever observed in any stellar system, with more than 230 BSSs in the brightest portion of the sequence. The radial distribution of the selected BSSs is essentially the same as that of the other cluster stars. In this sense the BSS radial distribution is similar to that of ω Centauri and unlike that of all Galactic globular clusters studied to date, which have highly centrally segregated distributions and, in most cases, a pronounced upturn in the external regions. As in the case of ω Centauri, this evidence indicates that NGC 2419 is not yet relaxed even in the central regions. This observational fact is in agreement with estimated half-mass relaxation time, which is of the order of the cluster age. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA HST, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on Subaru observations collected at the Hawaii National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  16. GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES: A NEAR-UNIVERSAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, William E.; O' Halloran, Heather; Cockcroft, Robert, E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: ohallohm@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: cockcroft@physics.mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present the first results from our Hubble Space Telescope brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48,000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed the luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the globular cluster luminosity function turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (L ≳ 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}), we find small numbers of ''superluminous'' objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of ultra-compact dwarfs. Last, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R ≳ 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L {sub 0} ∼ R {sup –0.2}, while the LF dispersion remains nearly constant.

  17. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cortés, C. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Física, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-20

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  18. The devil is in the tails: the role of globular cluster mass evolution on stream properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Gieles, Mark

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of the effects of collisional dynamics on the formation and detectability of cold tidal streams. A semi-analytical model for the evolution of the stellar mass function was implemented and coupled to a fast stellar stream simulation code, as well as the synthetic cluster evolution code EMACSS for the mass evolution as a function of a globular cluster orbit. We find that the increase in the average mass of the escaping stars for clusters close to dissolution has a major effect on the observable stream surface density. As an example, we show that Palomar 5 would have undetectable streams (in an SDSS-like survey) if it was currently three times more massive, despite the fact that a more massive cluster loses stars at a higher rate. This bias due to the preferential escape of low-mass stars is an alternative explanation for the absence of tails near massive clusters, than a dark matter halo associated with the cluster. We explore the orbits of a large sample of Milky Way globular clusters and derive their initial masses and remaining mass fraction. Using properties of known tidal tails, we explore regions of parameter space that favour the detectability of a stream. A list of high-probability candidates is discussed.

  19. Chemical Abundances of Two Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 1718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; McWilliam, Andrew; Wallerstein, George

    2017-05-01

    Detailed chemical abundances of two stars in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) globular cluster NGC 1718 are presented, based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations with the MIKE spectrograph. The detailed abundances confirm NGC 1718 to be a fairly metal-rich cluster, with an average [Fe/H] ˜ -0.55 ± 0.01. The two red giants appear to have primordial O, Na, Mg and Al abundances, with no convincing signs of a composition difference between the two stars - hence, based on these two stars, NGC 1718 shows no evidence for hosting multiple populations. The Mg abundance is lower than Milky Way field stars, but is similar to LMC field stars at the same metallicity. The previous claims of very low [Mg/Fe] in NGC 1718 are therefore not supported in this study. Other abundances (Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Ni, Cu, Rb, Y, Zr, La and Eu) all follow the LMC field star trend, demonstrating yet again that (for most elements) globular clusters trace the abundances of their host galaxy's field stars. Similar to the field stars, NGC 1718 is found to be mildly deficient in explosive α-elements, but moderately to strongly deficient in O, Na, Mg, Al and Cu, elements that form during hydrostatic burning in massive stars. NGC 1718 is also enhanced in La, suggesting that it was enriched in ejecta from metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars.

  20. Spectroscopic confirmation of the low-latitude object FSR 1716 as an old globular cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Kunder, Andrea; Wojno, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Star clusters are invaluable tracers of the Galactic components and the discovery and characterization of low-mass stellar systems can be used to appraise their prevailing disruption mechanisms and time scales. However, owing to significant foreground contamination, high extinction, and still uncharted interfaces of the underlying Milky Way components, objects at low Galactic latitudes are notoriously difficult to characterize. Here, we present the first spectroscopic campaign to identify the chemodynamical properties of the low-latitude star cluster FSR 1716. While its photometric age and distance are far from settled, the presence of RR Lyrae variables indicates a rather old cluster variety. Using medium-resolution (R 10 600) calcium triplet (CaT) spectroscopy obtained with the wide-field, multi-fiber AAOmega instrument, we identified six member candidates with a mean velocity of -30 km s-1 and a velocity dispersion of 2.5 ± 0.9 km s-1. The latter value implies a dynamic mass of 1.3 × 104M⊙, typical of a low-mass globular cluster. Combined with our derived CaT metallicity of -1.38 ± 0.20 dex, this object is finally confirmed as an old, metal-poor globular cluster.

  1. The nature of protein interactions governing globular protein-polymer block copolymer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher N; Kim, Minkyu; Thomas, Carla S; Chang, Dongsook; Sanoja, Gabriel E; Okwara, Chimdimma U; Olsen, Bradley D

    2014-04-14

    The effects of protein surface potential on the self-assembly of protein-polymer block copolymers are investigated in globular proteins with controlled shape through two approaches: comparison of self-assembly of mCherry-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) bioconjugates with structurally homologous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-PNIPAM bioconjugates, and mutants of mCherry with altered electrostatic patchiness. Despite large changes in amino acid sequence, the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of EGFP-PNIPAM and mCherry-PNIPAM conjugates have similar phase transition concentrations. Both materials form identical phases at two different coil fractions below the PNIPAM thermal transition temperature and in the bulk. However, at temperatures above the thermoresponsive transition, mCherry conjugates form hexagonal phases at high concentrations while EGFP conjugates form a disordered micellar phase. At lower concentration, mCherry shows a two-phase region while EGFP forms homogeneous disordered micellar structures, reflecting the effect of changes in micellar stability. Conjugates of four mCherry variants with changes to their electrostatic surface patchiness also showed minimal change in phase behavior, suggesting that surface patchiness has only a small effect on the self-assembly process. Measurements of protein/polymer miscibility, second virial coefficients, and zeta potential show that these coarse-grained interactions are similar between mCherry and EGFP, indicating that coarse-grained interactions largely capture the relevant physics for soluble, monomeric globular protein-polymer conjugate self-assembly.

  2. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns out to be a metal-intermediate ([Fe/H] = -1.07 ± 0.01 dex) cluster, with its α-peak and Fe-peak elements content compatible with that observed in clusters with similar metallicity. It also displays an enhancement in its s-process element abundances. Among the light elements involved in the multiple populations phenomenon, only [Na/Fe] shows star-to-star variations, while [Al/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] do not show any evidence for abundance spreads. A differential comparison with M4, a globular cluster with similar mass and metallicity, reveals that the two clusters share the same chemical composition. This finding suggests that NGC 6362 is indeed a regular cluster, formed from gas that has experienced the same chemical enrichment of other clusters with similar metallicity.

  3. Sodium content as a predictor of the advanced evolution of globular cluster stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Simon W; D'Orazi, Valentina; Yong, David; Constantino, Thomas N; Lattanzio, John C; Stancliffe, Richard J; Angelou, George C; Wylie-de Boer, Elizabeth C; Grundahl, Frank

    2013-06-13

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is the final stage of nuclear burning for low-mass stars. Although Milky Way globular clusters are now known to harbour (at least) two generations of stars, they still provide relatively homogeneous samples of stars that are used to constrain stellar evolution theory. It is predicted by stellar models that the majority of cluster stars with masses around the current turn-off mass (that is, the mass of the stars that are currently leaving the main sequence phase) will evolve through the AGB phase. Here we report that all of the second-generation stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752--70 per cent of the cluster population--fail to reach the AGB phase. Through spectroscopic abundance measurements, we found that every AGB star in our sample has a low sodium abundance, indicating that they are exclusively first-generation stars. This implies that many clusters cannot reliably be used for star counts to test stellar evolution timescales if the AGB population is included. We have no clear explanation for this observation.

  4. Baseline head in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Tammisto, E.; Lehtimaeki, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-11-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions on Olkiluoto island. The hydrological investigations have included several kinds of hydrological tests such as measurements of hydraulic conductivity by flow logging and a double-packer tool as well as interference tests by pumping, in order to study the hydraulic connections between the drillholes. In addition, long-term monitoring of groundwater level and groundwater head as well as measurements of flow conditions in open drillholes, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff) etc. have been part of the investigation programme aiming at the characterization of the bedrock. The data have been used in the compilation of deterministic hydro-zones and hydraulic properties for numerical flow modelling to study the flow pattern on Olkiluoto island. In addition, the compiled bedrock models have been used in the planning of the repository layout and in the analyses of the transport of radionuclides and the functionality of engineered barriers. This report focuses on the measurements of groundwater head by means of multi-packers and in connection with flow loggings. The determination of the undisturbed groundwater head (baseline head) in terms of the in situ fresh water head is the main goal of this report. The density of groundwater is strongly dependent on salinity and due to the saline groundwater deep in the bedrock in Olkiluoto the term fresh water head is used instead of hydraulic head. Taking the density of groundwater into account, the gradient of the residual pressure, which actually causes groundwater flow can be calculated. The measured and calculated heads are converted into corresponding in situ fresh water heads, which correspond to the water level (metres above sea level) in the hose that runs from the packed-off section to the ground surface. This means that

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  7. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  8. Large-scale FMO-MP3 calculations on the surface proteins of influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yuji; Yamashita, Katsumi; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Takematsu, Kazutomo; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Taguchi, Naoki; Okiyama, Yoshio; Tsuboi, Misako; Nakano, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2010-06-01

    Two proteins on the influenza virus surface have been well known. One is hemagglutinin (HA) associated with the infection to cells. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations were performed on a complex consisting of HA trimer and two Fab-fragments at the third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP3) level. The numbers of residues and 6-31G basis functions were 2351 and 201276, and thus a massively parallel-vector computer was utilized to accelerate the processing. This FMO-MP3 job was completed in 5.8 h with 1024 processors. Another protein is neuraminidase (NA) involved in the escape from infected cells. The FMO-MP3 calculation was also applied to analyze the interactions between oseltamivir and surrounding residues in pharmacophore.

  9. Yeast expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of Novel H1N1 elicits neutralising antibodies in rabbits and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmaram TN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently available vaccines for the pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 2009 produced in chicken eggs have serious impediments viz limited availability, risk of allergic reactions and the possible selection of sub-populations differing from the naturally occurring virus, whereas the cell culture derived vaccines are time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to combat the present/future pandemic. Hemagglutinin (HA based subunit vaccine for H1N1 requires the HA protein in glycosylated form, which is impossible with the commonly used bacterial expression platform. Additionally, bacterial derived protein requires extensive purification and refolding steps for vaccine applications. For these reasons an alternative heterologous system for rapid, easy and economical production of Hemagglutinin protein in its glycosylated form is required. The HA gene of novel H1N1 A/California/04/2009 was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted protein. The full length HA- synthetic gene having α-secretory tag was integrated into P. pastoris genome through homologous recombination. The resultant Pichia clones having multiple copy integrants of the transgene expressed full length HA protein in the culture supernatant. The Recombinant yeast derived H1N1 HA protein elicited neutralising antibodies both in mice and rabbits. The sera from immunised animals also exhibited Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI activity. Considering the safety, reliability and also economic potential of Pichia expression platform, our preliminary data indicates the feasibility of using this system as an alternative for large-scale production of recombinant influenza HA protein in the face of influenza pandemic threat.

  10. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China.

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  13. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain. If the head injury is very severe, mechanical ventilation may be used. Doctors control blood pressure and minimize the amount of brain swelling by adjusting the amount of intravenous fluids given and sometimes by giving intravenous drugs that ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? A person who is very large may not fit into ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It ... within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scans in children should always be done with low-dose technique. top of page What are the ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... this tunnel. Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... a few seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but ...

  4. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top of page This page ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ...

  8. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  9. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  10. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be: Stored Viewed on a monitor Printed on film Three-dimensional models of the head area can ... when you have certain other signs or symptoms Hearing loss (in some people) Symptoms of damage to ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your ... provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x- ...

  12. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk of head and neck cancer. Environmental or occupational inhalants. Inhaling asbestos, wood dust, paint ... from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Review dictionary articles to help understand medical phrases and terms ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... is also performed to: evaluate the extent of bone and soft tissue damage in patients with facial ...

  15. X-Ray and optical study of low core density globular clusters NGC6144 and E3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.-H.; Kong, A.K.H.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Lewin, W.H.G.; Bassa, C.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of two low coredensity globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found six X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144,

  16. X-ray sources and their optical counterparts in the Galactic Globular Cluster M12 (NGC 6218)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.-N.; Kong, A.K.H.; Bassa, C.G.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Lewin, W.H.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.

    2009-01-01

    We study a Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S observation of the Galactic globular cluster M12. With a 26 ks exposure time, we detect six X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius (2'.16) of which two are inside the core radius (0'.72) of the cluster. If we assume that these sources are all associated

  17. Lost and Found: Evidence of Second-generation Stars Along the Asymptotic Giant Branch of the Globular Cluster NGC 6752

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Lardo, C.; Mucciarelli, A.; Salaris, M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.; Savino, A.

    2016-01-01

    We derived chemical abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al in 20 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6752. All these elements (but Mg) show intrinsic star-to-star variations and statistically significant correlations or anticorrelations analogous to those commonly

  18. Multiple stellar populations in the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272) : a Strömgren perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, Davide; Lapenna, Emilio; Bragaglia, Angela; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Amigo, Pía

    2016-01-01

    We present Strömgren photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster M3 to study its multiple generations phenomenon. The use of different colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and especially of the notoriously efficient cy index allowed us to detect a double red giant branch in the cluster CMD. After

  19. A blue tilt in the globular cluster system of the Milky Way-like galaxy NGC 5170

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, D.A.; Spitler, L. R.; Harris, W.E.; Bailin, J.; Strader, J.; Brodie, J.P.; Larsen, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging, in the B and I bands, of the edge-on Sb/Sc galaxy NGC 5170. Excluding the central disc region, we detect 142 objects with colours and sizes typical of globular clusters (GCs). Our main result is the discovery of a

  20. AGB sodium abundances in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert A., E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: iain.mcdonald-2@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: albert.zijlstra@manchester.ac.uk [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-02-01

    A recent analysis comparing the [Na/Fe] distributions of red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752 found that the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars changes from 30:70 on the RGB to 100:0 on the AGB. The surprising paucity of Na-rich stars on the AGB in NGC 6752 warrants additional investigations to determine if the failure of a significant fraction of stars to ascend the AGB is an attribute common to all globular clusters. Therefore, we present radial velocities, [Fe/H], and [Na/Fe] abundances for 35 AGB stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc; NGC 104), and compare the AGB [Na/Fe] distribution with a similar RGB sample published previously. The abundances and velocities were derived from high-resolution spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan–Clay 6.5 m telescope. We find the average heliocentric radial velocity and [Fe/H] values to be 〈RV{sub helio.}〉 = −18.56 km s{sup −1} (σ = 10.21 km s{sup −1}) and 〈[Fe/H]〉 = −0.68 (σ = 0.08), respectively, in agreement with previous literature estimates. The average [Na/Fe] abundance is 0.12 dex lower in the 47 Tuc AGB sample compared to the RGB sample, and the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars is 63:37 on the AGB and 45:55 on the RGB. However, in contrast to NGC 6752, the two 47 Tuc populations have nearly identical [Na/Fe] dispersion and interquartile range values. The data presented here suggest that only a small fraction (≲20%) of Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc may fail to ascend the AGB, which is a similar result to that observed in M13. Regardless of the cause for the lower average [Na/Fe] abundance in AGB stars, we find that Na-poor stars and at least some Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc evolve through the early AGB phase. The contrasting behavior of Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc and NGC 6752 suggests that the RGB [Na/Fe] abundance alone is insufficient for predicting if a star will

  1. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle microvascular recruitment. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but globular adiponectin administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. This suggests that globular adiponectin might have a therapeutic potential for improving insulin resistance and preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes via modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  4. The Globular Clusters of the Galactic Bulge: Results from Multiwavelength Follow-up Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Roger; Geisler, Doug; Mauro, Francesco; Alonso Garcia, Javier; Hempel, Maren; Sarajedini, Ata

    2018-01-01

    The Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) located towards the bulge of the Milky Way suffer from severe total and differential extinction and high field star densities. They have therefore been systematically excluded from deep, large-scale homogenous GGC surveys, and will present a challenge for Gaia. Meanwhile, existing observations of bulge GGCs have revealed tantalizing hints that they hold clues to Galactic formation and evolution not found elsewhere. Therefore, in order to better characterize these poorly studied stellar systems and place them in the context of their optically well-studied counterparts, we have undertaken imaging programs at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. We describe these programs and present a variety of results, including self-consistent measurement of bulge GGC ages and structural parameters. The limitations imposed by spatially variable extinction and extinction law are highlighted, along with the complimentary nature of forthcoming facilities, allowing us to finally complete our picture of the Milky Way GGC system.

  5. Globular adiponectin controls insulin-mediated vasoreactivity in muscle through AMPKα2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, Michiel P; Meijer, Rick I; Richter, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Decreased tissue perfusion increases the risk of developing insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in obesity, and decreased levels of globular adiponectin (gAdn) have been proposed to contribute to this risk. We hypothesized that gAdn controls insulin's vasoactive effects through AMP......-activated protein kinase (AMPK), specifically its α2 subunit, and studied the mechanisms involved. In healthy volunteers, we found that decreased plasma gAdn levels in obese subjects associate with insulin resistance and reduced capillary perfusion during hyperinsulinemia. In cultured human microvascular...... endothelial cells (HMEC), gAdn increased AMPK activity. In isolated muscle resistance arteries gAdn uncovered insulin-induced vasodilation by selectively inhibiting insulin-induced activation of ERK1/2, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C as well as genetic deletion of AMPKα2 blunted insulin...

