WorldWideScience

Sample records for helps fight invasive

  1. Your help is appreciated to fight Spam

    CERN Mail Service

    2004-01-01

    Spam problem constantly increases its severity: currently about 90% of e-mails received daily by CERN Mail servers are unsolicited messages - called ‘Spam' - and spammers are doing their best to bypass anti-spam filters. In these conditions, users' feedback is priceless. It allows the CERN Mail Service to improve Spam fighting performance, and of course reduce the number of received unsolicited mails. Outlook users should note the existence of ‘anti-Spam buttons': ‘Check Spam classification of an e-mail', ‘Update personal whitelist' and ‘Report Spam'. The ‘Report Spam' button is very important: it removes the selected Spam from your Inbox, and sends a copy to the CERN Mail Service. Those reports are used to build new filters nearly in real time; a new Spam might be blocked in less than 15 minutes! Therefore, every Outlook user is warmly encouraged to get rid of the Spam messages received in the Inbox folder by using the ‘Report Spam' button and not b...

  2. Helping Veterans and Their Families Fight On!

    Megan Hazle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This new generation of veterans is coming home to families, friends, employers, and communities that likely do not understand military culture, nor the effects that military service and reintegration have on a veteran’s life, leading to the next war – the Reintegration War. Military servicemembers, veterans, and their families face challenges within the Reintegration War that are different from their civilian counterparts and are complicated by military-specific circumstances. In order to more effectively and efficiently address the challenges servicemembers, veterans, and their families face, we need to work together in a comprehensive effort. Strategies are presented to help win the Reintegration War and ease the transition for servicemembers, veterans, and their families.

  3. Equality of sexes would help AIDS fight. Funding.

    1996-01-01

    Women in many countries have no control over their sexual and reproductive lives. As such, they are at great risk of exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and AIDS. AIDS experts who met before the UN's World Population Day on July 11, 1996, called for a broad-based campaign to fight the disease, and argued that greater effort should be made to change imbalances between the sexes and to persuade the corporate sector to become more involved. AIDS rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa where prostitution is widespread and women are traditionally seen as husbands' property. Since a medical cure for AIDS remains some way off, women in developing countries need to have more power to control their own lives. Improving women's status will require education among and employment for women, as well as education and a change in attitude in the general public.

  4. Stop the Spread of Superbugs: Help Fight Drug Resistant Bacteria

    ... Here’s how that might happen. When used properly, antibiotics can help destroy disease-causing bacteria. But if you take an antibiotic ... treatable for decades are no longer responding to antibiotics, even the newer ... and fungal diseases. Scientists have been trying to keep ahead of ...

  5. Does nuclear power really help us fight climate change?

    Chudakov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    The global community is facing a double challenge: the world’s population, level of development and, consequently, energy demands are steadily rising; at the same time, we must understand, mitigate, and adapt to climate change, which is an unfortunate by-product of increased energy use. Nuclear power is the only low-carbon technology that is available today that has the potential to be deployed on a wide scale and in large capacities to help meet the global climate–energy challenge. First, direct greenhouse gas emissions from nuclear power plants are negligible. Secondly, when emissions over the entire life cycle are considered, hydro, nuclear, and wind-based electricity generation are the lowest CO_2 emitters. Therefore, nuclear energy is ideally placed to mitigate the effects of climate change in a most cost effective way.

  6. Building upon cooperative prospects amongst stakeholders for fighting Arctic marine invasion challenges

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    Biological invasions in Arctic marine environments are expected to noticeably affect the way the ecosystem will look and function in coming years. Along with many other rapid changes taking place in these previously isolated ecosystems, invasions of which we are both aware and unaware may have ir...... in the decision making process to help articulate incentive-compatible ecosystem management strategies that are adaptive to new information garnered from sustained Arctic observations....... expect that game theoretic environmental economic tools can help illuminate aspects of invasive species management significant for sound decision-making processes. Building blocks of such a game theoretic approach include the different players (stakeholders) involved. In our case study, we take...... environmental quality outcomes: Norwegian and Russian fishermen, Live and frozen crab markets, and Society, representing all possible beneficiaries of a healthy and well-sustained marine ecosystem in the Barents Sea as well as those in areas to which the invasion may spread. These actors must make decisions...

  7. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT: Improved Planning Will Help Agencies Better Identify Fire-Fighting Preparedness Needs

    Hill, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Each year, wildland fires on federal lands burn millions of acres of forests, grasslands, and desert, and federal land management agencies expend hundreds of millions of dollars to fight these fires...

  8. Do fights prohibit helping? : the influence of task interdependence and conflict norms on helping behavior during task conflict

    Rispens, S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of group conflict norms and task interdependence on individuals' willingness to help others under conditions of task conflict to better understand how group characteristics influence individual helping behavior.

  9. A business plan to help the 'global South' in its fight against neglected diseases.

    Frew, Sarah E; Liu, Victor Y; Singer, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Although neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) threaten the health of those living in the developing world, innovation directed toward addressing NTDs is comparatively meager. Health biotechnology firms in rapidly growing economies in the global South are developing and selling vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics for these diseases to local markets. In this paper we identify a pipeline of sixty-two NTD products from seventy-eight "Southern" companies. We also propose creation of a Global Health Accelerator-a new nonprofit organization whose mission would be to support and help grow this Southern source of affordable innovation for NTDs.

  10. Forecasting techno-social systems: how physics and computing help to fight off global pandemics

    Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    The crucial issue when planning for adequate public health interventions to mitigate the spread and impact of epidemics is risk evaluation and forecast. This amount to the anticipation of where, when and how strong the epidemic will strike. In the last decade advances in performance in computer technology, data acquisition, statistical physics and complex networks theory allow the generation of sophisticated simulations on supercomputer infrastructures to anticipate the spreading pattern of a pandemic. For the first time we are in the position of generating real time forecast of epidemic spreading. I will review the history of the current H1N1 pandemic, the major road-blocks the community has faced in its containment and mitigation and how physics and computing provide predictive tools that help us to battle epidemics.

  11. Mycorrhizal status helps explain invasion success of alien plant species

    Menzel, A.; Hempel, S.; Klotz, S.; Moora, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Rillig, M. C.; Zobel, M.; Kühn, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 92-102 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasion * mycorrhiza * naturalization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016

  12. Species’ traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass

    Ceradini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2017-01-01

    habitat change, such as caused by invasive plants, relevant species’ traits may provide a useful framework for predicting species’ responses to a variety of habitat disturbances. Understanding which species are likely to be most affected by exotic plant invasion will help facilitate more efficient, targeted management and conservation of native species and habitats.

  13. Fighting discrimination.

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fighting Back

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…

  15. Fighting Windmills

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2004-01-01

    the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral grounds. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome...... to be just as tough as fighting windmills and needs to be addressed in future and more rigorous empirical research. At the end of the day, transparent incentives of relevant stakeholders in the climate change issue are necessary preconditions for progress in the climate change negotiations....

  16. Time-to-administration in postoperative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: does minimally-invasive surgery help?

    Amore Bonapasta, Stefano; Checcacci, Paolo; Guerra, Francesco; Mirasolo, Vita M; Moraldi, Luca; Ferrara, Angelo; Annecchiarico, Mario; Coratti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The optimal delay in the start of chemotherapy following rectal cancer surgery has not yet been identified. However, postponed adjuvant therapy has been proven to be connected with a significant survival detriment. We aimed to investigate whether the time to initiation of adjuvant treatment can be influenced by the application of minimally invasive surgery rather than traditional open surgery. By comprehensively evaluating the available inherent literature, several factors appear to be associated with delayed postoperative chemotherapy. Some of them are strictly related to surgical short-term outcomes. Laparoscopy results in shortened length of hospital stay, reduced surgical morbidity and lower rate of wound infection compared to conventional surgery. Probably due to such advantages, the application of minimally-invasive surgery to treat rectal malignancies seems to impact favorably the possibility to start adjuvant chemotherapy within an adequate timeframe following surgical resection, with potential improvement in patient survival.

  17. Is Less Invasive Surfactant Administration Necessary or "Only" Helpful or Just a Fashion?

    Lista, Gianluca; Bresesti, Ilia; Fabbri, Laura

    2018-05-01

    In the 1990s, the most relevant pillars in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) have been improvements in ventilation strategies, the introduction of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy, and the use of antenatal steroids. Lately, in addition to the standard INSURE (INtubation-SURfactant administration-Extubation) method to administer surfactant, a new technique has been gaining increasing popularity. It is the so-called less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) method, which has shown promising results in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia development and in reducing mortality in preterm neonates. The rationale behind this technique is to avoid positive pressure ventilation and the endotracheal tube, being surfactant delivered through a thin catheter while the neonate is maintained on continuous positive airway pressure. Given the paucity of large-scale randomized trials on LISA method to prove its effects on short- and long-term outcomes, some questions still remain unanswered. Then, uncertainty regarding the feasibility of this maneuver needs to be better clarified before gaining wide acceptance in routine clinical practice. In our report, we aim at hypothesizing the main mechanisms behind the efficacy of LISA, considering it as a single maneuver in a comprehensive approach for RDS management in the delivery room. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Computed Tomography Helps to Plan Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Operations.

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Plicner, Dariusz; Grudzień, Grzegorz; Kruszec, Paweł; Fijorek, Kamil; Musiał, Robert; Andres, Janusz

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in preparation for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR). An analysis of 187 patients scheduled for MIAVR between June 2009 and December 2014 was conducted. In the study group (n = 86), MDCT of the thorax, aorta, and femoral arteries was performed before the operation. In the control group (n = 101), patients qualified for MIAVR without receiving preoperative MDCT. The surgical strategy was changed preoperatively in 12.8% of patients from the study group and in 2.0% of patients from the control group (p = 0.010) and intraoperatively in 9.9% of patients from the control group and in none from the study group (p = 0.002). No conversion to median sternotomy was necessary in the study group; among the controls, there were 4.0% conversions. On the basis of the MDCT measurements, optimal access to the aortic valve was achieved when the angle between the aortic valve plane and the line to the second intercostal space was 91.9 ± 10.0 degrees and to the third intercostal space was 94.0 ± 1.4 degrees, with the distance to the valve being 94.8 ± 13.8 mm and 84.5 ± 9.9 mm for the second and third intercostal spaces, respectively. The right atrium covering the site of the aortotomy was present in 42.9% of cases when MIAVR had been performed through the third intercostal space and in 1.3% when through the second intercostal space (p = 0.001). Preoperative MDCT of the thorax, aorta, and femoral arteries makes it possible to plan MIAVR operations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Science serving people. IAEA-supported projects are helping countries apply the right tools to fight food, health, and water problems

    2002-01-01

    A new booklet 'Science Serving People' features stories about how IAEA-supported projects are making a difference in many poorer countries. The stories describe applications of nuclear science and technology that are being used through technical cooperation channels to overcome challenges of water scarcity, food shortage, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. They also illustrate how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fostering atoms for peace in the developing world. Extreme poverty and deprivation remain a problem of monumental proportions at the dawn of the 21st century, notes IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in the booklet's Introduction. Through effective partnerships, collaborative research, and strategic direction, the IAEA is contributing to global efforts to help the poor. IAEA programmes have entered an important phase, he said, in which scientific contributions to Member States are yielding very sizeable human benefits. It's clear that science and technology must be better mobilized to meet the needs of the poor, emphasizes Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, USA, and Special Advisor to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The UN agencies, such as the IAEA, have a great role to play, he says in the booklet's Foreword. This is especially so, he points out, if they act as a bridge between the activities of advanced- country and developing country scientific centres, and if they help to harness the advances of world science for the poor as well as the rich. The bottom line, he concludes, is that rich countries should expand support for those United Nations organizations that can help in solving the unique problems confronting the world's poorest peoples. The booklet features stories on managing water resources, promoting food security, focusing science on health problems, new tools for environmental management, and strengthening nuclear

  20. Fighting for life: a qualitative analysis of the process of psychotherapy-assisted self-help in patients with metastatic cancer.

    Cunningham, Alastair J; Phillips, Catherine; Stephen, Joanne; Edmonds, Claire

    2002-06-01

    This exploratory study is an attempt to define psychological attributes related to longer survival in patients with metastatic cancers. Previous published analyses have been limited in two ways. First, they have almost always been carried out on patients not receiving therapy; we have followed people receiving a year of group therapy, on the assumption that if mental qualities are to affect cancer progression, substantial mental change would be needed to alter the established balance between the cancer cells and host regulatory mechanisms. Second, the methods typically used to characterize patients' psychology have been self-report inventories, and many decades of research with such methods have largely failed to produce a consensus on what mental qualities, if any, promote survival. By contrast, we have used qualitative methods, allowing a much more in-depth analysis of the patients, without preliminary assumptions as to what would be important. The present report describes the results of a detailed qualitative analysis of data collected from 22 participants over a year of weekly group therapy. Using grounded methods, categories were derived from the extensive verbal data (comprising patients' written homework and therapists' notes), and linked in a model of change. By applying ratings to some of these categories, and combining these ratings, we derived a quantitative estimate of patients' "involvement in self-help." Rankings on degree of involvement corresponded quite closely with the quality of patients' experience and with their survival duration. There was a great range in degree of involvement, and various subgroupings could be discerned. Nine of the participants were classed as "highly involved," meaning that they devoted regular daily time, often several hours, to such self-help strategies as relaxation, mental imaging, meditation, cognitive monitoring and journalling. All but 1 of these patients enjoyed a good quality of life and lived at least 2 years

  1. Cock-fighting

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2018-01-01

    That Cock-fighting was extremely popular the ancient Greece, is clearly showed by the numerous depictions on vases and its symbolic and metaphorical range among the language of the Athenians. Greek comedy exploits and expands the metaphorical use of cock-fighting in both the linguistic and the pe...

  2. Morfofunctional parameters in judo's fight

    Ítalo Sérgio Lopes Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of judo and the ample energy and neuromuscular demands, a whole process of competitive preparation must be directed to different physical capacities allowing the athlete to perform his combat actions with the best suitability possible. Mapping the  behaviour of a judo athlete from observations of behaviour units  in a real fighting situation would be a way of trying to identify the best topography or the best "aptitude" to achieve victory. The present investigation analysed the judo from the interactions of a real competition situation, aiming to verify, between winners and losers, possible differences or correlations between anthropometric parameters, motor performance and functional behaviours in a competitive situation. The results showed that: a the experience is decisive between winning or losing; b leg techniques are the most used between winners and losers, and losers use them more frequently; c there are different strategies between fights; d The energy cost in judo depends on the configuration of the fights. It is believed that such results can help coaches and athletes in guiding and rationalizing the training process in relation to performance determinants in judo.

  3. On the possibility of space objects invasion observations into the Earth's atmosphere with the help of a multifunctional polarimeter

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Relevance of the tasks associated with the observation of the invasion of space objects into the Earth's atmosphere increases with each passing year. We used astronomical panoramic polarimeter for carrying out of polarimetric observations of objects, that flying into the atmosphere of the Earth from the surrounding outer space.

  4. Juxtamembrane shedding of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 is sequence independent and essential, and helps evade invasion-inhibitory antibodies.

    Anna Olivieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The malarial life cycle involves repeated rounds of intraerythrocytic replication interspersed by host cell rupture which releases merozoites that rapidly invade fresh erythrocytes. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a merozoite protein that plays a critical role in invasion. Antibodies against AMA1 prevent invasion and can protect against malaria in vivo, so AMA1 is of interest as a malaria vaccine candidate. AMA1 is efficiently shed from the invading parasite surface, predominantly through juxtamembrane cleavage by a membrane-bound protease called SUB2, but also by limited intramembrane cleavage. We have investigated the structural requirements for shedding of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 (PfAMA1, and the consequences of its inhibition. Mutagenesis of the intramembrane cleavage site by targeted homologous recombination abolished intramembrane cleavage with no effect on parasite viability in vitro. Examination of PfSUB2-mediated shedding of episomally-expressed PfAMA1 revealed that the position of cleavage is determined primarily by its distance from the parasite membrane. Certain mutations at the PfSUB2 cleavage site block shedding, and parasites expressing these non-cleavable forms of PfAMA1 on a background of expression of the wild type gene invade and replicate normally in vitro. The non-cleavable PfAMA1 is also functional in invasion. However - in contrast to the intramembrane cleavage site - mutations that block PfSUB2-mediated shedding could not be stably introduced into the genomic pfama1 locus, indicating that some shedding of PfAMA1 by PfSUB2 is essential. Remarkably, parasites expressing shedding-resistant forms of PfAMA1 exhibit enhanced sensitivity to antibody-mediated inhibition of invasion. Drugs that inhibit PfSUB2 activity should block parasite replication and may also enhance the efficacy of vaccines based on AMA1 and other merozoite surface proteins.

  5. The Citizen Science Project 'Mueckenatlas' Helps Monitor the Distribution and Spread of Invasive Mosquito Species in Germany.

    Walther, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2017-11-07

    The citizen science project 'Mueckenatlas' (mosquito atlas) was implemented in early 2012 to improve mosquito surveillance in Germany. Citizens are asked to support the spatiotemporal mapping of culicids by submitting mosquito specimens collected in their private surroundings. The Mueckenatlas has developed into an efficient tool for data collection with close to 30,000 mosquitoes submitted by the end of 2015. While the vast majority of submissions included native mosquito species, a small percentage represented invasive species. The discovery of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes koreicus (Edwards) (Diptera: Culicidae) specimens via the Mueckenatlas project prompted targeted monitoring activities in the field which produced additional information on the distribution of these species in Germany. Among others, Mueckenatlas submissions led to the detection of three populations of Ae. j. japonicus in West, North and Southeast Germany in 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. As demonstrated by on-site monitoring, the origins of Ae. j. japonicus specimens submitted to the Mueckenatlas mirror the distribution areas of the four presently known German populations as found by active field sampling (the fourth population already reported prior to the launch of the Mueckenatlas). The data suggest that a citizen science project such as the Mueckenatlas may aid in detecting changes in the mosquito fauna and can therefore be used to guide the design of more targeted field surveillance activities. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  6. Fighting status inequalities

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...

  7. Flavonoids Fight Diseases

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Flavonoids Fight Diseases. G Nagendrappa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  8. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  9. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  10. Fighting the Good Fight against Sweatshops.

    Callahan, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that by educating young people and by setting an example, teachers and schools can play a significant part in the important crusade to eliminate sweatshops. Reports on what schools, businesses, and others are doing in this crusade. Puts forth ideas for how Catholic schools and the individual can help. (VWC)

  11. Fighting for the family

    Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    ‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good......The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...... deployment and the processes of militarization at home. Drawing on ethnographic examples from recent fieldwork among women, children, and soldiers at different stages of deployment, the article demonstrates how soldiers and their families attempt to live up to ideals about parenthood and family by creating...

  12. How to pick a good fight.

    Joni, Saj-nicole A; Beyer, Damon

    2009-12-01

    Peace and harmony are overrated. Though conflict-free teamwork is often held up as the be-all and end-all of organizational life, it actually can be the worst thing to ever happen to a company. Look at Lehman Brothers. When Dick Fuld took over, he transformed a notoriously contentious workplace into one of Wall Street's most harmonious firms. But his efforts backfired--directors and managers became too agreeable, afraid to rock the boat by pointing out that the firm was heading into a crisis. Research shows that the single greatest predictor of poor company performance is complacency, which is why every organization needs a healthy dose of dissent. Not all kinds of conflict are productive, of course -companies need to find the right balance of alignment and competition and make sure that people's energies are pointed in a positive direction. In this article, two seasoned business advisers lay down ground rules for the right kinds of fights. First, the stakes must be worthwhile: The issue should involve a noble purpose or create noticeable--preferably game-changing--value. Next, good fights focus on the future; they're never about placing blame for the past. And it's critical for leaders to keep fights sportsmanlike, allow informal give-and-take in the trenches, and help soften the blow for the losing parties.

  13. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  14. Fight Cravings with Exercise

    ... run up and down the stairs. Fact: Exercise boosts your endorphins, gives you time to clear your ... I find gardening really helps me keep my mind off smoking. It’s relaxing and good exercise, too!" - ...

  15. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.

  16. Methods and means of sodium fire fighting

    Zemskij, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported

  17. Patterns of malignant non-mass enhancement on 3-T breast MRI help predict invasiveness: using the BI-RADS lexicon fifth edition.

    Lee, Seung Min; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choo, Ki Seok; Kim, Jin You; Jeong, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyun Yul; Kim, Jee Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Background Non-mass enhancements (NME) with invasive components account for 10-42% of total malignant NMEs. The factors associated with invasiveness on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be useful for clinical assessment and treatment. Purpose To evaluate the clinical significances of the distributions and internal enhancement patterns (IEP) of malignant NMEs on 3-T breast MRI. Material and Methods A total of 448 consecutive women with newly diagnosed breast cancer that had undergone preoperative MRI and surgery between February 2013 and March 2016 were identified. After exclusions, 72 malignant NMEs without a mass in 72 women (mean age = 51.5 years) were included. Two readers independently assessed distributions and IEPs of NME, according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon fifth edition. Collected data included the presence of invasion and histopathologic factors. Results A clustered ring IEP was significantly associated with invasive cancer (75.0%, P = 0.001, Reader1; 72.9%, P IEP was related to ductal carcinoma in situ (33.3%, P = 0.025; 50.0%, P = 0.001, respectively), absence of lymph node metastasis (24.1%, P = 0.029; 31.5%, P = 0.030, respectively), and presence of necrosis (34.5%, P = 0.003; 44.8%, P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion The presence of a clustered ring IEP in patients with breast cancer was found to be significantly associated with invasive breast cancer and high Ki-67 expression.

  18. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  19. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  20. Fight Bac! | Partnership for Food Safety Education

    Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Partnership for Food Safety Education Supporting consumers to & Symptoms Food Safety Glossary Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing Spanish Resources Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing It The Story of Your

  1. To fight another day

    Stastny, R.P.

    2011-05-15

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) is a gas prevalent in the Western Canadian oil and gas industry. Safety training in the Enform H2 S Alive program is featured in this article. The 7 steps response strategy is covered: evacuate, alarm, assess, protect, rescue, revive, and medical aid. H2 S can kill in as low concentrations as 100ppm. This course re-certification has to be done every two years to ensure H2 S awareness stays present. This class is imperative in the oil and gas industry; to educate people and remind them of the dangers of H2 S, so they will not put themselves in danger and will know how to help someone in danger.

  2. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for bladder cancer: fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging helps evaluate depth of invasion

    Lee, Minsu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Deuk [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Urology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the utility of fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) for evaluating depth of invasion in bladder cancer. We included 62 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgically confirmed urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder. An experienced genitourinary radiologist analysed the depth of invasion (T stage <2 or ≥2) using T2WI, DWI, T2WI plus DWI, and fused DWI and T2WI (fusion MRI). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were investigated. Area under the curve (AUC) was analysed to identify T stage ≥2. The rate of patients with surgically confirmed T stage ≥2 was 41.9% (26/62). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 50.0%, 55.6%, 44.8%, 60.6% and 53.2%, respectively, with T2WI; 57.7%, 77.8%, 65.2%, 71.8% and 69.4%, respectively, with DWI; 65.4%, 80.6%, 70.8%, 76.3% and 74.2%, respectively, with T2WI plus DWI and 80.8%, 77.8%, 72.4%, 84.9% and 79.0%, respectively, with fusion MRI. AUC was 0.528 with T2WI, 0.677 with DWI, 0.730 with T2WI plus DWI and 0.793 with fusion MRI for T stage ≥2. Fused high b value DWI and T2WI may be a promising non-contrast MRI technique for assessing depth of invasion in bladder cancer. (orig.)

  3. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for bladder cancer: fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging helps evaluate depth of invasion

    Lee, Minsu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon; Shin, Su-Jin; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the utility of fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) for evaluating depth of invasion in bladder cancer. We included 62 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgically confirmed urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder. An experienced genitourinary radiologist analysed the depth of invasion (T stage <2 or ≥2) using T2WI, DWI, T2WI plus DWI, and fused DWI and T2WI (fusion MRI). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were investigated. Area under the curve (AUC) was analysed to identify T stage ≥2. The rate of patients with surgically confirmed T stage ≥2 was 41.9% (26/62). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 50.0%, 55.6%, 44.8%, 60.6% and 53.2%, respectively, with T2WI; 57.7%, 77.8%, 65.2%, 71.8% and 69.4%, respectively, with DWI; 65.4%, 80.6%, 70.8%, 76.3% and 74.2%, respectively, with T2WI plus DWI and 80.8%, 77.8%, 72.4%, 84.9% and 79.0%, respectively, with fusion MRI. AUC was 0.528 with T2WI, 0.677 with DWI, 0.730 with T2WI plus DWI and 0.793 with fusion MRI for T stage ≥2. Fused high b value DWI and T2WI may be a promising non-contrast MRI technique for assessing depth of invasion in bladder cancer. (orig.)

  4. Adolescent Physical Fighting in Ghana, Their Demographic and Social Characteristics

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived from the Republic of Ghana contributions to the Global School-based Health Survey. Three thresholds of participation in a physical fight during a 12-month recall period were compared against several independent sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analyses were used to screen for statistically significant associations and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine significant relationships while adjusting for covariates. Within the recall period, 32% of adolescents had reported being involved in two or more physical fights. Those involved in a physical fight during three or more days during the recall period were more likely to have been bullied (relative risk ratios (RRR = 1.86; 99% confidence intervals (CI: 1.38–2.52, have had a troubled experience with alcohol (RRR = 2.202; CI = 1.55–2.64, and miss days of school (RRR = 2.02; CI = 1.39–2.92. When adjusted only for age and sex, having understanding parents was protective (RRR = 0.64; CI = 0.53–0.78 as was having a positive school environment (RRR = 0.73; CI = 0.55–0.97. Our findings suggest that school-based programming which simultaneously targets multiple risk behaviors and conflict resolution may be helpful in interventions to reduce rates of physical fighting.

  5. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...

  6. A new Spam fighting rule: Reverse SMTP Connect

    CERN Mail Service Team

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Mail Service is constantly improving Spam Fighting rules to minimize the number of Spams (unsolicited mails) delivered to the Inbox. On Wednesday 6th October, a new rule will be activated, the "Reverse SMTP Connect": if we cannot connect to the sender's mail server, we will not accept the mail (see http://cern.ch/mmms/Help/?kbid=171030 for details). According to intensive tests, we expect to reject 25% of mails that we currently accept, without generating false positives. Currently, around 90% of the mails received by CERN Mail gateways are Spams, 85% of these Spams are automatically rejected, using basic rules. As usual, statistics on Spam fighting, Mail traffic and Help pages can be found on the Mail Service site: http://cern.ch/mmm, and don't hesitate to report any problem that could be related to this new rule to Helpdesk@cern.ch (phone 78888). CERN Mail Service Team

  7. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  8. A taxonomic revision helps to clarify differences between the Atlantic invasive Ptilohyale littoralis and the Mediterranean endemic Parhyale plumicornis (Crustacea, Amphipoda

    Sabrina Lo Brutto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ptilohyale explorator (formerly Parhyale explorator, described by Arresti (1989, can be considered to be a synonym of west-Atlantic Ptilohyale littoralis (Stimpson, 1853, based on morphological observations of paratypes and specimens recently collected in the type locality of Ptilohyale explorator. The first collections of Ptilohyale littoralis, from the eastern Atlantic were from the port of Rotterdam (The Netherlands in 2009 and later in Wimereux, Opal Coast (France in 2014; however, the synonymy of Ptilohyale explorator with Ptilohyale littoralis backdates to the first European record of Ptilohyale littoralis in 1985 at La Vigne, Bay of Arcachon (France. This indicates that Ptilohyale littoralis has been established along European Atlantic coast for many years. An assessment of the nominal valid species belonging to the genus Ptilohyale was carried out and a comparison between the Atlantic Ptilohyale littoralis and the very similar Mediterranean hyalid species, Parhyale plumicornis, is presented based on morphological features and distribution. Due to the invasive ability of Ptilohyale littoralis, a comparison between the two species is necessary.

  9. Breaking Terrorists’ Will To Fight

    2014-06-01

    guillotine spreads in all of France and brings to justice all the traitors. There is no other means to inspire the...the end, we shall fight in France , we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we...deprivation: “Any ideology—even the very best, even Marxism -Leninism itself—is ineffective unless it is linked with objective realities, meets

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging is helpful in the accurate non-invasive diagnosis of breast abscess: correlation with necrotic breast cancer.

