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Sample records for helps insure accuracy

  1. Life Insurance Basics: A Self-Help Workbook for Consumers.

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific…

  2. Can Automatic Classification Help to Increase Accuracy in Data Collection?

    Frederique Lang

    2016-09-01

    classification achieved by this means is not completely accurate, the amount of manual coding needed can be greatly reduced by using classification algorithms. This can be of great help when the dataset is big. With the help of accuracy, recall, and coverage measures, it is possible to have an estimation of the error involved in this classification, which could open the possibility of incorporating the use of these algorithms in software specifically designed for data cleaning and classification. Originality/value: We analyzed the performance of seven algorithms and whether combinations of these algorithms improve accuracy in data collection. Use of these algorithms could reduce time needed for manual data cleaning.

  3. How the Affordable Care Act Has Helped Women Gain Insurance and Improved Their Ability to Get Health Care: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2016.

    Gunja, Munira Z; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beautel, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE: Prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), one-third of women who tried to buy a health plan on their own were either turned down, charged a higher premium because of their health, or had specific health problems excluded from their plans. Beginning in 2010, ACA consumer protections, particularly coverage for preventive care screenings with no cost-sharing and a ban on plan benefit limits, improved the quality of health insurance for women. In 2014, the law’s major insurance reforms helped millions of women who did not have employer insurance to gain coverage through the ACA’s marketplaces or through Medicaid. GOALS: To examine the effects of ACA health reforms on women’s coverage and access to care. METHOD: Analysis of the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Surveys, 2001–2016. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Women ages 19 to 64 who shopped for new coverage on their own found it significantly easier to find affordable plans in 2016 compared to 2010. The percentage of women who reported delaying or skipping needed care because of costs fell to an all-time low. Insured women were more likely than uninsured women to receive preventive screenings, including Pap tests and mammograms.

  4. To What Extent Does Non Profit Private Micro Health Insurance Help Improve Public Health Care?

    Aurore Duffau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the SKY micro health insurance project that GRET has been developing in Cambodia for ten years, this article reflects on how non-profit private micro health insurance can help improve public health care.The medical situation in Cambodia is particularly interesting to study insomuch as the population multiplies their sources of care (self-medication, visits to private practitioners, traditional therapists, doctors in public facilities, etc., which leads to high costs and mediocre care.Using the SKY project’s internal database and four qualitative studies conducted between 2007 and 2008 in the project’s areas of intervention, we show that the SKY project, which is conducted in agreement with the Khmer authorities, has enabled greater utilisation of public health care, a better perception of the quality of care, and a better capacity for financial anticipation both in health care facilities and among the insured. Nevertheless, the limitations of and obstacles facing such systems are numerous: self-medication among the insured persists, the attitude of poorly paid health care workers does not favour rational use of medicines, and the orientation of Ministerial financing of health care is not always consistent with the project’s objectives. Ultimately, the synergies between non profit private micro health insurance and public health care will be all the more effective when insurance accounts for a large share of health care facilities’ revenues—that is to say when the subscriber base is large.Basé sur le projet de micro-assurance santé SKY que le GRET développe au Cambodge depuis dix ans, cet article explique comment la micro-assurance santé privée à but non lucratif peut contribuer à améliorer les soins de santé publique.La situation médicale au Cambodge est particulièrement intéressante à étudier car la population multiplie les sources de soins (auto-médication, consultations en cabinet, médecine traditionnelle

  5. Breast Health Services: Accuracy of Benefit Coverage Information in the Individual Insurance Marketplace.

    Hamid, Mariam S; Kolenic, Giselle E; Dozier, Jessica; Dalton, Vanessa K; Carlos, Ruth C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if breast health coverage information provided by customer service representatives employed by insurers offering plans in the 2015 federal and state health insurance marketplaces is consistent with Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and state-specific legislation. One hundred fifty-eight unique customer service numbers were identified for insurers offering plans through the federal marketplace, augmented with four additional numbers representing the Connecticut state-run exchange. Using a standardized patient biography and the mystery-shopper technique, a single investigator posed as a purchaser and contacted each number, requesting information on breast health services coverage. Consistency of information provided by the representative with the ACA mandates (BRCA testing in high-risk women) or state-specific legislation (screening ultrasound in women with dense breasts) was determined. Insurer representatives gave BRCA test coverage information that was not consistent with the ACA mandate in 60.8% of cases, and 22.8% could not provide any information regarding coverage. Nearly half (48.1%) of insurer representatives gave coverage information about ultrasound screening for dense breasts that was not consistent with state-specific legislation, and 18.5% could not provide any information. Insurance customer service representatives in the federal and state marketplaces frequently provide inaccurate coverage information about breast health services that should be covered under the ACA and state-specific legislation. Misinformation can inadvertently lead to the purchase of a plan that does not meet the needs of the insured. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bond Insurance Can Help Lower the Cost of Financing Your Facilities.

    Sockwell, Oliver R.

    1993-01-01

    For many colleges, universities, and teaching hospitals, the need to expand, renovate, or replace aging structures and equipment is crucial. Institutions need not be large and well known to tap nationwide capital pools. By using municipal bond insurance when issuing tax-exempt bonds for financing, they improve their credit rating and increase…

  7. 75 FR 82323 - Accuracy of Advertising and Notice of Insured Status

    2010-12-30

    ... official advertising statement, an insured credit union may alter the font size to ensure its legibility as..., that do not exceed thirty (30) seconds in time; (10) Advertisements that because of their type or... clearly legible. 12 CFR 740.5(b). NCUA's regulations do not dictate a specific font size be used for the...

  8. Office of Adolescent Health medical accuracy review process--helping ensure the medical accuracy of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program materials.

    Jensen, Jo Anne G; Moreno, Elizabeth L; Rice, Tara M

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) developed a systematic approach to review for medical accuracy the educational materials proposed for use in Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) programs. This process is also used by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) for review of materials used in the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program. This article describes the review process, explaining the methodology, the team implementing the reviews, and the process for distributing review findings and implementing changes. Provided also is the definition of "medically accurate and complete" as used in the programs, and a description of what constitutes "complete" information when discussing sexually transmitted infections and birth control methods. The article is of interest to program providers, curriculum developers and purveyors, and those who are interested in providing medically accurate and complete information to adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Health Insurance

    Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...

  10. Predictors for increasing eligibility level among home help service users in the Japanese long-term care insurance system.

    Kamiya, Kuniyasu; Sasou, Kenji; Fujita, Makoto; Yamada, Sumio

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of possible risk factors for increasing eligibility level of long-term care insurance in home help service users who were certified as support level 1-2 or care level 1-2 in Japan. Data were collected from October 2011 to November 2011. Variables included eligibility level, grip strength, calf circumference (CC), functional limitations, body mass index, memory impairment, depression, social support, and nutrition status. A total of 417 subjects (109 males and 308 females, mean age 83 years) were examined. There were 109 subjects with memory impairment. When divided by cut-off values, care level 2 was found to have higher prevalence of low grip strength, low CC, and depression. Some potentially modifiable factors such as muscle strength could be the risk factors for increasing eligibility level.

  11. Accuracy and Effort of Interpolation and Sampling: Can GIS Help Lower Field Costs?

    Greg Simpson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a problem for all reservoirs in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Before working on sediment removal, a survey on the extent and distribution of the sediment is needed. Two sample lakes were used to determine which of three interpolation methods gave the most accurate volume results. A secondary goal was to see if fewer samples could be taken while still providing similar results. The smaller samples would mean less field time and thus lower costs. Subsamples of 50%, 33% and 25% were taken from the total samples and evaluated for the lowest Root Mean Squared Error values. Throughout the trials, the larger sample sizes generally showed better accuracy than smaller samples. Graphing the sediment volume estimates of the full sample, 50%, 33% and 25% showed little improvement after a sample of approximately 40%–50% when comparing the asymptote of the separate samples. When we used smaller subsamples the predicted sediment volumes were normally greater than the full sample volumes. It is suggested that when planning future sediment surveys, workers plan on gathering data at approximately every 5.21 meters. These sample sizes can be cut in half and still retain relative accuracy if time savings are needed. Volume estimates may slightly suffer with these reduced samples sizes, but the field work savings can be of benefit. Results from these surveys are used in prioritization of available funds for reclamation efforts.

  12. Improving the Preoperative Diagnostic Accuracy of Acute Appendicitis. Can Fecal Calprotectin Be Helpful?

    Peter C Ambe

    Full Text Available Is the patient really suffering from acute appendicitis? Right lower quadrant pain is the most common sign of acute appendicitis. However, many other bowels pathologies might mimic acute appendicitis. Due to fear of the consequences of delayed or missed diagnosis, the indication for emergency appendectomy is liberally made. This has been shown to be associated with high rates of negative appendectomy with risk of potentially serious or lethal complications. Thus there is need for a better preoperative screening of patients with suspected appendicitis.This prospective single center single-blinded pilot study was conducted in the Department of surgery at the HELIOS Universitätsklinikum Wuppertal, Germany. Calprotectin was measured in pre-therapeutic stool samples of patients presenting in the emergency department with pain to the right lower quadrant. Fecal calprotectin (FC values were analyzed using commercially available ELISA kits. Cut-off values for FC were studied using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve. The Area under the curve (AUC was reported for each ROC curve.The mean FC value was 51.4 ± 118.8 μg/g in patients with AA, 320.9 ± 416.6 μg/g in patients with infectious enteritis and 24.8 ± 27.4 μg/g in the control group. ROC curve showed a close to 80% specificity and sensitivity of FC for AA at a cut-off value of 51 μg/g, AUC = 0.7. The sensitivity of FC at this cut-off value is zero for enteritis with a specificity of 35%.Fecal calprotectin could be helpful in screening patients with pain to the right lower quadrant for the presence of acute appendicitis or infectious enteritis with the aim of facilitating clinical decision-making and reducing the rate of negative appendectomy.

  13. Innovative strategies to help Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans (CO-OPs) compete in new insurance marketplaces.

    Gardiner, Terry; Neece, Roger; Mendelevitz, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act paves the way for groups to develop innovative, affordable health insurance and care options known as Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans (CO-OPs). These CO-OPs will be nonprofit, consumer-controlled entities that are designed to serve individuals and small businesses, especially in noncompetitive markets. The CO-OP provision was included in the Affordable Care Act to address the lack of affordable health plan alternatives in many state and regional markets and to counter a trend toward market concentration. Despite their promise, CO-OPs face a number of business challenges that go beyond typical start-up hurdles. This issue brief lays out a number of innovative strategies CO-OP organizers are developing to increase the odds of long-term sustainability and economic success. These strategies--aimed at building market share, creating integrated provider networks, and achieving cost savings through payment reform--could establish CO-OPs as a viable new entrant in the health care field.

  14. Insuring against Health Shocks: Health Insurance and Household Choices

    Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...

  15. High construal level can help negotiators to reach integrative agreements: The role of information exchange and judgement accuracy.

    Wening, Stefanie; Keith, Nina; Abele, Andrea E

    2016-06-01

    In negotiations, a focus on interests (why negotiators want something) is key to integrative agreements. Yet, many negotiators spontaneously focus on positions (what they want), with suboptimal outcomes. Our research applies construal-level theory to negotiations and proposes that a high construal level instigates a focus on interests during negotiations which, in turn, positively affects outcomes. In particular, we tested the notion that the effect of construal level on outcomes was mediated by information exchange and judgement accuracy. Finally, we expected the mere mode of presentation of task material to affect construal levels and manipulated construal levels using concrete versus abstract negotiation tasks. In two experiments, participants negotiated in dyads in either a high- or low-construal-level condition. In Study 1, high-construal-level dyads outperformed dyads in the low-construal-level condition; this main effect was mediated by information exchange. Study 2 replicated both the main and mediation effects using judgement accuracy as mediator and additionally yielded a positive effect of a high construal level on a second, more complex negotiation task. These results not only provide empirical evidence for the theoretically proposed link between construal levels and negotiation outcomes but also shed light on the processes underlying this effect. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. How to insure measurement accuracy of belt feeder machine weighing installment%如何保证皮带绐料机称重装置的计量精度

    李双; 吴江; 陈以振

    2012-01-01

    本文从皮带给料机这一称重产品的结构、校准原理、计量精度等几个主要方面,以图文结合的形式着重阐述了怎样保证皮带给料机称重装置的计量精度。%In the form of a graphic combination, according to structure, calibration principle, measurement accuracy and some other factors, this article elaborates how to insure measurement accuracy of belt feeder machine weighing installmenL

  17. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  18. Insuring against health shocks: Health insurance and household choices.

    Liu, Kai

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. HIAA's The Business of Insurance: An Introduction.

    Rosen, Anita; Lynch, Margaret E.

    This booklet is intended to help students gain a broad understanding of the meaning, characteristics, organization, products, and functions of the insurance industry. The following topics are discussed: the concept of and need for insurance; basic principles of insurance (risk assessment, insurability and insurable interest, determination of…

  20. Serbian insurance market: Select issues

    Obadović Mirjana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.

  1. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  2. Insurance crisis

    Williams, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators

  3. Probabilistic Insurance

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be

  4. Probabilistic Insurance

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these

  5. Suggestion of Islamic Insurance Company Model

    Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...

  6. Healthcare.gov Insurance Finder Tool

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This tool will help you find the health insurance best suited to your needs, whether its private insurance for individuals, families, and small businesses, or public...

  7. Nuclear insurance

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Probabilistic insurance

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...

  9. Climate Risk and Production Shocks: Using Index Insurance to Link Climate Science to Policy for Sustainable Development

    McCarney, G. R.; Osgood, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are often severely impacted by droughts and other climate related events. However, agricultural insurance programs are largely unavailable in lower-income countries because of limitations in traditional loss-based indemnity insurance. As a result, it is often the case that farmers who are the most vulnerable to climate shocks lack access to the insurance tools that could help to reduce their production risk. Index insurance, a recent financial innovation, has the potential to increase access to insurance for smallholder farmers (Barrett et al. 2007). Index insurance allows farmers to insure their production risk based on a weather index (such as total seasonal rainfall) rather than on crop yields. The use of a weather index addresses many of the perverse incentive problems found in traditional crop insurance, and greatly reduces the costs of insuring smallholder farmers. The trade-off in index insurance, however, is limited accuracy in calibrating payouts to actual losses, a phenomenon commonly known as basis risk. While index insurance has promise as a risk-smoothing instrument, many argue it has greater promise as a mechanism for improving access to credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries (e.g. Barnett, Barrett & Skees 2008). In these areas, farmers are often fully exposed to climate shocks, which greatly affect their willingness to borrow. By smoothing the uncertainty in climate shocks, insurance may allow farmers to take credit for productive risks. There has been much discussion as to the optimal strategy for combining index insurance with credit, specifically if the financial institutions or the individual farmers themselves should hold the insurance policy. Many existing insurance implementations insure the farmer directly. However, since a weather index is a proxy for yield loss based on regional data, there is basis risk due to uninsured idiosyncratic differences between farmers. As a response to

  10. School Insurance.

    1964

    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  11. Forest insurance

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  12. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Wang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  13. THE ROLE OF REINSURANCE IN INSURANCE

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies carry out risk spreading through the co-insurance and reinsurance mechanism, consisting of the participation of more companies in the provision of high-value assets. Reinsurance is a form of insurance whereby an insurance organization can transfer to another reinsurer, partly or fully, its payment obligations arising from the insurance contracts that it has concluded. In the reinsurance ratios, the insurance companies appear in a double position - giving other insurance companies some of the risks assumed under direct insurance, being reinsured, but receiving different risks to reinsurance, acquiring the quality of reinsurers. Reinsurance intends to satisfy some multiple needs of the direct insurer and can provide means to counteract the risks associated with the fluctuations in compensation costs, the reinsurer will contribute to the payment of compensations on behalf of the reinsurer. Life insurance has characteristics that influence reinsurance: the average life of the insurance, the insurance is concluded for a fixed amount insured, the capital accumulation. In life reinsurance, almost all reinsurance arrangements are proportional agreements, and the largest share have the "surplus" agreements. Reinsurance plays an important role because it fulfills the following functions: it confers capacity, creates stability, helps to consolidate financial strength. The adjustment of the client portfolio in terms of the changes of reinsurance agreement, required by the reinsurer, can only be done by concluding the insurance contracts. In life insurance, reinsurance contracts contain provisions that meet the need of the insurer to have long-term protection.

  14. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA must...

  15. INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES

    Andreea Stoican

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Civil code regulates for the first time in the Romanian legislation the intermediation contract, until its entering into force existing multiple situations that lent themselves to this legal operation, but did not benefit of such particular legal rules. Yet, the case law has shown that the situations that arise in the activity of the legal or natural persons are much more complex, this leading, in time, to the reglementation of such particular rules. Such a case is that found in the matter of insurance contracts, the position of the insurance intermediaries being regulated especially by Law no. 32/2000, according to which they represent the natural or legal persons authorized in the conditions of the above mentioned legal document, that perform intermediation activities in the insurance field, in exchange of a remuneration, as well as the intermediaries from the EU member states that perform such an activity on the Romanian territory, in accordance with the freedom in performing services. Therefore, the present paper aims to analyze the conclusion of such insurance contracts and to underline the particular position of the insurance brokers, having the following structure: 1 Introduction; 2 The reglementation of the intermediation contract/brokerage agreement in the Romanian Law; 3 The importance of the intermediaries in the insurance contracts; 4 The conclusion of the insurance contracts; 5 Conclusions.

  16. Health Insurance and Children with Disabilities

    Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…

  17. Are the Conventional Commercial Yeast Identification Methods Still Helpful in the Era of New Clinical Microbiology Diagnostics? A Meta-Analysis of Their Accuracy.

    Posteraro, Brunella; Efremov, Ljupcho; Leoncini, Emanuele; Amore, Rosarita; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Accurate identification of pathogenic species is important for early appropriate patient management, but growing diversity of infectious species/strains makes the identification of clinical yeasts increasingly difficult. Among conventional methods that are commercially available, the API ID32C, AuxaColor, and Vitek 2 systems are currently the most used systems in routine clinical microbiology. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate and to compare the accuracy of the three systems, in order to assess whether they are still of value for the species-level identification of medically relevant yeasts. After adopting rigorous selection criteria, we included 26 published studies involving Candida and non-Candida yeasts that were tested with the API ID32C (674 isolates), AuxaColor (1,740 isolates), and Vitek 2 (2,853 isolates) systems. The random-effects pooled identification ratios at the species level were 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.95) for the API ID32C system, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.93) for the AuxaColor system, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.96) for the Vitek 2 system (P for heterogeneity, 0.255). Overall, the accuracy of studies using phenotypic analysis-based comparison methods was comparable to that of studies using molecular analysis-based comparison methods. Subanalysis of studies conducted on Candida yeasts showed that the Vitek 2 system was significantly more accurate (pooled ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.99]) than the API ID32C system (pooled ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.61 to 0.99]) and the AuxaColor system (pooled ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.84]) with respect to uncommon species (P for heterogeneity, 0.05). Nonetheless, clinical microbiologists should reconsider the usefulness of these systems, particularly in light of new diagnostic tools such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which allow for considerably shortened turnaround times and/or avoid the requirement

  18. Insurance dictionary

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Nuclear insurance

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Inflation Insurance

    Zvi Bodie

    1989-01-01

    A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....

  1. Crop insurance: Risks and models of insurance

    Čolović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of crop protection is very important because of a variety of risks that could cause difficult consequences. One type of risk protection is insurance. The author in the paper states various models of insurance in some EU countries and the systems of subsidizing of insurance premiums by state. The author also gives a picture of crop insurance in the U.S., noting that in this country pays great attention to this matter. As for crop insurance in Serbia, it is not at a high level. The main problem with crop insurance is not only the risks but also the way of protection through insurance. The basic question that arises not only in the EU is the question is who will insure and protect crops. There are three possibilities: insurance companies under state control, insurance companies that are public-private partnerships or private insurance companies on a purely commercial basis.

  2. HEALTH INSURANCE

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch

  3. Export insurance

    1981-01-01

    These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions

  4. Using the adaptive cycle in climate-risk insurance to design resilient futures

    Cremades, R.; Surminski, S.; Máñez Costa, M.; Hudson, P.; Shrivastava, P.; Gascoigne, J.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the dynamics of resilience could help insurers and governments reduce the costs of climate-risk insurance schemes and secure future insurability in the face of an increase in extreme hydro-meteorological events related to climate change.

  5. HEALTH INSURANCE

    2000-01-01

    The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...

  6. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  7. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  8. Getting Help

    ... Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Getting Help Getting Help Resources from NIAAA Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding ... and find ways to make a change. Professional help Your doctor. Primary care and mental health practitioners ...

  9. Health insurance--a challenge in India.

    Presswala, R G

    2004-01-01

    In India, indemnity health insurance started about 3 decades ago. Mediclaim was the most popular product. Indian insurers and multinational companies have not been enthusiastic about starting health insurance in spite of the availability of a good market because health insurers have historically incurred losses. Losses have been caused by poor administration. Because it is a small portion of their total businesses, insurers have never tried sincerely to improve deficiencies or taken special interest. Hospital management and medical specialists have the spirit of entrepreneurship and are prepared to learn quickly and follow managed care principles, though they are not currently practiced in India. Actuarial data from the health insurance industry is sparse, but data from alternative sources will be helpful for starting managed healthcare. In my opinion, if properly administered, a "limited" managed care product with appropriate precautions and premium levels will be successful and profitable and will compete with present indemnity products in India.

  10. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  11. Alternative health insurance schemes

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  12. Health Insurance Basics

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  13. 12 CFR 740.2 - Accuracy of advertising.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accuracy of advertising. 740.2 Section 740.2... ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.2 Accuracy of advertising. No insured credit union may use any advertising (which includes print, electronic, or broadcast media, displays and signs, stationery, and other...

  14. Insurance of nuclear risk

    Lacroix, M.

    1976-01-01

    Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr

  15. Risk, Credit, and Insurance in Peru: Field Experimental Evidence

    Galarza, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of behavioral economic experiments conducted in Peru to examine the relationship amongst risk preferences, loan take-up, and insurance purchase decisions. This area-based yield insurance can help reduce people's vulnerability to large scale covariate shocks, and can also lower the loan default probability under extreme negative covariate shocks. In a context of collateralized formal credit markets, we provide suggestive evidence that insurance may help reduce th...

  16. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  17. Disability Income Insurance

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  18. Understanding health insurance plans

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  19. 24 CFR 266.602 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insured advances.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Insured... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.602 Mortgage insurance premium: Insured.... On each anniversary of the initial closing, the HFA shall pay an interim mortgage insurance premium...

  20. Farmers Insures Success

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  1. Search Help

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  2. Risks and nuclear insurance

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.