  6. Kinematics of Globular Cluster: new Perspectives of Energy Equipartition from N-body Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Pasquato, Mario; Yoon, Suk-jin

    2018-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) evolve dynamically through gravitational two-body interactions between stars. We investigated the evolution towards energy equipartition in GCs using direct n-body simulations in NBODY6. If a GC reaches full energy equipartition, the velocity dispersion as a function of stars’ mass becomes a power law with exponent -1/2. However, our n-body simulations never reach full equipartition, which is similar to Trenti & van de Marel (2013) results. Instead we found that in simulations with a shallow mass spectrum the best fit exponent becomes positive slightly before core collapse time. This inversion is a new result, which can be used as a kinematic predictor of core collapse. We are currently exploring applications of this inversion indicator to the detection of intermediate mass black holes.

  7. Ghosts of Milky Way's past: the globular cluster ESO 37-1 (E 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Ortolani, S.; Carraro, G.

    2015-09-01

    Context. In the Milky Way, most globular clusters are highly conspicuous objects that were found centuries ago. However, a few dozen of them are faint, sparsely populated systems that were identified largely during the second half of the past century. One of the faintest is ESO 37-1 (E 3) and as such it remains poorly studied, with no spectroscopic observations published so far although it was discovered in 1976. Aims: We investigate the globular cluster E 3 in an attempt to better constrain its fundamental parameters. Spectroscopy of stars in the field of E 3 is shown here for the first time. Methods: Deep, precise VI CCD photometry of E 3 down to V ~ 26 mag is presented and analysed. Low-resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra of nine candidate members are studied to derive radial velocity and metallicity. Proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue are used to explore the kinematics of the bright members of E 3. Results: Isochrone fitting indicates that E 3 is probably very old, with an age of about 13 Gyr; its distance from the Sun is nearly 10 kpc. It is also somewhat metal rich with [Fe/H] = -0.7. Regarding its kinematics, our tentative estimate for the proper motions is (μα cosδ,μδ) = (-7.0 ± 0.8, 3.5 ± 0.3) mas yr-1 (or a tangential velocity of 382 ± 79 km s-1) and for the radial velocity 45 ± 5 km s-1 in the solar rest frame. Conclusions: E 3 is one of the most intriguing globular clusters in the Galaxy. Having an old age and being metal rich is clearly a peculiar combination, only seen in a handful of objects like the far more conspicuous NGC 104 (47 Tucanae). In addition, its low luminosity and sparse population make it a unique template for the study of the final evolutionary phases in the life of a star cluster. Unfortunately, E 3 is among the most elusive and challenging known globular clusters because field contamination severely hampers spectroscopic studies. This research note is based on observations made with the ESO VLT at the

  8. New Discoveries in the Search for Iron-Complex Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, Jeb; Walker, Matthew G.; M2FS Team

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of Galactic globular clusters have been discovered that possess large intrinsic [Fe/H] and heavy element abundance variations. These "iron-complex" clusters are among the most massive in the Galaxy, and frequently exhibit extended blue horizontal branches and low metallicities. Additionally, a handful of clusters with [Fe/H] > -1 may also have large metallicity spreads (e.g., Terzan 5), but are instead characterized by having bimodal red horizontal brances. We present chemical composition analyses of several potential iron-complex clusters spanning [Fe/H] = -1.8 to -0.8, and discover that horizontal branch morphology alone is insufficient to identify clusters with heavy element abundance variations. However, we find that several of these clusters contain 4-5 chemically distinct populations, and the outer halo cluster NGC 6229 is added to the growing list of iron-complex clusters that may be the remnant cores of former dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  9. Stellar envelopes of globular clusters embedded in dark mini-haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge; Varri, Anna Lisa; Breen, Philip G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén

    2017-10-01

    We show that hard encounters in the central regions of globular clusters (GCs) embedded in dark matter (DM) haloes necessarily lead to the formation of gravitationally bound stellar envelopes that extend far beyond the nominal tidal radius of the system. Using statistical arguments and numerical techniques, we derive the equilibrium distribution function of stars ejected from the centre of a non-divergent spherical potential. Independently of the velocity distribution with which stars are ejected, GC envelopes have density profiles that approach asymptotically ρ ∼ r-4 at large distances and become isothermal towards the centre. Adding a DM halo component leaves two clear-cut observational signatures: (i) a flattening, or slightly increase of the projected velocity dispersion profile at large distances, and (ii) an outer surface density profile that is systematically shallower than in models with no DM.

  10. NLTE Effects in Globular Cluster Integrated Light Spectra and Photometric Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell; Short, C. Ian

    2017-01-01

    Our overall goal is to investigate the effect that modelling the atmospheres and spectra of Galactic globular cluster (GGCs) members in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) has on the integrated light (IL) spectrum, and the derivation of GGC ages and metallicities ([Fe/H] values) from IL photometric color and spectrum fitting. We create synthetic GGC populations and associated colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) using the Kroupa initial mass function (Kroupa, P., 2001, MNRAS, 322, 231-246) and the Teramo isochrones (Pietrinferni, A. et al, 2004, ApJ, 612, 168-190) with ages ranging from 9 to 15 Gyr, and [Fe/H] = -1.49 to -0.66 with α = +0.4. We investigate the dependence of predicted LTE and NLTE colors on the method and resolution of CMD discretization, and on the definition of representative stellar parameters in a discretized CMD.

  11. The Abundance of Lithium in an ABG Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, R. A.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope indicated a prominent Li i 6707 Å feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Followup spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5 m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)NLTE = 1.6 ± 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location of vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster’s color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  12. The puzzling assembly of the Milky Way halo – contributions from dwarf Spheroidals and globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While recent sky surveys have uncovered large numbers of ever fainter Milky Way satellites, their classification as star clusters, low-luminosity galaxies, or tidal overdensities remains often unclear. Likewise, their contributions to the build-up of the halo is yet debated. In this contribution we will discuss the current knowledge of the stellar populations and chemo-dynamics in these puzzling satellites, with a particular focus on dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Also the question of whether some of the outermost halo objects are dynamically associated with the (Milky Way halo at all is addressed in terms of proper measurements in the remote Leo I and II dwarf galaxies.

  13. A 110-ms pulsar, with negative period derivative, in the globular cluster M15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolszczan, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Middleditch, J.; Backer, D. C.; Fruchter, A. S.; Dewey, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of a 110-ms pulsar, PSR2127+11, in the globular cluster M15, is reported. The results of nine months of timing measurements place the new pulsar about 2 arcsec from the center of the cluster, and indicate that it is not a member of a close binary system. The measured negative value of the period derivative is probably the result of the pulsar being bodily accelerated in our direction by the gravitational field of the collapsed core of M15. This apparently overwhelms a positive contribution to the period derivative due to magnetic braking. Although the pulsar has an unexpectedly long period, it is argued that it belongs to the class of 'recycled' pulsars, which have been spun up by accretion in a binary system. The subsequent loss of the pulsar's companion is probably due to disruption of the system by close encounters with other stars.

  14. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Preliminary Public Catalog Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; van der Marel, R. P.; Milone, A. P.; Brown, T. M.; Cool, A. M.; King, I. R.; Sarajedini, A.; Granata, V.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  16. News from the Galactic suburbia: the chemical composition of the remote globular cluster NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Merle, T.; Chapman, S. C.; Dalessandro, E.; Sollima, A.

    2012-11-01

    We present the chemical analysis of 49 giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 2419, using medium resolution spectra collected with the multi-object spectrograph DEIMOS@Keck. Previous analysis of this cluster revealed a large dispersion in the line strength of the infrared Ca II triplet, suggesting an intrinsic star-to-star scatter in its Fe or Ca content. From our analysis, we assess that all the investigated stars share the same [Fe/H], [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] abundance ratios, while a large spread in Mg and K abundances is detected. The distribution of [Mg/Fe] is bimodal, with ˜40 per cent of the observed targets having subsolar [Mg/Fe], down to [Mg/Fe] ˜ -1 dex, a level of Mg deficiency never observed before in globular clusters. It is found that the large dispersion in Mg abundances is likely the main origin of the observed dispersion of the Ca II triplet lines strengths (that can be erroneously interpreted in terms of Fe or Ca abundance scatter) because Mg plays a relevant role in the atmosphere of giant stars as an electron donor. A strong depletion in the Mg abundance leads to an increase of the line strength of the Ca II triplet, due to the variation in the electronic pressure, at a constant Fe and Ca abundance. Finally, we detect an anti-correlation between Mg and K abundances, not easily explainable within the framework of the current nucleosynthesis models. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. The 10830 Å Helium Line Among Evolved Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.

    2015-08-01

    Helium is a pivotal element in understanding the multiple main sequences and extended horizontal branches observed in some globular clusters. Here we present a spectroscopic study of helium in the nearby globular cluster Messier 4 (M4). We have obtained spectra of the chromospheric He i 10830 Å line in 16 red horizontal branch (RHB), red giant branch, and asymptotic giant branch stars. Clear He i absorption or emission is present in most of the stars. Effective temperature is the principal parameter that correlates with 10830 Å line strength. Stars with {T}{eff}\\lt 4450 K do not exhibit the helium line. RHB stars, which are the hottest stars in our sample, all have strong He i line absorption. A number of these stars show very broad 10830 Å lines with shortward extensions indicating outflows as high as 80-100 km s-1 and the possibility of mass loss. We have also derived [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] abundances to see whether these standard tracers of “second generation” cluster stars are correlated with He i line strength. Unlike the case for our previous study of ω Cen, no clear correlation is observed. This may be because the sample does not cover the full range of abundance variations found in M4, or simply because the physical conditions in the chromosphere, rather than the helium abundance, primarily determine the He i 10830 Å line strength. A larger sample of high-quality He i spectra of both “first” and “second” generation red giants within a narrow range of {T}{eff} and luminosity is needed to test for the subtle spectroscopic variations in He i expected in M4.

  18. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  19. A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2015-08-01

    A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These “anomalous” clusters, which we refer to as “iron-complex” clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (≳0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R ˜ 27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s-1 (σ = 9.64 km s-1) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H] = -1.80 to -1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar populations. Although the two dominant populations have similar [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [α/Fe] abundance patterns, the more metal-rich stars exhibit significant [La/Fe] enhancements. The [La/Eu] data indicate that the increase in [La/Fe] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. A third more metal-rich population with low [X/Fe] ratios may also be present. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins clusters such as ω Centauri, M2, M22, and NGC 5286 as a new class of iron-complex clusters exhibiting complicated star formation histories. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. The Horizontal Branch morphology in Globular Clusters: consequences for the selfpollution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Francesca

    The Joint Discussion 4 of the Sydney IAU General Assembly takes place at a very interesting stage for the Globular Cluster (GC) astrophysics, when it is becoming clear that many -if not all- of the inhomogeneities in the chemical composition of GC stars are due to some mechanism of primordial enrichment. The best candidate for ``self-pollution" is identified with the matter lost in winds of low velocity from Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, especially of high mass, evolving during the first phases of life of the Clusters, and cycling their envelope material through hot CNO-cycle at the bottom of their convective envelopes (Hot Bottom Burning -HBB). Recognition that Globular Clusters showing large chemical anomalies are also peculiar in their Horizontal Branch (HB) stars distribution, led D'Antona et al. (2002) to suggest that extended blue tails are directly linked to the enhanced helium in the matter, processed through HBB, from which these stars are born. Here we show that other HB peculiar morphologies --such as the lack of stars in the RR Lyrae region, in clusters like NGC 2808, whose red and blue side of the HB are both well populated-- can be attributed to the helium enrichment of the matter from which the stars populating the whole blue HB in this cluster were born. This interpretation lends credit to the idea that the GC stars are formed in two main generations, the first one having the composition of the primordial gas cloud, the second one formed directly from the AGB ejecta over a span of time lasting ˜ 2 × 108yr. This hypothesis provides a useful and conceptually simple key not only to interpret some --but not all-- HB peculiarities, but also to understand the distribution of abundance anomalies. If the model is correct, in the end we can use the abundance anomalies to falsify (or calibrate) our AGB models.

  1. TIME-SERIES BVI PHOTOMETRY FOR THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6981 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, P.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Smith, H. A., E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: mzoccali@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: pia.amigo@dfa.uv.cl, E-mail: Peter.Stetson@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: smith@pa.msu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present new BVI photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6981, based mostly on ground-based CCD archival images. We present a new color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that reaches almost four magnitudes below the turn-off level. We performed new derivations of metallicity and morphological parameters of the evolved sequences, in good agreement with the results of previous authors, and obtain a value of [Fe/H] ≅ –1.50 in the new UVES scale. We also identify the cluster's blue straggler population. Comparing the radial distribution of these stars with the red giant branch population, we find that the blue stragglers are more centrally concentrated, as found in previous studies of blue stragglers in globular clusters. Taking advantage of the large field of view covered by our study, we analyzed the surface density profile of the cluster, and find extratidal main sequence stars out to r ≈ 14.'1, or about twice the tidal radius. We speculate that the presence of these stars may be due to tidal disruption in the course of NGC 6981's orbit, in which case tidal tails associated with the cluster may exist. We also take a fresh look at the variable stars in the cluster, recovering all previously known variables, including three SX Phoenicis stars. We also add three previously unknown RR Lyrae (one c-type and two ab-type) to the total census. Finally, comparing our CMD with unpublished data for M3 (NGC 5272), a cluster with a similar metallicity and horizontal branch morphology, we found that both objects are essentially coeval.

  2. A Photometric Study of the Outer Halo Globular Cluster NGC 5824

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A. R.; Andreuzzi, G.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Kunder, A. M.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.; Monelli, M.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Vivas, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    Multi-wavelength CCD photometry over 21 years has been used to produce deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) together with light curves for the variables in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 5824. Twenty-one new cluster RR Lyrae stars are identified, bringing the total to 47, of which 42 have reliable periods determined for the first time. The CMD is matched using BaSTI isochrones with ages of 13 Gyr, and reddening is found to be E(B-V)=0.15+/- 0.02; using the period-Wesenheit relation in two colors, the distance modulus is {(m-M)}0=17.45+/- 0.07 corresponding to a distance of 30.9 Kpc. The observations show no signs of populations that are significantly younger than the 13 Gyr stars. The width of the red giant branch does not allow for a spread in [{Fe}/{{H}}] greater than σ =0.05 {dex}, and there is no photometric evidence for widened or parallel sequences. The V,{c}{UBI} pseudo-CMD shows a bifurcation of the red giant branch that by analogy with other clusters is interpreted as being due to differing spectral signatures of the first (75%) and second (25%) generations of stars whose age difference is close enough that main-sequence (MS) turnoffs in the CMD are unresolved. The cluster MS is visible against the background out to a radial distance of ˜17 arcmin. We conclude that NGC 5824 appears to be a classical Oosterhoff Type II globular cluster, without overt signs of being a remnant of a now-disrupted dwarf galaxy.

  3. Globular Cluster Populations: Results Including S4G Late-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; McCabe, Kelsey; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Courtois, Helene M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Knapen, Johan H.; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-02-01

    Using 3.6 and 4.5 μm images of 73 late-type, edge-on galaxies from the S4G survey, we compare the richness of the globular cluster populations of these galaxies to those of early-type galaxies that we measured previously. In general, the galaxies presented here fill in the distribution for galaxies with lower stellar mass, M*, specifically {log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )\\lt 10, overlap the results for early-type galaxies of similar masses, and, by doing so, strengthen the case for a dependence of the number of globular clusters per 109M⊙ of galaxy stellar mass, TN, on M*. For 8.5\\lt {log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )\\lt 10.5 we find the relationship can be satisfactorily described as {T}{{N}}={({M}*/{10}6.7)}-0.56 when M* is expressed in solar masses. The functional form of the relationship is only weakly constrained, and extrapolation outside this range is not advised. Our late-type galaxies, in contrast to our early types, do not show the tendency for low-mass galaxies to split into two TN families. Using these results and a galaxy stellar mass function from the literature, we calculate that, in a volume-limited, local universe sample, clusters are most likely to be found around fairly massive galaxies (M* ˜ 1010.8M⊙) and present a fitting function for the volume number density of clusters as a function of parent-galaxy stellar mass. We find no correlation between TN and large-scale environment, but we do find a tendency for galaxies of fixed M* to have larger TN if they have converted a larger proportion of their baryons into stars.

  4. The galactic globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904 as a particle physics laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redondo J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Globular clusters have been used for a long time to test stellar evolution theories, and in particular to constrain novel forms of energy loss in low-mass stars. This includes constraints on axion properties, neutrino dipole moments, milli-charged particles, Kaluza-Klein gravitons, and many other phenomena. Depending on their interaction strength, these particles can be abundantly produced in stellar interiors, escape without further interaction, and thus drain energy directly from the stellar interior. Hence, they contribute directly to the stellar energy losses, thus modifying stellar evolution. Our goal is to re-examine such constraints in the light of modern data and updated stellar evolution codes, paying particular attention to systematic and statistical errors. As a first example, we consider the case of a neutrino magnetic moment that enhances the energy loss from the plasma process. In terms of the observed color-magnitude diagrams, the tip of the red giant branch (RGB has been identified as a sensitive observable of the effects of the energy losses due to a neutrino magnetic moment. Here we describe the consequences of adding the cooling effect due to a neutrino magnetic moment to the Princeton-Goddard-PUC (PGPUC stellar evolution code, exploring in particular the dependence of the position of the RGB tip on the neutrino magnetic moment. As a first application, we studied the position of the observed RGB tip in the case of the Galactic globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904, using the latest, high-precision, ground-based data from the P. B. Stetson database (2012, priv. comm.. We compare the empirical results with the PGPUC model predictions, and discuss the implied constraints on the value of the neutrino magnetic moment.

