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Sample records for helpful female subordinate

  1. The cost of dominance: suppressing subordinate reproduction affects the reproductive success of dominant female banded mongooses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M B V; Nichols, H J; Gilchrist, J S; Cant, M A; Hodge, S J

    2012-02-07

    Social species show considerable variation in the extent to which dominant females suppress subordinate reproduction. Much of this variation may be influenced by the cost of active suppression to dominants, who may be selected to balance the need to maximize the resources available for their own offspring against the costs of interfering with subordinate reproduction. To date, the cost of reproductive suppression has received little attention, despite its potential to influence the outcome of conflict over the distribution of reproduction in social species. Here, we investigate possible costs of reproductive suppression in banded mongooses, where dominant females evict subordinates from their groups, thereby inducing subordinate abortion. We show that evicting subordinate females is associated with substantial costs to dominant females: pups born to females who evicted subordinates while pregnant were lighter than those born after undisturbed gestations; pups whose dependent period was disrupted by an eviction attained a lower weight at independence; and the proportion of a litter that survived to independence was reduced if there was an eviction during the dependent period. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study indicating a possible cost to dominants in attempting to suppress subordinate breeding, and we argue that much of the variation in reproductive skew both within and between social species may be influenced by adaptive variation in the effort invested in suppression by dominants.

  2. The subordinate's predicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, E H; Gypen, J

    1979-01-01

    How can subordinates improve relations with their superiors? And how can superiors help their subordinates feel comfortable in what is often a tense relationship? These questions have usually been dealt with only indirectly in management circles. Yet the relationship is so threatening to many subordinates that they react in ways that are damaging to themselves and their ogranizations. Drawing heavily on the work of psychologist Erik Erikson, the authors present dilemmas that commonly confront the subordinate. They point out that being aware of these dilemmas can make them more manageable and then offer advice to superiors to aid subordinates in handling such situations.

  3. Codependency in male and female helping professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, D S; Hughes-Hammer, C; Estok, P; Zeller, R A

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the prevalence of codependency in a group of 77 female and a group of 72 male helping professionals. Relatively low rates of codependency were observed in this sample, and the five-factor structure of the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT) was replicated. Males showed slightly higher codependency than females on the total CODAT and on the Hiding Self and Family of Origin Issues subscales. The CODAT was shown to be relevant to both males and females. Further research is needed to determine if a general population of male and female subjects would yield similar results.

  4. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

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    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  5. Helping Teenage Girls Avoid the Female Athlete Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Deb

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school nurses can advocate for adolescent female students and help them avoid the female athlete triad that includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The article focuses on consequences of the triad, how to uncover the symptoms, working to improve public support, and creating a successful program through partnership.…

  6. [Researching subordinate personality atavism in schizophrenia from the perspective of physical, mental and spiritual healing, and helping the patient to recover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tien-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    Schizophrenia is not an incurable condition. If we had not understood the operating model of schizophrenia in its spiritual phase, we would not know what its causes were, and there would be no cure for it. The author has studied The Seth Material for more than twenty years. New Age thinking has it that schizophrenia can be redefined as a phenomenon of subordinate personality or secondary personality. This new definition has directly pointed out and solved the core problems of schizophrenia. It has provided a perfect explanation of phenomenology. Also, the etiology of schizophrenia has been built. A guide to diagnosis and the new treatment has been produced. The secondary personality, as described above, prevents the patient from being willing to face and grow with his main personality, and causes him to split from it. A new vision of mind and spirit enables a schizophrenic episode to be seen in fact as a process which forces him to face himself and push him to grow into one and self-heal. According to the symptoms of schizophrenia (auditory hallucinations, thought withdrawal, insertion and interruption, thought broadcasting, somatic hallucinations, delusional perception, external agents), which are the key points of recovery, the author proposes the theory of recorder as a spiritual prescription for healing which has succeeded in helping our patients.

  7. Perception of the Use of Leadership Frames by Male and Female Superintendents in Texas by Subordinate Top-Ranking School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. Steven

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to broadly examine and analyze gender differences in the leadership styles of Texas public school superintendents by analyzing their subordinates' responses on Bolman and Deal's (1991) Leadership Orientations (Other) survey. Approximately 25% (n = 484) of the high-ranking administrators within the 198 selected school…

  8. Empathy and burnout in male and female helping professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C A

    1989-06-01

    Relationships between empathy and burnout and possible confounding influences of sex and profession were explored in a sample of 492 male and female nurses, social workers, and teachers. Respondents completed Mehrabian's Emotional Empathy Scale, Stotland's Fantasy-Empathy Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). There were no main effects of profession on empathy or burnout variables. There was, however, an interaction effect of sex and profession on depersonalization, which was accounted for by subjects in social work and teaching. Women had significantly higher empathy scores than men; however, men had higher scores than male normative groups. Age related negatively to depersonalization and emotional exhaustion for women, whereas percentage of work time spent in direct practice correlated with depersonalization for men. The possibility that empathy and burnout might represent opposite poles of the same underlying construct was examined but not found. Instead, emotional empathy was significantly positively correlated with both emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, whereas emotional exhaustion was also positively related to depersonalization. It is hypothesized that high emotional empathy may predispose helping professionals to emotional exhaustion and that emotional exhaustion, if not mediated by personal accomplishment, may lead to the development of depersonalization. This more complex, interactive model of the empathy-burnout relationship needs longitudinal study.

  9. Analysis of gender stereotypic characteristics in leaders and subordinates

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    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was realized to analyze the way leaders and subordinates describe themselves in relation to perceived gender stereotypic characteristics and, to verify if exists differences in these characteristics according position (leader/ subordinate. Participate 612 individuals, 329 male (54% y 283 female (46%, age average = 37,54 years (DE=11,88. 59 % of the participants occupied executive positions and the rest were subordinates. It was utilized and abbreviate version of the Bem Sex Roles (Bem, 1974 to data recollection. The obtained results show that male leaders describe themselves mainly with agentic-masculine attributes (e.g. dominant, compared with subordinates who describe themselves with communal- feminine characteristics (e.g. submission. On the other hand, the female leaders describe themselves mainly with androgyny attributes combining qualities of both genders (e.g. dominant and sensible to the needs of others; however the female subordinates show communal attributes (e.g. submission

  10. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  11. Adolescent Boys' Intentions of Seeking Help from Male Friends and Female Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Heather A.; Graham, Joanna; Campbell, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined adolescent boys' intentions of seeking help from male friends and female friends. We evaluated mean differences in boys' help-seeking intentions; assessed whether boys' individual characteristics predicted their intentions; and examined perceived support from male friends and female friends as mediators of these relationships.…

  12. Cultural Barriers to Help-Seeking among Taiwanese Female Victims of Dating Violence

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    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the help-seeking behaviors of female dating-violence victims from a cultural perspective. A semistructured, in-depth interview was used to collect data from 10 female victims (aged 20-28). Findings indicate that Taiwanese dating-violence victims tend to seek informal help rather than formal…

  13. Help-seeking behaviors for female sexual dysfunction: a cross sectional study from Iran

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    Montazeri Ali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sexual dysfunctions (FSD are prevalent multifactor problems that in general remain misdiagnosed in primary health care. This population-based study investigated help-seeking behaviors among women with FSD in Iran. Methods This was a cross sectional study carried out in Kohgilouyeh-Boyer-Ahmad province in Iran. Using quota sampling all sexually active women aged 15 and over registered in primary health care delivery centers were studied. Experience of sexual problems was assessed using an ad-hoc questionnaire (Female sexual dysfunction: help-seeking behaviors survey containing 14 items. Trained female nurses interviewed all participants after a verbal informed consent. Data were analyzed in a descriptive manner. Results In all 1540 women were studied. Of these, 786 (51% cases had experienced at least one of the FSD problems. Results showed that 35.8% of women with FSD had sought no professional help and the most reasons for not seeking help were identified as: 'time constraints' and believing that it 'did not occur to me' (39.1 and 28.5% respectively. Sixty one percent of women who sought help for FSD reported that 'doctor gave me a definite diagnosis' and 'a definite treatment plan was given' in 57% of cases. Conclusion The study findings indicated that FSD problems were prevalent and many women did not seek help for their problem. Finding 'time constraints' and believing that the problem 'did not occur to me' as the most cited reasons for not seeking help might facilitate to understand potential barriers that exist in recognition and treatment of the female sexual dysfunctions. Since FSD might have a negative impact on interpersonal relationships and women's quality of life, it seems that there is need to address the problem both at local and national primary health care services.

  14. Multivariate Modelling via Matrix Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolato, Elisa

    stochastic volatility via time-change is quite ineffective when applied to the multivariate setting. In this work we propose a new class of models, which is obtained by conditioning a multivariate Brownian Motion to a so-called matrix subordinator. The obtained model-class encompasses the vast majority...

  15. Experiences with Dating Violence and Help Seeking Among Hispanic Females in Their Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Ferranti, Dina; Halstead, Valerie; Ilias, Vanessa M

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic females in their late adolescence appear to be disproportionately affected by dating violence, yet the majority of victims never seek out formal services. The purpose of this study was to explore the dating violence and help-seeking experiences of Hispanic females in their late adolescence. Participants were recruited from a social service agency providing wrap-around services to individuals and families affected by abuse in South Florida. Eleven in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence (18 to 24 years of age) in English or Spanish. A thematic analysis of transcripts identified four major themes: (a) conflict, culture, and context influences Hispanic couples; (b) missed opportunities to accessing help; (c) pivotal moments are needed to access formal services; and (d) family matters. Participants of this study believed that dating violence was more normative in Hispanic relationships than "American" relationships. Although participants had opportunities to seek formal services early in their relationships, formal services were only sought after pivotal moments. Families played an important role in supporting or further victimizing the participants. Findings from this study can be used to inform interventions addressing both informal and formal sources of support for Hispanic female victims of dating violence in their late adolescence.

  16. Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps

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    Grinsted, Lena; Field, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Biological market theory is potentially useful for understanding helping behaviour in animal societies. It predicts that competition for trading partners will affect the value of commodities exchanged. It has gained empirical support in cooperative breeders, where subordinates help dominant breeders in exchange for group membership, but so far without considering one crucial aspect: outside options. We find support for a biological market in paper wasps, Polistes dominula. We first show that females have a choice of cooperative partners. Second, by manipulating entire subpopulations in the field, we increase the supply of outside options for subordinates, freeing up suitable nesting spots and providing additional nesting partners. We predicted that by intensifying competition for help, our manipulation would force dominants to accept a lower price for group membership. As expected, subordinates reduce their foraging effort following our treatments. We conclude that to accurately predict the amount of help provided, social units cannot be viewed in isolation: the surrounding market must also be considered. PMID:28117836

  17. System Involvement for Women Subordinates: Relations with Communication and Personality Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorden, William I.; Infante, Dominic A.

    It was hypothesized that the quality of superior-subordinate communication relationships, self-esteem, clothing consciousness, impulsiveness, and intellectual interest would account for a significant portion of variance in a multiple regression equation of female subordinates' system involvement. This hypothesis was tested with data from 164…

  18. Subordination Pathways to Fractional Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenflo, Rudolf; 10.1140/epjst/e2011-01386-2

    2011-01-01

    The uncoupled Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) in one space-dimension and under power law regime is splitted into three distinct random walks: (rw_1), a random walk along the line of natural time, happening in operational time; (rw_2), a random walk along the line of space, happening in operational time;(rw_3), the inversion of (rw_1), namely a random walk along the line of operational time, happening in natural time. Via the general integral equation of CTRW and appropriate rescaling, the transition to the diffusion limit is carried out for each of these three random walks. Combining the limits of (rw_1) and (rw_2) we get the method of parametric subordination for generating particle paths, whereas combination of (rw_2) and (rw_3) yields the subordination integral for the sojourn probability density in space-time fractional diffusion.

  19. Lévy Bases and Extended Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole

    The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields.......The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields....

  20. The cultural conception and structural perpetuation of female subordination: an examination of gender relations among the populations of the Chalt-Chaprote community in the Nager Valley of Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, S; Fatima, A

    1992-01-01

    Women's role and status in Pakistan is discussed with reference to fieldwork conducted in the Chalt-Chaprote community in the Nagar Valley in 1989-90. Attention was directed to how women are placed in subordinate positions within socioeconomic activities, and the effect of changing economic conditions on their role and status. Women's social position of authority, decision making, or leadership is subordinate to men's at the household, the village, or community level. Even though women belong to women's organizations, men still keep accounts and maintain contact with men of the "outside world." Unchaperoned mobility and access to formal education are restricted for women. Women and girls are active in production in the fields and pastures, and their role exceeds that of males in intensity and length of work. Several tables indicate the involvement in a variety of production tasks. Production work takes about 8.05 hours/day throughout the year; this equals 2378.8 hours every year compared with men's 2047.27 hours. Household work is in addition to production work. Girls contribute to the household at the age of 8-9 years in child care, and at the age of 13-14 years in cooking cleaning, and washing. Women comprise 49.3% of the population, but are not entitled to claim property if there are brothers or the family is very poor. Birth ceremonies are different for girls, and only boys are welcomed at birth. Eating patterns also reflect the subordinate status of women. Women eat after men and eat the leftovers. In a food crisis situation, it is women who are expected to limit their consumption. Maternal mortality is high due to malnutrition and lack of prompt access to medical care. Women have very little leisure time and almost no recreational activity, in contrast to men. Women do not practice sports or dance as men are allowed to do. This community was incorporated into the Federally Administered Areas in 1972, and piped water was introduced. This reduced the time and

  1. Subordination in Cholón

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alexander-Bakkerus

    2011-01-01

    In Cholón, an indigenous language from northern Peru, subordinate clauses are formed by means of nominalizers or subordinators. Most of these markers attach to reduced verb forms, but some nominalizers are attached to a fully inflected form. Nominalizers can be followed by a case marker or by a comb

  2. Sufficient Conditions for Subordination of Meromorphic Functions

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    Rabha W. Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of giving sufficient condition for certain class of meromorphic functions defined as differential operator was studied. Approach: The differential operator of meromorphic functions containing fractional power was proposed and defined. The preliminary concept of subordination was introduced to give sharp proofs for certain sufficient conditions of the differential operator aforementioned. Results: Having new operator, subordination theorems established by using standard concept of subordination and reduced to well-known results studied by various researchers. The operator was then applied for fractional calculus and obtained new subordination theorem. Conclusion: Therefore, by having new operators, new criteria and new set of subordination theorems could be obtained with some earlier results and standard methods.

  3. Comparing Help-Seeking Behavior of Male and Female Survivors of Sexual Assault: A Content Analysis of a Hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephen M; Pruett, Jana A; Colvin, Marianna L

    2016-11-18

    This content analysis examines written documentation of telephone calls to a regional sexual assault hotline over a 5-year period. All male callers identified as primary victims were selected for analysis (n = 58) and a corresponding sample of female primary victims (n = 58) were randomly selected for comparison to better understand the help-seeking behavior of sexual assault survivors and inform services accordingly. A summative content analysis revealed significant contrasting themes between male and female victims, including females significantly receiving more referrals and males accessing the hotline to tell their experience of being sexually assaulted due to perceived limited support. Implications for training, practice, and future research are discussed.

  4. Supervisors' attitudes and skills for active listening with regard to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinate workers.

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    Mineyama, Sachiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takao, Soshi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-03-01

    We investigated whether supervisors' listening attitudes and skills were related to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among their subordinates. The subjects included 41 male supervisors and their immediate subordinates (n=203). The supervisors completed a short version of the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS) consisting of two subscales: Listening Attitude and Listening Skill for Active Listening. The subordinates rated working conditions and their psychological stress reactions using selected scales of the Job Content Questionnaire and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill reported a more favorable psychological stress reaction than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Skill reported higher worksite support than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude reported higher job control than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude. A supervisor's listening attitude and skill appeared to affect psychological stress reactions predominantly among male subordinates than among female subordinates. Psychological stress reactions were lower among younger subordinates who worked under supervisors with high listening skill, while no statistically difference was observed among older subordinates. These findings suggest that a supervisor's listening attitude and skill have an effect on working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinates and that the effects vary according to the subordinates' sex and age.

  5. Out from the Shadows: Female Student Veterans and Help-Seeking

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    DiRamio, David; Jarvis, Kathryn; Iverson, Susan; Seher, Christin; Anderson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are devoting resources to support students who have military experience. However, evidence suggests veterans may not be using services. Since resources are available this begs the questions "why not?" and "what are the help-seeking attitudes of veterans for psychological and academic assistance?" It's…

  6. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  7. Meta-Times and Extended Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Jan

    The problem of defining subordination of a homogeneous Lévy basis by a non-negative homogeneous Lévy basis is discussed. An explicit construction, generalizing the usual one-dimensional case, is given. This construction involves certain random meta-time changes.......The problem of defining subordination of a homogeneous Lévy basis by a non-negative homogeneous Lévy basis is discussed. An explicit construction, generalizing the usual one-dimensional case, is given. This construction involves certain random meta-time changes....

  8. Is technology assisted guided self-help successful in treating female adolescents with bulimia nervosa?

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    Wagner, Gudrun; Wagner, Gudrun; Penelo, Eva; Nobis, Gerald; Mayerhofer, Anna; Schau, Johanna; Spitzer, Marion; Imgart, Hartmut; Karwautz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the long-term outcome of new technology assisted guided self-help in adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). One hundred and twenty-six patients with BN (29 adolescents and 97 adults) were randomly allocated to a cognitive behavioural therapy-based self-help program delivered by the Internet or bibliotherapy, both accompanied by e-mail guidance. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, month 4, 7 and 18 including remission rates and eating disorder associated psychopathology. In all, 44% of adolescents vs. 38.7% of adults were in remission at month 7, and 55% of adolescents vs. 62.5% of adults were in remission at follow-up. Objective binge eating and compensatory behaviour improved significantly over time in both groups, with the highest decrease during the first 4 months. A significant decrease over time and no group differences have been found in almost all EDI-2 subscales. E-mail guided self-help (delivered via the Internet or bibliotherapy) is equally effective for adolescents as for adults with BN, and can be recommended as an initial step of treatment for this younger age group.

  9. Group-size-dependent punishment of idle subordinates in a cooperative breeder where helpers pay to stay.

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    Fischer, Stefan; Zöttl, Markus; Groenewoud, Frank; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-08-22

    In cooperative breeding systems, dominant breeders sometimes tolerate unrelated individuals even if they inflict costs on the dominants. According to the 'pay-to-stay' hypothesis, (i) subordinates can outweigh these costs by providing help and (ii) dominants should be able to enforce help by punishing subordinates that provide insufficient help. This requires that dominants can monitor helping and can recognize group members individually. In a field experiment, we tested whether cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates increase their help after a forced 'idle' period, how other group members respond to a previously idle helper, and how helper behaviour and group responses depend on group size. Previously, idle helpers increased their submissiveness and received more aggression than control helpers, suggesting that punishment occurred to enforce help. Subordinates in small groups increased their help more than those in large groups, despite receiving less aggression. When subordinates were temporarily removed, dominants in small groups were more likely to evict returning subordinates. Our results suggest that only in small groups do helpers face a latent threat of punishment by breeders as predicted by the pay-to-stay hypothesis. In large groups, cognitive constraints may prevent breeders from tracking the behaviour of a large number of helpers.

  10. Matrix subordinators and related Upsilon transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Pérez-Abreu, V.

    2008-01-01

    A class of upsilon transformations of Lévy measures for matrix subordinators is introduced. Some regularizing properties of these transformations are derived, such as absolute continuity and complete monotonicity. The class of Lévy measures with completely monotone matrix densities is characterized....... Examples of infinitely divisible nonnegative definite random matrices are constructed using an upsilon transformation....

  11. Different male versus female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles

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    Graeme Clive Hays

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD, such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceeding 3:1 in >50% records, which, at-a-glance, reiterates concerns for extinction. However, we also demonstrate that more frequent breeding by males, empirically shown by satellite tracking 23 individuals and supported by a generalized bio-energetic life history model, generates more balanced operational sex ratios (OSRs. Hence, concerns of increasingly skewed hatchling sex ratios and reduced population viability are less acute than previously thought for sea turtles. In fact, in some scenarios skewed hatchling sex ratios in groups with TSD may be adaptive to ensure optimum OSRs.

  12. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...... are shaped, (re)confirmed and re-evaluated. This paper pursues the better understanding of the latter aspect by looking at one substantial and recurrent activity in PAIs: the evaluation of employee performance. One resource for doing the evaluation work is making assessments (e.g. Goodwin & Goodwin, 1987...

  13. On the Bochner subordination of exit laws

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hmissi; Wajdi Maaouia

    2011-01-01

    Let \\(\\mathbb{P}=(P_t)_{t\\ge 0}\\) be a sub-Markovian semigroup on \\(L^2(m)\\), let \\(\\beta=(\\beta_t)_{t\\ge 0}\\) be a Bochner subordinator and let \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}=(P_t^{\\beta})_{t\\ge 0}\\) be the subordinated semigroup of \\(\\mathbb{P}\\) by means of \\(\\beta\\), i.e. \\(P^{\\beta}_s:=\\int_0^{\\infty} P_r\\,\\beta_s(dr)\\). Let \\(\\varphi:=(\\varphi_t)_{t\\gt 0}\\) be a \\(\\mathbb{P}\\)-exit law, i.e. \\[ P_t\\varphi_s= \\varphi_{s+t}, \\qquad s,t\\gt 0\\] and let \\(\\varphi^{\\beta}_t:=\\int_0^{\\infty} \\varphi_s...

  14. THE SPANISH MOOD/SUBORDINATION/REFERENCE INTERFACE

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    Amy E. Gregory

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the discourse function of the Spanish subjunctive mood. Traditional approaches focus on its semantics, invoking the notions of volition, doubt, negation, and emotion while maintaining the importance of the clause's subordinate status and change of subject from matrix verb to subordinate verb. Notwithstanding, thirty years of linguistic research on the Spanish mood contrast have given rise to the descriptors ± assertion: indicative is +assertive while subjunctive is -assertive. Although these descriptors are appropriate, viewing the subjunctive mood as a discourse cohesive device makes apparent the true nature of the mood contrast. Anaphoric, exophoric, and cataphoric features of languages refer to antecedents, elements of the physical context, or foreshadowed events/information, respectively. This article proposes a mechanism by which Spanish subjunctive clauses fulfill all three functions, circumscribing the Spanish mood contrast within the language's deictic system, and suggests avenues for future research.

  15. On the Bochner subordination of exit laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hmissi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(\\mathbb{P}=(P_t_{t\\ge 0}\\ be a sub-Markovian semigroup on \\(L^2(m\\, let \\(\\beta=(\\beta_t_{t\\ge 0}\\ be a Bochner subordinator and let \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}=(P_t^{\\beta}_{t\\ge 0}\\ be the subordinated semigroup of \\(\\mathbb{P}\\ by means of \\(\\beta\\, i.e. \\(P^{\\beta}_s:=\\int_0^{\\infty} P_r\\,\\beta_s(dr\\. Let \\(\\varphi:=(\\varphi_t_{t\\gt 0}\\ be a \\(\\mathbb{P}\\-exit law, i.e. \\[ P_t\\varphi_s= \\varphi_{s+t}, \\qquad s,t\\gt 0\\] and let \\(\\varphi^{\\beta}_t:=\\int_0^{\\infty} \\varphi_s\\,\\beta_t(ds\\. Then \\(\\varphi^{\\beta}:=(\\varphi_t^{\\beta}_{t\\gt 0}\\ is a \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}\\-exit law whenever it lies in \\(L^2(m\\. This paper is devoted to the converse problem when \\(\\beta\\ is without drift. We prove that a \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}\\-exit law \\(\\psi:=(\\psi_t_{t\\gt 0}\\ is subordinated to a (unique \\(\\mathbb{P}\\-exit law \\(\\varphi\\ (i.e. \\(\\psi=\\varphi^{\\beta}\\ if and only if \\((P_tu_{t\\gt 0}\\subset D(A^{\\beta}\\, where \\(u=\\int_0^{\\infty} e^{-s} \\psi_s ds\\ and \\(A^{\\beta}\\ is the \\(L^2(m\\-generator of \\(\\mathbb{P}^{\\beta}\\.

  16. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-01-06

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL SUBORDINATIONS AND α-CONVEX FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacek DZIOK; Ravinder Krishna RAINA; Janusz SOK(O)L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some new results on the class SLMα of functions that are analytic in the open unit discu ={z:[z[< 1} satisfying the conditions that f(0)=0,f'(0)=1,and α (1+ zf"(z)/f'(z)) + (1-α)zf'(z)/f(x) ∈(p)(u)for all z ∈ u,where α is a real number and (p)(z) =1 + τ2z2/ 1-τz-τ2z2 (z ∈ u).The number τ =(1-√5)/2 is such that τ2 =1 + T.The class SLMα introduced by J.Dziok,R.K.Raina,and J.Sokól [3,Appl.Math.Comput.218 (2011),996-1002] is closely related to the classes of starlike and convex functions.The article deals with several ideas and techniques used in geometric function theory and differential subordinations theory.