    Wang, Cuiyan; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Yang, Wei Tse; Dogan, Basak Erguvan

    2018-03-22

    Clinical differentiation of atypical breast abscesses from necrotic tumour in premenopausal women is challenging and may delay appropriate therapy. In this case report, we present a 36-year-old woman with signs, symptoms and conventional imaging features of malignancy who underwent breast MRI. On diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), profoundly low apparent diffusion coefficient values were a distinguishing sign of breast abscess from necrotic breast cancer, and helped manage the patient conservatively. We present a companion case of necrotic breast tumour highlighting significant differences in DWI. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Microcredit -- an emerging tool for fighting poverty.

    1997-01-01

    A summit focusing on microcredit (small business, microenterprise, loans) as a means of fighting poverty was held February 3-4 in Washington; it was co-chaired by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and by Queen Sofia of Spain. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has long supported microenterprise and microfinance. The summit set a goal of reaching 100 million poor families over the next nine years. USAID Administrator Brian Atwood spoke concerning the need to involve the private sector in microfinance; previously loans had been financed outside of the mainstream financial system via nongovernmental organizations and credit unions funded mainly by governments and donors. USAID launched a Microenterprise Initiative in 1994 that has supported 150 programs in 45 countries, and that is expected to reach approximately 4 million families. Atwood said the microenterprise strategies were currently in use in nearly every country USAID supports in Latin America and Asia, and most countries in Africa; future efforts would concentrate on countries in Africa, in eastern Europe and in central Asia. Mrs. Clinton called microenterprise "an invaluable tool in alleviating poverty, promoting self-sufficiency, and stimulating the economy." Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin stated that the policy helped people help themselves by giving them the tools they needed to join the economic mainstream. Microcredit focuses on businesses with five or fewer workers; loans range from less than $100 to $10,000. More than half of the businesses are owned and operated by women.

  12. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  13. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  14. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness gains for left-handers when involved in fights with right-handers, as being a minority would generate a surprise effect increasing the chance of winning. The finding that left-handers are overrepresen...

  15. Getting Help

    ... Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Getting Help Getting Help Resources from NIAAA Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding ... and find ways to make a change. Professional help Your doctor. Primary care and mental health practitioners ...

  16. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Allergies with Research and Information Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Director An interview with Anthony S. Fauci Are seasonal allergies on the rise? If so, why? There has ...

  17. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Kit to offer community education programs on women's heart disease. Organize heart-health screening events and health fairs ...

  18. Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in

  19. 'Tone at the top': Fighting military corruption in Latin America | Klaus ...

    This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military ...

  20. Giving Women the Vote: Using Primary Source Documents to Teach about the Fight for Women's Suffrage.

    Jacobsen, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students use primary sources to learn about the organizing strategies used in the fight for women's suffrage. These sources will provide insights into the past and help students develop appreciation for the hardships suffragists endured. Includes objectives, procedures, and suggestions for activities. (LS)

  1. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  2. Relationship between number and intensity of fighting: evidence from cow fighting tournaments in Valdostana cattle

    Cristina Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle establish firm dominance relationships through ritualised fights. This study aimed at investigating behaviours involved in dominance relationships and effect of factors such as weight, age and repeated fighting experience in fighting dynamics. Subject of the study was the Valdostana breed, whose cows assess dominance relationships in traditional competitions. Tournaments consist in rounds in which cows interact in pairs to assess dominance. Only winners participate in subsequent rounds. An amount of 120 fights involving 145 cows was retained, and winners (51 cows were considered as focal individuals. An ethogram of agonistic interactions was established, including behaviours of different agonistic intensity as physical interactions (pushes, clashes, displays (threats, vocalisations, and non agonistic approaches. A transition diagram of behaviours showed a tendency to express firstly non agonistic approaches and lastly more aggressive clashes. A mixed linear model analysis on traits like competition intensity, duration, and type of behaviours expressed showed a significant effect of age difference on behaviours. However, the most important factor was the number of rounds performed: from the first to subsequent fights agonistic intensity and physical contacts increased, and displays reduced. This may be due either to the fact that more aggressive individuals were likely to be the winners, or that in higher rounds the opponents were more similar regarding fighting ability or aggressiveness and thus more intense fights occurred. The increased aggressiveness after repeated situations of competition suggests suggests that careful attention should be paid to welfare when animals are exposed to situations of high competition, like regrouping.

  3. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights : left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  4. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    Pollet, T.V.; Stulp, G.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  5. Invasive Candidiasis

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Invasive Candidiasis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Global Emergence ... antifungal drugs. Learn more about C. auris Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a ...

  6. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  7. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  8. Fight the Good Fight: Leaders Share Strategies and Programs Proven to Get Community Colleges the Help They Need

    Ullman, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Lynette Brown-Snow, vice president of marketing and government relations for the Community College of Philadelphia, is one of several community college leaders across the country who have taken up one of the challenges proffered by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) in its 2012 report, "Reclaiming the American Dream:…

  9. Search Help

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  10. [MPOWER--strategy for fighting the global tobacco epidemic].

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic.

  11. Date Fighting and Sexual Risk Behaviours among Adolescents ...

    The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...

  12. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators-prey system.

    Kooi, B W

    2015-12-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator-prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk-dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for fighting is constant per fighting event. The strategy of the predator-population is quantified by a trait being the proportion of the number of predator-individuals playing hawk tactics. The dynamics of the trait is described by two models of adaptation: the replicator dynamics (RD) and the adaptive dynamics (AD). In the RD-approach a variant individual with an adapted trait value changes the population's strategy, and consequently its trait value, only when its payoff is larger than the population average. In the AD-approach successful replacement of the resident population after invasion of a rare variant population with an adapted trait value is a step in a sequence changing the population's strategy, and hence its trait value. The main aim is to compare the consequences of the two adaptation models. In an equilibrium predator-prey system this will lead to convergence to a neutral singular strategy, while in the oscillatory system to a continuous singular strategy where in this endpoint the resident population is not invasible by any variant population. In equilibrium (low prey carrying capacity) RD and AD-approach give the same results, however not always in a periodically oscillating system (high prey carrying-capacity) where the trait is density-dependent. For low costs the predator population is monomorphic (only hawks) while for high costs dimorphic (hawks and doves). These results illustrate that intra-specific trait dynamics matters in predator-prey dynamics.

  13. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  14. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  15. Learning fire-fighting lessons after Chernobyl

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Fire protection measures in Soviet nuclear power plants were set out in November 1987, in the Nuclear Power Plant Design Fire Protection Standards (VSN 01-87, USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy). The most important of these measures are. Avoiding as far as possible the use of combustible materials in plant structures and equipment. Dividing buildings and areas into suitable fire-fighting zones. Ensuring reliable fire protection of the control and safety systems. Protecting technical personnel from the dangers of a fire while they are performing essential accident-repair work and facilitating evacuation procedures (providing at least two evacuation routes and exits, anti-smoke protection of evacuation routes and control panel areas etc). Installing automatic fire-extinguishing and fire alarm systems. Providing various stationary facilities and equipment to assist the use of mobile fire-fighting appliances. In addition, a special fire-fighting division is being set up in every nuclear power plant while the first unit is still being constructed. These divisions work in close co-operation with the technical personnel management of the plant and with the bodies responsible for monitoring nuclear safety. (author)

  16. Malware Analyst's Cookbook and DVD Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code

    Ligh, Michael; Hartstein, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A computer forensics "how-to" for fighting malicious code and analyzing incidents. With our ever-increasing reliance on computers comes an ever-growing risk of malware. Security professionals will find plenty of solutions in this book to the problems posed by viruses, Trojan horses, worms, spyware, rootkits, adware, and other invasive software. Written by well-known malware experts, this guide reveals solutions to numerous problems and includes a DVD of custom programs and tools that illustrate the concepts, enhancing your skills.: Security professionals face a constant battle agains

  17. Overestimating Resource Value and Its Effects on Fighting Decisions

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan; Dugatkin, Aaron David

    2011-01-01

    Much work in behavioral ecology has shown that animals fight over resources such as food, and that they make strategic decisions about when to engage in such fights. Here, we examine the evolution of one, heretofore unexamined, component of that strategic decision about whether to fight for a resource. We present the results of a computer simulation that examined the evolution of over- or underestimating the value of a resource (food) as a function of an individual's current hunger level. In ...

  18. Book Review of Fight Club Written by Chuck Palahniuk

    Nugroho, Adityo Widhi

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this writing is to review Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. The writer will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this novel . The writer decided to choose Fight Club as final project because it is his favorite novel. Fight Club is a very interesting novel although it is hard to understand and disturbing because by showing the consumerism behaviour in this novel, Chuck Palahniuk tries to convey the message that the consumerism behaviour of society nowadays has become worse ...

  19. Fire fighting capability assessment program Darlington NGS

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on the completion of work relating to the assessment of the capability of Darlington NGS to cope with a large fire incident. This included an evaluation of an exercise scenario that would simulate a large fire incident and of their fire plans and procedures which became the subject of interim reports as part of the process of preparing for the fire fighting and rescue exercise. Finally the execution of fire plans by Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS), as demonstrated by their application of human and material resources during a simulated large fire, was observed. 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  1. The fight against Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of the fight against organic volatile compounds emissions in France and in Europe. The first part describes the influence of VOC on production of Ozone in troposphere and gives numerical data on permissive emission values in atmosphere. The second part describes french and european policy and regulations. The third part gives the principle methods and devices for COV measurement in the atmosphere. In the last part, effluents treatment is given: thermal incineration, catalytic incineration, adsorption on active carbon, biologic purification, condensation and separative processes on membrane

  2. Rapid weight gain in professional boxing and correlation with fight decisions: analysis from 71 title fights.

    Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.

  3. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fighting in women’s clothes The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33

    Gräf Julia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ms. I.33 is not only the oldest of the known fencing treatises in European context, it is also the only one showing a woman fighting equally with contemporary men. The author presents her research about the garments this female fencer wears, including her shirt, dress and overdress, hairstyle and footwear. Special consideration is given to the questions whether Walpurgis wears a belt, the length and hem circumference of her garments as well as the methods of draping them in the way depicted. The results of the analysis are compared with contemporary pictorial and archaeological sources of the early 14th century. Some personal insights gathered by the author while fighting in this kind of clothes shed light on the possibilities of moving without being disturbed by them. The clothes and hairstyle worn by Walpurgis, give clues about her social status and thus help to understand the context and dating of the whole manuscript.

  5. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons.

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2014-10-07

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male-male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons.

  6. Fight against fuel poverty. Levers, stakes and expectations of the fight against fuel poverty in housing

    Payen, Luc; Pamart, Isabelle; Lacroix, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    'Is in fuel poverty a person who feels in his particular housing difficulties have the necessary energy supply to the satisfaction of basic needs due to the inadequacy of resources or its habitat conditions'. The rising cost of energy commodities in the late 2000's, added to the poor thermal quality an important part of French homes, has led to the emergence of fuel poverty in the public debate. Legislative recognition of these situations with the law 'Grenelle II' (from which is extracted the definition above) marked a decisive step in the fight against this complex problem. Affecting nearly 5 million households in France, fuel poverty is a major challenge for societies wishing to successfully achieve their energy transition. In this new publication, ENEA reports on the main levers of the fight against fuel poverty, the obstacles encountered and the needs for new solutions

  7. Zika virus: Can India win the fight?

    Tulika Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of public health importance transmitted by Aedes mosquito which also transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The disease has been spreading at an alarming rate in Africa, Pacific Islands, and the Americas. Given the expansion of environments where mosquitoes can live and breed, facilitated by urbanization and globalization, there is potential for major urban epidemics of Zika virus disease to occur globally. World Health Organization (WHO has declared Zika virus disease to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Our failed attempts to control dengue epidemics in the past call for concern and we need to be to prepared to fight Zika virus before it arrives at our doors.

  8. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when the karateka practiced the attack in fight zone. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA verified significant difference between the fight zone with points, H (10 = 29,49, p = 0,001. The Mann Whitney U test detected significant difference between the zone 5 with waza-ari versus all the zone. The greatest number of points in the fight zone was in agreement with the size of the fight zone. The central zone or zone 5 has 6x6 m, during the female kumite occurred more points, total of 68 waza-aris and 5 ippons. The study on the fight zone with points of the female kumite permits that the karateka has knowledge about the combat zones and guides the karateka before, during and after the female kumite. However, more studies should be done to confirm these findings.

  10. Stalking: terrorism at our doors--how social workers can help victims fight back.

    Spitz, Mary-Ann Leitz

    2003-10-01

    Stalking is a dangerous and devastating crime that irrevocably changes the lives of victims but is frequently misunderstood and minimized. Victims report that their lives are never the same after they have been stalked. Stalking is prevalent and gender-neutral and occurs across all socioeconomic lines and in all clinical settings. The prevalence of stalking provides many opportunities for social workers to intervene, but first they must recognize and understand the problem. This article explains common misconceptions about stalking, contains a brief discussion of the types of stalking, the elements necessary to criminally charge someone with stalking, strategies for the victims, and suggestions for future research.

  11. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household liquid. This capability, deployed at airports and other public places, will go a long way towards increasing public safety and minimizing inconveniences faced in airline travel.

  12. Forest Service Turns to NREL for Help Fighting Fires More Sustainably |

    to need power," said Mike Ferris, public information officer for the Forest Service. "We're going to need phones and some sort of internet connectivity." Ferris said he's worked in fire camps bring in a caterer and a shower unit," Ferris said. "Both of those are going to need power. If

  13. How industry can help us fight against botnets : Notes on regulating private-sector intervention

    E Silva, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Could industry improve our response to botnet attacks? If so, how should this private sector participation be regulated? This paper examines how regulation could be used to facilitate private sector intervention against robot networks, also known as botnets. The first part of this paper is dedicated

  14. Does Dexamethasone Helps in Meningococcal Sepsis?

    Tolaj, Ilir; Ramadani, Hamdi; Mehmeti, Murat; Gashi, Hatixhe; Kasumi, Arbana; Gashi, Visar; Jashari, Haki

    2017-06-01

    Prompt recognition and aggressive early treatment are the only effective measures against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Anti-inflammatory adjunctive treatment remains controversial and difficult to assess in patients with IMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DXM) as adjunctive treatment in different clinical forms of IMD, and attempt to answer if DXM should be routinely used in the treatment of IMD. In this non-interventional clinical study (NIS), 39 patients with meningococcal septicaemia with or without of meningitis were included, and compared regarding the impact of dexamethasone (DXM), as an adjunctive treatment, on the outcome of IMD. SPSS statistics is used for statistical processing of data. Thirty (76.9%) patients with IMD had sepsis and meningitis, and 9 (23.1%) of them had sepsis alone. Dexamethasone was used in 24 (61.5%) cases, in both clinical groups. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 6 patients (15.4%), arthritis in 3 of them (7.7%), and subdural effusion in one patient (2.6%). The data showed a significant statistical difference on the length of hospitalization, and WBC normalization in groups of patients treated with DXM. The use of DXM as adjunctive therapy in invasive meningococcal disease has a degree of proven benefits and no harmful effects. In fighting this very dangerous and complex infection, even a limited benefit is sufficient to recommend the use of DXM as adjunctive treatment in invasive meningococcal disease.

  15. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs.

  16. Genome editing technologies to fight infectious diseases.

    Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-11-01

    Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment. This approach includes targeting of essential viral genes or viral sequences able, once mutated, to inhibit viral replication; repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 system for lethal self-targeting of bacteria; targeting antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in bacteria, fungi, and parasites; engineering arthropod vectors to prevent vector-borne infections. Expert commentary: While progress has been done in demonstrating the feasibility of using genome editing as antimicrobial strategy, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the risk of off-target mutations, the raising of escape mutants, and the inefficiency of delivery methods, before translating results from preclinical studies into clinical applications.

  17. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria

    Jorge L Salinas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host’s metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC, a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  18. Therapeutic strategies to fight HIV-1 latency: progress and challenges

    Manoto, Sello L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available —1112, 2017 Therapeutic strategies to fight HIV-1 latency: progress and challenges Sello Lebohang Manoto, Lebogang Thobakgale, Rudzani Malabi, Charles Maphanga, Saturnin Ombinda-Lemboumba, Patience Mthunzi-Kufa Abstract: The life...

  19. Fire fighting system for inflammable liquids and process using it

    Levillain, C.

    1988-01-01

    For fighting fires of flammable liquids, such as liquid sodium or hydrocarbons, a layer of floating spheres (cellular concrete or hollow metal) is maintained on the surface by a square or preferentially triangular-meshed metallic net [fr

  20. One Team, One Fight, One Future, Total Army Integration

    1998-01-01

    ...; and, most important, our vision for maintaining a trained and ready force. As the ideas in One Team, One Fight, One Future unfold, you will find the key themes of Total Army integration emerging again and again...

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS)

    Kalberer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ... of the location. The Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS) employs innovations in nozzle design, lightweight composites and combination agents to design a system with extinguishment capabilities of much larger ARFF vehicles...

  2. Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime ...

    Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime Menace ... Again he innovates, introducing new products & technologies by the ... Keywords: Cyber-crimes, entrepreneurs, compupreneur, firewalls, computer forensics, ICT, ...

  3. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    Zhen Xu; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for predicting fire frequency and burned area is developed in this paper to investigate the potential feasibility to predict fire behavior and fire-fighting expenses for the upcoming fire season using clim...

  4. Imaging and Diagnosis: Using Imaging to Fight the World’S Biggest Killers

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine has developed techniques and cures for many of humanity’s ailments, treatments that often require early detection or frequent observations. Some of the most revolutionary advances in improving diagnosis and observation of diseases have been through the use of imaging. Radioisotope imaging techniques like SPECT, PET/CT and conventional imaging such as MRI and CT are instrumental in fighting modern diseases like cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the IAEA plays an important role in helping its Member States acquire the skills and resources for implementing these technologies

  5. Farming and feasting in the Neolithic of Greece: the ecological context of fighting with food

    Paul Halstead

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine Neolithic ceramics from Greece are widely interpreted in terms of ceremonial eating and drinking, while the spatial organisation of settlement suggests that such commensality played a significant role in shaping social relationships. Faunal evidence implies consumption of many domestic animals inlarge-scale commensality and supports the view that this promoted competition as well as solidarity. This paper explores the ecological context of such 'fighting with food'. Feasting, and ceremonial consumption of livestock, was enabled by and helped to reinforce domestic strategies of surplus production and labour mobilisation that were driven as much by 'economic' as 'political' imperatives.

  6. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  7. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Africa

    2006-01-01

    To fight the looming cancer crisis in Africa, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is assembling many of the world's leading cancer experts in Cape Town on 11-16 December. Cancer is a disease that is spreading very fast in the developing world and the IAEA has come to realize that we need to do much more to combat cancer in this part of the world, says IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in a video address to the conference. I hope this event will be the first of many events that would enable us to work together - national governments, international organisations, civil society - to help combat this dreadful disease and provide quality of life to our fellow human beings. With the support of African Nobel Laureates Nelson Mandela, Archbishop Desmond Tutu and F.W. de Klerk, this unprecedented gathering will bring together senior representatives from major national and international cancer organisations. Together with leading public figures and specialists they will assess the growing cancer burden in Africa and focus on building effective cancer control programmes at the national and regional levels. The IAEA is sponsoring the intensive workshops using funds awarded for the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize. The IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy, or 'PACT', was established in 2004 to help achieve these goals. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT aims to help get more cancer treatment facilities up and running in the world's developing regions, along with the trained personnel to operate them. 'PACT' is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level. This includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis and palliation, and more importantly education and training of professionals, says PACT Head Massoud Samiei. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed in the next 10 to 15 years if the

  8. B-cell-mediated strategies to fight chronic allograft rejection

    Ali H Dalloul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after one year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of tolerant vs effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic

  9. Manual fire fighting tactics at Nuclear Power Plant

    Jee, Moon Hak; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    The general requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plant (NPP) are fire protection program, fire hazard analysis, and fire prevention features. In addition, specific fire protection requirements such as water supplies, fire detection, fire protection of safe related equipment, and safe shutdown capabilities must be provided. Particularly, manual fire fighting is required as specific requirements with the provisions to secure manual fire suppression, fire brigade and its training, and administrative controls for manual fire fighting. If a fire is alarmed and confirmed to be a real fire, the fire brigade must take manual fire fighting activities as requested at fire protection program. According to the present requirements in itself, there is not any specific manual fire fighting ways or practical strategies. In general, fire zones or compartments at NPPs are built in a confined condition. In theory, the fire condition will change from a combustible-controlled fire to a ventilation-governing fire with the time duration. In case of pool fire with the abundant oxygen and flammable liquid, it can take just a few minutes for the flash-over to occur. For the well-confined fire zone, it will change from a flame fire to a smoldering state before the entrance door is opened by the fire brigade. In this context, the manual fire fighting activities must be based on a quantitative analysis and a fire risk evaluation. At this paper, it was suggested that the fire zones at NPPs should be grouped on the inherent functions and fire characteristics. Based on the fire risk characteristics and the fire zone grouping, the manual fire fighting tactics are suggested as an advanced fire fighting solution

  10. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  11. Genetic relatedness among wild, domestic and Brazilian fighting roosters

    FP Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for the meat- and egg-type strains used in commercial poultry farms in Brazil, there are no scientific reports about the origin of birds from the genus Gallus that have been introduced in this country with domestication or fighting purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the position of the Brazilian Game Bird in the phylogenetic tree of the genus Gallus by nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. The results indicate that fighting roosters comprise two different clusters within the species Gallus gallus domesticus. One of the clusters is related to the wild ancestors, while the other one is more related to the birds raised by the poultry industry. In conclusion, Brazilian fighting roosters have originated from the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and belong to the subspecies Gallus gallus domesticus.

  12. Inclusion of people with disabilities through fights and martial arts

    Rafael Carvalho da Silva Mocarzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating how the fights / martial arts were adapted for inclusion of people with disabilities in the social sphere as well as for rehabilitation and sports-competition. The analysis was initially made at the global level and later specific attention was paid to the Brazilian reality, through a narrative review of literature. The following fights / martial arts were considered: fencing, judo, karate, kung fu, boxing, taekwondo and capoeira. It was concluded that the fights / martial arts can contribute to combating social exclusion, contributing to the promotion of health, beauty and leisure and new talents in parasports can be discovered too. Further studies on the subject are needed.

  13. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari) or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when ...

  14. Kuwait summons more fire fighting teams

    1991-08-05

    Kuwait is calling in more muscle to help kill its wild wells. This paper reports on the latest action in Kuwait, the leasing of well control contracts to Abel Engineering/Well Control Inc., Houston, and China Petroleum Engineering Construction Co. (CPEC). Abel is the sixth North American well control company called to the scene, while CPEC is the first summoned from the East. In addition, the service responsible for combating well fires and blowouts in the U.S.S.R.'s Azerbaijan oil fields signed an agreement with Kuwait's government, apparently involving a contract valued at more than $100 million, to extinguish fires at 150 Kuwaiti wells, reported Eastern Bloc Energy, a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, U.K. More help likely is on the way.

  15. UNOSAT joins the fight against Ebola

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Hosted at CERN, UNITAR’s UNOSAT programme examines global satellite imagery for humanitarian use. Whether they're providing maps for disaster response teams or assessing conflict damage to help reconstruction, their detailed reports are vital tools for aid workers. But how can satellite imagery help during a health crisis like the Ebola outbreak?   UNOSAT maps Liberia for potential Ebola Treatment Centre locations. Image copyright: Airbus Defence and Space 2014. Source: Space Charter. Image analysis: UNITAR-UNOSAT. UNOSAT unites satellite data from space agencies and commercial operators worldwide in order to provide unbiased, objective maps and reports. Be it a natural disaster in Pakistan or a refugee crisis in Sudan, UNOSAT is - quite literally - an impartial observer of world events. The Ebola outbreak, however, was a special case: "The World Health Organization is mounting a substantial campaign in West Africa, building Ebola Treatment Centres and distributing...

  16. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  17. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and…

  18. Does Dexamethasone Helps in Meningococcal Sepsis?

    Tolaj, Ilir; Ramadani, Hamdi; Mehmeti, Murat; Gashi, Hatixhe; Kasumi, Arbana; Gashi, Visar; Jashari, Haki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Prompt recognition and aggressive early treatment are the only effective measures against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Anti-inflammatory adjunctive treatment remains controversial and difficult to assess in patients with IMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DXM) as adjunctive treatment in different clinical forms of IMD, and attempt to answer if DXM should be routinely used in the treatment of IMD. Methods: In this non-interventional clinical study (NIS), 39 patients with meningococcal septicaemia with or without of meningitis were included, and compared regarding the impact of dexamethasone (DXM), as an adjunctive treatment, on the outcome of IMD. SPSS statistics is used for statistical processing of data. Results: Thirty (76.9%) patients with IMD had sepsis and meningitis, and 9 (23.1%) of them had sepsis alone. Dexamethasone was used in 24 (61.5%) cases, in both clinical groups. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 6 patients (15.4%), arthritis in 3 of them (7.7%), and subdural effusion in one patient (2.6%). The data showed a significant statistical difference on the length of hospitalization, and WBC normalization in groups of patients treated with DXM. Conclusion: The use of DXM as adjunctive therapy in invasive meningococcal disease has a degree of proven benefits and no harmful effects. In fighting this very dangerous and complex infection, even a limited benefit is sufficient to recommend the use of DXM as adjunctive treatment in invasive meningococcal disease. PMID:28974828

  19. Fighting Spam on the Sender Side: A Lightweight Approach

    de Vries, Wouter Willem; Moreira Moura, Giovane; Pras, Aiko; Aagesen, Finn Arve; Knapskog, Svein Johan

    2010-01-01

    Spam comprises approximately 90 to 95 percent of all e-mail traffic on the Internet nowadays, and it is a problem far from being solved. The losses caused by spam are estimated to reach up to \\$87 billion yearly. When fighting spam, most of the proposals focus on the receiver-side and are usually

  20. Domestic Terrorism: Fighting the Local Threat with Local Enforcement

    2013-03-01

    In the game of fighting against a terrorism plot, waiting for an indication of a crime may be too late, the argument ran. Law enforcement needed more...such has a beauty salon selling chemicals or an Internet café with computers that have a browsing history of radical websites, those establishments

  1. Fighting poverty in developing countries: Should the focus be on ...

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... A first implication of these findings for the fight against poverty follows from the fact ... strategy should include policies aimed at ensuring women's income is ... but also by promoting their rights, whether by legalizing divorce or ...

  2. Overestimating resource value and its effects on fighting decisions.

    Lee Alan Dugatkin

    Full Text Available Much work in behavioral ecology has shown that animals fight over resources such as food, and that they make strategic decisions about when to engage in such fights. Here, we examine the evolution of one, heretofore unexamined, component of that strategic decision about whether to fight for a resource. We present the results of a computer simulation that examined the evolution of over- or underestimating the value of a resource (food as a function of an individual's current hunger level. In our model, animals fought for food when they perceived their current food level to be below the mean for the environment. We considered seven strategies for estimating food value: 1 always underestimate food value, 2 always overestimate food value, 3 never over- or underestimate food value, 4 overestimate food value when hungry, 5 underestimate food value when hungry, 6 overestimate food value when relatively satiated, and 7 underestimate food value when relatively satiated. We first competed all seven strategies against each other when they began at approximately equal frequencies. In such a competition, two strategies--"always overestimate food value," and "overestimate food value when hungry"--were very successful. We next competed each of these strategies against the default strategy of "never over- or underestimate," when the default strategy was set at 99% of the population. Again, the strategies of "always overestimate food value" and "overestimate food value when hungry" fared well. Our results suggest that overestimating food value when deciding whether to fight should be favored by natural selection.

  3. Money Laundering and International Efforts to Fight It

    David Scott

    1996-01-01

    According to one estimate, US$300 billion to US$500 billion in proceeds from serious crime is laundered each year. Left unchecked, money laundering could criminalize the financial system and undermine development efforts in emerging markets. The author reviews efforts by international bodies to fight it.

  4. Fighting Downtown: A Training Necessity for the Heavy Brigade

    2001-02-01

    Concept Technology Demonstration, and the Army Transformation Urban Franchise exploration of future operations.”57 CAMTF has identified three...fighting in a downtown area with tall buildings and underground sewers and or subways , but it must also apply to the outlying urban sprawl that is now

  5. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, Darusalam; Janssen, Marijn; Baldoni, Matteo; Baroglio, Cristina; Micalizio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper we

  6. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, D.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper

  7. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  8. The fight against terrorism. The lists and the gaps

    Tappeiner, I.U.