  5. An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıltan, Bülent; Baumgardt, Holger; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-02-08

    Intermediate-mass black holes should help us to understand the evolutionary connection between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes. However, the existence of intermediate-mass black holes is still uncertain, and their formation process is therefore unknown. It has long been suspected that black holes with masses 100 to 10,000 times that of the Sun should form and reside in dense stellar systems. Therefore, dedicated observational campaigns have targeted globular clusters for many decades, searching for signatures of these elusive objects. All candidate signatures appear radio-dim and do not have the X-ray to radio flux ratios required for accreting black holes. Based on the lack of an electromagnetic counterpart, upper limits of 2,060 and 470 solar masses have been placed on the mass of a putative black hole in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) from radio and X-ray observations, respectively. Here we show there is evidence for a central black hole in 47 Tucanae with a mass of solar masses when the dynamical state of the globular cluster is probed with pulsars. The existence of an intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of one of the densest clusters with no detectable electromagnetic counterpart suggests that the black hole is not accreting at a sufficient rate to make it electromagnetically bright and therefore, contrary to expectations, is gas-starved. This intermediate-mass black hole might be a member of an electromagnetically invisible population of black holes that grow into supermassive black holes in galaxies.

  6. Nucleation and crystallization of globular proteins — what we know and what is missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, F.; Vekilov, P. G.; Muschol, M.; Thomas, B. R.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, much progress has been made in understanding the nucleation and crystallization of globular proteins, including the formation of compositional and structural crystal defects. Insight into the interactions of (screened) protein macro-ions in solution, obtained from light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and osmotic pressure studies, can guide the search for crystallization conditions. These studies show that the nucleation of globular proteins is governed by the same principles as that of small molecules. However, failure to account for direct and indirect (hydrodynamic) protein interactions in the solutions results in unrealistic aggregation scenarios. Microscopic studies of numerous proteins reveal that crystals grow by the attachment of growth units through the same layer-spreading mechanisms as inorganic crystals. Investigations of the growth kinetics of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) reveal non-steady behavior under steady external conditions. Long-term variations in growth rates are due to changes in step-originating dislocation groups. Fluctuations on a shorter timescale reflect the non-linear dynamics of layer growth that results from the interplay between interfacial kinetics and bulk transport. Systematic gel electrophoretic analyses suggest that most HEWL crystallization studies have been performed with material containing other proteins at percent levels. Yet, sub-percent levels of protein impurities impede growth step propagation and play a role in the formation of structural/compositional inhomogeneities. In crystal growth from highly purified HEWL solutions, however, such inhomogeneities are much weaker and form only in response to unusually large changes in growth conditions. Equally important for connecting growth conditions to crystal perfection and diffraction resolution are recent advances in structural characterization through high-resolution Bragg reflection profiling and X-ray topography.

  7. Nucleation and Crystallization of Globular Proteins: What we Know and What is Missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, F.; Vekilov, P. G.; Muschol, M.; Thomas, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    Recently. much progress has been made in understanding the nucleation and crystallization of globular proteins, including the formation of compositional and structural crystal defects, Insight into the interactions of (screened) protein macro-ions in solution, obtained from light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and osmotic pressure studies. can guide the search for crystallization conditions. These studies show that the nucleation of globular proteins is governed by the same principles as that of small molecules. However, failure to account for direct and indirect (hydrodynamic) protein interactions in the solutions results in unrealistic aggregation scenarios. Microscopic studies of numerous proteins reveal that crystals grow by the attachment of growth units through the same layer-spreading mechanisms as inorganic crystals. Investigations of the growth kinetics of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) reveal non-steady behavior under steady external conditions. Long-term variations in growth rates are due to changes in step-originating dislocation groups. Fluctuations on a shorter timescale reflect the non-linear dynamics of layer growth that results from the interplay between interfacial kinetics and bulk transport. Systematic gel electrophoretic analyses suggest that most HEWL crystallization studies have been performed with material containing other proteins at percent levels. Yet, sub-percent levels of protein impurities impede growth step propagation and play a role in the formation of structural/compositional inhomogeneities. In crystal growth from highly purified HEWL solutions, however, such inhomogeneities are much weaker and form only in response to unusually large changes in growth conditions. Equally important for connecting growth conditions to crystal perfection and diffraction resolution are recent advances in structural characterization through high-resolution Bragg reflection profiling and X-ray topography.

  8. Pediatric head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  9. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes Participate in the IFN-γ Response to Filamentous Hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis in Infants, Children, and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Violette Dirix; Virginie Verscheure; Françoise Vermeulen; Iris De Schutter; Tessa Goetghebuer; Camille Locht; Françoise Mascart

    2012-01-01

    Infant CD4+ T-cell responses to bacterial infections or vaccines have been extensively studied, whereas studies on CD8 + T-cell responses focused mainly on viral and intracellular parasite infections. Here we investigated CD8 + T-cell responses upon Bordetella pertussis infection in infants, children, and adults and pertussis vaccination in infants. Filamentous hemagglutinin-specific IFN-γ secretion by circulating lymphocytes was blocked by anti-MHC-I or -MHC-II antibodies, suggesting that CD...

  10. Large-scale sequence analysis of hemagglutinin of influenza A virus identifies conserved regions suitable for targeting an anti-viral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahini, Leepakshi; Tempczyk-Russell, Anna; Agarwal, Ritu

    2010-02-17

    Influenza A viral surface protein, hemagglutinin, is the major target of neutralizing antibody response and hence a main constituent of all vaccine formulations. But due to its marked evolutionary variability, vaccines have to be reformulated so as to include the hemagglutinin protein from the emerging new viral strain. With the constant fear of a pandemic, there is critical need for the development of anti-viral strategies that can provide wider protection against any Influenza A pathogen. An anti-viral approach that is directed against the conserved regions of the hemaggutinin protein has a potential to protect against any current and new Influenza A virus and provide a solution to this ever-present threat to public health. Influenza A human hemagglutinin protein sequences available in the NCBI database, corresponding to H1, H2, H3 and H5 subtypes, were used to identify highly invariable regions of the protein. Nine such regions were identified and analyzed for structural properties like surface exposure, hydrophilicity and residue type to evaluate their suitability for targeting an anti-peptide antibody/anti-viral response. This study has identified nine conserved regions in the hemagglutinin protein, five of which have the structural characteristics suitable for an anti-viral/anti-peptide response. This is a critical step in the design of efficient anti-peptide antibodies as novel anti-viral agents against any Influenza A pathogen. In addition, these anti-peptide antibodies will provide broadly cross-reactive immunological reagents and aid the rapid development of vaccines against new and emerging Influenza A strains.

  11. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  12. Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  14. LABEL: fast and accurate lineage assignment with assessment of H5N1 and H9N2 influenza A hemagglutinins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S Shepard

    Full Text Available The evolutionary classification of influenza genes into lineages is a first step in understanding their molecular epidemiology and can inform the subsequent implementation of control measures. We introduce a novel approach called Lineage Assignment By Extended Learning (LABEL to rapidly determine cladistic information for any number of genes without the need for time-consuming sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, or manual annotation. Instead, LABEL relies on hidden Markov model profiles and support vector machine training to hierarchically classify gene sequences by their similarity to pre-defined lineages. We assessed LABEL by analyzing the annotated hemagglutinin genes of highly pathogenic (H5N1 and low pathogenicity (H9N2 avian influenza A viruses. Using the WHO/FAO/OIE H5N1 evolution working group nomenclature, the LABEL pipeline quickly and accurately identified the H5 lineages of uncharacterized sequences. Moreover, we developed an updated clade nomenclature for the H9 hemagglutinin gene and show a similarly fast and reliable phylogenetic assessment with LABEL. While this study was focused on hemagglutinin sequences, LABEL could be applied to the analysis of any gene and shows great potential to guide molecular epidemiology activities, accelerate database annotation, and provide a data sorting tool for other large-scale bioinformatic studies.

  15. New Insight into Filamentous Hemagglutinin Secretion Reveals a Role for Full-Length FhaB in Bordetella Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Jeffrey A; Scheller, Erich V; Noël, Christopher R; Cotter, Peggy A

    2015-08-18

    Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), a primary component of acellular pertussis vaccines, contributes to virulence, but how it functions mechanistically is unclear. FHA is first synthesized as an ~370-kDa preproprotein called FhaB. Removal of an N-terminal signal peptide and a large C-terminal prodomain (PD) during secretion results in "mature" ~250-kDa FHA, which has been assumed to be the biologically active form of the protein. Deletion of two C-terminal subdomains of FhaB did not affect production of functional FHA, and the mutant strains were indistinguishable from wild-type bacteria for their ability to adhere to the lower respiratory tract and to suppress inflammation in the lungs of mice. However, the mutant strains, which produced altered FhaB molecules, were eliminated from the lower respiratory tract much faster than wild-type B. bronchiseptica, suggesting a defect in resistance to early immune-mediated clearance. Our results revealed, unexpectedly, that full-length FhaB plays a critical role in B. bronchiseptica persistence in the lower respiratory tract. The Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a primary component of the acellular pertussis vaccine and an important virulence factor. FHA is initially produced as a large protein that is processed during secretion to the bacterial surface. As with most processed proteins, the mature form of FHA has been assumed to be the functional form of the protein. However, our results indicate that the full-length form plays an essential role in virulence in vivo. Furthermore, we have found that FHA contains intramolecular regulators of processing and that this control of processing is integral to its virulence activities. This report highlights the advantage of studying protein maturation and function simultaneously, as a role for the full-length form of FHA was evident only from in vivo infection studies and not from in vitro studies on the production or maturation of FHA or even from in vitro

  16. A Viable Recombinant Rhabdovirus Lacking Its Glycoprotein Gene and Expressing Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Is a Potent Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alex B.; Buonocore, Linda; Vogel, Leatrice; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Krammer, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of novel influenza viruses that cause devastating human disease is an ongoing threat and serves as an impetus for the continued development of novel approaches to influenza vaccines. Influenza vaccine development has traditionally focused on producing humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity, often against the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Here, we describe a new vaccine candidate that utilizes a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector backbone that lacks the native G surface glycoprotein gene (VSVΔG). The expression of the H5 HA of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN1203), and the NA of the mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) in the VSVΔG vector restored the ability of the recombinant virus to replicate in cell culture, without the requirement for the addition of trypsin. We show here that this recombinant virus vaccine candidate was nonpathogenic in mice when given by either the intramuscular or intranasal route of immunization and that the in vivo replication of VSVΔG-H5N1 is profoundly attenuated. This recombinant virus also provided protection against lethal H5N1 infection after a single dose. This novel approach to vaccination against HPAIVs may be widely applicable to other emerging strains of influenza virus. IMPORTANCE Preparation for a potentially catastrophic influenza pandemic requires novel influenza vaccines that are safe, can be produced and administered quickly, and are effective, both soon after administration and for a long duration. We have created a new influenza vaccine that utilizes an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector, to deliver and express influenza virus proteins against which vaccinated animals develop potent antibody responses. The influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, expressed on the surface of VSV particles, allowed this vaccine to grow in cell

  17. A DNA Vaccine That Targets Hemagglutinin to Antigen-Presenting Cells Protects Mice against H7 Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tor Kristian; Zhou, Fan; Cox, Rebecca; Bogen, Bjarne; Grødeland, Gunnveig

    2017-12-01

    Zoonotic influenza H7 viral infections have a case fatality rate of about 40%. Currently, no or limited human to human spread has occurred, but we may be facing a severe pandemic threat if the virus acquires the ability to transmit between humans. Novel vaccines that can be rapidly produced for global distribution are urgently needed, and DNA vaccines may be the only type of vaccine that allows for the speed necessary to quench an emerging pandemic. Here, we constructed DNA vaccines encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A/chicken/Italy/13474/99 (H7N1). In order to increase the efficacy of DNA vaccination, HA was targeted to either major histocompatibility complex class II molecules or chemokine receptors 1, 3, and 5 (CCR1/3/5) that are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). A single DNA vaccination with APC-targeted HA significantly increased antibody levels in sera compared to nontargeted control vaccines. The antibodies were confirmed neutralizing in an H7 pseudotype-based neutralization assay. Furthermore, the APC-targeted vaccines increased the levels of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells, and a single DNA vaccination could confer protection against a lethal challenge with influenza A/turkey/Italy/3889/1999 (H7N1) in mice. In conclusion, we have developed a vaccine that rapidly could contribute protection against a pandemic threat from avian influenza. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 constitute a pandemic threat that can cause severe illness and death in infected individuals. Vaccination is the main method of prophylaxis against influenza, but current vaccine strategies fall short in a pandemic situation due to a prolonged production time and insufficient production capabilities. In contrast, a DNA vaccine can be rapidly produced and deployed to prevent the potential escalation of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic. We here demonstrate that a single DNA delivery of hemagglutinin from an H7 influenza could mediate full

  18. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J; Fuchs, Serge Y; McDermott, Adrian B; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2015-12-16

    Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Here, we

  19. Diversity of the murine antibody response targeting influenza A(H1N1pdm09) hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jason R; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Spesock, April; Music, Nedzad; Guo, Zhu; Barrington, Robert; Stevens, James; Donis, Ruben O; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We infected mice with the 2009 influenza A pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09), boosted with an inactivated vaccine, and cloned immunoglobulins (Igs) from HA-specific B cells. Based on the redundancy in germline gene utilization, we inferred that between 72-130 unique IgH VDJ and 35 different IgL VJ combinations comprised the anti-HA recall response. The IgH VH1 and IgL VK14 variable gene families were employed most frequently. A representative panel of antibodies were cloned and expressed to confirm reactivity with H1N1pdm09 HA. The majority of the recombinant antibodies were of high avidity and capable of inhibiting H1N1pdm09 hemagglutination. Three of these antibodies were subtype-specific cross-reactive, binding to the HA of A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1), and one further reacted with A/swine/Iowa/15/1930(H1N1). These results help to define the genetic diversity of the influenza anti-HA antibody repertoire profile induced following infection and vaccination, which may facilitate the development of influenza vaccines that are more protective and broadly neutralizing. Protection against influenza viruses is mediated mainly by antibodies, and in most cases this antibody response is narrow, only providing protection against closely related viruses. In spite of this limited range of protection, recent findings indicate that individuals immune to one influenza virus may contain antibodies (generally a minority of the overall response) that are more broadly reactive. These findings have raised the possibility that influenza vaccines could induce a more broadly protective response, reducing the need for frequent vaccine strain changes. However, interpretation of these observations is hampered by the lack of quantitative characterization of the antibody repertoire. In this study, we used single-cell cloning of influenza HA-specific B cells to assess the diversity and nature of the antibody response to influenza hemagglutinin in mice. Our findings help to put bounds on the

  20. Genetic Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Genes of Wild-Type Measles Virus Circulating in China, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Background China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Principal Findings Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993–2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10−3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Conclusions Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China. PMID

  1. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn, which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in

  2. A viable recombinant rhabdovirus lacking its glycoprotein gene and expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase is a potent influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alex B; Buonocore, Linda; Vogel, Leatrice; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Krammer, Florian; Rose, John K

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of novel influenza viruses that cause devastating human disease is an ongoing threat and serves as an impetus for the continued development of novel approaches to influenza vaccines. Influenza vaccine development has traditionally focused on producing humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity, often against the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Here, we describe a new vaccine candidate that utilizes a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector backbone that lacks the native G surface glycoprotein gene (VSVΔG). The expression of the H5 HA of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN1203), and the NA of the mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) in the VSVΔG vector restored the ability of the recombinant virus to replicate in cell culture, without the requirement for the addition of trypsin. We show here that this recombinant virus vaccine candidate was nonpathogenic in mice when given by either the intramuscular or intranasal route of immunization and that the in vivo replication of VSVΔG-H5N1 is profoundly attenuated. This recombinant virus also provided protection against lethal H5N1 infection after a single dose. This novel approach to vaccination against HPAIVs may be widely applicable to other emerging strains of influenza virus. Preparation for a potentially catastrophic influenza pandemic requires novel influenza vaccines that are safe, can be produced and administered quickly, and are effective, both soon after administration and for a long duration. We have created a new influenza vaccine that utilizes an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector, to deliver and express influenza virus proteins against which vaccinated animals develop potent antibody responses. The influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, expressed on the surface of VSV particles, allowed this vaccine to grow in cell culture and induced a

  3. Identification and regulation of expression of a gene encoding a filamentous hemagglutinin-related protein in Bordetella holmesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross Roy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella holmesii is a human pathogen closely related to B. pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough. It is able to cause disease in immunocompromised patients, but also whooping cough-like symptoms in otherwise healthy individuals. However, virtually nothing was known so far about the underlying virulence mechanisms and previous attempts to identify virulence factors related to those of B. pertussis were not successful. Results By use of a PCR approach we were able to identify a B. holmesii gene encoding a protein with significant sequence similarities to the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA of B. avium and to a lesser extent to the FHA proteins of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica. For these human and animal pathogens FHA is a crucial virulence factor required for successful colonization of the host. Interestingly, the B. holmesii protein shows a relatively high overall sequence similarity with the B. avium protein, while sequence conservation with the FHA proteins of the human and mammalian pathogens is quite limited and is most prominent in signal sequences required for their export to the cell surface. In the other Bordetellae expression of the fhaB gene encoding FHA was shown to be regulated by the master regulator of virulence, the BvgAS two-component system. Recently, we identified orthologs of BvgAS in B. holmesii, and here we show that this system also contributes to regulation of fhaB expression in B. holmesii. Accordingly, the purified BvgA response regulator of B. holmesii was shown to bind specifically in the upstream region of the fhaB promoter in vitro in a manner similar to that previously described for the BvgA protein of B. pertussis. Moreover, by deletion analysis of the fhaB promoter region we show that the BvgA binding sites are relevant for in vivo transcription from this promoter in B. holmesii. Conclusion The data reported here show that B. holmesii is endowed with a

  4. Divergent Requirement of Fc-Fcγ Receptor Interactions for In Vivo Protection against Influenza Viruses by Two Pan-H5 Hemagglutinin Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangshuang; Ren, Huanhuan; Jiang, Wenbo; Chen, Honglin; Hu, Hongxing; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhou, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that Fc-Fcγ receptor (FcγR) interactions are required for in vivo protection against influenza viruses by broadly reactive anti-hemagglutinin (HA) stem, but not virus strain-specific, anti-receptor binding site (RBS), antibodies (Abs). Since only a few Abs recognizing epitopes in the head region but outside the RBS have been tested against single-challenge virus strains, it remains unknown whether Fc-FcγR interactions are required for in vivo protection by Abs recognizing epitopes outside the RBS and whether the requirement is virus strain specific or epitope specific. In the present study, we therefore investigated the requirements for in vivo protection using two pan-H5 Abs, 65C6 and 100F4. We generated chimeric Abs, 65C6/IgG2a and 100F4/IgG2a, which preferentially engage activating FcγRs, and isogenic forms, 65C6/D265A and 100F4/D265A, which do not bind FcγR. Virus neutralizing activity, binding, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and in vivo protection of these Abs were compared using three H5 strains, A/Shenzhen/406H/2006 (SZ06), A/chicken/Shanxi/2/2006 (SX06), and A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14). We found that all four chimeric Abs bound and neutralized the SZ06 and NE14 strains but poorly inhibited the SX06 strain. 65C6/IgG2a and 100F4/IgG2a, but not 65C6/D265A and 100F4/D265A, mediated ADCC against target cells expressing HA derived from all three virus strains. Interestingly, both 65C6/IgG2a and 65C6/D265A demonstrated comparable protection against all three virus strains in vivo; however, 100F4/IgG2a, but not 100F4/D265A, showed in vivo protection. Thus, we conclude that Fc-FcγR interactions are required for in vivo protection by 100F4, but not by 65C6, and therefore, protection is not virus strain specific but epitope specific.IMPORTANCE Abs play an important role in immune protection against influenza virus infection. Fc-FcγR interactions are required for in vivo protection by broadly

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  6. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using

  7. Waco Head Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Para

    The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 led to the formation of three separate Head Start Programs in Waco, Texas. The first year, 1,500 children were involved. Of these, 40 percent were Negro, 30 percent Latin American, and 30 percent white. All teachers received a week of preparatory study at the University of Texas. The program involved four areas…

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  9. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the brain. During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound ... The fontanel provides an opening for the sound waves to get through and reach the brain. Why It's Done Doctors order head ultrasounds when ...