  18. Leaders' achievement goals and their reactions to subordinates' creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    The present experimental research examined the impact of leaders' achievement goals on their reactions to creative input provided by their subordinates. In Experiment 1, performance goal leaders were found to be less receptive to subordinates' creative input than mastery goal leaders. In Experiment

  19. 12 CFR 5.47 - Subordinated debt as capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subordinated debt as capital. 5.47 Section 5.47... capital. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C. 93a. (b) Licensing requirements. A national bank does not need prior OCC... Tier 2 or Tier 3 capital. However, a bank issuing subordinated debt shall notify the OCC after...

  20. Leaders' achievement goals and their reactions to subordinates' creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    The present experimental research examined the impact of leaders' achievement goals on their reactions to creative input provided by their subordinates. In Experiment 1, performance goal leaders were found to be less receptive to subordinates' creative input than mastery goal leaders. In Experiment

  1. Hidden female urinary incontinence in urology and obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinics in Turkey: what are the determinants of bothersome urinary incontinence and help-seeking behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Bulent; Demirkesen, Oktay; Tarcan, Tufan; Yalcin, Onay; Kocak, Taner; Senocak, Mustafa; Itil, Ismail

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of female urinary incontinence (UI) and risk factors of bothersomeness and help-seeking behavior of hidden female UI in urology and obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinics. This multicentric and cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of the Turkish Overactive Bladder Study. Female patients (n = 5,565) who were referred with complaints other than UI and overactive bladder symptoms were surveyed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) with supplementation of five more questions. The crude prevalence of UI was found to be 35.7%. The prevalence of frequent and severe incontinence was 8.2 and 6.8%, respectively. The mean age of incontinent patients was significantly higher (p < 0.001). The prevalence of stress, urge, and mixed UI was 39.8, 24.8, and 28.9%, respectively. More than half (53%) of incontinent patients were not bothered by UI, and only 12% of incontinent patients had previously sought medical help for their problem. Frequency, severity, and type of UI were independent factors for predicting bothersome UI, while only bothersomeness increased help-seeking behavior. The ICIQ-SF score of 8 has been found to be the best cutoff value to delineate the bothersome UI. Although the crude prevalence of female UI was found to be high, bothersome UI was not so common. The majority of incontinent female patients did not seek medical help. Frequency, severity, and mixed type of UI were found to be the determinants of bothersome UI for which the ICIQ-SF cutoff score of 8 was obtained.

  2. Differential subordination for meromorphic multivalent quasi-convex functions

    OpenAIRE

    R. W. Ibrahim; M. Darus

    2010-01-01

    We introduce new classes of meromorphic multivalent quasi-convex functions and find some sufficient differential subordination theorems for such classes in punctured unit disk with applications in fractional calculus.

  3. Differential subordination for meromorphic multivalent quasi-convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Ibrahim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce new classes of meromorphic multivalent quasi-convex functions and find some sufficient differential subordination theorems for such classes in punctured unit disk with applications in fractional calculus.

  4. Supervisor's HEXACO personality traits and subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Vries, de Reinout E.

    2017-01-01

    Abusive supervision is detrimental to both subordinates and organizations. Knowledge about individual differences in personality related to abusive supervision may improve personnel selection and potentially reduce the harmful effects of this type of leadership. Using the HEXACO personality framewor

  5. On Certain Subclasses of Analytic Functions Defined by Differential Subordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Mahzoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study certain subclasses of analytic functions which are defined by differential subordination. Coefficient inequalities, some properties of neighborhoods, distortion and covering theorems, radius of starlikeness, and convexity for these subclasses are given.

  6. Subordination and superordination for certain analytic functions containing fractional integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaher Momani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to derive some subordination and superordination results for certain normalized analytic functions involving fractional integral operator. Moreover, this result is applied to find a relation between univalent solutions for fractional differential equation.

  7. Health care managers learning by listening to subordinates' dialogue training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, C; Ahlborg, G; Wikström, E

    2014-01-01

    Middle managers in health care today are expected to continuously and efficiently decide and act in administration, finance, care quality, and work environment, and strategic communication has become paramount. Since dialogical communication is considered to promote a healthy work environment, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which health care managers experienced observing subordinates' dialogue training. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and documents from eight middle managers in a dialogue programme intervention conducted by dialogue trainers. Focus was on fostering and assisting workplace dialogue. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used. Managers' experiences were both enriching and demanding, and consisted of becoming aware of communication, meaning perceiving interaction between subordinates as well as own silent interaction with subordinates and trainer; Discovering communicative actions for leadership, by gaining self-knowledge and recognizing relational leadership models from trainers--such as acting democratically and pedagogically--and converting theory into practice, signifying practising dialogue-promoting conversation behaviour with subordinates, peers, and superiors. Only eight managers participated in the intervention, but data afforded a basis for further research. Findings stressed the importance of listening, and of support from superiors, for well-functioning leadership communication at work. Studies focusing on health care managers' communication and dialogue are few. This study contributes to knowledge about these activities in managerial leadership.

  8. 7 CFR 765.205 - Subordination of liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The farm's operating plan, including a projected cash flow budget reflecting production, income... application for subordination form; (2) A current financial statement, including, in the case of an entity, financial statements from all entity members; (3) Documentation of compliance with the Agency's...

  9. ON CERTAIN CLASS OF ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS DEFINED BY DIFFERENTIAL SUBORDINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘名生

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the new subclass Bn(λ,α,A,B) of analytic functions is introduced. Its subordination relations, inclusion relations, the inequality properties and convering theorem are discussed. The results obtained in this paper are sharp, which generalize the related works of some authors and some other new results are obtained.

  10. Stable Lévy motion with inverse Gaussian subordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wyłomańska, A.; Gajda, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the stable Lévy motion subordinated by the so-called inverse Gaussian process. This process extends the well known normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) process introduced by Barndorff-Nielsen, which arises by subordinating ordinary Brownian motion (with drift) with inverse Gaussian process. The NIG process found many interesting applications, especially in financial data description. We discuss here the main features of the introduced subordinated process, such as distributional properties, existence of fractional order moments and asymptotic tail behavior. We show the connection of the process with continuous time random walk. Further, the governing fractional partial differential equations for the probability density function is also obtained. Moreover, we discuss the asymptotic distribution of sample mean square displacement, the main tool in detection of anomalous diffusion phenomena (Metzler et al., 2014). In order to apply the stable Lévy motion time-changed by inverse Gaussian subordinator we propose a step-by-step procedure of parameters estimation. At the end, we show how the examined process can be useful to model financial time series.

  11. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail-Jares, Katie; Chang, Ruth C. F.; Choi, Sugy; Zheng, Huang; He, Na; Huang, Z. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers’ risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear. Methods Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-reported client-initiated violence and intimate-partner violence in emotional, physical, and sexual forms. Social networks were characterized by the size and sources of financial and psychosocial support (e.g. family, friends, and peers). Multi-variable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of each type of violence exposure by social network structure after the adjustment of age, education, and years in Shanghai. Results The street-based female sex workers in our study were primarily rural-to-urban migrants (95.7%) with an average age of 41 years old. 24.3% and 62.8% of the sex workers reported intimate-partner violence and client-initiated violence respectively. Lack of financial support, as defined by having only one individual or none in her peer support system to help financially, was significantly associated with self-reported intimate-partner violence (AOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1–5.9). Respondents who reported client-initiated violence, by contrast, were more likely to report lacked psychosocial support from family (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0–4.6) and peers (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2–11). Conclusion This study is one of the first to systematically analyze the associations between social network and gender-based violence among street-based female sex worker. We reported a high prevalence of both types of gender-based violence and their complex associations with family, friends, and peer support network. Policies with goals to reduce violence against

  12. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hail-Jares

    Full Text Available Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers' risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear.Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-reported client-initiated violence and intimate-partner violence in emotional, physical, and sexual forms. Social networks were characterized by the size and sources of financial and psychosocial support (e.g. family, friends, and peers. Multi-variable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR of each type of violence exposure by social network structure after the adjustment of age, education, and years in Shanghai.The street-based female sex workers in our study were primarily rural-to-urban migrants (95.7% with an average age of 41 years old. 24.3% and 62.8% of the sex workers reported intimate-partner violence and client-initiated violence respectively. Lack of financial support, as defined by having only one individual or none in her peer support system to help financially, was significantly associated with self-reported intimate-partner violence (AOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9. Respondents who reported client-initiated violence, by contrast, were more likely to report lacked psychosocial support from family (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6 and peers (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2-11.This study is one of the first to systematically analyze the associations between social network and gender-based violence among street-based female sex worker. We reported a high prevalence of both types of gender-based violence and their complex associations with family, friends, and peer support network. Policies with goals to reduce violence against women may apply these findings to

  13. Cross-Situational Specificity in Managers' Perceptions of Subordinate Performance, Attributions, and Leader Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lawrence R.; White, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Examined managers' perceptions of subordinates' performance, causes (attributions) of subordinates' performance, and the leader behaviors they employed toward subordinates from the standpoint of cross-situational consistency versus cross-situational specificity. Empirical results for 377 Navy managers provided strong support for cross-situational…

  14. Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; Todor, W D; Skov, R

    1982-12-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction.

  15. The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Paris, Monique; Macdonald, David W; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Johnson, Paul J; Farstad, Wenche; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2013-10-02

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, differ from other cooperatively breeding canids in that they combine intense sociality with solitary foraging, making them a suitable species in which to study the physiology of cooperative breeding. The reproductive physiology of twenty wild female Ethiopian wolves (eleven dominant and nine subordinate) in Ethiopia's Bale Mountains National Park was studied non-invasively through the extraction and assaying of estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoids in collected fecal samples using enzyme and radioimmunoassays. All dominant females showed increased estradiol concentrations and/or mating behavior during the annual mating season. In contrast, none of the subordinate females showed increased estradiol concentrations or mating behavior during the mating season. However, two subordinate females came into estrus outside of the mating season. Both dominant and subordinate females had higher average progesterone concentrations during the dominant female's pregnancy than at other times of the year, and two subordinate females allosuckled the dominant female's pups. No statistically significant differences in glucocorticoid concentrations were found between dominant and subordinate females. These results suggest that subordinate females are reproductively suppressed during the annual mating season, but may ovulate outside of the mating season and become pseudopregnant. No evidence was found to suggest that reproductive suppression in subordinate females was regulated through aggressive behaviors, and no relationship was found between fecal glucocorticoids and dominance status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment on IT-based Technical Innovation of the Subordinate Company of the Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Ling; CHEN Chao-long

    2006-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is one of the most important means by which companies can win an advantaged position in drastically competed market. It has a positive effect on the advancement of the corporation's technical innovation. The application of IT can promote the communication among subordinates of a corporation or group, reduce explicit boundaries of the subordinates, and boost the ripple effect of technical innovation of the subordinates. Not only does any subordinate company within a corporation need to assess both technical and economic benefits brought to the corporation itself by technical innovation, but also it should thoroughly analyze how the ripple effect of technical innovation among subordinate companies plays a significant role in the boosting value of the corporation as a whole. In this paper, a scientific approach to assessing technical innovation of a subordinate company is proposed through analyzing the ripple effect of IT-based technical innovation on subordinate companies.

  17. Helping Kids Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  18. 羞耻感对社区女性尿失禁患者求医态度的影响%The impact of shame on Help Seeking Attitude of Female Urinary Incontinence Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼芳; 李春梅; 余黎静; 苏红侠

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of shame on Help Seeking Attitude of female Urinary Incontinence patients. Methods: A total of 232 female urinary incontinence patients were recruited from ifve community hospitals in Wenzhou by convenience sampling method. They were investigated with Urinary Incontinence knowledge questionnaire, Help Seeking Attitude Scale of Female Urinary Incontinence patients, and Shame Experience Scale. The relationship between shame and Help Seeking Attitude of Female Urinary Incontinence patients was analyzed. Results: The total score of Help Seeking Attitude of Female Urinary Incontinence patients was (31.88±3.79). There were signiifcant negative correlations between score of shame of female Urinary Incontinence patients and Help Seeking Attitude. Regression analysis showed that the factor scores of shame of female Urinary Incontinence patients such as behavioral shame and family shame could independently explain 30.7% of the variance for Help Seeking Attitude after controlling demographic variables. Conclusion: Clinical medical staff should focus on the shortcomings of Help Seeking Attitude of female Urinary Incontinence patients, and take effective measures to reduce shame of female Urinary Incontinence patients to improve the Help Seeking Attitude of female Urinary Incontinence patients.%目的:调查羞耻感对社区女性尿失禁患者求医态度的影响。方法:采用便利抽样法抽取温州市5所社区医院的女性尿失禁患者232名进行问卷调查,了解女性尿失禁患者羞耻感和求医态度的现状,并探讨两者之间的关系。结果:社区女性尿失禁患者的求医态度总分为(31.88±3.79)分,女性尿失禁患者的羞耻感与其求医态度呈负相关,回归分析显示,控制人口学变量之后,行为羞耻、家庭羞耻共可以解释女性尿失禁患者求医态度的30.7%。结论:临床医护工作者应重视女性尿失禁患者求医态度的现状,制

  19. On the Fractional Poisson Process and the Discretized Stable Subordinator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Gorenflo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the renewal counting number process N = N(t as a forward march over the non-negative integers with independent identically distributed waiting times. We embed the values of the counting numbers N in a “pseudo-spatial” non-negative half-line x ≥ 0 and observe that for physical time likewise we have t ≥ 0. Thus we apply the Laplace transform with respect to both variables x and t. Applying then a modification of the Montroll-Weiss-Cox formalism of continuous time random walk we obtain the essential characteristics of a renewal process in the transform domain and, if we are lucky, also in the physical domain. The process t = t(N of accumulation of waiting times is inverse to the counting number process, in honour of the Danish mathematician and telecommunication engineer A.K. Erlang we call it the Erlang process. It yields the probability of exactly n renewal events in the interval (0; t]. We apply our Laplace-Laplace formalism to the fractional Poisson process whose waiting times are of Mittag-Leffler type and to a renewal process whose waiting times are of Wright type. The process of Mittag-Leffler type includes as a limiting case the classical Poisson process, the process of Wright type represents the discretized stable subordinator and a re-scaled version of it was used in our method of parametric subordination of time-space fractional diffusion processes. Properly rescaling the counting number process N(t and the Erlang process t(N yields as diffusion limits the inverse stable and the stable subordinator, respectively.

  20. The fractional Poisson process and the inverse stable subordinator

    CERN Document Server

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Vellaisamy, P

    2010-01-01

    The fractional Poisson process is a renewal process with Mittag-Leffler waiting times. Its distributions solve a time-fractional analogue of the Kolmogorov forward equation for a Poisson process. This paper shows that a traditional Poisson process, with the time variable replaced by an independent inverse stable subordinator, is also a fractional Poisson process. This result unifies the two main approaches in the stochastic theory of time-fractional diffusion equations. The equivalence extends to a broad class of renewal processes that include models for tempered fractional diffusion, and distributed-order (e.g., ultraslow) fractional diffusion.

  1. Organizational environment factors associated with corporate social responsibility: effects on communication and guanxi relationship between supervisors and subordinates in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward WONG SEK KHIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication within an organization as part of CSR benchmarking factor that helps align employee expectations facilitates problem solving, builds cooperative relationships and channels employee efforts to achieve common goals. This paper seeks to determine how CSR benchmarking factors of the organizational environment (such as management style, organizational structure and workplace culture affect the effectiveness of intra-organizational communication and to examine the moderating effect of supervisor – subordinate guanxi. Data for the study was collected using self-administered questionnaires from working respondents in Kuala Lumpur in Selangor State, Malaysia. This study found that a more participative management style, less formalized organizational structure of SMEs and a healthier workplace culture are positively related to intra-organizational communication effectiveness. It was also discovered that the supervisor – subordinate relationship known as guanxi, has a positive moderating effect on all three relationships between management style, organizational structure and workplace culture with intra-organizational communication effectiveness. This study concludes that an organization’s management attitude towards employee participation, formalization of structure and healthiness of culture play important roles in encouraging effective communication and close supervisor – subordinate guanxi and further promotes communication, in addition to the mentioned environmental conditions.

  2. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  3. Accounting for subordinate perceptions of supervisor power: an identity-dependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Steven M; Aguinis, Herman

    2005-11-01

    The authors present a model that explains how subordinates perceive the power of their supervisors and the causal mechanisms by which these perceptions translate into subordinate outcomes. Drawing on identity and resource-dependence theories, the authors propose that supervisors have power over their subordinates when they control resources needed for the subordinates' enactment and maintenance of current and desired identities. The joint effect of perceptions of supervisor power and supervisor intentions to provide such resources leads to 4 conditions ranging from highly functional to highly dysfunctional: confirmation, hope, apathy, and progressive withdrawal. Each of these conditions is associated with specific outcomes such as the quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship, turnover, and changes in the type and centrality of various subordinate identities. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Assessing the cost of helping: the roles of body condition and oxidative balance in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janske van de Crommenacker

    Full Text Available In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis. In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals

  5. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    and the type of subordinating conjunction, although social and geographical factors also have an impact. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that V2 word order is associated with foreground or main point of utterance, if we accept it as a statistical tendency in language use rather than....... Nørgaard- Sørensen & L. Schøsler. Grammatikalisering og struktur. København, Museum Tusculanum. Jensen, Torben Juel forthc. Ordstilling i ledsætninger i moderne dansk talesprog. Ny forskning i grammatik. Simons, M. 2007. Observations on embedding verbs, evidentiality and presupposition. Lingua 117 (6......), 1034-1056. Vikner, S. 1995. Verb movement and expletive subjects in the Germanic languages. Oxford University Press....

  6. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Hail-Jares; Ruth C F Chang; Sugy Choi; Huang Zheng; Na He; Z Jennifer Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers’ risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear. Methods Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-rep...

  7. Participation with Supervisor and Subordinate Authoritarianism: A Path-Goal Theory Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.

    1976-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that participation would be satisfying to low-authoritarian subordinates regardless of the degree of task repetitiveness but would be satisfying to high-authoritarian subordinates only on tasks with low repetitiveness and that highly repetitive tasks would be less conducive to ego involvement than low-repetitive tasks.…

  8. Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic Leaders' Influence on Subordinate Creative Performance across the Creative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Jeffrey B.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    Using the charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership as a framework, 2 primary research questions were examined. First, when engaging in different tasks along the creative process, does leadership style influence the creative performance of subordinates? Second, how does the level of stress, to which subordinates are…

  9. Participation with Supervisor and Subordinate Authoritarianism: A Path-Goal Theory Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.

    1976-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that participation would be satisfying to low-authoritarian subordinates regardless of the degree of task repetitiveness but would be satisfying to high-authoritarian subordinates only on tasks with low repetitiveness and that highly repetitive tasks would be less conducive to ego involvement than low-repetitive tasks.…

  10. 7 CFR 1717.858 - Lien subordination for rural development investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lien subordination for rural development investments... Lien subordination for rural development investments. (a) Policy. RUS encourages borrowers to consider... financial risks and the revenues and costs of the rural development enterprise from those of the...

  11. Supervisors' upward exchange relationships and subordinate outcomes: testing the multilevel mediation role of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Le; Wang, Mo; Chen, Gilad; Shi, Junqi

    2012-05-01

    This study empirically examined the proposition that supervisors' exchange relationships with their own supervisors (i.e., leader-leader exchange, or LLX) are related to their subordinates' work-related outcomes through 3 mechanisms: (a) leaders modeling their LLX to develop and maintain their exchange relationships with their subordinates (i.e., leader-member exchange, or LMX), (b) motivating the team and its members, captured by team and individual empowerment, and (c) facilitating the relationships between LMX and individual outcomes. Analyses of multisource and lagged data from 104 team supervisors and 577 subordinates showed that LMX mediated the positive relationship of LLX on subordinates' individual empowerment. Furthermore, team empowerment and individual empowerment sequentially mediated the positive relationships between LLX and subordinates' job satisfaction and job performance. The authors also found that the indirect relationships of LMX with job satisfaction and job performance via individual empowerment were stronger when LLX was higher. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Stuart K; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2017-01-01

    in the LR condition used the seeded method on their first attempt significantly more often than those in the HR condition. A network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) revealed that the best supported statistical models were those in which social transmission occurred only in groups with subordinate models......" models. In each of four captive groups, either a single high-rank (HR, n = 2) or a low-rank (LR, n = 2) chimpanzee model was trained on one method of opening a two-action puzzle-box, before demonstrating the trained method in a group context. This was followed by 8 hr of group-wide, open......-access to the puzzle-box. Successful manipulations and observers of each manipulation were recorded. Barnard's exact tests showed that individuals in the LR groups used the seeded method as their first-choice option at significantly above chance levels, whereas those in the HR groups did not. Furthermore, individuals...

  13. Psychological characteristics of the rules of subordination within the cultural and historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budyakova T.P.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the psychology of submission. Given psychological characteristic standards of submission historically embodied in the moral codes and legal sources. The subject of analysis are historical regulations XII—XX centuries, the customs, in which the fixed rate of submission, as well as the memoir literature. There are four basic psychological lines of development in the history of the rules of subordination, in particular: a special regulation of the rules of subordination and increasing social importance of the role of subordinate. It is proved that psychological acceptance of a subordinate role and the satisfaction of its implementation includes the requirement of special rules regulating authority and emphasis on the social importance of the role of subordinate. It was established that one of the reasons that the job satisfaction of employees of state structures higher than employees of private companies, a large schema definition of relations with management. Hierarchical role is considered in terms of two components: the role of attributes and rules, rules of conduct. The article focuses on the fact that the individual external signs, locking status subordination, increase the level of self-esteem of subordinate.

  14. An Analysis of Subordinates’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Female Supervisors in the Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-28

    that androgyny is "the blending of so- called masculine and feminine behaviors 18 and values to produce a complete well-balanced person [10:29]." Cook...parent, and self. Using these four roles in a study of working women, Holahan and Gilbert found that women who perceived their work as a job rather...leader, in contrast, are traditionally labeled as male occupations. Dowdell says males are more likely to view the military as a calling than are women

  15. Clan Governance and State Stability: The Relationship between Female Subordination and Political Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    109, No. 3 tions, control violence, and establish social coopera- tion” (North, Wallis , and Weingast 2009, xii). Rather than being perceived as an...Bennion and Lisa Fishbayn Joffe. Salt Lake City: Uni- versity of Utah Press. Miller, Flagg. 2007. The Moral Resonance of Arab Media: Audio - cassette Poetry...reliefweb.int/files/resources/ 9BD8A1F729CEB5B8C125746C0049D740-kaiptc-dec2007.pdf (Accessed October 1, 2014). North, Douglass, John Joseph Wallis , and

  16. Rapid recovery of the cortisol response following social subordination in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Brett M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2016-10-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which distinctive behavioural and physiological phenotypes distinguish dominant from subordinate fish. In particular, subordinate fish are characterized by inhibition of behaviours such as feeding and activity, by low growth rates, and by chronic elevation of circulating glucocorticoid stress hormone (cortisol) concentrations. To evaluate the ability of trout to recover from chronic social stress, pairs of fish were allowed to interact for 4d, and subordinate fish were then separated from dominant fish. Recovery was assessed using behavioural (position in the tank, latency to feed, and food consumed) and physiological (plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, liver glycogen content, hepatosomatic index, specific growth rate, and gall bladder mass) indices. During 48 or 96h of recovery from the 4d interaction period, only plasma cortisol and glucose levels of subordinates returned to baseline values consistent with those of dominant and sham trout (fish that were handled like paired fish but housed singly). All other physiological variables failed to recover, likely owing to the absence of behavioural recovery, including continued inhibition of food intake even following separation from the dominant fish. Whereas subordinate fish exhibited an attenuated cortisol response to an acute netting stressor, 'recovered' subordinates mounted a cortisol response that was equivalent to those of dominant and sham fish. However, 'recovered' subordinates that were paired with a socially naïve conspecific were unable to achieve non-subordinate status. Collectively, these results indicate that recovery of the cortisol response precedes behavioural recovery from social subordination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anomalous diffusion in nonhomogeneous media: time-subordinated Langevin equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokowski, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion in nonhomogeneous media is described by a dynamical process driven by a general Lévy noise and subordinated to a random time; the subordinator depends on the position. This problem is approximated by a multiplicative process subordinated to a random time: it separately takes into account effects related to the medium structure and the memory. Density distributions and moments are derived from the solutions of the corresponding Langevin equation and compared with the numerical calculations for the exact problem. Both subdiffusion and enhanced diffusion are predicted. Distribution of the process satisfies the fractional Fokker-Planck equation.