    2005-01-01

    Although not a new issue, the fight against terrorism did not rise to the top of the agenda of the European Union (EU) and its Member States until after September 11. Interesting in this context is the phenomenon of blacklisting. Persons, organizations and ‘entities’ were put on several

  9. The Fight Against Diabetes in Retailing

    Rulfová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is focused on retail whose offer of merchandise could help reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2. This type of diabetes mellitus is becoming a severe health and social problem these days. Some sources speak about epidemic of the 21st century. The dissertation suggests marketing mix for a sale of 3 products of proper diet in the specifically selected shop COOP Dvůr Králové n. L., cooperative. As the basis for the marketing mix, a SWOT analysis and comparison of ...

  10. Two decades of fighting aliens: exploring Working for Water successes

    Ntshotsho, P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ntshotsho and her colleagues sought to verify and characterise success in government’s efforts to restore degraded ecosystems through invasive alien plant management. Invasive alien plants pose a significant threat to South Africa’s biodiversity...

  11. Fire fighting capability assessment program Bruce B NGS

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on the completion of work relating to the assessment of the capability of Bruce B NGS to cope with a large fire incident. This included an evaluation of an exercise scenario that would simulate a large fire incident and of their fire plans and procedures. Finally the execution of fire plans by Bruce B NGS, as demonstrated by their application of human and material resources during a simulated large fire, was observed. The fire fighting equipment and the personal protective clothing and associated equipment that was in use was all of good quality and in good condition. There had also been notable improvement in communications equipment. Similarly, the human resources that had been assigned to fire fighting and rescue crews and that were available were more than adequate. Use of a logical incident command system, and the adoption of proper policy and procedures for radio communications were equally significant improvements. Practice should correct the breakdowns that occurred in these areas during the exercise. As well, there remains a need for the development of policy on fire fighting and rescue operations with more depth and clarity. In summary, the key point to be recognized is the degree of improvement that has been realized since the previous evaluation in 1990. Clearly the Emergency Response Teams organization of Bruce B NGS is evolving into an effective fire fighting force. Providing that the deficiencies identified in this report are addressed satisfactorily, Fire Cross is confident that the organization will have the capability to provide rescue and fire fighting services that will satisfy the need. 2 figs

  12. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  13. Environmental protection and fight against poverty

    Preston, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    Effective global environmental protection can be achieved only when industrialized countries provide developing nations with 'clean' energy technological know-how along with the necessary financial assistance necessary for its application. The World Bank is directly involved in actuating this exchange. The main directions currently being taken by the World Bank in order to meet the difficulties of developing countries struggling, with limited financial and technological resources, to sustain growing populations, are: to ensure that these countries develop systems for adequate water supplies; to sponsor research for the development of better agricultural techniques; to encourage industrialized countries to practice energy conservation so as to alleviate pressure on the world's energy resources; to sponsor wide-scale re- forestation; and to help third world countries put greater emphasis on family planning, health and education programs

  14. Environmental protection and fight against poverty

    Preston, L T [World Bank, Washington, DC (USA)

    1992-10-01

    Effective global environmental protection can be achieved only when industrialized countries provide developing nations with 'clean' energy technological know-how along with the necessary financial assistance necessary for its application. The World Bank is directly involved in actuating this exchange. The main directions currently being taken by the World Bank in order to meet the difficulties of developing countries struggling, with limited financial and technological resources, to sustain growing populations, are: to ensure that these countries develop systems for adequate water supplies; to sponsor research for the development of better agricultural techniques; to encourage industrialized countries to practice energy conservation so as to alleviate pressure on the world's energy resources; to sponsor wide-scale re- forestation; and to help third world countries put greater emphasis on family planning, health and education programs.

  15. Helping Your Heart with Nuclear Imaging

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA is helping in the fight against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by assisting its Member States in using nuclear science and technology to track and monitor CVDs. Nuclear imaging techniques allow doctors to look inside a patient’s body and see how organs function without running the risk of surgery. CVDs kill more people than just about anything else on the planet. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that roughly 30 per cent of all deaths in 2008 were caused by CVDs. That number is increasing, and by 2030 the WHO estimates that more than 23 million people will die annually from CVDs. For comparison, that is equivalent to roughly the entire population of a medium-sized country

  16. Fighting Human Trafficking in the European Union: A master’s thesis on the ability of EU law to fight trafficking in women for sexual exploitation

    Nielsen, Stine Piilgaard Porner

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery. The EU continuously seeks to strengthen its fight against this crime, latest with the Directive on Prevention, Combat and Protection adopted in April 2011. But to what extent is the EU able to fight human trafficking through law? Human trafficking is a complex problem which can be assessed from different perspectives. The EU primarily addresses the fight against human trafficking through criminal law, and this thesis investigates the e...

  17. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.

  18. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample

    Karen L. Celedonia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries.Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11–17 (N = 5, 249. Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111 resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting.Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11–1.50 and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12–2.83 were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21–1.69. Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62–0.90 and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56–0.81 were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60–0.92.Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with

  19. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it ...

  20. Help prevent hospital errors

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  1. University Mathematics Education, Competencies and the Fighting of Syllabusitis

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Syllabusitis is a name for a disease that consists of identifying the mastering of a subject with proficiency related to a syllabus. In this paper I argue that using a set of mathematical competencies as the hub of mathematics education can be a means to fight syllabusitis. The introduction and t...... proven to be a crucial element when attempting to put the competency idea into educational practice, and exemplify how that can be done when it comes to mathematics education at university level.......Syllabusitis is a name for a disease that consists of identifying the mastering of a subject with proficiency related to a syllabus. In this paper I argue that using a set of mathematical competencies as the hub of mathematics education can be a means to fight syllabusitis. The introduction...

  2. Fighting for and losing or gaining control in life.

    Theorell, T

    1997-01-01

    In JP Henry's work, fighting for and losing control were important concepts in the interpretation of energy mobilization in psychosocial conditions. Attachment and support were important protective and salutogenic factors. These concepts have been applied in a series of epidemiological and psychophysiological real life studies. Job conditions which force the worker to mobilize energy and concomitantly inhibit anabolism could be identified at least partly by means of the demand-control-support model originally proposed by Karasek. The most adverse conditions at work arise when psychological demands are high and at the same time the decision latitude is low. This combination is associated with changes in the regulation of endocrine parameters as well as with increased morbidity--heart disease, functional gastrointestinal symptoms and musculoskeletal disorders. Examples of studies of physiological correlates of psychosocial processes leading to fight for control are also described from outside work activities.

  3. Help with Hives

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Help With Hives KidsHealth / For Kids / Help With Hives What's in this article? What Are ... about what happened. The doctor can try to help figure out what might be causing your hives, ...

  4. A helping hand

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Hulp geboden   The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where

  5. Helping for Change

    Neuringer, Allen; Oleson, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    In "Helping for Change," Allen Neuringer and Kathryn Oleson describe another strategy that individuals can use to achieve their green goals. You might ask, "How can helping someone else help me change when I'm in the habit of not fulfilling my own promises?" The authors answer that question by explaining how the social reinforcement in a helping…

  6. Drugs offshore: companies stepping up fight against hidden adversary

    Redden, J.

    1986-01-01

    Oil companies worldwide are effectively fighting a growing nemesis, drug and alcohol abuse on offshore installations. It is estimated that companies are losing millions of dollars in lost productivity, accidents, and thefts caused by on-the-job use of illegal drugs. Some of the measures being employed to combat the use of such drugs, e.g., tight control, better communications, diversions for employees, and the use of sniffer dogs, are discussed.

  7. Lanchester's attrition models and fights among social animals

    Eldridge S. Adams; Michael Mesterton-Gibbons

    2003-01-01

    Lanchester's models of attrition during warfare have served as the basis for several predictions about conflicts between groups of animals. These models and their extensions describe rates of mortality during battles as functions of the number and fighting abilities of individuals in each group, allowing analysis of the determinants of group strength and of the cumulative numbers of casualties. We propose modifications to Lanchester's models to improve their applicability to social animals. I...

  8. Choosing Fighting Competitors Among Men: Testosterone, Personality, and Motivations.

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Rantala, Markus J; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity. Participants completed three personality questionnaires and donated two saliva samples (pre-test and post-test sample) to quantify their testosterone levels. We found that the probability of choosing high-dominant masculine men as rivals increased with higher aggressiveness scores. In Study 2, the task of choosing rivals was accompanied by motivations to fight (pictures of women with high or low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). In this context, we observed that the probability of choosing dominant masculine men as rivals depended on the WHR of the women. Overall, average levels of post-test testosterone, aggressiveness, and high self-esteem increased the probability to fight for women with low WHR independently of the dominance masculinity of the rivals. Our results indicate that human decisions, in the context of intrasexual competition and mate choice, are regulated by physiological and psychological mechanisms allowing men to increase their biological fitness. We discuss our results in the light of the plasticity of human behavior according to biological and environmental forces.

  9. Human trafficking: fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy

    Shelley, Louise; Bain, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and lead...

  10. Fighting software piracy: Which governance tools matter in Africa?

    Antonio R. Andrés; Simplice A. Asongu

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates previously missing components of government quality into the governance-piracy nexus in exploring governance mechanisms by which global obligations for the treatment of IPRs are effectively transmitted from international to the national level in the battle against piracy. It assesses the best governance tools in the fight against piracy and upholding of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). The instrumentality of IPR laws (treaties) in tackling piracy through good gover...

  11. Fighting Networks: The Defining Challenge of Irregular Warfare

    2011-06-01

    fighting networks, different skills allow for increased operational complexity. Lawrence and Lorsch found that organizations in more uncertain...Uncertainty in the Face of Risk,” in Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior, ed. Robert Hindle and Jo Groebel (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991...simplistic to describe al-Qaeda as a guerrilla organization as they have transcended traditional practices by their skilled utilization of the network form

  12. Fighting Software Piracy: Some Global Conditional Policy Instruments

    Asongu, Simplice A; Singh, Pritam; Le Roux, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the efficiency of tools for fighting software piracy in the conditional distributions of software piracy. Our paper examines software piracy in 99 countries for the period 1994-2010, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. The intuition for modelling distributions contingent on existing levels of software piracy is that the effectiveness of tools against piracy may consistently decrease or increase simultaneously with increasing levels of software pir...

  13. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for

  14. Risks prevention and fight against the pollutions. Publication of the practical guideline of the CO2 emissions quotas market

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2005 the directive on the emissions quotas exchange is applied in the 25 countries of the European Union. This text allocates emissions quotas to enterprises which generates many greenhouse gases. Hopeful these quotas, the European Union should decrease the emissions of 8% in 2010. This guide is devoted to the 1126 french sites concerned by the directive. It constitutes a reference for the quotas management and will help the enterprises to combine the fight against the climatic change with the economic competition. (A.L.B.)

  15. JOURNALISM IN POST-TRUTH ERA: fact-checking as a tool to fight against the fake news

    Spinelli, Egle Müller; Santos, Jéssica de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    This article intends to report how the work of the agencies of fact-checking can help informative companies in the fight against false news, with their data-checking methodologies in order to encourage the transparency of the journalistic process. A literature review addresses the impacts of post-truth and the spread of fake news in society - where objective facts are less influential in public opinion than personal emotions and beliefs. As a result, it is concluded that serious fact-finding ...

  16. African-American and Latino Parents��� Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents��� perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, t...

  17. Toddlers Help a Peer.

    Hepach, Robert; Kante, Nadine; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help. These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more flexible and general. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    2007-01-01

    established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate them in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer

  19. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    2007-01-01

    established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate them in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PLAY FIGHTING TO THE EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    Ioan TRIFA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Play fighting is a form of behavior in which partners compete with each other to gain an advantage. Behavior during play fighting largely resembles the behavior in a real fight, where partners encounter, push and pull down onto the ground, trying to get into a position whereby to control or to dominate the opponent. In the play, unlike the fight, movements are exaggerated and performed at a lower intensity, muscles being somewhat less tensed, and certain actions that can cause injury to the partner are inhibited or modified, while offensive-defensive roles will be reversed quite frequently. Play fighting can be considered a type of evolutionary adaptation designed to facilitate those experiences that will shape the cognitive and emotional development necessary for living in social communities. Research undertaken on different mammal species shows that play fighting offers many opportunities for expression and decoding emotions, improves emotional regulation and contributes to the development of coping mechanisms.

  1. Handi Helps, 1985

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  2. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these docume...

  3. Nuclear war-fighting strategy for the United States

    Martel, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation concerns a strategy for fighting and winning a nuclear war. Despite the conventional wisdom that nuclear war is suicidal and occurs only as a result of irrationality, this study analyzes nuclear war as a rational policy option. It is necessary to suggest the radical proposition that nuclear war, like traditional military campaigns, is a political action. Thus, nuclear war can be in the national interest. Further, the countervalue strategy of Mutually Assured Destruction is questioned because city destruction serves no conceivable political or military objective

  4. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  5. Fire fighting precautions at Bohunice Atomic Power Plants

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Some shortcomings are discussed of the project design of fire protection at the V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. The basic shortcoming of the system is insufficient division of the units for fire protection. Fire fighting measures are described for cable areas, switch houses and outside transformers, primary and secondary circuits and auxiliary units. Measures are presented for increasing fire safety in Jaslovske Bohunice proceedi.ng from experience gained with a fire which had occurred at a nuclear power plant in Armenia. (E.S.)

  6. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices

    Nastari, Plinio Mario

    1993-01-01

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country

  7. Application of tracers in the fight against hydrological pollution

    Guizerix, J.; Margrita, R.

    1978-01-01

    A statement is made on the laboratory know-how in the field of the applications of tracers in the fight against hydrological pollution. In surface hydrology it concerns the determination of the self-purifying powers of watercourses and the treatment of a certain number of problems relating to the transfer of polluting substances to the hydrographical system. In hydrogeology, the various studies made and being made deal with the transfer of water, a vector of pollution, with the interaction of polluting agents with the porous environment, and thus with the general problem of the protection of underground water catchments [fr

  8. Gender and Poverty Fight: the Family Donation Program

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian social assistance policy is guided by the perspective of poverty fight efforts, which prioritize the conditioned income transfer. These programs privilege the income transfer to women and involve them in a net of obligations and conditions, as it is done in the Family Donation Program. The practice within Family Donation Program highlights some contradictions between the State actions and the feminist demands, especially those concerning the motherhood problem. This is thus a core question for the dialogue between the feminism and the social policies sponsored by the State.

  9. Computer-aided system for fire fighting in an underground mine

    Rosiek, F; Sikora, M; Urbanski, J [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa

    1989-01-01

    Discusses structure of an algorithm for computer-aided planning of fire fighting and rescue in an underground coal mine. The algorithm developed by the Mining Institute of the Wroclaw Technical University consists of ten options: regulations on fire fighting, fire alarm for miners working underground (rescue ways, fire zones etc.), information system for mine management, movements of fire fighting teams, distribution of fire fighting equipment, assessment of explosion hazards of fire gases, fire gas temperature control of blower operation, detection of endogenous fires, ventilation control. 2 refs.

  10. Army Attack Aviation Returning to the Close Fight: Impact of the MOUT Environment

    Tate, Frank

    2001-01-01

    .... attack helicopters and their employment, an analysis of the modern threat environment which indicates a strong likelihood of fighting in urban environments, a review of existing aviation doctrine...

  11. Hooked on Helping

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  12. Divorce: Helping Children Cope.

    Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)

  13. Ridgefield Complex - Invasive Plant ED/RR Search 2015

    Department of the Interior — The proposed project is a part of the Gorge NWRs’ invasives management program and will help achieve goals and improve targeted habitats identified in the Refuges’...

  14. Medicine and science in the fight against doping in sport.

    Catlin, D H; Fitch, K D; Ljungqvist, A

    2008-08-01

    The fight against doping in sports commenced as a result of the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games in 1960. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) established a Medical Commission (IOC-MC) which had the task of designing a strategy to combat the misuse of drugs in Olympic Sport. Some International Sport Federations (IF) and National Sports Federations followed suit, but progress was modest until the world's best male sprinter was found doped with anabolic steroids at the Olympic Games in Seoul in 1988. Further progress was made following the cessation of the cold war in 1989 and in 1999 public authorities around the world joined the Olympic Movement in a unique partnership by creating WADA--the 'World Anti-Doping Agency'. The troubled history of the anti-doping fight from the 1960s until today is reviewed. In particular, the development of detection methods for an ever increasing number of drugs that can be used to dope is described, as are the measures that have been taken to protect the health of the athletes, including those who may need banned substances for medical reasons.

  15. African-American and Latino Parents’ Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents’ perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial. PMID:27186064

  16. African-American and Latino Parents' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention.

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents' perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial.

  17. That antibiotics does not destroy virus does not mean that it does not help a human having virus.

    Gluskin, Emanuel

    2015-05-01

    In the defending activity of the body there always is a fight against different bacteria. By helping against the bacteria, antibiotics lets the forces of the body be more oriented against the virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) Approaches to Thoracolumbar Trauma.

    Kaye, Ian David; Passias, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques offer promising improvements in the management of thoracolumbar trauma. Recent advances in MIS techniques and instrumentation for degenerative conditions have heralded a growing interest in employing these techniques for thoracolumbar trauma. Specifically, surgeons have applied these techniques to help manage flexion- and extension-distraction injuries, neurologically intact burst fractures, and cases of damage control. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer a means to decrease blood loss, shorten operative time, reduce infection risk, and shorten hospital stays. Herein, we review thoracolumbar minimally invasive surgery with an emphasis on thoracolumbar trauma classification, minimally invasive spinal stabilization, surgical indications, patient outcomes, technical considerations, and potential complications.

  19. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  20. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    2010-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed... specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire extinguishing equipment. * * * * * * * * * * * This Halon 1211 has subsequently been used to fill certain FFE [Fire Fighting Enterprises] portable...

  1. The effect of a 10-week Zulu stick fighting intervention programme ...

    The article is based on the study that investigated the influence that traditional martial arts of Zulu stick fighting has on body composition of prepubescent males. A sample of fortyfive children were divided into an experimental group (n=22) which underwent a ten week stick fighting intervention programme facilitated by two ...

  2. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)......Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)...

  3. Private Satisfactions and Public Disorders: "Fight Club," Patriarchy, and the Politics of Masculine Violence.

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the narrative structure of the film "Fight Club," addressing its critique of consumerism and its celebration of masculinity. Addresses the representational politics that structure the movie, especially its deeply conventional views of violence, gender relations, and masculinity. Considers the role that "Fight Club" and other cultural…

  4. Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings

    Jaquet Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In numerous 15th and 16th century Fightbooks several sets of teachings appear alongside the glosses of Liechtenauer’s Epitome on armoured fighting and fighting on horseback (Harnischfechten and Rossfechten often enough to be considered auctoritas on these subjects. However, their authorship from various witnesses are attributed to different authorial figures - Andreas Liegnitzer, Martin Hundsfeld, Jud Lew.

  5. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30...

  6. Deeply invasive candidiasis.

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Rex, J.H.; Bennett, J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis is on the rise because of increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts and more invasive medical technology. Recovery of Candida spp from several body sites in a critically ill or immunocompromised patient should raise the question of disseminated disease.

  7. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  8. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  9. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa

    He Ji

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. Results As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. Conclusion The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  10. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa.

    Broz, Amanda K; Broeckling, Corey D; He, Ji; Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick X; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2007-05-24

    The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  11. Insights into invasion and restoration ecology: Time to collaborate towards a holistic approach to tackle biological invasions

    Mirijam Gaertner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to provide an integrated framework for the management of alien plant invasions, combining insights and experiences from the fields of invasion and restoration ecology to enable more effective management of invasive species. To determine linkages between the scientific outputs of the two disciplines we used an existing data base on restoration studies between 2000 and 2008 and did a bibliometric analysis. We identified the type of restoration applied, determined by the aim of the study, and conducted a content analysis on 208 selected studies with a link to biological invasions (invasion-restoration studies. We found a total of 1075 articles on ecosystem restoration, with only eight percent of the studiesthe main objective to control alien invasions. The content analysis of 208 invasion-restoration studies showed that the majority of the studies focused on causes of degradation other than alien invasions. If invaders were referred to as the main driver of degradation, the prevalent cause for degradation was invaders outcompeting and replacing native species. Mechanical control of alien plant invasions was by far the most common control method used. Measures that went beyond the removal of alien plants were implemented in sixty-five percent of the studies.Although invasion control was not as common as other types of restoration, a closer look at the sub-group of invasion-restoration studies shows a clear link between restoration and invasion ecology. Concerns, as identified in the literature review, are firstly that restoration activities mostly focus on controlling the invader while other underlying causes for degradation are neglected, and secondly that the current approach of dealing with alien invasions lacks a combination of theoretical and practical aspects. We suggest that closer collaboration between invasion and restoration ecologists can help to improve the management of alien plant invasions. We conclude with a

  12. Alien invasive birds.

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  13. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.

    Resnick, Cory M; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.

  14. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  15. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  16. Help with Hearing

    ... be placed early to help speech and language development. If your child needs “tubes” (see below), they can be put ... example, instead of saying the sound /t/, your child may always substitute the sound /k/. The words “toy” and "truck” then come out as “kay” and “ ...

  17. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    ... world around them, preteens also may worry about world events or issues they hear about on the news or at ... the news. Parents can help by discussing these issues, offering accurate ... and stress about a world event that's beyond your control, kids are likely ...

  18. Helping Them Grow.

    Kreidler, William J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three articles present suggestions to help elementary teachers promote student development. The first describes games that encourage a sense of community. The second deals with making parent teacher conferences a positive experience. The third discusses how to give confused children who are involved in custody battles an alternative to acting out.…

  19. Helping Struggling Teachers.

    Tucker, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    About 5 to 15 percent of teachers in 2.7 million public-education classrooms are marginal or incompetent. Assistance plans offer structure, purpose, and remedial help. Plans have six components: definition of the problem, statement of objectives, intervention strategies, a timeline, data-collection procedures, and final judgment. (MLH)

  20. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  1. An unusual case of seed dispersal in an invasive aquatic; yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

    Understanding reproductive mode of invasive plants can help managers plan more efficacious control. Invasive aquatics typically reproduce primarily through vegetative means. Yellow flag iris is an invasive plant species often growing as an emergent aquatic. There have been contradictory reports of i...

  2. Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

    M Cardinale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LA concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01 from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01 at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  3. Masculinity and violence in David Fincher’s "Fight Club"

    Leire Ituarte Pérez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address a hermeneutic approach to David Fincher’s Fight Club. Inspired by some of the methodological principles of Psychoanalysis and Queer Theory the study tries to thresh the details of the representation of Masculinity in the film. Departing from the hypothesis that such representation in the film is closely linked to the masculine castration anxiety, the essay traces the recurrent and more or less parodic, more or less subliminal allusions to emasculation as well as the fetishistic compensatory strategies displayed. The analysis concludes that the overwhelming mise en scène of the masculine Oedipal scenario in the film pursues to underpin an hegemonic discourse of Masculinity threatened by the taboo of Homosexuality. Hence, the prominent erotisization of masculine masochism reveals itself, in all its ambivalence, as a performative strategy to institutionalise a heteronormative sexual regime.

  4. From the art of war to fight with art

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    systems theory with art. Martin Nore through his visual art develops and activistic form of system theory, where therapeutic intervention turns into societal self-therapy for broken meaning horizons and unintended consequences of the current massage of the form peace/war. The activistic systems...... theoretical art, the "artivistic" perspective developed from the broken minds of war experiences, diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury. Since then, it has broadened the perspective to demonstrate its capacity to work with the distinction between civil society and its...... outside. This is the fight with art, where the predominant selfdescriptions in western societies are questioned on their selflimitations and insufficient strategies of deparadoxation. In Martins art, the paradox of the structural coupling of body, mind and society as both distinct from each other...

  5. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN FIGHTING ORGANISED CRIME

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.

  6. Fighting against VOC emissions; Lutter contre les emissions de COV

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines d' Ales, 30 (France); Puech, G. [APAVE, 75 - Paris (France); Patoux, R. [Rhodia Rhoditech (France)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    This document brings together 15 testimonies of experts about the processes used in the industry for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The different points approached concern: the first industrial experiments of fight against VOC emissions, how to audit the facilities, how to make a diagnosis, to hierarchized and to measure continuously VOC emissions, how to anticipate the explosion risks linked with VOC treatment processes, the techniques of VOC abatement at the source implemented by industrialists, the implementation of an emission mastery scheme by Crow Cork and Seal company, the implementation of a solvent management plan by Turbomeca company and of a paints strategy by Renault car-making company, the combination of VOC abatement techniques implemented by industrialists, the classification of destruction and recovery processes: the experience feedback of Sanofi Synthelabo and of Air Liquide companies, the combination of upstream and downstream techniques implemented by Pechiney Rhenalu, Ashland Polyester and Quebecor companies. (J.S.)

  7. Embodying 'health citizenship' in health knowledge to fight health inequalities

    Danielle Groleau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wishes to contribute to the debate around citizen participation in health system decision-making that has been present internationally for the last 30 years. I argue that if we aim to change health inequalities, health professionals and planners need to understand the illness and health service experience of citizens. The concept of 'health citizenship' introduced here refers to health knowledge that integrates the lay knowledge of patients and that this integration is translated into health actions such as clinical communication and the planning of health care, programs, and policy. We illustrate our argument with the two cases: health literacy and the promotion of breastfeeding in a Canadian population living in context of poverty. This paper then concludes by addressing the leadership role, Brazilian graduate nursing schools can play in promoting 'health citizenship' and by doing so, contribute to fight health inequalities.

  8. Monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision

    Li, Jinlong; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke

    2010-10-01

    With the high demand of fire control in spacious buildings, computer vision is playing a more and more important role. This paper presents a new monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision and color detection. This system can adjust to the fire position and then extinguish the fire by itself. In this paper, the system structure, working principle, fire orientation, hydrant's angle adjusting and system calibration are described in detail; also the design of relevant hardware and software is introduced. At the same time, the principle and process of color detection and image processing are given as well. The system runs well in the test, and it has high reliability, low cost, and easy nodeexpanding, which has a bright prospect of application and popularization.

  9. Foam formation in low expansion fire fighting equipment

    Rogers, Lucy Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the foam generation mechanisms involved in producing foam from a low expansion fire fighting branchpipe. The investigation was carried out using scale models of branchpipes, and a high-speed video camera was used to study the formation of the foam. The experiments provided evidence of three possible methods of bubble formation within this type of system: Stage 1 - Mixing within the branchpipe; Stage 2 - Air entrainment and bubble growth during the flight of the jet; Stage 3 - Aeration produced from the collision of the high speed jet onto a surface. Each stage is described in detail and the mechanism which has the greatest effect on the expansion ratio of the foam produced has been determined. The relevance of these findings to the design of branchpipes is discussed. (author)

  10. Performance Evaluation Facility for Fire Fighting Thermal Imager

    Kim, Sung Chan; Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the characteristics of obscuring media inside an optical smoke cell, which is a bench-scale testing facility for the evaluation of thermal imaging cameras used by fire fighters. Light extinction coefficient and visibility through the smoke cell is characterized by the measured laser transmittance. The laser transmittance along the axial direction of the smoke cell is relatively uniform at upper and lower part for various air/fuel volume flow rate. Contrast level based image quality of visible CCD camera through the smoke cell is compared with that of thermal imaging camera. The optical smoke cell can be used as well-controlled and effective laboratory-scale test apparatus to evaluate the performance of thermal imaging camera for fire fighting application

  11. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  12. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  13. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  14. Global prevention, funding, accountability debated in fight against HIV / AIDS.

    1999-10-18

    World leaders, physicians, economists, governmental health organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers attended the Third International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-threatening Illnesses in Vienna, Austria. The conference participants discussed the economic, ethical, and human rights issues underlying health care resource allocation. Some highlights of the meeting included: the prevention strategies in fighting AIDS virus; the use of high medical ethical standards; the affordability and accessibility of essential therapies; the economic aspects affecting the medical assistance mechanisms; the need to improve the pharmaceutical industry; the need to improve HIV/AIDS care access in developing countries; promoting the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines; and developing rapid diagnosis of HIV.