  10. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  12. Head nurses as middle managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P F

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between head nurses and their staff nurses influences staff turnover rates and job satisfaction. In this article the author describes the measures taken by the management of Greater Southeast Community Hospital in response to an increasing turnover rate among staff RNs. In recognition of the head nurse role vis-d-vis attrition rates and job satisfaction, head nurses were upgraded to department head status and rigorous head nurse performance standards were developed. These standards required clinical expertise, managerial competence, and accountability. It is the author's contention that clinical practice and staff morale are directly related to a clearly defined head nurse role.

  13. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  14. Radial Head Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-articular displacement and angulation acceptable for non-operative management has yet to be conclusively defined. Similarly the treatment of type III and IV fractures remain controversial. Traditional radial head excision is associated with valgus instability and should be considered only for patients with low functional demands. Comparative studies have shown improved results from internal fixation over excision. Internal fixation should only be attempted when anatomic reduction and initiation of early motion can be achieved. Authors have reported that results from fixation are poorer and complication rates are higher if more than three fragments are present. Radial head arthroplasty aims to reconstruct the native head and is indicated when internal fixation is not feasible and in the presence of complex elbow injuries. Overstuffing of the radiocapitellar joint is a frequent technical fault and has significant adverse effects on elbow biomechanics. Modular design improves the surgeon’s ability to reconstruct the native joint. Two randomised controlled trials have shown improved clinical outcomes and lower complication rate following arthroplasty when compared to internal fixation. Conclusion: We have presented details regarding the treatment of various types of radial head fractures - further evidence, however, is still required to provide clarity over the role of these different management strategies. PMID:29290880

  15. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey XV. The Formation Efficiencies of Globular Clusters in Early-Type Galaxies: The Effects of Mass and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Eric W.; Jordan, Andres; Cote, Patrick; Takamiya, Marianne; West, Michael J.; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Ferrarese, Laura; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of stellar mass contained in globular clusters (GCs), also measured by number as the specific frequency, is a fundamental quantity that reflects both a galaxy's early star formation and its entire merging history. We present specific frequencies, luminosities, and mass fractions for the globular cluster systems of 100 early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, the largest homogeneous catalog of its kind. We find that 1) GC mass fractions can be high in both giants and d...

  16. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan). Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization. PMID:20735849

  17. Ex vivo analysis of human memory B lymphocytes specific for A and B influenza hemagglutinin by polychromatic flow-cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Monia; Alleri, Liliana; Angiolini, Francesca; Buricchi, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Sammicheli, Chiara; Nuti, Sandra; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Isnardi, Isabelle; Fragapane, Elena; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact that human memory B-cells (MBC), primed by previous infections or vaccination, exert on neutralizing antibody responses against drifted influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is key to design best protective vaccines. A major obstacle to these studies is the lack of practical tools to analyze HA-specific MBCs in human PBMCs ex vivo. We report here an efficient method to identify MBCs carrying HA-specific BCR in frozen PBMC samples. By using fluorochrome-tagged recombinant HA baits, and vaccine antigens from mismatched influenza strains to block BCR-independent binding, we developed a protocol suitable for quantitative, functional and molecular analysis of single MBCs specific for HA from up to two different influenza strains in the same tube. This approach will permit to identify the naive and MBC precursors of plasmablasts and novel MBCs appearing in the blood following infection or vaccination, thus clarifying the actual contribution of pre-existing MBCs in antibody responses against novel influenza viruses. Finally, this protocol can allow applying high throughput deep sequencing to analyze changes in the repertoire of HA⁺ B-cells in longitudinal samples from large cohorts of vaccinees and infected subjects with the ultimate goal of understanding the in vivo B-cell dynamics driving the evolution of broadly cross-protective antibody responses.

  18. Ex vivo analysis of human memory B lymphocytes specific for A and B influenza hemagglutinin by polychromatic flow-cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Bardelli

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact that human memory B-cells (MBC, primed by previous infections or vaccination, exert on neutralizing antibody responses against drifted influenza hemagglutinin (HA is key to design best protective vaccines. A major obstacle to these studies is the lack of practical tools to analyze HA-specific MBCs in human PBMCs ex vivo. We report here an efficient method to identify MBCs carrying HA-specific BCR in frozen PBMC samples. By using fluorochrome-tagged recombinant HA baits, and vaccine antigens from mismatched influenza strains to block BCR-independent binding, we developed a protocol suitable for quantitative, functional and molecular analysis of single MBCs specific for HA from up to two different influenza strains in the same tube. This approach will permit to identify the naive and MBC precursors of plasmablasts and novel MBCs appearing in the blood following infection or vaccination, thus clarifying the actual contribution of pre-existing MBCs in antibody responses against novel influenza viruses. Finally, this protocol can allow applying high throughput deep sequencing to analyze changes in the repertoire of HA⁺ B-cells in longitudinal samples from large cohorts of vaccinees and infected subjects with the ultimate goal of understanding the in vivo B-cell dynamics driving the evolution of broadly cross-protective antibody responses.

  19. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette J Piaggio

    Full Text Available A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV. We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event, as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  20. Amino Acid substitutions in matrix, fusion and hemagglutinin proteins of wild measles virus for adaptation to vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ji Yi; Ihara, Toshiaki; Komase, Katsuhiro; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Wild-type measles virus (MV) is isolated in B95a but not in Vero cells. Through an adaptation process of wild-type MV to Vero cells, several amino acid substitutions were reported. Six strains were adapted to Vero cells and membrane (M), fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) genes were sequenced. Cell fusion was assessed and recombinant MVs were constructed, having wild-type H or M gene with or without mutations. No F gene substitution was noted. Amino-acid substitutions at positions 481 from Asn to Tyr (N481Y) and 546 from Ser to Gly (S546G) were observed in the H protein. Glu at position 89 of the M protein was substituted for Gly (E89G) and two mutations were noted at positions 62 (S62R) and 83 (S83P) in M protein. Recombinant viruses with mutation(s) detected in Vero-adapted strains induced a cytopathic effect and grew well in Vero cells, but those with the wild type did not. Recombinant viruses with mutation(s) demonstrated lower viral growth in B95a cells. Substitutions of E89G, S62R and S83P of the M protein were newly observed through adaptation to Vero cells, besides the mutations described in previous reports, with varying adaptation for each strain. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Different Origins of Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Protein Modulate the Replication Efficiency and Pathogenicity of the Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-hui Jin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exact effects of different origins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN protein to the biological characteristics of the virus, we systematically studied the correlation between the HN protein and NDV virulence by exchanging the HN of velogenic or lentogenic NDV strains with the HN from other strains of different virulence. The results revealed that the rSG10 or rLaSota derivatives bearing the HN gene of other viruses exhibited decreased or increased hemadsorption (HAd, neuraminidase and fusion promotion activities. In vitro and in vivo tests further showed that changes in replication level, tissue tropism and virulence of the chimeric viruses were also consistent with these biological activities. These findings demonstrated that the balance among three biological activities caused variation in replication and pathogenicity of the virus, which was closely related to the origin of the HN protein. Our study highlights the importance of the HN glycoprotein in modulating the virulence of NDV and contributes to a more complete understanding of the virulence of NDV.

  2. Two glycosylation sites in H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin that affect binding preference by computer-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian Chen

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of H5N1 influenza viruses (IVs are responsible for human deaths, especially in North Africa and Southeast Asian. The binding of hemagglutinin (HA on the viral surface to host sialic acid (SA receptors is a requisite step in the infection process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N1 viruses can be divided into 10 clades based on their HA sequences, with most human IVs centered from clade 1 and clade 2.1 to clade 2.3. Protein sequence alignment in various clades indicates the high conservation in the receptor-binding domains (RBDs is essential for binding with the SA receptor. Two glycosylation sites, 158N and 169N, also participate in receptor recognition. In the present work, we attempted to construct a serial H5N1 HA models including diverse glycosylated HAs to simulate the binding process with various SA receptors in silico. As the SA-α-2,3-Gal and SA-α-2,6-Gal receptor adopted two distinctive topologies, straight and fishhook-like, respectively, the presence of N-glycans at 158N would decrease the affinity of HA for all of the receptors, particularly SA-α-2,6-Gal analogs. The steric clashes of the huge glycans shown at another glycosylation site, 169N, located on an adjacent HA monomer, would be more effective in preventing the binding of SA-α-2,3-Gal analogs.

  3. Two glycosylation sites in H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin that affect binding preference by computer-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wentian; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of H5N1 influenza viruses (IVs) are responsible for human deaths, especially in North Africa and Southeast Asian. The binding of hemagglutinin (HA) on the viral surface to host sialic acid (SA) receptors is a requisite step in the infection process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N1 viruses can be divided into 10 clades based on their HA sequences, with most human IVs centered from clade 1 and clade 2.1 to clade 2.3. Protein sequence alignment in various clades indicates the high conservation in the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) is essential for binding with the SA receptor. Two glycosylation sites, 158N and 169N, also participate in receptor recognition. In the present work, we attempted to construct a serial H5N1 HA models including diverse glycosylated HAs to simulate the binding process with various SA receptors in silico. As the SA-α-2,3-Gal and SA-α-2,6-Gal receptor adopted two distinctive topologies, straight and fishhook-like, respectively, the presence of N-glycans at 158N would decrease the affinity of HA for all of the receptors, particularly SA-α-2,6-Gal analogs. The steric clashes of the huge glycans shown at another glycosylation site, 169N, located on an adjacent HA monomer, would be more effective in preventing the binding of SA-α-2,3-Gal analogs.

  4. The Encapsulation of Hemagglutinin in Protein Bodies Achieves a Stronger Immune Response in Mice than the Soluble Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Anna; Melnik, Stanislav; Tschofen, Marc; Arcalis, Elsa; Phan, Hoang T; Gresch, Ulrike; Lampel, Johannes; Conrad, Udo; Stoger, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Zein is a water-insoluble polymer from maize seeds that has been widely used to produce carrier particles for the delivery of therapeutic molecules. We encapsulated a recombinant model vaccine antigen in newly formed zein bodies in planta by generating a fusion construct comprising the ectodomain of hemagglutinin subtype 5 and the N-terminal part of γ-zein. The chimeric protein was transiently produced in tobacco leaves, and H5-containing protein bodies (PBs) were used to immunize mice. An immune response was achieved in all mice treated with H5-zein, even at low doses. The fusion to zein markedly enhanced the IgG response compared the soluble H5 control, and the effect was similar to a commercial adjuvant. The co-administration of adjuvants with the H5-zein bodies did not enhance the immune response any further, suggesting that the zein portion itself mediates an adjuvant effect. While the zein portion used to induce protein body formation was only weakly immunogenic, our results indicate that zein-induced PBs are promising production and delivery vehicles for subunit vaccines.

  5. Protection against Multiple Subtypes of Influenza Viruses by Virus-Like Particle Vaccines Based on a Hemagglutinin Conserved Epitope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We selected the conserved sequence in the stalk region of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA trimmer, the long alpha helix (LAH, as the vaccine candidate sequence, and inserted it into the major immunodominant region (MIR of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc, and, by using the E. coli expression system, we prepared a recombinant protein vaccine LAH-HBc in the form of virus-like particles (VLP. Intranasal immunization of mice with this LAH-HBc VLP plus cholera toxin B subunit with 0.2% of cholera toxin (CTB* adjuvant could effectively elicit humoral and cellular immune responses and protect mice against a lethal challenge of homologous influenza viruses (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8 (H1N1. In addition, passage of the immune sera containing specific antibodies to naïve mice rendered them resistant against a lethal homologous challenge. Immunization with LAH-HBc VLP vaccine plus CTB* adjuvant could also fully protect mice against a lethal challenge of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus or the avian H9N2 virus and could partially protect mice against a lethal challenge of the avian H5N1 influenza virus. This study demonstrated that the LAH-HBc VLP vaccine based on a conserved sequence of the HA trimmer stalk region is a promising candidate vaccine for developing a universal influenza vaccine against multiple influenza viruses infections.

  6. Protection against multiple subtypes of influenza viruses by virus-like particle vaccines based on a hemagglutinin conserved epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoheng; Zheng, Dan; Li, Changgui; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Wenting; Liu, Xueying; Fang, Fang; Chen, Ze

    2015-01-01

    We selected the conserved sequence in the stalk region of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) trimmer, the long alpha helix (LAH), as the vaccine candidate sequence, and inserted it into the major immunodominant region (MIR) of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc), and, by using the E. coli expression system, we prepared a recombinant protein vaccine LAH-HBc in the form of virus-like particles (VLP). Intranasal immunization of mice with this LAH-HBc VLP plus cholera toxin B subunit with 0.2% of cholera toxin (CTB(*)) adjuvant could effectively elicit humoral and cellular immune responses and protect mice against a lethal challenge of homologous influenza viruses (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) (H1N1)). In addition, passage of the immune sera containing specific antibodies to naïve mice rendered them resistant against a lethal homologous challenge. Immunization with LAH-HBc VLP vaccine plus CTB(*) adjuvant could also fully protect mice against a lethal challenge of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus or the avian H9N2 virus and could partially protect mice against a lethal challenge of the avian H5N1 influenza virus. This study demonstrated that the LAH-HBc VLP vaccine based on a conserved sequence of the HA trimmer stalk region is a promising candidate vaccine for developing a universal influenza vaccine against multiple influenza viruses infections.

  7. The Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinins HagB and HagC are major mediators of adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, E; Millhouse, E; Doyle, R; Culshaw, S; Ramage, G; Moran, G P

    2017-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium associated with chronic periodontitis that possesses a family of genes encoding hemagglutinins required for heme acquisition. In this study we generated ΔhagB and ΔhagC mutants in strain W83 and demonstrate that both hagB and hagC are required for adherence to oral epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, a double ΔhagB/ΔhagC mutant had less severe adherence defects than either of the single mutants, but was found to exhibit increased expression of the gingipain-encoding genes rgpA and kgp, suggesting that a ΔhagB/ΔhagC mutant is only viable in populations of cells that exhibit increased expression of genes involved in heme acquisition. Disruption of hagB in the fimbriated strain ATCC33277 demonstrated that HagB is also required for stable attachment of fimbriated bacteria to oral epithelial cells. Mutants of hagC were also found to form defective single and multi-species biofilms that had reduced biomass relative to biofilms formed by the wild-type strain. This study highlights the hitherto unappreciated importance of these genes in oral colonization and biofilm formation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushnell Ruth V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan. Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization.

  9. Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Michelle D.; Job, Emma R.; Deng, Yi-Mo; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Reading, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV) originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24638204

  10. Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Tate

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity.

  11. Pseudomonas fluorescens filamentous hemagglutinin, an iron-regulated protein, is an important virulence factor that modulates bacterial pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common bacterial pathogen to a wide range of aquaculture animals including various species of fish. In this study, we employed proteomic analysis and identified filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA as an iron-responsive protein secreted by TSS, a pathogenic P. fluorescens isolate. In vitro study showed that compared to the wild type, the fha mutant TSSfha (i exhibited a largely similar vegetative growth profile but significantly retarded in the ability of biofilm growth and producing extracellular matrix, (ii displayed no apparent flagella and motility, (iii was defective in the attachment to host cells and unable to form self-aggregation, (iv displayed markedly reduced capacity of hemagglutination and surviving in host serum. In vivo infection analysis revealed that TSSfha was significantly attenuated in the ability of dissemination in fish tissues and inducing host mortality, and that antibody blocking of the natural FHA produced by the wild type TSS impaired the infectivity of the pathogen. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot as a subunit vaccine, recombinant FHA elicited a significant protection against lethal TSS challenge. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that P. fluorescens FHA is a key virulence factor essential to multiple biological processes associated with pathogenicity.