  18. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Study Design Systematic Review Methods Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Results Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Conclusion Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. Level of Evidence 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies PMID

  19. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  20. Genetic sorting of subordinate species in grassland modulated by intraspecific variation in dominant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Gustafson

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in a single species can have predictable and heritable effects on associated communities and ecosystem processes, however little is known about how genetic variation of a dominant species affects plant community assembly. We characterized the genetic structure of a dominant grass (Sorghastrum nutans and two subordinate species (Chamaecrista fasciculata, Silphium integrifolium, during the third growing season in grassland communities established with genetically distinct (cultivated varieties or local ecotypes seed sources of the dominant grasses. There were genetic differences between subordinate species growing in the cultivar versus local ecotype communities, indicating that intraspecific genetic variation in the dominant grasses affected the genetic composition of subordinate species during community assembly. A positive association between genetic diversity of S. nutans, C. fasciculata, and S. integrifolium and species diversity established the role of an intraspecific biotic filter during community assembly. Our results show that intraspecific variation in dominant species can significantly modulate the genetic composition of subordinate species.

  1. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the s...

  2. Getting Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Getting Help Getting Help Resources from NIAAA Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding ... and find ways to make a change. Professional help Your doctor. Primary care and mental health practitioners ...

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism).

  4. Social power, conflict policing, and the role of subordination signals in rhesus macaque society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; Hannibal, Darcy L; Finn, Kelly R; Fushing, Hsieh; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-05-01

    Policing is a conflict-limiting mechanism observed in many primate species. It is thought to require a skewed distribution of social power for some individuals to have sufficiently high social power to stop others' fights, yet social power has not been examined in most species with policing behavior. We examined networks of subordination signals as a source of social power that permits policing behavior in rhesus macaques. For each of seven captive groups of rhesus macaques, we (a) examined the structure of subordination signal networks and used GLMs to examine the relationship between (b) pairwise dominance certainty and subordination network pathways and (c) policing frequency and social power (group-level convergence in subordination signaling pathways). Networks of subordination signals had perfect linear transitivity, and pairs connected by both direct and indirect pathways of signals had more certain dominance relationships than pairs with no such network connection. Social power calculated using both direct and indirect network pathways showed a heavy-tailed distribution and positively predicted conflict policing. Our results empirically substantiate that subordination signaling is associated with greater dominance relationship certainty and further show that pairs who signal rarely (or not at all) may use information from others' signaling interactions to infer or reaffirm the relative certainty of their own relationships. We argue that the network of formal dominance relationships is central to societal stability because it is important for relationship stability and also supports the additional stabilizing mechanism of policing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nocturnal loss of body reserves reveals high survival risk for subordinate great tits wintering at extremely low ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Cīrule, Dina; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Nord, Andreas; Rantala, Markus J; Krama, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Winter acclimatization in birds is a complex of several strategies based on metabolic adjustment accompanied by long-term management of resources such as fattening. However, wintering birds often maintain fat reserves below their physiological capacity, suggesting a cost involved with excessive levels of reserves. We studied body reserves of roosting great tits in relation to their dominance status under two contrasting temperature regimes to see whether individuals are capable of optimizing their survival strategies under extreme environmental conditions. We predicted less pronounced loss of body mass and body condition and lower rates of overnight mortality in dominant great tits at both mild and extremely low ambient temperatures, when ambient temperature dropped down to -43 °C. The results showed that dominant great tits consistently maintained lower reserve levels than subordinates regardless of ambient temperature. However, dominants responded to the rising risk of starvation under low temperatures by increasing their body reserves, whereas subdominant birds decreased reserve levels in harsh conditions. Yet, their losses of body mass and body reserves were always lower than in subordinate birds. None of the dominant great tits were found dead, while five young females and one adult female were found dead in nest boxes during cold spells when ambient temperatures dropped down to -43 °C. The dead great tits lost up to 23.83 % of their evening body mass during cold nights while surviving individuals lost on average 12.78 % of their evening body mass. Our results show that fattening strategies of great tits reflect an adaptive role of winter fattening which is sensitive to changes in ambient temperatures and differs among individuals of different social ranks.

  6. Design of the study: How can health care help female breast cancer patients reduce their stress symptoms? A randomized intervention study with stepped-care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Karin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A life threatening illness such as breast cancer can lead to a secondary diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder with intrusive thoughts and avoidance as major symptoms. In a former study by the research group, 80% of the patients with breast cancer reported a high level of stress symptoms close to the diagnosis, such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance behavior. These symptoms remained high throughout the study. The present paper presents the design of a randomized study evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stress management intervention using a stepped-care design. Method Female patients over the age of 18, with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer and scheduled for adjuvant treatment in the form of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and/or hormonal therapy are eligible and will consecutively be included in the study. The study is a prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, where patients will be randomised to one of two interventions in the final stage of treatment. The first step is a low intensity stress-management intervention that is given to all patients. Patients who do not respond to this level are thereafter given more intensive treatment at later steps in the program and will be randomized to more intensive stress-management intervention in a group setting or individually. The primary out-come is subjective distress (intrusion and avoidance assessed by the Impact of Event Scale (IES. According to the power-analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for one year. Other outcomes are anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living and utilization of hospital services. This will be assessed with well-known psychometric tested questionnaires. Also, the cost-effectiveness of the intervention given in group or individually will be evaluated. Discussion This randomized clinical trial will provide

  7. MALE AND FEMALE LEADERSHIP – SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CIOLAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This study aims to identify characteristics and behaviours typical for male and female managers from the managers` perspective as well as from the subordinates`. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 232 employed persons, 111 managers and 121 subordinates working in different branches. The independent variables of the research were: the position in the organization (manager or subordinate and the managers` gender (male or female. The dependent variables were multiple and focused on the characteristics of managers in Romania. In order to develop tools for the assessment of Romanian managers` characteristics, 25 managers and 25 employers (from various professional categories listed 10 qualities that they consider important for a manager. Findings – The differences between female and male managers are less than the similarities. Practical implications/originality/value – The overall conclusion – organizational characteristics have a greater influence than the personal ones in the managers` behaviour.

  8. 魅力型领导、下属的信任与团队创新绩效关系的研究%Research on the Relations of Charismatic - typed Leader, Trust of Subordinates and Performance of Team Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟明; 夏洪胜

    2011-01-01

    通过结构方程模型的方法探讨魅力型领导、下属的信任与团队创新绩效三者之间的关系.研究结果发现:(1) 魅力型领导与团队创新绩效显著正相关;(2) 魅力型领导与下属的信任显著正相关;(3) 相比下属的认知信任,魅力型领导与下属的情感信任相关度更高;(4) 下属的信任对团队创新绩效显著正相关;(5) 下属的信任在魅力型领导与团队创新绩效之间起着完全中介的作用.%In this paper, we use structural equation modeling to examine the relations of charismatic -typed leader, trust of subordinates and performance of team innovation. The results showed: ( 1 ) charismatic - typed leader is significantly related to performance of team innovation; ( 2 ) charismatic - typed leader is significantly related to trust of subordinates; (3) charismatic- typed leader is more closely related to subordinates' emotional trust than to subordinates' cognitive trust; ( 4 ) trust of subordinates is significantly related to performance of team innovation; ( 5 ) subordinates' trust helps display mediating effects on the relationship between charismatic - typed leader and performance of team innovation.

  9. Sight or smell? Behavioural and heart rate responses in subordinate rainbow trout exposed to cues from dominant fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höjesjö, Johan; Axelsson, Michael; Dahy, Ronja; Gustavsson, Lena; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-01-01

    Many animals, including fish, can utilize both vision and the chemical senses in intra-specific communication. However, the relative influence of these sensory modalities on behavioral and physiological responses in social interactions is not well understood. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relative effects of visual and chemical stimuli from dominant individuals on the behavioral and physiological responses of subordinate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). External electrodes were used to detect ECG signals from free-swimming fish. This method allowed the simultaneous recording of behavioral and physiological responses, and possible sex differences in these responses were also investigated. The results suggest that, in this context, visual cues are more important than chemical cues in settling the social hierarchy in rainbow trout because a combination of chemical and visual exposure generally yielded a response in focal fish that was similar to the response elicited by visual exposure alone. Both activity and physiological responses were most pronounced during the first ten seconds after exposure, with subordinate fish moving closer to the dominant, accompanied by a strong bradycardic response. Furthermore, females acted more boldly and moved closer to the dominant fish than males, but here the effect of the modes was additive, with a stronger effect of the combined visual and chemical exposure. Overall, the extra information furnished to the fish in the form of chemical cues did not change either the behavioral or the physiological response. This result suggests that visual cues are more important than chemically mediated ones for social communication and individual recognition in rainbow trout.

  10. Sight or smell? Behavioural and heart rate responses in subordinate rainbow trout exposed to cues from dominant fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Höjesjö

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animals, including fish, can utilize both vision and the chemical senses in intra-specific communication. However, the relative influence of these sensory modalities on behavioral and physiological responses in social interactions is not well understood. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relative effects of visual and chemical stimuli from dominant individuals on the behavioral and physiological responses of subordinate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. External electrodes were used to detect ECG signals from free-swimming fish. This method allowed the simultaneous recording of behavioral and physiological responses, and possible sex differences in these responses were also investigated. The results suggest that, in this context, visual cues are more important than chemical cues in settling the social hierarchy in rainbow trout because a combination of chemical and visual exposure generally yielded a response in focal fish that was similar to the response elicited by visual exposure alone. Both activity and physiological responses were most pronounced during the first ten seconds after exposure, with subordinate fish moving closer to the dominant, accompanied by a strong bradycardic response. Furthermore, females acted more boldly and moved closer to the dominant fish than males, but here the effect of the modes was additive, with a stronger effect of the combined visual and chemical exposure. Overall, the extra information furnished to the fish in the form of chemical cues did not change either the behavioral or the physiological response. This result suggests that visual cues are more important than chemically mediated ones for social communication and individual recognition in rainbow trout.

  11. Subject of Subordinate Clause as Object with Verbs of Perception, Thought, and Communication in Old Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Pichkhadze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Old Russian construction involving verbs of perception, thought, and communication. In this construction, a single semantic argument corresponds to two syntactic constituents: a direct object and a finite subordinate clause, the subject of which is coreferential with the direct object of the main clause. The Old Russian construction is seen as an instantiation of a cross-linguistic option in the argument structure of these verbs (above all, of the perception verbs, that is, to take the subject of the subordinate clause as the direct object.

  12. Transient analysis of the subordinated chain of a state dependent pure birth process

    CERN Document Server

    Monsellato, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Consider a pure birth process with intensities $\\lambda_{k}=\\frac{1}{1+k}$, with $k=0,1,2,...$, we show that the subordinated chain is assimilable to a Bernoullian scheme with dependent successes probabilities, also we show a direct link with a degenerate Polya urn replacement scheme \\cite{Janson}. We compute explicitly transition probabilities, by generating function method, of the subordinated chain and give some interesting bounds using the \\emph{centering sequence} approach proposed by MacDiarmid \\cite{McDiarmidcentering}.

  13. 12 CFR 563.81 - Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as supplementary capital. 563.81 Section 563.81 Banks and Banking... affiliate of the savings association (as defined at 12 CFR 583.2) and for collective enforcement of the...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.409 - Subordinations or junior liens against security property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program requirements or to operate and manage the housing project in a manner consistent with program... specific amount. (4) The subordination or junior lien must not adversely impact the Agency's ability to... condition and the borrower's ability to repay the Agency loan being secured by the property. (3) The action...

  15. The (Biological or Cultural) Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Yalcinkaya, Nur; Estrada-Villalta, Sara; Adams, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Most research links (racial) essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action) among people with dominant (White) and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino) racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  16. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  17. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  18. Perceptions of Leadership Style: Superior and Subordinate Descriptions of Decision-Making Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Arthur G.; Vroom, Victor H.

    1975-01-01

    This research concerns the level of agreement among subordinates reporting to the same leader in their descriptions of his behavior. (Available from the Comparative Administration Research Institute, Graduate School of Business Administration, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242; $12.00 annually) (Author/MLF)

  19. Peering is not a formal indicator of subordination in bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.M.G.; Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, L. van

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that peering behavior in bonobos is a formal signal acknowledging social dominance status. We investigated whether peering meets the published criteria for a formal signal of subordination in five captive groups of bonobos. The degree of linearity in the set of peering

  20. Supervisors' Responses to Subordinate Performance: Effect of Personal-Control Orientation and Situational Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study extending a model of leadership response based on attribution theories to include measures of locus of control and situational control. Describes a procedure by which subjects responded to descriptions of subordinate performance. Concludes that supervisors with an external locus of control were less sensitive to subordinate…

  1. Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruitment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Olff, Han

    2003-01-01

    Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant spe

  2. Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruitment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Olff, Han

    2003-01-01

    Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant spe

  3. Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruiment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S.; Olff, H.

    2003-01-01

    Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant spe

  4. The subordinate concept ‘marketing’ in the contemporary business English discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Naumenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers architectonics of the concept ‘marketing’ as a subordinate one to the concept ‘market’ which, alongside with other concepts, organizes the conceptual sphere of the basic concept ‘trade’. The notional, sense (sense centres, and schematic (dynamic frame components are researched, the model of the concept inner structure is developed

  5. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  6. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B. L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea manage

  7. On differential subordinations for a class of analytic functions defined by a linear operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ravichandran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain several results concerning the differential subordination between analytic functions and a linear operator defined for a certain family of analytic functions which are introduced here by means of these linear operators. Also, some special cases are considered.

  8. Double Subordination Preserving Properties for a New Generalized Srivastava-Attiya Integral Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jugal K.PRAJAPAT; Teodor BULBOAC(A)

    2012-01-01

    The authors obtain subordination and superordination preserving properties for a new defined generalized operator involving the Srivastava-Attiya integral operator.Differential sandwich-type theorems for these univalent functions,and some consequences involving well-known special functions are also presented.

  9. Leader reliance on subordinates across nations that differ in development and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; Smith, P B

    2004-01-01

    How, where, and why do leaders follow the people they lead? An 84-nation analysis of survey responses from 19,525 managers shows that their reliance on subordinates depends on the level of wealth and development, and the harshness of cold or hot climates. In support of the thermal demands-resources

  10. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B. L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  11. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  12. A Study of Relationship between Leader Behaviors and Subordinate Job Expectancies: A Path-Goal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayyat Malik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates relationship between leader behavior (directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented of corporate managers and subordinates’ job expectancies using House (1974 Path-goal model of leadership. The results reveal thatleader behavior affects subordinates’ job expectancies. The situational factors (task structure, role ambiguity, stress, need for autonomy, locus of control, need for achievement and perception about abilities affect subordinates’ job expectancies (I&II.While subordinates’ attributes/characteristics (age, gender, qualification, rank, experience and length of service under the current supervisor do not affect job expectancies (I&II except for rank/position and expectancy-II. Path goal theory predicts that directive leader behavior will be more effective for the subordinates with high need for achievement because directive leader through clarifying path guides subordinates. Similarly, participative leader behavior is also effective as heconsults with subordinates in setting, clarifying and achieving goals. The results of this study reveal that there is an inverse relationship between subordinates’ job expectancy (I&II. According to Yukl (2006, for subordinates with high need for autonomy,participative leader behavior will increase the intrinsic valence of work.

  13. 'Islands' and 'doctor's tool': the ethical significance of isolation and subordination in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J

    2009-05-01

    Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in offering insights into how ethical problems and decision-making occur in healthcare. In this article, the findings of a qualitative study of the ethical problems and decision-making of UK community pharmacists are presented, and it is argued that the identified themes of pharmacists' relative isolation from others and their subordination to doctors are ethically significant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 community pharmacists in England, UK. Analysis of interviews revealed that isolation involved separation of pharmacists from their peers, other healthcare professionals, patients and customers. Such isolation is argued to be inimical to ethical practice - impeding ethical discourse as understood by Habermas, resulting in a form of anomie that inhibits the transmission of professional values, leading to a lack of proximity between pharmacist and patient or customer that may impede ethical relationships and resulting, psychologically, in less ethical concern for those who are less close. Pharmacists' subordination to doctors not only precipitated some ethical problems but also allowed some pharmacists to shift ethical responsibility to a prescribing doctor, as in the case of emergency hormonal contraception. The emergence of atrocity stories further supports a culture of subordination that may cause ethical problems. The study has implications for community pharmacy practice in terms of supervision issues, developments such as prescribing responsibilities and how ethical values can be taught and communicated. The potential for isolation and subordination in other healthcare professions, and resultant ethical problems, may also need to be addressed and researched.

  14. Task Structure as Moderator of College Principals' Leadership Behavior and Their Subordinates' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Riffat-Un-Nisa; Zaidi, Nayyar Raza; Naz, Anjum; Noureen, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    This research article intended to investigate the moderating effect of structured task on the relationship of leadership behavior of degree college principals and their subordinates' job satisfaction, job expectancies and acceptance of leader. Data was collected from 640 college faculty members and 170 principals of degree colleges situated in 34…

  15. Help LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Carreras,R; Lehmann,P

    1988-01-01

    première partie: Help LEP ou le tunnel de l'infini- pièce radiophonique intéréssant sur l'origine de la matière deuxième partie: Help LEP débat; suite à cette pièce interview avec 3 physiciens du Cern sur le projet LEP et le but du Cern qui est la recherche fondamentale

  16. The imposition of, but not the propensity for, social subordination impairs exploratory behaviors and general cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-06-15

    Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of

  17. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  18. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan WU; Feng-ping WU; Yan-ping CHEN

    2009-01-01

    The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  19. The influence of leadership style on subordinates' attachment to the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.

  20. Continuous-time random walk and parametric subordination in fractional diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenflo, Rudolf [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Free University of Berlin, Arnimallee 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Mainardi, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: mainardi@bo.infn.it; Vivoli, Alessandro [Department of Physics, University of Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The well-scaled transition to the diffusion limit in the framework of the theory of continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is presented starting from its representation as an infinite series that points out the subordinated character of the CTRW itself. We treat the CTRW as a combination of a random walk on the axis of physical time with a random walk in space, both walks happening in discrete operational time. In the continuum limit, we obtain a (generally non-Markovian) diffusion process governed by a space-time fractional diffusion equation. The essential assumption is that the probabilities for waiting times and jump-widths behave asymptotically like powers with negative exponents related to the orders of the fractional derivatives. By what we call parametric subordination, applied to a combination of a Markov process with a positively oriented Levy process, we generate and display sample paths for some special cases.

  1. Narcissistic Reactions to Subordinate Role Assignment: The Case of the Narcissistic Follower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Jordan, Christian H; Christie, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Narcissists aspire to be leaders and consequently may react negatively to being assigned a subordinate role, even though such roles may be integral to group functioning. In the first three studies, participants were assigned to a low status role (i.e., "employee"), high status role (i.e., "project manager"), or (in Studies 2 and 3) control condition. More narcissistic participants were less satisfied and discredited the role assignment more in the employee condition than in the project manager condition. Furthermore, more narcissistic participants displayed greater self-interest in the employee condition, relative to the project manager condition (Study 2), and less willingness to engage in behaviors to benefit the group in the employee condition, relative to the project manager and control conditions (Study 3). In Study 4, these findings were replicated in sports teams. Although there is nothing inherently negative about subordinate roles, narcissists perceive them negatively and react poorly to occupying them.

  2. Help Others,Help Me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WHEN they first came to Xingcheng, Huang Jing and her husband Ma Shiyu didn’t come to help others. They came to seek their own fortune in this small, ancient coastal town where they saw prospects of prosperity. So when the couple decided to move to Xingcheng, they didn’t know their coming would be a turning point for many locals. too.

  3. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  4. The Correlates of Subordination : Transaction Costs and the Design of Military Alliances, 1815-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Wig, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Security relationships between states can be categorized as more or less hierarchical. Some relationships are characterized by dominance and subordination, while others are highly egalitarian. Why relationships vary along this continuum has never been studied quantitatively in the International Relations literature. In this thesis I set out to test the most popular and well-developed theory on this subject, namely the transaction-cost theory of international security relationships. Using a ra...

  5. Invoking Subordinate Attitude Change through Counterattitudinal Advocacy: An Experiment in Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Survey. The majority of the participants were assigned to avionics repair shops although there were participants from other areas as well (jet engine...attitude change, despite the salience of futuro argunents which might otherwise have impacted upon the subordinate. It therefore becomes the imperative...Tactical Fighter Wing’s Avionics Branch in December of 1983 and then served as Maintenance Supervisor of the 1st Component Repair Squadron from March 1985

  6. Defense Headquarters: Geographic Combatant Commands Rely on Subordinate Commands for Mission Management and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Additionally, in November 2015, the Secretary of Defense directed a review of DOD’s organizational structures and is considering a number of actions... changes have occurred since the 2011 Unified Command Plan was published. Page 2 GAO-16-652R Defense Headquarters sufficiently reliable for the...commands. • We found that the combatant commands utilize subordinate commands to execute assigned missions. The organizational construct DOD created

  7. Subordination and domination in the work spaces. Study on the discipline and its forms of expression

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Montes Cató

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about domination in the workplace, focussing on discipline as a means, available to capital, of subordinating labour. Such domination is the key to understanding how employment relations have been affected by the profound transformation in the labour market over recent decades. This article is based on the case of the telecommunications industry in Argentina. The objective is to show how discipline operates in a modern commercial company, focussing not only on direct control...

  8. Study on monitoring achievement of performance indicators in the subordinate local companies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Neamţiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pursuit of economic indicators which are calculated in local subordinate companies. These indicators are imposed by the Board employee manager contract term. Accounting provides enough information to calculate them but we put the issue of prevention of the ability to stay within budget, projected revenues and expenses, before closing operations of an accounting period (month, quarter, semester, year.

  9. A Second-order Fluid Queue with Subordinator Input and Markov-modulated Linear Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-zhi Li

    2009-01-01

    We consider an infinite capacity second-order fluid queue with subordinator input and Markov-modulated linear release rate. The fluid queue level is described by a generalized Langevin stochastic differ-ential equation (SDE). Applying infinitesimal generator, we obtain the stationary distribution that satisfies an integro-differential equation. We derive the solution of the SDE and study the transient level's convergence in distribution. When the coefficients of the SDE are constants, we deduce the system transient property.

  10. A Corpus-based Approach to English Subordinate Clause I dentification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The complex sentence structure of English is a bottleneck to our practical machi ne translation system. The simplification of English subordinate clauses will gr eatly relieves the burden of parsing and other grammatical or semantic analysis of a complex sentence, thus improves the output quality of the MT system. But th ere have not any satisfactory research achievements reported in this field up t o now as we know. In this paper, author's work on a corpus-based approach to English subordinate clause identification is reported. The approach integrate s rule-base d and statistical methods to get the left and right boundaries of the subordinat e clauses. The Penn Treebank corpus is used as the training standard. The precis ion and recall ratios of subordinate clause identification are tested on both cl osed and open corpora. A result of 92.9% precision and 91.26% recall is obtained for the closed test and the open test result is 80.34% precision and 83.93% rec all. This algorithm has been integrated into our machine translation system. The method can also be applied to processing of any other language.

  11. Subordinated continuous-time AR processes and their application to modeling behavior of mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Janusz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Many real data exhibit behavior adequate to subdiffusion processes. Very often it is manifested by so-called "trapping events". The visible evidence of subdiffusion we observe not only in financial time series but also in technical data. In this paper we propose a model which can be used for description of such kind of data. The model is based on the continuous time autoregressive time series with stable noise delayed by the infinitely divisible inverse subordinator. The proposed system can be applied to real datasets with short-time dependence, visible jumps and mentioned periods of stagnation. In this paper we extend the theoretical considerations in analysis of subordinated processes and propose a new model that exhibits mentioned properties. We concentrate on the main characteristics of the examined subordinated process expressed mainly in the language of the measures of dependence which are main tools used in statistical investigation of real data. We present also the simulation procedure of the considered system and indicate how to estimate its parameters. The theoretical results we illustrate by the analysis of real technical data.