  15. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    Cioflan, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  16. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  17. Aerial wildfire fighting: history, current situation, problems and perspectives

    A. V. Bryukhanov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays aviation is among the most effective ways of early detection and suppression of wildfires. At the moment for the aerial wildfire fighting a few dozen models of aircraft are used worldwide, which are regularly modernized and renewed. In this article, authors give information about the history of fighting wildfires from the air, as well as analyze the current state of the issue with the use of aircraft and helicopter airtankers for firefighting, both at international level and in the territory of the Russian Federation. It is revealed that the most popular in the world still are the ground-based firefighting aircraft (regardless of the class of the carrying capacity. Amphibious firefighting aircraft now exist only in light (carrying capacity up to 5 tons and in medium type (capacity up to 15 tons. Among the helicopter aviation, heavy firefighting helicopters are mostly widely spread, as well as medium multipurpose helicopters, which are, apart from suppression, involved into delivery of people and goods to forest fire sites. The article is devoted to the main directions, according to which the development of aircraft tanker equipment abroad and in Russia occurs. The attention is directed to the most promising developments, and specific recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the fire aviation usage in Russia are given. Based on the studies carried out, a conclusion is drawn that for different countries there can be promising different types of firefighting aircraft, considering their landing field infrastructure, characteristics of forests and hydro systems, as well as the total area of the forest fund.

  18. Nanomimics of host cell membranes block invasion and expose invasive malaria parasites.

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Bieri, Andrej; Brand, Françoise; Palivan, Cornelia G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2014-12-23

    The fight against most infectious diseases, including malaria, is often hampered by the emergence of drug resistance and lack or limited efficacies of vaccines. Therefore, new drugs, vaccines, or other strategies to control these diseases are needed. Here, we present an innovative nanotechnological strategy in which the nanostructure itself represents the active substance with no necessity to release compounds to attain therapeutic effect and which might act in a drug- and vaccine-like dual function. Invasion of Plasmodium falciparum parasites into red blood cells was selected as a biological model for the initial validation of this approach. Stable nanomimics-polymersomes presenting receptors required for parasite attachment to host cells-were designed to efficiently interrupt the life cycle of the parasite by inhibiting invasion. A simple way to build nanomimics without postformation modifications was established. First, a block copolymer of the receptor with a hydrophobic polymer was synthesized and then mixed with a polymersome-forming block copolymer. The resulting nanomimics bound parasite-derived ligands involved in the initial attachment to host cells and they efficiently blocked reinvasion of malaria parasites after their egress from host cells in vitro. They exhibited efficacies of more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than the soluble form of the receptor, which can be explained by multivalent interactions of several receptors on one nanomimic with multiple ligands on the infective parasite. In the future, our strategy might offer interesting treatment options for severe malaria or a way to modulate the immune response.

  19. Looking into the Fighting Against Terrorism from the System Theory Perspective

    Murat Günbeyi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the war methods that has been used individuals, groups, and even by some states for centuries. Those who used terrorism as a method might get some short term results, but in the long term they certainly harm themselves, their nations and sometimes the whole world. The PKK, which is a brutal and an international terrorist organization, has started its activities in the southeast of Turkey 35 years ago, and today it became a well-known terrorist organization around the world. Policies and strategies applied by Turkey against the PKK for years did not help to finish the PKK and its activities. Today, experts, researchers and politicians believe that it is time to find different but more effective counterterrorism policies. Systems theory offers efficient, comprehensive and unique counterterrorism methods against the PKK terrorism. In order to unearth PKK’s recruitment tactics, some conferences for high school students were organized and conducted during the last two years in Diyarbakir. The conference series made it clear that there are some different ways such as enlightening young people to fight against the PKK in the lights of systems perspective. This research shows that security agencies which are responsible of dealing with terrorist organizations need to pay attention to youth and students in the region

  20. Towards Treatment of Stargardt Disease: Workshop Organized and Sponsored by the Foundation Fighting Blindness.

    Sears, Avery E; Bernstein, Paul S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Hoyng, Carel; Charbel Issa, Peter; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Sadda, SriniVas; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Sparrow, Janet R; Washington, Ilyas; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of fluorescent metabolic byproducts of the visual (retinoid) cycle is associated with photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell death in both Stargardt disease and atrophic (nonneovascular) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a consequence of this observation, small molecular inhibitors of enzymes in the visual cycle were recently tested in clinical trials as a strategy to protect the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in patients with atrophic AMD. To address the clinical translational needs for therapies aimed at both diseases, a workshop organized by the Foundation Fighting Blindness was hosted by the Department of Pharmacology at Case Western Reserve University on February 17, 2017, at the Tinkham Veale University Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. Invited speakers highlighted recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Stargardt disease, in terms of its clinical characterization and the development of endpoints for clinical trials, and discussed the comparability of therapeutic strategies between atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease. Investigators speculated that reducing the concentrations of visual cycle precursor substances and/or their byproducts may provide valid therapeutic options for the treatment of Stargardt disease. Here we review the workshop's presentations in the context of published literature to help shape the aims of ongoing research endeavors and aid the development of therapies for Stargardt disease.

  1. Towards Treatment of Stargardt Disease: Workshop Organized and Sponsored by the Foundation Fighting Blindness

    Sears, Avery E.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Hoyng, Carel; Charbel Issa, Peter; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Sadda, SriniVas; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Sparrow, Janet R.; Washington, Ilyas; Scholl, Hendrik P.N.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of fluorescent metabolic byproducts of the visual (retinoid) cycle is associated with photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell death in both Stargardt disease and atrophic (nonneovascular) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a consequence of this observation, small molecular inhibitors of enzymes in the visual cycle were recently tested in clinical trials as a strategy to protect the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in patients with atrophic AMD. To address the clinical translational needs for therapies aimed at both diseases, a workshop organized by the Foundation Fighting Blindness was hosted by the Department of Pharmacology at Case Western Reserve University on February 17, 2017, at the Tinkham Veale University Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. Invited speakers highlighted recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Stargardt disease, in terms of its clinical characterization and the development of endpoints for clinical trials, and discussed the comparability of therapeutic strategies between atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease. Investigators speculated that reducing the concentrations of visual cycle precursor substances and/or their byproducts may provide valid therapeutic options for the treatment of Stargardt disease. Here we review the workshop's presentations in the context of published literature to help shape the aims of ongoing research endeavors and aid the development of therapies for Stargardt disease. PMID:28920007

  2. Dog fight: Darwin as animal advocate in the antivivisection controversy of 1875.

    Feller, David Allan

    2009-12-01

    The traditional characterization of Charles Darwin as a strong advocate of physiological experimentation on animals was posited in Richard French's Antivivisection and medical science in Victorian England (1975), where French portrayed him as a soldier in Thomas Huxley's efforts to preserve anatomical experimentation on animals unfettered by government regulation. That interpretation relied too much on, inter alia, Huxley's own description of the legislative battles of 1875, and shared many historians' propensity to foster a legacy of Darwin as a leader among a new wave of scientists, even where personal interests might indicate a conflicting story. Animal rights issues concerned more than mere science for Darwin, however, and where debates over other scientific issues failed to inspire Darwin to become publicly active, he readily joined the battle over vivisection, helping to draft legislation which, in many ways, was more protective of animal rights than even the bills proposed by his friend and anti-vivisectionist, Frances Power Cobbe. Darwin may not have officially joined Cobbe's side in the fight, but personal correspondence of the period between 1870 and 1875 reveals a man whose first interest was to protect animals from inhumane treatment, and second to protect the reputations of those men and physiologists who were his friends, and who he believed incapable of inhumane acts. On this latter point he and Cobbe never did reach agreement, but they certainly agreed on the humane treatment of animals, and the need to proscribe various forms of animal experimentation.

  3. Corona helps curb losses

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  4. Foundation helps refurbish buildings

    Camenzind, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the activities of the Swiss 'Climate-Cent' foundation, which is helping support the energetic refurbishment of building envelopes. The conditions which have to be fulfilled to receive grants are explained. Work supported includes the replacement of windows and the insulation of roofs and attics as well as outside walls. Details on the financial support provided and examples of projects supported are given. The source of the finance needed to provide such support - a voluntary levy on petrol - and further support provided in certain Swiss cantons is commented on

  5. Hiring Help at Home: The Basic Facts

    ... of Columbus, Elks, Volunteers of America, and ethnic clubs such as the Hibernian Society. Anewspaper advertisement widens ... personal physician. nationalMSsociety.org For Information: 1 800 FIGHT MS (1 800 344 4867) © 2014 National Multiple ...

  6. Perfection of technical and tactical preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight

    Serebryak V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of innovative hike is considered to upgrading preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight. 58 sportsmen of section of hand-to-hand fight took part in research. Age of sportsmen are from 17 to 22 years. Developed and approved the most effective technical and tactical charts of construction of duel with the opponents of different styles of single combats. It is well-proven that offered approach instrumental in development of operative thought and adaptation to sparring of hand-to-hand fight.

  7. Being involved in an everlasting fight - a life with postnatal faecal incontinence. A qualitative study

    Lind, Johanne; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2010-01-01

    fight was identified. Three main categories Fighting to be like others, Fighting against attitudes and Striving for confirmation with six sub categories depict the constant struggle to not only keep up an appearance of a normal, healthy person, but also to feel like one. The women described feelings...... of shame and marginalization and expressed a strong need of support and confirmation from husbands and private network in order to cope better with their lives. Conclusions and clinical implications: Health care professionals must inform women at risk about the effects of the injury and inform them about...

  8. Technology for helping people

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  9. Inspection of fire protection measures and fire fighting capability at nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    1994-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire protection of nuclear power plants. The publication outlines practices for inspecting the fire protection measures at nuclear power plants in accordance with Safety Series No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and includes a comprehensive fire safety inspection checklist of the specific elements to be addressed when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire protection measures and manual fire fighting capability available at operating nuclear power plants. The publication will be useful not only to regulators and safety assessors but also to operators and designers. The book addresses a specialized topic and it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with Safety Guide No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1)

  10. Nebulised amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle prophylaxis prevents invasive aspergillosis.

    Shirkhani, Khojasteh; Teo, Ian; Armstrong-James, Darius; Shaunak, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus species are the major life threatening fungal pathogens in transplant patients. Germination of inhaled fungal spores initiates infection, causes severe pneumonia, and has a mortality of >50%. This is leading to the consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. We made a very low MWt amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle. It was not toxic to lung epithelial cells or monocyte-derived-macrophages in-vitro, or in an in-vivo transplant immuno-suppression mouse model of life threatening invasive aspergillosis. Three days of nebuliser based prophylaxis delivered the nanoparticle effectively to lung and prevented both fungal growth and lung inflammation. Protection from disease was associated with >99% killing of the Aspergillus and a 90% reduction in lung TNF-α; the primary driver of tissue destructive immuno-pathology. This study provides in-vivo proof-of-principle that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be made simply, and delivered safely and effectively to lung by the aerosol route to prevent fungal infections. Aspergillus is an opportunistic pathogen, which affects immunocompromised patients. One novel way to help fight against this infection is pre-exposure prophylaxis. The authors here made PMA based anionic hydrogels carrying amphotericin B, with mucoadhesive behavior. They showed that aerosol route of the drug was very effective in protecting against the disease in an in-vivo model and should provide a stepping-stone towards clinical trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Thymic Malignances

    Wentao FANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the most important therapy for thymic malignances. The last decade has seen increasing adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS for thymectomy. MIS for early stage thymoma patients has been shown to yield similar oncological results while being helpful in minimize surgical trauma, improving postoperative recovery, and reduce incisional pain. Meanwhile, With the advance in surgical techniques, the patients with locally advanced thymic tumors, preoperative induction therapies or recurrent diseases, may also benefit from MIS in selected cases.

  12. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Vad, Erich

    2018-04-01

    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  14. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  15. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    Hiemenz, G J; Hu, W; Wereley, N M

    2009-01-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  16. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    Hiemenz, G J [Techno-Sciences, Inc., 11750 Beltsville Dr. Ste. 300, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Hu, W; Wereley, N M [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20712 (United States)], E-mail: greg@technosci.com, E-mail: wereley@umd.edu

    2009-02-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  17. Fighting African Capital Flight: Empirics on Benchmarking Policy Harmonization

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With earthshaking and heartbreaking trends in African capital flight provided by a new database, this paper complements existing literature by answering some key policy questions on the feasibility of and timeframe for policy harmonization in the battle against the economic scourge. The goal of the paper is to study beta-convergence of capital flight across a set of 37 African countries in the period 1980-2010 and to discuss the policy implications. Three main findings are established. (1 African countries with low capital flight rates are catching-up their counterparts with higher rates, implying the feasibility ofpolicy harmonization towards fighting capital flight. (2 Petroleum-exporting and conflict-affected countries significantly play out in absolute and conditional convergences respectively. (3 Regardless of fundamental characteristics, a genuine timeframe for harmonizing policies is within a horizon of 6 to 13 years. Inother words, full (100% convergence within the specifiedhorizon is an indication that policies and regulations can be enforced without distinction of nationality or locality.

  18. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Milena Tsvetkova

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  19. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  20. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  1. Organizing for Emergencies - Issues in Wildfire Fighting in Croatia

    Robert Fabac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia's accession to the European Union implies inevitable changes in the national emergency management system. New requirements for adjustment in accordance with the EU standards and practices also apply to the fire-services organization. Harmonious functioning of a large number of relatively autonomous organizations related to the National Protection and Rescue Directorate necessitates clear decision-making authority and coordination mechanisms as well as a high level of interoperability and core competencies development. This paper gives an overview of the Croatian fire protection organization along with its accompanying legislation, followed by an analysis of identified problems, especially those concerning fighting of wildfire. In our research a survey questionnaire comprised of Likert-scale items was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of trained fire department members. The respondents reported a relatively low evaluation of effectiveness and appropriateness of the following key fire service attributes: organizational structure, legislation and firefighting logistics support. From the obtained results guidelines can be drawn for possible redesign of the emergency management organization, especially those concerning the fire protection service.

  2. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Fight Against Human Trafficking

    Christina Bain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussed and written on the benefits of entrepreneurship education, as well as the importance of early access to this type of learning. But how can entrepreneurship education train and inspire the next generation of anti-trafficking leaders? How can entrepreneurship also be a driver for prevention and a source of economic stability for those at-risk and survivors of human trafficking? At present, there are entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs-in-training at multiple age levels coming from a variety of backgrounds, incomes, and circumstances who will develop groundbreaking strategies and solutions in the fight against trafficking. These current and future entrepreneurs can also provide fresh perspectives to those in government and business while building more effective tri-sector coalitions and partnerships that address human trafficking. This article explores how and why entrepreneurship can be a key vehicle for social change and innovations in combating human trafficking, along with providing a multi-ingredient recipe of prosperity for those most vulnerable.

  3. Fight against the greenhouse effect. From the local to the international action

    Mousel, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the fight against the greenhouse gases emissions, the local government are directly concerned. This sheet aims to explain the greenhouse effect, the kyoto protocol, the french national policy and to orientate the local actions. (A.L.B.)

  4. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these documents is to ensure the required level of  fire safety. On the basis of the obtained results concerning  economic analysis of efficiency optimization directions are defined for selection of technical means of fire-fighting protection at objects of industrial purpose.

  5. Florence Nightingale would have taken on the political fight, and so should we.

    Owen, Michael

    2016-05-11

    I agree with Mike Travis' comments (letters April 20) about the role and responsibilities of the trade union movement, and those of the RCN in caring for and fighting politically on behalf of nurses at all levels.

  6. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  7. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Sophie D Walsh

    Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  8. Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption-control levels matter?

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across African countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To assess these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Design/methodology/approach – The panel quantile regression technique enables us to investigate if ...

  9. Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential in the Fight against Soil Erosion.

    1983-11-28

    Soil Loss Equation ( USLE ) and Wind Erosion Equation can be used with a reasonable degree of accuracy. It is the intention of ASCS to expand VC/SL to...HD-R37 495 AGRICULTURE’S SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAMS MISS FULL i/i POTENTIAL IN THE FIGHT.(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC RESOURCES...GENERAL Report To The Congress OF THE UNITED STATES Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential In The Fight Against Soil Erosion

  10. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  11. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  12. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra, E-mail: a.niedz@drrath.com; Rath, Matthias [Dr. Rath Research Institute, 1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States)

    2012-03-23

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  13. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the e...

  14. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay, MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography, cell invasion (through Matrigel and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase. In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and

  15. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tobacco industry's ITGA fights FCTC implementation in the Uruguay negotiations.

    Assunta, Mary

    2012-11-01

    To illustrate how the tobacco industry' front group, the International Tobacco Growers Association (ITGA), mobilised tobacco farmers to influence the fourth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP4) negotiations and defeat the adoption of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Articles 9 and 10 Guidelines and Articles 17 and 18 progress report. A review of COP4 documents on Articles 9, 10, 17 and 18 was triangulated with relevant information from tobacco industry reports, websites of British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International and ITGA, presentations by tobacco industry executives and internal industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website. Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco rejected Articles 9 and 10 draft Guidelines claiming that banning ingredients in cigarettes will render burley leaf less commercially viable making tobacco growers in many countries suffer economic consequences. They claimed the terms 'attractiveness' and 'palatability' are not appropriate regulatory standards. The ITGA launched a global campaign to mobilise farmers to reject the draft Guidelines at COP4 in Uruguay. Tobacco producers, Brazil, Philippines, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe, sent large delegations to COP4 and participated actively in the negotiation on the draft Guidelines. Partial Guidelines on Articles 9 and 10 on product regulation and disclosure were adopted. COP4's work on Article 17 provides guidance on viable alternatives, but the ITGA is opposed to this and continues fight crop substitution. Despite ITGA's international campaign to thwart the Guidelines on Articles 9 and 10 and a strong representation from tobacco-growing countries at COP4, the outcome after intense negotiations was the adoption of Partial Guidelines and work on Articles 17 and 18 to proceed.

  17. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  18. Law Enforcement Against Fighting Group By Native In West Papua

    Irna Indira Ratih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental research conducted by looking at the phenomenon of group fights and how ethnocentrism and conflict influence each other indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua. This study used descriptive qualitative method, through field studies (in-depth interviews and literature study. The results showed that with a low level of understanding of the history of the conflict supported ever experienced by the perpetrators of communication, there is a trend of negative information transformation process to be effective. So as to absorb the negative information, aspects of ethnocentrism group members appear. The emergence of these aspects lead to the awareness and solidarity groups to join forces in-group. Other findings also showed that the factors causing conflict among indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua can be summarized in two points, namely; The first tendency puts another group at a level lower social interaction, and the second is the attempt appointment of existence itself by an ethnic group seeking recognition coupled behavior (respect from inside and outside the group by scapegoating other groups. In the indigenous ethnic group communication, attitude and behavior aspects play a role in the formation of a negative message, based on the main factors. The tendency of formation of the group because of its frequency along the occurring hereditary. Related conflict and ethnocentrism, can be drawn that the results of the analysis found the substance also major causal relationship. Where, a communal conflict can result from the manifestation of ethnocentrism aspects into forms of behavior conflict. In contrast with the presence of conflict can also strengthen or weaken ethnocentrism.

  19. The fight against terrorism. The lists and the gaps

    Imelda Tappeiner

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although not a new issue, the fight against terrorism did not rise to the top of the agenda of the European Union (EU and its Member States until after September 11. Interesting in this context is the phenomenon of blacklisting. Persons, organizations and ‘entities’ were put on several international lists for the main purpose of freezing their financial assets and prosecuting them. At the start of the chain are the lists compiled by the Security Council of the United Nations (UN which are followed by those of the European Union. The Member States have an obligation to comply with these UN and EU measures at national level and to implement them against the persons listed. The position of individuals who are so unfortunate as to have been named and therefore marked as terrorists is weak, especially when they appear on EU lists. Weak, in the first place, due to a lack of delisting procedures which could lead to the removal of one’s name from the list in case it becomes clear that an error has been made. Weak, in the second place, due to the particular system of division of competences between the first, second and third pillar laid down in the legislative instruments used by the EU Council. And weak, finally, due to the mechanisms of judicial protection, both at national and European level, which seem to fail whenever individuals in some way challenge measures adopted against them as a result of the appearance of their name on a list or because of being named in the first place.

  20. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2007-04-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  1. Exotic invasive plants

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  2. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  3. Pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis.

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disseminated candidiasis remains a life-threatening disease in the ICU. The development of invasive disease with Candida albicans is dependent on multiple factors, such as colonization and efficient host defense at the mucosa. In the present review, we describe the host defense

  4. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  5. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  6. Compensatory help-seeking in young and older adults: does seeking help, help?

    Alea, Nicole; Cunningham, Walter R

    2003-01-01

    Asking other people for help is a compensatory behavior that may be useful across the life span to enhance functioning. Seventy-two older and younger men and women were either allowed to ask for help or were not allowed to ask for help while solving reasoning problems. Although the older adults answered fewer problems correctly, they did not seek additional help to compensate for their lower levels of performance. Younger adults sought more help. There were no age differences, however, in the types of help sought: indirect help (e.g., hints) was sought more often than direct help (e.g., asking for the answer). Exploratory analyses revealed that one's ability level was a better indicator than age of the utility of help-seeking. Findings are interpreted in the context of social and task-related influences on the use of help-seeking as a compensatory behavior across the life span.

  7. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries.

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-04-01

    A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.

  8. Helping HELP with limited resources: the Luquillo experience

    F.N. Scatena; JR Ortiz-Zayas; J.F. Blanco-Libreros

    2008-01-01

    By definition the HELP approach involves the active participation of individuals from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds, including representatives of industry, academics, natural resource managers, and local officials and community leaders. While there is considerable enthusiasm and support for the integrated HELP approach, a central problem for all HELP...

  9. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    El-Damshety O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma. All patients had undergone diagnostic sonomammography. The imaging findings were identified by experienced breast imagers. Final surgical pathology results were used as the reference standard.Results: Thirty-two women ranging in age from 42 to 63 years old (mean age, 53 years, All had biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinomas. Common features on mammogram included dense mass followed by architectural distortion; three cases showed breast asymmetry and one case was reported as normal. On ultrasound, common features included solid mass with spiculated margins, posterior shadowing, and perpendicular to the skin.Conclusion: Although no specific features could be linked to invasive lobular carcinoma, care should be directed to subtle signs such as architectural distortion and breast asymmetry in order not to miss any lesions. The combination of mammographic and sonographic helps to decrease the relatively high false negative diagnosis of this type of breast cancer.Keywords: mammography, ultrasound, cancer, breast

  10. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... with a few deaths. Therefore, this vaccine will help reduce one of our most common and potentially ...

  11. Help My House Program Profile

    Learn about Help My House, a program that helps participants reduce their utility bills by nearly 35 percent through low-cost loans for EE improvements. Learn more about the key features, approaches, funding sources, and achievements of this program.

  12. Management of invasive species

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...... and mitigation are beneficial policy actions. However, the total and average net benefits under mitigation are larger than the benefits under prevention, implying that the former policy action is more beneficial. Despite this result, we conclude that prevention, not mitigation, shall be used because...

  13. Sufficient Social Support as a Possible Preventive Factor against Fighting and Bullying in School Children.

    Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Vaičiūnas, Tomas; Lukoševičiūtė, Justė; Malinowska-Cieślik, Marta; Melkumova, Marina; Movsesyan, Eva; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2018-04-26

    Background: This study aims to explore how sufficient social support can act as a possible preventive factor against fighting and bullying in school-aged children in 9 European countries. Methods : Data for this study were collected during the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. The sample consisted of 9 European countries, involving 43,667 school children in total, aged 11, 13 and 15 years. The analysed data focus on social context (relations with family, peers, and school) as well as risk behaviours such as smoking, drunkenness, fighting and bullying in adolescents. The relationships between social support and violent behaviour variables were estimated using multiple regression models and multivariate analyses. Results : Bullying, across 9 countries, was more prevalent than fighting, except for Armenia, Israel, and Poland. The prevalence among countries differed considerably, with fighting being most expressed in Armenia and bullying—in Latvia and Lithuania. The strongest risk factors for bullying and fighting were male gender (less expressed for bullying), smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, for bullying the social support was similarly strong factor like above-mentioned factors, while for fighting—less significant, but still independent. All forms of social support were significantly relate with lower violent behaviour of school children, and family support was associated most strongly. Regardless the socioeconomic, historical, and cultural differences among selected countries, the enhancement and reinforcement of the social support from possible many different resources should be taken into consideration in prevention programs against school violence behaviours.

  14. Psychophysiological states and special performance of boxers with different styles of fight

    V.V. Aksutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The style of the fight is one of the important factors that affect the quality of the arts in boxing. Particularly important factor in the modern boxing are the mental processes that are involved in forecasting and analyzing the situation that arises in the ring and are associated with cognitive functions. Purpose - to examine the psychophysiological state and a special performance for skilled boxers with different styles of input match. Material : 22 highly qualification boxer aged 18-23 years were studies. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Definition of special performance and power strokes performed on a special simulator. Recorded the absolute and relative strength of serial and single strikes. Results : The results show that the attacking style of the fight in boxing is accompanied by the presence of a high level of efficiency, reduction of fatigue, anxiety, and depending on the condition of vegetative functions. Showed a reduction in the growth of autonomy and heteronomy in the structure of psycho-physiological state of boxers with the attacking style of the fight, which indicates the presence of compromise and avoidance of external failures. Conclusions : Boxers with attacking style of fight characterized by high values of the left side impact forces and reduce the values of the right direct strike force, compared with boxers protective style of fight.

  15. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  16. Pushing through evolution? Incidence and fight records of left-oriented fighters in professional boxing history.

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    The fighting hypothesis proposes that left-oriented athletes enjoy a negative frequency-dependent advantage in combat sports such as boxing. Supporting evidence, however, is restricted to cross-sectional frequency data from small samples. Here, we examined the incidence and fight records of 2,403 left- and right-oriented fighters who were listed in the annual ratings of professional boxing from 1924 to 2012. Unexpectedly, left-oriented boxers were overrepresented in no more than 7 of the 89 years considered, their percentages varied up to 30% and increased over the entire period, and frequencies varied substantially between weight divisions. In support of the fighting hypothesis, lose-win ratios indicated larger fighting strength in left- compared to right-oriented boxers, which, however, was not reflected in different proportions of wins and losses by knockout. Our findings are partly consistent with an assumed left-oriented fighters' advantage in combat sports. Such advantage could be explained by negative frequency-dependent selection mechanisms; however, our study also revealed potential limits of the fighting hypothesis such that alternative explanations cannot be fully excluded. We propose that interference by factors not related to performance could also limit the suitability of data from elite sporting competition for testing evolutionary models of human handedness.

  17. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  18. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates.

    Adam E Vorsino

    Full Text Available Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75 as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1. This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.

  19. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates

    Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam; Koob, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.

  20. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  1. The US Food and Drug Administration's tentative approval process and the global fight against HIV.

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; Murray, Jeffrey S; Shimer, Martin; Capella, Peter; Presto, Ryan; Valdez, Mary Lou; Lurie, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    In 2004, the US government began to utilize the Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) tentative approval process (tFDA) as a basis to determine which HIV drugs are appropriate to be purchased and used in resource-constrained settings. This process permits products that are not approved for marketing in the US, including medicines with active patents or marketing restrictions in the US, to be purchased and distributed in resource-constrained settings. Although the tFDA was originally intended to support the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the USFDA list has become a cornerstone of international HIV programmes that support procurement of ARVs, such as the World Health Organization and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. Our objective in this article is to help the global HIV policy makers and implementers of HIV programmes better understand the benefits and limitations of the tFDA by providing an in-depth review of the relevant legal and regulatory processes. USFDA's dedicated tFDA process for ARVs used by the PEPFAR programme has a wide impact globally; however, the implementation and the regulatory processes governing the programme have not been thoroughly described in the medical literature. This paper seeks to help stakeholders better understand the legal and regulatory aspects associated with review of ARVs under the tFDA by describing the following: (1) the tFDA and its importance to global ARV procurement; (2) the regulatory pathways for applications under tFDA for the PEPFAR programme, including modifications to applications, review timelines and costs; (3) the role of US patents, US marketing exclusivity rights, and the Medicines Patents Pool in tFDA; and (4) an overview of how applications for PEPFAR programme are processed through the USFDA. We also provide a case study of a new ARV, tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), not yet reviewed by USFDA for PEPFAR use. In this paper, we describe the

  2. 'Fighting for care': parents' perspectives of children's palliative care in South Tyrol, Italy.

    Darbyshire, Philip; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Lochner, Lukas; Messerschmidt-Grandi, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    Children's palliative care in Italy develops comparatively slowly. Recent legislation is enabling, but foundational research exploring parental experiences and perceptions is lacking. To investigate the experiences and perceptions of parents in South Tyrol, Italy regarding caring for a child with a life-threatening or life-limiting illness. A mixed qualitative design incorporated both an online survey and parent interviews. Using purposive sampling, 13 parents undertook 9 interviews and 7 parents completed the survey. The authors highlight a major parental theme describing difficult relationships with health services requiring them to 'fight the system' for services. The authors raise a disturbing possibility that such 'fighting the system' is now so widely recognised worldwide that it cannot be considered to be accidental. The authors recommend the establishment of a specialist, dedicated paediatric palliative care service in South Tyrol with the international recognised values and operating standards that would render such parental 'fighting' unnecessary.