  12. Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgwardt, Derek S.; Martin, Aaron D.; van Hemert, Jonathan R.; Yang, Jianyi; Fischer, Carol L.; Recker, Erica N.; Nair, Prashant R.; Vidva, Robinson; Chandrashekaraiah, Shwetha; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Drake, David; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Vali, Shireen; Zhang, Yang; Brogden, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9 μM and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0 μM. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0 μM histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02 μM HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and TNFα responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation.

  13. The difference in metallicity distribution functions of halo stars and globular clusters as a function of galaxy type. A tracer of globular cluster formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Bastian, N.; Rejkuba, M.; Hilker, M.; Kissler-Patig, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Observations of globular clusters (GCs) and field stars in the halos of the giant elliptical galaxy Cen A and the spiral galaxy M 31 show a large range of cluster-to-star number ratios (or "specific frequencies"). The cluster-to-star ratio decreases with increasing metallicity by over a factor of 100-1000, at all galactocentric radii and with a slope that does not seem to depend on radius. In dwarf galaxies, the GCs are also more metal-poor than the field stars on average. These observations indicate a strong dependence of either the cluster formation efficiency and/or the cluster destruction rate on metallicity and environment. Aims: We aim to explain the observed trends by considering the various effects that influence the cluster-to-star ratio as a function of metallicity, environment and cosmological history. Methods: We discuss the following effects that may influence the observed cluster-to-star ratio: (a) the formation efficiency of GCs; (b) the destruction of embedded GCs by gas expulsion; (c) the maximum masses of GCs; (d) the destruction of GCs by tidal stripping, dynamical friction, and tidal shocks as a function of environment; (e) the hierarchical assembly of GC systems during galaxy formation and the dependence on metallicity. Results: We show that both the cluster formation efficiency and the maximum cluster mass increase with metallicity, so they cannot explain the observed trend. Destruction of GCs by tidal stripping and dynamical friction destroy clusters mostly within the inner few kpc, whereas the cluster-to-star ratio trend is observed over a much larger range of galactocentric radii. We show that cluster destruction by tidal shocks from giant molecular clouds in the high-density formation environments of GCs becomes increasingly efficient towards high galaxy masses and, hence, towards high metallicities. The predicted cluster-to-star ratio decreases by a factor 100-1000 towards high metallicities and should only weakly depend on

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  18. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  20. Peculiarities of dynamic evaluation of globular formation outlines of the lungs with multislice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Kolmogorov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visualization of infiltration in lung tissue surrounding the globular formation of the lungs (GFL determined by X-ray is one of the important points in the differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer, specific and non-specific inflammatory processes. At CT gauge body phantoms test facilities are widely used for evaluating the performance of scanners that allow the evaluation of scanner characteristics : noise, contrast sensitivity, positioning accuracy, stiffness of the radiation beam, the layer thickness, spatial resolution, etc.Aim. To develop a methodology for assessing the GFL outlines of the dynamics of multislice computed tomography (MSCT by selecting the optimal image processing algorithms.Materials and methods. The visual analysis of two- component physical model images of the electronic window level (WL and electronic window width (WW was installed on the basis of the best conditions for studying a specific group of tissues. In the case of indistinct, poorly defined outlines of globular formations, visual assessment is operator-dependent and requires development and application of quantitative methods of analysis. For a quantitative description of the outlines of the image of the GFL model, a vector in a polar coordinate system coming from the center of the figure mass bounded by the outline was used. The following outline complexity measures were adopted: modified Shannon information entropy H(S(k for k harmonics of the normalized spectral power density S(k of the length of oscillation of loop radius vector R(n; the number of local maxima L of signature radius vector R(n; the maximum value of the normalized power spectral density S(k; product (multiplicity of the entropy H(S and the number of local maxima L.Results. “Multiplicity”, “the number of local maxima” of the outline depend on the GFL geometric dimensions and cannot be used for diagnosis without first normalizing for GFL outline length. The parameters

  1. The Globular Cluster Systems of Nearby Edge-On Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Leisa Kay

    1994-01-01

    Globular clusters (GC's) are well-ordered, compact groupings of stars, containing roughly 100,000 members confined to a spherical space several parsecs in diameter. They are probably a major component of every galaxy. The constituent stars are mostly metal-poor and old. The light from these objects is dominated by the emission from red giants and moderate-mass main sequence stars. About 200 GCs populate the halo of our Galaxy, showing a R1/4 falloff symmetric about the Galactic center. They may represent an earlier phase in the Milky Way's evolution, when it was still largely spherically symmetric and was only beginning to collapse to the disk seen today. These objects may be ancient even on universal time scales, constraining cosmological models of the age of the universe itself. They may comprise the closest and easiest way to study relics of the age when galaxies first formed. The Michigan State University Visual CCD Camera at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory was used to map the GC systems (GCS's) of several nearby spiral galaxies and to obtain four-filter visual photometry of the cluster's integrated light. This information will enhance our understanding of galaxy formation and the dynamics that govern galaxy evolution and allow us to explore the universality of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF) and its applicability to the question of the extragalactic distance scale. Three nearby, nearly edge-on spiral galaxies (NGC 4460, NGC 7640, and NGC 891) were examined. The observations confirmed the existence of GCSs in each galaxy and approached the peak of the GCLF, allowing determination of that peak using Gaussian fits. The colors were used to filter the initial point source list from each filter and to construct a GCS likelihood metric for each source, which enabled further filtering and the production of a ranked list of GC candidates for each galaxy. This metric's usefulness was confirmed using the Milky Way's GCS. The total GC population was

  2. Positive effect of Sc and Zr on globular microstructure formation in AA7075 thixoforming feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogal, Ł.; Dutkiewicz, J.; Lityńska-Dobrzańska, L.; Olszowska-Sobieraj, B.; Modigell, M.

    2011-05-01

    One of methods of obtaining a fine globular microstructure in a semi-solid range, necessary for thixoforming process, is modifiers additions. For this purpose 0.5 weight percent of modifying elements-scandium and zirconium-was added to 7075 alloy. The microstructure of such alloy consisted of homogeneously distributed globular grains of solid solution with the following chemical composition: Mg - 1.9%, Al - 91.6%, Cu - 1.0%, Zn - 5.5% (all in wt.%). Quantitative metallographic analysis showed that the average grain size was 23.5 μm, much smaller than in the alloy without additions and 3.08% volume fraction of precipitates in the form of a layer between spherical α(Al) grains. X-ray phase analysis of the 7075 alloy with Sc and Zr additions confirmed the dominant presence of aluminum solid solution and the intermetallic hexagonal phase MgZn2. Electron diffraction pattern confirmed location of η MgZn2 phase at the grain boundaries. EDS chemical analysis of the η MgZn2 phase showed following content of elements: Mg - 17.2%, Al - 20.4%, Cu - 27.8%, Zn - 34.6%. The larger amount of Cu and Al indicated non-stoichiometry of the η phase, which can be presented with a formula [Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2]. Additionally, inside the aluminum solution, small, square-shaped precipitations enriched with Sc and Zr were observed. Electron diffraction pattern allowed identification of the precipitates as cubic Al3(Sc,Zr) phase. The average hardness of feedstock was 105 HV5. DSC analysis during heating of the alloy enabled the estimation of a solidus line, at temperature of 548° C and a liquidus line at temperature: 656° C. For cooling, the temperatures for solidus and liquidus were 545° C and 636° C respectively. Additionally, the relation of liquid phase as a function of temperature was determined. Measurements of rheological properties in the semi-solid range, using the Searl system indicated that an increase of a particle size leads to an observable decrease of viscosity during

  3. Chemical Complexity in the Eu-enhanced Monometallic Globular NGC 5986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Olszewski, Edward W.; Walker, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    NGC 5986 is a poorly studied but relatively massive Galactic globular cluster that shares several physical and morphological characteristics with “iron-complex” clusters known to exhibit significant metallicity and heavy-element dispersions. In order to determine whether NGC 5986 joins the iron-complex cluster class, we investigated the chemical composition of 25 red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch cluster stars using high-resolution spectra obtained with the Magellan-M2FS instrument. Cluster membership was verified using a combination of radial velocity and [Fe/H] measurements, and we found the cluster to have a mean heliocentric radial velocity of +99.76 km s-1 (σ = 7.44 km s-1). We derived a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.54 dex (σ = 0.08 dex), but the cluster’s small dispersion in [Fe/H] and low [La/Eu] abundance preclude it from being an iron-complex cluster. NGC 5986 has =+0.76 {dex} (σ = 0.08 dex), which is among the highest ratios detected in a Galactic cluster, but the small [Eu/Fe] dispersion is puzzling because such high values near [Fe/H] ˜ -1.5 are typically only found in dwarf galaxies exhibiting large [Eu/Fe] variations. NGC 5986 exhibits classical globular cluster characteristics, such as uniformly enhanced [α/Fe] ratios, a small dispersion in Fe-peak abundances, and (anti)correlated light-element variations. Similar to NGC 2808, we find evidence that NGC 5986 may host at least four to five populations with distinct light-element compositions, and the presence of a clear Mg-Al anticorrelation along with an Al-Si correlation suggests that the cluster gas experienced processing at temperatures ≳65-70 MK. However, the current data do not support burning temperatures exceeding ˜100 MK. We find some evidence that the first- and second-generation stars in NGC 5986 may be fully spatially mixed, which could indicate that the cluster has lost a significant fraction of its original mass. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m

  4. Primordial main equence binary stars in the globular cluster M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of five short-period variables near the center of the metal-rich globular cluster M71. Our observations consist of multiepoch VI charge coupled device (CCD) images centered on the cluster and covering a 6.3 min x 6.3 min field. Four of these variables are contact eclipsing binaries with periods between 0.35 and 0.41 days; one is a detached or semidetached eclipsing binary with a period of 0.56 days. Two of the variables were first identified as possible eclipsing binaries in an earlier survey by Hodder et al. (1992). We have used a variety of arguments to conclude that all five binary stars are probable members of M71, a result that is consistent with the low number (0.15) of short-period field binaries expected along this line of sight. Based on a simple model of how contact binaries evolve from initially detached binaries, we have determined a lower limit of 1.3% on the frequency of primordial binaries in M71 with initial orbital periods in the range 2.5 - 5 days. This implies that the overall primordial binary frequency, f, is 22(sup +26)(sub -12)% assuming df/d log P = const ( the 'flat' distribution), or f = 57(sup +15)(sub -8)% for df/d log P = 0.032 log P + const as observed for G-dwarf binaries in the solar neighborhood (the 'sloped' distribution). Both estimates of f correspond to binaries with initial periods shorter than 800 yr since any longer-period binaries would have been disrupted over the lifetime of the cluster. Our short-period binary frequency is in excellent agreement with the observed frequency of red-giant binaries observed in globulars if we adopt the flat distribution. For the sloped distribution, our results significantly overestimate the number of red-giant binaries. All of the short-period M71 binaries lie within 1 mag of the luminosity of the cluster turnoff in the color-magnitude diagram despite the fact we should have easily detected similar eclipsing binaries 2 - 2.5 mag fainter than this. We discuss the

  5. Modification of structure and pattern of lipid monolayer on water and solid surfaces in presence of globular protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Bijay Kumar; Kundu, Sarathi

    2017-05-01

    Langmuir monolayers of phospholipids at the air-water interface are well-established model systems for mimicking biological membranes and hence are useful for studying lipid-protein interactions. In the present work, phases and phase transformations occurring in the lipid (DMPA) monolayer in the presence of globular protein (BSA) at neutral subphase pH (≈7.0) are highlighted and the corresponding in-plane pattern and morphology are explored from the surface pressure (π) - specific molecular area (A) isotherm, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) both at air-water and air-solid interfaces. Films of pure lipid and lipid-protein complexes are deposited on solid surfaces by Langmuir-Blodgett method. Due to the presence of BSA molecules, phases and domain pattern changes in comparison with that of the pure DMPA. Moreover, accumulations of globular proteins in between lipid domains are also visible through BAM. AFM shows that the mixed film has relatively bigger globular-like morphology in comparison with that of pure DMPA domains. Combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between protein and lipid are responsible for such modifications.

  6. Where are we heading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, L.A. [Mobil Corporation, (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry`s participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  7. Radial Head Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-arti...

  8. Formation of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries with Non-degenerate Donors in Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Rocha, Cassio A. da; Van, Kenny X.; Nandez, Jose L. A., E-mail: nata.ivanova@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E7 (Canada)

    2017-07-10

    In this Letter, we propose a formation channel for low-mass X-ray binaries with black hole accretors and non-degenerate donors via grazing tidal encounters with subgiants. We estimate that in a typically dense globular cluster with a core density of 10{sup 5} stars pc{sup −3}, the formation rates are about one binary per Gyr per 50–100 retained black holes. The donors—stripped subgiants—will be strongly underluminous when compared to subgiant or giant branch stars of the same colors. The products of tidal stripping are underluminous by at least one magnitude for several hundred million years when compared to normal stars of the same color, and differ from underluminous red stars that could be produced by non-catastrophic mass transfer in an ordinary binary. The dynamically formed binaries become quiescent LMXBs, with lifetimes of about a Gyr. The expected number of X-ray binaries is one per 50–200 retained black holes, while the expected number of strongly underluminous subsubgiant is about half this. The presence of strongly underluminous stars in a GC may be indicative of the presence of black holes.

  9. The CN–CH Positive Correlation in the Globular Cluster NGC 5286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dongwook; Hong, Seungsoo; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: dwlim@yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: ywlee2@yonsei.ac.kr [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research and Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-20

    We performed low-resolution spectroscopy of the red giant stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 5286, which is known to show intrinsic heavy element abundance variations. We found that the observed stars in this GC are clearly divided into three subpopulations by CN index (CN-weak, CN-intermediate, and CN-strong). The CN-strong stars are also enhanced in the calcium HK′ (7.4 σ ) and CH (5.1 σ ) indices, while the CN-intermediate stars show no significant difference in the strength of the HK′ index from the CN-weak stars. From the comparison with high-resolution spectroscopic data, we found that the CN- and HK′-strong stars are also enhanced in the abundances of Fe and s -process elements. It appears, therefore, that these stars are later-generation stars affected by some supernova enrichment in addition to the asymptotic giant branch ejecta. In addition, unlike normal GCs, sample stars in NGC 5286 show the CN–CH positive correlation, strengthening our previous suggestion that this positive correlation is only discovered in GCs with heavy element abundance variations, such as M22 and NGC 6273.

  10. Linking Dynamical and Stellar Evolution in the Metal-Poor Globular Cluster M92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason

    2017-08-01

    We propose a 5 orbit HST program to acquire UV imaging at the center of the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6341 (M92). Our program is designed to achieve two science goals with a single data set, 1.) to directly measure the diffusion of stars through the massive cluster's core, 2.) to pinpoint the phase of post main-sequence evolution at which [Fe/H] = -2.3 stars lose their mass. Our novel technique will achieve these goals by using the full power of WFC3's exquisite UV sensitivity at 100s Myr will be fully relaxed. Using the methodology we developed and successfully applied to 47 Tuc (Heyl et al. 2015a; 2015b), we will watch this dynamical evolution to measure the diffusion coefficient due to gravitational relaxation in the cluster's core and the past timing of stellar mass loss that was responsible for the current cluster mass segregation profile. M92 is the ideal target for this study as it complements our existing study of the relatively metal-rich cluster 47 Tuc; it has an extremely low metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.3, very low foreground reddening (E(B-V) = 0.02), moderate concentration index, and a theoretically-expected relaxation timescale in its core of 90 Myr, which nicely splits the young and old white dwarfs that can be observed with Hubble.

  11. MOCCA code for star cluster simulations - V. Initial globular cluster conditions influence on blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypki, Arkadiusz; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the properties of blue straggler (BS) populations based on MOCCA simulations covering a range of initial globular cluster conditions. We broadly separate the BSs created in our simulations into two distinct types corresponding to their formation mechanism, namely evolutionary BSs formed from binary evolution and dynamical BSs formed from collisions or mergers induced by direct dynamical interactions between stars and binaries. We find that the dominant type of BS strongly depends on the initial semi-major axis distribution. With mostly compact binaries, the number of evolutionary BSs dominates. Conversely, with mostly wide binaries, dynamical BSs dominate. Higher cluster concentrations increase the contribution from dynamical BSs without affecting the numbers of evolutionary BSs, which are thus mostly descended from primordial binaries. We further consider the ratio between the number of BSs in binaries and as single stars (RB/S). Models that prefer compact and wide binaries begin with, respectively, high and low values of the ratio RB/S before converging to a nearly universal value ˜ 0.4. Finally, the initial eccentricity distribution has little to no influence on BS formation.

  12. Synthesis of giant globular multivalent glycofullerenes as potent inhibitors in a model of Ebola virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio; Sigwalt, David; Illescas, Beatriz M.; Luczkowiak, Joanna; Rodríguez-Pérez, Laura; Nierengarten, Iwona; Holler, Michel; Remy, Jean-Serge; Buffet, Kevin; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael; Nierengarten, Jean-François; Martín, Nazario

    2016-01-01

    The use of multivalent carbohydrate compounds to block cell-surface lectin receptors is a promising strategy to inhibit the entry of pathogens into cells and could lead to the discovery of novel antiviral agents. One of the main problems with this approach, however, is that it is difficult to make compounds of an adequate size and multivalency to mimic natural systems such as viruses. Hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene are useful building blocks in this regard because they maintain a globular shape at the same time as allowing control over the size and multivalency. Here we report water-soluble tridecafullerenes decorated with 120 peripheral carbohydrate subunits, so-called ‘superballs’, that can be synthesized efficiently from hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene in one step by using copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry. Infection assays show that these superballs are potent inhibitors of cell infection by an artificial Ebola virus with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations in the subnanomolar range.