  12. Follower Attributional Biases and Assessments of Female and Male Leaders' Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jerome; And Others

    Attitudes toward the role of women in the army do not introduce a consistent and strong bias into the way male and female leaders are judged by their subordinates. Male and female cadets at the U.S. Military Academy completed questionnaires describing their unit leaders at two training activities. Results showed that egalitarian followers and…

  13. EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT ON SUPERIORS' USE OF CONFLICT STYLES AND SUBORDINATES' SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kim Lian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from 139 respondents from major industries showed that subordinates were more satisfied with their superiors' supervision through the exercise of integrating, compromising and obliging styles. On the contrary, subordinates who perceived their superiors as primarily using dominating and avoiding styles viewed them as incompetent in supervision and thus lowering their level of satisfaction with supervision. Among the conflict handling styles, integrating was most correlated with organic structure. The organic structure was found to be positively correlated with subordinates' satisfaction. These results implied that organic structure can be a potent force in maintaining organizational stability. The exercise of dominating style was found to be only marginally correlated with superior's age. Superior rank in lower hierarchy level was found to have a negative impact, albeit marginally on the exercise of dominating style. The present results also seemed to suggest that subordinates tend to be less satisfied with superiors with wider span of control.

  14. The interactive effects of belongingness and charisma on helping and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Keegan, Anne E

    2007-07-01

    This study tests the main and interactive effects of belongingness and perceived charismatic leadership on 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping and compliance). In line with expectations, a study of 115 manager-subordinate dyads demonstrates that employees show more helping (manager rated) when they have a stronger sense of belongingness at work and more helping as well as compliance when they perceive their leader to be more charismatic (subordinate rated). Belongingness partially mediates the relationship between charisma and helping. Also, as hypothesized, belongingness and charisma have interactive effects on employees' helping and compliance. The impact of perceived charisma on these behaviors is stronger for employees with a low sense of belongingness at work than for individuals with a higher sense of belongingness.

  15. Subordination and domination in the work spaces. Study on the discipline and its forms of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Montes Cató

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about domination in the workplace, focussing on discipline as a means, available to capital, of subordinating labour. Such domination is the key to understanding how employment relations have been affected by the profound transformation in the labour market over recent decades. This article is based on the case of the telecommunications industry in Argentina. The objective is to show how discipline operates in a modern commercial company, focussing not only on direct control, but on its symbolic "modern" forms.

  16. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  17. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID

  18. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here, we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol we tested the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair-feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall, these results support the validity of our CSS to model BED allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake. PMID:25621284

  19. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Ryan L; Kimuyu, Duncan K; Ruiz Guajardo, Juan C; Veblen, Kari E; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2017-05-01

    Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition. To determine if fire shifted ant occupancy from a competitive dominant to a subordinate ant species, we surveyed the acacia-ant community in 6-7 yr old burn sites and examined how the spatial scale of these burns influenced ant community responses. We then used two short-term fire experiments to explore possible mechanisms for the shifts in community patterns observed. Because survival of ant colonies is largely dependent on their ability to detect and escape an approaching fire, we first tested the evacuation response of all four ant species when exposed to smoke (fire signal). Then to better understand how fire and its interaction with large mammal herbivory affect the density of ants per tree, we quantified ant worker density in small prescribed burns within herbivore exclusion plots. We found clear evidence suggesting that fire disturbance favored the subordinate ant Crematogaster nigriceps more than the dominant and strong mutualist ant C. mimosae, whereby C. nigriceps (1) was the only species to occupy a greater proportion of trees in 6-7 yr old burn sites compared to unburned sites, (2) had higher burn/unburn tree ratios with increasing burn size, and (3) evacuated significantly faster than C. mimosae in the presence of smoke. Fire and herbivory had opposite effects on ant density per meter of branch for both C. nigriceps and C. mimosae, with fire

  20. Subordinating careers to market forces? A critical analysis of European career guidance policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingela Bergmo-Prvulovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores language regarding career and career development in European policy documents on career guidance in order to disclose underlying view(s of these phenomena conveyed in the texts. Qualitative content analysis was used to approach the subject in the texts, followed by a sender-oriented interpretation. Sources for interpretation include several sociological and pedagogical approaches based upon social constructionism. These provide a framework for understanding how different views of career phenomena arise. The characterization of career phenomena in the documents falls into four categories: contextual change, environment-person correspondence, competence mobility, and empowerment. An economic perspective on career dominates, followed by learning and political science perspectives. Policy formulations convey contradictory messages and a form of career 'contract' that appears to subordinate individuals' careers to global capitalism, while attributing sole responsibility for career to individuals.

  1. THIRD-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL SUBORDINATION RESULTS FOR ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS INVOLVING THE GENERALIZED BESSEL FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo TANG; Erhan DENIZ

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we derive some third-order differential subordination results for analytic functions in the open unit disk, using the operator Bcκf by means of normalized form of the generalized Bessel functions of the first kind, which is defined as z(Bcκ+1f(z))′=κBcκf(z)−(κ−1)Bcκ+1f(z), where b, c, p ∈ C and κ = p+(b+1)/2 ∈ C\\Z−0 (Z−0 = {0,−1,−2, · · ·}). The results are obtained by considering suitable classes of admissible functions. Various known or new special cases of our main results are also pointed out.

  2. Brownian yet non-Gaussian diffusion: from superstatistics to subordination of diffusing diffusivities

    CERN Document Server

    Chechkin, A V; Metzler, R; Sokolov, I M

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of biological, soft, and active matter systems are observed to exhibit normal diffusive dynamics with a linear growth of the mean squared displacement, yet with a non-Gaussian distribution of increments. Based on the Chubinsky-Slater idea of a diffusing diffusivity we here establish and analyse a complete minimal model framework of diffusion processes with fluctuating diffusivity. In particular, we demonstrate the equivalence of the diffusing diffusivity process in the short time limit with a superstatistical approach based on a distribution of diffusivities. Moreover, we establish a subordination picture of Brownian but non-Gaussian diffusion processes, that can be used for a wide class of diffusivity fluctuation statistics. Our results are shown to be in excellent agreement with simulations and numerical evaluations.

  3. Impact of Managerial Power on Persuasive Strategy Selection by Female and Male Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Randy Y.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the persuasive communication of male and female middle managers, focusing on the mediating influence of a manager's power on his or her selection of anticipated compliance-gaining message strategies. Finds no marked differences between the genders in the types of strategies and tactics used to influence subordinates. (KEH)

  4. Infanticide and expulsion of females in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Smith, R; McIlrath, G M; Kansky, R; Gaynor, D; O'Riain, M J; Skinner, J D

    1998-12-01

    In cooperative groups of suricates (Suricata suricatta), helpers of both sexes assist breeding adults in defending and feeding pups, and survival rises in larger groups. Despite this, dominant breeding females expel subordinate females from the group in the latter half of their (own) pregnancy apparently because adult females sometimes kill their pups. Some of the females that have been expelled are allowed to rejoin the group soon after the dominant female's pups are born and subsequently assist in rearing the pups. Female helpers initially resist expulsion and repeatedly attempt to return to their natal group, indicating that it is unlikely that dominant females need to grant them reproductive concessions to retain them in the group.

  5. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Instructor-Student Relationship as an Alternative Form of Superior-Subordinate Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief forum article, the author suggests studying the instructor-student relationship as a superior-subordinate relationship offers an alternative way to view how student learning occurs in the college classroom, and can provide instructional communication researchers with the opportunity to explore how structural and institutional…

  6. 7 CFR 1717.860 - Lien accommodations and subordinations under section 306E of the RE Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subordination under this section, the investment must be an original capital investment, i.e., not a refinancing or refunding. (See § 1717.851 for the definition of capital investment.) (b) Determination of net... of capital investments, provided that the security, including the assurance of repayment, for...

  7. How to get radical creative ideas into a leader's mind? Leader's achievement goals and subordinates' voice of creative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B.L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N=127) we showed that leaders' performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas le

  8. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Instructor-Student Relationship as an Alternative Form of Superior-Subordinate Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief forum article, the author suggests studying the instructor-student relationship as a superior-subordinate relationship offers an alternative way to view how student learning occurs in the college classroom, and can provide instructional communication researchers with the opportunity to explore how structural and institutional…

  9. How to get radical creative ideas into a leader's mind? Leader's achievement goals and subordinates' voice of creative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B.L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N=127) we showed that leaders' performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas

  10. 29 CFR 408.6 - Amendments to the Labor Organization Information Report filed by or on behalf of the subordinate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the Labor Organization Information Report filed by or on behalf of the subordinate labor organization. 408.6 Section 408.6 Labor Regulations... LABOR ORGANIZATION TRUSTEESHIP REPORTS § 408.6 Amendments to the Labor Organization Information Report...

  11. The crossover of psychological distress from leaders to subordinates in teams: The role of abusive supervision, psychological capital, and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Songbo

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the underlying mechanism of the crossover process in work teams. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that a leader's psychological distress positively influences subordinates' psychological distress through abusive supervision. We further hypothesize that team performance attenuates the association between a leader's psychological distress and abusive supervision. In addition, we expect that psychological capital attenuates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress. Participants were drawn from 86 business teams, and multisource data were collected. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analysis. Results supported the crossover of psychological distress from leader to subordinates, and abusive supervision serves as a mediating mechanism. The positive relationship between a leader's distress and abusive supervision is stronger when team performance is lower. In addition, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress is stronger when subordinates' psychological capital is lower.

  12. The downside of goal-focused leadership: the role of personality in subordinate exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sara Jansen; Witt, L A; Penney, Lisa M; Atwater, Leanne

    2010-11-01

    Exhaustion has a significant impact on employees and organizations, and leader behavior may affect it. We applied conservation of resources theory to test propositions regarding the joint effects of goal-focused leadership (GFL) and personality on employee exhaustion. We proposed that the relationship between GFL and exhaustion depends on employees' standing on both conscientiousness and emotional stability. Specifically, we expected that high-conscientiousness subordinates experience greater compatibility with a goal-focused leader because of their predisposition to direct resources toward achievement and goal setting, resulting in lower exhaustion under such a leader than among low-conscientiousness employees. Furthermore, high emotional stability may compensate for GFL incompatibility among low-conscientiousness employees by providing additional resources to manage GFL. In contrast, employees low on both traits likely experience greater exhaustion under a goal-focused leader compared with other employees. Results revealed a 3-way interaction in 2 independent samples and were generally supportive of our predictions. GFL was associated with heightened exhaustion among individuals in the low-emotional-stability, low-conscientiousness group but not among workers having any other trait combination.

  13. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ge

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  14. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  15. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference, unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  16. The Influence of Regulatory Focus of Supervisors and Subordinates on the Performance of the Subordinates%领导与下属的调节焦点对下属工作绩效的影响作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志明; 武欣; 武艳茹; 李蕊

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory focus theory proposes that people have two distinct self-regulatory foci, promotion focus and prevention focus. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effect of regulatory focus of supervisors and subordinates on the task performance and contextual performance of the subordinates. Participants of this study included 249 employees and their supervisors, and data were matched in pairs for statistics. Some of the key findings included: (1) Promotion focus of the subordinates was positively related to the contextual perfor-mance of them, and prevention focus of the subordinates was positively related to the task performance of them;(2) Promotion focus of the supervisors was positively related to the interpersonal facilitation dimension of contextu-al performance of the subordinates, and prevention focus of the supervisors was positively related to the task per-formance of the subordinates; (3) The fit of promotion regulatory focus of the supervisors and the subordinates was positively related to the performance of the subordinates with leader-member exchange(LMX) as the mediator.%  调节焦点理论认为个体具有两种不同的调节焦点:促进性调节焦点和防御性调节焦点。探讨领导与下属的调节焦点对下属的任务绩效和情境绩效的影响作用,采用领导与下属配对样本进行调研,样本包括249对领导和下属。研究结果表明:(1)下属的促进性调节焦点对其情境绩效中的人际促进和工作奉献两个维度均具有显著影响作用,下属的防御性调节焦点对其任务绩效具有显著影响作用;(2)领导者的促进性调节焦点对下属情境绩效中的人际促进维度具有显著影响作用,领导者的防御性调节焦点对下属任务绩效具有显著影响作用;(3)领导者与下属之间在促进性调节焦点上的匹配通过领导-下属交换的中介作用影响下属的情境绩效。

  17. Charity Bazaar Helps the Aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of people on September 24 participated in a charitybazaar held in Beijing International Club to help the aged Chinese in Beijing.The event demonstrated China's tradition of"respecting and caring for the aged,"and helped enhance relations be-tween the association of Former Diplomats of China,spouses of diplo-mats to China,and female diplomats. More than 40 embassies,international agencies and companies soldand/or donated goods.Dozens of domestic enterprises and institutions

  18. Leadership behavior changes following a theory-based leadership development intervention: A longitudinal study of subordinates' and leaders' evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gerry; Sandahl, Christer; Söderhjelm, Teresa; Sjövold, Endre; Zander, Ann

    2017-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate effects of leadership courses based on the developmental leadership model at the leadership behavioral level. A longitudinal design was employed with assessments before, one and six months after the leadership courses. The sample consisted of 59 leaders who made self-ratings and were rated by at least three subordinates on each occasion. Leadership behaviors were measured with the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ). A limited increase of favorable leadership behaviors and a significant reduction of unfavorable leadership behaviors were found, particularly according to the subordinates' ratings. A cluster analysis yielded three meaningful leader profiles and showed that this pattern was found in all three profiles, irrespective of how favorably they were rated before the onset of the intervention.

  19. Rehabilitation of Female Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE women imprisoned for various crimes undergo a reeducation and rehabilitation program which often results in repentance for past wrongdoings, and providing an avenue for them to make a fresh start. Female prisoners study general education courses, learn basic legal concepts and working skills as part of a rehabilitation program that helps reintigrate them into society upon release.

  20. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  1. The Female Experience of the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owczarek Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the problem of the transformation of the female self from the ethnocentric stage to the ethnorelative stage, as portrayed in Osa Johnson’s “autobiographical” account of her trips in the book I married adventure. The author attempts to show the metamorphosis of the protagonist by relating her experiences to the developmental model of cultural sensitivity, as proposed by M.J. Bennett. It is argued that the protagonist assumes the role of the Other in relation to her husband in the same way that indigenous people appear as the Other in relation to the protagonist. The slight yet detectable change in her perception of the Other constitutes an attempt to liberate herself from the position of the subordinate white female.

  2. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  3. Female epispadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Krishna Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 7-year-old girl presented with partial incontinence of urine. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, single stage reconstruction of the urethra, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  4. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain levels of arginine-vasotocin and isotocin in dominant and subordinate males of a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Olinda; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-02-01

    The nonapeptides arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), which are the teleost homologues of arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin in mammals, have well established peripheral effects on osmoregulation and stress response, and central effects on social behavior. However, all studies that have looked so far into the relationship between these nonapeptides and social behavior have used indirect measures of AVT/IT activity (i.e. immunohistochemistry of AVT/IT immunoreactive neurons, or AVT/IT or their receptors mRNA expression with in situ hybridization or qPCR) and therefore direct measures of peptide levels in relation to social behavior are still lacking. Here we use a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) method to quantify the levels of both AVT and IT in macro-dissected brain areas [i.e. olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and hindbrain (= rhombencephalon minus cerebellum)] and pituitary of dominant and subordinate male cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The pituitary shows higher levels of both peptides than any of the brain macroareas, and the olfactory bulbs have the highest AVT among all brain areas. Except for IT in the telencephalon there is a lack of correlations between central levels and pituitary peptide levels, suggesting an independent control of hypophysial and CNS nonapeptide secretion. There were also no correlations between AVT and IT levels either for each brain region or for the pituitary gland, suggesting a decoupled activity of the AVT and IT systems at the CNS level. Subordinate AVT pituitary levels are significantly higher than those of dominants, and dominant hindbrain IT levels are significantly higher than those of subordinates, suggesting a potential involvement of AVT in social stress in subordinate fish and of IT in the regulation of dominant behavior at the level of the hindbrain. Since in this species dominant males use urine

  6. Social rank and cortisol among female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Dong QIN; Joshua Dominic Rizak; Xiao-Li FENG; Xun-Xun CHU; Shang-Chuan YANG; Chun-Lu LI; Long-Bao LV; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies,some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress.Such stressors,like social rank,also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases.However,the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species,as well as within groups of a single species.For example,dominant individuals are more socially stressed at times,while at other times it is the subordinate ones who experience this stress.Together,these variations make it difficult to assess disease vulnerability as connected to social interactions.In order to leam more about how physiological rank relationships vary between groups of a single species,cortisol measurements from hair samples were used to evaluate the effects of dominance rank on long-term stress levels in despotic and less stringent female rhesus macaque hierarchal groups.In despotic groups,cortisol levels were found not to be correlated with social rank,but a negative correlation was found between social rank and cortisol levels in less stringent hierarchies.Low ranking monkeys in less stringent groups secreted elevated levels of cortisol compared to higher ranking animals.These data suggest that variations in the strictness of the dominance hierarchy are determining factors in rank related stress physiology.The further consideration of nonhuman primate social system diversity and the linear degree of their hierarchies may allow for the development of valid rank-related stress models that will help increase our understanding and guide the development of new therapeutics for diseases related to human socioeconomic status.

  7. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  8. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  9. Helping the Retina Regenerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Briefs > Helping the retina regenerate Helping the retina regenerate NEI Audacious Goals Initiative report outlines strategies to replace or reprogram neurons in the retina News Brief 03/30/17 ...

  10. Wielding and yielding : power, subordination and gender identity in the context of a Mexican development project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three lines of inquiry can be found in the present study. The first is of an empirical nature. It is a story of a group of women and a development project, based upon field research I carried out in 1987-88 concerning a group of female beekeepers who were organized as an UAIM (Uni

  11. Wielding and yielding: power, subordination and gender identity in the context of a Mexican development project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three lines of inquiry can be found in the present study. The first is of an empirical nature. It is a story of a group of women and a development project, based upon field research I carried out in 1987-88 concerning a group of female beekeepers who were organized as an UAIM (Unidad Agrícola e Indu

  12. Wielding and yielding : power, subordination and gender identity in the context of a Mexican development project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three lines of inquiry can be found in the present study. The first is of an empirical nature. It is a story of a group of women and a development project, based upon field research I carried out in 1987-88 concerning a group of female beekeepers who were organized as an UAIM

  13. A helping hand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Hulp geboden   The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where do the

  14. General job performance of first-line supervisors: the role of conscientiousness in determining its effects on subordinate exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A

    2011-04-01

    In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance.

  15. Perceiving social inequity: when subordinate-group positioning on one dimension of social hierarchy enhances privilege recognition on another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett

    2013-08-01

    Researchers have suggested that viewing social inequity as dominant-group privilege (rather than subordinate-group disadvantage) enhances dominant-group members' support for social policies aimed at lessening such inequity. However, because viewing inequity as dominant-group privilege can be damaging to dominant-group members' self-images, this perspective is frequently resisted. In the research reported here, we explored the circumstances that enhance the likelihood of dominant-group members' viewing inequity as privilege. Because social hierarchies have multiple vertical dimensions, individuals may have high status on one dimension but low status on another. We predicted that occupying a subordinate position on one dimension of social hierarchy could enhance perceptions of one's own privilege on a different dimension of hierarchy, but that this tendency would be diminished among individuals who felt they had achieved a particularly high level of success. Results from three studies that considered gender-based and race-based hierarchies in organizational settings supported our hypothesis.

  16. Are all types of expertise created equal? Car experts use different spatial frequency scales for subordinate categorization of cars and faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    A much-debated question in object recognition is whether expertise for faces and expertise for non-face objects utilize common perceptual information. We investigated this issue by assessing the diagnostic information required for different types of expertise. Specifically, we asked whether face categorization and expert car categorization at the subordinate level relies on the same spatial frequency (SF) scales. Fifteen car experts and fifteen novices performed a category verification task with spatially filtered images of faces, cars, and airplanes. Images were categorized based on their basic (e.g. "car") and subordinate level (e.g. "Japanese car") identity. The effect of expertise was not evident when objects were categorized at the basic level. However, when the car experts categorized faces and cars at the subordinate level, the two types of expertise required different kinds of SF information. Subordinate categorization of faces relied on low SFs more than on high SFs, whereas subordinate expert car categorization relied on high SFs more than on low SFs. These findings suggest that expertise in the recognition of objects and faces do not utilize the same type of information. Rather, different types of expertise require different types of diagnostic visual information.

  17. Are all types of expertise created equal? Car experts use different spatial frequency scales for subordinate categorization of cars and faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Harel

    Full Text Available A much-debated question in object recognition is whether expertise for faces and expertise for non-face objects utilize common perceptual information. We investigated this issue by assessing the diagnostic information required for different types of expertise. Specifically, we asked whether face categorization and expert car categorization at the subordinate level relies on the same spatial frequency (SF scales. Fifteen car experts and fifteen novices performed a category verification task with spatially filtered images of faces, cars, and airplanes. Images were categorized based on their basic (e.g. "car" and subordinate level (e.g. "Japanese car" identity. The effect of expertise was not evident when objects were categorized at the basic level. However, when the car experts categorized faces and cars at the subordinate level, the two types of expertise required different kinds of SF information. Subordinate categorization of faces relied on low SFs more than on high SFs, whereas subordinate expert car categorization relied on high SFs more than on low SFs. These findings suggest that expertise in the recognition of objects and faces do not utilize the same type of information. Rather, different types of expertise require different types of diagnostic visual information.

  18. The fifties and the feminine mystery : female representation in post-war melodrama

    OpenAIRE

    Westby, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The American 1950s have long been regarded as perhaps the most conformist decade of the 20th century. The leading female ideology was filled with mixed messages about what women should and should not do, and what they could and could not be. While one image insisted on women’s equality, the other insisted on total subordination. More than any other medium, the Hollywood industry fostered American ideals and images of modern womanhood and manhood. Overall, this thesis will investigate how ...

  19. Elderly care recipients’ perceptions of treatment helpfulness for depression and the relationship with help-seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Joanna; Naismith, Sharon L; Luscombe, Georgina M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past). Results From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. Conclusion Beliefs in the helpfulness of certain treatments were related to the use of both professional and informal sources of help, indicating the possibility that campaigns or educational programs aimed at changing beliefs about treatments

  20. Wielding and yielding : power, subordination and gender identity in the context of a Mexican development project

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, M

    1994-01-01

    Three lines of inquiry can be found in the present study. The first is of an empirical nature. It is a story of a group of women and a development project, based upon field research I carried out in 1987-88 concerning a group of female beekeepers who were organized as an UAIM (Unidad Agrícola e Industrial de la Mujer Campesina, Agrarian and Industrial Unit of Peasant Women) in Ayuquila, a small rural community in western Mexico. The initiative was backed by the F...

  1. Wielding and yielding: power, subordination and gender identity in the context of a Mexican development project.

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three lines of inquiry can be found in the present study. The first is of an empirical nature. It is a story of a group of women and a development project, based upon field research I carried out in 1987-88 concerning a group of female beekeepers who were organized as an UAIM (Unidad Agrícola e Industrial de la Mujer Campesina, Agrarian and Industrial Unit of Peasant Women) in Ayuquila, a small rural community in western Mexico. The initiative was backed by the Federal Law of Agrarian Reform,...

  2. The adjectival subordinate clause in the production of meaning in the text: the prospect of Portuguese textbooks in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliana Lopes Câmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how Portuguese textbooks of high school, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2015, approach the teaching of adjectival subordinate clause. Several researchers (Bagno, 2011; Neves, 2011; Travaglia, 2009, 2011 address the issue of grammar teaching, questioning the mechanistic and traditional teaching of identification and classification of linguistic units (morphological and syntactic. These authors argue the articulation of grammar with the teaching of reader and writer skills, so that linguistic resources are studied in mobilizing effects of meaning in the textual construction. The choice of textbooks corpus, therefore, was determined by the grammar teaching proposal explicitly stated in the manuals for the teacher (part attached to the textbook, under which linguistic resources are subsidiary to the reading and writing teaching. First we compare the proposal of manuals on the teaching of grammar and what was accomplished in the book of the student, more specifically on the proposals for the teaching of adjectival subordinate clause. Then, from the study on the functional description of the adjectival subordinate clause (Câmara, 2015, which is based on Functional Discourse Grammar (Hengeveld e Mackenzie, 2008, we studied how some descriptive aspects can be subsidiary for the teaching of the adjective clause, aiming at the development of reading and writing skills. The reason for the choice of this theoretical support is the fact that grammar is hierarchically structured in levels and layers of linguistic analysis, and the pragmatic units determine the semantic units, which in turn determine the morphosyntactic units which, in turn, determine the phonological units. The data show that remains, in the educational proposals of the relative clause in high school textbooks, a grammar teaching that focuses primarily in the nomenclature, metalanguage and in the normative grammar rules. There isn’t many

  3. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  4. Handi Helps, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  5. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A What's in ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  6. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  7. Androgen levels and female social dominance in Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, N; Kappeler, P M; Heistermann, M

    2000-01-01

    Morphological and behavioural traits which improve agonistic power are subject to intrasexual selection and, at the proximate level, are influenced by circulating androgens. Because intrasexual selection in mammals is more intense among males, they typically dominate females. Female social dominance is therefore unexpected and, indeed, rare. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are sexually monomorphic primates in which all adult females dominate all males. The goal of our study was to test the prediction that female dominance in this species is associated with high androgen levels. Using two captive groups, we collected data on agonistic behaviour and non-invasively assessed their androgen concentrations in faeces and saliva by enzyme immunoassay. We found that adult female L. catta do not have higher androgen levels than males. However, during the mating season there was a twofold increase in both the androgen levels and conflict rates among females. This seasonal increase in their androgen levels was probably not due to a general increase in ovarian hormone production because those females showing the strongest signs of follicular development tended to have low androgen concentrations. At the individual level neither the individual aggression rates nor the proportion of same-sexed individuals dominated were correlated with their androgen levels. We conclude that female dominance in ring-tailed lemurs is neither based on physical superiority nor on high androgen levels and that it is equally important to study male subordination and prenatal brain priming effects for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:11007329

  8. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved ... With Stress Teens Talk About Stress (Video) Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child ...