    1988-01-01

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr

  3. Public Insurance and Equality

    Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... surrounding public insurance as a redistributive tool, advancing the idea that public insurance may be a relational egalitarian tool. It then presents a number of relational arguments in favor of the involvement of the state in the provision of specific forms of insurance, arguments that have been overlooked...

  4. STATE AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INSURANCE MARKET OF UKRAINE

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2016-04-01

    developed a scientific approach to the determination of the system of factors, which the modern insurance market should correspond to. Рractical value. The solution of the presented problems with the help of the measures proposed by the authors will help the insurance market to develop successfully. And this, in its turn, will contribute to the stabilization of the national economy, because the insurance market is its integral segment.

  5. PARAMETRIC INSURANCE COVER FOR NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISKS

    Serghei Margulescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With economic losses of over USD 370 bn caused by 325 catastrophic events, 2011 ranks as the worst ever year in terms of costs to society due to natural catastrophes and man-made disasters. Inthe same time, 2011 is the second most expensive year in the history for the insurance industry, with insured losses from catastrophic events amounting to USD 116 bn. Both the high level of damages and insured losses, as well as the unprecedented gap between the two values, made insurers and reinsurers worldwide to understand that some risks had so far been underestimated and they have to be better integrated in the catastrophes modelling.On the other hand, governments have to protect themselves against the financial impact of natural catastrophes and new forms of cooperation between the public and private sectors can help countries finance disaster risks. Viewed in a country’s wider risk management context, the purchase of parametric insurance cover, which transfers natural catastrophe risk to the private sector using an index- based trigger, is a necessary shift towards a pre-emptive risk management strategy. This kind of approach can be pursued by central governments or at the level of provincial or municipal governments, and a number of case studies included in the publication “Closing the financial gap” by Swiss Re (2011 illustrates how new forms of parametric insurance can help countries finance disaster risks.

  6. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  7. Nonlife Insurance Pricing:

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    We consider the insurance company as a physical system which is immersed in its environment (the financial market). The insurer company interacts with the market by exchanging the money through the payments for loss claims and receiving the premium. Here, in the equilibrium state, we obtain the premium by using the canonical ensemble theory, and compare it with the Esscher principle, the well-known formula in actuary for premium calculation. We simulate the case of car insurance for quantitative comparison.

  8. Catastrophic risks and insurance

    Deprimoz, J.

    1988-01-01

    This short communication deals with compensation for nuclear damage and compensation for environmental pollution through industrial activities and compress both systems and their insurance coverage [fr

  9. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Healthcare Management, Insurance & Bills, Your Health ResourcesTags: brand name, co-pay, drug, formulary, generic, isurance, medicine, ...

  10. Uninsured vs. insured population

    Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2003-01-01

    analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health......This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... status. Also, the insured nonelderly Americans were found to have better access to health care than the uninsured nonelderly....

  11. Designing Health Information Technology Tools to Prevent Gaps in Public Health Insurance.

    Hall, Jennifer D; Harding, Rose L; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Angier, Heather; Sumic, Aleksandra; Nelson, Christine A; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Cohen, Deborah J

    2017-06-23

    Changes in health insurance policies have increased coverage opportunities, but enrollees are required to annually reapply for benefits which, if not managed appropriately, can lead to insurance gaps. Electronic health records (EHRs) can automate processes for assisting patients with health insurance enrollment and re-enrollment. We describe community health centers' (CHC) workflow, documentation, and tracking needs for assisting families with insurance application processes, and the health information technology (IT) tool components that were developed to meet those needs. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and observation of clinic operations and insurance application assistance processes. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We diagramed workflows and shared information with a team of developers who built the EHR-based tools. Four steps to the insurance assistance workflow were common among CHCs: 1) Identifying patients for public health insurance application assistance; 2) Completing and submitting the public health insurance application when clinic staff met with patients to collect requisite information and helped them apply for benefits; 3) Tracking public health insurance approval to monitor for decisions; and 4) assisting with annual health insurance reapplication. We developed EHR-based tools to support clinical staff with each of these steps. CHCs are uniquely positioned to help patients and families with public health insurance applications. CHCs have invested in staff to assist patients with insurance applications and help prevent coverage gaps. To best assist patients and to foster efficiency, EHR based insurance tools need comprehensive, timely, and accurate health insurance information.

  12. The insurance of nuclear installations

    Francis, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the development of nuclear insurance. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the need for nuclear insurance, nuclear insurance pools, international co-operation, nuclear installations which may be insured, international conventions relating to the liability of operators of nuclear installations, classes of nuclear insurance, nuclear reactor hazards and their assessment, future developments. (U.K.)

  13. Using Clinical Decision Support Software in Health Insurance Company

    Konovalov, R.; Kumlander, Deniss

    This paper proposes the idea to use Clinical Decision Support software in Health Insurance Company as a tool to reduce the expenses related to Medication Errors. As a prove that this class of software will help insurance companies reducing the expenses, the research was conducted in eight hospitals in United Arab Emirates to analyze the amount of preventable common Medication Errors in drug prescription.

  14. Nuclear energy and insurance

    Dow, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)

  15. Social health insurance

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.

  16. Insurance industry guide

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is an insurance industry guide for the independent power industry. The directory includes the insurance company's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company's area of expertise, products and services, and limitations. The directory is international in scope. Some of the companies specialize in independent power projects

  17. Marketing in life insurance

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.

  18. Health insurance for "frontaliers"

    2013-01-01

    The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance.   The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...

  19. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    Webel, Baird

    2005-01-01

    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  20. Disposition of Insurance Allotment Payments

    Young, Shelton

    2001-01-01

    .... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...

  1. Insurance: Accounting, Regulation, Actuarial Science

    Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart

    2001-01-01

    We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...

  2. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  3. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually.

  4. Housing Instability and Children's Health Insurance Gaps.

    Carroll, Anne; Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    To assess the extent to which housing instability is associated with gaps in health insurance coverage of preschool-age children. Secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children born in the United States in 2001, was conducted to investigate associations between unstable housing-homelessness, multiple moves, or living with others and not paying rent-and children's subsequent health insurance gaps. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. Ten percent of children were unstably housed at age 2, and 11% had a gap in health insurance between ages 2 and 4. Unstably housed children were more likely to have gaps in insurance compared to stably housed children (16% vs 10%). Controlling for potentially confounding factors, the odds of a child insurance gap were significantly higher in unstably housed families than in stably housed families (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.61). The association was similar in alternative model specifications. In a US nationally representative birth cohort, children who were unstably housed at age 2 were at higher risk, compared to their stably housed counterparts, of experiencing health insurance gaps between ages 2 and 4 years. The findings from this study suggest that policy efforts to delink health insurance renewal processes from mailing addresses, and potentially routine screenings for housing instability as well as referrals to appropriate resources by pediatricians, would help unstably housed children maintain health insurance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 54996 - Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under...

    2013-09-09

    ... Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under Employer... credit to help individuals and families afford health insurance coverage purchased through an Affordable... or group health insurance coverage offered by an employer to the employee that is (1) a governmental...

  6. FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDIT OF INSURANCE ORGANIZATIONS IN UKRAINE

    А. Sholoiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Features of accounting and audit of insurance organizations in Ukraine that are based on the specific characteristics of the insurance activity and legislation are considered. The main of them are the next: the proper organization of accounting is a necessary condition of the activity of the financial institution; there are three groups of requirements to accounting of insurer, including: accounting of contracts; accounting of insurance reserves, formation financial reports in the Ukrainian insurance legislation; the use of IFRS instead of national accounting standards in preparing financial reports of insurance organizations in Ukraine is obligatory and despite of this compilation of primary documents and application of National Chart of Accounts by insurance organizations of Ukraine remains mandatory; it is necessary to follow the frequency of reporting according to national legislation; insurance companies are classified as institutions that must necessarily publish annual financial statements together with the auditor’s report about its accuracy, and this category of institutions are prohibited from using such form of organization of accounting and reporting as directly by the owner or the head of organization; audit of the annual financial statements and consolidated financial statements of insurance companies is mandatory and conducted in accordance with International quality control, auditing, review, other assurance, and related services pronouncements which adopted as national auditing standards by the Audit Chamber of Ukraine. These generalizations are done to make possible the further investigations of developing and improving in this field.

  7. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    Harbruecker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  8. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Janez Balkovec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  9. Group life insurance

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013:   The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address).   The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: http://fp.web.cern.ch/helvetia-life-insurance For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)

  10. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance.

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-10-27

    This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  11. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

    Mark V. Pauly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  12. M. Nuclear insurance

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear insurance and some of the features associated with it, such as the International Conventions and the operation of Atomic Risk Pools, are discussed both in general and with specific reference to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom

  13. Building and Contents Insurance.

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  14. HUD Insured Hospitals

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...

  15. Deductibles in health insurance

    Dimitriyadis, I.; Öney, Ü. N.

    2009-11-01

    This study is an extension to a simulation study that has been developed to determine ruin probabilities in health insurance. The study concentrates on inpatient and outpatient benefits for customers of varying age bands. Loss distributions are modelled through the Allianz tool pack for different classes of insureds. Premiums at different levels of deductibles are derived in the simulation and ruin probabilities are computed assuming a linear loading on the premium. The increase in the probability of ruin at high levels of the deductible clearly shows the insufficiency of proportional loading in deductible premiums. The PH-transform pricing rule developed by Wang is analyzed as an alternative pricing rule. A simple case, where an insured is assumed to be an exponential utility decision maker while the insurer's pricing rule is a PH-transform is also treated.

  16. Engineering models for catastrophe risk and their application to insurance

    Dong, Weimin

    2002-06-01

    Internationally earthquake insurance, like all other insurance (fire, auto), adopted actuarial approach in the past, which is, based on historical loss experience to determine insurance rate. Due to the fact that earthquake is a rare event with severe consequence, irrational determination of premium rate and lack of understanding scale of potential loss led to many insurance companies insolvent after Northridge earthquake in 1994. Along with recent advances in earth science, computer science and engineering, computerized loss estimation methodologies based on first principles have been developed to the point that losses from destructive earthquakes can be quantified with reasonable accuracy using scientific modeling techniques. This paper intends to introduce how engineering models can assist to quantify earthquake risk and how insurance industry can use this information to manage their risk in the United States and abroad.

  17. Prevention in insurance markets

    Marie-Cécile FAGART; Bidénam KAMBIA-CHOPIN

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a competitive insurance market under moral hazard and adverse selection, in which preventive efforts and self-protection costs are unobservable by insurance companies. Under reasonable assumptions, the conclusions of Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) are preserved in our context even if it involves moral hazard. The riskier agents in equilibrium, who would also be the riskier agents under perfect information, receive their moral hazard contract. For other agents, adverse sel...

  18. Consumer in insurance law

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  19. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INSURANCE SALES SUPPORT

    Stofor Ovidiu-Ilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insurance system in Romania is carried out with a constant natural activity, evolving quite honorably these times. This is largely due to the difficulty with which insurance is sold in normal economic conditions when it comes to prosperity. Although psychologists, led by Maslow believes that the protection needs are basic needs, along with the physiological one, on the priority list regarding procurement, insurance needs are for some Romanians, of minimum or no importance, so that they are either pushed to the bottom of the list, or even, as it most often happens, they are non existent. Current economic conditions and climate, urges caution on most fields, especially in terms of individual properties, including, how somewhat forced, life and physical integrity which are still considered property, if this aspect is not debated in terms of Christian or other religious dogma. In other words, many Romanians see insurance as a product that “is not up their alley” including it in the luxury category. Furthermore, the media shows, sometimes amplify certain cases of doubt in relations between insurance company - customer. Appropriate marketing, allied with the information technology can improve the complete relationship between the two entities - the offeror and the consumer. Through this study we aim to identify important issues that facilitate the sale of insurance, using information technology, given that the sales of these financial products through the "ancestral" methods are effective but not very efficient. We will follow, byanchoring to the current reality, the insurance utility and how to use information technologies in support of marketing (sales. The study itself was done by observing the results in practical work, from an insurance agency, but also related to what the literature offers. Because this study is currently underway, there are certainly some limitations of accuracy of results, which are adjusted "on the fly". Realizing

  20. Hydrological drought index insurance for irrigation districts in Spain

    Maestro, T.; Bielza, M.; Garrido, A.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrological droughts are a major risk for irrigated agriculture in many regions of the world. The aim of this article is to propose an insurance tool to help irrigators manage the risk of water scarcity in the framework of the Spanish Crop Insurance System (SCIS). Only the United States Insurance System provides this type of coverage, but has very restrictive conditions. To determine the type of insurance scheme that better fits with the SCIS and to the Spanish irrigated agriculture, an expert panel was held with the participation of all stakeholders involved in crop insurance. Following the expert panel conclusions, an hydrological drought index insurance (HDII) addressed to irrigation districts (ID) is proposed. It would compensate water deficits suffered in the whole ID. We detail the conditions that the ID should fulfill to be eligible for HDII. HDII is applied to the Bardenas Irrigation District V (ID-V) in Spain, and the hedging effectiveness of the instrument is analyzed comparing ID-V’s gross margins with and without the insurance contract. Results suggest that the proposed insurance scheme could provide an effective means of reducing farmers’ vulnerability to water shortages and there is no major impediment for it to be included as a new line in the SCIS. This type of insurance can be generalized to any ID fulfilling the conditions mentioned in this paper. (Author)

  1. RISK CORRIDORS AND REINSURANCE IN HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETPLACES: Insurance for Insurers

    LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...

  2. 75 FR 44709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Stonefruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    2010-07-29

    ... resource farmers. FCIC believes this waiver helps to ensure that small entities are given the same... spacing for the producer to carry out recommended orchard management practices. Comment: A commenter... insurance period (e.g., a planned orchard renovation). Therefore, the producers should be able to timely...

  3. ENDOWMENT LIFE INSURANCE

    Zeljko Sain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper that treats the actuarial model of insurance in case of survival or early death is to show the actuarial methods and methodology for creating a model and an appropriate number of sub-models of the most popular form of life insurance in the world. The paper applies the scientific methodology of the deductive character based on scientific, theoretical knowledge and practical realities. Following the basic theoretical model’s determinants, which are at the beginning of the paper, the basic difference between models further in this paper was carried out according to the character of the premium to be paid. Finally, the financial repercussions of some models are presented at examples in insurance companies. The result of this paper is to show the spectrum of possible forms of capital endowment insurance which can be, without major problems, depending on the financial policy of the company, applied in actual practice. The conclusion of this paper shows the theoretical and the practical reality of this model, life insurance, and its quantitative and qualitative guidelines.

  4. Group Life Insurance

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance.   This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF.    The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll.   Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions.   More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...

  5. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Ravi SS Toor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  6. CURRENT CHANGES ON INSURANCE MARKET

    Madalina Giorgiana MANGRA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The offer of insurance products is about the requirements and needs of the consumer who must always have information regarding: the type of insurance risk covered and the excluded risks, the sum insured, the payment of premiums and their duration. The accurate information of customer requires, from the commencement of contract and throughout its duration, that he or she is aware of the obligations throughout the contractual period. Most of the Romanians are turning their attention to one of the insurance companies found in the top 10 in 2016, supervised by F.S.A. (Financial Supervision Authority, preferring to have a policy of mandatory household and goods insurance, auto liability or life insurance, but are also interested in travel health insurance when going abroad, private health insurance or private pension insurance. Romanians' reluctance regarding the conclusion of an insurance comes from their distrust in insurance companies (see the situations of companies like Astra Insurance, Carpatica Insurance etc., their personal financial situation and the fear that they will not receive protection if the risk is covered but the insured sum is insufficient

  7. Risk Preferences and Demand for Insurance in Peru: A Field Experiment

    Francisco Galarza; Michael Carter

    2011-01-01

    "This paper reports the results of behavioral economic experiments conducted in Peru to examine the relationship amongst risk preferences, loan take-up, and insurance purchase decisions. This area-based yield insurance can help reduce people's vulnerability to large scale covariate shocks, and can also lower the loan default probability under extreme negative covariate shocks. In a context of collateralized formal credit markets, we provide suggestive evidence that insurance may help reduce t...

  8. Insurance against nuclear risks

    Dow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  9. School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices of Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Rickard, Megan L.; Hendershot, Candace; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Background: From January through June 2009, 6.1 million children were uninsured in the United States. On average, students with health insurance are healthier and as a result are more likely to be academically successful. Some schools help students obtain health insurance with the help of school nurses. Methods: This study assessed public school…

  10. Nuclear insurance and indemnity

    Kovan, D.

    1976-01-01

    A brief account is given of insurance protection in the nuclear industry, and the legislation involved. Aspects discussed are: third part liability and the role of government in setting the maximum amount of compensation; the development and concept of channelling the liability exclusively to the operator; the development of nuclear insurance facilities in Europe and the USA; and the emergence in Europe of international agreements on third party liability for protection of neighbouring countries in the event of a major accident. The development of liability law in the USA from the time of the Price Anderson Act of 1957 through subsequent legislation is described. (U.K.)

  11. American nuclear insurers

    Oliveira, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear liability insurance covers liability for damages directly caused by the nuclear energy hazard. This coverage includes offsite bodily injury and property damage sustained by members of the general public, and bodily injury to onsite third party personnel. Recent nuclear liability claims allege bodily injury and property damage resulting from releases or radioactive materials to the environmental and occupational radiation worker exposures. Routine reactor operations involving radioactive waste have the potential to result in such claims. The nuclear insurance Pools believe that one way such claims can be minimized is through the implementation of an effective radioactive waste management program

  12. Lectures on insurance models

    Ramasubramanian, S

    2009-01-01

    Insurance has become a necessary aspect of modern society. The mathematical basis of insurance modeling is best expressed in terms of continuous time stochastic processes. This introductory text on actuarial risk theory deals with the Cramer-Lundberg model and the renewal risk model. Their basic structure and properties, including the renewal theorems as well as the corresponding ruin problems, are studied. There is a detailed discussion of heavy tailed distributions, which have become increasingly relevant. The Lundberg risk process with investment in risky asset is also considered. This book will be useful to practitioners in the field and to graduate students interested in this important branch of applied probability.

  13. Counseling as an Insured Benefit: Perspectives from the Insurance Industry

    Fulton, Wallace C.

    1974-01-01

    Article discusses the feasibility of marriage counseling as an insurance benefit in the future. It is suggested that the physician be used as a marriage counselor in that insurance companies will pay for medical services. (EK)

  14. Energy helps accuracy: electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    Farina, Marco

    2017-09-10

    We show that high energy measurements of Drell-Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell-Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell-Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  15. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  16. Energy helps accuracy: Electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    Marco Farina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that high energy measurements of Drell–Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell–Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell–Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  17. Disability Insurance and Health Insurance Reform: Evidence from Massachusetts

    Nicole Maestas; Kathleen J. Mullen; Alexander Strand

    2014-01-01

    As health insurance becomes available outside of the employment relationship as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the cost of applying for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)–potentially going without health insurance coverage during a waiting period totaling 29 months from disability onset–will decline for many people with employer-sponsored health insurance. At the same time, the value of SSDI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation will decline for individuals...

  18. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN INSURANCE CASE OF JADRANSKO INSURANCE COMPANY

    Sanja Coric; Danijel Bara

    2014-01-01

    Selling insurance products in conditions of today’s modern technological solutions is faced with numerous challenges. Business processes in insurance as well as the results of these business processes are the real interface to policyholders. Modeling and analysis of business process in insurance ensure organizations to focus on the customer and increase the efficiency and quality of work. Managing critical business processes in every single organization, likewise in insurance is a key factor ...

  19. A logistic regression model for Ghana National Health Insurance claims

    Samuel Antwi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In August 2003, the Ghanaian Government made history by implementing the first National Health Insurance System (NHIS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Within three years, over half of the country’s population had voluntarily enrolled into the National Health Insurance Scheme. This study had three objectives: 1 To estimate the risk factors that influences the Ghana national health insurance claims. 2 To estimate the magnitude of each of the risk factors in relation to the Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. Quantitative analysis was done using the generalized linear regression (GLR models. The results indicate that risk factors such as sex, age, marital status, distance and length of stay at the hospital were important predictors of health insurance claims. However, it was found that the risk factors; health status, billed charges and income level are not good predictors of national health insurance claim. The outcome of the study shows that sex, age, marital status, distance and length of stay at the hospital are statistically significant in the determination of the Ghana National health insurance premiums since they considerably influence claims. We recommended, among other things that, the National Health Insurance Authority should facilitate the institutionalization of the collection of appropriate data on a continuous basis to help in the determination of future premiums.

  20. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  1. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  2. Insurance: Covering the bases

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses steps to take to improve the economics and risk profiles for independent power projects. The topics discussed in the article include the results of competition in the power industry, custom packages and the lack of competition among insurers in the power industry, mitigating risk through providing technical information, and developing programs

  3. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (200...

  4. Trends in pension insurance

    D. Shterev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topical for our country problem which is related to the State Social Insurance. It provides a review of the factors having an adverse effect onto the financial state of the Bulgarian pension system. Discussed are the basic parameters related to the economic incentives in connection with the optimal functioning of the pension system

  5. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  6. Business intelligence for insurance companies

    IGNATIUK A.

    2016-01-01

    The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  7. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR INSURANCE COMPANIES

    A. Ignatiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  8. Crop insurance demand in wheat production: focusing on yield gaps and asymmetric information

    Castañeda-Vera, A.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Mínguez, I.; Garrido, A.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of yield gaps were conducted in the context of crop insurance and used to build an indicator of asymmetric information. The possible influence of asymmetric information in the decision of Spanish wheat producers to contract insurance was additionally evaluated. The analysis includes simulated yield using a validated crop model, CERES-Wheat previously selected among others, whose suitability to estimate actual risk when no historical data are available was assessed. Results suggest that the accuracy in setting the insured yield is decisive in farmers’ willingness to contract crop insurance under the wider coverage. Historical insurance data, when available, provide a more robust technical basis to evaluate and calibrate insurance parameters than simulated data, using crop models. Nevertheless, the use of crop models might be useful in designing new insurance packages when no historical data is available or to evaluate scenarios of expected changes. In that case, it is suggested that yield gaps be estimated and considered when using simulated attainable yields.

  9. Crop insurance demand in wheat production: focusing on yield gaps and asymmetric information

    Castañeda-Vera, A.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Mínguez, I.; Garrido, A.