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: dynamical models of flattened, rotating globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreson, S. M. R.; Sanders, J. L.; Evans, N. W.; Williams, A. A.; Gilmore, G. F.; Bayo, A.; Bragaglia, A.; Casey, A. R.; Flaccomio, E.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Jofré, P.; Koposov, S.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-08-01

    We present a family of self-consistent axisymmetric rotating globular cluster models which are fitted to spectroscopic data for NGC 362, NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 5927 and NGC 6752 to provide constraints on their physical and kinematic properties, including their rotation signals. They are constructed by flattening Modified Plummer profiles, which have the same asymptotic behaviour as classical Plummer models, but can provide better fits to young clusters due to a slower turnover in the density profile. The models are in dynamical equilibrium as they depend solely on the action variables. We employ a fully Bayesian scheme to investigate the uncertainty in our model parameters (including mass-to-light ratios and inclination angles) and evaluate the Bayesian evidence ratio for rotating to non-rotating models. We find convincing levels of rotation only in NGC 2808. In the other clusters, there is just a hint of rotation (in particular, NGC 4372 and NGC 5927), as the data quality does not allow us to draw strong conclusions. Where rotation is present, we find that it is confined to the central regions, within radii of R ≤ 2rh. As part of this work, we have developed a novel q-Gaussian basis expansion of the line-of-sight velocity distributions, from which general models can be constructed via interpolation on the basis coefficients.

  14. Interaction of Small Zinc Complexes with Globular Proteins and Free Tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann M. Butkus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of eight water soluble anionic, cationic, and neutral zinc(II complexes were synthesized and characterized. The interaction of these complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA, human serum albumin (HSA, lysozyme, and free tryptophan (Trp was investigated using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Static and dynamic fluorescence quenching analysis based on Stern-Volmer kinetics was conducted, and the decrease in fluorescence intensity of the Trp residue(s can be ascribed predominantly to static quenching that occurs when the Zn complex binds to the protein and forms a nonfluorescent complex. The role played by the nature of the ligand, the metal, and complex charge in quenching Trp fluorescence was investigated. The binding association constants (Ka ranged from 104 to 1010 M−1 and indicate that complexes with planar aromatic features have the strongest affinity for globular proteins and free Trp. Complexes with nonaromatic features failed to interact with these proteins at or in the vicinity of the Trp residues. These interactions were studied over a range of temperatures, and binding was found to weaken with the increase in temperature and was exothermic with a negative change in entropy. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that binding of Zn complexes to the proteins is a highly spontaneous and favorable process.

  15. Constraining the origin of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters with N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.; Perets, H. B.

    2017-12-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs) are composed by multiple stellar populations whose origin is still unknown. Second population (SP) stars are currently thought to arise from gas ejected by first population (FP) stars, which is then accreted into the primordial GC core. Such gas forms a stellar disk whose long-term evolution and effects on the embedding cluster can be followed by means of N-body simulations. Here, we find that as the SP disk relaxes, the old, first stellar population flattens and develops a significant radial anisotropy, making the GC structure become more elliptical. The second stellar population is characterized by a lower velocity dispersion, and a higher rotational velocity, compared with the primordial population. The strength of these signatures increases with the relaxation time of the cluster and with the mass ratio between the SP and FP mass stars. We conclude that GC ellipticities and rotation constitute fossil records that can be used as observational proxies to unveil the origin of multiple stellar populations.

  16. Modelling the observed stellar mass function and its radial variation in galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Vesperini, Enrico; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Beccari, Giacomo; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    We measure how the slope α of the stellar mass function (MF) changes as a function of clustercentric distance r in five Galactic globular clusters and compare α(r) to predictions from direct N-body star cluster simulations. Theoretical studies predict that α(r) (which traces the degree of mass segregation in a cluster) should steepen with time as a cluster undergoes two-body relaxation and that the amount by which the global MF can evolve from its initial state due to stellar escape is directly linked to α(r). We find that the amount of mass segregation in M10, NGC 6218, and NGC 6981 is consistent with their dynamical ages, but only the global MF of M10 is consistent with its degree of mass segregation as well. NGC 5466 and NGC 6101 on the other hand appear to be less segregated than their dynamical ages would indicate. Furthermore, despite the fact that the escape rate of stars in non-segregated clusters is independent of stellar mass, both NGC 5466 and NGC 6101 have near-flat MFs. We discuss various mechanisms which could produce non-segregated clusters with near-flat MFs, including higher mass-loss rates and black hole retention, but argue that for some clusters (NGC 5466 and NGC 6101) explaining the present-day properties might require either a non-universal initial mass function or a much more complex dynamical history.

  17. Stellar streams as gravitational experiments. II. Asymmetric tails of globular cluster streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. F.; Famaey, B.; Ibata, R.; Renaud, F.; Martin, N. F.; Kroupa, P.

    2018-01-01

    Kinematically cold tidal streams of globular clusters (GC) are excellent tracers of the Galactic gravitational potential at moderate Galactocentric distances, and can also be used as probes of the law of gravity on Galactic scales. Here, we compare for the first time the generation of such streams in Newtonian and Milgromian gravity (MOND). We first computed analytical results to investigate the expected shape of the GC gravitational potential in both frameworks, and we then ran N-body simulations with the Phantom of Ramses code. We find that the GCs tend to become lopsided in MOND. This is a consequence of the external field effect which breaks the strong equivalence principle. When the GC is filling its tidal radius the lopsidedness generates a strongly asymmetric tidal stream. In Newtonian dynamics, such markedly asymmetric streams can in general only be the consequence of interactions with dark matter subhalos, giant molecular clouds, or interaction with the Galactic bar. In these Newtonian cases, the asymmetry is the consequence of a very large gap in the stream, whilst in MOND it is a true asymmetry. This should thus allow us in the future to distinguish these different scenarios by making deep observations of the environment of the asymmetric stellar stream of Palomar 5. Moreover, our simulations indicate that the high internal velocity dispersion of Palomar 5 for its small stellar mass would be natural in MOND. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. On the kinematic separation of field and cluster stars across the bulge globular NGC 6528

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma-Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dall' Ora, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Calamida, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Gilmozzi, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, N. [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, 3 Nagano 97-0101 (Japan); Walker, A., E-mail: eplagioia@roma2.infn.it [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present deep and precise multi-band photometry of the Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6528. The current data set includes optical and near-infrared images collected with ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The images cover a time interval of almost 10 yr, and we have been able to carry out a proper-motion separation between cluster and field stars. We performed a detailed comparison in the m {sub F814W}, m {sub F606W} – m {sub F814W} color-magnitude diagram with two empirical calibrators observed in the same bands. We found that NGC 6528 is coeval with and more metal-rich than 47 Tuc. Moreover, it appears older and more metal-poor than the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. The current evidence is supported by several diagnostics (red horizontal branch, red giant branch bump, shape of the sub-giant branch, slope of the main sequence) that are minimally affected by uncertainties in reddening and distance. We fit the optical observations with theoretical isochrones based on a scaled-solar chemical mixture and found an age of 11 ± 1 Gyr and an iron abundance slightly above solar ([Fe/H] = +0.20). The iron abundance and the old cluster age further support the recent spectroscopic findings suggesting a rapid chemical enrichment of the Galactic bulge.

  19. The globular cluster systems of 54 Coma ultra-diffuse galaxies: statistical constraints from HST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorisco, N. C.; Monachesi, A.; Agnello, A.; White, S. D. M.

    2018-01-01

    We use data from the HST Coma Cluster Treasury program to assess the richness of the Globular Cluster Systems (GCSs) of 54 Coma ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs), 18 of which have a half-light radius exceeding 1.5 kpc. We use a hierarchical Bayesian method tested on a large number of mock datasets to account consistently for the high and spatially varying background counts in Coma. These include both background galaxies and intra-cluster GCs (ICGCs), which are disentangled from the population of member GCs in a probabilistic fashion. We find no candidate for a GCS as rich as that of the Milky Way, our sample has GCSs typical of dwarf galaxies. For the standard relation between GCS richness and halo mass 33 galaxies have a virial mass Mvir ≤ 1011M⊙ at 90% probability. Only three have Mvir > 1011M⊙ with the same confidence. The mean colour and spread in colour of the UDG GCs are indistinguishable from those of the abundant population of ICGCs. The majority of UDGs in our sample are consistent with the relation between stellar mass and GC richness of `normal' dwarf galaxies. Nine systems, however, display GCSs that are richer by a factor of 3 or more (at 90% probability). Six of these have sizes ≲ 1.4 kpc. Our results imply that the physical mechanisms responsible for the extended size of the UDGs and for the enhanced GC richness of some cluster dwarfs are at most weakly correlated.

  20. A census with ROSAT of low-luminosity X-ray sources in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Verbunt, F

    2001-01-01

    I analyze 101 observations from the ROSAT archive to search for X-ray sources in or near 55 globular clusters. New sources are found in the cores of NGC362 (a double source), NGC6121 (marginally significant), NGC6139, and NGC6266; and outside the cores of NGC6205, NGC6352 and NGC6388. More accurate positions are determined for the X-ray sources in some ten clusters. The improved position for the source in NGC6341 excludes the suggested ultraviolet counterpart. It is shown that one of the two sources reported near the core NGC6626 is spurious, as is the detection of a pulsar period in the PSPC data of this cluster; the central source is resolved in three sources. One source reported previously in NGC6304 is demoted to an upper limit. For 20 cluster cores better upper limits to the X-ray luminosity are obtained. From a statistical analysis I argue that several sources outside the cluster cores may well belong to the clusters. All spectral energy distributions observed so far are relatively soft, with bremsstrah...

  1. Discovery of near-ultraviolet counterparts to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Sandoval, L. E.; van den Berg, M.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Freire, P.; Anderson, J.; Serenelli, A. M.; Althaus, L. G.; Cool, A. M.; Grindlay, J. E.; Edmonds, P. D.; Wijnands, R.; Ivanova, N.

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery of the likely white dwarf companions to radio millisecond pulsars 47 Tuc Q and 47 Tuc S in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. These blue stars were found in near-ultraviolet images from the Hubble Space Telescope for which we derived accurate absolute astrometry, and are located at positions consistent with the radio coordinates to within 0.016 arcsec (0.2σ). We present near-ultraviolet and optical colours for the previously identified companion to millisecond pulsar 47 Tuc U, and we unambiguously confirm the tentative prior identifications of the optical counterparts to 47 Tuc T and 47 Tuc Y. For the latter, we present its radio-timing solution for the first time. We find that all five near-ultraviolet counterparts have U300 - B390 colours that are consistent with He white dwarf cooling models for masses ˜0.16-0.3 M⊙ and cooling ages within ˜0.1-6 Gyr. The Hα - R625 colours of 47 Tuc U and 47 Tuc T indicate the presence of a strong Hα absorption line, as expected for white dwarfs with an H envelope.

  2. Paving the way for the JWST: witnessing globular cluster formation at z > 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, E.; Calura, F.; Meneghetti, M.; Mercurio, A.; Castellano, M.; Caminha, G. B.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Tozzi, P.; De Barros, S.; Grazian, A.; D'Ercole, A.; Ciotti, L.; Caputi, K.; Grillo, C.; Merlin, E.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Cristiani, S.; Coe, D.

    2017-06-01

    We report on five compact, extremely young (physical properties of two objects are similar to those expected in some globular cluster formation scenarios, representing the best candidate proto-GCs discovered so far. Rest-frame optical high-dispersion spectroscopy of one of them at z = 3.1169 yields a velocity dispersion σv ≃ 20 km s-1, implying a dynamical mass dominated by the stellar mass. Another object at z = 6.145, with delensed MUV ≃ -15.3 (mUV ≃ 31.4), shows a stellar mass and a star formation rate surface density consistent with the values expected from popular GC formation scenarios. An additional star-forming region at z = 6.145, with delensed mUV ≃ 32, a stellar mass of 0.5 × 106 M⊙ and a star formation rate of 0.06 M⊙ yr-1 is also identified. These objects currently represent the faintest spectroscopically confirmed star-forming systems at z > 3, elusive even in the deepest blank fields. We discuss how proto-GCs might contribute to the ionization budget of the Universe and augment Lyα visibility during reionization. This work underlines the crucial role of JWST in characterizing the rest-frame optical and near-infrared properties of such low-luminosity high-z objects.

  3. Globular cluster mass-loss in the context of multiple populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Nate; Lardo, Carmela

    2015-10-01

    Many scenarios for the origin of the chemical anomalies observed in globular clusters (GCs; i.e. multiple populations) require that GCs were much more massive at birth, up to 10-100 times, than they are presently. This is invoked in order to have enough material processed through first generation stars in order to form the observed numbers of enriched stars (inferred to be second generation stars in these models). If such mass-loss was due to tidal stripping, gas expulsion, or tidal interaction with the birth environment, there should be clear correlations between the fraction of enriched stars and other cluster properties, whereas the observations show a remarkably uniform enriched fraction of 0.68 ± 0.07 (from 33 observed GCs). If interpreted in the heavy mass-loss paradigm, this means that all GCs lost the same fraction of their initial mass (between 95 and 98 per cent), regardless of their mass, metallicity, location at birth or subsequent migration, or epoch of formation. This is incompatible with predictions, hence we suggest that GCs were not significantly more massive at birth, and that the fraction of enriched to primordial stars observed in clusters today likely reflects their initial value. If true, this would rule out self-enrichment through nucleosynthesis as a viable solution to the multiple population phenomenon.

  4. The merger remnant NGC 3610 and its globular cluster system: a large-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassino, Lilia P.; Caso, Juan P.

    2017-04-01

    We present a photometric study of the prototype merger remnant NGC 3610 and its globular cluster (GC) system, based on new Gemini/GMOS and Advanced Camera for Surveys/Hubble Space Telescope archival images. Thanks to the large field of view of our GMOS data, larger than previous studies, we are able to detect a 'classical' bimodal GC colour distribution, corresponding to metal-poor and metal-rich GCs, at intermediate radii and a small subsample of likely young clusters of intermediate colours, mainly located in the outskirts. The extent of the whole GC system is settled as about 40 kpc. The GC population is quite poor, about 500 ± 110 members that corresponds to a low total specific frequency SN ˜ 0.8. The effective radii of a cluster sample are determined, including those of two spectroscopically confirmed young and metal-rich clusters, that are in the limit between GC and UCD sizes and brightness. The large-scale galaxy surface-brightness profile can be decomposed as an inner embedded disc and an outer spheroid, determining for both larger extents than earlier research (10 and 30 kpc, respectively). We detect boxy isophotes, expected in merger remnants, and show a wealth of fine-structure in the surface-brightness distribution with unprecedented detail, coincident with the outer spheroid. The lack of symmetry in the galaxy colour map adds a new piece of evidence to the recent merger scenario of NGC 3610.

  5. Low-mass X-ray binaries and globular clusters streamers and arcs in NGC 4278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, N. J. [Center for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We report significant inhomogeneities in the projected two-dimensional spatial distributions of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and globular clusters (GCs) of the intermediate mass elliptical galaxy NGC 4278. In the inner region of NGC 4278, a significant arc-like excess of LMXBs extending south of the center at ∼50'' in the western side of the galaxy can be associated with a similar overdensity of the spatial distribution of red GCs from Brassington et al. Using a recent catalog of GCs produced by Usher et al. and covering the whole field of the NGC 4278 galaxy, we have discovered two other significant density structures outside the D {sub 25} isophote to the W and E of the center of NGC 4278, associated with an overdensity and an underdensity, respectively. We discuss the nature of these structures in the context of the similar spatial inhomogeneities discovered in the LMXBs and GCs populations of NGC 4649 and NGC 4261, respectively. These features suggest streamers from disrupted and accreted dwarf companions.

  6. The VMC survey. XI. Radial stellar population gradients in the galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Rubele, Stefano; Girardi, Leo; Gullieuszik, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Wang, Chuchu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing [ICRAR M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Cioni, Maria-Rosa L. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Clementini, Gisella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Emerson, Jim [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, Martin A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Ukkel (Belgium); Guandalini, Roald [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D 2401, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Piatti, Andrés E. [Observatorio Astrońomico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-20

    We present a deep near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K{sub s} survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color-magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ∼0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005) in the cluster core to (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003) in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

  7. Testing lowered isothermal models with direct N-body simulations of globular clusters - II. Multimass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuten, M.; Zocchi, A.; Gieles, M.; Hénault-Brunet, V.

    2017-09-01

    Lowered isothermal models, such as the multimass Michie-King models, have been successful in describing observational data of globular clusters. In this study, we assess whether such models are able to describe the phase space properties of evolutionary N-body models. We compare the multimass models as implemented in limepy (Gieles & Zocchi) to N-body models of star clusters with different retention fractions for the black holes and neutron stars evolving in a tidal field. We find that multimass models successfully reproduce the density and velocity dispersion profiles of the different mass components in all evolutionary phases and for different remnants retention. We further use these results to study the evolution of global model parameters. We find that over the lifetime of clusters, radial anisotropy gradually evolves from the low- to the high-mass components and we identify features in the properties of observable stars that are indicative of the presence of stellar-mass black holes. We find that the model velocity scale depends on mass as m-δ, with δ ≃ 0.5 for almost all models, but the dependence of central velocity dispersion on m can be shallower, depending on the dark remnant content, and agrees well with that of the N-body models. The reported model parameters, and correlations amongst them, can be used as theoretical priors when fitting these types of mass models to observational data.