  3. A WebGIS-based command control system for forest fire fighting

    Yang, Jianyu; Ming, Dongping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Haitao

    2006-10-01

    Forest is a finite resource and fire prevention is crucial work. However, once a forest fire or accident occurs, timely and effective fire-fighting is the only necessary measure. The aim of this research is to build a computerized command control system based on WEBGIS to direct fire-fighting. Firstly, this paper introduces the total technique flow and functional modules of the system. Secondly, this paper analyses the key techniques for building the system, and they are data obtaining, data organizing & management, architecture of WebGIS and sharing & interoperation technique. In the end, this paper demonstrates the on line martial symbol editing function to show the running result of system. The practical application of this system showed that it played very important role in the forest fire fighting work. In addition, this paper proposes some strategic recommendations for the further development of the system.

  4. The Bush African Policy: Fighting the Global War on Terrorism

    2006-03-15

    of the region’s people. USAID’s main program in the agriculture sector, the Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa ( IEHA ), is helping to...generate more agricultural income and employment, strengthening regional cooperation, and promoting policy and program changes. The IEHA has already

  5. [Hypnosis to fight against pain and anxiety in palliative care].

    Quintini, Didier; Vitale, Claire; Gaide, Michelle; Surdej, Frédérique; Salas, Sébastien

    2017-12-01

    In our society, hypnosis sometimes has a negative, distorted image. For several years now it has become more widespread in the healthcare field and its use has increased in caring for symptoms such as pain and anxiety. It can be of great help in palliative situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Fighting Myths, Facing Problems, and Framing a New Reality.

    Boyd, William M., II

    A Better Chance, Inc. (ABC) believes that nonwhite children can and will learn if given the opportunity. Over the past 16 years, ABC students--children of sharecroppers and lawyers, garbage collectors and doctors, from large cities and tiny hamlets--have, with ABC's help, succeeded at the nation's finest secondary schools and colleges. They now…

  7. Whistleblowing Incentives – A Way to Fight Bribery?

    Fabian Teichmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption continues to dominate the business world in Easter Europe. Multinational corporations are legally obliged to prevent their employees from paying bribes. However, not all employees are willing to stick to the rules. Hence, additional control mechanisms seem to be needed. This article discusses whether whistleblowing incentives could help to combat bribery in multinational corporations.

  8. Fighting childhood obesity one game at a time.

    Beedle, Lisa M; Maldonado, Maria G; Forest, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    Traditional video games contribute to a sedentary lifestyle. Active video games that include physical activity may help reduce childhood obesity and have found an unconventional niche in medical treatment and training. This article offers providers practical information on how to evaluate popular active video games and how to encourage patients to make them part of a more healthful lifestyle.

  9. Fight the Stress of Urban Education with the Arts

    Creedon, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is a major health problem in urban neighborhoods, but integrating the arts into education can help children deal with stress. Stress reduces or eliminates a child's ability to learn by increasing the production of cortisol in the brain, while working in the arts has been shown to produce endorphin, which counteracts the effects of cortisol.…

  10. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.

    Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

    2013-05-10

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable.

  11. Help!

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article presents ten time-saving ideas for teachers. One great time-saving tip is to come in an hour early once or twice a week for grading papers. It is also a great idea if teachers will not give tests on Friday in order to reduce their weekend work.

  12. You Do Not Talk about Fight Club if You Do Not Notice Fight Club: Inattentional Blindness for a Simulated Real-World Assault

    Christopher F Chabris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inattentional blindness—the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else—has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.

  13. You do not talk about Fight Club if you do not notice Fight Club: Inattentional blindness for a simulated real-world assault.

    Chabris, Christopher F; Weinberger, Adam; Fontaine, Matthew; Simons, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness-the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else-has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.

  14. Brazil's fight against AIDS and its implications for global health governance.

    Wogart, J P; Calcagnotto, G

    2006-01-01

    The paper traces Brazil's efforts to fight AIDS in the last 20 years. The analysis concentrates on the efforts to combat and prevent the deadly infectious disease through ingenious efforts of private citizens, government agencies, national and international NGOs, which challenged multinational companies, international organizations and foreign governments. While the investigation led to a positive evaluation of the joint efforts in managing the threat, it is made clear that the fight against the HIV/AIDS virus is far from over in Brazil and will have to be strengthened on the local, national and international level.

  15. Skizofrenia Tokoh Utama Dalam Novel Fight Club Karya Chuck Palahniuk (Sebuah Analisis Psikologis)

    Yunus, Robert Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study entitled “Schizophrenia of the Main Character in the Novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. A Psichological Approach.” The objective of this research is to identify, classify and to analyze the mental dissorder namely ‘Schizophrenia' of the main character in the novel entitled Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. The study is based on Psikological approach generally, and specifically on ‘Schizophrenia'. ‘Schizophrenia' of the main character then will be classified and categorized by its sy...

  16. Hip-Hop Fight Club: Radical Theory, Education, and Practice in and beyond the Classroom

    Jared A. Ball

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hip-hop remains a viable method for the teaching of radical theory, emancipatory journalism and Africana Media Theory.  Fight Club is an emergent model that builds from existing hip-hop traditions of freetyle battling where critical thought and intellectual challenges of hueristic norms are upended.  This article argues in favor of bringing the Fight Club model into the classroom which allows for heightened student engagement and the inclusion of radical theoretical approaches to the study of mass media, communication and journalism.

  17. Improving Reliability of a fire-fighting pump set with Axiomatic Design

    Arcidiacono Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a case study featuring Axiomatic Design and Multi-Level Hierarchical model (MLH applied to redesign a fire-fighting pump set. In particular, two different design concepts are presented to be applied to the supporting frame of the system to limit a vibration problem that can arise during potential malfunctioning of the fire-fighting pump. The selection of the best design has been carried out through reliability evaluation process and through the cost of failure based on the MLH model.

  18. Fight-fitness in the program of student's physical education in higher educational institutions.

    Muntian V.S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is introduced the new author 's program / new area of physical, technical, tactical, moral and volitional and aesthetic development - Fight-fitness. It is singled out the basic components: martial arts / self-defence, physical training, kick- boxing aerobics, special moral and volitional / psychological training. Justified by the positive influence of employment Fight-fitness on the organism involved, the effectiveness of the impact on the development of physical and intellectual qualities (using suggestive method of teaching and special sports terminology in English, the need for education of practical skills / practical skills.

  19. Tracheostomy and invasive mechanical ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: decision-making factors and survival analysis.

    Kimura, Fumiharu

    2016-04-28

    Invasive and/or non-invasive mechanical ventilation are most important options of respiratory management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We evaluated the frequency, clinical characteristics, decision-making factors about ventilation and survival analysis of 190 people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients from 1990 until 2013. Thirty-one percentage of patients underwent tracheostomy invasive ventilation with the rate increasing more than the past 20 years. The ratio of tracheostomy invasive ventilation in patients >65 years old was significantly increased after 2000 (25%) as compared to before (10%). After 2010, the standard use of non-invasive ventilation showed a tendency to reduce the frequency of tracheostomy invasive ventilation. Mechanical ventilation prolonged median survival (75 months in tracheostomy invasive ventilation, 43 months in non-invasive ventilation vs natural course, 32 months). The life-extending effects by tracheostomy invasive ventilation were longer in younger patients ≤65 years old at the time of ventilation support than in older patients. Presence of partners and care at home were associated with better survival. Following factors related to the decision to perform tracheostomy invasive ventilation: patients ≤65 years old: greater use of non-invasive ventilation: presence of a spouse: faster tracheostomy: higher progression rate; and preserved motor functions. No patients who underwent tracheostomy invasive ventilation died from a decision to withdraw mechanical ventilation. The present study provides factors related to decision-making process and survival after tracheostomy and help clinicians and family members to expand the knowledge about ventilation.

  20. Experimental approaches for evaluating the invasion risk of biofuel crops

    Luke Flory, S; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Lorentz, Kimberly A; Gordon, Doria R

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern that non-native plants cultivated for bioenergy production might escape and result in harmful invasions in natural areas. Literature-derived assessment tools used to evaluate invasion risk are beneficial for screening, but cannot be used to assess novel cultivars or genotypes. Experimental approaches are needed to help quantify invasion risk but protocols for such tools are lacking. We review current methods for evaluating invasion risk and make recommendations for incremental tests from small-scale experiments to widespread, controlled introductions. First, local experiments should be performed to identify conditions that are favorable for germination, survival, and growth of candidate biofuel crops. Subsequently, experimental introductions in semi-natural areas can be used to assess factors important for establishment and performance such as disturbance, founder population size, and timing of introduction across variable habitats. Finally, to fully characterize invasion risk, experimental introductions should be conducted across the expected geographic range of cultivation over multiple years. Any field-based testing should be accompanied by safeguards and monitoring for early detection of spread. Despite the costs of conducting experimental tests of invasion risk, empirical screening will greatly improve our ability to determine if the benefits of a proposed biofuel species outweigh the projected risks of invasions. (letter)

  1. Hindrances to bistable front propagation: application to Wolbachia invasion.

    Nadin, Grégoire; Strugarek, Martin; Vauchelet, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    We study the biological situation when an invading population propagates and replaces an existing population with different characteristics. For instance, this may occur in the presence of a vertically transmitted infection causing a cytoplasmic effect similar to the Allee effect (e.g. Wolbachia in Aedes mosquitoes): the invading dynamics we model is bistable. We aim at quantifying the propagules (what does it take for an invasion to start?) and the invasive power (how far can an invading front go, and what can stop it?). We rigorously show that a heterogeneous environment inducing a strong enough population gradient can stop an invading front, which will converge in this case to a stable front. We characterize the critical population jump, and also prove the existence of unstable fronts above the stable (blocking) fronts. Being above the maximal unstable front enables an invading front to clear the obstacle and propagate further. We are particularly interested in the case of artificial Wolbachia infection, used as a tool to fight arboviruses.

  2. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  3. Helping your teen with depression

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  4. Use of Recombinant Antigens for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis

    Ana Laín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is a frequent and often fatal complication in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and a definitive diagnostic method. The detection of antibodies against different Candida antigens may help in the diagnosis. However, the methods traditionally used for the detection of antibodies have been based on crude antigenic fungal extracts, which usually show low-reproducibility and cross-reactivity problems. The development of molecular biology techniques has allowed the production of recombinant antigens which may help to solve these problems. In this review we will discuss the usefulness of recombinant antigens in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  5. Role of Seprase in Breast Cancer Invasion

    1998-09-01

    length cDNA as quickly as possible, we have arranged to get help from Dr. Barbara L. Parsons at the National Center for Toxicological Research with...ctin Nvas si~paratcd frorn free (𔃻ýI1 by get I tra - iwtvdopodWa prateolysis )f e.TtraceLlular mnatrix~ tion osmAg sa. excellulose GS colunin (Pi.erce...invadopodia. MMP-2 is secreted istry of proteinas :. in tumor invasion. Physicl Revs 73, as a soluble enzyme that can be found within the 161-45, oytoplasm

  6. Diffusion measures indicate fight exposure-related damage to cerebral white matter in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters.

    Shin, W; Mahmoud, S Y; Sakaie, K; Banks, S J; Lowe, M J; Phillips, M; Modic, M T; Bernick, C

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury is common in fighting athletes such as boxers, given the frequency of blows to the head. Because DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes in white matter, this technique is often used to investigate white matter integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury. We hypothesized that previous fight exposure would predict DTI abnormalities in fighting athletes after controlling for individual variation. A total of 74 boxers and 81 mixed martial arts fighters were included in the analysis and scanned by use of DTI. Individual information and data on fight exposures, including number of fights and knockouts, were collected. A multiple hierarchical linear regression model was used in region-of-interest analysis to test the hypothesis that fight-related exposure could predict DTI values separately in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Age, weight, and years of education were controlled to ensure that these factors would not account for the hypothesized effects. We found that the number of knockouts among boxers predicted increased longitudinal diffusivity and transversal diffusivity in white matter and subcortical gray matter regions, including corpus callosum, isthmus cingulate, pericalcarine, precuneus, and amygdala, leading to increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the corresponding regions. The mixed martial arts fighters had increased transversal diffusivity in the posterior cingulate. The number of fights did not predict any DTI measures in either group. These findings suggest that the history of fight exposure in a fighter population can be used to predict microstructural brain damage.

  7. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Lessons from Uganda on strategies to fight poverty

    Mackinnon, John; Reinikka, Ritva

    2000-01-01

    Countries receiving debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative will be among the first to benefit from the new World Bank -- International Monetary Fund approach to strengthening the impact on poverty of concessional assistance in low-income countries. The new approach features a more inclusive and participatory process for helping recipient countries develop poverty reduction strategies. From these strategies, joint Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) will bring t...

  9. Business leaders form alliance to fight AIDS. Thailand.

    1993-10-11

    It is estimated that 33% of deaths among the working population in Thailand by the year 2000 will result from AIDS. AIDS mortality will bring decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, a decline in tourism, reduced labor exports, and labor shortages. The AIDS epidemic in the country therefore has a direct impact upon companies' productivity and resulting profitability. Acknowledging this reality and the need for action, the Managing Director of Northwest Airlines for Thailand, Indochina, and West Asia, James P. Reinnoldt, and the General Manager of Bangkok's Regent Hotel, Bill Black, started the nonprofit Thailand Business Coalition on AIDS (TBCA) to combat AIDS. The TBCA will provide leadership, coordination, education, and resources to help companies and the business sector get a positive response to the AIDS dilemma. The organization was established to lead through and beyond the AIDS epidemic in the interest of business by promoting coherent HIV/AIDS policies and workplace education with help from nongovernmental organizations. The TBCA will be supported by membership dues, private contributions, and grants. Member companies will receive a manual and a quarterly newsletter and be allowed to join a training course on managing AIDS in the workplace. The organization's target of enlisting 250 member companies within the next 12 months means that help will be rendered in the training of 50,000 Thai workers.

  10. Invasion genetics of emerald ash borer in North America

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts to eradicate this destructive pest by federal and state regulatory agencies continue. Knowledge of EAB genetics will be useful in understanding the invasion dynamics of the beetle and to help identify geographic localities of potential biocontrol agents.

  11. Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update

    Casari, Alice; Chester, Johanna; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Actinic keratosis represents the earliest manifestation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, an earlier diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Their diagnosis sometimes could represent a challenge even for expert dermatologists. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy and optical coherence tomography could help clinicians in diagnosis. PMID:29316678

  12. Fighting trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in Russia.

    Fayzrakhmanov, N F

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products is a global socio-economic problem, which poses a serious threat to economy and health of populations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. To identify the main achievements and challenges in the fight against trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in the Russian Federation, to formulate possible solutions to these problems. The study of criminal cases and statistical information about the level of crime in the Russian Federation; legal analysis of regulatory legal acts in the sphere of criminal law and turnover of medicinal products; review of scientific and practical publications. The problem of trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in the Russian Federation was publicly discussed in the late 1990s - early 2000-ies, first in the media and special editions, later this phenomenon was the subject of extensive discussions at international conferences, in public authorities and public circles. However, the most significant results in tackling this problem were achieved only in the last 5 years.Thus, in 2010, the Russian Federation first joined the annual international police operation under the code name Pangaea, held since 2008 on the initiative of Interpol and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency of the World Health Organization (MHRA WHO). From year to year, the special operation Pangea unites the efforts of many countries from different continents and aims to eliminate transnational criminal groups operating through a global network the Internet. In 2010, as a result of large-scale international inspections 1 200 Internet sites were revealed, through which the fake medicines were spread and 10,000 boxes of medicines were seized, making more than a million falsified tablets in the amount of 2.6 million USA dollars. In 2011, in a special operation Pangea IV was attended by 165 different organizations from 81 countries

  13. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex ...

  14. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  15. The making of a nation-wide campaign fighting the nursing caries

    Sanden-Stoelinga, van M.S.E.; Koelen, M.A.; Hielkema-de Meij, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although, in the Netherlands, the fight against tooth decay has been successful over the past decades, in 1994, the incidence of nursing caries made the Ivory Cross*, the Dutch National Association for the Promotion of Oral Hygiene, decide to develop and implement a campaign to address the

  16. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact.

  17. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  18. Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program

    Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

  19. The role of research in molecular entomology in the fight against malaria vectors.

    della Torre, A; Arca, B; Favia, G; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    2008-06-01

    The text summarizes the principal current fields of investigation and the recent achievements of the research groups presently contributing to the Molecular Entomology Cluster of the Italian Malaria Network. Particular emphasis is given to the researches with a more direct impact on the fight against malaria vectors.

  20. [Predictors of fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in people with cancer].

    Oh, Pok-Ja; Lee, Yeon-Joo

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to identify predictors of the fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in the patients' mental adjustment to cancer. Cancer patients' characteristics like performance status, metastasis and duration of diagnosis with demographic factors, spiritual support and social support were used as predictors of a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness. A total of 124 ambulatory cancer patients completed the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale and responded in a structured instrument about their characteristics, spiritual and social support. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that confidence in the supporter (R(2)=.114, p=.000), duration of cancer diagnosis (R(2)=.041, p=.000) and faith (R(2)=.030, p=.000) were predictive of a fighting spirit (R(2)=.185, p=.000); whereas, education (R(2)=.074, p=.001), performance status (R(2)=.055, p=.000), satisfaction with social support (R(2)=.046, p=.000), and metastasis (R(2)=.037, p=.000) were predictive of helplessness/hopelessness (R(2)=.202, p=.000). Social support, spiritual support and disease related factors like metastasis, performance status, and duration of cancer diagnosis need to be considered in a psychosocial nursing intervention for a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness.

  1. PROBLEMATIC ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CYBERCRIME

    MAKUSHEV DMITRY IVANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to topical issues of international cooperation of the Russian Federation and foreign countries in combating cybercrime. The author offers measures in international law on the improvement of cooperation between law enforcement agencies of foreign countries in the fight against computer crimes.

  2. Wanted : Partners The Challenges of Pioneering a Novel Approach to Fighting Human Trafficking in the Netherlands

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; De Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Public Prosecution Service has embarked on a journey to find better ways to fight trafficking in human beings. This case follows special prosecutors Gert Veurink and Warner ten Kate as they develop and implement an unorthodox approach focused on weakening the ‘enablers’ of sexual

  3. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Québécois and Beninese researchers collaborate in the fight ...

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... Québécois and Beninese researchers collaborate in the fight against AIDS ... disabled" — vulnerable groups less able to make the right choices ... Less is more: Improving yields for Sahelian women with tiny dozes of fertilizer.

  5. Making Socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the Fight for Knowledge and Power, 1855-1939

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Making socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the fight for knowledge and power, 1855-1939," by Jane Martin. Jane Martin has explored the history of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century-British women educational activists in numerous publications over the past two decades. Her first book,…

  6. The European fight against terrorism financing: Professional fields and new governing practices

    Wesseling, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combating the financing of terrorism has been a core component of the global War on Terror that began after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This book shows how the fight against terrorism financing has taken shape and become important in Europe. An examination of two case studies - the EU’s Third

  7. Asymmetric forceps increase fighting success among males of similar size in the maritime earwig

    Munoz, Nicole E.; Zink, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme asymmetric morphologies are hypothesized to serve an adaptive function that counteracts sexual selection for symmetry. However direct tests of function for asymmetries are lacking, particularly in the context of animal weapons. The weapon of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, exhibits sizeable variation in the extent of directional asymmetry within and across body sizes, making it an ideal candidate for investigating the function of asymmetry. In this study, we characterized the extent of weapon asymmetry, characterized the manner in which asymmetric weapons are used in contests, staged dyadic contests between males of different size classes and analyzed the correlates of fighting success. In contests between large males, larger individuals won more fights and emerged as the dominant male. In contests between small males, however, weapon asymmetry was more influential in predicting overall fighting success than body size. This result reveals an advantage of asymmetric weaponry among males that are below the mean size in the population. A forceps manipulation experiment suggests that asymmetry may be an indirect, correlate of a morphologically independent factor that affects fighting ability. PMID:22984320

  8. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  9. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of

  10. The Impact of Cultural Practices on Fighting against or for the ...

    ... etc.,34 but this is not enough. Investigations show that only 10% of the population use condoms for protection. Why the resistance? This article analyzes the alternative of cultural practices which are not always considered where the education of the people is concerned. Key words: AIDS/HIV, culture, propagation, fight ...

  11. Patriarchy and the "Fighting Sioux": A Gendered Look at Racial College Sports Nicknames

    Williams, Dana M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Native American nicknames and symbols by US college athletics is a long-standing practice that embodies various forms of authoritarian oppression. One type of authoritarianism is that of patriarchy and it has been present in the struggle over the nickname at the University of North Dakota, the "Fighting Sioux". This article…

  12. Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi

    2007-07-01

    then it should be disposed of by recycling or land-filling. This material should not be burned due to the formation of carbon dioxide and carbon...and 2-192). A top spreader bar Chapter 2 Laboratory Testing and Evaluation of Expedient Flood-fighting Barriers 135 Figure 2-189

  13. The Use Value of "Fight Club" in Teaching Theories of Religion

    Smith, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching theories and methods for the academic study of religion poses certain challenges, especially when first-year students are the primary targeted audience. In the following note from the classroom, the author describes a model for successfully employing the film "Fight Club" as a case study for exploring some of the theoretical concepts of…

  14. Fire fighting. Measures to guarantee the safety of the radioactive installations

    Orta Aguilera, R.

    1993-01-01

    The work relates the incidence of the aspects related to the fire prevention and fighting as well as the activities of rescue and saving in the radioactive facilities, with the objective of guaranteeing a strict safety regime of all installations along the country so as to reduce to the minimum the risk for the personnel, the population and the environment

  15. Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!

    Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

    In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems…

  16. Training Effectiveness Evaluation (TEE) of the Advanced Fire Fighting Training System. Focus on the Trained Person.

    Cordell, Curtis C.; And Others

    A training effectiveness evaluation of the Navy Advanced Fire Fighting Training System was conducted. This system incorporates simulated fires as well as curriculum materials and instruction. The fires are non-pollutant, computer controlled, and installed in a simulated shipboard environment. Two teams of 15 to 16 persons, with varying amounts of…

  17. Career or Family? The Fight of Two Prominent Scandinavian Feminist Politicians

    Ribberink, J.C.A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, in the twentieth century, women in higher and managerial occupations were confronted with barriers because they had to fight prejudices concerning their ability to maintain themselves in traditionally male occupations. This was the case for instance, with women politicians in the

  18. Social Studies Education in the 21st Century, a Tool for Fighting ...

    Social Studies Education in the 21st Century, a Tool for Fighting Corruption in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... The thrust of the paper is that corruption and indiscipline exemplified in social and political vices constitute obstacles for integrated national development, and that social studies as a subject has a role to play ...

  19. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change

    Besson, S.

    2007-06-01

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  20. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  1. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  2. Sufficient Social Support as a Possible Preventive Factor against Fighting and Bullying in School Children

    Kastytis Šmigelskas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore how sufficient social support can act as a possible preventive factor against fighting and bullying in school-aged children in 9 European countries. Methods: Data for this study were collected during the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. The sample consisted of 9 European countries, involving 43,667 school children in total, aged 11, 13 and 15 years. The analysed data focus on social context (relations with family, peers, and school as well as risk behaviours such as smoking, drunkenness, fighting and bullying in adolescents. The relationships between social support and violent behaviour variables were estimated using multiple regression models and multivariate analyses. Results: Bullying, across 9 countries, was more prevalent than fighting, except for Armenia, Israel, and Poland. The prevalence among countries differed considerably, with fighting being most expressed in Armenia and bullying—in Latvia and Lithuania. The strongest risk factors for bullying and fighting were male gender (less expressed for bullying, smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, for bullying the social support was similarly strong factor like above-mentioned factors, while for fighting—less significant, but still independent. All forms of social support were significantly relate with lower violent behaviour of school children, and family support was associated most strongly. Regardless the socioeconomic, historical, and cultural differences among selected countries, the enhancement and reinforcement of the social support from possible many different resources should be taken into consideration in prevention programs against school violence behaviours.

  3. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    Alice Cristina Medeiros Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. The outcome studied was involvement in fights with firearms and/or cold weapons in the 30 days prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. The analyses were stratified by sex. Results Fifty seven thousand and eighty nine female students and 52,015 male students were included; the prevalence of their involvement in fights with weapons was 7.2 (95 % CI 6.9–7.5 and 13.8 (95 % CI 13.4–14.3, respectively. In the adjusted analysis the factors associated with male student involvement in fights with weapons were: being older, working, having smoked a cigarette, consumed alcoholic beverages and illicit drugs recently, insomnia, not having any close friends, skipping classes without parental supervision, having suffered aggression from a family member, reporting feeling unsafe on the way to or from school and/or at school. The same associated factors were found among female students in addition to not living with their father and/or mother and having suffered bullying. There was no association with type of school in either sex. Conclusion Involvement in fights with weapons was greater among older male students. Health-risk behaviors, mental health characteristics, parental supervision and context of violence also showed association with the outcomes.

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  5. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  6. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  7. Going Local to Find Help

    ... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... phone numbers, maps and directions, such as To Find Out More: Visit www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/ ...

  8. Menopause: Medicines to Help You

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Email Print Print and Share (PDF 375 KB) Menopause (sometimes called “the change of life”) is a ...

  9. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  10. Cyclodextrins: A Weapon in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance

    Wong, Chew Ee; Dolzhenko, Anton V.; Lee, Sui Mae; Young, David James

    Antimicrobial resistance poses one of the most serious global challenges of our age. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely utilized excipients in formulations because of their solubilizing properties, low toxicity, and low inflammatory response. This review summarizes recent investigations of antimicrobial agents involving CDs and CD-based antimicrobial materials. CDs have been employed for antimicrobial applications either through formation of inclusion complexes or by chemical modification of their hydroxyl groups to tailor pharmaceutically active compounds. Applications of these CD inclusion complexes include drug delivery, antimicrobial coatings on materials (e.g., biomedical devices and implants) and antimicrobial dressings that help to prevent wound infections. There are relatively limited studies of chemically modified CDs with antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial CD inclusion complexes and derivatives needs further elucidation, but activity of CDs and their derivatives is often associated with their interaction with bacterial cell membranes.

  11. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  12. Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions

    Bellard, C.; Genovesi, P.; Jeschke, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss have recently been challenged. Fundamentally, we must know where species that are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) live, and the degree to which they are threatened. We report the first study linking 1372 vertebrates threatened by more than 200 IAS from the completely revised Global Invasive Species Database. New maps of the vulnerability of threatened vertebrates to IAS permit assessments of whether IAS have a major influence on biodiversity, and if so, which taxonomic groups are threatened and where they are threatened. We found that centres of IAS-threatened vertebrates are concentrated in the Americas, India, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand. The areas in which IAS-threatened species are located do not fully match the current hotspots of invasions, or the current hotspots of threatened species. The relative importance of biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss clearly varies across regions and taxa, and changes over time, with mammals from India, Indonesia, Australia and Europe are increasingly being threatened by IAS. The chytrid fungus primarily threatens amphibians, whereas invasive mammals primarily threaten other vertebrates. The differences in IAS threats between regions and taxa can help efficiently target IAS, which is essential for achieving the Strategic Plan 2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26817767

  13. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in Hep-2 cells

    Braga Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding mollicutes is challenging due to their variety and relationship with host cells. Invasion has explained issues related to their opportunistic role. Few studies have been done on the Ureaplasma diversum mollicute, which is detected in healthy or diseased bovine. The invasion in Hep-2 cells of four clinical isolates and two reference strains of their ureaplasma was studied by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay. Results The isolates and strains used were detected inside the cells after infection of one minute without difference in the arrangement for adhesion and invasion. The adhesion was scattered throughout the cells, and after three hours, the invasion of the ureaplasmas surrounded the nuclear region but were not observed inside the nuclei. The gentamicin invasion assay detected that 1% of the ATCC strains were inside the infected Hep-2 cells in contrast to 10% to the clinical isolates. A high level of phospholipase C activity was also detected in all studied ureaplasma. Conclusions The results presented herein will help better understand U. diversum infections, aswell as cellular attachment and virulence.