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of yield gaps were conducted in the context of crop insurance and used to build an indicator of asymmetric information. The possible influence of asymmetric information in the decision of Spanish wheat producers to contract insurance was additionally evaluated. The analysis includes simulated yield using a validated crop model, CERES-Wheat previously selected among others, whose suitability to estimate actual risk when no historical data are available was assessed. Results suggest that the accuracy in setting the insured yield is decisive in farmers’ willingness to contract crop insurance under the wider coverage. Historical insurance data, when available, provide a more robust technical basis to evaluate and calibrate insurance parameters than simulated data, using crop models. Nevertheless, the use of crop models might be useful in designing new insurance packages when no historical data is available or to evaluate scenarios of expected changes. In that case, it is suggested that yield gaps be estimated and considered when using simulated attainable yields.

  10. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  11. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  12. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  13. A utility theory approach for insurance pricing

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.

  14. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during...

  15. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  16. Insurance against climate change and flood risk: Insurability and decision processes of insurers

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Hung, Jia-Yi

    2016-04-01

    1. Background Major portions of the Asia-Pacific region is facing escalating exposure and vulnerability to climate change and flood-related extremes. This highlights an arduous challenge for public agencies to improve existing risk management strategies. Conventionally, governmental funding was majorly responsible and accountable for disaster loss compensation in the developing countries in Asia, such as Taiwan. This is often criticized as an ineffective and inefficient measure of dealing with flood risk. Flood insurance is one option within the toolkit of risk-sharing arrangement and adaptation strategy to flood risk. However, there are numerous potential barriers for insurance companies to cover flood damage, which would cause the flood risk is regarded as uninsurable. This study thus aims to examine attitudes within the insurers about the viability of flood insurance, the decision-making processes of pricing flood insurance and their determinants, as well as to examine potential solutions to encourage flood insurance. 2. Methods and data Using expected-utility theory, an insurance agent-based decision-making model was developed to examine the insurers' attitudes towards the insurability of flood risk, and to scrutinize the factors that influence their decisions on flood insurance premium-setting. This model particularly focuses on how insurers price insurance when they face either uncertainty or ambiguity about the probability and loss of a particular flood event occurring. This study considers the factors that are expected to affect insures' decisions on underwriting and pricing insurance are their risk perception, attitudes towards flood insurance, governmental measures (e.g., land-use planning, building codes, risk communication), expected probabilities and losses of devastating flooding events, as well as insurance companies' attributes. To elicit insurers' utilities about premium-setting for insurance coverage, the 'certainty equivalent,' 'probability

  17. Acceptance of selective contracting: the role of trust in the health insurer.

    Bes, Romy E; Wendel, Sonja; Curfs, Emile C; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Jong, Judith D

    2013-10-02

    In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and both increase the quality of care and contain costs in the health care system. However, health insurers are reluctant to implement selective contracting; they believe their enrolees will not accept this. One reason, insurers believe, is that enrolees do not trust their health insurer. However, this has never been studied. This paper aims to study the role played by enrolees' trust in the health insurer on their acceptance of selective contracting. An online survey was conducted among 4,422 people insured through a large Dutch health insurance company. Trust in the health insurer, trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer and acceptance of selective contracting were measured using multiple item scales. A regression model was constructed to analyse the results. Trust in the health insurer turned out to be an important prerequisite for the acceptance of selective contracting among their enrolees. The association of trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer with acceptance of selective contracting is stronger for older people than younger people. Furthermore, it was found that men and healthier people accepted selective contracting by their health insurer more readily. This was also true for younger people with a low level of trust in their health insurer. This study provides insight into factors that influence people's acceptance of selective contracting by their health insurer. This may help health insurers to implement selective contracting in a way their enrolees will accept and, thus, help systems of managed competition to develop.

  18. Acceptance of selective contracting: the role of trust in the health insurer

    2013-01-01

    Background In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and both increase the quality of care and contain costs in the health care system. However, health insurers are reluctant to implement selective contracting; they believe their enrolees will not accept this. One reason, insurers believe, is that enrolees do not trust their health insurer. However, this has never been studied. This paper aims to study the role played by enrolees’ trust in the health insurer on their acceptance of selective contracting. Methods An online survey was conducted among 4,422 people insured through a large Dutch health insurance company. Trust in the health insurer, trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer and acceptance of selective contracting were measured using multiple item scales. A regression model was constructed to analyse the results. Results Trust in the health insurer turned out to be an important prerequisite for the acceptance of selective contracting among their enrolees. The association of trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer with acceptance of selective contracting is stronger for older people than younger people. Furthermore, it was found that men and healthier people accepted selective contracting by their health insurer more readily. This was also true for younger people with a low level of trust in their health insurer. Conclusion This study provides insight into factors that influence people’s acceptance of selective contracting by their health insurer. This may help health insurers to implement selective contracting in a way their enrolees will accept and, thus, help systems of managed competition to develop. PMID:24083663

  19. Modern problems in insurance mathematics

    Martin-Löf, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.

  20. Financing and insurance problems

    Laurenge, M.-T.

    1975-01-01

    The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned [fr

  1. Nuclear energy and insurance

    Ekener, H.

    1997-01-01

    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  2. The Role of Public and Private Insurance Expansions and Premiums for Low-income Parents: Lessons From State Experiences.

    Guy, Gery P; M Johnston, Emily; Ketsche, Patricia; Joski, Peter; Adams, E Kathleen

    2017-03-01

    Numerous states have implemented policies expanding public insurance eligibility or subsidizing private insurance for parents. To assess the impact of parental health insurance expansions from 1999 to 2012 on the likelihood that parents are insured; their children are insured; both the parent and child within a family unit are insured; and the type of insurance. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2000-2013 March supplements to the Current Population Survey, with data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component and the Area Resource File. Cross-state and within-state multivariable regression models estimated the effects of health insurance expansions targeting parents using 2-way fixed effect modeling and difference-in-difference modeling. All analyses controlled for household, parent, child, and local area characteristics that could affect insurance status. Expansions increased parental coverage by 2.5 percentage points, and increased the likelihood of both parent and child being insured by 2.1 percentage points. Substantial variation was observed by type of expansion. Public expansions without premiums and special subsidized plan expansions had the largest effects on parental coverage and increased the likelihood of jointly insuring both the parent and child. Higher premiums were a substantial deterrent to parents' insurance. Our findings suggest that premiums and the type of insurance expansion can have a substantial impact on the insurance status of the family. These findings can help inform states as they continue to make decisions about expanding Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act to cover all family members.

  3. Life insurance mathematics

    Gerber, Hans U

    1997-01-01

    This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.

  4. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    Debaets, M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  5. Consumer preferences in social health insurance.

    Kerssens, Jan J; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2005-03-01

    Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans which differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles, no-claim discount, extension of insurance and financial services, red tape involved, medical help-desk, choice of family physicians and hospitals, dental benefits, physical therapy benefits, benefits for prescription drugs and homeopathy). In 90% the health plan with the most attractive characteristics was preferred, indicating a predominantly rational kind of choice. The most decisive characteristics for preference were: complete dental benefits, followed by zero deductibles, and free choice of hospitals.

  6. The Dynamics of Market Insurance, Insurable Assets, and Wealth Accumulation

    Koeniger, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    We analyze dynamic interactions between market insurance, the stock of insurable assets and liquid wealth accumulation in a model with non-durable and durable consumption. The stock of the durable is exposed to risk against which households can insure. Since the model does not have a closed form solution we first provide an analytical approximation for the case in which households own abundant liquid wealth. It turns out that precautionary motives still matter because of fluctuations of the p...

  7. Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance: Are Employers Good Agents for Their Employees?

    Peele, Pamela B.; Lave, Judith R.; Black, Jeanne T.; Evans III, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Employers in the United States provide many welfare-type benefits, such as life insurance, disability insurance, health insurance, and pensions, to their employees. Employers can be viewed as performing an agency role in purchasing pension, health, and other welfare benefits for their employees. An exploration of their competence in this role as agents for their employees indicates that large employers are very helpful to their employees in this arena. They seem to contribute to individual em...

  8. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  9. ETHICS IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Gavriletea Marius

    2008-01-01

    The present paper debates the main aspects related to ethics, into an industry that recorded exponential growth in Romania insurance field. A very important role for a good business is enhanced by the ethics. The specialists appreciate that ethics represent a key factor for business success. Obviously, the insurance field into a competition market must follow all the aspects related to ethics. The ethics should be an essential element of every insurance company management. If we talk about et...

  10. The economics of health insurance.

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  13. The national health insurance scheme: perceptions and experiences of health care providers and clients in two districts of Ghana

    Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Laar, Alexander Suuk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prepayments and risk pooling through social health insurance has been advocated by international development organizations. Social health insurance is seen as a mechanism that helps mobilize resources for health, pool risk, and provide more access to health care services for the poor. Hence Ghana implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to help promote access to health care services for Ghanaians. The study examined the influence of the NHIS on the behavior of healt...

  14. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  15. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  16. 78 FR 52780 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    2013-08-26

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 85 (as of June 2013) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  17. 77 FR 36566 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    2012-06-19

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 82 (as of April, 2012) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  18. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  19. Mitigation Index Insurance for Developing Countries: Insure the Loss or Insure the Signal?

    Li, Yiting; Miranda, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional agricultural index insurance indemnifies based on the observed value of a specified variable, such as rainfall, that is correlated with agricultural production losses. Typically, indemnities are paid to the policyholder after the losses have been experienced. This paper explores alternate timing for index insurance payouts. In particular, we explore the potential benefits of what we call “mitigation index insurance” in which the payouts of the insurance contract arrive before los...

  20. The Insuring of Schools: Everybody's Business. A C.A.R.E. Special Report.

    Allen, Clifford H.

    Insurance is necessary to protect school district assets and assure the ongoing educational program. It may be purchased economically and serve its designed purpose only if trustees and administrators understand its function and seek professional help in its application. This report discusses in lay terms the nature of insurance as one means,…

  1. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and…

  2. Can decision biases improve insurance outcomes? An experiment on status quo bias in health insurance choice.

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-06-19

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.

  3. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure. PMID:23783222

  4. Can Decision Biases Improve Insurance Outcomes? An Experiment on Status Quo Bias in Health Insurance Choice

    Stefan Felder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.

  5. 76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    2011-12-13

    ... insurance industry traces its roots back to England, where, in 1696, the first mutual fire insurer was... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 380 RIN 3064-AD89 Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

  6. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the

  7. Your Insurance Dollar. Money Management.

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet provides some practical guidelines for determining total insurance needs, examining options, and comparing costs. It discusses how to fit insurance costs into an overall financial plan, the necessity of adequate liability coverage, and the importance of keeping policies up to date. The next four sections highlight the basic types of…

  8. A RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INSURANCE PROGRAM

    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  9. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  10. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 13 - Insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 13 Insurance. Article 9 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract sets forth the Contractor's liabilities and obligations with... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. Sec. 13 Section 13 Shipping MARITIME...

  12. INSURANCE - A RISK COVERING STRATEGY

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  13. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  14. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  15. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    2011-02-11

    ... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768

  16. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    2000-01-01

    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  17. Insurance and nuclear power

    Whipple, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act is discussed, which establishes procedures for insuring nuclear facilities (including nuclear power plants). The act was enacted with the dual purpose of protecting the public and encouraging the development of a private nuclear energy industry. Criticisms that can generally be grouped into four categories regarding the Act are presented, the most controversial aspect being that should an accident occur, the aggregate liability of the reactor operator, the NRC, or any others who might be at fault is limited to $560 million. Lawsuits for amounts in excess of $560 million are prohibited. The 1975 renewal of the Price-Anderson Act does provide that damages in excess of the $560 million prompt Congress to review the particular incident and take action to protect the public from the consequences of a disaster of such magnitude

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Health Insurance Industry Consolidation: Learning from Experience.

    Dafny, Leemore S

    2015-11-01

    Research shows consolidation in the private health insurance industry leads to premium increases, even though insurers with larger local market shares generally obtain lower prices from health care providers. Additional research is needed to understand how to protect against harms and unlock benefits from scale. Data on enrollment, premiums, and costs of commercial health insurance--by insurer, plan, customer segment, and local market--would help us understand whether, when, and for whom consolidation is harmful or beneficial. Such transparency is common where there is a strong public interest and substantial public regulation, both of which characterize this vital sector.

  19. The role of insurance and risk management in new power plant projects

    Ryan, R.

    1988-01-01

    Insurance, and other risk management techniques, can be used to facilitate the financing and construction of power plant projects. This paper describes certain techniques, then it concentrates on insurance based solutions. The objective of this paper is to point out how the insurance industry can help small power producers. First, the standard insurance coverages will be reviewed. Then coverages that have been specifically designed for the alternative energy, cogeneration and small power producing industries will be explained. Some real life examples will be discussed to show how the coverages really work

  20. Individual Savings Accounts and the Life-Cycle Approach to Social Insurance

    Sørensen, Peter Birch; Hansen, Martin Ino; Bovenberg, A. Lans

    Using Danish data, we find that about three fourths of the taxes levied to finance public transfers actually finance benefits that do not redistribute between people but redistribute income over the life cycle of individual taxpayers. This provides a rationale for financing part of social insurance...... via mandatory individual savings accounts. An account system that offers liquidity insurance and a lifetime income guarantee helps to alleviate the dilemma between insurance and incentives. To illustrate this, we analyse a specific proposal for reform of the Danish system of social insurance......, involving the use of individual accounts. We estimate how the reform would affect the distribution of lifetime incomes, the public budget, and economic efficiency...

  1. Young moped riders : reducing high risks and high insurance premiums.

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the reported fall in fatal accidents for moped riders in The Netherlands, and also describes developments with respect to the ownership and use of mopeds. An analysis considers the safety problems of moped riders and suggests how insurance companies might help overcome the safety

  2. Imperfect Tests and Natural Insurance Monopolies

    Emons, Winand

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers a housing insurance market in which buildings have different damage probabilities. Insurers use imperfect tests to find out about buildings’ damage types. The insurance market is a natural monopoly. If more than one insurer is active, high risk house owners continue to apply to insurers until they are eventually assigned to a low-risk class. First we show that the natural insurance monopoly need not be sustainable. Then we show that in the equilibrium industry structure t...

  3. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  4. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  5. Development and perspectives of principles of european insurance contract law

    Ana Keglević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL provides for a set of principles, definitions and model rules exclusively addressing general law for insurance contract. This work has been preformed within greater project for the creation of Common frame of reference on European contract law initiated by the Commission in 2003. PEICL is essentially designed to perform two basic functions. It would improve the quality of the EU acquis in the area of contract law, remove differences and achieve higher degree of divergences between contract laws of the Member states, and even help the national legislators when enacting legislation or Courts with the possible interpretation of the acquis. On the other hand PEICL could be adopted as an optional instrument, thus offering the common platform for contracting in the area of insurance law on the EU level. Possible Optional instrument would exist parallel with, rather instead of, national insurance contract laws. European Parliament resolution of 2011 on policy options for progress towards a European Contract Law for consumers and businesses and corresponding Green Paper of 2010 show positive tendency towards optional instrument in the legal form of Regulation. This would suit the requirements of the insurance sector. However, there are numerous signals showing adversely. For that reason this paper analyses the development and the status of Principles of European Insurance Contract Law particularly the status and perspectives of Principles within the project for the creation of European contract law.

  6. Reimbursing Dentists for Smoking Cessation Treatment: Views From Dental Insurers

    Wright, Shana; McNeely, Jennifer; Rotrosen, John; Winitzer, Rebecca F.; Pollack, Harold; Abel, Stephen; Metsch, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Screening and delivery of evidence-based interventions by dentists is an effective way to reduce tobacco use. However, dental visits remain an underutilized opportunity for the treatment of tobacco dependence. This is, in part, because the current reimbursement structure does not support expansion of dental providers’ role in this arena. The purpose of this study was to interview dental insurers to assess attitudes toward tobacco use treatment in dental practice, pros and cons of offering dental provider reimbursement, and barriers to instituting a tobacco use treatment-related payment policy for dental providers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 dental insurance company executives. Participants were identified using a targeted sampling method and represented viewpoints from a significant share of companies within the dental insurance industry. Results: All insurers believed that screening and intervention for tobacco use was an appropriate part of routine care during a dental visit. Several indicated a need for more evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness before reimbursement for these services could be actualized. Lack of purchaser demand, questionable returns on investment, and segregation of the medical and dental insurance markets were cited as additional barriers to coverage. Conclusions: Dissemination of findings on efficacy and additional research on financial returns could help to promote uptake of coverage by insurers. Wider issues of integration between dental and medical care and payment systems must be addressed in order to expand opportunities for preventive services in dental care settings. PMID:22387994

  7. Infusing Adult Education Principles Into a Health Insurance Literacy Program.

    Brown, Virginia

    2018-03-01

    Health insurance literacy is an emerging concept in the health education and health promotion field. The passage of the Affordable Care Act highlighted the link between health insurance and health outcomes. However, the law does not specifically address how the public should be educated on choosing an appropriate health insurance plan. Research shows adults, regardless of previous health insurance status, are likely confused and uncertain about their selection. The University of Maryland Extension developed and created health insurance Smart Choice Health Insurance™ to reduce confusion and increase confidence and capability to make this decision. Andragogy, an adult learning theory, was used to guide the development of the program and help ensure best practices are used to achieve desired outcomes. Using the six principles of andragogy, the team incorporated reality-based case studies, allowed adults time to practice, and emphasized choice making and many other elements to create an atmosphere conducive to adult learning. Results from Smart Choice indicate the program is successful in reducing confusion and increasing confidence. Furthermore, feedback from participants and trained educators indicates that adults were engaged in the program and found the materials useful. Based on program success, creation of new health insurance literacy programs grounded in adult education principles is under way.

  8. An investigation into onshore captive insurance companies

    ME Le Roux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provided by captive insurers is one of various forms of risk financing.  The nature and main types of captive insurance companies are discussed.  This is followed by the results of an empirical study that focused on South African onshore captive insurance companies.  The objectives in establishing and operating a captive insurer, the factors which determine the decision of the parent company to establish and operate a captive insurer and the future and usefulness of insurance provided by captive insurers are some of the aspects that are addressed.

  9. MORTGAGE FINANCING. Actuarial Soundness of the Federal Housing Administration's Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund

    2002-01-01

    ...) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Through the Fund, FHA operates a single-family insurance program that helps millions of Americans buy homes...

  10. Strengthening insurance partnerships in the face of climate change - Insights from an agent-based model of flood insurance in the UK.

    Crick, Florence; Jenkins, Katie; Surminski, Swenja

    2018-04-25

    Multisectoral partnerships are increasingly cited as a mechanism to deliver and improve disaster risk management. Yet, partnerships are not a panacea and more research is required to understand the role that they can play in disaster risk management and particularly disaster risk reduction. This paper investigates how partnerships can incentivise flood risk reduction by focusing on the UK public-private partnership on flood insurance. Developing the right flood insurance arrangements to incentivise flood risk reduction and adaptation to climate change is a key challenge. In the face of rising flood risks due to climate change and socio-economic development insurance partnerships can no longer afford to focus only on the risk transfer function. However, while expectations of the insurance industry have traditionally been high when it comes to flood risk management, the insurance industry alone will not provide the solution to the challenge of rising risks. The case of flood insurance in the UK illustrates this: even national government and industry together cannot fully address these risks and other actors need to be involved to create strong incentives for risk reduction. Using an agent-based model focused on surface water flood risk in London we analyse how other partners could strengthen the insurance partnership by reducing flood risk and thus helping to maintain affordable insurance premiums. Our findings are relevant for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes to incentivise flood risk management and climate adaptation in the UK and also internationally. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The insurance of climatic risks

    Pauthier, Alice

    2015-06-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme assesses that the cost of adaptation to climate change could reach 150 billions dollars per year by 2025-2030 and 500 billions dollars by 2050. This raises the issues of financing of adaptation measures, and of compensations in case of natural disaster, and insurance companies here seem to have a major role to play. However, the modification of the climatic risk puts the viability of conventional insurance mechanisms into question again. While discussing these issues, the author outlines that a sustainable insurance against these evolving risks may threaten insurance companies to go to bankrupt, but also all their policyholders who are, for most of them, unable to cope by themselves with the consequences of an extreme climatic event. The author also discusses related aspects such as risk modelling, risk mutualization, a securing of insurance companies based on the financial market, the implementation of public-private partnership, and ways to insure climate anomalies. She also comments the commitment of the insurance sector in adaptation and mitigation policies

  12. Implications of genetic testing for the insurance industry: the UK example.

    Raeburn, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the controversy of genetic tests and insurance, with a focus on the UK situation during the past decade. UK experience provides insight for future strategies to help people with genetic disadvantages make insurance provision for themselves and their families. Non-disclosure of genetic test results (already carried out for clinical purposes) may not benefit people at risk of genetic disorders or with positive genetic tests. The pressure of geneticists over a decade to prevent disclosure to insurers may have masked opportunities to use insurance to provide help for people with genetic disadvantages. To seize the opportunities now, there must be collaboration, not conflict. Politicians, geneticists, social scientists and all elements of the insurance industry can contribute to wise solutions.

  13. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard in disab...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings.......We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...

  14. Environmental pollution risk and insurance

    Fragnelli, Vito; Marina, Maria Erminia

    2002-01-01

    We consider environmental risks that are evaluated too much heavy for a single insurance company, but they can be insured by n companies which a premium is assigned to.This is precisely the Italian scenario where a pool of companies co-insures these risks.Under a game theoretic approach we start by analyzing how they should split the risk and the premium in order to be better off. Under suitable hypotheses, there exists an optimal decomposition of the risk, that allow us to define a cooperati...

  15. INSURANCE MARKET. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSURANCES IN ROMANIA

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.

  16. Perceptions of Trade Credit Insurance Value : Malaysian Evidence

    Wong, Benny Weng Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trade credit insurance (“TCI”) is a subject unfamiliar to most companies in Malaysia despite being around for more than a decade. This is not surprising considering the penetration rate of only 3.84% in Malaysia. The main aim of this paper is to examine the Malaysian firm‟s perceptions of TCI value and the TCI value drivers to help credit insurance companies uncover the motivational factors according to firm size and profit margin in order to improve the penetration rate in Malaysia. Furtherm...

  17. Life insurance, living benefits, and physician-assisted death.

    Parker, Frederick R; Rubin, Harvey W; Winslade, William J

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant concerns about the legalization of physician-assisted death in the United States relates to the possibility that a chronically or terminally ill person would choose to end her or his life for financial reasons. Because we believe that the life insurance industry is uniquely poised to help minimize any such incentive, we submit that it has a moral obligation to do so. In particular, we propose that the industry encourage greater flexibility in the payout of policy benefits in the event an insured should be diagnosed with a terminal illness or suffer from intractable pain.

  18. Buying greenhouse insurance

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  19. Insurance billing and coding.

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  20. 7 CFR 3560.105 - Insurance and taxes.