  8. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  9. Evolution of Globular Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Stellite™ 21 Alloy after Heating to Semisolid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołek, Krzysztof Piotr; Rogal, Łukasz; Kapranos, Platon

    2017-01-01

    Metal alloys can be successfully thixoformed in the partially liquid state if they display non-dendritic near-globular microstructures. The article presents the development of feedstock with such non-dendritic microstructure produced through the solid-state route of strain-induced melt-activated (SIMA) method, for a Stellite ™ 21 alloy. Stellite ™ alloys are a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear and corrosion resistance, currently shaped by casting, powder metallurgy or forging processes, but semisolid-state processing offers the possibility of a near-net-shaping method for these alloys. In this work, sprayformed followed by extrusion samples were heated to the temperature range at which the liquid and solid phases coexist in the material and spheroidal shape solid particles in a liquid matrix were obtained as required for semisolid processing. Microstructural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), with a further objective of analyzing the rheological properties of Stellite ™ 21 alloy in the semisolid state, providing results to be used for identification of a processing window of temperature and viscosity ranges for thixoforming this alloy.

  10. Atomic force microscopy study on the unfolding of globular proteins in the Langmuir films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuno, Taiji, E-mail: t_furuno@a8.keio.jp

    2014-02-03

    Protein Langmuir films have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ten standard proteins were spread at the air/water interface. Among them, seven formed stable interfacial films and were transferred onto silicon wafer using the Langmuir–Schaefer method to be studied by AFM. The concentration of the protein was in a concentrated regime as > 1.5 mg/m{sup 2}, and the granules of the protein were contained in most transferred films. The dynamic structural changes of carbonic anhydrase (CA) at the air/water interface were examined as the decrease in the density of protein granules in relation to the emergence of the surface pressure. Merging of intact CA molecules into the unfolded CA film was suggested. It was observed that spreading a high concentration of protein solution delivered a high density of protein granules in the Langmuir film, although ordered arrays were never found. These results support the historically proposed structure for the unfolding of proteins in the concentrated protein Langmuir film, the mosaic structure, instead of the duplex conformation. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated at the molecular resolution that the Langmuir–Schaefer technique is a facile method to immobilize proteins with granular configuration onto solid surfaces in water. - Highlights: • Packing of globular proteins in the Langmuir–Schaefer films was imaged by AFM. • Unfolding of proteins at the air/water interface was suggested by real-space imaging. • Mosaic structure seemed plausible for the concentrated protein Langmuir films.

  11. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. II. Validation with Galactic Globular and Open Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.; Beers, T.C.; Sivarani, T.; Johnson, J.A.; An, D.; Wilhelm, R.; Prieto, C.Allende; Koesterke, L.; Re Fiorentin, P.; Bailer-Jones, C.A.L.; Norris, J.E.

    2007-10-01

    The authors validate the performance and accuracy of the current SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration) Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), which determines stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) by comparing derived overall metallicities and radial velocities from selected likely members of three globular clusters (M 13, M 15, and M 2) and two open clusters (NGC 2420 and M 67) to the literature values. Spectroscopic and photometric data obtained during the course of the original Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-1) and its first extension (SDSS-II/SEGUE) are used to determine stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameter estimates for stars in these clusters. Based on the scatter in the metallicities derived for the members of each cluster, they quantify the typical uncertainty of the SSPP values, {sigma}([Fe/H]) = 0.13 dex for stars in the range of 4500 K {le} T{sub eff} {le} 7500 K and 2.0 {le} log g {le} 5.0, at least over the metallicity interval spanned by the clusters studied (-2.3 {le} [Fe/H] < 0). The surface gravities and effective temperatures derived by the SSPP are also compared with those estimated from the comparison of the color-magnitude diagrams with stellar evolution models; they find satisfactory agreement. At present, the SSPP underestimates [Fe/H] for near-solar-metallicity stars, represented by members of M 67 in this study, by {approx} 0.3 dex.

  12. EIGHT HUNDRED NEW CANDIDATES FOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Johnston, Kyle; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Gomez, Matias [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Harris, William E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kerzendorf, Wolfgang [Mount Stromlo Observatory, The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Geisler, Doug [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Woodley, Kristin A., E-mail: glharris@astro.uwaterloo.ca, E-mail: kyjohnston@rim.com, E-mail: farnoud.kazemzadeh@gmail.com, E-mail: matiasgomez@unab.cl, E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: wkerzend@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: kwoodley@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    We have used new wide-field imaging with the Magellan IMACS camera to search for globular cluster (GC) candidates around NGC 5128, the nearest giant E galaxy. The imaging data are in the B and R broadband filters and cover a 1.55 deg{sup 2} field centered on the galaxy, corresponding to an area about 90 Multiplication-Sign 90 kpc{sup 2} at the distance of NGC 5128. All the fields were taken under exceptionally high-quality seeing conditions (FWHM = 0.''4-0.''5 in R). Using this material we are able, for the first time in the literature, to construct a homogeneous list of GC candidates covering a wide span of the NGC 5128 halo and unusually free of field contaminants (foreground stars and faint background galaxies). Selecting the measured objects by color, magnitude, ellipticity, and profile size gives us a final catalog of 833 new high-quality GC candidates brighter than R = 21 (0.8 mag fainter than the standard GC luminosity function turnover point). The measured positions have better than 0.''2 precision in both coordinates. This list can be used as the basis for spectroscopic follow-up, leading to a more comprehensive kinematic and dynamic study of the halo.

  13. Eight Hundred New Candidates for Globular Clusters in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Gómez, Matías; Harris, William E.; Johnston, Kyle; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Geisler, Doug; Woodley, Kristin A.

    2012-04-01

    We have used new wide-field imaging with the Magellan IMACS camera to search for globular cluster (GC) candidates around NGC 5128, the nearest giant E galaxy. The imaging data are in the B and R broadband filters and cover a 1.55 deg2 field centered on the galaxy, corresponding to an area about 90 × 90 kpc2 at the distance of NGC 5128. All the fields were taken under exceptionally high-quality seeing conditions (FWHM = 0farcs4-0farcs5 in R). Using this material we are able, for the first time in the literature, to construct a homogeneous list of GC candidates covering a wide span of the NGC 5128 halo and unusually free of field contaminants (foreground stars and faint background galaxies). Selecting the measured objects by color, magnitude, ellipticity, and profile size gives us a final catalog of 833 new high-quality GC candidates brighter than R = 21 (0.8 mag fainter than the standard GC luminosity function turnover point). The measured positions have better than 0farcs2 precision in both coordinates. This list can be used as the basis for spectroscopic follow-up, leading to a more comprehensive kinematic and dynamic study of the halo. This Paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. On the disruption of pulsar and X-ray binar ies in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbunt, Frank; Freire, Paulo C. C.

    2014-01-01

    The stellar encounter rate Γ has been shown to be strongly correlated with the number of X-ray binaries in globular clusters (GCs) and also to the number of radio pulsars. However, the pulsar populations in different GCs show remarkably different characteristics: in some GCs the population is dominated by binary systems, in others by single pulsars and exotic systems that result from exchange encounters. In this paper, we describe a second dynamical parameter for GCs, the encounter rate for a single binary, γ. We find that this parameter provides a good characterization of the differences between the pulsar populations of different GCs. The higher γ is for any particular GC, the more isolated pulsars and products of exchange interactions are observed. Furthermore, we also find that slow and "young" pulsars are found almost exclusively in clusters with a high γ; this suggests that these kinds of objects are formed by the disruption of X-ray binaries, thus halting the recycling of a previously dead neutron star. We discuss the implications of this for the nature of young pulsars and for the formation of neutron stars in GCs.

  15. Allowance for radial dilution in evaluating the concentration dependence of sedimentation coefficients for globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Trushar R; Winzor, Donald J; Scott, David J

    2017-10-04

    The accuracy with which the concentration dependence of the sedimentation coefficient, s = s 0(1 - kc), can be quantified for globular proteins by commonly used procedures has been examined by subjecting simulated sedimentation velocity distributions for ovalbumin to c(s)‒s analysis. Because this procedure, as well as its g(s)‒s counterpart, is based on assumed constancy of s over the time course of sedimentation coefficient measurement in a given experiment, the best definition of the concentration coefficient k is obtained by associating the measured s with the mean of plateau concentrations for the initial and final distributions used for its determination. The return of a slightly underestimated k (by about 3%) is traced to minor mislocation of the air‒liquid meniscus position as the result of assuming time independence of s in a given experiment. Although more accurate quantification should result from later SEDFIT and SEDANAL programs incorporating the simultaneous evaluation of s 0 and k, the procedures based on assumed constancy of s suffice for determining the limiting sedimentation coefficient s 0-the objective of most s‒c dependence studies.

  16. How round is a protein? Exploring protein structures for globularity using conformal mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eHass

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm that automatically computes a measure of the geometric difference between the surface of a protein and a round sphere. The algorithm takes as input two triangulated genus zero surfaces representing the protein and the round sphere, respectively, and constructs a discrete conformal map between these surfaces. The conformal map is chosen to minimize a symmetric elastic energy that measures the distance of the constructed conformal map from an isometry. We illustrate our approach on a set of basic sample problems and then on a dataset of diverse protein structures. We show first that the symmetric elastic energy is able to quantify the roundness of the Platonic solids and that for these surfaces it replicates well traditional measures of roundness such as the sphericity. We then demonstrate that the symmetric elastic energy captures both global and local differences between two surfaces, showing that our method identifies the presence of protruding regions in protein structures and quantifies how these regions make the shape of a protein deviate from globularity. Based on these results, we show that the symmetric elastic energy serves as a probe of the limits of the application of conformal mappings to parametrize protein shapes. We identify limitations of the method and discuss its extension to achieving automatic registration of protein structures based on their surface geometry.

  17. A consensus method for the prediction of 'aggregation-prone' peptides in globular proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios C Tsolis

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to construct a consensus prediction algorithm of 'aggregation-prone' peptides in globular proteins, combining existing tools. This allows comparison of the different algorithms and the production of more objective and accurate results. Eleven (11 individual methods are combined and produce AMYLPRED2, a publicly, freely available web tool to academic users (http://biophysics.biol.uoa.gr/AMYLPRED2, for the consensus prediction of amyloidogenic determinants/'aggregation-prone' peptides in proteins, from sequence alone. The performance of AMYLPRED2 indicates that it functions better than individual aggregation-prediction algorithms, as perhaps expected. AMYLPRED2 is a useful tool for identifying amyloid-forming regions in proteins that are associated with several conformational diseases, called amyloidoses, such as Altzheimer's, Parkinson's, prion diseases and type II diabetes. It may also be useful for understanding the properties of protein folding and misfolding and for helping to the control of protein aggregation/solubility in biotechnology (recombinant proteins forming bacterial inclusion bodies and biotherapeutics (monoclonal antibodies and biopharmaceutical proteins.

  18. Photometric Detection of Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters Using Integrated Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, William P.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; van Zee, Liese; Winans, Amanda; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the multiple stellar populations of the globular clusters (GCs) M3, M5, M13, and M71 using {g}{\\prime } and intermediate-band CN-λ 3883 photometry obtained with the WIYN 0.9 m telescope on Kitt Peak. We find a strong correlation between red giant stars’ CN-{g}{\\prime } colors and their spectroscopic sodium abundances, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the two-filter system for stellar population studies. In all four clusters, the observed spread in red giant branch CN-{g}{\\prime } colors is wider than that expected from photometric uncertainty, confirming the well-known chemical inhomogeneity of these systems. M3 and M13 show clear evidence for a radial dependence in the CN-band strengths of its red giants, while the evidence for such a radial dependence of CN strengths in M5 is ambiguous. Our data suggest that the dynamically old, relatively metal-rich M71 system is well mixed, as it shows no evidence for chemical segregation. Finally, we measure the radial gradients in the integrated CN-{g}{\\prime } color of the clusters and find that such gradients are easily detectable in the integrated light. We suggest that photometric observations of color gradients within GCs throughout the Local Group can be used to characterize their multiple populations, and thereby constrain the formation history of GCs in different galactic environments.

  19. AS1411 Aptamer-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer G2-Iohexol Selective Nano-Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Pardis; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Ghoreishi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

    2017-09-19

    Molecular theranostics is of the utmost interest for diagnosis as well as treatment of different malignancies. In the present study, anionic linear globular dendrimer G2 is employed as a suitable carrier for delivery and AS1411 aptamer is exploited as the targeting agent to carry Iohexol specifically to the human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Dendrimer G2 was prepared and conjugation of dendrimer and aptamer was carried out thereafter. Based on the data yielded by AFM, morphology of smooth and spherical non-targeted dendrimer changed to the rough aspherical shape when it conjugated. Then, conjugation was confirmed using DLS, ELS and SLS methods. Toxicity on nucleolin positive MCF-7 cells and nucleolin negative HEK-293 cells was assessed by XTT and apoptosis/necrosis assays. In vitro uptake was determined using DAPI-FITC staining and ICP-MS methods. In vivo studies including in vivo CT imaging, pathology and blood tests were done to confirm the imaging ability, bio-safety and targeted nature of the Nano-Theranostics in vivo. In a nutshell, the prepared construction showed promising effects upon decreasing the toxicity of Iohexol on normal cells and accumulation of it in the cancer tumors as well as reducing the number of cancer cells.

  20. The Gaia-ESO Survey. Mg-Al anti-correlation in iDR4 globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancino, E.; Romano, D.; Tang, B.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Casey, A. R.; Gruyters, P.; Geisler, D.; San Roman, I.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Korn, A. J.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Carraro, G.; Bayo, A.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Villanova, S.

    2017-05-01

    We use Gaia-ESO (GES) Survey iDR4 data to explore the Mg-Al anti-correlation in globular clusters that were observed as calibrators, as a demonstration of the quality of Gaia-ESO Survey data and analysis. The results compare well with the available literature, within 0.1 dex or less, after a small (compared to the internal spreads) offset between the UVES and GIRAFFE data of 0.10-0.15 dex was taken into account. In particular, for the first time we present data for NGC 5927, which is one of the most metal-rich globular clusters studied in the literature so far with [ Fe / H ] = - 0.39 ± 0.04 dex; this cluster was included to connect with the open cluster regime in the Gaia-ESO Survey internal calibration. The extent and shape of the Mg-Al anti-correlation provide strong constraints on the multiple population phenomenon in globular clusters. In particular, we studied the dependency of the Mg-Al anti-correlation extension with metallicity, present-day mass,and age of the clusters, using GES data in combination with a large set of homogenized literature measurements.We find a dependency with both metallicity and mass, which is evident when fitting for the two parameters simultaneously, but we do not find significant dependency with age. We confirm that the Mg-Al anti-correlation is not seen in all clusters, but disappears for the less massive or most metal-rich clusters. We also use our data set to see whether a normal anti-correlation would explain the low [Mg/α] observed in some extragalactic globular clusters, but find that none of the clusters in our sample can reproduce it; a more extreme chemical composition, such as that of NGC 2419, would be required. We conclude that GES iDR4 data already meet the requirements set by the main survey goals and can be used to study globular clusters in detail, even if the analysis procedures were not specifically designed for them. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal

  1. Biosafety Recommendations for Work with Influenza Viruses Containing a Hemagglutinin from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Denise; Smith, Jacinta; Weyant, Robbin

    2013-06-28

    The CDC and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) manual describes biosafety recommendations for work involving highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], CDC. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories, 5th ed. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2009. HHS publication no. [CDC] 21-1112. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5). The U.S. Department of Agriculture Guidelines for Avian Influenza Viruses builds on the BMBL manual and provides additional biosafety and biocontainment guidelines for laboratories working with HPAI (US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Select Agent Program. Guidelines for avian influenza viruses. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture; 2011. Available at http://www.selectagents.gov/Guidelines_for_Avian_Influenza_Viruses.html). The recommendations in this report, which are intended for laboratories in the United States, outline the essential baseline biosafety measures for working with the subset of influenza viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the HPAI influenza A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage, including reassortant influenza viruses created in a laboratory setting. All H5N1 influenza virus clades known to infect humans to date have been derived from this lineage (WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. Continued evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza A [H5N1]: updated nomenclature. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2012;6:1-5). In 2009, the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules were amended to include specific biosafety and biocontainment recommendations for laboratories working with Recombinant Risk Group 3 influenza viruses, including HPAI H5N1 influenza viruses within the Goose/Guangdong/1/96-like H5 lineage. In February 2013, the NIH guidelines were further revised to provide additional

  2. Aptamers that bind to the hemagglutinin of the recent pandemic influenza virus H1N1 and efficiently inhibit agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Kumar, Penmetcha K R

    2013-11-01

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mediates both receptor (glycan) binding and membrane fusion for cell entry and has been the basis for typing influenza A viruses. In this study we have selected RNA aptamers (D-12 and D-26) that specifically target the HA protein of the recent pandemic influenza virus pdmH1N1 (A/California/07/2009). Among the selected aptamers the D-26 aptamer showed higher affinity for the HA of pdmH1N1 and was able to distinguish HA derived from other sub-types of influenza A viruses. The affinity of the D-26 aptamer was further improved upon incorporation of 2'-fluoropyrimidines to a level of 67 fM. Furthermore, the high affinity D-12 and D-26 aptamers were tested for their ability to interfere with HA-glycan interactions using a chicken red blood cell (RBC) agglutination assay. At a concentration of 200 nM the D-26 aptamer completely abolished the agglutination of RBCs, whereas D-12 only did so at 400 nM. These studies suggest that the selected aptamer D-26 not only has a higher affinity and specificity for the HA of pdmH1N1 but also has a better ability to efficiently interfere with HA-glycan interactions compared with the D-12 aptamer. The D-26 aptamer warrants further study regarding its application in developing topical virucidal products against the pdmH1N1 virus and also in surveillance of the pdmH1N1 influenza virus. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Avian adeno-associated virus-based expression of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein for poultry vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozo, F; Villegas, P; Estevez, C; Alvarado, I R; Purvis, L B; Saume, E

    2008-06-01

    The avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) is a replication-defective nonpathogenic virus member of the family Parvoviridae that has been proved to be useful as a viral vector for gene delivery. The use of AAAV for transgenic expression of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and its ability to induce immunity in chickens were assessed. Proposed advantages of this system include no interference with maternal antibodies, diminished immune response against the vector, and the ability to accommodate large fragments of genetic information. In this work the generation of recombinant AAAV virions expressing the HN protein (rAAAV-HN) was demonstrated by electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis. Serological evidence of HN protein expression after in ovo or intramuscular inoculation of the recombinant virus in specific-pathogen-free chickens was obtained. Serum from rAAAV-HN-vaccinated birds showed a systemic immune response evidenced by NDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition testing. Positive virus neutralization in embryonated chicken eggs and indirect immunofluorescence detection of NDV infected cells by serum from rAAAV-HN vaccinated birds is also reported. A vaccine-challenge experiment in commercial broiler chickens using a Venezuelan virulent viscerotropic strain of NDV was performed. All unvaccinated controls died within 5 days postchallenge. Protection up to 80% was observed in birds vaccinated in ovo and revaccinated at 7 days of age with the rAAAV-HN. The results demonstrate the feasibility of developing and using an AAAV-based gene delivery system for poultry vaccination.