  9. Can Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  10. Helping Parents Say No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  11. Help with Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appropriate treatment has established normal hearing for your child, a speech-language pathologist can help to correct your child’s speech and language errors. A speech-language pathologist and audiologist can ...

  12. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  13. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader’s Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, F.M.; De Cremer, D.; van Dijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader–subordinate relationships, and whether a leader’s self-interest functions as a boundary condition to this effect. A

  14. The Role of Formal Education, Technical and Management Training on Information Systems (IS) Managers' Managerial Effectiveness as Perceived by Their Subordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Jerry; Abdullah, ABM; Talukder, Majharul

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Information Systems (IS) managers' formal education, level of technical and managerial training and their managerial effectiveness as perceived by their subordinates. The study finds that there is a strong positive relationship between the amount of technical training IS managers have received and their…

  15. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader's Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Cramwinckel (Florien); D. de Cremer (David); M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader-subordinate relationships, and whether a leader's self-interest functions as a boundary condition to th

  16. The Role of Formal Education, Technical and Management Training on Information Systems (IS) Managers' Managerial Effectiveness as Perceived by Their Subordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Jerry; Abdullah, ABM; Talukder, Majharul

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Information Systems (IS) managers' formal education, level of technical and managerial training and their managerial effectiveness as perceived by their subordinates. The study finds that there is a strong positive relationship between the amount of technical training IS managers have received and their…

  17. State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maume, David J; Ruppanner, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women's representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates' pay, and to what degree the state's commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women's share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management.

  18. Chronic subordination stress selectively downregulates the insulin signaling pathway in liver and skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghez, Valentina; Cubuk, Cankut; Sebastián-Leon, Patricia; Carobbio, Stefania; Dopazo, Joaquin; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress has been associated with obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. We developed a model of chronic psychosocial stress (CPS) in which subordinate mice are vulnerable to obesity and the metabolic-like syndrome while dominant mice exhibit a healthy metabolic phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that the metabolic difference between subordinate and dominant mice is associated with changes in functional pathways relevant for insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Male mice were exposed to CPS for four weeks and fed either a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). We first measured, by real-time PCR candidate genes, in the liver, skeletal muscle, and the perigonadal white adipose tissue (pWAT). Subsequently, we used a probabilistic analysis approach to analyze different ways in which signals can be transmitted across the pathways in each tissue. Results showed that subordinate mice displayed a drastic downregulation of the insulin pathway in liver and muscle, indicative of insulin resistance, already on standard diet. Conversely, pWAT showed molecular changes suggestive of facilitated fat deposition in an otherwise insulin-sensitive tissue. The molecular changes in subordinate mice fed a standard diet were greater compared to HFD-fed controls. Finally, dominant mice maintained a substantially normal metabolic and molecular phenotype even when fed a HFD. Overall, our data demonstrate that subordination stress is a potent stimulus for the downregulation of the insulin signaling pathway in liver and muscle and a major risk factor for the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. The MADE help system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Haindl; M.M. de Ruiter

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMADE is the acronym for the ESPRIT project 6307, whose aim is to develop an object oriented multimedia application development environment. As part of this project the MADE help system is designed to be a distributed hypermedia system with additional support for run-time object monitori

  20. You Can Help, Too

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing starts recruiting volunteers for the 2008 Olympic Games A recruitment drive for 100,000 Olympic volunteers aimed at helping Chinese people and foreigners get involved in the 2008 Games was officially launched on August 28 in Beijing. Organizers say that applications are expected to start flooding in from around the city, while mainland applicants from outside Beijing can apply for positions start-

  1. Stretching: Does It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  2. Self-Help Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    1973-01-01

    The author believes that there is a distinct need for professionals to become competent in providing materials for self-help lay efforts. Colleges and universities must provide for the facilitation of personal growth through self administered procedures by either a clinical approach (in counseling centers) or a didactic one (in classes as, for…

  3. Stretching: Does It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  4. Profile: parents help themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G E

    1981-01-01

    A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.

  5. Help for Stressed Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Denise Clarke; Simon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that increased focus and pressure for high academic achievement, particularly among more highly-motivated and successful students, may have serious negative consequences. They present a number of strategies designed to help reduce both causes and consequences associated with academic stress and improve students' mental and…

  6. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  7. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Near, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in “hypersexualized” ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games...

  8. Hinder, More Than Help

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余习榜

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ladies and gentlemen, I'm honored to stand here on behalf of my school to share my experiences and opinions with you. Some people say that our mother ton-gue is of great help to our learning English. However, for my point of view, too much use of Chinese will definitely exert nega-tive effects and tend to hinder the learning progress.

  9. A Little Help

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    More government changes needed to clarify role of NGOs in China As China's first NGOs to receive state funding embark on a pilot program to help poverty-stricken villages, experts say the work of aid groups in a country trying to ease a significant rich-poor divide remains hamstrung by regulations and bureaucracy. In February, the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation (CFPA) announced that

  10. Elderly care recipients’ perceptions of treatment helpfulness for depression and the relationship with help-seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Atkins,1 Sharon L Naismith,1 Georgina M Luscombe,2 Ian B Hickie1 1Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Rural Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Orange, NSW, Australia Objective: This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method: One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past. Results: From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Ahmad, Ijaz; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, Md Munir; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern with miR-183

  12. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  13. 威权式领导行为对下属组织公民行为的影响研究——下属权力距离的调节作用%Study on the Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership Behavior and Subordinates' Organizational Citizenship Behavior-- the Moderating Role of Subordinates' Power Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 怀明云

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of subordinates' power distance on the relationship between authoritarian leadership behavior and subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The data of 337 pairs of leader and subordinate from service firms are collected for the hierarchical regression analysis. The results indicate that power distance moderates the relationship between authoritarian leadership behavior and subordinates' OCB through the process of subordinates' trust in leader. Specifically, when subordinates' power distance is low, authoritarian leadership behavior will reduce subordinates' OCB through reducing their trust in leader; however, when subor- dinates' power distance is high, the negative influence of authoritarian leadership on subordinates' OCB through reducing their trust in leader will be weakened, or even turn into a positive influence. This paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of this study and points out the direction of future research.%本文采用问卷调查法,对来自于服务行业的337对领导和下属的数据进行回归分析,结果表明威权式领导行为通过影响不同权力距离取向下属对领导的信任程度而影响下属的组织公民行为。具体来说,威权式领导行为通过降低低权力距离取向下属对领导的信任程度进而减少其组织公民行为;相反,威权式领导的负面影响对于高权力距离取向下属会变弱,甚至转化为一种正面影响。文章最后讨论了本研究的理论和实践意义,指出了未来的研究方向。

  14. Help Others and Yourself Eventually: Exploring the Relationship between Help-Giving and Employee Creativity under the Model of Perspective Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a plethora of studies have examined the antecedents of creativity, empirical studies exploring the role of individual behaviors in relation to creativity are relatively scarce. Drawing on the model of perspective taking, this study examines the relationship between help-giving during creative problem solving process and employee creativity. Specifically, we test perspective taking as an explanatory mechanism and propose organization-based self-esteem as the moderator. In a sample collected from a field survey of 247 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 2 large organizations in China at 3 time points, we find that help-giving during creative problem solving process positively related with perspective taking; perspective taking positively related with employees’ creativity; employees’ organization-based self-esteem strengthened the link between perspective taking and creativity; besides, there existed a moderated mediation effect. We conclude this paper with discussions on the implications for theory, research, and practice.

  15. Help Others and Yourself Eventually: Exploring the Relationship between Help-Giving and Employee Creativity under the Model of Perspective Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Liao, Shudi

    2017-01-01

    Although a plethora of studies have examined the antecedents of creativity, empirical studies exploring the role of individual behaviors in relation to creativity are relatively scarce. Drawing on the model of perspective taking, this study examines the relationship between help-giving during creative problem solving process and employee creativity. Specifically, we test perspective taking as an explanatory mechanism and propose organization-based self-esteem as the moderator. In a sample collected from a field survey of 247 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 2 large organizations in China at 3 time points, we find that help-giving during creative problem solving process positively related with perspective taking; perspective taking positively related with employees’ creativity; employees’ organization-based self-esteem strengthened the link between perspective taking and creativity; besides, there existed a moderated mediation effect. We conclude this paper with discussions on the implications for theory, research, and practice. PMID:28690566

  16. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  17. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  18. 关于Liu-Owa积分算子的双重从属保持性质%DOUBLE SUBORDINATION PRESERVING PROPERTIES FOR THE LIU-OWA INTEGRAL OPERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤获; 邓冠铁; 李书海

    2015-01-01

    本文研究了单位圆盘内关于Liu-Owa积分算子的多叶解析函数类的从属和超从属保持问题。利用微分从属的方法,获得了该类函数的中间型结果,推广和改进了一些已知结果。%In the paper, we investigate subordination and superordination preserving prob-lems for analytic and multivalent functions in the open unit disk, which are associated with the Liu-Owa integral operator. By using the method of differential subordination, we derive sandwich-type results of functions belonging to these classes, which generalize and improve some previous known results.

  19. Technology for helping people

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  20. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Whiteside

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatedness between group members is central to understanding the causes of animal dispersal. In many group-living mammals this can be complicated as extra-pair copulations result in offspring having varying levels of relatedness to the dominant animals, leading to a potential conflict between male and female dominants over offspring dispersal strategies. To avoid resource competition and inbreeding, dominant males might be expected to evict unrelated males and related females, whereas the reverse strategy would be expected for dominant females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used microsatellites and long-term data from an urban fox (Vulpes vulpes population to compare dispersal strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a strong effect of relatedness to resident females on offspring dispersal independent of population density. Males with dominant mothers dispersed significantly more often than males with subordinate mothers, whereas dispersing females were significantly more likely to have subordinate mothers compared to philopatric females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to demonstrate that relatedness to resident females is important in juvenile dispersal in group-living mammals. Male dispersal may be driven by inbreeding avoidance, whereas female dispersal appears to be influenced by the fitness advantages associated with residing with the same-sex dominant parent. Selection pressure for paternal influence on offspring dispersal is low due to the limited costs associated with retaining unrelated males and the need for alternative inbreeding avoidance mechanisms between the dominant male and his female offspring. These findings have important implications for the evolution of dispersal and group living in social mammals, and our

  1. Self-Consciousness, Self-Reported Altruism, and Helping Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joyce D.; Shaffer, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Female subjects high in private self-consciousness provided more assistance to a person in need than did subjects low on this attribute. "High-private" subjects were less helpful if they were also high in public self-consciousness. Self-reported altruism, reliably predicted the helping behavior of subjects high as opposed to low in…

  2. A cancer help centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R

    1996-06-01

    The diagnosis of cancer can be shattering to all involved. The treatment of cancer is intense and often very challenging. Prevailing attitudes to cancer are sometimes fearful, negative and depressing. This combination may leave those affected by cancer shocked, disorientated and without hope. Even worse than this, on asking consultants 'What can I do to help myself?' patients are frequently told 'Absolutely nothing'--crushing in one fell swoop their remaining fighting spirit. Not so in the case of Penny Brohn, who, when faced with the diagnosis of breast cancer, travelled the world to find alternative cancer treatments, and having successfully brought her own cancer under control, dedicated her life to creating a Centre for others wishing to fight their disease.

  3. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  4. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  5. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more likely ... time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex is ...

  6. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn't just ...

  7. Yoga May Help Ease Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167586.html Yoga May Help Ease Depression It's not a cure- ... HealthDay News) -- If you've ever taken a yoga class, you probably know that it can help ...

  8. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing features on this page, ... even more serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ...

  9. Semantically induced memories of love and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Lubomir; Fischer-Lokou, Jacques; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This study tested the effect of semantically induced thoughts of love on helping behavior. In a natural setting, 253 participants were interviewed and asked to retrieve the memory of a love episode or, in the control condition, a piece of music they loved. They then met another confederate who asked for money. Analysis showed that inducing the idea of love had a significant positive effect on compliance to a request by a male passerby who was asked for help by a female confederate, but not by a female passerby. Theoretical explanations are presented, based on a gender-role expectation hypothesis.

  10. FEMALE DRAMATISTS, DISTINCTION AND THE NIGERIAN SOCIETY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    azunwo eziwho emenik

    The perception of women has been that of weakened relevance and subordination tied to the miscellaneous .... Their artistic credibility and mental power parallel that .... Consequently, the nation became a cesspit of corruption and squander.

  11. Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article presents ten time-saving ideas for teachers. One great time-saving tip is to come in an hour early once or twice a week for grading papers. It is also a great idea if teachers will not give tests on Friday in order to reduce their weekend work.

  12. The Chandra HelpDesk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Elizabeth C.

    2008-03-01

    The Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) HelpDesk has answered hundreds of user questions over the course of the Chandra mission, ranging from basic syntax errors to advanced analysis questions. This talk gives an introduction to the HelpDesk system and staff, presents a sample of recent HelpDesk requests, and discusses how user-submitted questions improve the software and documentation.

  13. Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis treatment: Medications can help Osteoporosis treatment may involve medication along with lifestyle change. A Mayo Clinic specialist answers some of the most common questions about osteoporosis ...

  14. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  15. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  16. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Female Sexual Dysfunction February 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... Resources Mayo Clinic Cleveland Clinic What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex ...

  17. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  18. The contextualized self: how team-member exchange leads to coworker identification and helping OCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Steven M; Van Dyne, Linn; Kamdar, Dishan

    2015-03-01

    This article develops the argument that team-member exchange (TMX) relationships operate at both between- and within-group levels of analysis to influence an employee's sense of identification with coworkers in the group and their helping organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) directed at coworkers. Specifically, we propose that relatively higher quality TMX relationships of an employee as compared with other members of the group influence an employee's sense of positive uniqueness, whereas higher average level of TMX quality in the group creates a greater sense of belonging. Multilevel modeling analysis of field data from 236 bank managers and their subordinates supports the hypotheses and demonstrates 3 key findings. First, team members identify more with their coworkers when they have high relative TMX quality compared with other group members and are also embedded in groups with higher average TMX. Second, identification with coworkers is positively related to helping OCB directed toward team members. Finally, identification with coworkers mediates the interactive effect of relative TMX quality and group average TMX quality on helping. When TMX group relations allow individuals to feel a valued part of the group, but still unique, they engage in higher levels of helping. Overall moderated mediation analysis demonstrates that the mediated relationship linking relative TMX quality with helping OCB via identification with coworkers is stronger when group average TMX is high, but not present when group average TMX is low. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and recommend future research on multilevel conceptualizations of TMX.

  19. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  20. Operation Mechanism and Effects of Supervisor-Subordinate Guanxi in Chinese Organizations%组织中主管-下属关系的运作机制与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠军; 龙立荣; 刘丽丹

    2011-01-01

    基于社会交换的理论视角,以下属关系投入-主管资源回报的概念架构来展现组织中主管与下属关系互动的实质,对主管-下属关系的运作效果与机制进行跨层次的实证研究.通过问卷法获得54个工作群体的426名下属与主管的对偶数据,基于HLM分析的结果表明:下属在工作之余对主管的私人关系投入不仅能直接获得主管的工具性资源回报与情感性资源回报,还能通过领导-成员交换(LMX)间接地获得主管的工具性与情感性资源回报,而在工作群体内基于私人关系进行人力资源管理决策的特征对主管与下属之间的关系互动与关系质量也存在一定程度的影响.%Different from western society, Chinese employees attached much importance to developing good personal relationship with their leaders. So, the concept of "guanxi" and "guanxi management" were the most important aspects in Chinese management. In perspective of social exchange theory, this study enriched the concept of supervisor-subordinate guanxi, developed a social exchange model of supervisor-subordinate guanxi, and then investigated the mechanism of supervisor-subordinate guanxi operation and its effects on subordinate in Chinese organizations.By using questionnaire survey, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for data of 211 employees and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for data of 426 employees were implemented. The results showed that subordinate's guanxi input had only one dimension, and supervisor's resources output had two dimensions, including instrumental resources output and affective resources output. The study also showed that the subordinate guanxi input and supervisor resources output questionnaires had good reliability and high validity.By using questionnaire, Data was from a total of 426 matched supervisor-subordinate dyads in 54 work groups from different organizations. Hierarchical liner modeling (HLM) analysis was implemented, the results

  1. Collective helping and bystander effects in coevolving helping networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Keun; Park, Hyunggyu

    2010-06-01

    We study collective helping behavior and bystander effects in a coevolving helping network model. A node and a link of the network represents an agent who renders or receives help and a friendly relation between agents, respectively. A helping trial of an agent depends on relations with other involved agents and its result (success or failure) updates the relation between the helper and the recipient. We study the network link dynamics and its steady states analytically and numerically. The full phase diagram is presented with various kinds of active and inactive phases and the nature of phase transitions are explored. We find various interesting bystander effects, consistent with the field study results, of which the underlying mechanism is proposed.

  2. Organizational environment factors associated with corporate social responsibility: effects on communication and guanxi relationship between supervisors and subordinates in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication within an organization as part of CSR benchmarking factor that helps align employee expectations facilitates problem solving, builds cooperative relationships and channels employee efforts to achieve common goals. This paper seeks to determine how CSR benchmarking factors of the organizational environment (such as management style, organizational structure and workplace culture) affect the effectiveness of intra-organizational communication and to examine the moderatin...

  3. 下属会计人员能否抑制财务经理盈余偏好之实验与检验%Experiment and Inspection of whether Subordinate Accountants Inhibit the Earnings Preference of Finance Managers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹德超; 张继勋; 张丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Reliable financial information is the basis for the healthy operation of capital market. In general, while financial managers are in charge of the preparation of financial statements in com- panies, the preparation of financial statements are relied on the details work of subordinate accountants, so the accounting estimates of subordinate accountants have a material influence on the reliability of financial information. Subordinate accountants is an important part of internal control, and is the first line of defense to limit and constraint the management from the perspective of internal control. This paper investigates the effect of financial managers' reference, subordinate account- ants' ethics perception, and financial managers-subordinate accountants relationship quality on biased accounting estimates by an experimental method. The results show that the accountants' estimate biases are lower when they believe that providing accounting estimate requested by financial managers is a relatively high level ethical task; Subordinate accountants provide accounting estimates that are less satisfied with the financial managers' requests for income-increasing estimates than the requests for income-decreasing estimates; the relationship between financial managers and subordinate accountants doesn't have a significant effect on accounting estimate biases provided of subordinate accountants.%可靠的财务报告信息是保证资本市场健康运行的基础。采用实验的方法研究财务经理的盈余偏好、下属会计人员感知的道德水平以及下属会计人员与财务经理之间的关系质量对会计估计偏差的影响,结果显示,下属会计人员感知的财务经理要求进行有偏好会计估计涉及道德程度(即道德感知水平)越高,其估计偏差程度越低;下属会计人员对财务经理所提的增加利润的估计要求给予的满足程度比较低,对财务经理所提的减少利润的估计

  4. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  5. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  6. How Stitches Help Kids Heal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuts is a small sticky strip called a butterfly bandage. It keeps the edges of a shallow ... help. Different kinds of materials — sutures, glue, and butterflies — need different kinds of care. The doctor probably ...

  7. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and are ...

  8. El subjuntivo introducido por verbos y el problema de las “oraciones sustantivas” / Subjunctive introduced by verbs and the problem of “subordinating clauses”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to explain when a subjunctive should be used in subordinating noun clauses is always a problem in an SSL class since they do not behave in the same way as other subordinate clauses which, in spite of having a great variety of uses, are very well defined thanks in part to the fact that their classification is based on their syntactic function and not on a classification of verbs based on semantics. For this reason, in this article we will attempt to provide a new perspective to the study of these clauses, paying attention to their function and behavior, and not to the meaning of the verb that introduces them, all in search of a workable systematization for students and teachers of Spanish.RESUMEN: Intentar explicar cuándo debe aparecer un subjuntivo en las oraciones subordinadas sustantivas en la clase de E/Le siempre es un problema, puesto que no se comportan de igual forma que el resto de subordinadas en las que a pesar de haber una amplia variedad de usos, están bien definidas gracias en parte a que su clasificación se debe a su función sintáctica y no a una clasificación de verbos basada en la semántica. Por este motivo, a lo largo de estas líneas vamos a intentar aportar una nueva perspectiva al estudio de estas oraciones sustantivas atendiendo a sus funciones y comportamientos, y no al significado del verbo que las introducen, en busca de una sistematización práctica para los estudiantes y docentes de español.

  9. Does High LMX Quality Benefit Subordinate's Career Success?A Moderated Mediation Study%与领导关系好就能获得职业成功吗?一项调节的中介效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕萍; 涂乙冬

    2011-01-01

    采用结构化问卷,在2个时点进行2轮问卷调查,共收集到206份问卷.根据Edwards和Lambert(2007)推荐的程序,检验了领导-部属交换与下属职业成功间的调节的中介效应模型.结果表明:(1)网络能力、人际影响、社会机敏性、外显真诚4种政治技能调节了领导-部属交换对下属职业成功的直接效应和总效应;(2)在上述4种政治技能的调节下,心理授权在领导-部属交换与下属职业成功之间起着部分中介作用或完全中介作用;(3)人际影响调节了领导-部属交换对下属心理授权的作用,外显真诚调节了心理授权对职业成功的作用.%Prior researches have presented the positive relation between leader-member exchange (LMX) and the subordinate's career success. However, we have little knowledge about the mechanisms of the relation. Based on the social exchange theory, this study examines a moderated mediation model which integrates the mediating effect of psychological empowerment and the moderating effect of political skill between LMX and the subordinate's career success.To reduce common method bias, two wave surveys were conducted to collect data. LMX, psychological empowerment and political skill were evaluated at the first wave, and the score of subordinate's career success was conducted 1-4 weeks later after the first wave. Finally, 206 participants completed two wave data collection. The results of statistical tests suggested that the structured measurement had good reliability and validity.The results of the moderated mediation model have showed that the psychological empowerment and political skill have integrated effects on the relation between LMX and the subordinate's career success: (1) The 4 kinds of political skill strengthened the direct effect and total effect of LMX on the subordinate's career success. (2) The psychological empowerment mediated the relation between LMX and the subordinate's career success. (3)The

  10. Female-female cooperation in polygynous oystercatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; van Treuren, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Waders (Charadrii) provide biologists with an astonishing variety of mating systems to study(1). Male and female birds establish breeding units in which behaviour varies from monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, double clutching, lekking and serial monogamy to sex role reversal, and many mixed mating

  11. Predicting Intentions to Seek Psychological Help Among Botswana University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho M. Pheko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study had two main objectives. The first was to investigate Botswana’s university students’ intentions to seek psychological help. The second was to investigate whether (a Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH, (b Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH, and (c Social Stigma of Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH predicted the students’ intentions to seek psychological help. A total of N = 519 (283 females and 236 males students from the University of Botswana completed the survey. Results indicated that generally, the students had moderate intentions of seeking psychological help. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three predictors, only ATSPPH and SSRPH significantly predicted intentions to seek psychological help. The current study is important because while it has been established that university students are a high-risk population for mental health problems, there is close to nothing documented on university students in Botswana. Findings of the current study will undoubtedly increase knowledge relating to psychological help-seeking and its predictors in Botswana and may inform interventions that aim to encourage young people to seek psychological or counseling help.