  14. Electing Not to Fight: Elections as a Mechanism of Deradicalisation after the Irish Civil War 1922–1938

    Bill Kissane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Much research into the relationship between democratisation and conflict argues that holding elections soon after civil war, when nationalist issues still resonate, is likely to see voters elect to fight. This paper explores a case where elections had the opposite effect. Examination of the relationship between election results and political developments, as well as geographical voting patterns, demonstrates that elections were the primary mechanism for the deradicalisation of Irish politics after the civil war of 1922–23. Elections served as a mechanism for arbitration, selection, and coordination between more and less radical elites and their bases of support. Once the new state had shown its strength it had to accommodate gradual change, while electoral losers had to show they could reconcile change with stability. Elections helped establish credibility in both respects without altering the state-society relationship, suggesting that deradicalisation was dependent on state performance, and thus on some shared conception of the state. This combination of credibility, electoral legitimacy, and state performance, enabled a revolutionary elite, schooled in both constitutional and revolutionary politics, to deradicalise Irish nationalism after independence.

  15. Differentiating pre- and minimally invasive from invasive adenocarcinoma using CT-features in persistent pulmonary part-solid nodules in Caucasian patients

    Cohen, Julien G.; Reymond, Emilie; Lederlin, Mathieu; Medici, Maud; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Laurent, François; Arbib, François; Jankowski, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We analyzed CT-features of part-solid ground glass nodules in Caucasians. •These CT-features were compared to pathology on full resection specimen. •Several CT-features can help differentiating invasive adenocarcinoma. •A solid component larger than 5 mm had 100% sensitivity for invasive adenocarcinoma. -- Abstract: Objective: To retrospectively investigate the diagnostic value of pre-operative CT-features between pre/minimally invasive and invasive lesions in part-solid persistent pulmonary ground glass nodules in a Caucasian population. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of two pre-operative CTs for 31 nodules in 30 patients. There were 10 adenocarcinomas in situ, 1 minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, 20 invasive adenocarcinomas. We analyzed the correlation between histopathology and the following CT-features: maximal axial diameter, maximal orthogonal axial diameter, height, density, size of solid component, air bronchogram, pleural retraction, nodule mass, disappearance rate and their evolution during follow-up. Results: In univariate analysis, invasive adenocarcinomas had a higher maximal height, density, solid component size, mass, a lower disappearance rate and presented more often with pleural retraction (p < 0.05). After logistic regression performed with the uncorrelated parameters using a method of selection of variables, only the size of solid component remained significant, with 100% sensitivity for invasive adenocarcinoma when larger than 5 mm. Conclusion: Preoperative CT-features can help differentiating in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinomas from invasive adenocarcinomas in Caucasian patients. A solid component larger than 5 mm in diameter had 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma

  16. Differentiating pre- and minimally invasive from invasive adenocarcinoma using CT-features in persistent pulmonary part-solid nodules in Caucasian patients

    Cohen, Julien G., E-mail: JCohen@chu-grenoble.fr [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (CURIM), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Reymond, Emilie [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (CURIM), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lederlin, Mathieu [Service de Radiologie, Université Segalen Bordeaux, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 12 rue Dubernat, 33404 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Medici, Maud [Centre d’Investigation Clinique – Innovation Technologique (CIC-IT), Pavillon Taillefer, 38706 La Tronche Cedex (France); Lantuejoul, Sylvie [Departement d’Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologique (DACP), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laurent, François [Service de Radiologie, Université Segalen Bordeaux, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 12 rue Dubernat, 33404 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Arbib, François [Departement de Pneumologie, Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jankowski, Adrien [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Médicale (CURIM), Université Joseph Fourier, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); and others

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We analyzed CT-features of part-solid ground glass nodules in Caucasians. •These CT-features were compared to pathology on full resection specimen. •Several CT-features can help differentiating invasive adenocarcinoma. •A solid component larger than 5 mm had 100% sensitivity for invasive adenocarcinoma. -- Abstract: Objective: To retrospectively investigate the diagnostic value of pre-operative CT-features between pre/minimally invasive and invasive lesions in part-solid persistent pulmonary ground glass nodules in a Caucasian population. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of two pre-operative CTs for 31 nodules in 30 patients. There were 10 adenocarcinomas in situ, 1 minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, 20 invasive adenocarcinomas. We analyzed the correlation between histopathology and the following CT-features: maximal axial diameter, maximal orthogonal axial diameter, height, density, size of solid component, air bronchogram, pleural retraction, nodule mass, disappearance rate and their evolution during follow-up. Results: In univariate analysis, invasive adenocarcinomas had a higher maximal height, density, solid component size, mass, a lower disappearance rate and presented more often with pleural retraction (p < 0.05). After logistic regression performed with the uncorrelated parameters using a method of selection of variables, only the size of solid component remained significant, with 100% sensitivity for invasive adenocarcinoma when larger than 5 mm. Conclusion: Preoperative CT-features can help differentiating in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinomas from invasive adenocarcinomas in Caucasian patients. A solid component larger than 5 mm in diameter had 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma.

  17. Review of invasive urodynamics and progress towards non-invasive measurements in the assessment of bladder outlet obstruction

    C J Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article defines the need for objective measurements to help diagnose the cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. It describes the conventional techniques available, mainly invasive, and then summarizes the emerging range of non-invasive measurement techniques. Methods: This is a narrative review derived form the clinical and scientific knowledge of the authors together with consideration of selected literature. Results: Consideration of measured bladder pressure urinary flow rate during voiding in an invasive pressure flow study is considered the gold standard for categorization of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. The diagnosis is currently made by plotting the detrusor pressure at maximum flow (p detQmax and maximum flow rate (Q max on the nomogram approved by the International Continence Society. This plot will categorize the void as obstructed, equivocal or unobstructed. The invasive and relatively complex nature of this investigation has led to a number of inventive techniques to categorize BOO either by measuring bladder pressure non-invasively or by providing a proxy measure such as bladder weight. Conclusion: Non-invasive methods of diagnosing BOO show great promise and a few have reached the stage of being commercially available. Further studies are however needed to validate the measurement technique and assess their worth in the assessment of men with LUTS.

  18. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth

  19. Does the Data Resolution/origin Matter? Satellite, Airborne and Uav Imagery to Tackle Plant Invasions

    Müllerová, Jana; Brůna, Josef; Dvořák, Petr; Bartaloš, Tomáš; Vítková, Michaela

    2016-06-01

    Invasive plant species represent a serious threat to biodiversity and landscape as well as human health and socio-economy. To successfully fight plant invasions, new methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring, such as remote sensing, are needed. In an ongoing project, optical remote sensing (RS) data of different origin (satellite, aerial and UAV), spectral (panchromatic, multispectral and color), spatial (very high to medium) and temporal resolution, and various technical approaches (object-, pixelbased and combined) are tested to choose the best strategies for monitoring of four invasive plant species (giant hogweed, black locust, tree of heaven and exotic knotweeds). In our study, we address trade-offs between spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions required for balance between the precision of detection and economic feasibility. For the best results, it is necessary to choose best combination of spatial and spectral resolution and phenological stage of the plant in focus. For species forming distinct inflorescences such as giant hogweed iterative semi-automated object-oriented approach was successfully applied even for low spectral resolution data (if pixel size was sufficient) whereas for lower spatial resolution satellite imagery or less distinct species with complicated architecture such as knotweed, combination of pixel and object based approaches was used. High accuracies achieved for very high resolution data indicate the possible application of described methodology for monitoring invasions and their long-term dynamics elsewhere, making management measures comparably precise, fast and efficient. This knowledge serves as a basis for prediction, monitoring and prioritization of management targets.

  20. Helping Teachers Help Themselves: Professional Development That Makes a Difference

    Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehill, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    For school administrators to facilitate impactful teacher professional development, a shift in thinking that goes beyond the acquisition of new skills and knowledge to helping teachers rethink their practice is required. Based on review of the professional development literature and our own continued observations of professional development, this…

  1. Crime and Punishment Analysis: Land Invasion "Para-institutions" in Cali

    Enrique Javier Burbano Valencia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the crime economics of Becker (1968 and Ehrlich (1973, including the impact of the migratory flow, this paper studies the reasons why some individuals choose to strategically, rationally, and contingently become involved in illegal land invasion "para-institutions" in Cali since the 1950s. This will be done by modeling the efficiency of justice in order to discourage invaders through simulations of sentences and arrest likelihood and deterrent punishment under three "para-institutions": invasive dynasty, organized invasion and contingent invasion (endogenous migratory flow. These simulations will be anchored to calibrated actual parameters of the relevant population. This will allow the calibration of the line of indifference (division among individuals with invasive (and incentives to illegality and non-invasive behaviors. Finally, a policy proposal will be devised to help correct the inefficiencies found in the sanctioning mechanisms, if applicable.

  2. Accountability and the Use of Raids to Fight Trafficking

    Melissa Ditmore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accountability in anti-trafficking efforts is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of deciding whether such efforts are truly rooted in a human rights framework. In a rush to help, and inspired by sensationalised views of what human trafficking is, many campaigns actually harm the very people they are supposed to assist. Law enforcement raids are one such effort, as they do not take into account the very different power dynamics between the actor engaging in the raid, and the person who is subject to the raid. Data from the United States suggests that raids conducted by local law enforcement agencies are an ineffective means of locating and identifying trafficked persons. Research also reveals that raids are all too frequently accompanied by violations of the human rights of trafficked persons and sex workers alike, and can therefore be counterproductive to the underlying goals of anti-trafficking initiatives. Findings suggest that a rights-based and “survivor-centred” approach to trafficking in persons requires the development and promotion of alternative methods of identifying and protecting the rights of trafficked persons which prioritise the needs, agency, and self-determination of trafficking survivors. They also indicate that preventative approaches, which address the circumstances that facilitate trafficking in persons, should be pursued over law enforcement based responses.

  3. Targeted Therapeutic Nanoparticles: An Immense Promise to Fight against Cancer

    Sheikh Tasnim Jahan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In nanomedicine, targeted therapeutic nanoparticle (NP is a virtual outcome of nanotechnology taking the advantage of cancer propagation pattern. Tying up all elements such as therapeutic or imaging agent, targeting ligand, and cross-linking agent with the NPs is the key concept to deliver the payload selectively where it intends to reach. The microenvironment of tumor tissues in lymphatic vessels can also help targeted NPs to achieve their anticipated accumulation depending on the formulation objectives. This review accumulates the application of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and polyethylene glycol (PEG based NP systems, with a specific perspective in cancer. Nowadays, PLGA, PEG, or their combinations are the mostly used polymers to serve the purpose of targeted therapeutic NPs. Their unique physicochemical properties along with their biological activities are also discussed. Depending on the biological effects from parameters associated with existing NPs, several advantages and limitations have been explored in teaming up all the essential facts to give birth to targeted therapeutic NPs. Therefore, the current article will provide a comprehensive review of various approaches to fabricate a targeted system to achieve appropriate physicochemical properties. Based on such findings, researchers can realize the benefits and challenges for the next generation of delivery systems.

  4. Fighting the Global Cancer Epidemic through Precise Measurements

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has passed heart disease to become the single leading cause of death worldwide. In 2000, there were 10.1 million new cases of cancer and 6.2 million deaths caused by cancer. By 2012, these numbers had risen respectively to 14.1 million and 8.2 million. As the global cancer epidemic continues to spread, the need for effective diagnosis and treatment is growing. Nuclear and other related technologies, such as diagnostic imaging techniques and radiotherapy, are fundamental to diagnosing and treating cancer. Both diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy involve radiation exposure, which can be highly effective for treating patients, but also dangerous to medical staff and patients if not used accurately and safely. Techniques such as medical dosimetry help to ensure the safe use of radiation. Medical dosimetry is a cornerstone of safe and effective cancer diagnosis and treatment. It deals with the measurement of absorbed doses and the optimization of dose delivery in radiation medicine. This includes activities such as audits and the calibration of equipment, the development and dissemination of dosimetry techniques, and the implementation of quality assurance programmes

  5. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  6. Special event launches new partnership. IAEA and NFCR join forces to fight cancer in developing world

    2007-01-01

    cancer control programmes crafted to meet the specific needs of each country. 'PACT and its partners are working closely together to help low-income countries expand their cancer control and care capacities in a sustainable manner,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the PACT Programme Office. 'Our priority through these pilot projects is to demonstrate that cancer is a preventable and a curable disease. If sufficient funds were available millions of lives could be saved, even with relatively simple solutions.' PACT estimates that the implementation of all six PMDS projects will total some $28 million. The launch of the PACT Fund at NFCR will enable Americans to donate to the efforts of PACT and its partners in Africa, Asia and Latin America to meet the challenge, and thus contribute to placing cancer on the global health agenda. Founded in 1973, NFCR is internationally recognized for its leadership in cancer research and public education relating to all aspects of cancer care and control. Based in Bethesda, Maryland, NFCR is committed to innovative research and accelerating the pace at which new treatment and therapies are brought to patients who need them the most. 'Millions of lives needlessly are lost to cancer in developing countries because effective therapies all too often are not available,' says Franklin C. Salisbury, Jr., President and CEO of NFCR. 'We are committed to ending this tragic loss. We will make the PACT Fund at NFCR a stronghold in the fight against cancer in developing countries.' (IAEA)

  7. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Blanchard, E; Gabriel, F; Jeanne-Leroyer, C; Servant, V; Dumas, P-Y

    2018-02-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of patients. Early recognition and diagnosis have become a major focus in improving the management and outcomes of this life-threatening disease. IPA typically occurs during a period of severe and prolonged neutropenia. However, solid organ transplant recipients, patients under immunosuppressive therapy or hospitalized in intensive care units are also at risk. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of a combination of clinical, biological and CT scan evidence. The microbiological diagnostic strategy should be adapted to the patient's profile. Conventional methods with culture and species identification remain the standard but early diagnosis has been improved by the use of biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen in serum or in bronchoalveolar lavage. The epidemiology of IPA should change with the increased use of antifungal prophylactic regimens and the arrival of targeted therapies. Other microbiological tools, such as PCR and other biomarkers, are currently being assessed. IPA must be considered in a wide range of patients. Its prognosis remains poor despite progress in the microbiological diagnosis and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2018 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparing to fight back: Generation and storage of priming compounds.

    Victoria ePastor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immune-stimulated plants are able to respond more rapidly and adequately to various biotic stresses allowing them to efficiently combat an infection. During the priming phase, plant are stimulated in absence of a challenge, and can accumulate and store conjugates or precursors of molecules as well as other compounds that play a role in defense. These molecules can be released during the defensive phase following stress. These metabolites can also participate in the first stages of the stress perception. Here, we report the metabolic changes occuring in primed plants during the priming phase. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA causes a boost of the primary metabolism through the tricarboxylic acids (TCA such as citrate, fumarate, (S-malate and 2-oxoglutarate, and the potentiation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the octodecanoic pathway. On the contrary, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PstAvrRpt2 represses the same pathways. Both systems used to prime plants share some common signals like the changes in the synthesis of amino acids and the production of SA and its glycosides, as well as IAA. Interestingly, a product of the purine catabolism, xanthosine, was found to accumulate following both BABA- and PstAvrRpt2-treatement. The compounds that are strongly affected in this stage are called priming compounds, since their effect on the metabolism of the plant is to induce the production of primed compounds that will help to combat the stress. At the same time, additional identified metabolites suggest the possible defense pathways that plants are using to get ready for the battle.

  10. The effects of stress hormones on immune function may be vital for the adaptive reconfiguration of the immune system during fight-or-flight behavior.

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-09-01

    Intense, short-term stress (i.e., robust activation of the fight-or-flight response) typically produces a transient decline in resistance to disease in animals across phyla. Chemical mediators of the stress response (e.g., stress hormones) help induce this decline, suggesting that this transient immunosuppression is an evolved response. However, determining the function of stress hormones on immune function is difficult because of their complexity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that stress hormones help maintain maximal resistance to disease during the physiological changes needed to optimize the body for intense physical activity. Work on insects demonstrates that stress hormones both shunt resources away from the immune system during fight-or-flight responses as well as reconfigure the immune system. Reconfiguring the immune system minimizes the impact of the loss of these resources and reduces the increased costs of some immune functions due to the physiological changes demanded by the fight-or-flight response. For example, during the stress response of the cricket Gryllus texensis, some molecular resources are shunted away from the immune system and toward lipid transport, resulting in a reduction in resistance to disease. However, insects' immune cells (hemocytes) have receptors for octopamine (the insect stress neurohormone). Octopamine increases many hemocyte functions, such as phagocytosis, and these changes would tend to mitigate the decline in immunity due to the loss of molecular resources. Moreover, because the stress response generates oxidative stress, some immune responses are probably more costly when activated during a stress response (e.g., those that produce reactive molecules). Some of these immune responses are depressed during stress in crickets, while others, whose costs are probably not increased during a stress response, are enhanced. Some effects of stress hormones on immune systems may be better understood as examples of reconfiguration

  11. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of β-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  12. [How to fight anti-vaccinists prejudices: the viewpoint of public health].

    Germinario, Cinzia; Gallone, Maria Serena; Tafuri, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, growing numbers of parents in the industrialized world are choosing not to have their children vaccinated. The re-emergence of the anti-vaccination movements has been theorized as an important determinant of this phenomenon. The crisis of the «vaccination system» and the resurgence of the anti-vaccination movements is related both, to the increased accessibility to the information from the general population and to the decreased credibility and authority of health professionals. Another critical element in the fight against anti-vaccination movements, in Italy, is the system of assessing the damage from the vaccine, both in pharmacovigilance activities and in the procedures for the compensation of biological damage provided by law. The contrast in these bugs, along with the strengthening of communication skills of the health care workers and to an investment on communication in the mass media, is not to postpone for fighting the anti-vaccination movements.

  13. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and the fight against deforestation: the Senegal example

    Boubacar, B.

    1993-01-01

    Domestic LPG consumption in Senegal is over 40,000 tonnes in 1992, thus preserving more than 33,000 hectares of forest. Three reasons explain the success of the 'butanization' policy implemented by the country in its fight against deforestation: political desire, constant cooperation between the public authorities and distributors, but also a supply of gas and inexpensive cookers. The penetration of these butane cookers on the market occurred mainly in urban areas (it is the leading household appliance of urban families in Senegal), but it is also quite visible in rural areas as well, explained Mr. Boubacar Barry General Manager of Totalgaz Senegal in his speech 'How to fight the Growing Desert with Simple Means and a little imagination' during the 6th World LPG Meeting last October in Marrakech. 2 figs., 3 photos

  14. Male fighting and ``territoriality'' within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend “territories” against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  15. Male fighting and "territoriality" within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula.

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend "territories" against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  16. Fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires in nuclear power plant

    Lu Xuefeng; Zhang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires will cause not only personnel injury, severe economic loss, but also serious environmental pollution. For the moment, nuclear power is in a position of rapid development in China. Considering the earthquake-prone characteristics of our country, it is of great engineering importance to investigate the nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires. This article analyzes the cause, influential factors and development characteristics of nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires in details, and summarizes the three principles should be followed in fighting and preventing nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires, such as solving problems in order of importance and urgency, isolation prior to prevention, immediate repair and regular patrol. Three aspects were pointed out that should be paid attention in fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires. (authors)

  17. Priming effect and pre-exposure aggression in Siamese fighting fish

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Dabelsteen, Torben

    aggressively during subsequent disputes. This phenomenon is known as aggressive priming. The aim of our study was to investigate if this priming response follows a step function, i.e. appears only above a threshold level of aggression witnessed by a bystander. We found that bystanders behaved more aggressively...... in subsequent interactions when pre-exposed to an aggressive conspecific that was engaged in a fight whatever the level of aggression this fight reached. However, bystanders’ behaviour after pre-exposure was not correlated to the previously witnessed level of aggressiveness. These results suggest...... that individuals alter their behaviour in an aggressive social environment and indicate that priming effect follows a step function where aggression is triggered by an aggressive context. We discuss our results and the effect of pre-exposure on agonistic interactions in a communication network perspective....

  18. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  19. Unpaid help: who does what?

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Peggy Schyns

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Informele hulp: wie doet er wat? There is currently a great deal of interest in the Netherlands in people’s reliance on their own networks in times of need. What can people do for each other when someone needs help because of health problems? And what are they already

  20. Helping fans to get fit.

    Trueland, Jennifer

    A health and weight loss programme supported by nurses and delivered by professional football clubs in Scotland has been hailed a success in helping men to lose weight sustainably. It uses participants love of football to motivate them to make healthy lifestyle changes.

  1. HELP: Healthy Early Literacy Program

    Rader, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    A daily intensive supplemental reading and writing program was developed to assist students who were: 1. identified with a language disability and 2. identified as at-risk for reading failure in an urban elementary school. The purpose of the program was to help these students understand and develop the connection between oral and written language…

  2. Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help

    ... help Osteoporosis treatment may involve medication along with lifestyle change. Get answers to some of the most common ... 2017. Khan M, et al. Drug-related adverse events of osteoporosis therapy. ... and management of osteoporosis. European Journal of Rheumatology. 2017;4: ...

  3. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  4. Exercises to help prevent falls

    ... help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and more flexible Improve your balance Increase how ... To make your calves and ankle muscles stronger: Hold on to a solid ... of a chair. Stand with your back straight and slightly bend ...

  5. Fighting blind: why US Army Divisions Need a Dedicated Reconnaissance and Security Force

    2017-05-25

    the future will continue to disperse across the battlefield and will use complex terrain such as megacities to conceal its location and preserve its...cavalry fighting vehicle platoons and two tank platoons. Due to concerns about cost by senior leaders, the Division 1986 concept for the cavalry squadron... handicaps the 1st Division scout detachments overcame is the lack of training for the tasks they were

  6. National program of fight against the climate change. 2. annual evaluation and forecasting

    2002-01-01

    This conference discussed the actions realized in the framework of the National Plan of Fight against the Climatic Change (PNLCC). The first part presents the problem, the evaluation of the PNLCC application and the control tools. the second part is devoted to the transport sector and the second to the buildings and the electric power demand control. The last part deals with the prospective and the challenges of the PNLCC. (A.L.B.)

  7. Creating Memorable Experiences: How hotels can fight back against Airbnb and other sharing economy providers

    Makarand Mody

    2016-01-01

    No one can deny that the hotel industry has a fight on its hands when it comes to the peer-to-peer accommodation market. Following a series of acquisitions, Airbnb is the undoubtedly the hotel industry's biggest competitor. While much of the discussion that follows uses Airbnb as an example, the underlying logic applies to the broader concept of the sharing economy and its implications for the hotel industry.

  8. [Efficacy observation of nonspecific low back pain treated with the dragon-tiger fighting needling method].

    Zhao, Feng; Cao, Dong-bo; Yuan, Yi-qin; Luo, Jian; Wen, Yan-yun; Wang, Yue; Yu, Jie

    2012-06-01

    To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on nonspecific low back pain (NLBP) treated with the dragon-tiger fighting needling method, the uniform reinforcing-reducing method and the intermediate frequency physiotherapy. Ninety cases of NLBP were randomly divided into a dragon-tiger fighting needling group (group A), an uniform reinforcing-reducing needling group (group B) and an intermediate frequency physiotherapy group (group C), 30 cases in each one. In the group A, the dragon-tiger fighting needling method was used. In the group B, the uniform reinforcing-reducing method was applied. Two groups of acupoints were prescribed. One group included Shenshu (BL 23), Dachangshu (BL 25), Weizhong (BL 40) and Ashi points. The other group included Qihaishu (BL 24), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Kunlun (BL 60), Yaoyangguan (GV 3). These two groups of acupoints were used alternatively in the above two groups. In the group C, the intermediate frequency physiotherapy was adopted in the pain area of the lumbar region. The treatment was given once per day in each group. Six treatments made one session. Totally, 2 sessions were required. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODD and the clinical efficacy were observed in each group. The scores of VAS and ODI were reduced obviously after treatment in each group (P dragon-tiger fighting needling method achieves the much better efficacy on NLBP compared with either the uniform reinforcing-reducing method or the intermediate frequency physiotherapy. It is one of the more effective needling method for analgesia.

  9. How Should The US Adapt Its Military Doctrine To Be Able TO Fight A Peer Competitor

    2016-02-15

    the American Way of War (New York: Colombia University Press, 2008), 195. 8. Quoted in Colonel Gian Gentile, Wrong Turn: America’s Deadly Embrace of...the American Way of War . New York: Colombia University Press, 2008. Mearsheimer, John J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, New York: W. W. Norton...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW SHOULD THE US ADAPT ITS MILITARY DOCTRINE TO BE ABLE TO FIGHT A PEER COMPETITOR? by Paul Kendall

  10. 'When the skies fight': HIV, violence and pathways of precarity in South Africa

    Mills, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence....

  11. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Garcia, Leila Posenato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. T...

  12. Návrh marketingové strategie Fight Club, z.s.

    Kvasničáková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The target of this thesis is to evaluate current marketing strategy of the Fight Club association. It is a non-profit organization focused on providing karate and fitness classes. Upgrade of the current strategy will be based on the results of SWOT analysis, Porter's competition model and the questionnaire. The result of SWOT analysis is WO strategy. The main weaknesses is the poor financial situation also it has a number of opportunities which can be used for benefit. Porter's model proved t...

  13. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet

    2016-03-11

    submarine duty could lead to sexual problems aboard ship and marital problems at home .”22 Some argue that wives do not trust women at sea with...enforces the argument that women are here to stay in submarines. While political and military experts continue to debate the roles of women in submarines...ACSC/Meyer, J/FY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States

  14. Creating Memorable Experiences: How hotels can fight back against Airbnb and other sharing economy providers

    Makarand Mody

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No one can deny that the hotel industry has a fight on its hands when it comes to the peer-to-peer accommodation market. Following a series of acquisitions, Airbnb is the undoubtedly the hotel industry's biggest competitor. While much of the discussion that follows uses Airbnb as an example, the underlying logic applies to the broader concept of the sharing economy and its implications for the hotel industry.

  15. Fire fighting at Chernobyl and fire protection at UK nuclear power stations

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fire fighting measures undertaken by the fire crews at the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. This information highlights the need to develop engineering equipment which will give a far greater degree of personnel protection to fire crews and others in radiological accidents. The British position on fire protection at nuclear power stations is outlined. The general levels of radiation exposure which would be used as a guide to persons in the vicinity of a radiation accident are also given. (UK)

  16. An individual-oriented model on the emergence of support in fights, its reciprocation and exchange.

    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation, their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and 'spiteful acts' and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by

  17. Fighting alcoholism among railway workers in the light of early 20th Century Polish-language temperance publications

    Izabela Krasińska

    2016-12-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The Polish-language temperance periodicals provide, among other things, valuable information referring to as yet unknown though essential problem of fighting alcoholism among railway workers in Europe, USA and the Polish territories of the Three Partitions.

  18. Picking a Fight with Water, and Water Lost ... an Electron

    Herr, Jonathan D.

    potential energy term in the path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) formalism. This method led to reductions of computational time by allowing the use of less computationally laborious methods for portions of the simulation and resulted in negligible increase of error. The determination of the fundamental driving forces within water oxidation and the development of acceleration techniques for important electronic structure methods will help drive progress into fully solar-initiated water oxidation.

  19. Fighting poverty: the economic adjustment of female migrants in Dhaka.

    Huq-hussain, S

    1995-10-01

    Data from a field survey of slum and squatter settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh, are used to examine the social adjustment of poor, female migrants to work, occupational choice, work satisfaction, income, control over income, and women's role in the family economy. A "poor household," defined in terms of nutritional intake, included those families receiving under 2122 cal/person/day. 44% of the urban population in Bangladesh do not obtain the daily nutritional requirement. Findings indicate that 61% of all female migrants expected to find work on arrival in the city. 44% of female migrants were willing to take any kind of work available at the time of arrival. Over 66% of all females found work in less than 6 months. Almost 25% took 6 months to a year to find a job, and 15% found work after a year's time. Recent migrants, who were older, found work quicker. 16% of female migrants found their job with help from relatives and friends (23% of recent migrants and 14% of long-term migrants). Among female migrants who sought a job on their own, 14% found work within 6 months. 3% found work between 6 months and a year. The rest were engaged in family and home-based work or found a job much later. In Dhaka, most women migrants worked in the service or informal sector. 40% of the sample worked as domestics, 38% worked in the informal sector, 16% worked in other informal work, and 5% worked in export-based garment industries. Most female migrants lived in the British Dhaka zone and the post-British Dhaka zone. Those living in the Mughal Dhaka zone tended to work in home-based informal activities. Garment industry workers tended to have more education. Women in the informal sector did not receive cash income. Just over 33% received income in kind, about 25% received a low income, and another 25% received a moderate income. In 71% of cases, husbands or fathers handled the money. 29% handled income on their own. Their own earnings went mostly for survival needs. Over 70% changed

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  1. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  2. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  3. Suicide attempts and physical fighting among high school students--United States, 2001.