    2010-01-01

    ...) Windstorm Coverage. (ii) Earthquake Coverage. (iii) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. (3) For... the coverage amount. (v) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. The deductible for sinkhole.... (10) Deductible amounts (excluding flood, windstorm, earthquake and sinkhole insurance or mine...

  1. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    evaluated the effects of strategies on increasing health insurance coverage for vulnerable populations. We defined strategies as measures to improve the enrolment of vulnerable populations into health insurance schemes. Two categories and six specified strategies were identified as the interventions. At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We undertook a structured synthesis. We included two studies, both from the United States. People offered health insurance information and application support by community-based case managers were probably more likely to enrol their children into health insurance programmes (risk ratio (RR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence) and were probably more likely to continue insuring their children (RR 2.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.44, moderate quality evidence). Of all the children that were insured, those in the intervention group may have been insured quicker (47.3 fewer days, 95% CI 20.6 to 74.0 fewer days, low quality evidence) and parents may have been more satisfied on average (satisfaction score average difference 1.07, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.42, low quality evidence).In the second study applications were handed out in emergency departments at hospitals, compared to not handing out applications, and may have had an effect on enrolment (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.18, low quality evidence). Community-based case managers who provide health insurance information, application support, and negotiate with the insurer probably increase enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. However, the transferability of this intervention to other populations or other settings is uncertain. Handing out insurance application materials in hospital emergency departments may help increase the enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. Further studies evaluating the effectiveness of different strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable population are

  2. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it ...

  3. Help prevent hospital errors

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  4. Environmental insurance: research information support

    Rykova Valentina V.

    2015-01-01

    he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals

  5. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  6. Pricing of temperature index insurance

    Che Mohd Imran Che Taib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study pricing of weather insurance contracts based on temperature indices. Three different pricing methods are analysed: the classical burn approach, index modelling and temperature modelling. We take the data from Malaysia as our empirical case. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the burn and index pricing approaches on one hand, and the temperature modelling method on the other. The latter approach is pricing the insurance contract using a seasonal autoregressive time series model for daily temperature variations, and thus provides a precise probabilistic model for the fine structure of temperature evolution. We complement our pricing analysis by an investigation of the profit/loss distribution from the contract, in the perspective of both the insured and the insurer.

  7. HUD Insured Multifamily Properties (NGDA)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA insured Multifamily Housing portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  8. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  9. Target Price Accuracy

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  10. Help with Hives

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Help With Hives KidsHealth / For Kids / Help With Hives What's in this article? What Are ... about what happened. The doctor can try to help figure out what might be causing your hives, ...

  11. A helping hand

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Hulp geboden   The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where

  12. Helping for Change

    Neuringer, Allen; Oleson, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    In "Helping for Change," Allen Neuringer and Kathryn Oleson describe another strategy that individuals can use to achieve their green goals. You might ask, "How can helping someone else help me change when I'm in the habit of not fulfilling my own promises?" The authors answer that question by explaining how the social reinforcement in a helping…

  13. 78 FR 71476 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    2013-11-29

    .... The final regulations clarify that these benefits constitute health insurance when they are offered by... insurance. Limited Scope Dental and Vision Benefits The proposed regulations defined health insurance to... revising the definition of health insurance to exclude limited scope dental and vision benefits (sometimes...

  14. Nuclear power plants and their insurances

    Schludi, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    From the commencement of building to the time of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the insurances provide continuous coverage, i.e. for construction, nuclear liability, nuclear energy hazards insurance, fire insurance, machinery insurance. The respective financial security is quantified. (DG) [de

  15. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements

    2013-02-25

    ... NHTSA's regulation requiring motor vehicle insurers to submit information on the number of thefts and recoveries of insured vehicles and actions taken by the insurer to deter or reduce motor vehicle theft. NHTSA..., which requires insurers to submit information about the make, model, and year of all vehicle thefts, the...

  16. 24 CFR 266.612 - Insurance endorsement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 266.612... Rights and Obligations Insurance Endorsement § 266.612 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his or her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit...

  17. 24 CFR 207.259 - Insurance benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 207.259 Section... Contract of Insurance § 207.259 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Upon either an assignment of the... of mortgage. If the mortgage is assigned to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall be paid in...

  18. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  19. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...

  20. 24 CFR 220.804 - Insurance premiums.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.804 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The lender, upon the initial endorsement of the loan for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner...

  1. Social insurance for health service.

    Roemer, M I

    1997-06-01

    Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.

  2. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    Boediker, T.

    1980-01-01

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Role of nuclear insurance in US

    Bardes, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Private insurance companies developed means to provide first-tier nuclear coverage to operators of power plants and other nuclear facilities; US Government initially provided second tier. US insurance companies chose 'pooling' technique as means to provide large amounts of insurance capacity by spreading the risk over a number of insurance companies. Classic example of nuclear risk that presents low frequency, high severity loss potential. Insurers usually spread their risk over a large, fairly stable premium base, as with automobile insurance. The American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and its roles are introduced in this article

  4. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  5. Efficiency concept and investigations in insurance industry: A survey

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most recent studies are based on benchmarking analysis allowing the measure of company efficiency relatively to a reference performance. Benchmarking is a helpful tool to analyze and promote efficiency in insurance companies. The fast development of X-efficiency notion makes traditional performance measures (ROA, ROE, etc. obsolete. Indeed, various methods have been used, various input-output measures have been proposed and various research fields have been explored in insurance company investigation. So, after reviewing most known efficiency concepts and their definitions, this section explores the literature review of two principal points of discussion: the first point is focused on the different used techniques to measure efficiency, including the developed approaches to define inputs, outputs and their prices. The second point represents an overview of efficiency investigations in insurance industry.

  6. Statistical methods with applications to demography and life insurance

    Khmaladze, Estáte V

    2013-01-01

    Suitable for statisticians, mathematicians, actuaries, and students interested in the problems of insurance and analysis of lifetimes, Statistical Methods with Applications to Demography and Life Insurance presents contemporary statistical techniques for analyzing life distributions and life insurance problems. It not only contains traditional material but also incorporates new problems and techniques not discussed in existing actuarial literature. The book mainly focuses on the analysis of an individual life and describes statistical methods based on empirical and related processes. Coverage ranges from analyzing the tails of distributions of lifetimes to modeling population dynamics with migrations. To help readers understand the technical points, the text covers topics such as the Stieltjes, Wiener, and Itô integrals. It also introduces other themes of interest in demography, including mixtures of distributions, analysis of longevity and extreme value theory, and the age structure of a population. In addi...

  7. A flexible benefits tax credit for health insurance and more.

    Etheredge, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    This essay outlines a concept for a "flexible benefits" tax credit for expanding health insurance coverage and other purposes such as retirement savings plans (with potential withdrawals for higher education, first-home ownership, and catastrophic medical expenses). Two examples are presented. The advantages of a flexible benefits tax credit are considered in terms of efficient use of the budget surplus to help meet the varied (and changing) needs of American families, to eliminate major national gaps in health insurance and pension coverage, and to advance other objectives. If the budget surplus is used wisely, political decisionmakers could achieve health insurance coverage for most uninsured workers and children and assure a future with real economic security for American families.

  8. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    2011-11-17

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...

  9. 75 FR 15603 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions

    2010-03-30

    ... to: (1) Theft; or (2) Inability to market the avocados for any reason other than actual physical... Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions to convert the Florida...

  10. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...

  11. 24 CFR 266.600 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.600 Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion. (a) Initial premium. For projects insured upon completion, on...

  12. INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN ERITREA - ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    Rena, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    The industrial revolution led to the birth of different types of insurance systems. Insurance business emerged and developed in Eritrea during the Italian period. The insurance industry in Eritrea has been huge profits from its inception in 1992. In spite of the consistent profits by the insurance, the Government privatised it recently due the policy and revenue requirements. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss the background of the insurance and it evolution and development. This pap...

  13. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    ) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the effects of strategies on increasing health insurance coverage for vulnerable populations. We defined strategies as measures to improve the enrolment of vulnerable populations into health insurance schemes. Two categories and six specified strategies were identified as the interventions. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We undertook a structured synthesis. Main results We included two studies, both from the United States. People offered health insurance information and application support by community-based case managers were probably more likely to enrol their children into health insurance programmes (risk ratio (RR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence) and were probably more likely to continue insuring their children (RR 2.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.44, moderate quality evidence). Of all the children that were insured, those in the intervention group may have been insured quicker (47.3 fewer days, 95% CI 20.6 to 74.0 fewer days, low quality evidence) and parents may have been more satisfied on average (satisfaction score average difference 1.07, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.42, low quality evidence). In the second study applications were handed out in emergency departments at hospitals, compared to not handing out applications, and may have had an effect on enrolment (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.18, low quality evidence). Authors' conclusions Community-based case managers who provide health insurance information, application support, and negotiate with the insurer probably increase enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. However, the transferability of this intervention to other populations or other settings is uncertain. Handing out insurance application materials in hospital emergency departments may help increase the enrolment of children in health insurance schemes. Further studies

  14. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN INSURANCE MARKET

    Stroe Andreea

    2013-07-01

    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  15. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the

  16. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    Wenwei Zuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS/Global Positioning System (GPS positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to

  17. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning.

    Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min

    2018-01-10

    Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the

  18. Toddlers Help a Peer.

    Hepach, Robert; Kante, Nadine; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help. These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more flexible and general. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Forecasting Fire Insurance Loss Ratio in Misr Insurance Company

    Tarek TAHA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.

  20. Modeling Flood Insurance Penetration in the European Non-Life Market: An Overview

    Mohan, P.; Thomson, M.-K.; Das, A.

    2012-04-01

    Non-life property insurance plays a significant role in assessing and managing economic risk. Understanding the exposure, or property at risk, helps insurers and reinsurers to better categorize and manage their portfolios. However, the nature of the flood peril, in particular adverse selection, has led to a complex system of different insurance covers and policies across Europe owing to its public and private distinctions based on premiums provided as ex ante or ex post, socio-economic characterization and various compensation schemes. To model this significant level of complexity within the European flood insurance market requires not only extensive data research, close understanding of insurance companies and associations as well as historic flood events, but also careful evaluation of the flood hazard in terms of return periods and flood extents, and the economic/ financial background of the geographies involved. This abstract explores different approaches for modeling the flood insurance penetration rates in Europe depending on the information available and complexity involved. For countries which have either a regulated market with mandatory or high penetration rate, as for example found in the UK, France and Switzerland, or indeed countries with negligible insurance cover such as Luxembourg, assumptions about the penetration rates can be made at country level. However, in countries with a private insurance market, the picture becomes inherently more complex. For example in both Austria and Germany, flood insurance is generally restricted, associated with high costs to the insured or not available at all in high risk areas. In order to better manage flood risk, the Austria and German government agencies produced the risk classification systems HORA and ZÜRS, respectively, which categorize risk into four risk zones based on the exceedance probability of a flood occurrence. Except for regions that have preserved mandatory flood inclusion from past policies

  1. 77 FR 25349 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    2012-04-30

    ..., the first mutual fire insurer was established. The first American mutual insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, was founded in 1752.\\3\\ \\3\\ The...

  2. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  3. 75 FR 42766 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    2010-07-22

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), (90 as of June 1, 2010) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  4. 76 FR 45281 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    2011-07-28

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 87 (as of July 1, 2011) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  5. 78 FR 33690 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    2013-06-05

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction... FR 13454-13460). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Pecans. DATES: Effective Date: June 5...: [[Page 33691

  6. [The state and health insurance].

    Lagrave, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the State and the health insurance passes through an institutional and financial crisis, leading the government to decide a new governance of the health care system and of the health insurance. The onset of the institutional crisis is the consequence of the confusion of the roles played by the State and the social partners. The social democracy installed by the French plan in 1945 and the autonomy of management of the health insurance established by the 1967 ordinances have failed. The administration parity (union and MEDEF) flew into pieces. The State had to step in by failing. The light is put on the financial crisis by the evolution of ONDAM (National Objective of the Health Insurance Expenses) which appears in the yearly law financing Social Security. The drift of the real expenses as compared to the passed ONDAM bill is constant and worsening. The question of reform includes the link between social democracy to be restored (social partners) and political democracy (Parliament and Government) to establish a contractual democracy. The Government made the announcement of an ONDAM sincere and medically oriented, based on tools agreed upon by all parties. The region could become a regulating step involving a regional health council. An accounting magistrate would be needed to consider not only the legal aspect but to include economic fallouts of health insurance. The role and the missions of the Social Security Accounting Committee should be reinforced.

  7. Insurance Salespeople's Attitudes towards Collusion: The Case of Taiwan’s Car Insurance Industry

    Lu-Ming Tseng; Wen-Pin Su

    2014-01-01

    Insurance researchers believe that the increase in insurance fraud may be associated with the unethical decisions made by some insurance salespeople. However, to date, research that has empirically investigated the link between insurance salespeople and collusion is scant. Using the car insurance industry in Taiwan as an example, this paper explores the impact of the opportunity to obtain the fraudulent claim and that of the size of actual loss on car insurance salespeople's attitudes towards...

  8. Handi Helps, 1985

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  9. Pet insurance--essential option?

    Stowe, J D

    2000-08-01

    As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day!

  10. Retroactive insurance may fund TMI-2 cleanup

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A Pennsylvania task force recommended that nuclear utilities insure their plants with a mandatory national property insurance program. The proposed Nuclear Powerplant Property Damage Insurance Act of 1981 will cover the cleanup costs of onsite damage in excess of $350 million for a single accident ($50 million when private insurance is added on) and a ceiling of two billion dollars. Participation in the insurance pool would be in conjunction with licensing and would permit no grandfathering. Total payout for Three Mile Island-2 would cover 75% of the cleanup costs, the remainder to be apportioned among other parties. The insurance pool will have a $750 million goal supported by utility premiums

  11. Diagnosing Eyewitness Accuracy

    Russ, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently mistake innocent people for the perpetrator of an observed crime. Such misidentifications have led to the wrongful convictions of many people. Despite this, no reliable method yet exists to determine eyewitness accuracy. This thesis explored two new experimental methods for this purpose. Chapter 2 investigated whether repetition priming can measure prior exposure to a target and compared this with observers’ explicit eyewitness accuracy. Across three experiments slower...

  12. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  13. Pricing general insurance with constraints

    Emms, P.

    2006-01-01

    Deterministic control theory is used to find the optimal premium strategy for an insurer in order to maximise a given objective. The optimal strategy can be loss-leading depending on the model parameters, which may result in negative premium values. In such circumstances, it is optimal to capture as much of the market as possible before making a profit towards the end of the time horizon. In reality, the amount by which an insurer can lower premiums is constrained by borrowing restrictions an...

  14. Assessment of the Knowledge Acquisition Process in Lithuanian Insurance Sector

    Jurgita Raudeliūnienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the development of favourable globalization conditions, the demand for and importance of knowledge in the insurance sector are rapidly growing, which is characterized by the variety of insurance services and offered products as well as by a permanent change in efforts to efficiently meet the needs of society. Therefore, knowledge is becoming a unique factor that leads to the increased exclusivity of the organization in this particular sector when the recently acquired knowledge helps the employees of the company with efficiently performing work activities and creating for consumer advantages that can be hardly imitated by other insurance organizations. However, the process of knowledge acquisition will be worthless without efficient instruments for assessing the procedures leading to obtaining the necessary knowledge on demand and time. Every insurance organization in Lithuania tries to acquire the necessary knowledge on time in the most convenient way; however, researchers and business representatives feel a lack of tools for assessing and improving the knowledge acquisition process. According to scientific literature, a lack of complexity evaluating the knowledge acquisition process creates a precondition for developing instruments for the assessment of this process. The object of research is the evaluation of the knowledge acquisition process in the organizations of Lithuanian insurance sector. The goal of the article is to offer an integrated instrument of the knowledge acquisition process for the organization working in Lithuanian insurance sector. To achieve this goal, the following tasks have been implemented: the analysis of the theoretical aspects of the factors and methods of the knowledge acquisition process; the establishment of the factors specific to organizations in Lithuanian insurance sector for the purposes of assessing the knowledge acquisition process; the identification of the problematic areas of the knowledge

  15. School superintendents' perceptions of schools assisting students in obtaining public health insurance.

    Rickard, Megan L; Price, James H; Telljohann, Susan K; Dake, Joseph A; Fink, Brian N

    2011-12-01

    Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between health and learning, and specific school system practices for assisting students were also examined. A 4-page questionnaire was sent to a national random sample of public school superintendents using a 4-wave postal mailing. Only 19% of school districts assessed the health insurance status of students. School districts' assistance in helping enroll students in health insurance was assessed using Stages of Change theory; 36% of superintendents' school districts were in the action or maintenance stages. The schools most often made health insurance materials available to parents (53%). The perceived benefits identified by more than 80% of superintendents were to keep students healthier, reduce the number of students with untreated health problems, reduce school absenteeism, and improvement of students' attention/concentration during school. The 2 most common perceived barriers identified by at least 50% of superintendents were not having enough staff or financial resources. Most superintendents believed schools should play a role in helping students obtain health insurance, but the specific role was unclear. Three fourths of superintendents indicated overwhelmingly positive beliefs regarding the effects of health insurance status on students' health and academic outcomes. School personnel and public policy makers can use the results to support collaboration in getting students enrolled in health insurance. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  16. Barriers to accessing and using health insurance cards among methadone maintenance treatment patients in northern Vietnam.

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Le Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-07-17

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients face unique costs associated with their healthcare expenditures. As such, it is important that these patients have access to health insurance (HI) to help them pay for both routine and unforeseen health services. In this study, we explored factors related to health insurance enrollment and utilization among MMT patients, to move Vietnam closer to universal coverage among this patient population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1003 patients enrolled in MMT in five clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh provinces. Patients were asked a range of questions about their health, health expenditures, and health insurance access and utilization. We used multivariate logistic regressions to determine factors associated with health insurance access among participants. The majority of participants (nearly 80%) were not currently enrolled in health insurance at the time of the study. Participants from rural regions were significantly more likely than urban participants to report difficulty using HI. Family members of participants from rural regions were more likely to have overall poor service quality through health insurance compared with family members of participants from urban regions. Overall, 37% of participants endorsed a lack of information about HI, nearly 22% of participants reported difficulty accessing HI, 22% reported difficulty using HI, and more than 20% stated they had trouble paying for HI. Older, more highly educated, and employed participants were more likely to have an easier time accessing HI than their younger, less well educated, and unemployed counterparts. HIV-positive participants were more likely to have sufficient information about health insurance options. Our study highlights the dearth of health insurance utilization among MMT patients in northern Vietnam. It also sheds light on factors associated with increased access to and utilization of health insurance among this underserved population. These

  17. Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking

    Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…

  18. Exploring health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of insurers.

    Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social

  19. Hooked on Helping

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  20. Divorce: Helping Children Cope.

    Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)

  1. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS ANDPRACTICES OF ETHIOPIA'S ...

    It is understood that construction projects usually have in force several simultaneous contractual ... business witlloct suficient cover of insurance. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the needs and .... D: Risks associated with the Technical aspects of the project. E: Risks associated with Acts of Man. F: Design risks.

  2. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  3. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  4. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS ANDPRACTICES OF ETHIOPIA'S ...

    of good practice to be used as a design aid by engineers. ..... an ethical and professipnal atmosphere. It is also essential for the local ..... If your answer is no, please write the reason/sf or not purchasing insurance policies? 10. What types of ...

  5. Insurance and the nuclear energy

    Costa, M.P.R. da.

    1981-01-01

    The insurance is presented as a way to offer the guarantees to the reparing of the nuclear energy damages, enphasizing the adoption of the associations and pools system in Brazil, since the coverings envolved are very high. (A.L.) [pt

  6. Supply contract and portfolio insurance

    Runsheng Yin; Bob Izlar

    2001-01-01

    The long-term growth of institutional timberland investments depends on the ability of timberland investment management organizations (TIMO) to deal effectively with securitization, leveraging, arbitraging, supply contracting, portfolio insurance, tax efficiency enhancement, and other issues. Financial engineering holds great promise for many of these issues. This...

  7. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  8. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  9. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    S V Martynenko

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  10. Modelling in life insurance a management perspective

    Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...

  11. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-04-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  12. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-07-01

    ... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  13. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-10-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  14. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-01-01

    ... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...

  15. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-04-01

    ... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...

  16. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  17. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while......Index insurance was conceived to be a product that would simplify the claim settlement process and make it more objective, reducing transaction costs and moral hazard. However, index insurance also exposes the insured to basis risk, which arises because there can be a mismatch between the index...... risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...

  18. The Normative Foundations of (Social) Insurance

    Landes, Xavier

    Insurance mechanisms are prevalent in industrialized societies, in both public and private sectors. Insurance is offered for various risks ranging from fire to accident. They also constitute the core of the modern welfare state (public health insurance, unemployment benefits and public pensions......). The analysis of (public) insurance has however remained marginal in political theory because insurance is often perceived as a simple tool for pursuing equality, i.e. a tool without any moral significance proper. This text proposes an alternative view by drawing a continuum between insurance as a technology......, which is the common interpretation in economics, and insurance as a social practice, which characterizes social theory. The goal is to underline how the technology of insurance alters social practices by, for instance, promoting equal standing or transforming the paradigm of individual responsibility...

  19. The Financing Mechanism of the Social Health Insurance System in Romania and in other European Countries

    Constantin AFANASE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.

  20. The Complexity of E-Insurance

    Marius GAVRILETEA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance and increasing role of Internet in nowadays business area are officially recognized. No matter the industry a company is operating in, the distribution channels include direct sales through Internet. Following this idea, also the insurance companies decided to sell their insurance policy online. In this paper we analyze the advantages of Internet for insurance companies, the threats and the actual situation for Romanian insurers

  1. Occupational injury insurance - A strategy for prevention?

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....

  2. Medical Progress and Supplementary Private Health Insurance

    Reiner Leidl

    2003-01-01

    In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...

  3. Financial Planning and the Life Insurance Agency

    Robert Puelz

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the effects of fee-for-service personal financial planning on the decision making of a profit-maximizing life insurance general agent are examined. Three refutable propositions are developed which implicate the movements of the general agent who must adjust to a new optimal profit-maximizing allocation of financial planning, personal insurance sales, and agent insurance sales when there is a change in one of the fee or commission rate parameters. It is demonstrated that insur...

  4. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  5. 76 FR 20298 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers; Required To File Reports

    2011-04-12

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than...

  6. 76 FR 41138 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    2011-07-13

    ... passenger motor vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss... information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles, the rating rules used by the insurer to establish... companies with a fleet of 20 or more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of...

  7. 75 FR 34966 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    2010-06-21

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any...

  8. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  9. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  10. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    Angelici, C.

    1980-03-01

    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA) [fr

  11. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...