  12. Helping Teachers Help Themselves: Professional Development That Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehill, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    For school administrators to facilitate impactful teacher professional development, a shift in thinking that goes beyond the acquisition of new skills and knowledge to helping teachers rethink their practice is required. Based on review of the professional development literature and our own continued observations of professional development, this…

  13. Fractal measures of female caribou movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Ferguson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding caribou movement during short-term searches for specific habitats, potential mates, and refugia against predators can help resolve ecological questions on how individual caribou perceive their environment. We used measures of fractal dimension and standardized pathlength to compare the movement pathways of female caribou. Satellite telemetry locations were collected over a 2-year study, March 1994 to mid-May 1996, for a caribou population in central Saskatchewan living in the southern boreal forest. Female caribou displayed more random searching behaviour during winter and more regular dispersal movements during early winter/spring and autumn periods. Females with a calf showed no difference in movement pattern (fractal dimension relative to females without a calf but their standardized path length was shorter. We discuss the advantages of using fractal dimension as a measure of the tortuosity of movement pathways and how changes in fractal dimension over a range of scales can define domains of consistent ecological processes.

  14. Sexually dichromatic protogynous angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) males can change back to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yoichi; Karino, Kenji; Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Maruo, Yukiko

    2003-05-01

    Protogynous hermaphroditism, female-to-male sex change, is well known among reef fishes where large males monopolize harems of females. When the dominant male disappears from a harem, the largest female may change sex within a few weeks. Recently, from experiments with some protogynous haremic fishes in which two males' cohabitated, it was confirmed that sexual behavior and gonads were completely reversible according to individual social status. However, the ability to reverse secondary-developed sexual body coloration has never been examined in any protogynous fish. We conducted two male cohabitation experiments with the protogynous haremic angelfish, Centropyge ferrugata, which has conspicuous sexual dichromatism on the dorsal fin. Smaller males of C. ferrugata soon performed female-specific mating behaviors when they became subordinated after losing a contest. They then completed gonadal sex change to females 47 or 89 d (n=2) after beginning cohabitation. In the course of the reversed gonadal sex change, male-specific coloration on the dorsal fin changed to that of a female. Thus, the sex of C. ferrugata, including secondary developed sexually dichromatic characteristics, can be completely reversible in accord with their social status.

  15. Love is blind: indiscriminate female mating responses to male courtship pheromones in newts (Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Treer

    Full Text Available Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae, the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship.

  16. Natural History and Genotype–Phenotype Correlation in Female X-Linked Alport Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Yamamura

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: This study revealed that phenotypes in female XLAS patients may be severe, but genotype does not help to predict the disease severity. Clinicians must therefore pay careful attention to the clinical course and appropriate treatment in females with XLAS.

  17. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  18. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  19. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  20. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  1. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the opti

  2. Female sexuality in magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Zucco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from an investigation on the discourse of female sexuality carried by women's magazines in the years 2005 and 2006. 'Claudia' and 'Mulher dia-a-dia' were the documents analyzed through a qualitative investigative approach. The data construction was undertaken through critical discourse analysis, and female sexuality was approached from a constructivist perspective. The main results showed that the discursive conventions present in the reports gave shape to dual positions on contemporary Western sexual dynamics, such as: adoption of symmetrical sexual practices versus continuation of asymmetrical sexual practices; female sexual autonomy versus female sexual dependency; activeness versus passiveness; female pleasure versus male pleasure. Thus, we argue that sexuality remains doubly informed by hegemonic standards in force within society.

  3. Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the female urethral syndrome has previously been obscure, as it has been associated by definition with a lack of objective findings but a plethora of subjective complaints of retropubic pressure, dyspareunia, urinary frequency, and dysuria. There is now strong evidence that the microscopic paraurethral glands connected to the distal third of the urethra in the prevaginal space are homologous to the prostate. They stain histologically for prostate-specific antigen and, like the pr...

  4. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  5. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  6. Some Ways of Helping Underachievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1990-01-01

    A program of intervention called therapeutic tutoring to help underachievers is described. Intervention centers around students' loci of control, through a process of identifying areas in which students feel empowered and relating academic experiences to these areas. Academic exercises based on Monopoly, cricket, rugby, soap operas, field hockey,…

  7. HELP: Healthy Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    A daily intensive supplemental reading and writing program was developed to assist students who were: 1. identified with a language disability and 2. identified as at-risk for reading failure in an urban elementary school. The purpose of the program was to help these students understand and develop the connection between oral and written language…

  8. Help Me Remember My Meds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rachel M; Panther, Shannon G

    2016-01-01

    Nonadherence has led to increased health consequences and higher health care costs. A study surveyed subjects using either blister pack or a Philips Medication Dispenser machine to determine medication adherence. Although there is still a research gap associated with medication packaging, it has great potential to help patients who have difficulty managing their multiple medications.

  9. Enlisting Parents' Help with Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ann P.

    1989-01-01

    A new national PTA kit, "Math Matters; Kids Are Counting on You," can help all parents make a difference in their children's education. Suggested home activities include doubling cookie recipes, surveying and graphing family ice cream flavor preferences, filling in football "stat" charts, and other tasks easily performed on a…

  10. Helping SBH Pupils with Handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    The article describes two cases of children (7- and 8 1/2-years-old) with spina bifida and hydrocephalus who participated in a research project to discover whether such children could make significant improvements in writing given appropriate help, and to produce an advisory booklet for teachers. (SBH)

  11. Hinder,More Than Help

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余习榜

    2008-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, I’m honoredto stand here on behalf of my school toshare my experiences and opinions withyou. Some people say that our mother ton-gue is of great help to our learning English.However, for my point of view, too muchuse of Chinese will definitely exert nega-tive effects and tend to hinder the learning

  12. A Helping Hand for SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An online credit platform set up by alibaba.com.cn opens a new loan channel for small and medium-sized enterprises in order to help them scale up Lin’an Ailun Electric Appliances Co. Ltd. (LAEA), established in 2001, is a small company with registered ca

  13. Unpaid help: who does what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Peggy Schyns

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Informele hulp: wie doet er wat? There is currently a great deal of interest in the Netherlands in people’s reliance on their own networks in times of need. What can people do for each other when someone needs help because of health problems? And what are they already doing? In this

  14. Helping Your Child to Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Betty Jean

    This booklet provides suggestions for parents in helping their children to learn how to read. The first section provides 34 suggestions and activities for parents to use with preschool children, such as reciting nursery rhymes, reading aloud, respecting the child's mood, and playing listening games. The second section offers 25 suggestions and…

  15. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  16. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  17. De la recherche salariée en France : lien de subordination et liberté de la recherche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Perrin-Joly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Au travers de l’expérience d’une thèse de sociologie menée en entreprise (sous convention industrielle de formation par la recherche, nous chercherons en quoi le lien de subordination attaché au salariat et la dépendance économique associée nuisent à la liberté de la recherche, le sociologue ne pouvant s’appuyer sur les ressources d’une profession constituée ou s’intégrer dans une organisation logocratique. Le chercheur, pris entre des injonctions dissonantes risque de favoriser son intérêt personnel à court terme de salarié, parfois au détriment de celui attaché à sa position de sociologue, pour rendre la situation tenable. Les liens qui se créent avec la mise en place de relations de travail approfondies et du fait de l’intégration dans des logiques de pouvoir internes gênent également la distance affective nécessaire à la co-construction des résultats.About salary research in France: subordination link and freedom researchBased on a PhD done within a company (with special French contract named CIFRE, this article deals with how subordination link in salary and economic dependency harm research’s freedom. In fact, sociologist can neither draw on a system of profession resources, nor be integrated into a “logocratic firm”. The researcher which undergoes paradoxical injunctions risks promoting his own short-term salary interest to the detriment of scientific interest, in order to make the situation bearable. Furthermore, the affective distance necessary to achieve results - with people concerned by the request (“co-construction”, is affected by close working relationships and socially-influenced relationships.De la investigación asalariada en Francia: vínculo de subordinación entre libertad e investigaciónMediante  la experiencia de una tesis sociológica llevada a cabo en una empresa (bajo convención industrial de formación por investigación, buscaremos la forma en la que el vínculo de

  18. The relationship of dominance, reproductive state and stress in female horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Carly A; Schulte, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Maintaining a dominant position in a hierarchy requires energetically expensive aggressive displays and physical exertion. Lab based winner-loser studies, often conducted with individuals from non-social species, have shown that subordinates have higher stress hormone levels than dominant individuals. However, in wild studies on cooperative breeders, displays of aggression used to maintain dominance status are associated with elevated stress hormone levels. The effect of reproductive state on dominance and stress has not been addressed within either of these situations. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological stress levels in relation to dominance rank and reproductive state in a non-cooperative breeder and herbivore, the domestic horse. The social interactions and measured faecal glucocorticoids were recorded in pastured, female horses that were either lactating or non-lactating. While faecal glucocorticoid metabolite level did not differ between reproductive state and rank, activity behaviour demonstrated significant differences between reproductive states. Higher energetic requirements of lactation were reflected in significantly longer bouts of eating and significantly less time spent alert and socializing. As non-cooperative breeders, the social nature of horses does not limit their reproduction or resource acquisition based upon rank, and therefore does not fit with the dominance-stress hypothesis or subordinate-stress hypothesis and instead supports a rank-independent stress hypothesis.

  19. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  20. The expression pattern of microRNAs in granulosa cells of subordinate and dominant follicles during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Ahmad, Ijaz; Gebremedhn, Samuel; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, M D Munir; Rings, Franca; Hoelker, Michael; Tholen, Ernst; Neuhoff, Christiane; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF) and dominant follicle (DF) during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318) were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

  1. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  2. Why humans might help strangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Jayne Raihani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans regularly help strangers, even when interactions are apparently unobserved and unlikely to be repeated. Such situations have been simulated in the laboratory using anonymous one-shot games (e.g. prisoner's dilemma where the payoff matrices used make helping biologically altruistic. As in real-life, participants often cooperate in the lab in these one-shot games with non-relatives, despite that fact that helping is under negative selection under these circumstances. Two broad explanations for such behavior prevail. The 'big mistake' or 'mismatch' theorists argue that behavior is constrained by psychological mechanisms that evolved predominantly in the context of repeated interactions with known individuals. In contrast, the cultural group selection theorists posit that humans have been selected to cooperate in anonymous one-shot interactions due to strong between-group competition, which creates interdependence among in-group members. We present these two hypotheses before discussing alternative routes by which humans could increase their direct fitness by cooperating with strangers under natural conditions. In doing so, we explain why the standard lab games do not capture real-life in various important aspects. First, asymmetries in the cost of perceptual errors regarding the context of the interaction (one-shot versus repeated; anonymous versus public might have selected for strategies that minimize the chance of making costly behavioral errors. Second, helping strangers might be a successful strategy for identifying other cooperative individuals in the population, where partner choice can turn strangers into interaction partners. Third, in many real-world situations individuals are able to parcel investments such that a one-shot interaction is turned into a repeated game of many decisions. Finally, in contrast to the assumptions of the prisoner's dilemma model, it is possible that benefits of cooperation follow a non-linear function of

  3. Female urbanward migration and human resource issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosa-feranil, I

    1990-01-01

    Of those migrating to urban centers in the Philippines, a disproportionate number of them are young females, most of whom end up working in the service sector. Between 1975-80, 1.3 million people migrated to urban centers, 56% of whom were females. Furthermore, a 1980 census indicates that 13% of all urban migrants were females age 15-19, and almost 1/4 of them were women in their 20s. Figures also show that single females make up a substantial portion of the urban migrants. Compared to the men migrating into the cities, the female urban migrants had lower educational attainments. Many of uneducated migrants do not integrate as easily, and are relegated to the periphery of urban centers. The search for employment serves as the driving force for urban migration, and in fact, the level of female participation in the workforce is high. But while male migrants work mostly as craftsmen or in the production sector, most female migrants work in the service sector. This category includes domestic workers, laundry women, cooks and waitresses, hospitality girls, and prostitutes. Generally attracting single, young females, the service sector has easy entry, which helps explain the high rate of female employment. The author explains that this trend is cause for concern, considering that the number of people involved is large, that the service sector provides low earning, and that it lends itself to the exploitation of the workers. Nonetheless, the author says that the migration pattern might only be transitory, and the urban migration might be a liberating process for women, but explains that further research is needed concerning the upward mobility of urban migrants.

  4. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  5. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term, female athlete triad may lead to reduced physical performance, stress fractures, and other injuries. Over the long term, it can cause bone weakness, long-term effects on the reproductive system, and heart problems. A ...

  6. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  7. Deconstructing Female Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela MATEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of Fay Weldon’s early novels, Female Friends (1975, published at the peak of her feminist ’phase’, deconstructs female and feminine stereotypes in order to present the writer’s own views on feminism. It speaks for a generation of women, who struggle to find their place in a male-dominated world, through three protagonists, who are neither happy, nor perfect. Narrated by the character Chloe, the novel revolves around her and her friends, Grace and Marjorie, with an aim at depicting the falsehood and hypocrisy that surround female friendship. It is precisely where Weldon’s specificity as a feminist writer lies: in her rendering the imperfections of women’s characters and relationships. This paper attempts to trace such elements of ‘fayminism’ in Female Friends by resorting to the tools of the feminist critic.

  8. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be comfortable with your sexuality, improve your self-esteem and accept your body. Try practicing these healthy ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-sexual-dysfunction/basics/definition/CON-20027721 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  9. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  10. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  11. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  12. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana, CIOCHINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure of globalization, local communities around the world are looking for new strategies to facilitate local economic development, to reduce poverty and for social inclusion, through harnessing local resources, the creation of workplaces and of better life quality for men and women. In this context, programs to encourage and promote the entrepreneurial spirit in women considering that, on a global level, one third of new businesses are their creation, a significant part of SMEs, the primary source of new workplaces and of economic growth in a local community. In a competition where women continue to be confronted with more obstacles than men, measures must be taken to ensure the best possible context to support female entrepreneurship in such a way that local communities to fully benefit from their potential in creating workplaces, economic and social development on a local, national and European scale. The lack of confidence in creating their own businesses, difficulty in balancing professional and family life, inability to obtain the capital necessary for developing their business, difficulty in preparation and limited access to information are all problems that hinder initiative and the development of women's entrepreneurship. Female entrepreneurs are in need of recognition, from financers and business partners, logistical support and help in increasing managerial and leading capacity.

  13. State feedback controller with subordinate mass flow control as optimized temperature control for superheaters; Zustandsregler mit unterlagerter Massenstrom-Regelung als optimierte Temperaturregelung fuer einen Ueberhitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W. [Kraftwerk Pleinting der Bayernwerk AG Konventionelle Waermekraftwerke GmbH (Germany). Abt. Elektro- und Leittechnik; Mann, J. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU)

    1998-12-31

    During a boiler construction change at the power station Pleinting Unit 2 the heating surfaces of the superheater were enlarged. Due to these changes in the temperature control loop, the temperature deviations could no longer be regulated satisfactorily by the hitherto installed conventional controllers. Using state feedback controllers thereafter, these deviations were reduced considerably. The configuring and parameter setting of the used state feedback controllers was extremely easy because only one tuning factor was needed. So further optimizations with customer benefits could be worked out: The state feedback control was supplemented by an enthalpy calculation with subordinate mass flow control. Thus, it has become possible to inject water into saturated steam during start-ups in case of high temperature deviations. The achieved results are verified by time trends measured at the plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei einem Kesselumbau im Kraftwerk Pleinting Block 2 wurden die Heizflaechen der Ueberhitzer und damit die Aufwaermspannen vergroessert. Aufgrund der dadurch veraenderten Temperaturregelstrecke konnten die Temperaturstoerungen mit der konventionellen Regelung nicht mehr zufriedenstellend ausgeregelt werden. Mit dem Einsatz von Zustandsreglern wurden diese Regelabweichungen wesentlich verringert. Die Projektierung und Parametrierung der verwendeten Zustandsregler gestaltete sich durch die Verwendung von nur einem Einstellfaktor aeusserst einfach. So konnte dann das Augenmerk auf weiteres Optimierungspotential mit Kundennutzen gelegt werden: Die Zustandsregelung wurde um eine Enthalpie-Rechnung mit unterlagerter Massenstromregelung ergaenzt, um waehrend des Anfahrens bei hohen Temperaturbweichungen in Sattdampf einspritzen zu koennen. Die erzielten Ergebnisse sind durch in der Anlage gemessene Kurven belegt. (orig.)

  14. [Drought-resistance of local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China: a comprehensive evaluation by using GGE biplot and subordinate function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-wen; Zhu, Jun-gang; Wang, Shu-guang; Sun, Dai-zhen; ShiI, Yu-gang; Chen, Wei-guo

    2013-04-01

    Taking 7 local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China and two other control varieties as test materials, this paper studied their morphological and physiological traits under normal and water stress field conditions. The drought-resistance coefficient of each index of the traits was calculated. On the basis of principal component analysis, the correlations between the drought-resistance indices and their relationships with the drought-resistance of different varieties were analyzed by GGE biplot, and the drought resistance of the wheat varieties was comprehensively evaluated with the combination of subordinate function and drought resistance index analysis. The main morphological and physiological factors affecting the drought-resistance of the wheat varieties were uppermost internode length, plant height, internode length, leaf area, leaf POD and SOD activities, and leaf relative water content and relative electric conductivity. There existed different degrees of correlation between these indices, and each index had different effects on the drought resistance of the varieties, being the main cause for the different drought resistance of the wheat varieties. Based on the drought-resistance, the test varieties could be classified into three groups, i. e. , drought-resistance group, intermediate group, and sensitive group. Two highly drought-resistance cultivars, Baiheshangtou and Zhuganqing, whose drought-resistance was similar to that of drought-resistant Jinmai 47, could be used as the parent materials for breeding drought-resistance wheat.

  15. Ernst Rüdin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-11-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses).

  16. Objetos subordinantes: la tecnología epistémica para producir centros y periferias Subordinating objects: epistemic technology to produce centers and peripheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodriguez Medina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios sociales de la ciencia y la tecnología ha aparecido abundante literatura acerca de la importancia del espacio en la producción y la circulación de conocimiento. La propia idea de circulación de conocimiento ha recibido mayor atención, especialmente por la necesidad de analizar las transformaciones que éste recibe a medida que viaja de su lugar de origen a sus múltiples destinos. El presente artículo, derivado de investigaciones cualitativas y documentales sobre trayectorias académicas e influencia teórica, introduce el concepto de "objeto subordinante" para comprender la apropiación en campos periféricos de conocimiento producido en los centros metropolitanos.In social studies on science and technology, abundant literature has emerged on the importance of space in the production and the circulation of knowledge. The very idea of the circulation of knowledge has received more attention, particularly because of the need to analyze the transformations it undergoes as it travels from its place of origin to its multiple destinations. This article, derived from qualitative research and the analysis of documents on academic trajectories and theoretical influence, introduces the concept of the "subordinating object" to understand how knowledge produced in metropolitan centers is appropriated in peripheral fields.

  17. Empirical Research on the Influencing Factors of Intergenerational Conflict between the Superior and Subordinate%上下级代际冲突影响因素的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永跃; 杨花; 李炳龙; 杨巍

    2015-01-01

    针对组织层面的代际差异问题,借鉴相关研究文献,提出上下级代际冲突这一概念,将其分为任务冲突、关系冲突和程序冲突3个维度,并建立上下级代际冲突的影响因素概念模型。然后,运用 Lisrel8.7软件对问卷调查数据进行分析,验证了上下级代际冲突及其影响因素模型的结构合理性,并得出结论认为:角色地位和任务认知对上下级代际冲突及其3个维度均有显著的正向影响;工作期望对上下级代际冲突及其3个维度均有显著的负向影响;组织文化对上下级代际冲突及其关系冲突维度具有显著的正向影响。%For intergenerational disparities on organizational level,drawing on relevant research literature,this paper puts forward the concept of intergenerational conflict between the superior and subordinate,divides it into three dimensions of task conflict,relationship conflict and process conflict,and builds a conceptual model of influencing factors of intergenerational conflict between the superior and subordinate.Lisrel8.7 is adopted to analyze the survey data,to verify the model structure of intergenerational conflict between the superior and subordinate and its influencing factors,and to draw some conclusions that role status and task awareness have a significant positive impact on intergenerational conflict between the superior and subordinate and its three dimensions;that work expectations have a significant negative effect on intergenerational conflict between the superior and subordinate and its three dimensions;and that organizational culture has a significant positive impact on intergenerational conflict between the superior and subordinate and on relationship conflict.

  18. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  19. Violent female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.

  20. Female athlete triad and stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, David; Hame, Sharon L

    2006-10-01

    Stress fractures are a common occurrence in athletes, and the incidence of stress fractures in female Division 1 collegiate athletes is double that of men. Hormonal influences on bone and bone morphology may influence the risk for fracture. A high level of suspicion and special imaging procedures allow for accurate diagnosis of these fractures. In stress fractures that are associated with the female athlete triad, addressing the three aspects of the triad--eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--are critical for successful treatment. Preparticipation screening for the presence of signs of the female athlete triad by monitoring weight, energy level, menstrual cycles, and bone mineral density may help to prevent the occurrence of stress fractures in this population.

  1. Male and female viewpoints on female circumcision in Ekpeye, Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, L A

    2002-12-01

    One hundred and ninety five male and female volunteers across the social strata were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables. The study revealed that 74.7% of female respondents were circumcised. They believe that the practice would help prevent sexual promiscuity, curb sexual desires and that it is a custom they cannot do without. Most of the men would not marry an uncircumcised female, while a substantial number of the respondents would like to circumcise their daughters. Community effort to eradicate the practice is very minimal. Based on the findings, it is suggested that communities where female genital mutilation (FGM) is practiced as a social norm should be involved in eradication campaigns with support from national and international organisations.

  2. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  3. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  4. Youth Experience of Trying to Get off the Street: What Has Helped and Hindered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tracy L.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study involved 20 youth (18 males, 1 female, 1 transgender, ages 19-24) living in Vancouver, British Columbia, who reported 259 critical incidents of what helped or hindered their experiences as they tried to get off the street. What helped included (a) taking responsibility, (b) engaging in constructive activities, (c) friends…

  5. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  6. Imaging female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadow, Cheryl A; Sahni, V Anik

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to discuss causes of female infertility, in particular, those etiologies in which imaging plays a key role in detection. Included are disorders of cervical, ovarian, fallopian tube, and uterine origin. We also discuss the role of various imaging modalities including hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, hysterosonography, and pelvic MR imaging in elucidating the cause of female infertility. Radiologists need to know the conditions to be aware of when these patients are sent for diagnostic imaging, as well as how to direct further management, if necessary, should an abnormality be detected.

  7. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findings....... Such a review is indtended to provide some insight into how scholars in different social contexts, who study apparently the same phenomenon, direct their focus. It should also enrich research into female entrepreneurship in both regions of the world and provide directions for further research in the field....

  8. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel MARQUINA; Roger WOOLNOUGH; IT/User Support

    1999-01-01

    The way to contact the Computing Help Desk (also known as 'UCO' and hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues) has been streamlined in order to facilitate access to it. A new telephone line and email address have been set: Phone number: 78888Email: Helpdesk@cern.chhopefully easier to remember. Both entries are operational since last December. The previous number and email address remain valid and have been turned into aliases of the above. However we encourage using the latter at your convenience from now on. For additional information please see the article published at the CERN Computing Newsletter 233:http://consult.cern.ch/cnl/233/art_uco.htmlDo not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Nicole Cremel, Miguel Marquina, Roger WoolnoughIT/UserSupport

  9. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel Marquina

    2000-01-01

    You may find it useful to glue the information below, e.g. near/at your computer, for those occasions when access to computer services is not possible. It presents the way to contact the Computing Help Desk (hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues). Do not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Your contact for general computing problems or queriesPhone number:(+41 22 76) 78888Opening Hours:From Monday to Friday 8:30-17:30Email:Helpdesk@cern.chWeb:http://consult.cern.ch/service/helpdeskMiguel MarquinaIT Division/UserSupport

  10. On Female Consumption Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平

    2012-01-01

    This is an observation by the daily deliberation of China major consuming force-female,which should be a great master piece.Because of the not-in-depth study and analysis,I can only put it in the air as a clue for further research by experts.

  11. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findings...

  12. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  13. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  14. Helping You Help Me: The Role of Diagnostic (In)congruence in the Helping Process within Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Colin M.; Pillemer, Julianna; Amabile, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an inductive, multi-method field study at a major design firm, we investigated the helping process in project work and how that process affects the success of a helping episode, as perceived by help-givers and/or -receivers. We used daily diary entries and weekly interviews from four project teams, and a separate sample of critical incident interviews, to induce process models of successful and unsuccessful helping episodes. We found that, in unsuccessful episodes, help-givers and -re...