    2004-06-11

    Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among youths. In the United States, homicide and suicide are the second and third leading causes of death, respectively, for persons aged 13-19 years. Although suicide commonly is associated with anxiety, depression, and social withdrawal, research suggests a link between violent behaviors directed at oneself (i.e., suicidal behaviors) and violent behaviors directed at others among adolescents. Certain students who engage in extreme forms of violence, such as school shootings, exhibit suicidal ideation or behavior before or during the attack. However, suicidal behavior also might be associated with involvement in less extreme forms of violent behaviors, such as physical fighting, which might be a risk factor for more severe forms of violence. To characterize any potential association between suicide attempts and fighting, CDC analyzed self-reported 2001 data from a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The results of that analysis indicated that students who reported attempting suicide during the preceding 12 months were nearly four times more likely also to have reported fighting than those who reported not attempting suicide. Prevention programs that seek to reduce both suicidal and violent behaviors are needed. Because prevalence of this association was determined to be highest in the 9th grade, these efforts might be most effective if implemented before students reach high school.

  4. Fight and air exposure times of caught and released salmonids from the South Fork Snake River

    Roth, Curtis J.; Schill, Daniel J.; Quist, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Catch-and-release regulations are among the most common types of fishing regulations. In recent years, concerns have arisen regarding the exposure of fish to air during catch-and-release angling. The purpose of our study was to quantify the length of time angled fish were exposed to air by anglers in a typical catch-and-release fishery and relate it to the lengths of time reported to produce negative effects. In total, 312 individual anglers were observed on the South Fork Snake River, Idaho, from May through August 2016. Fight time varied from 1.1 s to 230.0 s, and average fight time was 40.0 s (SD = 36.8). Total air exposure times varied from 0.0 s to 91.8 s and averaged 19.3 s (SD = 15.0). Though not statistically significant, a trend in reduced fight times was observed when anglers were guided and increased air exposure times when a net was used and a picture was taken. Results of the current study suggest that anglers expose fish to air for periods that are much less than those reported to cause mortality.

  5. Integrated method development of general and special students stamina involved in the fight

    N.A. Alekseev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : testing the effectiveness of methods of development of general and special endurance cadets wrestlers. Material : the experiment was attended by 20 students aged 18-20 years (10-12 years experience of employment, qualifications - candidates for the master of sports and master of sports. Classes are held 10 times a week, lasting for 120 minutes. Results : the developed methodology based on the application of a special set of exercises. Technique promotes rapid increase endurance level students. The directions of increasing endurance and performance of students. As an exercise for the development of general endurance recommended: motocross race, gymnastics, sports (rugby, soccer. As an exercise for the development of special endurance recommended: Attempted partner with high intensity (8-9 shots in 10 seconds Perform five series, consisting of 5 spurts (the maximum number of shots in 10 seconds And run shots at a moderate pace (4 -5 throws for 10 seconds ; training and educational training bout, fight quadruples (fight lasts until the transition to the fight lying down or throw up. Conclusions : the increase in special endurance cadets should be in parallel with the improvement of overall fitness.

  6. Criticality and fire-fighting - Recent developments at Westinghouse, Springfields Fuels Limited

    Hill, D. A.; Clemson, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-fighting advice in criticality-controlled areas has traditionally presented unique challenges to the nuclear industry, primarily because of the introduction of moderators / reflectors from water and foam and the potential rearrangement of materials. In an actual emergency, the decision to use water-based fire extinguishing methods is best influenced by a consensus between the criticality and fire specialists as part of the emergency planning process. A recent review of the fire-fighting arrangements at the site operated by Springfields Fuels Limited (SFL) in Preston in the United Kingdom has identified that more detailed guidance may be valuable relating to the specific areas and materials at risk, particularly to highlight the degree of risk and provide guidance on the risk of criticality if water-based fire extinguishing methods were deemed necessary. This has prompted consideration of a criticality 'Fire Tag' system, consisting of colour coded markers in the area (an immediate visual indicator of both the degree of risk and the appropriate fire-fighting response) and single sheet cards (specific guidance for the areas and materials at risk), with the process supported by appropriate training. The approach is currently being trialled on a small scale, and initial feedback from personnel has been positive. (authors)

  7. Strategies to Fight Stigma toward People with Mental Disorders: Perspectives from Different Stakeholders

    Marc Corbière

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a more complete and exhaustive perspective on the whole range of potential strategies to fight stigma by considering the perspectives of different stakeholders. Delegates to a Canadian conference were invited to participate in a survey that focused on stigma, from which the responses to the following question were analyzed: tell us briefly what you do to reduce prejudice and stigma toward people with a diagnosis of mental disorder? From 253 participants, 15 categories of strategies to fight stigma were identified from the verbatim (e.g., sharing/encouraging disclosure. These categories fell under six main themes: education, contact, protestation, person centered, working on recovery and social inclusion, and reflexive consciousness. The occurrence of these themes was different among stakeholders (clinical, organizational, and experiential knowledge. For example, people with mental disorders (experiential knowledge often mentioned contact and person centered strategies, while mental health professionals (clinical knowledge preferred education and working on recovery and social inclusion strategies. The results from this study highlight the need to pay more attention to the concept of disclosure of mental disorders in the process for de-stigmatization. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of the emerging strategies to fight stigma in the community.

  8. Responding to local needs. Self-help groups.

    Jayaseelan, J

    1993-01-01

    Pink Triangle, the only community-based group in Malaysia which works with men who have sex with men, took initial steps in August 1992 to establish a self-help project for people who are HIV-seropositive. Supporting people who are HIV-positive and fighting for their rights is new in Malaysia. The group has thus far been publicized through its public education events, hospitals, and other nongovernmental organizations. For the first time, information is being published specifically by and for people living with HIV/AIDS. The project also has a phone line to allow people to speak anonymously with someone who shares their experience. Many callers are men who have sex with men in the social context of intense prejudice and discrimination. Afraid to openly acknowledge their sexuality with strangers, the callers have yet to accede to meeting each other face-to-face in a group setting. The author notes in closing that Pink Triangle must be realistic about what can be achieved in Malaysia and allow the group to develop according to people's needs and not on the basis of a model imported from outside of the country.

  9. Inclusion on the ground fighting techniques in the system of close combat in the Army of the Czech Republic.

    Král, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Title of thesis: Inclusion on the ground fighting techniques in the system of close combat in the Army of the Czech Republic. Aim of thesis: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of termination, the risk of injury and severity of selected techniques of fighting on the ground in order to create a theoretical model for the incorporation of new techniques into close combat training in the Army of the Czech Republic. Methods: This thesis is processed by multivariate preferences. ...

  10. Review of Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving by Sanjoy Mahajan

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2015-01-01

    Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010). 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples ...

  11. Attacking the Body in Mixed Martial Arts: Perspectives, Opinions and Perceptions of the Full Contact Combat Sport of Ultimate Fighting

    Magnus Tobias Stenius

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in 1993 in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators. Mixed martial arts (MMA) is an evolving combat sport pitting elite athletes trained in a variety of combat arts against each other in the “Octagon”. Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and kn...

  12. The Importance of Social Movements in the Fight for the Women's Rights From the Incorporation of Speech of Human Rights

    Souza, Luciana Correa

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the role of social movements in the struggle for women's rights. Initially, the historical origin of the gender term and its concept will be analyzed. Subsequently, the role of social movements for the development of international protection of human rights instruments will be reviewed. Finally, the role of social movements will be analyzed in the fight for women's rights in Brazil. From this study was concluded by the importance of social movements in the fight f...

  13. Numerical assessment affects aggression and competitive ability: a team-fighting strategy for the ant Formica xerophila

    Tanner, Colby J

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between numerical advantage and competitive ability is a fundamental component in contests between groups of social animals. An individual's ability to correctly assess the numerical state of its group is of vital importance. In addition to numerical dominance, the group's fighting ability also plays an important role in competitive interactions. By staging experimental fights between two Formica ant species, I show that Formica xerophila are able to assess their own group's ...

  14. Impacts of fire, fire-fighting chemicals and post-fire stabilization techniques on the soil-plant system

    Fernández Fernández, María

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires, as well as fire-fighting chemicals, greatly affect the soil-plant system causing vegetation loss, alterations of soil properties and nutrient losses through volatilization, leaching and erosion. Soil recovery after fires depends on the regeneration of the vegetation cover, which protects the soil and prevents erosion. Fire-fighting chemicals contain compounds potentially toxic for plants and soil organisms, and thus their use might hamper the regeneration of burnt ecosystems. In...

  15. “Your Kung Fu is very good, Master Fiore!” Asian and European fight books in comparison

    Wetzler Sixt

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of the fight book is not restricted to the European tradition. Similar artefacts, usually combining text and image to describe the techniques of close quarter combat with and without weapons, exist also in various Asian cultures, in China, Japan, Korea, and India. In the article, the question shall be raised in how far and to which end fight books of different cultures can be taken into one perspective, and be compared. To do so, similarities and dissimilarities between Europea...

  16. Fighting corruption with cultural dynamics: when legal-origins, religious-influences and existing corruption-control levels matter

    Asongu Simplice

    2012-01-01

    Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Our findings demonstrate that blanket corruption-control policies are unlikely to succeed equally across c...

  17. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Colautti, R. I.; Parker, J. D.; Cadotte, M. W.; Pyšek, Petr; Brown, C. S.; Sax, D. F.; Richardson, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-27 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * biogeographical comparison * invasiveness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. News from the western European invasion front

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity existing in the country, totaling 20 established species out of 28 introduced species. In the last decade, the non-native fish detection rate (a proxy of introduction rate has been one new species in every two years. Most of the non-native fishes in Portugal are mainly from Central Europe and North America and were illegally introduced for sports fisheries. However, some recent records are also linked with the ornamental trade, from Asia, indicating an increase of this vector in fish introductions. The international drainages exhibit the highest number of non-native fishes due to prevalent invasion routes from Spain, although direct introductions to national drainages in spatially limited areas suggest new invasion routes caused by higher propagule pressure of leading vectors (fisheries and ornamental trade. Management options are presented in order to tackle this growing threat, namely risk assessment, enforcement and environmental education. Only a comprehensive and integrated approach at an Iberian level could reduce the current rate of non-native species arrival to this region and help us to preserve the Iberian freshwater fishes for future generations.

  19. Why humans might help strangers

    Nichola Jayne Raihani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans regularly help strangers, even when interactions are apparently unobserved and unlikely to be repeated. Such situations have been simulated in the laboratory using anonymous one-shot games (e.g. prisoner's dilemma where the payoff matrices used make helping biologically altruistic. As in real-life, participants often cooperate in the lab in these one-shot games with non-relatives, despite that fact that helping is under negative selection under these circumstances. Two broad explanations for such behavior prevail. The 'big mistake' or 'mismatch' theorists argue that behavior is constrained by psychological mechanisms that evolved predominantly in the context of repeated interactions with known individuals. In contrast, the cultural group selection theorists posit that humans have been selected to cooperate in anonymous one-shot interactions due to strong between-group competition, which creates interdependence among in-group members. We present these two hypotheses before discussing alternative routes by which humans could increase their direct fitness by cooperating with strangers under natural conditions. In doing so, we explain why the standard lab games do not capture real-life in various important aspects. First, asymmetries in the cost of perceptual errors regarding the context of the interaction (one-shot versus repeated; anonymous versus public might have selected for strategies that minimize the chance of making costly behavioral errors. Second, helping strangers might be a successful strategy for identifying other cooperative individuals in the population, where partner choice can turn strangers into interaction partners. Third, in many real-world situations individuals are able to parcel investments such that a one-shot interaction is turned into a repeated game of many decisions. Finally, in contrast to the assumptions of the prisoner's dilemma model, it is possible that benefits of cooperation follow a non-linear function of

  20. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  1. Evaluation of a wearable physiological status monitor during simulated fire fighting activities.

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Dolezal, Brett A; Cooper, Christopher B; Fehling, Patricia C

    2014-01-01

    A physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded in a fire-resistant shirt. The purpose of this research study was to examine the ability of the PSM-shirt to accurately detect heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) when worn under structural fire fighting personal protective equipment (PPE) during the performance of various activities relevant to fire fighting. Eleven healthy, college-aged men completed three activities (walking, searching/crawling, and ascending/descending stairs) that are routinely performed during fire fighting operations while wearing the PSM-shirt under structural fire fighting PPE. Heart rate and RR recorded by the PSM-shirt were compared to criterion values measured concurrently with an ECG and portable metabolic measurement system, respectively. For all activities combined (overall) and for each activity, small differences were found between the PSM-shirt and ECG (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.4 beats/min [-0.8, -0.1]; treadmill: -0.4 beats/min [-0.7, -0.1]; search: -1.7 beats/min [-3.1, -.04]; stairs: 0.4 beats/min [0.04, 0.7]). Standard error of the estimate was 3.5 beats/min for all tasks combined and 1.9, 5.9, and 1.9 beats/min for the treadmill walk, search, and stair ascent/descent, respectively. Correlations between the PSM-shirt and criterion heart rates were high (r = 0.95 to r = 0.99). The mean difference between RR recorded by the PSM-shirt and criterion overall was 1.1 breaths/min (95% CI: -1.9 to -0.4). The standard error of the estimate for RR ranged from 4.2 breaths/min (treadmill) to 8.2 breaths/min (search), with an overall value of 6.2 breaths/min. These findings suggest that the PSM-shirt provides valid measures of HR and useful approximations of RR when worn during fire fighting duties.

  2. Nuclear is part of the solution for fighting climate change

    Le Ngoc, Boris; Langegger, Eileen; Janin, Denis

    2016-11-01

    comparable to most renewables'. 2. The world needs to take urgent steps towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It cannot afford to wait for 'advanced technologies' or to prematurely close existing low carbon energy sources. Nuclear energy is a proven low-carbon option, available today. A significant part of the CO_2 released remains in the atmosphere for a long time and accumulates. To slow down the increase in concentration, we need to start reducing CO_2 emissions now. Energy transitions take decades to implement. To contain climate change, we need to make the most efficient use of the full range of low-carbon energy options available today while continuing to develop advanced technologies that can be implemented by 2050. Nuclear energy is one of the few currently available energy options that has already proven to be effective and can be implemented quickly and on a large scale. Today's nuclear power plants are the second largest source of low-carbon electricity globally. Countries which close nuclear plants prematurely instead of fossil plants (especially coal and lignite) are eating into the world's available carbon budget. 3. All countries have the right to choose nuclear energy in order to reduce greenhouse gases while meeting their other energy objectives. Energy and climate experts agree, and multiple studies confirm, that pathways with the greatest probability for successfully de-carbonizing the energy mix require the use of nuclear energy. Countries must meet climate goals and at the same time meet other energy policy objectives. Nuclear energy enables countries to reduce CO_2 emissions while helping to improve energy security, providing affordable electricity, and facilitating economic and industrial development. We therefore call on decision-makers to ensure that the inalienable right of countries to choose nuclear energy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting their energy and development objectives is not prejudiced against in any way by

  3. Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment of Acute Epidural Hematoma: Case Series

    Weijun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Although minimally invasive surgical treatment of acute epidural hematoma attracts increasing attention, no generalized indications for the surgery have been adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery in acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes. Methods. Minimally invasive puncture and aspiration surgery were performed in 59 cases of acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes (13–145 mL; postoperative follow-up was 3 months. Clinical data, including surgical trauma, surgery time, complications, and outcome of hematoma drainage, recovery, and Barthel index scores, were assessed, as well as treatment outcome. Results. Surgical trauma was minimal and surgery time was short (10–20 minutes; no anesthesia accidents or surgical complications occurred. Two patients died. Drainage was completed within 7 days in the remaining 57 cases. Barthel index scores of ADL were ≤40 (n=1, 41–60 (n=1, and >60 (n=55; scores of 100 were obtained in 48 cases, with no dysfunctions. Conclusion. Satisfactory results can be achieved with minimally invasive surgery in treating acute epidural hematoma with hematoma volumes ranging from 13 to 145 mL. For patients with hematoma volume >50 mL and even cerebral herniation, flexible application of minimally invasive surgery would help improve treatment efficacy.

  4. Ultrasound predictors of placental invasion: the Placenta Accreta Index.

    Rac, Martha W F; Dashe, Jodi S; Wells, C Edward; Moschos, Elysia; McIntire, Donald D; Twickler, Diane M

    2015-03-01

    We sought to apply a standardized evaluation of ultrasound parameters for the prediction of placental invasion in a high-risk population. This was a retrospective review of gravidas with ≥1 prior cesarean delivery who received an ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa or low-lying placenta in the third trimester at our institution from 1997 through 2011. Sonographic images were reviewed by an investigator blinded to pregnancy outcome and sonography reports. Parameters assessed included loss of retroplacental clear zone, irregularity and width of uterine-bladder interface, smallest myometrial thickness, presence of lacunar spaces, and bridging vessels. Diagnosis of placental invasion was based on histologic confirmation. Statistical analyses were performed using linear logistic regression and multiparametric analyses to generate a predictive equation evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Of 184 gravidas who met inclusion criteria, 54 (29%) had invasion confirmed on hysterectomy specimen. All sonographic parameters were associated with placental invasion (P placental location, yielded an area under the curve of 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.95). Using logistic regression, a predictive equation was generated, termed the "Placenta Accreta Index." Each parameter was weighted to create a 9-point scale in which a score of 0-9 provided a probability of invasion that ranged from 2-96%, respectively. Assignment of the Placenta Accreta Index may be helpful in predicting individual patient risk for morbidly adherent placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Contrast Echocardiography in Invasive Cardiology

    Mustafa Bulut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast echocardiography by rendering better imaging of the borders of cardiac chambers is a useful tool for evaluating cardiac function, mass, myocardial vascularization, microvascular structure (small vessel vasculature and viability. Contrast was first started to be used for patients with suboptimal image quality. It can be used in detecting defects in myocardial blood supply in patients with chest pain and determining the success of interventionalprocedures. It can also be of help in demonstrating myocardial viability after reperfusion treatment in patients who had myocardial infarction. It is expected to be used more widely in invasive cardiology for decision making, guiding and determining the success of the procedures. Advances in imaging techniques , development of contrast materials for evaluation of left system, contrast echocardiography may become a routine clinical practice.

  6. Immunology, epidemiology and mathematical modelling towards a better understanding of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella disease and rational vaccination approaches.

    Mastroeni, Pietro; Rossi, Omar

    2016-12-01

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections cause a high burden of lethal sepsis in young children and HIV patients, often associated with malaria, anaemia, malnutrition and sickle-cell disease. Vaccines against iNTS are urgently needed but none are licensed yet. Areas covered: This review illustrates how immunology, epidemiology and within-host pathogen behaviour affect invasive Salmonella infections and highlights how this knowledge can assist the improvement and choice of vaccines. Expert Commentary: Control of iNTS disease requires approaches that reduce transmission and improve diagnosis and treatment. These are often difficult to implement due to the fragile ecology and economies in endemic countries. Vaccines will be key tools in the fight against iNTS disease. To optimise vaccine design, we need to better define protective antigens and mechanisms of resistance to disease in susceptible populations even in those individuals where innate immunity may be impaired by widespread comorbidities.

  7. Perceptions of Help Given to Healthy Older Mothers by Adult Daughters: Ways of Initiating Help and Types of Help Given

    Martini, Tanya S.; Grusec, Joan E.; Bernardini, Silvia Cortese

    2003-01-01

    Older mother-adult daughter dyads (N = 43) addressed two issues pertaining to the ways in which help is initiated (offered, requested, and imposed help) and type of help given (instrumental help, advice, and emotional support) a) mothers' reasoning about these aspects of help, and b) daughters' understanding of mothers' feelings. Both groups noted…

  8. How to help teachers' voices.

    Saatweber, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at high risk of developing occupational dysphonia, and it has been widely accepted that the vocal characteristics of a speaker play an important role in determining the reactions of listeners. The functions of breathing, breathing movement, breathing tonus, voice vibrations and articulation tonus are transmitted to the listener. So we may conclude that listening to the teacher's voice at school influences children's behavior and the perception of spoken language. This paper presents the concept of Schlaffhorst-Andersen including exercises to help teachers improve their voice, breathing, movement and their posture. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    1991-09-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth. This article describes how the mollusk got here, reviews the problems it can cause and what is being done to mitigate the problems and control the growth and spread of the mollusk.

  10. User Assessment of "InsuOnLine," a Game to Fight Clinical Inertia in Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Diehl, Leandro Arthur; de Souza, Rodrigo Martins; Gordan, Pedro Alejandro; Esteves, Roberto Zonato; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister

    2015-10-01

    We performed a pilot study to assess usability and playability of "InsuOnLine," a serious game for education of primary care physicians on insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus. A multidisciplinary team has designed and developed "InsuOnLine," using Andragogy and Problem-Based Learning principles, with game elements to improve players' motivation. The prototype was tested by four medical doctors and two medical students, using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and a questionnaire to assess playability. These results were used to guide corrections, after which the beta version was retested by 14 medical students and 6 residents. Out of a maximum score of 100 on the SUS, the "InsuOnLine" prototype was rated 88, and some areas for improvement were identified (game instructions, controls). After corrections, the beta version was rated 92.5 on the SUS. Users have found the beta version to be fun, engaging, challenging, relevant, and realistic. Users said that the game has increased their knowledge on diabetes and insulin, that it has made them feel more confident for prescribing insulin, and that it would have impact on how they treated patients with diabetes. Most users said they have learned more from the game than they would have from a lecture. Lessons learned were the need of early piloting, preferably by users with very little or very much gaming experience, on their own computers and free patterns of use. "InsuOnLine" was rated by users as easy to play, fun, and useful for learning. Further studies will assess its educational effectiveness. "InsuOnLine" is a promising tool for large-scale continuing medical education on insulin, helping to fight clinical inertia in diabetes.

  11. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  12. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  13. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  14. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    Miguel MARQUINA; Roger WOOLNOUGH; IT/User Support

    1999-01-01

    The way to contact the Computing Help Desk (also known as 'UCO' and hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues) has been streamlined in order to facilitate access to it. A new telephone line and email address have been set: Phone number: 78888Email: Helpdesk@cern.chhopefully easier to remember. Both entries are operational since last December. The previous number and email address remain valid and have been turned into aliases of the above. However we encourage using the latter at your convenience from now on. For additional information please see the article published at the CERN Computing Newsletter 233:http://consult.cern.ch/cnl/233/art_uco.htmlDo not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Nicole Cremel, Miguel Marquina, Roger WoolnoughIT/UserSupport

  15. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    Miguel Marquina

    2000-01-01

    You may find it useful to glue the information below, e.g. near/at your computer, for those occasions when access to computer services is not possible. It presents the way to contact the Computing Help Desk (hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues). Do not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Your contact for general computing problems or queriesPhone number:(+41 22 76) 78888Opening Hours:From Monday to Friday 8:30-17:30Email:Helpdesk@cern.chWeb:http://consult.cern.ch/service/helpdeskMiguel MarquinaIT Division/UserSupport

  16. Plutonium helps probe protein, superconductor

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists are finding that plutonium can be a useful research tool that may help them answer important questions in fields as diverse as biochemistry and solid-state physics. This paper reports that U.S. research involving plutonium is confined to the Department of Energy's national laboratories and centers around nuclear weapons technology, waste cleanup and disposal, and health effects. But at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists also are using plutonium to probe the biochemical behavior of calmodulin, a key calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium-regulated processes in biological systems. At Argonne National Laboratory, another team is trying to learn how a superconductor's properties are affected by the 5f electrons of an actinide like plutonium

  17. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  18. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  19. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on typ...

  20. Heterogeneous Attitudes of Tourists toward Lionfish in the Mexican Caribbean: Implications for Invasive Species Management

    Malpica-Cruz, Luis; Haider, Wolfgang; Smith, Nicola S.; Fernández-Lozada, Sergio; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) are invasive predators established throughout the Wider Caribbean. They have already caused significant ecological impacts and have the potential to affect local economies that depend on coral reefs. Snorkeling and scuba diving are important activities that rely on esthetically pleasant reefs. We asked whether lionfish-invaded reefs have lower esthetic value and whether fees to help control the invasion might be acceptable to recreational ...

  1. Fighting Pirates

    Lucas, Edward

    two centuries. Despite the considerable scholarly interest in examining how powerful states go about suppressing piracy, however, there has been little in-depth examination of why these states are willing expend resources combating piracy in the first place. When this question is addressed, counter...

  2. Greenhouse effect gases and climatic change: quantification and tools to fight against the emissions

    Bizec, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    The greenhouse effect gases are considered responsible of the climatic change. Their consequences are numerous: increase of the sea level, displacement of the climatic areas, modification of the forests ecosystems, rarefaction of water, progressively decrease of glaciers... This fast modification of the climate would lead to the increase of natural hazards as hurricanes, storms, hails and so on. It is then a necessity to reduce as fast as possible the greenhouse effect gases. The author describes in a first part the methods of the greenhouse effect gases quantification and in the second part the tools to fight these gases, regulations, standards, economic tools, national tools and the projects. (A.L.B.)

  3. A study of essential elements in ancient Thai fighting swords by chemical and nuclear techniques

    Janposri, K.

    1980-01-01

    Four ancient Thai fighting swords from the Bangkok National Museum and iron ore from Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi were studied by neutron activation analysis, metallography and chemical analysis. The results of these scientific studies show that all of these four swords are made of plain carbon steel, containing trace elements which have no effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the steel. The trace elements which were found in the iron ore are quite similar to those found in one of these swords. This means that the iron in one of the swords may have come from ore found at Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi

  4. Fight Against Trafficking from/to Afghanistan within the Eco Member States

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    This report evaluates the existing international, regional, and national legal landscape in order to identify possible legal initiatives furthering deeper regional cooperation the fight against organised crime, especially that involved in narcotics trafficking. During four extended trips to Tehran....... The experts and stakeholders consulted unanimously agreed that the legal framework in the three countries most affected by the trafficking of opium –Afghanistan as the main producer, and Iran and Pakistan as the main transit corridors– is adequate and no legal obstacles to cooperation were identified. Rather...

  5. Peace-time radiological training for fire fighting and paramedic staff

    The shipment of radioactive materials over commercial highways has had a proven record of safety for many years. Accidents involving radioactive material have been rare. However, good emergency planning requires that fire protection agencies be prepared for such an incident. In an effort to provide this preparedness, the Benton County Department of Emergency Services, with the cooperation of the Washington Public Power Supply System and US Department of Energy, Richland Office, has prepared this manual for local fire fighting and paramedic staff. This manual provides a basic understanding of radioactivity and the role of these teams during an emergency involving radioactive material

  6. [International financial cooperation in the fight against AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Leyva-Flores, René; Castillo, José Gabriel; Serván-Mori, Edson; Ballesteros, Maria Luisa Gontes; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Molina

    2014-07-01

    This study analyzed the financial contribution by the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and its relationship to eligibility criteria for funding in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2002-2010. Descriptive analysis (linear regression) was conducted for the Global Fund financial contributions according to eligibility criteria (income level, burden of disease, governmental co-investment). Financial contributions totaled US$ 705 million. Lower-income countries received higher shares; there was no relationship between Global Fund contributions and burden of disease. The Global Fund's international financing complements governmental expenditure, with equity policies for financial allocation.

  7. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-11-06

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  8. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices; Os equivocos do combate a inflacao

    Nastari, Plinio Mario [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country 8 figs.

  9. How to understand our willingness-to-pay to fight climate change? A choice experiment approach

    De Chaisemartin , Clément; Mahé , Thuriane

    2009-01-01

    We explore the willingness-to-pay (WTP) to fight climate change in a choice experiment. Since tree planting prevents climate change, subjects are offered to choose between receiving a high amount of money or receiving a lower amount of money plus participating to tree planting action. This allows us to get an individual interval of the WTP to prevent climate change. We also set the experiment to control for framing effects: we measure whether subjects WTP is higher not to prevent a tree plant...

  10. [Chagas's disease and deep ecology: the anti-vectorial fight in question].

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Rôças, Giselle; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Rubião, Eduardo Cárdenas Nogueira; Pissinatti, Alcides

    2011-02-01

    The inter-relations between man and the environment are among the main themes currently debated by the Brazilian public health. On such horizon, the questions concerning Chagas's disease are found to remain specially in the scope of the directed actions of control to the triatomine, the anti-vectorial fight , though already a century since its first description by Carlos Chagas, a major epidemiological problem in Latin America. Based on these considerations the present article will seek to discuss the main ecological aspects related to the American trypanosomiasis, emphasizing the control of the vectorial transmission in the context of the deep ecology.