  12. 48 CFR 47.102 - Transportation insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... assumed responsibility. The cost of this insurance to the carrier shall be part of the transportation cost...

  13. Global loss diversification in the insurance sector

    Sheremet, O.; Lucas, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the possibility for international diversification of catastrophe risk by the insurance sector. Adopting the argument that large insurance losses may be a 'globalizing factor' for the industry, we study the dependence of geographically distant insurance markets via equity returns. In

  14. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    Boylan, F.X.

    1979-01-01

    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  15. 7 CFR 1427.166 - Insurance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 1427.166 Section 1427.166 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.166 Insurance. The seed cotton must be insured at the full loan value against loss or damage by fire. ...

  16. Statistical tools for non-life insurance

    Antonio, K.

    2008-01-01

    Within the actuarial profession a major challenge can be found in the construction of a fair tariff structure. In light of the heterogeneity within, for instance, a car insurance portfolio, an insurance company should not apply the same premium for all insured risks. Otherwise the so-called concept

  17. Consumer price sensitivity in Dutch health insurance

    M. van Dijk (Machiel); M. Pomp (Marc); R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); T. Laske-Aldershof (Trea); F.T. Schut (Erik); W. de Boer (Willem); A. Boo (Anne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAim: To estimate the price sensitivity of consumer choice of health insurance firm. Method: Using paneldata of the flows of insured betweenpairs of Dutch sickness funds during the period 1993-2002, we estimate the sensitivity of these flows to differences in insurance premium. Results:

  18. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-07-01

    ....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  20. 24 CFR 200.100 - Insurance endorsement.

    2010-04-01

    ... a commitment for insured advances, initial endorsement of the credit instrument shall occur before... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 200.100... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and...

  1. 24 CFR 241.1245 - Insurance endorsement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.1245... Rights and Obligations § 241.1245 Insurance endorsement. (a) Endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the equity loan or acquisition loan by endorsing the original credit instrument and...

  2. 24 CFR 241.570 - Insurance endorsement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.570... § 241.570 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his/her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit instrument and identifying the section of the Act...

  3. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  4. Entrepreneurial Moral Hazard in Income Insurance

    Ejrnaes, Mette; Hochguertel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We study risk behavior of Danish self-employed entrepreneurs, whose income risk may be driven by both exogenous factors and effort choice (moral hazard). Partial insurance is available through voluntary unemployment insurance (UI). Additional incentives to sign insurance contracts stem from a

  5. 24 CFR 241.885 - Insurance benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 241.885 Section... § 241.885 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Payment of claims shall be made in the following... acceptable assignment of the note and security instrument to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall...

  6. 78 FR 14034 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    2013-03-04

    ... Health Insurance Providers Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... insurance for United States health risks. This fee is imposed by section 9010 of the Patient Protection and... insurance for United States health risks. DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received by June 3...

  7. 3 CFR - State Children's Health Insurance Program

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Children's Health Insurance Program... Insurance Program Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States to provide health coverage for uninsured children in families...

  8. Stochastic Cooperative Games in Insurance and Reinsurance

    Suijs, J.P.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Borm, P.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows how problems in `non life'-insurance and `non life'-reinsurance can be modelled simultaneously as cooperative games with stochastic payoffs.Pareto optimal allocations of the risks faced by the insurers and the insureds are determined.It is shown that the core of the corresponding

  9. 17 CFR 256.924 - Property insurance.

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums to protect the service company against losses and damages to owned or leased property... covered, and the applicable premiums. Any dividends distributed by mutual insurance companies shall be credited to the accounts to which the insurance premiums were charged. ...

  10. How to Shop for Health Insurance

    ... health insurance kicks in. As a general rule, insurance plans with low premiums have high deductibles, and plans with high premiums ... other plans due to hardship. This type of insurance can have low premiums but very high deductibles. Plans generally cover less ...

  11. 24 CFR 203.443 - Insurance premium.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premium. 203.443 Section... premium. All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.269 1 concerning mortgage insurance premiums... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE...

  12. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  13. On a Stochastic Model in Insurance

    Insurance mathematics today is considered a part of applied probability theory. Main objectives are modelling of claims that arrive in an insurance business, and decide how premiums are to be charged to avoid ruin of the insurance company. GENERAL I ARTICLE various results and the heuristics can be appreciated.

  14. Transparency, trust and security: An evaluation of the insurer's ...

    Transparency in insurance law attaches to the rights and duties of the parties, the ... protection principles as envisaged by South African insurance legislation. ... an insurance contract, the insurer's duty to speak is not based on a general ...

  15. METHODICAL BASES OF MANAGEMENT OF INSURANCE PORTFOLIO

    Serdechna Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the considerable arsenal of developments in the issues of assessing the management of the insurance portfolio remains unresolved. In order to detail, specify and further systematize the indicators for the indicated evaluation, the publications of scientists are analyzed. The purpose of the study is to analyze existing methods by which it is possible to formulate and manage the insurance portfolio in order to achieve its balance, which will contribute to ensuring the financial reliability of the insurance company. Results. The description of the essence of the concept of “management of insurance portfolio”, as the application of actuarial methods and techniques to the combination of various insurance risks offered for insurance or are already part of the insurance portfolio, allowing to adjust the size and structure of the portfolio in order to ensure its financial stability, achievement the maximum level of income of an insurance organization, preservation of the value of its equity and financial security of insurance liabilities. It is determined that the main methods by which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed is the selection of risks; reinsurance operations that ensure diversification of risks; formation and placement of insurance reserves, which form the financial basis of insurance activities. The method of managing an insurance portfolio, which can be both active and passive, is considered. Conclusions. It is determined that the insurance portfolio is the basis on which all the activities of the insurer are based and which determines its financial stability. The combination of methods and technologies applied to the insurance portfolio is a management method that can be both active and passive and has a number of specific methods through which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed. It is substantiated that each insurance company aims to form an efficient and

  16. Universal Health Insurance and the Reasons of not Coverage in Iran: Secondary Analysis of a National Household Survey

    Shirin Nosratnejad

    2015-08-01

    the great importance of appropriate data for insurance companies and the role of it for policy-makers, there are many challenges associated with accessibility and accuracy of the data. According to our analysis on national survey, 15% of Iranian residents have neither social nor private insurance coverage. The lack of information and coordination among insurance companies has led to double insurance coverage for some people. Financial inability, feeling no need for insurance, unemployment, the lack of insight, employer bypass and uselessness of insurance which had been ranked as main reasons for not getting coverage, should be taken into consideration by policy-makers.

  17. PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS - A BASIC INSTRUMENT IN STRATEGIC PLANNING. CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN INSURANCE MARKET

    Petrescu Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Practice proved that strategic planning is a necessary process for insurance companies. This process can help companies to adapt more easily to environmental changes. The strategic planning of the activity of an insurance company cannot be realized without a careful analysis of the evolution of the market and without studying the company's market position. A classic model used in the portfolio analysis is the Boston Consulting Group model. In this paper we have used the model for studying the activity of the leader of the Romanian insurance market. In 2009 Alliantz Tiriac had 17 types of insurance in the portfolio. Each class of insurance was considered a strategic business unit. We have studied the insurance portfolio by using secondary data from specialized publications, such as the Romanian Insurance Supervisory Commission. Using the data, we have calculated for Alliantz Tiriac, for each class of insurance, the relative market share. The company was leader on the market for five classes of insurance. The economic crisis had a severe impact on the evolution of the Romanian insurance market: from the 17 classes of insurance studied: nine had registered a decrease of the market, eight had registered an increase, but only for three of them the growth exceeded 10%. Using the relative market share and the market growth we have identified the “cash cows”: there are five classes of insurance in this category, among which the “Insurance for land vehicles (CASCO” which represented more than half of the sales (55.82%; unfortunately, in the case of this insurance type there was a very significant decrease of the market in 2010 compared to 2009: -25.12%, the “question marks” – there are three classes of insurance in this category, and the “dogs”. Due to the crisis, a large number of the company's products are in this category and there are no “star” products. This work was supported by CNCSIS – UEFISCSU, project number 915 / 2009

  18. SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT AND DEMAND FOR INSURANCE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FROM NIGERIAN INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Abass, OlufemiAdebowale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provides financial protection to the insured, though; its acceptance by Nigerian insuring public is still low. This can sharply be traced to low awareness of insurance service. More importantly, quality of service to the few who embraced it had been low. Therefore, insuring public perceives insurance service as defective because customers’ expectations are not met. The objective of this research is to find out whether application of service quality measurement will drive demand for insurance products. Hypothesis was tested to find out whether SERVQUAL measurement is not significantly related to demand for insurance products in Nigeria. The study adopts descriptive research design; hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship between application of SERVQUAL measurement and demand for insurance. It is recommended that insurance companies operating in Nigeria should adopt SERVQUAL measurement which will further increase customer retention and loyalty.

  19. Health Insurance for Cancer Care in Asia: Thailand

    Pongpak Pittayapan

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has a universal multi-payer system with two main types of health insurance: National Health Security Office or public health insurance and private insurance. National health insurance is designed for people who are not eligible to be members of any employment-based health insurance program. Although private health insurance is also available, all Thai citizens are required to be enrolled in either national health insurance or employees? health insurance. There are many differences be...

  20. Do self-insurance and disability insurance prevent consumption loss on disability?

    Steffan G. Ball; Hamish W. Low

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show the extent to which public insurance and self-insurance mitigate the cost of health shocks that limit the ability to work. We use consumption data from the UK to estimate the insurance provided by the government disability programme and account for the effectiveness of alternative self-insurance mechanisms. Individuals with a work-limiting health condition, but in receipt of disability insurance, have 7 percent lower consumption than those without such a condition. Self-...

  1. THE IMPACT OF COOPERATION BETWEEN INSURERS AND BANKS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE SYSTEM

    Nataliya Prikazyuk; Ganna Oliynik

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights how the cooperation of insurance companies and banks affects the insurance system. Defined the concept of bancassurance, provided a brief description of the main bancassurance models in the context of their impact on the insurance system. Defined the main benefits and risks that accompany cooperation of insurance companies and banks within different models of association. It is noted that despite the generally accepted benefits of cooperation between insurers and banks,...

  2. Simulation Of Premi Calculation Claims Insurance Base On Web; Case Study PT. Sinarmas Insurance Padang

    Rohendi, Keukeu; Putra, Ilham Eka

    2016-01-01

    Sinarmas currently has several insurance services featured. To perform its function as a good insurance company is need for reform in terms of services in the process of calculating insurance premiums of insurance carried by marketing to use a calculator which interferes with the activities of marketing activities, slow printing insurance policies, automobile claims process that requires the customer to come to the office ASM, slow printing of Work Order (SPK) and the difficulty recap custome...

  3. MARKETING OF INSURANCE PRODUCTS BY THE NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED, RAJAPALAYAM

    Dr. H. Christy Cynthia; Dr. T. Jebasheela; V. Maheswari

    2017-01-01

    Insurance is a way of reducing uncertainty of occurrence of an event. Insurance is an investment. Its basic purpose is to derive plans to counteract the financial consequences of unfavorable events. Insurance is a social device for eliminating or reducing the cost to society to certain types of risks. Insurance is essentially a co-operative endeavor. It is the function of the insurance to protect the few against the heavy financial impact of anticipated misfortunes by spreading losses among m...

  4. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  5. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition

    Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  6. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition.

    Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  7. A validation study of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) in insurance medicine

    Langerak, W.; Langeland, W.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Draisma, S.; Terluin, B.; Draijer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the criterion validity and the diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) regarding the identification of depressive and anxiety disorders in an insurance medicine setting. Participants: Our sample consisted of 230 individuals who

  8. Risk transfer solutions for the insurance industry

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the traditional and alternative mechanisms for insurance risk transfer that are available to global as well as to domestic insurance companies. The findings suggest that traditional insurance risk transfer solutions available to insurance industry nowadays will be predominant in the foreseeable future but the increasing role of alternative solutions is to be expected as the complementary rather than supplementary solution to traditional transfer. Additionally, findings suggest that it is reasonable to expect that future development of risk transfer solutions in Serbia will follow the path that has been passed by global insurance industry.

  9. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  10. SOLVENCY OF INSURANCE COMPANIES IN THE ROMANIA

    MARIA MIRABELA FLOREA IANC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The insurance companies operating in a competitive and dynamic economic climate, so solvency is a very important problem. The guarantee funds protect policyholders against situations where insurers can not meet its contractual obligations, and supervisors constant attention is how to regulate the insurance business. Overall solvency of insurance companies show that has been achieved relative success in this area due to regulations adopted. Although in recent years the number of insolvency cases increased worrying emphasis on solvency control should lead to a reduction in the occurrence of such cases and the increased safety offered by insurance products.

  11. Risk assessment and nuclear insurance: an overview

    Deitchman, J.V.; King, W.T. Jr.; Olding, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the nascent years of commercial nuclear power, the insurance industry expressed confidence in the safety of nuclear operations by committing unprecedented insurance capacity to nuclear risks. As the nuclear industry has developed, it has compiled an enviable safety record. The initial confidence of the insurance industry has thus been justified and an ever-increasing portion of the financial liability associated with nuclear operations has been accepted by the world-wide insurance markets. This increasing acceptance and understanding of nuclear risks by the insurance industry has resulted in significantly reduced rates and large premium refunds for nuclear operators

  12. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  14. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  15. Help with Hearing

    ... be placed early to help speech and language development. If your child needs “tubes” (see below), they can be put ... example, instead of saying the sound /t/, your child may always substitute the sound /k/. The words “toy” and "truck” then come out as “kay” and “ ...

  16. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    ... world around them, preteens also may worry about world events or issues they hear about on the news or at ... the news. Parents can help by discussing these issues, offering accurate ... and stress about a world event that's beyond your control, kids are likely ...

  17. Helping Them Grow.

    Kreidler, William J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three articles present suggestions to help elementary teachers promote student development. The first describes games that encourage a sense of community. The second deals with making parent teacher conferences a positive experience. The third discusses how to give confused children who are involved in custody battles an alternative to acting out.…

  18. Helping Struggling Teachers.

    Tucker, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    About 5 to 15 percent of teachers in 2.7 million public-education classrooms are marginal or incompetent. Assistance plans offer structure, purpose, and remedial help. Plans have six components: definition of the problem, statement of objectives, intervention strategies, a timeline, data-collection procedures, and final judgment. (MLH)

  19. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  20. Considerations on Albanian Life Insurance Market

    Gentiana Sharku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector is an important sector of the economy all over the world. Life insurance provides the economy and the individuals as well, a variety of fundamental financial services.Regardless the importance it has all around the world, life insurance market in Albania is still underdeveloped comparing not only to the Western European countries, but to the region countries as well. The comparative analysis of insurance market is carried out by means of two indexes: insurance density and penetration index. The life insurance market in Albania is facing several problems which will be further explained in the paper, together with some recommendations to be taken in account by Albanian insurance companies and the Albanian government as well.

  1. Dental insurance: A systematic review.

    Garla, Bharath Kumar; Satish, G; Divya, K T

    2014-12-01

    To review uses of finance in dentistry. A search of 25 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Insurance has come of ages and has become the mainstay of payment in many developed countries. So much so that all the alternative forms of payment which originated as an alternative to fee for service now depend on insurance at one point or the other. Fee for service is still the major form of payment in many developing countries including India. It is preferred in many instances since the payment is made immediately.

  2. Cyber Insurance - Managing Cyber Risk

    2015-04-01

    disaster response plans, how employees and others access data systems, and at a minimum, the antivirus and anti- malware software used by the business, the...a policy for insuring data stored in the cloud.[5] Typically, businesses that install or ser- vice software or networks or provide IT consulting for...security, and privacy. Errors and omissions covers claims related to performance of services such as software development or consulting services

  3. Explicit Versus Implicit Income Insurance

    Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Z‎iliak

    2001-01-01

    October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...

  4. Portfolio insurance using traded options

    Machado-Santos, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...

  5. Car insurance information management system

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  6. Pensions as Retirement Income Insurance.

    Bodie, Zvi

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops the view that employer-sponsored pension plans are best understood as retirement income insurance for employees and from that perspective addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for their existence, their design, and their funding and investment policies. The most important of these questions are: - Why do employers provide pension plans for their employees and why is participation usually mandatory? - Why is the defined benefit form of pension plan the domin...

  7. 77 FR 22691 - Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes...

    2012-04-17

    ... 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the... health insurance policies) or R. Lisa Mojiri-Azad at (202) 622-6080 (regarding self- insured health...

  8. Life insurance theory actuarial perspectives

    Vylder, F Etienne

    1997-01-01

    This book is different from all other books on Life Insurance by at least one of the following characteristics 1-4. 1. The treatment of life insurances at three different levels: time-capital, present value and price level. We call time-capital any distribution of a capital over time: (*) is the time-capital with amounts Cl, ~, ... , C at moments Tl, T , ..• , T resp. N 2 N For instance, let (x) be a life at instant 0 with future lifetime X. Then the whole oO oO life insurance A is the time-capital (I,X). The whole life annuity ä is the x x time-capital (1,0) + (1,1) + (1,2) + ... + (I,'X), where 'X is the integer part ofX. The present value at 0 of time-capital (*) is the random variable T1 T TN Cl V + ~ v , + ... + CNV . (**) In particular, the present value ofA 00 and ä 00 is x x 0 0 2 A = ~ and ä = 1 + v + v + ... + v'X resp. x x The price (or premium) of a time-capital is the expectation of its present value. In particular, the price ofA 00 and äx 00 is x 2 A = E(~) and ä = E(I + v + v + ... + v'X...

  9. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    Liu Xiaoyun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance.

  10. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance. PMID:22376290

  11. The association of generation status and health insurance among U.S. children.

    BeLue, Rhonda; Miranda, Patricia Y; Elewonibi, Bilikisu Reni; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2014-08-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential to reduce the number of uninsured children in the United States by as much as 40%. The extent to which immigrant families are aware of and interested in obtaining insurance for their children is unclear. Data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were analyzed to examine differences by immigrant generational status in awareness of children's health insurance options. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated for each outcome variable that showed statistical significance by generation status. Barriers to obtaining insurance for children in immigrant (first- and second-generation) families include awareness of and experience with various health insurance options, perceived costs and benefits of insurance, structural/policy restrictions on eligibility, and lower likelihood of working in large organizations that offer employee insurance coverage. Although noncitizen immigrants are not covered by ACA insurance expansions, only 38% of first-generation families report being uninsured because of the inability to meet citizenship requirements. Most families in this sample also worked for employers with employees, making them less likely to benefit from expansions in employer-based insurance. In multivariate analyses, third-generation families have increased odds of knowing how to enroll in health insurance (AOR 7.1 [3.6-13.0]) and knowing where to find insurance information (AOR 7.7 [3.8-15.4]) compared with first-generation families. ACA navigators and health services professionals should be aware of potential unique challenges to helping immigrant families negotiate Medicaid expansions and state and federal exchanges. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Health insurance and care-seeking behaviours of female migrants in Accra, Ghana.

    Lattof, Samantha R

    2018-05-01

    People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the

  13. The Association of Generation Status and Health Insurance Among US Children

    Miranda, Patricia Y.; Elewonibi, Bilikisu Reni; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential to reduce the number of uninsured children in the United States by as much as 40%. The extent to which immigrant families are aware of and interested in obtaining insurance for their children is unclear. METHODS: Data from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health were analyzed to examine differences by immigrant generational status in awareness of children’s health insurance options. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated for each outcome variable that showed statistical significance by generation status. RESULTS: Barriers to obtaining insurance for children in immigrant (first- and second-generation) families include awareness of and experience with various health insurance options, perceived costs and benefits of insurance, structural/policy restrictions on eligibility, and lower likelihood of working in large organizations that offer employee insurance coverage. Although noncitizen immigrants are not covered by ACA insurance expansions, only 38% of first-generation families report being uninsured because of the inability to meet citizenship requirements. Most families in this sample also worked for employers with employees, making them less likely to benefit from expansions in employer-based insurance. In multivariate analyses, third-generation families have increased odds of knowing how to enroll in health insurance (AOR 7.1 [3.6–13.0]) and knowing where to find insurance information (AOR 7.7 [3.8–15.4]) compared with first-generation families. CONCLUSIONS: ACA navigators and health services professionals should be aware of potential unique challenges to helping immigrant families negotiate Medicaid expansions and state and federal exchanges. PMID:25002670

  14. [Performance of self-help groups and their economic evaluation].

    Engelhardt, H D; Trojan, A; Nickel, S

    2009-01-01

    Hoffmann von Fallersleben is quoted with the sentence "Self-help is worthwhile, because it does not demand anything from others". This sounds catchy; it is, however, wrong: Self-help groups ask for support, particularly for financial resources for the work of either individual, highly organized self-help associations or for general support of self-help groups via local contact and information centers ("contact points for self-help groups"). With this request for economic "investments" in self-help, the question arises whether this is profitable for the country, the local authority or the social health insurance. In principle, the initial answer to this is: yes, the work of self-help groups is worthwhile for a single person, but also for the larger community, as various kinds of services are provided by self-help groups and organizations. Despite many surveys of members or co-operation partners which show positive effects of self-help groups, the question remains whether services of self-help groups can be measured and economically evaluated. The socio- political question regarding funding is closely connected to the idea of an economic evaluation of self-help groups. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss which empiric approaches and findings are available on this subject. The monetary value for the work done per member of self-help groups and year lies between approximately 700 and 900 EUR.

  15. Evolution of seismic risk management for insurance over the past 30 years

    Shah, Haresh C.; Dong, Weimin; Stojanovski, Pane; Chen, Alex

    2018-01-01

    financial risk due to natural catastrophes. Historical losses and the share of those losses covered by insurance will be presented. How such risk sharing can help the nation share the burden of losses between tax paying public, the "at risk" property owners, the insurers and the reinsurers will be discussed. The paper will summarize the tools that are used by the insurance and reinsurance companies for estimating their future losses due to catastrophic natural events. The paper will also show how the results of loss estimation technologies developed by engineers are communicated to the business flow of insurance/reinsurance companies. Finally, to make it possible to grow "Insurance for the Masses-IFM", the role played by parametric insurance products and InsurTech tools will be discussed.

  16. Pricing behaviour of nonprofit insurers in a weakly competitive social health insurance market.

    Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geoid undulation accuracy

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the geoid and equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field, has long been of interest to geodesists and oceanographers. The geoid provides a surface to which the actual ocean surface can be compared with the differences implying information on the circulation patterns of the oceans. For use in oceanographic applications the geoid is ideally needed to a high accuracy and to a high resolution. There are applications that require geoid undulation information to an accuracy of +/- 10 cm with a resolution of 50 km. We are far from this goal today but substantial improvement in geoid determination has been made. In 1979 the cumulative geoid undulation error to spherical harmonic degree 20 was +/- 1.4 m for the GEM10 potential coefficient model. Today the corresponding value has been reduced to +/- 25 cm for GEM-T3 or +/- 11 cm for the OSU91A model. Similar improvements are noted by harmonic degree (wave-length) and in resolution. Potential coefficient models now exist to degree 360 based on a combination of data types. This paper discusses the accuracy changes that have taken place in the past 12 years in the determination of geoid undulations.