  15. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is

  16. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is n

  17. Fecal testosterone is elevated in high ranking female ibexes (Capra nubiana) and associated with increased aggression and a preponderance of male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargal, D; Shore, L; Roteri, N; Terkel, A; Zorovsky, Y; Shemesh, M; Steinberger, Y

    2008-04-01

    We monitored fecal testosterone and progesterone levels in 26 adult ibexes (17 males, 9 females) in a captive herd Nubian ibex held on 250 ha tract to test if testosterone is associated with dominance. The ibexes were observed over a 20-month period, and including two mating seasons, during which time we collected fecal samples twice during early gestation and postpartum intervals and once during lactation and pre-rut season intervals. The social hierarchy was linear with age in adult males and nearly linear in adult females. High ranking males were in solitude, but females were aggregated with the kids in the presence of a dominant female. The testosterone concentration in the males in the pre-rut (211+/-12 ng/g; N=13; dominant male 296 ng/g) was significant higher than other seasons (P<0.05). High testosterone in dominant male at pre-rut was associated with a decrease in confrontations. The individuals with the highest average testosterone concentrations were the dominant male and female (166+/-82 ng/g; 130+/-32 ng/g, N=6, respectively). In females, testosterone was highest in during the post-partum interval and was associated with an increase in aggression. The three highest fertile ranking females had higher testosterone (119+/-14 ng/g vs. 92+/-18 ng/g, P<0.05) than the four subordinate females. The sex ratio of the offspring was 8M/3F for the three older females and 5M/7F for the younger females. In early gestation period, females with only male fetuses had higher testosterone than other gravidities (119+/-14 ng/g, N=6 vs. 91+/-18 ng/g, N=7, P<0.01). Progesterone was significantly higher in the eight multiparous pregnancies than in those with the five singletons (210+/-19 ng/g vs. 186+/-12 ng/g, P<0.02). We conclude that high testosterone in females is associated with an increase in aggressive confrontations in early- and mid-lactation. In contrast, increased testosterone during pre-rut in males is associated with fewer confrontations. In addition, the data

  18. Multivariate Modelling via Matrix Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolato, Elisa

    Extending the vast library of univariate models to price multi-asset derivatives is still a challenge in the field of Quantitative Finance. Within the literature on multivariate modelling, a dichotomy may be noticed. On one hand, the focus has been on the construction of models displaying...... stochastic correlation within the framework of discussion processes (see e.g. Pigorsh and Stelzer (2008), Hubalek and Nicolato (2008) and Zhu (2000)). On the other hand a number of authors have proposed multivariate Levy models, which allow for flexible modelling of returns, but at the expenses of a constant...... correlation structure (see e.g. Leoni and Schoutens (2007) and Leoni and Schoutens (2007) among others). Tractable multivariate models displaying flexible and stochastic correlation structures combined with jumps is proving to be rather problematic. In particular, the classical technique of introducing...

  19. Helping Those in Need: Human Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Colleen Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Many people experience hardship and need help. This help is provided by a network of agencies and organizations, both public and private. Staffed by human service workers, this network, and the kinds of help it offers, is as varied as the clients it serves. Human service workers help clients become more self-sufficient. The first section of this…

  20. Can a "Psychosocial Model" Help Explain Violence Perpetrated by Female Batterers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regardt J.; Buttell, Frederick P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial predictors of propensity for abusiveness among a large sample of women ordered into a 26-week batterer intervention program (BIP). Method: The study employed a nonequivalent, control group design (comparing program completers to dropouts) in a secondary analysis of 485 women.…

  1. Water Footprint: Help or Hindrance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Chapagain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns about pressures on global water resources, researchers have developed a range of water footprint concepts and tools. These have been deployed for a variety of purposes by businesses, governments and NGOs. A debate has now emerged about the value, and the shortcomings of using water footprint tools to support better water resources management. This paper tracks the evolution of the water footprint concept from its inception in the 1990s and reviews major applications of water footprint tools, including those by the private sector. The review suggests that water footprint assessments have been an effective means of raising awareness of global water challenges among audiences 'outside the water box' including decision makers in industry and government. Water footprint applications have also proved to be useful for the assessment of strategic corporate risks relating to water scarcity and pollution. There is evidence that these applications may help to motivate economically important stakeholders to contribute to joint efforts to mitigate shared water-related risks, although there have been few examples to date of such approaches leading to tangible improvements in water resources management at the local and river basin scales. Water footprint assessments have so far had limited influence on the development or implementation of improved public policy for water resources management and there is reason to believe that water footprint approaches may be a distraction in this context. Suggestions that international trade and economic development frameworks might be amended in light of global water footprint assessments have not yet been articulated coherently. Nevertheless, if used carefully, water footprint tools could contribute to better understanding of the connections between water use, economic development, business practice and social and environmental risks. In light of the review, a set of 'golden rules' is

  2. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  3. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  4. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  6. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    Full Text Available Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates.

  7. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  8. INGUINAL HERNIA IN FEMALES

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    9 patients of inguinal hernia in females were diagnosed in a total of 50 patients who presented with congenital groin problems, 8 of these were managed surgically. There were 6 small children, 1 young girl and 2 elderly ladies. All children were managed by herniotomy and herniorrhaphy was done in women. 2 patients under one year presented with irreducible hernia, one of them on exploration was found to be having sliding hernia with incarcerated ovary and tube as contents while other one had i...

  9. Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...

  10. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  11. 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161132.html 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars Pigments can restore more ... scars from cancer surgeries may benefit from "medical tattoos" that can help restore some of the skin's ...

  12. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Email Facebook Twitter Two hour- ... School, in Minneapolis, conducted the trial with 315 adolescent and parent/caregiver pairs. Their findings strengthen evidence, ...

  13. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  14. Social effects of an anthropomorphic help agent: humans versus computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Prabu; Lu, Tingting; Kline, Susan; Cai, Li

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of fairness of a computer-administered quiz as a function of the anthropomorphic features of the help agent offered within the quiz environment. The addition of simple anthropomorphic cues to a computer help agent reduced the perceived friendliness of the agent, perceived intelligence of the agent, and the perceived fairness of the quiz. These differences were observed only for male anthropomorphic cues, but not for female anthropomorphic cues. The results were not explained by the social attraction of the anthropomorphic agents used in the quiz or by gender identification with the agents. Priming of visual cues provides the best account of the data. Practical implications of the study are discussed.

  15. MR imaging of the female pelvic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M C; Posniak, H V; Tempany, C M; Dudiak, C M

    1992-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable technique for noninvasive evaluation of the female pelvic region. This article presents the normal anatomy and abnormalities of the female pelvis. MR imaging may be more useful than clinical evaluation or other imaging modalities in diagnosing or staging developmental anomalies, leiomyomas, adenomyosis, endometrial or cervical carcinoma, vaginal neoplasms, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, teratomas, polycystic ovaries, or other ovarian masses. It could potentially replace laparoscopy as a more useful tool in the diagnosis of uterine anomalies. MR imaging is generally capable of helping determine whether a pelvic mass is uterine or adnexal in origin and may be used to characterize some adnexal masses. In some cases, MR imaging is used to differentiate recurrent disease from posttreatment fibrosis, which aids in treatment planning.

  16. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal

    2009-09-01

    Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.

  17. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.

  18. Female entrepreneurial activity in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária DÉZSI-BENYOVSZKI; Tünde Petra SZABÓ; Ágnes NAGY

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the female entrepreneurial activity in Romania. We will compare the socio-demographic characteristics, the entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions of female early-stage entrepreneurs and the female employees in order to highlight the main differences. Using a logistic regression we will identify the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming a female early-stage entrepreneur.

  19. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E

    2013-02-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in "hypersexualized" ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales.

  20. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in “hypersexualized” ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales. PMID:23467816

  1. Sociological perspectives on self-help groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L; Rasmussen, J M

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The paper discusses two themes: first, professional involvement in self-help groups and secondly, sociological evidence on self-help groups in postmodern society. BACKGROUND: Self-help groups are a growing phenomenon across national borders and social/political systems. They affect the indiv...

  2. Interpretation of the Revealed Word by the Tradition of the Church – the Issue of Subordination of Woman to Man in the Saint Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians (Eph 5 : 21–33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vojtko

    2016-07-01

    • to the ingenious doctrine of St. Pope John Paul II. in his theology of the body: the relationship between man and woman in marriage is a relationship of mutual subordination in love, reflecting God’s love and symbolizing the relation between Christ and the Church. This relationship is inherently “communio personarum” (communion of persons in which the dissimilarity of women and men is mutually complemented and creates harmony. In this article we wanted to highlight the fact that a return to the inspired biblical texts explained by the Magisterium is a reliable means of obtaining true knowledge even of the thorny issue of conjugal and family life.

  3. 领导对下属的信任与员工创造力--心理授权的中介效应%Leader’s Trust in Subordinate and Employee Creativity--The mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁琳; 耿紫珍

    2016-01-01

    创造力的产生离不开人与人之间的互动与知识的交换,信任则正是这种互动与交换的基石。因此,信任,特别是领导对下属的信任对创造力有重要影响。通过对华北地区三个国有企业领导者与员工进行问卷调查,探讨了领导信任下属对员工创造力的作用,并验证了心理授权及其维度在二者关系中的中介作用。采用结构方程模型进行了验证,发现领导信任下属对员工创造力有显著的正向作用;领导信任下属对心理授权及其能力、自我决策和价值维度有显著的正向作用;心理授权及其能力和价值维度在领导信任下属与员工创造力之间起到了部分中介作用。%The employee creativity depens on the interpersonal interaction and the knowledge exchange, in which the trust is the keystone. Therefore, the interpersonal trust, especially leader’s trust in subordinate (LTS) has important effect on employee creativity. In order to test the important role of LTS on employee creativity, a study with questionnaire survey, in which leaders and employees from three state-owned enterprises in North China were involved, is designed to explore the mediating effect of psychological empowerment on the relationship between leader’s trust in subordinate and employee creativity. By using a structure equation model, the study finds that leader’s trust in subordinate has a positive effect on not only the employee creativity but also the psychological empowerment, the latter of which, in return, has a partial mediating effect on the relationship between leader’s trust in subordinate and employee creativity.

  4. The Relational Antecedents of Interpersonal Helping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2017-01-01

    networks are also associated with cognitive costs, which may reduce the focal employee's ability to both recognize the need for help and engage in helping behaviours. For these reasons, the authors assert an inverted U-shaped relation between the size of an ego's social network and engagement in helping......Having a large network of colleagues means having several opportunities to help those colleagues, as well as a higher chance of receiving requests for help from them. Employees with large networks are therefore expected to help more in the workplace than those with small networks. However, large...... and the beneficiaries of help. Analysis of employee-level, single-firm data supports these ideas, providing preliminary evidence that quality of relationship compensates for the difficulties that may arise from having large social networks....

  5. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  6. [Female athlete triad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio

    2009-08-05

    The practitioner, as well as specialist such as gynecologist and endocrinologist, may face in their office women with eating disorders, abnormalities of menstrual cycles and low bone mass, which may be the first hints of the female athlete triad. In these situations, the practitioner may search other findings of these triad by looking at some particular physical findings and by using appropriate questionnaire. In some advanced forms of this triad specific abnormalities of eating disorders (anorexia and boulimia) may be present as well as amenorrhea and osteoporosis, which may disturb the well-being and cause health damages of women practising sport either as amateur or in a elite setting. An appropriate handling of such disorders has to be proposed to these women.

  7. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  8. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  9. The Profile and Empathy Level of Helping Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Lulu L. Loyola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study looked into the demographic profile and empathy level of helping professionals enrolled at West Visayas State University, College of Education, Graduate School taking up Master of Education (M.Ed. major in Guidance and Counseling and Doctor of Philosophy in Education (Ph.D. in Ed. major in Psychology and Guidance. Results showed that the participants taking graduate education in the field of teacher education, psychology, guidance and counseling were generally female, younger and are actively teaching. Majority were beginners in the Ph.D. program. Except for the category on sex where females had significantly higher empathy level than males, all the participants had an average level of empathy. However, looking at their individual mean scores, it appeared that the older respondents, married, are teaching and are finishing their degrees had higher mean. These results seem to imply that the females, those with more experience, married, in the field of teaching, and have more training had higher levels of empathy.

  10. Integrating self-help books into psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P

    2003-02-01

    This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined.

  11. Determining Demand for Help-Wanted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrer, Mary T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the price of advertising space affects the demand for help-wanted advertising. To do so, this thesis develops and estimates an econometric model to explain and predict the demand for help-wanted advertising placed in a newspaper. For the most part, economic theory and the literature suggest that basic economic and demographic factors explain the demand for help-wanted advertising. The literature and empirical studies confirm an inverse relatio...

  12. Formal home help services and institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yukari; Siersma, Volkert; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    per week during the first 18 months after baseline was not associated with an increased risk of institutionalization during the study period among those with physical or mental decline. Receiving public home help services was a strong indicator for institutionalization in Denmark. Receiving small...... amounts of home help and experiencing physical or mental decline was not associated with higher hazard for institutionalization compared with those who received no help....

  13. Biomarkers for PTSD in Female Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Veronica Ades, a VA gynecologist involved in developing a women’s reproductive health clinic at the Manhattan VA, to help aid recruitment of female...Gersons, B. P. R. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychol Bull 133, 183-204 (2007). 14 Cohen, H. & Yehuda, R. Gender differences

  14. 不同下属特性对领导者成就动机与领导绩效关系的调节作用%Variors Subordinates Affecting the Relationship Between Leaders' Achievement Motivation and Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丹

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the leadership trait theory based on situation,we select various subordinates as the main situation,and study the effect of the situation on the relationship between the leaders' achievement motivation and performance.achievement motivation have significant positive relation to leader's performance in prevalent situations.After considering the situation of subordinates,the aforementioned relations do vary to corresponding degree.%在基于情境的领导素质理论思想指导下,以领导素质中的成就动机为切入点,选取任何组织中都存在的重要情境———不同下属特性,研究该情境对领导者成就动机与领导绩效关系所起的调节作用。领导者成就动机在普遍意义下与领导绩效有显著正相关关系,在加入下属特性情境因素后,领导者动机和领导绩效间的相关关系受到不同程度的影响。

  15. 由微分从属和卷积定义的解析函数类的包含性质%Inclusion Properties for Subclasses of Analytic Functions Defined by Differential Subordination and Convolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都俊杰; 秦刀; 邹发伟; 李小飞

    2016-01-01

    本文由微分从属和卷积定义了在单位圆盘U={z∈C:|z|<1}内的三类单叶解析函数类Pa1,…,aq;b1,…,bs(μ,h,λ),Ta1,…,aq;b1,…,bs(μ,h,α),Ra1,…,aq;b1,…,bs(μ,h,α),并利用从属性质和凸函数的理论,研究得到了它们的包含关系.%In this article,we define three subclasses of analytic functions Pa1,…,aq;b1,…,bs (μ,h,λ), Ta1,…,aq;b1,…,bs (μ,h,α),Ra1,…,aq;b1,…,bs (μ,h,α)by using of differential subordination and convolution in the open disc U ={z∈C:|z|<1}.Inclusion properties of these subclasses are obtained by employing properties of subordi-nation and theories of convex functions.

  16. The Study on the Relationship between Superior-Subordinate Communication and Upward Trust in Corporation%企业内上下级沟通与下属上向信任的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩平; 闫围; 弓雅琼

    2012-01-01

    在对上下级沟通和信任相关文献进行综合分析的基础上,针对以往研究的局限,从沟通频率、沟通方式、沟通风格和沟通方向4个维度,建立了上下级沟通与下属上向信任的概念模型.然后,在此基础上提出研究假设,并以国有企业中低层管理者与其直接下属为研究对象进行了验证.%After literature review, we divide communication into four aspects, and then put forward the model and the hypothesis about communication and trust. We prove the model and hypothesis with statistics method after the data collection from superiors and their subordinates in organizations in China. The study gives some suggestions about how to build and maintain subordinates' trust in leadership, and puts forward the direction of further research.

  17. [Female conduct disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloet, Timo D; Großheinrich, Nicola; Konrad, Kerstin; Freitag, Christine; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have seen much research on girls with conduct disorder (CD). This article summarizes the gender-specific data regarding prevalence, differences with respect to symptomatology (e.g., subtypes of aggression, callous-unemotional (cu)-traits), and it presents data on the autonomic and neuroendocrine stress system as well as genetic, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging data. Differences in the impact of environmental factors on boys and girls for the development of CD are discussed. Taken together, the data indicate that there is great overlap in symptomatology, personality traits, and neurobiological aberrations in girls and boys with CD. Since fewer girls than boys exhibit CD symptomatology, further investigations on CD in girls might help to identify resilience factors that could improve future therapeutic interventions.

  18. Measuring help-seeking behaviors: factor structure, reliability, and validity among youth with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Yen K; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Murray, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Existing measures of help-seeking focus on assessing attitudes and beliefs, rather than specific behaviors, toward help-seeking. This study described the development of a self-report measure of informal help-seeking behaviors (HSB). Participants were 228 high school students (148 males, 80 females) with disabilities from four states. Factor analyses revealed three underlying factors, each addressing a different source of help: parent, peer, and teacher. The HSB had good internal reliability and moderate validity. Results from regression analyses suggested that help-seeking behaviors toward parents and teachers contributed uniquely to students' self-ratings of school bonding, life satisfaction, and career outcome expectations. Help-seeking behaviors toward peers was a negative predictor of career outcome expectations. The value of the HSB as a research instrument was discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anticipated Guilt for not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Erlandsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g. guilt and to approach positive emotions (e.g. warm glow are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e. separate evaluation. Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e. joint evaluation. Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b, or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2. In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly, personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for

  20. A female mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  2. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  3. The adolescent female athlete: current concepts and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D

    2010-06-01

    The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty.

  4. Effect of ingratiation on supervisor satisfaction through helping behavior: A moderated mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Asadullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research intends to investigate the mediating role of helping behavior in relationship between employee ingratiation and supervisor satisfaction across high and low levels of ingratiation behavior, and answers the questions: how, when and why ingratiation is effective. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in hotel industry, and structural equation modelling was applied to analyze these data by using hypothetical-deductive approach. Findings: The results indicate that helping behavior is an important mediator of the relationship between ingratiation and supervisor satisfaction. Moreover, ingratiation is also a strong moderator of the relationship between helping behavior and supervisor satisfaction. This research concludes that employee ingratiation positively predicts helping behaviors, and consequently the supervisor satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: This study is not experimental in nature, but a cross-sectional design has been followed. Future research can focus on an experimental design by incorporating a time element, and the design and analysis should be nested since this study did not use multilevel analysis. Moreover, this study used only two forms of ingratiation for measuring employee ingratiation behavior. We suggest researchers to consider all four dimensions of ingratiation by using some distinct scales. Practical implications: This research explains mechanisms underlying supervisor-subordinate relationship, and contributes to organizational behavior research by answering the question; 'when and how ingratiation could be effective?' The findings of this study have important managerial implications, and provide future lines of research.  Social implications: The findings of this research demonstrate that ingratiation is an important tool for satisfying superiors if employees exhibit helping behaviors towards coworkers and supervisors. Particularly, new employees

  5. Children's Recognition of Pride and Guilt as Consequences of Helping and Not Helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, David N.; McClelland, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between young children's age and their recognition that helping or choosing not to help can cause feelings of pride or guilt. Found age differences in identifying helping-action or inaction as causes, but little support for the hypothesis that identification of guilt as a consequence of not helping would…

  6. Children's Recognition of Pride and Guilt as Consequences of Helping and Not Helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, David N.; McClelland, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between young children's age and their recognition that helping or choosing not to help can cause feelings of pride or guilt. Found age differences in identifying helping-action or inaction as causes, but little support for the hypothesis that identification of guilt as a consequence of not helping would…

  7. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, S

    1997-12-01

    Important differences in male and female cardiovascular anatomy and physiology may account for many of the gender differences seen in various cardiac disease states. Predominant influences on female disease manifestations include (1) women's smaller body size, hence smaller hearts and smaller coronary vessels and (2) women's fluctuating levels of estrogen throughout their lifespan. Understanding these critical anatomic and physiologic differences allows the clinician to better predict and plan care for women. For example, knowing that women generally have a smaller body surface area than men allows one to better understand why men have higher creatine kinase (CK) values than do women--an important distinction when interpreting these values in the acute care setting. The fact that women's hearts and coronary vessels are generally smaller than men's also helps one understand why women have a higher in-hospital mortality than men post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (see article by Allen in this issue for more detailed information on revascularization). These are only a few examples of the many opportunities that acute care nurses have to integrate their knowledge of anatomy and physiology into proactive planning for their female cardiac patients.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Female Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Yim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is still a leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The incidence of lung cancer in developed countries started to decrease mainly due to global anti-smoking campaigns. However, the incidence of lung cancer in women has been increasing in recent decades for various reasons. Furthermore, since the screening of lung cancer is not as yet very effective, clinically applicable molecular markers for early diagnosis are much required. Lung cancer in women appears to have differences compared with that in men, in terms of histologic types and susceptibility to environmental risk factors. This suggests that female lung cancer can be derived by carcinogenic mechanisms different from those involved in male lung cancer. Among female lung cancer patients, many are non-smokers, which could be studied to identify alternative carcinogenic mechanisms independent from smoking-related ones. In this paper, we reviewed molecular susceptibility markers and genetic changes in lung cancer tissues observed in female lung cancer patients, which have been validated by various studies and will be helpful to understand the tumorigenesis of lung cancer.

  9. Renal injury in female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Silva Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pyometra is a common disease in intact female dogs and can cause glomerulopathy and tubular injury. This study aimed to evaluate kidney injury in female dogs with pyometra, as well as progression of the injury during treatment and the markers of this condition. This study analyzed 20 intact female dogs with both clinical and sonographic diagnosis of pyometra. Dogs were treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and an ovariohysterectomy was performed. The following parameters were assessed at eight separate time points: blood pressure; serum creatinine, phosphorus, and urea levels; urinalysis and urinary biochemical parameters [urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase (uGGT and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR]; glomerular filtration rate (GFR; and urine output. All dogs showed some degree of kidney injury at the time of pyometra diagnosis. This was transient in most animals, resolving with treatment of the pyometra. Measurement of uGGT and UPCR identified renal parenchymal injury, helping to determine the prognosis of the animals analyzed in the present study.

  10. Helping Your Child Deal with Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to tell you. Grandma died today." Pause to give your child a moment to take in your words. Listen and comfort. Every child ... being together helps people start to feel better." Give your child a role. ... if they want to take part, and how. Help your child remember the ...

  11. Helping and Cooperation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Colombi, Costanza; Rogers, Sally J.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Helping and cooperation are central to human social life. Here, we report two studies investigating these social behaviors in children with autism and children with developmental delay. In the first study, both groups of children helped the experimenter attain her goals. In the second study, both groups of children cooperated with an adult, but…

  12. Helping Behavior in Multinational Executive Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mors, Marie Louise; Miller, Stewart; McDonald, Michael

    This study develops a framework that draws upon the socio-psychology and network literatures to explain helping behavior in an executive’s multinational network. Focusing on executives' perceptions of willingness to help, we examine network structure (geographic and organizational boundaries), st...

  13. Helping Behavior in Executives' Global Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Stewart; Mors, Marie Louise; McDonald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on research on helping behavior in networks at the upper echelons, we develop and test theory about helping behavior in senior executive networks. We examine the location and relational dependence of the network contact. Our results reveal that executives are more likely to perceive insid...