  11. Fighting Smoldering Fires in Silos – A Cautionary Note on Using Carbon Dioxide to Inert

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw attention to the hazards of releasing liquid carbon dioxide into environments where an ignitable atmosphere may exist. Static discharges have sufficient energy to ignite flammable vapors and an internal explosion may result when fighting smoldering fires using...... this approach. A recent article in Biomass and Bioenergy examines an explosion in a Norwegian wood pellet silo when attempting to suppress a smoldering fire with CO₂. The article argues that the electrostatic hazard of CO₂ is widely under-appreciated and incidents like this are avoidable....

  12. Intervention: Help a Loved One Overcome Addiction

    Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction An intervention can motivate someone to seek help for alcohol or drug misuse, compulsive eating, or ... successful. By Mayo Clinic Staff It's challenging to help a loved one struggling with any type of ...

  13. Association between mental health-related stigma and active help-seeking: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Schnyder, Nina; Panczak, Radoslaw; Groth, Nicola; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2017-04-01

    Background Mental disorders create high individual and societal costs and burden, partly because help-seeking is often delayed or completely avoided. Stigma related to mental disorders or mental health services is regarded as a main reason for insufficient help-seeking. Aims To estimate the impact of four stigma types (help-seeking attitudes and personal, self and perceived public stigma) on active help-seeking in the general population. Method A systematic review of three electronic databases was followed by random effect meta-analyses according to the stigma types. Results Twenty-seven studies fulfilled eligibility criteria. Participants' own negative attitudes towards mental health help-seeking (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.88) and their stigmatising attitudes towards people with a mental illness (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) were associated with less active help-seeking. Self-stigma showed insignificant association (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.76-1.03), whereas perceived public stigma was not associated. Conclusions Personal attitudes towards mental illness or help-seeking are associated with active help-seeking for mental problems. Campaigns promoting help-seeking and fighting mental illness-related stigma should target these personal attitudes rather than broad public opinion. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  14. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery and transesophageal echocardiography

    Ajay Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved cosmetic appearance, reduced pain and duration of post-operative stay have intensified the popularity of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS; however, the increased risk of stroke remains a concern. In conventional cardiac surgery, surgeons can visualize and feel the cardiac structures directly, which is not possible with MICS. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is essential during MICS in detecting problems that require immediate correction. Comprehensive evaluation of the cardiac structures and function helps in the confirmation of not only the definitive diagnosis, but also the success of surgical treatment. Venous and aortic cannulations are not under the direct vision of the surgeon and appropriate positioning of the cannulae is not possible during MICS without the aid of TEE. Intra-operative TEE helps in the navigation of the guide wire and correct placement of the cannulae and allows real-time assessment of valvular pathologies, ventricular filling, ventricular function, intracardiac air, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and adequacy of the surgical procedure. Early detection of perioperative complications by TEE potentially enhances the post-operative outcome of patients managed with MICS.

  15. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  16. Radiological characterization of invasive prolactinomas

    Mauricio, J.C.; Goulao, A.; Ribeiro, C.; Campos, J.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical problems are analized of invasive prolactinomas, from the radiographic records of the Hospital Egas Moniz (Neuro-radiological Departament). The purpose of this paper is contribute for the anatomic-radiological knowledge and clinical progress, under medical treatment, of the macroprolactinomas that have some characteristics that differentiate them from the small adenomas. (Author) [pt

  17. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  18. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  19. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  20. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  1. Helping You Help Me: The Role of Diagnostic (In)congruence in the Helping Process within Organizations

    Fisher, Colin M.; Pillemer, Julianna; Amabile, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an inductive, multi-method field study at a major design firm, we investigated the helping process in project work and how that process affects the success of a helping episode, as perceived by help-givers and/or -receivers. We used daily diary entries and weekly interviews from four project teams, and a separate sample of critical incident interviews, to induce process models of successful and unsuccessful helping episodes. We found that, in unsuccessful episodes, help-givers and -re...

  2. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A regional fight against Chagas disease: lessons learned from a successful collaborative partnership.

    Salerno, Rosina; Salvatella, Roberto; Issa, Julie; Anzola, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    To identify the intangible elements that characterize the successful effort to fight Chagas disease in the Americas, determine how they contributed to the overall success of the partnership, and learn lessons from the experience that could be applied to other programs. This study was based on the Partnership Assessment Tool (PAT) developed by the Nuffield Institute for Health ("the Institute") at the University of Leeds (London). The PAT draws heavily on scientific literature and the extensive experience of sociologists and health experts working for the Institute. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) modified the tool slightly to adapt it to its needs and provide a general structure for the study. The six key principles of the PAT framework were applied in the design of the research questionnaires. The findings show that a successful collaboration requires a clear objective; a good-quality pool of data; and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the problem, its dimensions, and its impact. The collaboration was elaborated from a common idea and a shared, quantified plan based on data gathered by independent scientists plus a strategy with explicit milestones. The clarity of purpose allowed for an improved synergy of efforts and made it possible to resolve differences in opinions and approaches. PAHO's experience with effective collaborations such as the joint initiative to fight Chagas disease provides a rich knowledge base for analysis of the advantages, limitations, and paradigms of community involvement, collaborative practices, and partnerships.

  4. Is the Fight against Doping in Sport a Legal Minefield like Any Other?

    Haas, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In the fight against doping, creating a level playing field across all sports is very challenging from a legal perspective. A harmonized approach presupposes first and foremost a supreme regulatory authority on a global level. This task cannot be attributed to the public sector, because there is no supranational authority of public international law capable of dealing with it. Thus, responsibility has to be assumed by a private law entity. This in turn requires complicated contractual agreements by which duties and responsibilities are transferred from the individual to the national level and from there to the top of the pyramid. In practice, this process is not only difficult and cumbersome, it also leads to an accumulation of power at the top of the sports pyramid that must be contained by organizational checks and balances, such as access to justice and the rule of law, accountability, transparency, and possibilities for the respective stakeholders to partake in the decision-making process. The weighting of all these different aspects is demanding and further complicated by the regulatory reach of the various national lawmakers. Since national laws differ considerably and a harmonized legislative approach is nowhere near in sight, a global approach in the fight against doping must push back national laws and legal concepts as much as possible. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on all these legal challenges. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Challenges and threats to implementing the fight against doping in sport.

    Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2014-05-01

    Prominent doping cases in certain sports have recently raised public awareness of doping and reinforced the perception that doping is widespread. Efforts to deal with doping in sport have intensified in recent years, yet the general public believes that the 'cheaters' are ahead of the testers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to change the antidoping strategy. For example, the increase in the number of individual drug tests conducted between 2005 and 2012 was approximately 90 000 and equivalent to an increase of about 50%, yet the number of adverse analytical findings remained broadly the same. There is also a strikingly different prevalence of doping substances and methods in sports such as a 0.03% prevalence of anabolic steroids in football compared to 0.4% in the overall WADA statistics. Future efforts in the fight against doping should therefore be more heavily based on preventative strategies such as education and on the analysis of data and forensic intelligence and also on the experiences of relevant stakeholders such as the national antidoping organisations, the laboratories, athletes or team physicians and related biomedical support staff. This strategy is essential to instigate the change needed to more effectively fight doping in sport.

  6. Molecular mechanisms and new strategies to fight stresses in egg-producing birds

    E. Shatskikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Commercial egg production is associated with various stresses decreasing productive and reproductive performance of layers. A growing body of evidence indicates that most of stresses in poultry production at the cellular level are associated with oxidative stress due to excess of free radical production or inadequate antioxidant protection. Recently, a concept of the cellular antioxidant defence has been revised with a special attention paid to cell signalling. Indeed, in animals, redox signalling pathways use reactive oxygen species (ROS to transfer signals from different sources to the nucleus to regulate a number of various functions including growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The vitagene concept of fighting stresses emerged as a new direction in a nutritional research. Indeed, by improving the adaptive ability of animals to stress it is possible tosubstantially decrease negative consequences of various stresses in poultry and farm animal production. The analysis of recently published data clearly showed that the anti-stress composition developed on the vitagene concept and supplied with drinking water is an effective means in fighting stresses in poultry production.

  7. Contesting heteronormativity: the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition in India and Vietnam.

    Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.

  8. Within-season variability of fighting behaviour in an Australian alpine grasshopper.

    Muschett, Giselle; Umbers, Kate D L; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the breeding season, changing environmental and biological conditions can lead to variation in the reproductive landscape of many species. In alpine environments temperature is a key driver of behaviour for small ectotherms such as insects, but variable biotic factors such as mate quality and availability can also influence behaviour. Kosicuscola tristis is a small semelparous grasshopper of the Australian alpine region. In a rare behaviour among grasshoppers, K. tristis males engage in vigorous fights over access to females, involving mandible displays, kicking, biting and grappling. In this study we describe the variation in fighting behaviour of K. tristis throughout the breeding season and test several hypotheses related to temperature, body size, mating behaviour, and female quality. We show that K. tristis males are more aggressive toward each other at the end of the breeding season than at the beginning. This increased aggression is associated with decreased daily average temperatures (from ~20°C to ~9°C), decreased mating activity, increased female fecundity, and an unexpected trend toward an increase in female-to-male aggression. These results suggest that K. tristis is likely under increased selective pressure to time key life cycle events with favourable biological and climatic conditions. The stochastic nature of alpine environments combined with a relatively short life span and breeding season, as well as limited mating opportunities toward the end of the season may have contributed to the evolution of this extraordinary mating system.

  9. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  10. The stormy waters of the International Criminal Court: universal fight against impunity or liberal universalization?

    Mateus Kowalski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The universalistic dimension of the International Criminal Court's (ICC nature and function is clear. Yet, this dimension must be thoroughly defined. We must ask ‘what universalism’? A rational approach to international social relations is different from an ethical one. While the rational approach may lead to universalization of localized specific moral models (e.g. the liberal Western model promoting its hegemony, the ethical approach promotes diversity through considering non-reducible differences and common human phenomena in which only a minimal common ethics is universal. This paper argues that the answer to this structural question is crucial to understand if the ICC is essentially a hegemonic tool to expand the predominant Western liberal model or rather a mechanism to fight impunity acknowledging diversity and rooted on an ethical concern. We contend that the ICC is immersed in troubled waters where it is not always possible to separate a universalizing Western liberal approach from an ethical universal approach. Nevertheless, we conclude that the Court, even if partially and at times serves as tool for hegemony, is essentially defined by the universalization of the fight against impunity through reference to a minimal common ethics.

  11. EU legal framework of fight against child pornography on the Internet

    Pisarić Milana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse and exploitation of children is a serious violation of the basic rights of a child and child pornography on the Internet represents specific harmful content, whose existence and expansion can not be possibly about the freedom of opinion and expression. The fight against child pornography on Internet includes criminalization of certain harmful behaviors, identification of children who are the victims, detection of the perpetrators of these crimes and their prosecution, termination of criminal networks, removal of pornographic content from the Internet or disable of access to the sites where these content are to be found. Although Internet is almost unlimited space for distribution of child pornographic material, the state's response is territorially limited, due to the fact that even if the state sets control over content on Internet sites located within its territory, users can find material on the Internet sites that are located outside the reach of the authorities of that country. For this reason, the fight against online child pornography sets requirement for the harmonization of national legislation and the establishment of effective international cooperation.

  12. WHO-IAEA join forces to fight cancer. New Joint Programme cements partnership, promotes synergy

    2009-01-01

    On the 26th May 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) announced the launch of a Joint Programme on Cancer Control, aimed at strengthening and accelerating efforts to fight cancer in the developing world. WHO and the IAEA have complementary mandates when it comes to fighting cancer. WHO is the leader amongst the UN family of organizations in terms of health improvement for people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, while the IAEA's expertise in radiation medicine is a vital element of cancer diagnosis and treatment. The Joint Programme will provide the framework for the two Organizations to dovetail their work, building on their areas of expertise to create a more coordinated and robust approach to combating cancer in poor countries. In practical terms, this will mean working with Member States to integrate diagnostic and treatment-related activities into cancer control plans of the country based on WHO cancer control guidelines and strategies in each region. Efforts in the joint programme are focusing on six PACT Model Demonstration Sites (PMDS) in Albania, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Yemen. They will also respond to requests for cancer control assessment and programme development assistance in low- and middle-income countries

  13. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer—is this realistic?

    Klement, Rainer J.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself

  14. Three-dimensional tracking for efficient fire fighting in complex situations

    Akhloufi, Moulay; Rossi, Lucile

    2009-05-01

    Each year, hundred millions hectares of forests burn causing human and economic losses. For efficient fire fighting, the personnel in the ground need tools permitting the prediction of fire front propagation. In this work, we present a new technique for automatically tracking fire spread in three-dimensional space. The proposed approach uses a stereo system to extract a 3D shape from fire images. A new segmentation technique is proposed and permits the extraction of fire regions in complex unstructured scenes. It works in the visible spectrum and combines information extracted from YUV and RGB color spaces. Unlike other techniques, our algorithm does not require previous knowledge about the scene. The resulting fire regions are classified into different homogenous zones using clustering techniques. Contours are then extracted and a feature detection algorithm is used to detect interest points like local maxima and corners. Extracted points from stereo images are then used to compute the 3D shape of the fire front. The resulting data permits to build the fire volume. The final model is used to compute important spatial and temporal fire characteristics like: spread dynamics, local orientation, heading direction, etc. Tests conducted on the ground show the efficiency of the proposed scheme. This scheme is being integrated with a fire spread mathematical model in order to predict and anticipate the fire behaviour during fire fighting. Also of interest to fire-fighters, is the proposed automatic segmentation technique that can be used in early detection of fire in complex scenes.

  15. Fire protection at hot laboratories: Prevention, surveillance and fire-fighting

    Chappellier, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    After pointing out that fire in a hot laboratory can be an important factor contributing to a radioactivity accident, the author briefly recalls the items to be taken into account in a fire hazard analysis. He then describes various important aspects of prevention, detection and fire-fighting which - at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - are governed by already defined rules or by guidelines which are sufficiently advanced to give a clear idea of the final conclusions to be drawn therefrom. From the point of view protection, the concept of fire sector has been evolved, at hot laboratories, becomes the fire and contamination sector, so as to ensure under all circumstances the containment of any radioactive materials dispersed in the premises on fire. Regarding fire detection, a study should be made on the constraints specific to the facility and liable to affect detector operation. These include ventilation, radiations, neutral or corrosive atmosphere, etc. As regards fire-fighting, two particular aspects are dealt with, namely the question of using water in case of fire and action to be taken concerning ventilation. A practical example - the protection of a ventilation system - is described. In conclusion the paper refers to the need for a thorough analysis specific to each hot laboratory, and to the importance of preparing an operational plan so as to avoid any dangerous improvisations in case of an accident. (author)

  16. A regional fight against Chagas disease: lessons learned from a successful collaborative partnership

    Rosina Salerno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the intangible elements that characterize the successful effort to fight Chagas disease in the Americas, determine how they contributed to the overall success of the partnership, and learn lessons from the experience that could be applied to other programs. Methods. This study was based on the Partnership Assessment Tool (PAT developed by the Nuffield Institute for Health ("the Institute" at the University of Leeds (London. The PAT draws heavily on scientific literature and the extensive experience of sociologists and health experts working for the Institute. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO modified the tool slightly to adapt it to its needs and provide a general structure for the study. The six key principles of the PAT framework were applied in the design of the research questionnaires. Results. The findings show that a successful collaboration requires a clear objective; a good-quality pool of data; and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the problem, its dimensions, and its impact. The collaboration was elaborated from a common idea and a shared, quantified plan based on data gathered by independent scientists plus a strategy with explicit milestones. The clarity of purpose allowed for an improved synergy of efforts and made it possible to resolve differences in opinions and approaches. Conclusions. PAHO's experience with effective collaborations such as the joint initiative to fight Chagas disease provides a rich knowledge base for analysis of the advantages, limitations, and paradigms of community involvement, collaborative practices, and partnerships.

  17. Study of special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight

    V.V. Aksutin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the determination of tendency in boxer to a certain style of fight is important at all stages. Material : The special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight were studied. The special capacity and the impact force were studied by special training equipment among 23 boxers of higher qualification. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Results : the results indicated that the absolutely impact force, the total tonnage and the relative strength of his right hand of strikes in boxers-“strongman” are more higher than in boxers with different styles. In boxers-“player” the power-hitting left-handed is more increasing for different styles. This fact indicates the presence among boxers-“player” the left-handed persons. Conclusions : the presented data are indicated about more higher of special endurance in boxers-“fastest”. This group of boxers differs from other of more higher development speed endurance

  18. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age......Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual...... agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action...

  19. Review of Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving by Sanjoy Mahajan

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010. 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples that will require knowledge of Physics. At the same time, there are parts of the book that don't require this much background. While the title of the book may be misleading, as it is really street-fighting mathematics for people with a fair amount of training in the subject, there is a lot to be gained from reading this book, and calculus teachers may find it to be a useful resource.

  20. Comparative estimation of efficiency of playing method at perfection of technique of fight for the capture of young judoists

    Musakhanov A.K.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of efficiency of mastering of technique of fight are considered for a capture for young judoists. Directions are selected the use of methods of the strictly regulated exercise and playing methods. In research 28 judoists took part in age 8-10 years. Duration of experiment two weeks. In one group of youths conducted game on snatching out of ribbons (clothes-pins and bandages, fastened on the kimono of opponent. In the second group work of taking of basic captures and educational meetings was conducted on a task on taking of capture. The training program contained playing methods and methods of the strictly regulated exercise. Comparison of the trainings programs defined specificity of their affecting development of different indexes of technique of fight for a capture. Recommended in training on the technique of fight for a capture the combined use of methods of the strictly regulated exercise and playing methods.

  1. “Your Kung Fu is very good, Master Fiore!” Asian and European fight books in comparison

    Wetzler Sixt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the fight book is not restricted to the European tradition. Similar artefacts, usually combining text and image to describe the techniques of close quarter combat with and without weapons, exist also in various Asian cultures, in China, Japan, Korea, and India. In the article, the question shall be raised in how far and to which end fight books of different cultures can be taken into one perspective, and be compared. To do so, similarities and dissimilarities between European and early Chinese fight books will be pointed out, and preliminary areas for comparison will be introduced. The aim of the article is to raise awareness for the topic, and to lay the ground for further discussion between specialists on the respective European and Chinese fields.

  2. Phytoplankton Communities in Green Bay, Lake Michigan after Invasion by Dreissenid Mussels: Increased Dominance by Cyanobacteria

    Bart T. De Stasio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions of aquatic systems disrupt ecological communities, and cause major changes in diversity and ecosystem function. The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been dramatically altered by such invasions, especially zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels. Responses to mussel invasions have included increased water clarity, and decreased chlorophyll and phytoplankton abundance. Although not all systems have responded similarly, in general, mussels have changed nutrient dynamics and physical habitat conditions. Therefore examination of different impacts can help us further understand mechanisms that underlie ecosystem responses to biological invasions. To aid our understanding of ecosystem impacts, we sampled established locations along a well-studied trophic gradient in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, after the 1993 zebra mussel invasion. A strong trophic gradient remained during the period sampled after the mussel invasion (2000–2012. However, mean summer chlorophyll increased and other measures of phytoplankton biomass (microscope and electronic cell counting did not change significantly. Multivariate analyses of phytoplankton community structure demonstrate a significant community shift after the invasion. Cyanobacteria increased in dominance, with Microcystis becoming the major summer taxon in lower Green Bay. Diatom diversity and abundance also increased and Chlorophyta became rare. Phytoplankton responses along the trophic gradient of Green Bay to zebra mussel invasion highlight the importance of mussel effects on nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton diversity and function.

  3. Interactive effect of herbivory and competition on the invasive plant Mikania micrantha.

    Li, Junmin; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Qiong; Dong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of host-specific biological control agents fail to control invasive plants in the field, and exploring the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is important and helpful for the management of invasive plants. Herbivory and competition are two of the most common biotic stressors encountered by invasive plants in their recipient communities. We predicted that the antagonistic interactive effect between herbivory and competition would weaken the effect of herbivory on invasive plants and result in the failure of herbivory to control invasive plants. To examine this prediction, thus, we conducted an experiment in which both invasive Mikania micrantha and native Coix lacryma-job i were grown together and subjected to herbivory-mimicking defoliation. Both defoliation and competition had significantly negative effects on the growth of the invader. However, the negative effect of 75% respective defoliation on the above- and below-ground biomass of Mikania micrantha was alleviated by presence of Coix lacryma-jobi. The negative effect of competition on the above- and below-ground biomass was equally compensated at 25%, 50% and 100% defoliation and overcompensated at 75% defoliation. The interactive effect was antagonistic and dependent on the defoliation intensity, with the maximum effect at 75% defoliation. The antagonistic interaction between defoliation and competition appears to be able to release the invader from competition, thus facilitating the invasiveness of Mikania, a situation that might make herbivory fail to inhibit the growth of invasive Mikania in the invaded community.

  4. Encouraging dentists as agents of change in the fight against tobacco in Malaysia: An example of a dentist-psychiatrist collaborative effort

    Amer Siddiq AN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentist has long been recognized as a formal health profession. Health professionals have an important role to play in the fight against tobacco. Smoking tobacco is dangerous because it related disease and also due to it being labeled as a gateway to illicit drug abuse. As individuals, the dentist can help educate the population, as community members they can support anti-smoking policies and at a societal level, they can influence national and global tobacco control efforts. The associations between tobacco use and diseases affecting the oral cavity, such as periodontal disease and cancer, are now well recognized. This has lead to proposals from some members of the profession that members of the dental team should provide smoking cessation services. Before exploring effective ways to help smokers quit, it is important to understand the nature of the addictive process and how it affects both nicotine use and cessation attempts. The potential influence of dentists as agents of change is clear from even a brief consideration of the nature and conditions of the dentist-patient relationship. The dental practice setting provides a unique opportunity to assist tobacco users in achieving tobacco abstinence. The role of psychiatrists to support the effort, therefore, becomes all the more important.

  5. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    2011-11-07

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their...-2012 Invasive Species National Management Plan. The meeting is open to the public. An orientation...

  6. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    2012-04-20

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... both ecological and management contexts, will center on topics that: (1) Pertain to invasive species...

  7. Risk factors for invasive reptile-associated salmonellosis in children.

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M; Relly, Christa; Hug, Martina; Wittenbrink, Max M; Berger, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) in children has been reported primarily due to direct contact with turtles, but recently also due to indirect contact with more exotic reptiles, causing disease in infants. To evaluate risk factors for RAS, we reviewed the RAS cases published in the literature since 1965. A case was defined as a child ≤18 years of age with an epidemiological link by identification of Salmonella enterica in cultures from both the affected child and the exposed reptile. We identified a total of 177 otherwise healthy children (median age 1.0 years, range 2 days to 17.0 years). RAS manifested mainly with gastrointestinal disease, but 15% presented with invasive RAS, including septicemia, meningitis, and bone and joint infection. The children with invasive RAS were significantly younger than children with noninvasive disease (median age 0.17 and 2.0 years, preptiles other than turtles, including iguanas, bearded dragons, snakes, chameleons, and geckos. Children exposed to those latter reptiles usually kept indoors were younger than children exposed to turtles mostly kept outdoors (preptiles, other than turtles, kept indoors is associated with RAS at younger age and more invasive disease. This finding is helpful for recognizing or even preventing invasive RAS in young infants that are at highest risk.

  8. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children

    Cristiana Araujo G. Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify literature evidences related to actions to promote family's presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children hospitalized in pediatric and neonatal critical care units. Data sources : Integrative literature review in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, from 2002 to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: research article in Medicine, or Nursing, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, using the keywords "family", "invasive procedures", "cardiopulmonary resuscitation", "health staff", and "Pediatrics". Articles that did not refer to the presence of the family in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures were excluded. Therefore, 15 articles were analyzed. Data synthesis : Most articles were published in the United States (80%, in Medicine and Nursing (46%, and were surveys (72% with healthcare team members (67% as participants. From the critical analysis, four themes related to the actions to promote family's presence in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were obtained: a to develop a sensitizing program for healthcare team; b to educate the healthcare team to include the family in these circumstances; c to develop a written institutional policy; d to ensure the attendance of family's needs. Conclusions: Researches on these issues must be encouraged in order to help healthcare team to modify their practice, implementing the principles of the Patient and Family Centered Care model, especially during critical episodes.

  9. Invasive strategy for treatment of myocardial infarction.

    Höfling, B; von Pölnitz, A

    1990-01-01

    The classical approach to the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been one of stabilization and complication management. In an effort to optimize treatment, the initiation of the cardiac care unit and the use of antiarrhythmic therapy have succeeded in lowering the mortality rate substantially. More modern concepts are aimed at limiting infarct size and preserving myocardial function. These aims can be achieved medically using intravenous (i.v.) thrombolysis or invasively either with intracoronary (i.c.) thrombolysis, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or bypass surgery. Although i.c. thrombolysis is more effective than the i.v. route, the necessity for acute coronary catheterization makes it incompatible and difficult for routine use, and thus is usually reserved for cases in which i.v. lysis has failed. Intravenous thrombolysis is becoming the standard approach to MI, and the remaining questions are those of which drug and dosage are optimal and how to approach the patient after thrombolysis. In this regard, we favor a symptom-guided approach, as shown by the TIMI-IIA and European cooperative studies. In patients with ongoing ischemia postlysis, heart catheterization is indicated and a decision regarding PTCA or surgery is then made, depending on anatomy. In patients remaining stable after acute lysis, a predischarge stress may help in selecting patients requiring catheterization. As an alternative invasive approach to acute MI, PTCA may be the quickest and most effective method to recanalize a vessel, but, again, logistical problems make it incompatible in the acute setting. The same is true for bypass surgery, and although extensive improvements have been made in intraoperative myocardial preservation so that a 2% mortality is achievable, it is reserved for patients with extensive ischemia and anatomy unsuitable for PTCA (extensive multivessel or left main disease).

  10. Invasive plants in 21st Century landscapes.

    Valerie. Rapp

    2005-01-01

    A plant species is defined as invasive if it is nonnative to the ecosystem under consideration, and if it causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Nonnative plant invasions are generally considered to have reached the Pacific Northwest in the mid-1800s with the arrival of European-American settlers. Invasive species such as...

  11. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    2010-05-25

    ... Council is co-chaired by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of... of the most invaded marine/coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that... development of state invasive species councils. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  12. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  13. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  14. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  15. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  16. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  17. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  18. Paying it forward: How helping others can reduce the psychological threat of receiving help

    Alvarez, K.; van Leeuwen, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that receiving help could be psychologically harmful for recipients, and passing on help to others after receiving help ("helping forward") is a good strategy to improve and restore help recipients' self-competence. Participants (N=87) received autonomy- or dependency-oriented help

  19. Chemokine receptor CXCR7 regulates the invasion, angiogenesis and tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Li Fan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic measures, the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients remains poor. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what factors are involved in promoting development of HCC. Evidence is accumulating that members of the chemokine receptor family are viewed as promising therapeutic targets in the fight against cancer. More recent studies have revealed that chemokine receptor CXCR7 plays an important role in cancer development. However, little is known about the effect of CXCR7 on the process of HCC cell invasion and angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of CXCR7 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines and to evaluate the role of CXCR7 in tumor growth, angiogenesis and invasion of HCC cells. Methods We constructed CXCR7 expressing shRNA, and CXCR7shRNA was subsequently stably transfected into human HCC cells. We evaluated the effect of CXCR7 inhibition on cell invasion, adhesion, VEGF secretion, tube formation and tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry was done to assess the expression of CXCR7 in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and CD31 in tumor of mice. We also evaluated the effect of VEGF stimulation on expression of CXCR7. Results CXCR7 was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. We showed that high invasive potential HCC cell lines express high levels of CXCR7. In vitro, CXCL12 was found to induce invasion, adhesion, tube formation, and VEGF secretion in SMMC-7721 cells. These biological effects were inhibited by silencing of CXCR7 in SMMC-7721 cells. In addition, we also found that VEGF stimulation can up-regulate CXCR7 expression in SMMC-7721 cells and HUVECs. More importantly, enhanced expression of CXCR7 by VEGF was founctional. In vivo, tumor growth and angiogenesis were suppressed by knockdown of CXCR7 in SMMC-7721 cells. However, silencing of CXCR7 did not affect metastasis of tumor in vivo

  20. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.