  4. Mutations in H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin that confer binding to human tracheal airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence in 2009 of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus as the first pandemic of the 21st Century is a timely reminder of the international public health impact of influenza viruses, even those associated with mild disease. The widespread distribution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in the avian population has spawned concern that it may give rise to a human influenza pandemic. The mortality rate associated with occasional human infection by H5N1 virus approximates 60%, suggesting that an H5N1 pandemic would be devastating to global health and economy. To date, the H5N1 virus has not acquired the propensity to transmit efficiently between humans. The reasons behind this are unclear, especially given the high mutation rate associated with influenza virus replication. Here we used a panel of recombinant H5 hemagglutinin (HA variants to demonstrate the potential for H5 HA to bind human airway epithelium, the predominant target tissue for influenza virus infection and spread. While parental H5 HA exhibited limited binding to human tracheal epithelium, introduction of selected mutations converted the binding profile to that of a current human influenza strain HA. Strikingly, these amino-acid changes required multiple simultaneous mutations in the genomes of naturally occurring H5 isolates. Moreover, H5 HAs bearing intermediate sequences failed to bind airway tissues and likely represent mutations that are an evolutionary "dead end." We conclude that, although genetic changes that adapt H5 to human airways can be demonstrated, they may not readily arise during natural virus replication. This genetic barrier limits the likelihood that current H5 viruses will originate a human pandemic.

  5. Poor immune responses of newborn rhesus macaques to measles virus DNA vaccines expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Fernando P; Lydy, Shari L; Lee, Sok-Hyong; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Adams, Robert J; Robinson, Harriet L; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-02-01

    A vaccine that would protect young infants against measles could facilitate elimination efforts and decrease morbidity and mortality in developing countries. However, immaturity of the immune system is an important obstacle to the development of such a vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccines expressing the measles virus (MeV) hemagglutinin (H) protein or H and fusion (F) proteins, previously shown to protect juvenile macaques, were used to immunize groups of 4 newborn rhesus macaques. Monkeys were inoculated intradermally with 200 μg of each DNA at birth and at 10 months of age. As controls, 2 newborn macaques were similarly vaccinated with DNA encoding the influenza virus H5, and 4 received one dose of the current live attenuated MeV vaccine (LAV) intramuscularly. All monkeys were monitored for development of MeV-specific neutralizing and binding IgG antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These responses were poor compared to the responses induced by LAV. At 18 months of age, all monkeys were challenged intratracheally with a wild-type strain of MeV. Monkeys that received the DNA vaccine encoding H and F, but not H alone, were primed for an MeV-specific CD8(+) CTL response but not for production of antibody. LAV-vaccinated monkeys were protected from rash and viremia, while DNA-vaccinated monkeys developed rashes, similar to control monkeys, but had 10-fold lower levels of viremia. We conclude that vaccination of infant macaques with DNA encoding MeV H and F provided only partial protection from MeV infection.

  6. Characterization of glycan binding specificities of influenza B viruses with correlation with hemagglutinin genotypes and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Fang; Chang, Chuan-Fa; Chi, Chia-Yu; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Wang, Jen-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen

    2012-04-01

    The carbohydrate binding specificities are different among avian and human influenza A viruses and may affect the tissue tropism and transmission of these viruses. The glycan binding biology for influenza B, however, has not been systematically characterized. Glycan binding specificities of influenza B viral isolates were analyzed and correlated to hemagglutinin (HA) genotypes and clinical manifestations. A newly developed solution glycan array was applied to characterize the receptor binding specificities of influenza B virus clinical isolates from 2001 to 2007 in Taiwan. Thirty oligosaccharides which include α-2,3 and α-2,6 linkage glycans were subjected to analysis. The glycan binding patterns of 53 influenza B isolates could be categorized into three groups and were well correlated to their HA genotypes. The Yamagata-like strains predominantly bound to α-2,6-linkage glycan (24:29, 83%) while Victoria-like strains preferentially bound to both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linkage glycans (13:24, 54%). A third group of viruses bound to sulfated glycans and these all belonged to Victoria-like strains. Based on the HA sequences, Asn-163, Glu-198, Ala-202, and Lys-203 were conserved among Victoria-like strains which may influence their carbohydrate recognition. The viruses bound to dual type glycans were more likely to be associated with the development of bronchopneumonia and gastrointestinal illness than those bound only to α-2,6 sialyl glycans (P B viruses, and will contribute to virus surveillance and vaccine strain selection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cross-protection by co-immunization with influenza hemagglutinin DNA and inactivated virus vaccine using coated microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Compans, Richard W; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2013-12-10

    The need for annual revaccination against influenza is a burden on the healthcare system, leads to low vaccination rates and makes timely vaccination difficult against pandemic strains, such as during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In an effort toward achieving a broadly protective vaccine that provides cross-protection against multiple strains of influenza, this study developed a microneedle patch to co-immunize with A/PR8 influenza hemagglutinin DNA and A/PR8 inactivated virus vaccine. We hypothesize that this dual component vaccination strategy administered to the skin using microneedles will provide cross-protection against other strains of influenza. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel coating formulation that did not require additional excipients to increase coating solution viscosity by using the DNA vaccine itself to increase viscosity and thereby enable thick coatings of DNA vaccine and inactivated virus vaccine on metal microneedles. Co-immunization in this way not only generated robust antibody responses against A/PR8 influenza but also generated robust heterologous antibody responses against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in mice. Challenge studies showed complete cross-protection against lethal challenge with live pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. Control experiments using A/PR8 inactivated influenza virus vaccine with placebo DNA coated onto microneedles produced lower antibody titers and provided incomplete protection against challenge. Overall, this is the first study showing DNA solution as a microneedle coating agent and demonstrating cross-protection by co-immunization with inactivated virus and DNA vaccine using coated microneedles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of influenza A(H7N9) candidate vaccine viruses with improved hemagglutinin antigen yield in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Callie; Johnson, Adam; Winne, Emily; Hossain, Jaber; Mateu-Petit, Guaniri; Balish, Amanda; Santana, Wanda; Kim, Taejoong; Davis, Charles; Cox, Nancy J; Barr, John R; Donis, Ruben O; Villanueva, Julie; Williams, Tracie L; Chen, Li-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background The emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in poultry causing zoonotic human infections was reported on March 31, 2013. Development of A(H7N9) candidate vaccine viruses (CVV) for pandemic preparedness purposes was initiated without delay. Candidate vaccine viruses were derived by reverse genetics using the internal genes of A/Puerto/Rico/8/34 (PR8). The resulting A(H7N9) CVVs needed improvement because they had titers and antigen yields that were suboptimal for vaccine manufacturing in eggs, especially in a pandemic situation. Methods Two CVVs derived by reverse genetics were serially passaged in embryonated eggs to improve the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen yield. The total viral protein and HA antigen yields of six egg-passaged CVVs were determined by the BCA assay and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) analysis, respectively. CVVs were antigenically characterized by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays with ferret antisera. Results Improvement of total viral protein yield was observed for the six egg-passaged CVVs; HA quantification by IDMS indicated approximately a twofold increase in yield of several egg-passaged viruses as compared to that of the parental CVV. Several different amino acid substitutions were identified in the HA of all viruses after serial passage. However, HI tests indicated that the antigenic properties of two CVVs remained unchanged. Conclusions If influenza A(H7N9) viruses were to acquire sustained human-to-human transmissibility, the improved HA yield of the egg-passaged CVVs generated in this study could expedite vaccine manufacturing for pandemic mitigation. PMID:25962412

  9. Evolution of human receptor binding affinity of H1N1 hemagglutinins from 1918 to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Malaisree, Maturos; Kaiyawet, Nopporn; Decha, Panita; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Poovorawan, Yong; Hannongbua, Supot

    2010-08-23

    The recent outbreak of the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza in humans has focused global attention on this virus, which could potentially have introduced a more dangerous pandemic of influenza flu. In the initial step of the viral attachment, hemagglutinin (HA), a viral glycoprotein surface, is responsible for the binding to the human SIA alpha2,6-linked sialopentasaccharide host cell receptor (hHAR). Dynamical and structural properties, based on molecular dynamics simulations of the four different HAs of Spanish 1918 (H1-1918), swine 1930 (H1-1930), seasonal 2005 (H1-2005), and a novel 2009 (H1-2009) H1N1 bound to the hHAR were compared. In all four HA-hHAR complexes, major interactions with the receptor binding were gained from HA residue Y95 and the conserved HA residues of the 130-loop, 190-helix, and 220-loop. However, introduction of the charged HA residues K145 and E227 in the 2009 HA binding pocket was found to increase the HA-hHAR binding efficiency in comparison to the three previously recognized H1N1 strains. Changing of the noncharged HA G225 residue to a negatively charged D225 provides a larger number of hydrogen-bonding interactions. The increase in hydrophilicity of the receptor binding region is apparently an evolution of the current pandemic flu from the 1918 Spanish, 1930 swine, and 2005 seasonal strains. Detailed analysis could help the understanding of how different HAs effectively attach and bind with the hHAR.

  10. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  11. "E" Heating Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris; Copeland, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    Two separate areas heated inductively for adhesive bonding in single operation. "E" heating head developed to satisfy need for fast-acting and reliable induction heating device. Used in attaching "high-hat" stiffeners to aircraft panels. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun. Width and length configured to provide variously sized heat zones, depending on bonding requirements. Lightweight, portable and provides rapid, reliable heating of dual areas in any environment. Well suited for flight-line and depot maintenance, and battlefield repair. Also useful in automotive assembly lines to strengthen automobile panels.

  12. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  13. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  14. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  15. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  16. Strömgren uvby photometry of the peculiar globular cluster NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Feltzing, Sofia; Kacharov, Nikolay; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Irwin, Mike

    2015-09-01

    NGC 2419 is a peculiar Galactic globular cluster offset from the others in the size-luminosity diagram, and showing several chemical abundance anomalies. Here, we present Strömgren uvby photometry of the cluster. Using the gravity- and metallicity-sensitive c1 and m1 indices, we identify a sample of likely cluster members extending well beyond the formal tidal radius. The estimated contamination by cluster non-members is only one per cent, making our catalogue ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up. We derive photometric [Fe/H] of red giants, and depending on which metallicity calibration from the literature we use, we find reasonable to excellent agreement with spectroscopic [Fe/H], both for the cluster mean metallicity and for individual stars. We demonstrate explicitly that the photometric uncertainties are not Gaussian and this must be accounted for in any analysis of the metallicity distribution function. Using a realistic, non-Gaussian model for the photometric uncertainties, we find a formal internal [Fe/H] spread of σ=0.11+0.02-0.01 dex. This is an upper limit to the cluster's true [Fe/H] spread and may partially, and possibly entirely, reflect the limited precision of the photometric metallicity estimation and systematic effects. The lack of correlation between spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] of individual stars is further evidence against a [Fe/H] spread on the 0.1 dex level. Finally, the CN-sensitive δ4, among other colour indices, anti-correlates strongly with magnesium abundance, indicating that the second-generation stars are nitrogen enriched. The absence of similar correlations in some other CN-sensitive indices supports the second generation being enriched in He, which in these indices approximately compensates the shift due to CN. Compared to a single continuous distribution with finite dispersion, the observed δ4 distribution of red giants is slightly better fit by two distinct populations with no internal spread, with the nitrogen

  17. A Chemical Composition Survey of the Iron-complex Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Mateo, Mario [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bailey, John I. III [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Clarkson, William I. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan–Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Olszewski, Edward W. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, Matthew G., E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: ncaldwell@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: mmateo@umich.edu, E-mail: baileyji@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: wiclarks@umich.edu, E-mail: eolszewski@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: mgwalker@andrew.cmu.edu [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Recent observations have shown that a growing number of the most massive Galactic globular clusters contain multiple populations of stars with different [Fe/H] and neutron-capture element abundances. NGC 6273 has only recently been recognized as a member of this “iron-complex” cluster class, and we provide here a chemical and kinematic analysis of >300 red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch member stars using high-resolution spectra obtained with the Magellan –M2FS and VLT–FLAMES instruments. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that NGC 6273 possesses an intrinsic metallicity spread that ranges from about [Fe/H] = −2 to −1 dex, and may include at least three populations with different [Fe/H] values. The three populations identified here contain separate first (Na/Al-poor) and second (Na/Al-rich) generation stars, but a Mg–Al anti-correlation may only be present in stars with [Fe/H] ≳ −1.65. The strong correlation between [La/Eu] and [Fe/H] suggests that the s-process must have dominated the heavy element enrichment at higher metallicities. A small group of stars with low [ α /Fe] is identified and may have been accreted from a former surrounding field star population. The cluster’s large abundance variations are coupled with a complex, extended, and multimodal blue horizontal branch (HB). The HB morphology and chemical abundances suggest that NGC 6273 may have an origin that is similar to ω Cen and M54.

  18. WIDE-FIELD PRECISION KINEMATICS OF THE M87 GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Beasley, Michael A.; Arnold, Jacob A. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Tamura, Naoyuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sharples, Ray M. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Arimoto, Nobuo, E-mail: jstrader@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    We present the most extensive combined photometric and spectroscopic study to date of the enormous globular cluster (GC) system around M87, the central giant elliptical galaxy in the nearby Virgo Cluster. Using observations from DEIMOS and the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Keck, and Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope, we derive new, precise radial velocities for 451 GCs around M87, with projected radii from {approx}5 to 185 kpc. We combine these measurements with literature data for a total sample of 737 objects, which we use for a re-examination of the kinematics of the GC system of M87. The velocities are analyzed in the context of archival wide-field photometry and a novel Hubble Space Telescope catalog of half-light radii, which includes sizes for 344 spectroscopically confirmed clusters. We use this unique catalog to identify 18 new candidate ultracompact dwarfs and to help clarify the relationship between these objects and true GCs. We find much lower values for the outer velocity dispersion and rotation of the GC system than in earlier papers and also differ from previous work in seeing no evidence for a transition in the inner halo to a potential dominated by the Virgo Cluster, nor for a truncation of the stellar halo. We find little kinematical evidence for an intergalactic GC population. Aided by the precision of the new velocity measurements, we see significant evidence for kinematical substructure over a wide range of radii, indicating that M87 is in active assembly. A simple, scale-free analysis finds less dark matter within {approx}85 kpc than in other recent work, reducing the tension between X-ray and optical results. In general, out to a projected radius of {approx}150 kpc, our data are consistent with the notion that M87 is not dynamically coupled to the Virgo Cluster; the core of Virgo may be in the earliest stages of assembly.

  19. Evolution of the Stellar Mass Function in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Hong, Jongsuk; Webb, Jeremy J.; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at studying the effects of the long-term dynamical evolution on the stellar mass function (MF) of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. Our simulations show that if first-(1G) and second-generation (2G) stars have the same initial MF (IMF), the global MFs of the two populations are affected similarly by dynamical evolution and no significant differences between the 1G and the 2G MFs arise during the cluster's evolution. If the two populations have different IMFs, dynamical effects do not completely erase memory of the initial differences. Should observations find differences between the global 1G and 2G MF, these would reveal the fingerprints of differences in their IMFs. Irrespective of whether the 1G and 2G populations have the same global IMF or not, dynamical effects can produce differences between the local (measured at various distances from the cluster centre) 1G and 2G MFs; these differences are a manifestation of the process of mass segregation in populations with different initial structural properties. In dynamically old and spatially mixed clusters, however, differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs can reveal differences between the 1G and 2G global MFs. In general, for clusters with any dynamical age, large differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs are more likely to be associated with differences in the global MF. Our study also reveals a dependence of the spatial mixing rate on the stellar mass, another dynamical consequence of the multiscale nature of multiple-population clusters.

  20. Discovery of the third transient X-ray binary in the galactic globular cluster Terzan 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gladstone, Jeanette C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Linares, Manuel [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pooley, David [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Degenaar, Nathalie, E-mail: bahramia@ualberta.ca [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We report and study the outburst of a new transient X-ray binary (XRB) in Terzan 5, the third detected in this globular cluster, Swift J174805.3-244637 or Terzan 5 X-3. We find clear spectral hardening in Swift/XRT data during the outburst rise to the hard state, thanks to our early coverage (starting at L{sub X} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1}) of the outburst. This hardening appears to be due to the decline in relative strength of a soft thermal component from the surface of the neutron star (NS) during the rise. We identify a Type I X-ray burst in Swift/XRT data with a long (16 s) decay time, indicative of hydrogen burning on the surface of the NS. We use Swift/BAT, MAXI/GSC, Chandra/ACIS, and Swift/XRT data to study the spectral changes during the outburst, identifying a clear hard-to-soft state transition. We use a Chandra/ACIS observation during outburst to identify the transient's position. Seven archival Chandra/ACIS observations show evidence for variations in Terzan 5 X-3's nonthermal component but not the thermal component during quiescence. The inferred long-term time-averaged mass accretion rate, from the quiescent thermal luminosity, suggests that if this outburst is typical and only slow cooling processes are active in the NS core, such outbursts should recur every ∼10 yr.