  18. Securitization product design for China's environmental pollution liability insurance.

    Pu, Chengyi; Addai, Bismark; Pan, Xiaojun; Bo, Pangtuo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental catastrophic accidents in China over the last three decades have triggered implementation of myriad policies by the government to help abate environmental pollution in the country. Consequently, research into environmental pollution liability insurance and how that can stimulate economic growth and the development of financial market in China is worthwhile. This study attempts to design a financial derivative for China's environmental pollution liability insurance to offer strong financial support for significant compensation towards potential catastrophic environmental loss exposures, especially losses from the chemical industry. Assuming the risk-free interest rate is 4%, the market portfolio expected return is 12%; the financial asset beta coefficient is 0.5, by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and cash flow analysis; the principal risk bond yields 9.4%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; the principal partial-risk bond yields 10.09%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; and the principal risk-free bond yields 8.94%, single-period and two-period prices are 107.99 and 115.83, respectively. This loss exposure transfer framework transfers the catastrophic risks of environmental pollution from the traditional insurance and reinsurance markets to the capital market. This strengthens the underwriting capacity of environmental pollution liability insurance companies, mitigates the compensation risks of insurers and reinsurers, and provides a new channel to transfer the risks of environmental pollution.

  19. Assessment Of Accuracies Of Remote-Sensing Maps

    Card, Don H.; Strong, Laurence L.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of accuracies of classifications of picture elements in map derived by digital processing of Landsat-multispectral-scanner imagery of coastal plain of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Accuracies of portions of map analyzed with help of statistical sampling procedure called "stratified plurality sampling", in which all picture elements in given cluster classified in stratum to which plurality of them belong.

  20. Risk segmentation in Chilean social health insurance.

    Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.

  1. Nuclear liability insurance in the United States: an insurer's perspective

    Quattrocchi, J.

    2000-01-01

    By the mid-1950's the United States recognised that it was in the interest to promote commercial development of nuclear energy. But the uncertainties of the technology and the potential for severe accidents were clear obstacles to commercial development. Exposure to potentially serious uninsured liability inhibited the private sector. These impediments led Congress to enact the Price-Anderson Act in 1957. The Act had several purposes: the first was to encourage private development of nuclear power; the second was to establish a legal framework for handling potential liability claims; and the third was to provide a ready source of funds to compensate injured victims of a nuclear accident. Insurers chose the pooling technique by creating in the US the American Nuclear Insurers. ANI acts as a managing agent for its members insurance companies. The accident of three Miles Island occurred on 28 March 1979 and with came the claims experience in US. The 1988 amendments to the Price-Anderson Act directed the President to establish a Commission for the purpose of developing a means to assure full compensation of victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the limitation on aggregate public liability, or currently just over US$ 9.7 billion. The Presidential Commission issued its report in August 1990, in which it reached a number of conclusions and offered a number of recommendations.The US Congress has not acted on the Commission's report, but may revisit its recommendations as debate begins this year (1999) or next on the renewal of the Price-Anderson Act. (N.C.)

  2. Microinsurance: innovations in low-cost health insurance.

    Dror, David M; Radermacher, Ralf; Khadilkar, Shrikant B; Schout, Petra; Hay, François-Xavier; Singh, Arbind; Koren, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Microinsurance--low-cost health insurance based on a community, cooperative, or mutual and self-help arrangements-can provide financial protection for poor households and improve access to health care. However, low benefit caps and a low share of premiums paid as benefits--both designed to keep these arrangements in business--perversely limited these schemes' ability to extend coverage, offer financial protection, and retain members. We studied three schemes in India, two of which are member-operated and one a commercial scheme, using household surveys of insured and uninsured households and interviews with managers. All three enrolled poor households and raised their use of hospital services, as intended. Financial exposure was greatest, and protection was least, in the commercial scheme, which imposed the lowest caps on benefits and where income was the lowest.

  3. HEALTH INSURANCE RULES OF THE CERN HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003

  4. Health Insurance Rules of the CERN Health Insurance scheme

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003.

  5. Research on Supply Chain Coordination of Fresh Agricultural Products under Agricultural Insurance

    Zhang Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the current fresh agricultural products are susceptible to natural risks and the coordination of supply chain is poor, This paper constructs the supply chain profit model under the two models of natural risk and agricultural insurance, Firstly, studying the coordination function of the supply chain system under Two-part Tariff; Then discussing the setting and claiming mechanism of agricultural insurance, compares the influence of agricultural insurance on supply chain profit and supply chain coordination; Finally, giving an example to validate the model results and give decision - making opinions. Research shows that the supply chain of fresh agricultural products can coordinated under Two-part Tariff, but the supply chain cooperation is poor in the natural risk , need to further stabilize and optimize the supply chain; When the risk factor is less than the non-participation insurance coefficient, not to participate in agricultural insurance is conducive to maintaining the coordination of the supply chain system; When the risk coefficient exceeds the non-participation insurance coefficient, the introduction of agricultural insurance can not only effectively manage the natural risks, but also help to improve the coordination of the supply chain system.

  6. A dental phobia treatment within the Swedish National Health Insurance.

    Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide

    2012-01-01

    Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.

  7. Corona helps curb losses

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  8. Foundation helps refurbish buildings

    Camenzind, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the activities of the Swiss 'Climate-Cent' foundation, which is helping support the energetic refurbishment of building envelopes. The conditions which have to be fulfilled to receive grants are explained. Work supported includes the replacement of windows and the insulation of roofs and attics as well as outside walls. Details on the financial support provided and examples of projects supported are given. The source of the finance needed to provide such support - a voluntary levy on petrol - and further support provided in certain Swiss cantons is commented on

  9. Making decisions about liability and insurance a special issue of the journal of risk and uncertainty

    Kunreuther, Howard

    1993-01-01

    Two related trends have created novel challenges for managing risk in the United States. The first trend is a series of dramatic changes in liability law as tort law has expanded to assign liability to defendants for reasons other than negligence. The unpredictability of future costs induced by changes in tort law may be partly responsible for the second major trend known as the `liability crisis' - the disappearance of liability protection in markets for particularly unpredictable risks. This book examines decisions people make about insurance and liability. An understanding of such decision making may help explain why the insurance crisis resulted from the new interpretations of tort law and what to do about it. The articles cover three kinds of decisions: consumer decisions to purchase insurance; insurer decisions about coverage they offer; and the decisions of the public about the liability rules they prefer, which are reflected in legislation and regulation. For each of these three kinds of decisions, no...

  10. A cohort study of epilepsy among 665,000 insured dogs

    Heske, L.; Nødtvedt, A.; Jäderlund, K. Hultin

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and mortality rates of epilepsy in a large population of insured dogs and to evaluate the importance of a variety of risk factors. Survival time after a diagnosis of epilepsy was also investigated. The Swedish animal insurance database...... used in this study has previously been helpful in canine epidemiological investigations. More than 2,000,000 dog-years at-risk (DYAR) were available in the insurance database. In total, 5013 dogs had at least one veterinary care claim for epilepsy, and 2327 dogs were euthanased or died because...... of epilepsy. Based on veterinary care claims the incidence rate of epilepsy (including both idiopathic and symptomatic cases) was estimated to be 18 per 10,000 DYAR. Dogs were followed up until they were 10 (for life insurance claims) or 12 years of age (veterinary care claims). Among the 35 most common...

  11. Workplace Accommodations for Pregnant Employees: Associations With Women's Access to Health Insurance Coverage After Childbirth.

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M; Abraham, Jean M

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the associations between workplace accommodations for pregnancy, including paid and unpaid maternity leave, and changes in women's health insurance coverage postpartum. Secondary analysis using Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18 to 45 years who gave birth in U.S. hospitals during 2011 to 2012 (N = 700). Compared with women without access to paid maternity leave, women with access to paid leave were 0.4 times as likely to lose private health insurance coverage, 0.3 times as likely to lose public health coverage, and 0.3 times as likely to become uninsured after giving birth. Workplace accommodations for pregnant employees are associated with health insurance coverage via work continuity postpartum. Expanding protections for employees during pregnancy and after childbirth may help reduce employee turnover, loss of health insurance coverage, and discontinuity of care.

  12. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  13. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  14. Private health insurance and access to healthcare.

    Duggal, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The health insurance business in India has seen a growth of over 25% per annum in the last few years with the expansion of the private health insurance sector. The premium incomes of health insurance have crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark with the share of private companies increasing to over 41%. This is despite the fact that from the perspective of patients, health insurance is not a good deal, especially when they need it most. This raises a number of ethical issues regarding how the health insurance business runs and how medical practice adjusts to it for profiteering. This article uses the personal experience of the author to argue that health insurance in an unregulated environment can only lead to unethical practices, further victimising the patient. Further, publicly financed healthcare which operates in an environment regulating both public and private healthcare provisioning is the only way to assure access to ethical and equitable healthcare to people.

  15. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    I study the impact of ambiguity on insurance decisions and the optimality of insurance contracts. My tractable approach allows me to study the interaction between risk and ambiguity attitudes. When insurance decisions are made independently of other assets, for a given increase in wealth, both risk...... portfolio theory that assumes Subjective Expected Utility theory; however, it provides hints to a possible solution of the under-diversification puzzle of households. I also identify conditions under which more risk or ambiguity aversion decreases the demand for coinsurance. Additionally, I show...... a counterexample to a classical result in insurance economics where an insurance contract with straight deductible is dominated by a coinsurance contract. Finally, I find that a modified Borch rule characterizes the optimal insurance contract with bilateral risk and ambiguity attitudes and heterogeneity in beliefs....

  16. Technology for helping people

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  17. Insurance for replacement power costs

    Cleaver, A.

    1980-01-01

    Although careful consideration is given to insurance against physical damage to plant and equipment, little thought is given to the costs that will be incurred in replacing the power that is lost while a relatively efficient system is out of action. The results of an investigation carried out for a generating authority with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW is given. Replacement power costs for different cases of severity of damage range from Pound1.17m per month for damage to central services taking out all four units. (author)

  18. SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY OF INSURANCE COMPANIES

    MĂRĂCINE MIHAELA SIMONA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of corporate social responsibility has increased significantly nowadays. The studies conducted have shown that consumers are increasingly no longer interested only in buying good quality and reliable products, but they are also interested whether they were produced in a socially responsible manner. In the recent years investors have increasingly realised that investing in social responsibility regarding the social and environmental areas, greatly contributes to the growth of the internal and external image of management. This paper aims at presenting a number of interesting issues related to social responsibility manifested by the insurance companies.

  19. Nuclear safety and nuclear insurance

    Abramovitz, A.

    1983-01-01

    To an extent, public opinion is against Koeberg, inspite of the fact that Escom, Koeberg's prospective licensee, are liable for damages caused in the event of an accident, that they carry public liability insurance bought in the market place to the maximum of ten million rand, and if that is not enough the government will take over responsibility for the rest. A question is put that if this kind of protection carries on, won't there always be a minority of the public who will find nuclear power socially, psychologically and politically unacceptable

  20. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe

    Warren, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  1. Insurance loss coverage under restricted risk classification

    Hao, Mingjie; Radfall Charitable Trust

    2017-01-01

    Insurers hope to make profit through pooling policies from a large number of individuals. Unless the risk in question is similar for all potential customers, an insurer is exposed to the possibility of adverse selection by attracting only high-risk individuals. To counter this, insurers have traditionally employed underwriting principles, identifying suitable risk factors to subdivide their potential customers into homogeneous risk groups, based on which risk-related premiums can be charged. ...

  2. Limits of insurability; Grenzen der Versicherbarkeit

    Haerig, Michael [Marsh GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Companies of the energy industry are facing risks which only insufficiently can be covered with classical insurance solutions. In particular, further developments and new technologies confront operators of power stations with challenges to attain a sufficient insurance protection. By means of a comprehensive risk management and insurance management tailor-made, convincing solutions and concepts are possible. The contribution under consideration exemplary presents some selected topics.

  3. Communications Centre Model in Insurance Business

    Danijel Bara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define a communications centre model in an insurance company that essentially has two objectives. The first objective is focused on providing quality support with the sales process thereby creating a strategic advantage over the competition while the second objective is focused on improving the link between internal organizational units whose behaviour can often render decision-making at all levels difficult. The function of sales is fundamental for an insurance company. Whether an insurance company will fulfil its basic function, which is transfer of risk from the insured party to the insurer who agrees tonreimburse incidental damages to the damaged party and distribute them among all members of the risk group on the principles of reciprocity and solidarity, depends on successful sales and billing (Andrijašević & Petranović, 1999. For an insurance company to operate successfully in a demanding market, it is necessary to meet the needs of potential clients who then must be at the centre of all the activities of the insurer. A satisfied policy holder, who is respected by the insurer as a partner, is a guarantee that the sales of insurance services will be successful and that the insured party will come back to the same insurance company. In the era of globalization and all-pervading new technologies and modes of communication, policy holders need to be able to communicate with insurance company employees. Quality communication is a good foundation for a sales conversation. A fast flow of all types of information within an organisation using a single communication module makes decision-making at all levels quicker and easier.

  4. Application of Actuarial Modelling in Insurance Industry

    Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe

    2011-01-01

    In insurance industry, the financial stability of insurance companies represents an issue of vital importance. In order to maintain the financial stability and meet minimum regulatory requirements, actuaries apply actuarial modeling. Modeling has been at the center of actuarial science and of all the sciences from the beginning of their journey. In insurance industry, actuarial modeling creates a framework that allows actuaries to identify, understand, quantify and manage a wide range of risk...

  5. A Hierarchical Agency Model of Deposit Insurance

    Jonathan Carroll; Shino Takayama

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a hierarchical agency model of deposit insurance. The main purpose is to undertake a game theoretic analysis of the consequences of deposit insurance schemes and their effects on monitoring incentives for banks. Using this simple framework, we analyze both risk- independent and risk-dependent premium schemes along with reserve requirement constraints. The results provide policymakers with not only a better understanding of the effects of deposit insurance on welfare and th...

  6. Worker Sorting, Taxes and Health Insurance Coverage

    Kevin Lang; Hong Kang

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...

  7. Deposit Insurance Coverage, Credibility of Non-insurance, and Banking Crises

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    level require analyses of institutional factors affecting the credibility of non-insurance. In particular, the implementation of effective distress resolution procedures for banks would allow governments to reduce explicit deposit insurance coverage and, thereby, to strengthen market discipline......The ambiguity in existing empirical work with respect to effects of deposit insurance schemes on banks' risk-taking can be resolved if it is recognized that absence of deposit insurance is rarely credible and that the credibility of non-insurance can be enhanced by explicit deposit insurance...... schemes. We show that under reasonable conditions for effects on risk-taking of creditor protection in banking, and for effects on credibility of non-insurance of explicit coverage of deposit insurance schemes, there exists a partial level of coverage that maximizes market discipline and minimizes moral...

  8. Workplace Financial Wellness Programs Help Employees Manage Health Care Changes.

    Meyer, Cynthia; Smith, Michael C

    Employers and employees are navigating major changes in health insurance benefits, including the move to high-deductible health plans in conjunction with health savings accounts (HSAs). The HSA offers unique benefits that could prove instrumental in helping workers both navigate current health care expenses and build a nest egg for much larger health care costs in retirement. Yet employees often don't understand the HSA and how to best use it. How can employers help employees make wise benefits choices that work for their personal financial circumstances?

  9. Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya

    Adhiambo, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out and improve on strategy used in the Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya; Case of African Merchants Assurance Company Ltd (AMACO). AMACO is one of the 44 insurance firms in Kenya. Among others it is a local incorporated company, which makes a difference in that it is not one of the leading insurance firms in Kenya, which is held by such firms as British-American insurance company. The methodology used is quantitative, qualitative methods, interview ...

  10. INSURANCE AND THE CORPORATE COST OF CAPITAL

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.

  11. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy......Tax distortions cause a trade-off between efficiency and equity. However, taxes not only affect incentives; they also provide implicit insurance, and this may critically affect the efficiency–equity relationship. For a standard labour supply problem it is shown that the insurance effect mutes...

  12. Congressional Statistics: Disability Insurance for December 2014

    Social Security Administration — While Social Security is best known for providing retirement benefits, the program also provides Disability Insurance (DI) protection to workers and their families...

  13. ECONOMIC AND MANAGERIAL APPROACH OF HEALTH INSURANCES

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.

  14. Entrepreneurial Moral Hazard in Income Insurance

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Hochguertel, Stefan

    We study risk behavior of Danish self-employed entrepreneurs, whose income risk may be driven by both exogenous factors and effort choice (moral hazard). Partial insurance is available through voluntary unemployment insurance (UI). Additional incentives to sign insurance contracts stem from a UI......-embedded, government-subsidized early retirement (ER) program, giving benefits that are unrelated to business risk. Indeed, we argue that the self-employeds' incentives to insure themselves stem from the ER plan rather than from the UI cover. We show how to use a policy reform to identify moral hazard in observed...

  15. MARKETING CHARACTERISTICS OF INSURANCE MARKET IN UKRAINE

    А. Sabirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the insurance market of Ukraine in the post-crisis period, by comparison with the pre-crisis was investigated in the paper. The insurance market in the pre-crisis period grew rapidly, but was unable to withstand the economic crisis and suffered a crushing blow. The economic crisis of 2008-2009 led to a decrease of the demand for financial services in general and insurance services in particular. The lack of development of the insurance market created high barriers for responding and adapting to changes that occurred during the crisis.

  16. Competitive Cyber-Insurance and Internet Security

    Shetty, Nikhil; Schwartz, Galina; Felegyhazi, Mark; Walrand, Jean

    This paper investigates how competitive cyber-insurers affect network security and welfare of the networked society. In our model, a user's probability to incur damage (from being attacked) depends on both his security and the network security, with the latter taken by individual users as given. First, we consider cyberinsurers who cannot observe (and thus, affect) individual user security. This asymmetric information causes moral hazard. Then, for most parameters, no equilibrium exists: the insurance market is missing. Even if an equilibrium exists, the insurance contract covers only a minor fraction of the damage; network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Second, we consider insurers with perfect information about their users' security. Here, user security is perfectly enforceable (zero cost); each insurance contract stipulates the required user security. The unique equilibrium contract covers the entire user damage. Still, for most parameters, network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Although cyber-insurance improves user welfare, in general, competitive cyber-insurers fail to improve network security.

  17. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten I.

    We estimate the maximum amount that Danish households are willing to pay for three different types of insurance: auto, home and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from the largest private insurance company in Denmark, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates...... possible states of nature, where all uncertainty is realized in the initial period and any loss incurred by an accident is subtracted from initial wealth. The estimated willingness to pay is based on annual claims and should thus be considered as an annual premium. Since there is some uncertainty about...... of the insurance claims....

  18. Assessing the Challenges in Successful Implementation and Adoption of Crop Insurance in Thailand

    Shweta Sinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the gaps in the adoption of crop insurance in Thailand and suggest possible solutions relating to policy support and framework, implementation mechanisms, technology adoption, and awareness amongst farmers. The methodology includes a literature review, interaction with officials, rice experts and insurance experts, and discussion with farmers. A study was undertaken at province level to assess the impact of using rainfall index as a threshold. Additionally, focused group discussions (FGD were conducted with rice farmers at the village level. Key issues targeted in the FGD were to understand the behavior and practices during droughts, impact of drought on crop yield, methods already in use to reduce the impact, such as plantation of drought-resistant rice, and the adoption of crop insurance. Data availability is a challenge and has led to withdrawal of Weather Index Insurance (WII in 2015. WII have threshold levels based on historical rainfall. Adoption of coping mechanisms, such as drought-resistant rice and irrigation increases the chances of adverse selection. In absence of ground based weather data, a combination of satellite agriculture drought information can be used to make crop insurance more attractive as it would help in reducing basis risk and improving insurers and farmers’ confidence in the product. Discussion with farmers, insurance companies, and the Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC in Thailand suggested low awareness among farmers about the potential benefits of weather index insurance products. Relatively low compensation is also an obstacle. Proper marketing and awareness raising campaigns should also accompany the introduction of index-based insurance products.

  19. Health insurance, alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

    Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of insurance risk management under crisis conditions

    I.G. Goncharenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article some historical aspects of insurance, domestic trends in insurance risk management with aspects of international experience, the modern role of insurance and insurance companies in a market economy, factors of risk management system and the nature of the insurance portfolio are analyzed. Factors of risk events in insurance, the spectrum of risks, imbalance of the insurance market in crisis conditions are outlined; expert’s estimations of the insurance market in recent years are examined. Problems of insurance business perform are determined, especially insurance risk management. The ability to use the provisions of European insurance regulation on internal domestic insurance market is analyzed, and also the aspects of integration of Ukrainian insurance market are determined.

  1. Directions of improving information system of insurance company

    Kaigorodova, G. N.; Mustafina, A. A.; Alyakina, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a study of the information technologies impact on the insurance industry development. At present, any business, especially business in the field of financial intermediation, can count on maintaining its positions only as a technology company. For the insurance business it is now especially important. Other segments of the financial market - the stock and credit market - are actively developing and applying IT-technologies. The insurance business at present is getting opportunities for a technological breakthrough. There is a growing demand for traditional insurance products - property insurance, motor insurance, health insurance. There is a rapidly growing demand for life insurance and insurance against cyber risks. To implement insurance protection in new conditions, the insurance company should actively use information systems. The article presents a possible variant of systematization of the insurer's business processes within the information system of the insurance company.

  2. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  3. The national health insurance scheme: perceptions and experiences of health care providers and clients in two districts of Ghana.

    Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Laar, Alexander Suuk

    2012-07-23

    Prepayments and risk pooling through social health insurance has been advocated by international development organizations. Social health insurance is seen as a mechanism that helps mobilize resources for health, pool risk, and provide more access to health care services for the poor. Hence Ghana implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to help promote access to health care services for Ghanaians. The study examined the influence of the NHIS on the behavior of health care providers in their treatment of insured and uninsured clients. The study took place in Bolgatanga (urban) and Builsa (rural) districts in Ghana. Data was collected through exit survey with 200 insured and uninsured clients, 15 in-depth interviews with health care providers and health insurance managers, and 8 focus group discussions with insured and uninsured community members. The NHIS promoted access for insured and mobilized revenue for health care providers. Both insured and uninsured were satisfied with care (survey finding). However, increased utilization of health care services by the insured leading to increased workloads for providers influenced their behavior towards the insured. Most of the insured perceived and experienced long waiting times, verbal abuse, not being physically examined and discrimination in favor of the affluent and uninsured. The insured attributed their experience to the fact that they were not making immediate payments for services. A core challenge of the NHIS was a delay in reimbursement which affected the operations of health facilities and hence influenced providers' behavior as well. Providers preferred clients who would make instant payments for health care services. Few of the uninsured were utilizing health facilities and visit only in critical conditions. This is due to the increased cost of health care services under the NHIS. The perceived opportunistic behavior of the insured by providers was responsible for the difference in the behavior

  4. 76 FR 77455 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion

    2011-12-13

    ... and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion.'' Copies of comments received will be available...) (slayer's rule ``is undoubtedly an implicit provision of the Servicemen's Group Life Insurance Act of 1965...

  5. 75 FR 15777 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Basic Provisions; and Various Crop Insurance Provisions

    2010-03-30

    ... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...

  6. 77 FR 28343 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    2012-05-14

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any... than any governmental entity) used for rental or lease whose vehicles are not covered by theft...

  7. 75 FR 54041 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    2010-09-03

    .... Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles, the rating... state and; (3) Rental and leasing companies with a fleet of 20 or more vehicles not covered by theft...) used for rental or lease whose vehicles are not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers...

  8. Insurance payment process for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Pensions and Savings group handles three types of payment into and out of Fluor Daniel Hanford related to insurance benefits: Premium payment to insurance company; Application of employee insurance withholding against insurance costs; Remittance of insurance claims, and administrative fees. General approach in making and recording the remittance is by forwarding payment information to Accounts Payable Master.

  9. 48 CFR 28.308 - Self-insurance.

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.308 Self-insurance. (a) When it is anticipated that 50 percent or... risks, limits of coverage, assignments of safety and loss control, and legal service responsibilities... projected average loss; and (10) A disclosure of all captive insurance company and re-insurance agreements...

  10. 46 CFR 308.300 - Insured amount-application.

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.300 Insured amount—application. An applicant for Second Seamen's war risk insurance shall not state the amount of insurance desired, which shall be as provided in...

  11. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  12. Miles, speed, and technology: Traffic safety under oligopolistic insurance

    Dementieva, M.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    We study road safety when insurance companies have market power, and can influence drivers' behavior via insurance premiums. We obtain first- and second-best premiums for different insurance market structures. The insurance program consists of an insurance premium, and marginal dependencies of that

  13. 42 CFR 60.14 - The insurance premium.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The insurance premium. 60.14 Section 60.14 Public... LOAN PROGRAM The Loan § 60.14 The insurance premium. (a) General. (1) The Secretary insures each lender... lender an insurance premium. The insurance premium is due to the Secretary on the date of disbursement of...

  14. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  15. THE MODEL OF INTERACTION BETWEEN INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES AND INSURANCE COMPANIES IN THE ASSURANCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE MARKET

    Nataliia Kudriavska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the model of interaction between insurance intermediaries and insurance companies in the assurance of sustainable development of the insurance market. The methodology is based on the new studies and books. It is underlined the importance of potency and effectiveness of this model, its influence on the insurance market stability. It is analysed the European experience and specific of Ukrainian insurance market. The main ways for improving its model and ways of its practical realization are characterized. Results. The problems that exist in the broker market in general are connected with an ineffective state policy. In particular, we can say about the absence of many laws, acts, resolutions, which explain what a broker have to do in case of different problems with insurance companies, another brokers and clients. At the same time, the problem of distrust to national brokers exists. It provokes a decline of the demand for their services and so on. However, it is possible to solve these problems. Practical implications. For this, it is necessary to do some acts. The first one is to implement resolutions that regulate relationships between insurance brokers and insurance companies, clearly regulate the model of its interaction. This model affects the stability of the insurance market in general. The second is to find methods of solving problems of the increase in insurance culture of the population (for example, by the way of advertisement. The third one is to solve problems connected with the appearance of foreign brokers in the insurance market of Ukraine. Actually, the Ukrainian market of insurance brokers is not developed enough. That is why it needs big changes and reforms. Value/originality. Among alternatives of the strategic development of insurance, the method of quick liberalization and gradual development is distinguished. According to the liberal way, it is possible to transfer to the

  16. THE IMPACT ON WOMEN ON THE REMOVAL OF GENDER AS A RATING VARIABLE IN MOTOR-VEHICLE INSURANCE

    Anthea Natalie Wagener

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Insurers use actuarial statistics as rating variables to differentiate and distinguish for the purposes of risk classification. They justify their use of actuarial statistics due to its accuracy as a predictor of risk. South African motor-vehicle insurers use gender, inter alia, as a rating variable to classify risks into certain classes and to determine insurance premiums. Depending upon whether the insured is male or female, it could have a significant impact on the cost of his or her premium. Women drivers pay less for motor-vehicle insurance because actuarial statistics indicate that women are more careful drivers and are involved in 20 per cent fewer accidents than men. Men pay higher premiums because the statistics indicate that they are less responsible drivers than women.Should a South African court decide that the use of gender as a motor-vehicle insurance rating variable is unfair discrimination, this would benefit male drivers, as it would lower their premium. Women, on the other hand, would be disadvantaged as they would be required to pay higher premiums to subsidise men. The article examines the impact that the removal of gender as a rating variable in motor-vehicle insurance would have on women, and asks if the effects thereof would influence a South African Court’s decision in determining if the use of gender as a rating variable amounts to unfair discrimination. The article first considers the findings of American and Canadian Courts in determining this same issue and then considers South African equality legislation, particularly the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000 (“the Equality Act”. Thereafter, the article provides recommendations for a South African Court. As the Equality Act indicates that the discriminatory insurance practice of placing a disadvantage or advantage on persons based inter alia on their gender may possibly be unfair, it is suggested that South African

  17. Supplementary insurance as a switching cost for basic health insurance: Empirical results from the Netherlands.

    Willemse-Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Mosca, Ilaria

    2017-10-01

    Nearly everyone with a supplementary insurance (SI) in the Netherlands takes out the voluntary SI and the mandatory basic insurance (BI) from the same health insurer. Previous studies show that many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost for BI. Because consumers' current insurer provides them with a guaranteed renewability, SI is a switching cost if insurers apply selective underwriting to new applicants. Several changes in the Dutch health insurance market increased insurers' incentives to counteract adverse selection for SI. Tools to do so are not only selective underwriting, but also risk rating and product differentiation. If all insurers use the latter tools without selective underwriting, SI is not a switching cost for BI. We investigated to what extent insurers used these tools in the periods 2006-2009 and 2014-2015. Only a few insurers applied selective underwriting: in 2015, 86% of insurers used open enrolment for all their SI products, and the other 14% did use open enrolment for their most common SI products. As measured by our indicators, the proportion of insurers applying risk rating or product differentiation did not increase in the periods considered. Due to the fear of reputation loss insurers may have used 'less visible' tools to counteract adverse selection that are indirect forms of risk rating and product differentiation and do not result in switching costs. So, although many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost, most insurers apply open enrolment for SI. By providing information to high-risks about their switching opportunities, the government could increase consumer choice and thereby insurers' incentives to invest in high-quality care for high-risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years... fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies...

  19. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    2010-07-01

    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  20. Effects of health information technology on malpractice insurance premiums.

    Kim, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jinhyung

    2015-04-01

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (IT) will help contain health care costs by decreasing inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. Theoretically, health IT could lower hospitals' malpractice insurance premiums (MIPs) and improve the quality of care by reducing the number and size of malpractice. This study examines the relationship between health IT investment and MIP using California hospital data from 2006 to 2007. To examine the effect of hospital IT on malpractice insurance expense, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was employed. It was found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. Health IT was reported to reduce medical error and improve efficiency. Thus, it may reduce malpractice claims from patients, which will reduce malpractice insurance expenses for hospitals. However, health IT adoption could lead to increases in MIPs. For example, we expect increases in MIPs of about 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively, when health IT and labor increase by 10%. This study examined the effect of health IT investment on MIPs controlling other hospital and market, and volume characteristics. Against our expectation, we found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. There may be some possible reasons that the real effect of health IT on MIPs was not observed; barriers including communication problems among health ITs, shorter sample period, lower IT investment, and lack of a quality of care measure as a moderating variable.

  1. Low-level waste injury: liability, insurance, and indemnification

    Merz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    It would be worth developing compatible policies to address the issues involving third-party liabilities which remain unanswered before the different states and interstate compact agreements implementing the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act develop a range of approaches. A plan that draws resources from a number of states would have economic and technological benefits, and could help ensure public confidence in the management of low level radioactive wastes. Interstate cooperation and coordination to produce such a plan would benefit from a Congressional mandate. An appendix arranged alphabetically by state illustrates the range of immunity/waiver, insurance, and limits that already exist

  2. Subordinate debt, deposit insurance and market oriented monitoring of banks

    Gaurav S. Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of a bank with endogenous risk choices, where delegated monitoring by an active market in subordinate debt helps in containing the bank's risk shifting in the presence of deposit insurance. In comparison to static ex ante contracting, an active market enables continuous monitoring by subordinate debt to penalise the bank's risk shifting. The model is instrumental in deriving optimal level of subordinate debt required to achieve equilibrium where banks choose risk levels consistent with the first best as envisaged by a social planner. The optimal quantity of subordinate debt further eliminates any risk shifting associated even with risk insensitive premiums.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE WORLD INSURANCE MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE

    Antonina Sholoiko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to define a role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Tasks of the study are the next: to consider the dynamics of development of the world insurance market from 2012 to 2016; to define groups of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; to characterize elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Methodology. These tasks are done because of using such methods as: grouping of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; a collection of information about elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; generalization to define role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Results. World insurance premiums were increasing and decreasing from 2012 to 2016 and did not exceed 6.3% of Gross Domestic Product. Lots of factors influence global insurance premium volume as an indicator of the development of world insurance market. One of them is an activity of the elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. It is necessary to divide them into some groups: A International insurance associations (associations of organizations connected with insurance but members of such associations do not provide insurance services – International Association of Insurance Supervisors, International Association of Insurance Fraud Agencies, Global Federation of Insurance Associations, International Insurance Foundation; B International associations of insurers (includes associations of insurers and other organizations in a certain area of insurance – International Association of Deposit Insurers, International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers, International Association of Agricultural Production Insurers, International Group of P&I Clubs, International Union of Aerospace Insurers, International Union of Marine Insurance, International Association of Engineering Insurers; C International associations of insurance experts

  4. Insure Thyself: A Look at Alternatives

    Weeks, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Annual double-digit increases in health insurance premiums may be the reality for school districts and private-sector employers for the foreseeable future. The author presents several factors that account for this unwelcome possibility. One cost-saving alternative for districts is to self-insure employees and assume the risks. Districts are…

  5. Nuclear insurance in the future Internal Market

    Mueller-Stein, J.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizing, it is prognosticated that nuclear insurance practice will not drastically change on account of the Internal Market. This assumption is based on the unanimous estimation of the nuclear energy risk by the international insurance industry, as is documented by their traditional good cooperation in pools. (orig.) [de

  6. 78 FR 32126 - VA Dental Insurance Program

    2013-05-29

    ... secure reasonable premium and copayment pricing through multiple tier options to allow enrollees to... program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and... regulations to establish VADIP, a pilot program that would offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled...

  7. 7 CFR 2201.24 - Insurance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 2201.24 Section 2201.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.24 Insurance. The Borrower of a...

  8. Deposit Insurance: A Strategy for Reform.

    1991-03-01

    by Regulatory Board)a Securities Firm Bankb I Other Firms Not BHC U Permitted :I~( Barik Regulators>. j ..: or SEC)C . ...... _.. Insurance Firm Other BHC...Growth, interest rate, and dividend restrictions, higher capital and/or Insurance premiums, civil money penalties. E J Trlpwire 3: Prbes Capital below

  9. 7 CFR 1980.481 - Insured loans.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.481 Insured loans. Applications...) Constructing and equipping industrial plants for lease to private businesses (not including loans for operating... concurrence prior to approval. B. Applications from private parties for insured loans will not be encouraged...

  10. Insurance risk with variable number of policies

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Kulkarni, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we consider an insurance company selling life insurance policies. New policies are sold at random points in time, and each policy stays active for an exponential amount of time with rate µ, during which the policyholder pays premiums continuously at rate r. When the policy expires,

  11. Internal controls subjects at insurance companies

    Прокопенко, Жанна Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The problematic issues of determining the authorities of the internal controls subjects at insurance companies have been elucidated. The list of internal controls subjects of insurer depending on the form of control as well as the purposefulness of such kind of control have been determined.

  12. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  13. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    S V Martynenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  14. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  15. Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance Agent.

    Cohen, Abby J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the agent's qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…

  16. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120.170 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance...

  17. MARKET INSURANCE AND RISKS IN THIS FIELD

    Ersilia Catrina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The insurance market can be considered a market where all sorts of anomalies can be encountered or a current acquisition for a situation considered to be certain or relative future, depending on the type of insurance. For the most part, assurance is based on a premise, a hypothesis that is generally based on several factors of influence. Generally, the most important factors in making such a decision are generated by the human-sensitive factor or the economicprotective. Therefore, by joining the insurance market and purchasing any kind of insurance, we must also take into account the risks that arise from these products. Generally, most people perceive these insurance policies in different areas as a future guarantee without considering additional elements that can highlight risk elements that may alter the expected outcome of the acquirer. An important element to mitigate these risks would be the implementation and use of internal control over the supply chain, control that would make a difference between an activity under normal, predictable and legal conditions and a random activity with many elements of risk that can cause major damage to those involved, and to the insurer and the insured. Through this paper, the author aimed to highlight the importance of internal control in insurance companies, as well as the consequences of the lack of internal control within these societies

  18. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    2010-01-01

    ... coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided for property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  19. Determinants of health insurance and hospitalization

    Tadashi Yamada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper empirically examines how the decision to purchase private insurance and hospitalization are made based on household income, socio-demographic factors, and private health insurance factors in both Japan and the USA. Using these two data-sets, we found some similarities and dissimilarities between Japan and the United States. As income of households rises, households have a positive effect on purchasing health insurance as a normal good. Another similarity between the two countries is seen in the income effect on risk of hospitalization, which is negative for both Japanese and US cases. For dissimilarity, the insurance premium effect on risk of hospitalization is positive for the Japanese case, while negative for the US case. Since the Japanese insurance data had variables such as payments per day of hospitalization if household gets hospitalized, insurance payments upon death of an insured person, and annuity payments at maturity, we tested to see if these characteristics affect the risk of hospitalization for households; we do not eliminate a possibility of adverse selection. For the US pure health issuance characteristics, an increase in premium of health insurance policies cause individuals to substitute more health capital investment which causes lower risk of hospitalization.

  20. Economic and Managerial Approach of Health Insurances

    Marinela BOBOC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.

  1. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  2. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  3. Catastrophic risk : Social influences on insurance decisions

    Krawczyk, Michal; Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    We study behavioral patterns of insurance demand for low-probability large-loss events (catastrophic losses). Individual patterns of belief formation and risk attitude that were suggested in the behavioral decisions literature emerge robustly in the current set of insurance choices. However, social

  4. Transport insurance of unirradiated nuclear fuels

    Matto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Special conditions must be taken into account in transport insurance for nuclear materials even if the nuclear risk involved is negligible, as in shipments of unirradiated nuclear fuels. The shipwreck of the 'Mont Louis' has raised a number of open points which must be solved pragmatically within the framework of transport insurance. Some proposals are outlined in the article. (orig.) [de

  5. INTEGRATION OF ROMANIAN INSURANCES MARKET IN EU

    Gheorghe MOROŞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.

  6. 24 CFR 232.885 - Insurance benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 232.885 Section 232.885 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....885 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Payment of claim shall be made in the following manner...

  7. Visualization tools for insurance risk processes

    Krzysztof Burnecki; Rafal Weron

    2006-01-01

    This chapter develops on risk processes which, perhaps, are most suitable for computer visualization of all insurance objects. At the same time, risk processes are basic instruments for any non-life actuary – they are vital for calculating the amount of loss that an insurance company may incur.

  8. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  9. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    2010-12-20

    ... financial institutions in cooperation with minority- and women-owned financial institutions and low-income... Financial Assets Transferred by an Insured Depository Institution: The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...: Market Risk: The OCC, Board and the FDIC proposed revisions to the market risk capital rule to enhance...

  10. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  11. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  12. Insuring Life : Value, Security and Risk

    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This book is a contribution to the scholarly engagement with the wider problem of governing through risk and the politics of uncertainty. It takes life insurance as an empirical site from which to ask: what is the kind of governance created through insurance an instance of, and how does it

  13. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  14. Regulated Medicare Advantage And Marketplace Individual Health Insurance Markets Rely On Insurer Competition.

    Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  16. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  17. Optimal non-linear health insurance.

    Blomqvist, A

    1997-06-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.

  18. Insurer risk control and nuclear liability

    DeMerchant, C. [Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    We specialize in high quality insurance risk management, underwriting and inspections for Canadian nuclear exposures. We provide true risk transfer, secure insurance capacity and collaborate with the world's nuclear experts to create innovative domestic solutions for our clients and members. The benefit of our experience works for all stake holders: insured clients, members, multi-level government agencies and all Canadians. NIAC has a 55-year history of partnering with insurers around the globe to create reliable risk management for the nuclear industry. We offer Canadian risk solutions, thought leadership and expertise that provides security and confidence to our customers and members. NIAC leads in the areas of nuclear insurance law, good governance and claims administration to create a true Centre of Excellence.

  19. Insurer risk control and nuclear liability

    DeMerchant, C.

    2015-01-01

    We specialize in high quality insurance risk management, underwriting and inspections for Canadian nuclear exposures. We provide true risk transfer, secure insurance capacity and collaborate with the world's nuclear experts to create innovative domestic solutions for our clients and members. The benefit of our experience works for all stake holders: insured clients, members, multi-level government agencies and all Canadians. NIAC has a 55-year history of partnering with insurers around the globe to create reliable risk management for the nuclear industry. We offer Canadian risk solutions, thought leadership and expertise that provides security and confidence to our customers and members. NIAC leads in the areas of nuclear insurance law, good governance and claims administration to create a true Centre of Excellence.

  20. Premium Forecasting of AN Insurance Company:

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, the total number of insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence of a crossover premium pc below which the company is operating at a loss. Above pc, we also give a detailed statistical analysis of the company's financial status and obtain the predicted profit along with the corresponding risk as well as ruin probability in terms of premium. Furthermore we obtain the optimal premium popt which maximizes the company's profit.

  1. The insurance refund request: a legal analysis.

    Rollman, S O

    1998-12-01

    When an insurance payment is made erroneously to a healthcare provider and no contract between the insurer and provider addresses the issue of refunding such payments, the law relating to restitution generally applies. Restitution does not apply, however, to three exceptions that the courts have used to refuse claims by insurers for refunds of overpayments: the innocent third-party creditor exception, whereby the healthcare provider cannot be unjustly enriched by the overpayment, cannot have induced the mistaken payment, and cannot have known beforehand that the insurer was not obligated to pay; the material change in position exception, whereby the healthcare provider in good faith accepts an overpayment and so does not pursue other means of payment; and the assumption of the risk exception, which occurs when the insurer pays a claim without having complete information about it.

  2. Features of insurance evolution in the Internet expansion

    A.Yu. Polchanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the features of the development of insurance in the Internet expansion. Increasing the number of mobile subscribers, Internet users and social networking, as well as owners of smartphones changes the decision-making process on insurance, marketing of insurance services, the mechanism of interaction between participants of insurance relations. As a result, insurance companies and intermediaries should adjust strategies and innovate to maintain their competitive advantage. The research examined the functioning of the foreign experience of P2P insurance (for example «Friendsurance», microinsurance using mobile payment instruments (for example «Kilimo Salama», cyber-risks insurance (for example «AIG», and the possibility of using digital currencies in insurance in particular Bitcoin. According to the results of investigation the question asked to clarify a number of basic insurance terms, including money payment, the order of payment of insurance premiums, the insurance event and risk, the insurance intermediary.

  3. 77 FR 30377 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    2012-05-23

    ... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax... categories of immigrants described in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. One...

  4. Insuring Care: Paperwork, Insurance Rules, and Clinical Labor at a U.S. Transgender Clinic.

    van Eijk, Marieke

    2017-12-01

    What is a clinician to do when people needing medical care do not have access to consistent or sufficient health insurance coverage and cannot pay for care privately? Analyzing ethnographically how clinicians at a university-based transgender clinic in the United States responded to this challenge, I examine the U.S. health insurance system, insurance paperwork, and administrative procedures that shape transgender care delivery. To buffer the impact of the system's failure to provide sufficient health insurance coverage for transgender care, clinicians blended administrative routines with psychological therapy, counseled people's minds and finances, and leveraged the prestige of their clinic in attempts to create space for gender nonconforming embodiments in gender conservative insurance policies. My analysis demonstrates that in a market-based health insurance system with multiple payers and gender binary insurance rules, health care may be unaffordable, or remain financially challenging, even for transgender people with health insurance. Moreover, insurance carriers' "reliance" on clinicians' insurance-related labor is problematic as it exacerbates existing insurance barriers to the accessibility and affordability of transgender care and obscures the workings of a financial payment model that prioritizes economic expediency over gender nonconforming health.

  5. [Occupational health services as the insurance product and insurance economic instruments].

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.

  6. Defining the key-parameters of insurance product in Islamic insurance

    Galim Zaribzyanovich Vakhitov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the range of actuarial calculations in Islamic insurance to study the main differences of the traditional and Islamic insurance to define what changes in calculations entail the above differences. Methods mathematical modeling probabilistic analysis of insurance risks adaptation of methods of actuarial mathematics to the principles of Islamic insurance. Results the mathematical form of the takafulfund models is presented the distribution is analyzed of a random variable of the resulting insurance fund or the insurance company balance in a particular fixed insurance portfolio. Scientific novelty calculation are presented of the optimal tariff rate in takaful. Islamic insurance is an innovative area of insurance industry. Actuarial calculations that meet the Sharia rules are still being developed. The authors set the new tasks of actuarial calculations including the specified changes in the calculation of the optimal tariff rate imposed by the Islamic insurance principles. Practical value the results obtained can be used in the actuarial calculations of the Islamic insurance companies. nbsp

  7. The unending deposit insurance mess.

    Kane, E J

    1989-10-27

    The thrift institution deposit insurance mess is rooted in defects in political and bureaucratic accountability. Under existing incentives, covering up evidence of poor regulatory performance and relaxing binding capital requirements are rational governmental responses to widespread industry insolvency. Similarly, aggressive industry risk taking is a rational response by thrift managers to regulatory forbearances. Far from acknowledging these incentive defects, the Bush plan for cleaning up the mess adopts theories that spotlight other causes: specifically, poor thrift management and the deregulation of thrift institution activities and of deposit interest rates. To end the mess, politicians and regulators must jettison these comfortable theories and surrender discretion that permits them to finesse the need to budget for governmental financial commitments.

  8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among insured of a health insurance company in Puerto Rico: 1997-1998.

    Pérez-Perdomo, R; Pérez-Cardona, C; Rodríguez-Lugo, L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in persons covered by a health insurance company. The medical claims of persons insured with Triple S Health Insurance Co. of Puerto Rico, whose main diagnosis was diabetes (ICD9-250.0-9), were selected for analysis. Prevalence and medical utilization rates were estimated. General characteristics and services utilization were compared by age and sex using the chi-square distribution. Overall prevalence was 4.73%. Prevalence in the male population (5.07%) was higher than that of females (4.43%) in all age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The proportion of diabetic cases was larger in the > 60 age group. 64% of the cases had 1 or more visits to a physician office, 2% were hospitalized, and almost 3% had emergency room visits. 29% of the cases had insulin prescriptions while 59% had oral prescriptions. The younger age group (diabetes in this group was lower than the prevalence reported in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This may be partially explained by the fact that the study group did not represent the composition of the Puerto Rican population. Prevalence studies using other groups will be helpful to determine the prevalence of diabetes in Puerto Rico.

  9. Lending to Parents and Insuring Children: Is There a Role for Microcredit in Complementing Health Insurance in Rural China?

    You, Jing

    2016-05-01

    This paper assesses the causal impact on child health of borrowing formal microcredit for Chinese rural households by exploiting a panel dataset (2000 and 2004) in a poor northwest province. Endogenous borrowing is controlled for in a dynamic regression-discontinuity design creating a quasi-experimental environment for causal inferences. There is causal relationship running from formal microcredit to improved child health in the short term, while past borrowing behaviour has no protracted impact on subsequent child health outcomes. Moreover, formal microcredit appears to be a complement to health insurance in improving child health through two mechanisms-it enhances affordability for out-of-pocket health care expenditure and helps buffer consumption against adverse health shocks and financial risk incurred by current health insurance arrangements. Government efforts in expanding health insurance for rural households would be more likely to achieve its optimal goals of improving child health outcomes if combined with sufficient access to formal microcredit. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY

    Cut Zaraswati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance

  11. Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy.

    Kieran C R Fox

    Full Text Available The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1-15,000 hrs experience. Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a 'body-scanning' meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices.

  12. The role of independent agents in the success of health insurance market reforms.

    Hall, M A

    2000-01-01

    The impact of reforms on the health insurance markets cannot be understood without more information about the role played by insurance agents and a closer analysis of their contribution. An in-depth, qualitative study of insurance-market reforms in seven illustrative states forms the basis for this report on how agents help to shape the efficiency and fairness of insurance markets. Different types of agents relate to insurers in their own ways and are compensated differently. This study shows agents to be almost uniformly enthusiastic about guaranteed-issue requirements and other components of market reforms. Although insurers devise strategies for manipulating agents in order to avoid undesirable business, these opportunities are limited and do not appear to be seriously undermining the effectiveness of market reforms. Despite the layer of cost that agents add to the system, they play an important role in making market reforms work, and they fill essential information and service functions for which many purchasers have no ready substitute.

  13. Principles of social security and health insurance for farmers in Poland and Germany--a comparative assessment.

    Posturzyńska, Agnieszka; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Hans, Lucyna; Morawik, Iwona; Strzemecka, Joanna; Jabłoński, Mirosław

    2012-01-01

    As landowners occupied with agricultural production comprise a sizeable part of the populations in mid- and western European countries, it seemed reasonable to assess the organization of health care systems concerning farmers and their families in Poland and Germany. Both countries have similar geographical conditions and rural environments. It so happens that in Poland the principles of the system of agricultural insurance (KRUS) is based on the experiences of Germany and France. Basically, both in Poland and Germany, the agricultural health insurance companies provide the same insurance cover as other health insurance companies. In both countries, under certain conditions, in the case of illness, the insured farmers receive instead of sickness benefit operational assistance and home help. In spite of the similarities that characterize both administrations, many particular differences are to be noted, e.g. the farmers' social insurance in Poland is subject to only one ministry, in contrast to Germany where two ministries are responsible for farmers' social insurance. In Poland, KRUS is a monopolistic organization, whereas in Germany, nine similar independent structures fulfil the task of a health insurance company. Needless to say, many more funds are available for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in Germany than in Poland, due to obvious differences in the overall national income.

  14. Insurance. Part 3. Property, housing, and disaster insurance (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964--Jun 1975

    Young, M.E.

    1975-08-01

    Several types of insurance are discussed in the three part bibliography. Part 3 includes citations on property and mortgage insurance, and insurance for such disasters as floods, fires, earthquakes, and nuclear accidents. (Contains 70 abstracts)

  15. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  16. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  17. Shopping on the Public and Private Health Insurance Marketplaces: Consumer Decision Aids and Plan Presentation.

    Wong, Charlene A; Kulhari, Sajal; McGeoch, Ellen J; Jones, Arthur T; Weiner, Janet; Polsky, Daniel; Baker, Tom

    2018-05-29

    The design of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) health insurance marketplaces influences complex health plan choices. To compare the choice environments of the public health insurance exchanges in the fourth (OEP4) versus third (OEP3) open enrollment period and to examine online marketplace run by private companies, including a total cost estimate comparison. In November-December 2016, we examined the public and private online health insurance exchanges. We navigated each site for "real-shopping" (personal information required) and "window-shopping" (no required personal information). Public (n = 13; 12 state-based marketplaces and HealthCare.gov ) and private (n = 23) online health insurance exchanges. Features included consumer decision aids (e.g., total cost estimators, provider lookups) and plan display (e.g., order of plans). We examined private health insurance exchanges for notable features (i.e., those not found on public exchanges) and compared the total cost estimates on public versus private exchanges for a standardized consumer. Nearly all studied consumer decision aids saw increased deployment in the public marketplaces in OEP4 compared to OEP3. Over half of the public exchanges (n = 7 of 13) had total cost estimators (versus 5 of 14 in OEP3) in window-shopping and integrated provider lookups (window-shopping: 7; real-shopping: 8). The most common default plan orders were by premium or total cost estimate. Notable features on private health insurance exchanges were unique data presentation (e.g., infographics) and further personalized shopping (e.g., recommended plan flags). Health plan total cost estimates varied substantially between the public and private exchanges (average difference $1526). The ACA's public health insurance exchanges offered more tools in OEP4 to help consumers select a plan. While private health insurance exchanges presented notable features, the total cost estimates for a standardized consumer varied widely on public

  18. Compensatory help-seeking in young and older adults: does seeking help, help?

    Alea, Nicole; Cunningham, Walter R

    2003-01-01

    Asking other people for help is a compensatory behavior that may be useful across the life span to enhance functioning. Seventy-two older and younger men and women were either allowed to ask for help or were not allowed to ask for help while solving reasoning problems. Although the older adults answered fewer problems correctly, they did not seek additional help to compensate for their lower levels of performance. Younger adults sought more help. There were no age differences, however, in the types of help sought: indirect help (e.g., hints) was sought more often than direct help (e.g., asking for the answer). Exploratory analyses revealed that one's ability level was a better indicator than age of the utility of help-seeking. Findings are interpreted in the context of social and task-related influences on the use of help-seeking as a compensatory behavior across the life span.

  19. Studies on the diagnostic accuracy of lymphography

    Luening, M.; Stargardt, A.; Abet, L.

    1979-01-01

    Contradictory reports in the literature on the reliability of lymphography stimulated the authors to test the diagnostic accuracy, employing methods which are approximately analogous to practice, using carcinoma of the cervix as the model on which the study was carried out. Using 21 observers it was found that there was no correlation between their experience and on-target accuracy of the diagnosis. Good observers obtained an accuracy of 85% with good proportions between sensitivity in the recognition of detail, specificity and readiness to arrive at a decision on the basis of discriminatory ability. With the help of the concept of the ROC curves, the position taken up by the observers in respect of diagnostic decisions, and a complex manner of assessing the various characteristic factors determining diagnostic accuracy, are demonstrated. This form of test, which permits manipulation of different variants of diagnosis, is recommended, among other things, for performance control at the end of training and continuing education courses in other fields of x-ray diagnosis as well. (orig.) [de

  20. Helping HELP with limited resources: the Luquillo experience

    F.N. Scatena; JR Ortiz-Zayas; J.F. Blanco-Libreros

    2008-01-01

    By definition the HELP approach involves the active participation of individuals from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds, including representatives of industry, academics, natural resource managers, and local officials and community leaders. While there is considerable enthusiasm and support for the integrated HELP approach, a central problem for all HELP...

  1. Nuclear liability act and nuclear insurance

    Clarke, Roy G.; Goyette, R.; Mathers, C.W.; Germani, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Liability Act, enacted in June 1970 and proclaimed effective October 11, 1976, is a federal law governing civil liability for nuclear damage in Canada incorporating many of the basic principles of the international conventions. Exceptions to operator liability for breach of duty imposed by the Act and duty of the operator as well as right of recourse, time limit on bringing actions, special measures for compensation and extent of territory over which the operator is liable are of particular interest. An operator must maintain $75,000,000. of insurance for each nuclear installation for which he is the operator. The Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada (NIAC) administers two ΣPoolsΣ or groups of insurance companies where each member participates for the percentage of the total limit on a net basis, one pool being for Physical Damage Insurance and the other for Liability Insurance. The Atomic Energy Control Board recommends to the Treasury Board the amount of insurance (basic) for each installation. Basic insurance required depends on the exposure and can range from $4 million for a fuel fabricator to $75 million for a power reactor. Coverage under the Operator's Policy provides for bodily injury, property damage and various other claims such as damage from certain transportation incidents as well as nuclear excursions. Workmen's Compensation will continue to be handled by the usual channels. (L.L.)

  2. Modeling Cycle Dependence in Credit Insurance

    Anisa Caja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Business and credit cycles have an impact on credit insurance, as they do on other businesses. Nevertheless, in credit insurance, the impact of the systemic risk is even more important and can lead to major losses during a crisis. Because of this, the insurer surveils and manages policies almost continuously. The management actions it takes limit the consequences of a downturning cycle. However, the traditional modeling of economic capital does not take into account this important feature of credit insurance. This paper proposes a model aiming to estimate future losses of a credit insurance portfolio, while taking into account the insurer’s management actions. The model considers the capacity of the credit insurer to take on less risk in the case of a cycle downturn, but also the inverse, in the case of a cycle upturn; so, losses are predicted with a more dynamic perspective. According to our results, the economic capital is over-estimated when not considering the management actions of the insurer.

  3. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance and reinsurance industry is famous for its traditionalism, that is uninventiveness and neglecting of marketing as business concept and function and by doing so, neglecting opportunities for optimal combination of different distribution channels. However, having in mind Drucker's thesis that only marketing and innovations produce results and that everything else are costs, that applies to all businesses including insurance and reinsurance companies, it is clear that they need to change their way of managing business. Keeping current and attracting new customers, by using optimal combination of marketing mix elements and within its scope by creating optimal mix of distribution channels, as business requirement and objective of insurance and reinsurance companies with strong marketing orientation that leads them to fulfillment of primary objective of their existence - making profit, is becoming specially emphasized with opening of domestic insurance and reinsurance market to foreign competitors with long history of gaining high level of customers' loyalty. Besides that, issues of successful distribution channels' management of insurance and reinsurance services are not treated holistically in domestic literature. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services, as this study shows, are of critical importance for business success of insurance and reinsurance companies.

  4. Nuclear property insurance: status and outlook

    1982-05-01

    The report addresses the problem of the unavailability of adequate levels of property insurance for commercial power reactors to pay for decontamination and cleanup costs arising from accidents. The report is designed to answer six questions, as follows: (1) What has been the development of each principal source of nuclear property insurance used as of early 1982 by nuclear utilities in the United States; (2) What are some of the distinguishing features of nuclear property insurance as offered by the principal sources; (3) How much nuclear property insurance was offered by each of these sources as of January 1, 1982; (4) Assuming that present plans came to fruition, how much nuclear property insurance is likely to be offered by each of these sources as of January 1, 1983; (5) What, if any, principal sources of nuclear property insurance are likely to emerge in the private sector by January 1, 1983; (6) What problems serious enough to warrant action of the NRC exist with respect to nuclear property insurance and what action should NRC take in response to each problem

  5. Experiences obtaining insurance after live kidney donation.

    Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L

    2014-09-01

    The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Teaching accuracy and reliability for student projects

    Fisher, Nick

    2002-09-01

    Physics students at Rugby School follow the Salters Horners A-level course, which involves working on a two-week practical project of their own choosing. Pupils often misunderstand the concepts of accuracy and reliability, believing, for example, that repeating readings makes them more accurate and more reliable, whereas all it does is help to check repeatability. The course emphasizes the ideas of checking anomalous points, improving accuracy and making readings more sensitive. This article describes how we teach pupils in preparation for their projects. Based on many years of running such projects, much of this material is from a short booklet that we give out to pupils, when we train them in practical project skills.

  7. 76 FR 30521 - Accuracy of Advertising and Notice of Insured Status

    2011-05-26

    ... the font size to ensure its legibility as provided in Sec. 740.4(b)(2). 12 CFR 740.4(b)(2); 12 CFR 740..., that do not exceed thirty (30) seconds in time; (10) Advertisements that because of their type or... clearly legible. 12 CFR 740.5(b). NCUA's regulations do not dictate a specific font size be used for the...

  8. 77 FR 54927 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Benefit Accuracy...

    2012-09-06

    ... is not a toll-free number). Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone number above via TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY... able to estimate reliably the number and dollar value of proper and improper payments; the number of...

  9. Trading Speed for accuracy? Managing goal conflict and accomodation in the US Unemployment insurance program

    Wenger, Jeffrey B.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Public managers must often cope with competing and conflicting goals. The common formulation is to assume that managers must trade-off goals against each other. But is this always true? An alternative hypothesis is that sometimes managers may instead be able to improve outcomes on multiple goals

  10. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  11. Efficiency Assessment in the Automobile Insurance Sector

    Mar Molinero, Cecilio; Segovia, Maria-Manuela; Contreras, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Insurance companies have to take risk and cost into account when pricing car insurance policies in order to design new products to cover the risk of private use of cars. In this paper we use data from 80,000 car insurance policies in\\ud order to assess, once risk and cost have been taken into account, the policies that generate the highest returns for the company. After different profiles of clients are identified, including among the characteristics the regional\\ud location of the clients, w...

  12. Understanding Reporting Delay in General Insurance

    Richard J. Verrall

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand and to model claims arrival and reporting delay in general insurance. We calibrate two real individual claims data sets to the statistical model of Jewell and Norberg. One data set considers property insurance and the other one casualty insurance. For our analysis we slightly relax the model assumptions of Jewell allowing for non-stationarity so that the model is able to cope with trends and with seasonal patterns. The performance of our individual claims data prediction is compared to the prediction based on aggregate data using the Poisson chain-ladder method.

  13. Association of Insurance Status with Health Outcomes Following Traumatic Injury: Statewide Multicenter Analysis

    Chikani, Vatsal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognizing disparities in definitive care for traumatic injuries created by insurance status may help reduce the higher risk of trauma-related mortality in this population. Our objective was to understand the relationship between patients’ insurance status and trauma outcomes. Methods: We collected data on all patients involved in traumatic injury from eight Level I and 15 Level IV trauma centers, and four non-designated hospitals through Arizona State Trauma Registry between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011. Of 109,497 records queried, we excluded 29,062 (26.5% due to missing data on primary payer, sex, race, zip code of residence, injury severity score (ISS, and alcohol or drug use. Of the 80,435 cases analyzed, 13.3% were self-pay, 38.8% were Medicaid, 13% were Medicare, and 35% were private insurance. We evaluated the association between survival and insurance status (private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, and self-pay using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for race/ethnicity (White, Black/African American, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native, age, gender, income, ISS and injury type (penetrating or blunt. Results: The self-pay group was more likely to suffer from penetrating trauma (18.2% than the privately insured group (6.0%, p<0.0001. There were more non-White (53% self-pay patients compared to the private insurance group (28.3%, p<0.0001. Additionally, the self-pay group had significantly higher mortality (4.3% as compared to private insurance (1.9%, p<0.0001. A simple logistic regression revealed higher mortality for self-pay patients (crude OR= 2.32, 95% CI [2.07-2.67] as well as Medicare patients (crude OR= 2.35, 95% CI [2.54-3.24] as compared to private insurance. After adjusting for confounding, a multiple logistic regression revealed that mortality was highest for self-pay patients as compared to private insurance (adjusted OR= 2.76, 95% CI [2.30-3.32]. Conclusion: These results

  14. Availability of Insurance Linkage Programs in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Mia Kanak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As millions of uninsured citizens who use emergency department (ED services are now eligible for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act, the ED is ideally situated to facilitate linkage to insurance. Forty percent of U.S. EDs report having an insurance linkage program. This is the first national study to examine the characteristics of EDs that offer or do not offer these programs. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey for Preventive Health Services in U.S. EDs conducted in 2008-09. We compared EDs with and without insurance programs across demographic and operational factors using univariate analysis. We then tested our hypotheses using multivariable logistic regression. We also further examined program capacity and priority among the sub-group of EDs with no insurance linkage program. Results: After adjustment, ED-insurance linkage programs were more likely to be located in the West (RR= 2.06, 95% CI = 1.33 – 2.72. The proportion of uninsured patients in an ED, teaching hospital status, and public ownership status were not associated with insurance linkage availability. EDs with linkage programs also offer more preventive services (RR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.37–2.35 and have greater social worker availability (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.12–2.33 than those who do not. Four of five EDs with a patient mix of ≥25% uninsured and no insurance linkage program reported that they could not offer a program with existing staff and funding. Conclusion: Availability of insurance linkage programs in the ED is not associated with the proportion of uninsured patients served by an ED. Policy or hospital-based interventions to increase insurance linkage should first target the 27% of EDs with high rates of uninsured patients that lack adequate program capacity. Further research on barriers to implementation and cost effectiveness may help to facilitate increased adoption of insurance linkage programs. [West J

  15. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... with a few deaths. Therefore, this vaccine will help reduce one of our most common and potentially ...

  16. Help My House Program Profile

    Learn about Help My House, a program that helps participants reduce their utility bills by nearly 35 percent through low-cost loans for EE improvements. Learn more about the key features, approaches, funding sources, and achievements of this program.

  17. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  18. THE IMPACT OF COOPERATION BETWEEN INSURERS AND BANKS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE SYSTEM

    Nataliya Prikazyuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights how the cooperation of insurance companies and banks affects the insurance system. Defined the concept of bancassurance, provided a brief description of the main bancassurance models in the context of their impact on the insurance system. Defined the main benefits and risks that accompany cooperation of insurance companies and banks within different models of association. It is noted that despite the generally accepted benefits of cooperation between insurers and banks, financial intermediaries’ unions often carry significant risks. Benefits from the cooperation of insurance companies and banks are disclosed with operational, marketing and financial aspects. The purpose of the article is to study the forms of cooperation between financial intermediaries and their impact on the insurance system. Methodology. The study is based on theoretical methods to study this problem. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study is works of scientists on the models of cooperation between insurers and banks. The dialectical method of cognition as well as such methods as logical generalization, structural and systematic analysis are used to study the methodological foundations of banks’ impact on the insurance companies and insurance system. Results. Banking activity has a significant impact on the insurance system. This impact is noticeable at the micro-level: insurers and banks can be clients of each other as well as they can sign cooperation agreements. A significant positive impact of the bancassurance on the activities of both financial institutions within the synergy that appears during their cooperation is highlighted in the article. Respectively, the insurance company and the bank are experiencing the benefits of cooperation along with savings on fixed, variable costs and obtaining additional profits; simplifying and optimization of the process of collecting and processing information; savings on advertising and

  19. Database setup insuring radiopharmaceuticals traceability

    Robert, N.; Salmon, F.; Clermont-Gallerande, H. de; Celerier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Having to organize radiopharmacy and to insure proper traceability of radiopharmaceutical medicines brings numerous problems, especially for the departments which are not assisted with global management network systems. Our work has been to find a solution enabling to use high street software to cover those needs. We have set up a PC database run by the Microsoft software ACCESS 97. Its use consists in: saving data related to generators, isotopes and kits reception and deletion, as well as the results of quality control; transferring data collected from the software that is connected to the activimeter (elutions and preparations registers, prescription book). By relating all the saved data, ACCESS enables to mix all information in order to proceed requests. At this stage, it is possible to edit all regular registers (prescription book, generator and radionuclides follow-up, blood derived medicines traceability) and to quickly retrieve patients who have received a particular radiopharmaceutical, or the radiopharmaceutical that has been given to a particular patient. This user-friendly database provides a considerable support to nuclear medicine department that don't possess any network management for their radiopharmaceutical activity. (author)

  20. Computed tomography angiogram. Accuracy in renal surgery

    Rabah, Danny M.; Al-Hathal, Naif; Al-Fuhaid, Turki; Raza, Sayed; Al-Yami, Fahad; Al-Taweel, Waleed; Alomar, Mohamed; Al-Nagshabandi, Nizar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography angiogram (CTA) in detecting number and location of renal arteries and veins as well as crossing vessels causing uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (UPJO), and to determine if this can be used in decision-making algorithms for treatment of UPJO. A prospective study was carried out in patients undergoing open, laparoscopic and robotic renal surgery from April 2005 until October 2006. All patients were imaged using CTA with 1.25 collimation of arterial and venous phases. Each multi-detector CTA was then read by one radiologist and his results were compared prospectively with the actual intra-operative findings. Overall, 118 patients were included. CTA had 93% sensitivity, 77% specificity and 90% overall accuracy for detecting a single renal artery, and 76% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 90% overall accuracy for detecting two or more renal arteries (Pearson χ 2 =0.001). There was 95% sensitivity, 84% specificity and 85% overall accuracy for detecting the number of renal veins. CTA had 100% overall accuracy in detecting early dividing renal artery (defined as less than 1.5 cm branching from origin), and 83.3% sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy in detecting crossing vessels at UPJ. The percentage of surgeons stating CTA to be helpful as pre-operative diagnostic tool was 85%. Computed tomography angiogram is simple, quick and can provide an accurate pre-operative renal vascular anatomy in terms of number and location of renal vessels, early dividing renal arteries and crossing vessels at UPJ. (author)