  14. School Helping Students Deal with Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of a natural disaster, schools may need to plan to address the suffering and loss of many. These Guidance Notes discuss five areas in which schools can help students cope with loss: (1) Fostering Resiliency; (2) Facilitating and Fostering Social Ties and Resources; (3) Stages of Grieving; (4) Helping Students Deal with Loss; and…

  15. Helping Young Children in Frightening Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents ways parents and other adults can help young children deal with tragedy and violence in the wake of terrorist attacks on the United States. Suggests giving reassurance and physical comfort, providing structure and stability, expecting a range of reactions, helping children to talk if they are ready, turning off the television, and…

  16. Signaling for Help. PAM Repeater, No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Arselia S., Ed.

    Signaling devices can help individuals with disabilities call for help, see and feel sound, and monitor what is happening in another room. This pamphlet describes signaling devices within the following categories: emergency, telephone, doorbell, smoke and fire, baby cry and room monitor, light and vibrating, security, wake-up, and child monitor…

  17. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  18. Helping Adolescents in Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Obaid, Beatrice

    1989-01-01

    Addresses problem of adolescent suicide by developing five stages (suicidal signs, establishing rapport, making referral, constructive actions, and self-management) that may be used to help adolescents in distress. Uses five stages in case study to demonstrate the roles played by teacher, friend, and parents in helping adolescent through a crisis.…

  19. Teaching Helping to Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Watkins, Jessica; Murray, Rachel; Connell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) evaluating the effects of a treatment package that included multiple-exemplar training, video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement on helping of 3 adolescents with autism. Results demonstrated that all participants acquired the helping responses. Probes…

  20. Causal Indicators Can Help to Interpret Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The latent factor in a causal indicator model is no more than the latent factor of the factor part of the model. However, if the causal indicator variables are well-understood and help to improve the prediction of individuals' factor scores, they can help to interpret the meaning of the latent factor. Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas (2016)…

  1. Servant Leadership: Teaching the Helping Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Joyce W.; Thompson, Karen C.; Hawkins, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Robert Greenleaf's principles of servant leadership are relevant to the helping professions, including empowerment and development of others, service to others, and open and participatory leadership. The study of servant leadership was infused into an undergraduate senior capstone experience (an internship) for emerging helping professionals…

  2. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  3. Effects of Sex, Attraction, and Acceptance on Children's Help Seeking and Attitudes to Interpersonal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downe, Alan G.; McDougall, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    A study involving 124 male and 128 female sixth graders found that sex differences existed in willingness to receive help and helper preferences, and that high-attraction subjects showed higher orientation toward including other children in their activities, accepting control from others, and being affectionate around others. (SLD)

  4. Quantitative evaluation of muscle relaxation induced by Kundalini yoga with the help of EMG integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, R; Kamat, A; Khanolkar, M; Kamat, S; Desai, S R; Dhume, R A

    1990-10-01

    The present work is aimed to quantify the degree of relaxation of muscle under the effects of Kundalini Yoga with the help of EMG integrator. The data collected from 8 individuals (4 males 4 females) on the degree of muscle relaxation at the end of meditation revealed a significantly decreased muscle activity amounting to 58% of the basal level in both the sexes.

  5. Innovative Strategies to Help Families Cope with the Effects of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    Women and children coping with issues of domestic violence abuse urgently require help from early childhood professionals. The U.S. Department of Justice (2008) details these women and children are in peril. This article focuses on female domestic violence abuse. It presents some warning signs of domestic violence. It also offers steps on how to…

  6. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  7. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  8. Interventions to Improve Responses of Helping Professionals to Intimate Partner Violence: A Quick Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y. Joon; An, Soonok

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to systematically review the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve the response of various helping professionals who come into contact with female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods: Several databases were searched, and N = 38 studies met the inclusion criteria…

  9. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  10. [Helping people is beautiful: an inquiry into the aesthetic consciousness of the helping profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shane

    2013-08-01

    This article addresses the helping profession as an art. The author uses an art philosophy perspective to review the phenomenon and meaning of the helping profession as "art" and addresses several questions. These questions include: What category or categories of art best define the helping profession? Can the process and / or results of helping be appreciated as works of art? What is the value of treating the helping profession as an art form? The purpose of this article is to expand knowledge regarding the aesthetic nature of the helping profession.

  11. Egalitarianism in female African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Pusey, A E; Eberly, L E

    2001-07-27

    Because most cooperative societies are despotic, it has been difficult to test models of egalitarianism. Female African lions demonstrate a unique form of plural breeding in which companions consistently produce similar numbers of surviving offspring. Consistent with theoretical predictions from models of reproductive skew, female lions are unable to control each other's reproduction because of high costs of fighting and low access to each other's newborn cubs. A female also lacks incentives to reduce her companions' reproduction, because her own survival and reproduction depend on group territoriality and synchronous breeding. Consequently, female relationships are highly symmetrical, and female lions are "free agents" who only contribute to communal care when they have cubs of their own.

  12. Examining Predictors of Help Giving Toward People With a Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssia Rossetto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about factors influencing helping behaviors toward a person with mental illness. This study explored a range of predictors of helping intentions and behaviors using data from a national survey of Australian adults. Participants (n = 6,019 were randomly assigned one of six vignettes and asked how they would help the character if it was someone they knew and cared about, and asked whether and how they had helped a person in real life with a similar problem. Responses were scored using a system based on the Mental Health First Aid action plan. Regression analyses examined predictors of high helping scores in relation to type of disorder and respondent demographics, mental health literacy, and experiences with mental illness. Predictors of harmful responses and seeking advice on how to help appropriately were also assessed. Significant predictors varied by vignette, with the only consistent predictor being female gender. Participants aged under 30 provided less helpful responses to people with social phobia. Mental health literacy variables were inconsistently related to helping, whereas more stigmatizing attitudes significantly predicted harmful responses and poor helping scores. Targeting males and young people may improve rates of helpful responses. Education campaigns aiming to reduce stigma and increase knowledge of schizophrenia may also minimize potentially harmful actions.

  13. Sperm should evolve to make female meiosis fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Coop, Graham

    2015-04-01

    Genomic conflicts arise when an allele gains an evolutionary advantage at a cost to organismal fitness. Oögenesis is inherently susceptible to such conflicts because alleles compete for inclusion into the egg. Alleles that distort meiosis in their favor (i.e., meiotic drivers) often decrease organismal fitness, and therefore indirectly favor the evolution of mechanisms to suppress meiotic drive. In this light, many facets of oögenesis and gametogenesis have been interpreted as mechanisms of protection against genomic outlaws. That females of many animal species do not complete meiosis until after fertilization, appears to run counter to this interpretation, because this delay provides an opportunity for sperm-acting alleles to meddle with the outcome of female meiosis and help like alleles drive in heterozygous females. Contrary to this perceived danger, the population genetic theory presented herein suggests that, in fact, sperm nearly always evolve to increase the fairness of female meiosis in the face of genomic conflicts. These results are consistent with the apparent sperm dependence of the best characterized female meiotic driversin animals. Rather than providing an opportunity for sperm collaboration in female meiotic drive, the "fertilization requirement" indirectly protects females from meiotic drivers by providing sperm an opportunity to suppress drive. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Measurement and correlates of empathy among female Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hitomi U; Koide, Norio; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2012-06-22

    The measurement of empathy is important in the assessment of physician competence and patient outcomes. The prevailing view is that female physicians have higher empathy scores compared with male physicians. In Japan, the number of female physicians has increased rapidly in the past ten years. In this study, we focused on female Japanese physicians and addressed factors that were associated with their empathic engagement in patient care. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was translated into Japanese by using the back-translation procedure, and was administered to 285 female Japanese physicians. We designed this study to examine the psychometrics of the JSE and group differences among female Japanese physicians. The item-total score correlations of the JSE were all positive and statistically significant, ranging from .20 to .54, with a median of .41. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha was .81. Female physicians who were practicing in "people-oriented" specialties obtained a significantly higher mean empathy score than their counterparts in "procedure-" or "technology-oriented" specialties. In addition, physicians who reported living with their parents in an extended family or living close to their parents, scored higher on the JSE than those who were living alone or in a nuclear family. Our results provide support for the measurement property and reliability of the JSE in a sample of female Japanese physicians. The observed group differences associated with specialties and living arrangement may have implications for sustaining empathy. In addition, recognizing these factors that reinforce physicians' empathy may help physicians to avoid career burnout.

  15. Social change and access to a palatable diet produces differences in reward neurochemistry and appetite in female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Wilson, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure. Social subordination in macaques is a well-established animal model of a chronic psychogenic stressor that results in stress axis dysregulation, attenuated striatal D2R levels, and stress-induced hyperphagia in complex dietary environment. However, it remains unclear how these phenotypes emerge as the stressor becomes chronic during the formation of new social groups. Thus, the goal of the current study was to assess how the imposition of social subordination over a four-month period would affect food intake, socioemotional behavior, and D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) in female rhesus monkeys maintained on a typical laboratory chow diet (LCD) compared with those having a choice between a LCD and a CDD. Results showed that access to a CDD leads to increased total caloric intake and preference for a CDD over a LCD. For the dietary choice condition, females directing less aggression towards group mates during the four-month period, a characteristic of lower social status, consumed progressively more calories over the four-month period than more aggressive females. This relation between agonistic behavior and appetite was not observed for females in LCD-only condition. Finally, decreased D2R-BP in the orbitofrontal cortex was predictive of increased overall caloric intake in all females regardless of dietary environment, suggesting that reduced availability of D2R within the prefrontal cortex is associated with unrestrained eating. Studies are

  16. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kontula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The

  17. Determinants of female sexual orgasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner's sexual techniques. In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18-54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18-74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18-81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18-74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18-79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18-70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner's orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner's good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender equality and sexual education since the 1970s have not helped women

  18. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  19. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  20. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  1. Physical Attractiveness: Its Impact on the Perception of a Female Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kathleen N.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Examined effects of physical attractiveness on subjects' perceptions of a female counselor. Results indicated that the attractive counselor was perceived more favorably by females with regard to her competence, assertiveness, interest, and relaxation, and ability to help with problems of anxiety, shyness, career choice, and sexual functioning.…

  2. Depression: FDA-Approved Medications May Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Depression: FDA-Approved Medications May Help Share Tweet Linkedin ... symptoms in some people. back to top Diagnosing Depression Diagnosis—which should be from a health care ...

  3. Smoking - Medicines to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Share Tweet Linkedin ... associated with the use of the medicine. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

  4. Helpful Contacts - Agency List By Topic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A database of agencies listed by state and topic to provide you with contact information for specific organizations or help you get answers to your Medicare related...

  5. Practical-theological facilitation as skilled helping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo Pienaar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the idea of skilled helping in relation to what has been put forward as practical theological facilitation. It has been argued that various helping relationships, amongst which the author refers to coaching, facilitation, and therapy has more in common than what differentiates them if epistemology is viewed as a unifying concept. As such the scope of practical theology in terms of the contexts and themes in which it might be involved is said to widen. The public dimension of the organisational context, more so than the congregational context, has been put forward as an important habitus of practical-theological facilitation. The organisational involvement of the practical-theological facilitator in terms of professional-vocational skilled helping takes on an actual role through facilitation and other helping modalities.

  6. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000844.htm Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis To use the sharing features on this page, ... games. References American Cancer Society. Children Diagnosed With Cancer: Dealing With Diagnosis (Ways to improve coping). Updated October 9, 2014. ...

  7. Depression--Medicines To Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Depression--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... medicines for depression. Important Warnings about Medicines for Depression Children and teens who take antidepressants may be ...

  8. Hospital Protocol Helps Thwart Serious Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165911.html Hospital Protocol Helps Thwart Serious Infection Study finds faster ... News) -- A new regulation requires New York state hospitals to follow a protocol to rapidly diagnosis and ...

  9. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  10. Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161473.html Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide Scientists recommend keeping ... birds can spread bird flu worldwide and monitoring migration routes could provide early warning of outbreaks, researchers ...

  11. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emails CDC Features Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few even die from the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap Two vaccines in the ...

  12. Brisk Walk May Help Sidestep Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162978.html Brisk Walk May Help Sidestep Heart Disease In just 10 weeks, cholesterol, blood pressure and ... at moderate intensity may lower the risk of heart disease, a small study suggests. "We know walking is ...

  13. Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163889.html Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help High-quality digital devices provide 'significant benefit' ... but solid evidence about the value of hearing aids has been lacking -- until now. New research findings " ...

  14. HIV and AIDS: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Free Publications HIV and AIDS--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... HIV treatment. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for H uman I mmunodeficiency V ...

  15. Beating Depression …Help Is Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Beating Depression …Help Is Available Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... treatments are available from your physician. Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  16. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Cholesterol--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Brand Name Generic Name Zetia Ezetimibe ...

  17. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented -- Vaccines Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help Language: English ... treatment (like antibiotics and antivirals). Save the Date: Pneumonia Twitter Chat on November 15 CDC experts will ...

  18. Are There Treatments That Can Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... circuits involved in tinnitus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This technique, which uses a small device placed ... brains of people with epilepsy. Preliminary trials of rTMS in humans, funded by the NIDCD, are helping ...

  19. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  20. Helping Your Child Who is Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often. If you do visit a fast-food restaurant, encourage your child to choose healthier options, such ... jungle gym at the playground or joining a sports team or dance class. Help your child find ...

  1. Registries Help Moms Measure Medication Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Registries Help Inform Medication Use in Pregnancy Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... or epilepsy, pregnant women must often take prescription medication. Studies show that most women take at least ...

  2. Could the 'Mediterranean' Diet Help Prevent ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163317.html Could the 'Mediterranean' Diet Help Prevent ADHD? There's no solid proof, but encouraging healthy eating ... good" fats -- may be less likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a small study suggests. Research on 120 ...

  3. How to Help a Child Who's Cyberbullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25 percent of American children and teens experience cyberbullying, but there are ways parents can help their children, a criminology and bullying expert says. Cyberbullying is intentional harassment, humiliation or ...

  4. The Willingness of Military Members to Seek Help: The Role of Social Involvement and Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L; Jensen, Todd M; Martin, James A; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-03-01

    Anchored in the social organization theory of action and change, we use data from a large sample of active-duty Air Force members to examine the direct and indirect influence of social involvement and social responsibility on willingness to seek help in times of need via trust in formal systems and informal supports. Group comparisons are conducted between junior male, junior female, senior male, and senior female service members. The key mediational path in the model for all groups is the connection between social involvement and willingness to seek help via trust in formal systems. These results can inform both unit- and community-level interventions intended to increase the likelihood that active-duty AF members will seek help in times of need.

  5. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail...... intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy...

  6. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. ... usually performed at home without anesthesia.5 It has four .... sexual function than control in all aspects namely sexual desire ...

  7. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  8. Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-16

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.

  9. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  10. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  11. Asking for Help: A Relational Perspective on Help Seeking in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Rijt, Janine; Van den Bossche, Piet; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; De Maeyer, Sven; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Segers, Mien S. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the complexity of today's organizations, help seeking behavior is considered as an important step to problem solving and learning in organizations. Yet, help seeking has received less attention in organizational literature. To increase the potential impact of help seeking on learning, it is essential to understand which…

  12. Help-Seeking and Help-Giving for Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Arlene N.; Black, Beverly M.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on numerous research projects conducted by the authors on adolescent dating violence. It reviews the results of those projects as they relate to how teens seek help for dating violence and how teens provide help to their friends in violent dating relationships. It concludes with helpful strategies for adults who work with…

  13. 基于上下级关系的沟通开放性对组织承诺的影响研究%Impact of Communication Openness to Organizational Commitment Based on Superior-Subordinate Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彧彧; 黄小科; 丁国林; 严肃

    2011-01-01

    This research is established in Chinese context, and by measuring a sample of 315 employees from Chinese enterprises, it attempts to examine the impacts of communication openness on organizational commitment and the mediating effects of leader-member exchange and Guanxi in this process. Also, we explore the impacts of age, education, position level on these variables. The main findings are shown as follows. Firstly, communication openness is significantly related to LMX,guanxi and organizational commitment. Secondly, guanxi fully mediates the relationship between communication openness and organizational commitment. Thirdly, LMX doesn't mediate the relationship between communication openness and organizational commitment directly. This research finds that personal guanxi between supervisor and subordinate plays an important role in Chinese enterprises, and the suggestions for Chinese enterprises from the result are as follows. Chinese enterprises should build effective formal communication networks to ensure that any information can transmit without obstacle. Supervisors should be more open to subordinates, especially strengthen the initiative of communication. In addition to formal LMX, supervisors need to keep good personal guanxi with subordinates, and spend time caring them to win subordinates' commitment, thus increase employees' organizational commitment.%对315位中国企业的员工进行测试,探讨沟通开放性对组织承诺的影响以及领导-成员交换和"关系"在此过程中的中介作用,并考察年龄、学历、职位级别等个人特征对各变量的影响.研究结论表明:①组织中沟通开放性对员工组织承诺有正向的影响;②沟通开放性对领导-成员交换和上下级"关系"均有正向的影响;③"关系"在沟通开放性与员工组织承诺的关系中起完全中介作用;④领导-成员交换不直接在沟通开放性与员工组织承诺的关系中起中介作用.在此基础上对中国企业提

  14. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  15. 地方政府对中央部属高校的投资研究%Research on the Investment of Local Governments in the Central Subordinate Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建军; 张东平

    2012-01-01

    Dept of Capital Construction Management This paper analyzed detailed the 2006-2010 financial allocation of local government on the Ministry Subordinate Universities, and found that the ratio of the local governments financial allocation to the Ministry Subordinate universities and the total revenue decreased year by year in recent years, there are significant difference between different region on the per student local financial allocation. On the bases of this, this paper analyzed the reason of the declined local financial allocation and the difference of the per student local financial allocation, put forward relative suggestion, that is to improve the investment in higher education Liability and to enhance the policy-oriented role on the underdeveloped regions in economy.%以2006-2010年教育部直属高校的地方财政拨款为例,分析了地方政府对中央部属高校的财政拨款情况。研究发现,地方政府对中央部属高校财政拨款占部属高校总收入的比重逐年下降,而且不同地区部属高校的生均地方财政拨款存在明显差异。对此,应加快高等教育投资责任法律化,加大对经济欠发达地区的政策导向作用。

  16. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  17. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  18. Sustainable Development and Female Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIAN OFOR

    In parts of Southeastern Nigeria, the erroneous belief that training the girl child was a .... calorie availability, household budget shares of medical care and child's ... A study conducted on the welfare effects of male and female incomes in Brazil.

  19. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  20. African perceptions of female attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    .... To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial...

  1. Egalitarianism in Female African Lions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig Packer; Anne E. Pusey; Lynn E. Eberly

    2001-01-01

    .... Consistent with theoretical predictions from models of reproductive skew, female lions are unable to control each other's reproduction because of high costs of fighting and low access to each other's newborn cubs...

  2. Beyond Phallic Domain: Female Otherness as a Resource for Liberation: Some Notes From Lacanian Psychoanalysis and Poststructuralist Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barrientos, Marcela; Napolitano, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    The article explores the political derivations of psychoanalytical discourse on femininity, starting from the impact of Lacanian positions on feminist thought. The consideration of a dimension of absolute otherness of female sexuality, irreducible to masculinity and to a phallic domain--not-all phallic--theorized by Lacan in the 1970s, opens up many complex issues for the politics of women's liberation. It is a matter of living the absolute difference without either radically excluding it from the speakable or letting it be part of a romantic imagery of the otherness that perpetuates sexual hierarchy and, consequently, female subordination. Taking up the proposal of such authors as Julia Kristeva or Silvia Tubert, we suggest that the Lacanian theory offers the conceptual tools to shift from exclusion to re-volt, from the place of the Other as a pedestal for the Same to a political function of female otherness and of the "not-all" that it represents: a part of the Kultur and its difficulties, but not entangled in it to the point that it cannot bring any innovation.

  3. Multiple breeding females in captive groups of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas): causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, K; Van Elsacker, L; Leus, K

    2001-01-01

    In Callitrichidae, reproduction in subordinate females is generally inhibited but occurs in rare cases, possibly in association with the presence of an unrelated male, important food resources or low dispersal opportunities. This study investigates the occurrence of groups with multiple breeding females in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), the factors leading to their formation and the consequences for the group. Information obtained from studbook data on the world captive population during 1984-1998 revealed that polygynous groups in captivity are very rare: only 7 cases were discovered. Family groups in which daughters started breeding with a related male were larger than average, had a high number of sexually mature sons and eldest offspring that were well past the age of sexual maturity. Following a breeding attempt, severe aggression frequently occurred, especially if the infants were liveborn. Polygynous groups composed of two related females and an unrelated male tended to remain stable for a longer period than families with breeding daughters. Competition for infant care is probably an important factor determining whether the polygynous situation can persist and for how long.

  4. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Xin; Li, Jin-Hua; Xia, Dong-Po; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Dao

    2014-05-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012-May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.

  5. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2005-07-14

    labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia.

  6. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    embryopathies, preterm labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia.

  7. Understanding Female Students' Physics Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While the gender gap in physics participation is a known problem, practical strategies that may improve the situation are not well understood. As physics education researchers, we draw on evidence to help inform us of what may or may not be working. To this end, physics identity has proven to be a useful framework for understanding and predicting participation in physics. Drawing on data from national surveys of college students, case studies in physics classes, and surveys of undergraduate women in physics, we identify strategies that are predictive of female students' physics identity development from their high school and undergraduate physics experiences. These findings will be discussed as well as future directions for using this research to increase the recruitment of women to physics-related careers. NSF Grant # 1431846.

  8. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  9. Gender differences in high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, and communication about the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Sherman, Roberta T; Thompson, Ron A; Sossin, Karen; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, communication, and management decisions with respect to the Female Athlete Triad and to determine whether results are patterned by coach gender. Data were obtained through an online survey of high school coaches (n = 227). Significant differences were found between male and female coaches in certain attitudes and communication behaviors related to eating and menstrual irregularity. School or district level policies may help reduce these differences and may help mitigate the health consequences for athletes related to possible differential prevention and detection of the comorbidities of the Female Athlete Triad.

  10. Lebanese medical students' exposure to domestic violence: does it affect helping survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Hlais, Sani; Farhat, Hala Abou; Romani, Maya; Bzeih, Hiba; Abdo, Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Our purpose was to assess medical students' willingness to help women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its relation to past exposure to violence. A cross-sectional study of medical students enrolled in three major universities in Beirut was carried out: 545 students filled out a self-administered questionnaire. The Inventory of Beliefs About Wife Beating, the Attitudes Toward Women's scale, the Marriage Role Expectations Inventory, the Conflict Tactics scale, and the Trauma Symptoms scale were used. The majority (93.6%) of medical students believed that battered wives should be helped by either social or governmental agencies, but only 48% showed readiness to provide help themselves. Female medical students were significantly more likely to be willing to help survivors of violence, whereas students exposed to domestic violence in childhood were significantly less likely to do so. Female medical students previously exposed to violence had significantly higher scores on the Briere and Runtz's Trauma Symptom Checklist, indicating more negative trauma-related symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed that the students' exposure to verbal aggression, their marital role expectations, attitudes toward women, and parents' marital status accounted for 26% of the variability in the Helping Battered Wives score. The results of this study suggest that the medical students' past exposure to DV impacts their psychological well-being and their willingness to help abuse survivors. Given the multitude of stresses medical students are exposed to, careful attention and attendance to the effect of abuse on their well-being may be warranted.

  11. Design should help use of patients' data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, J C; Wright, P

    1998-10-24

    Checklists and other tools help doctors to use published evidence in clinical practice. Two other important sources of evidence, however, are the patient and his or her medical record. This series aims to advance the practice of evidence-based medicine by helping in redesign of medical records, drawing on insights from psychology, information design, and medical informatics; and by promoting changes analogous to those occurring in the medical literature. The four papers look at: the uses of medical records and importance of organising them so doctors can use the data they contain; different methods doctors use to search for data and how design of records can help or hinder these approaches; how we interpret data once found, and how record formatting assists this process; and the issues raised by computerisation of records.

  12. Evaluation of help model replacement codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hang, Thong [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, Gregory [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the computer codes that are proposed to be used to predict percolation of water through the closure-cap and into the waste containment zone at the Department of Energy closure sites. This work compares the currently used water-balance code (HELP) with newly developed computer codes that use unsaturated flow (Richards’ equation). It provides a literature review of the HELP model and the proposed codes, which result in two recommended codes for further evaluation: HYDRUS-2D3D and VADOSE/W. This further evaluation involved performing actual simulations on a simple model and comparing the results of those simulations to those obtained with the HELP code and the field data. From the results of this work, we conclude that the new codes perform nearly the same, although moving forward, we recommend HYDRUS-2D3D.

  13. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  14. The female smoker: from addiction to recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2003-10-01

    Millions of American girls and women have been drawn to smoking by an industry that has been clearly and systematically targeting women of all ages and life circumstances. Big tobacco's well-timed marketing strategies skillfully link cigarette use to typical female values: independence, self-reliance, weight control, stress management, social progress and popularity, personal attractiveness, autonomy, self-fulfillment, youth, happiness, personal success, health, and active, vigorous, and strenuous lifestyles. Biologically speaking, women are especially vulnerable to the legion of health problems of tobacco use. Smoking is a critical hazard for women in their reproductive years, particularly when they are pregnant. The US Public Health Service 2000 Clinical Practice Guideline provides helpful guidance and sound general recommendations for the treatment of women of all ages for tobacco use and dependence. Women and girls who smoke represent diverse subgroups of the population with unique issues and needs. The 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Women and Smoking stresses the importance of multistrategy programs for treating female smokers. This approach includes antitobacco media campaigns, increases in tobacco prices, promotion of nonsmoking in public places, curbs on tobacco advertising and promotion, enforcement of legislation to reduce youth access to tobacco products, and effective tobacco use treatment programs.

  15. Helping through touch: The embodiment of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, S M

    1989-12-01

    There is a power to touch, and a magic. Some call it mystery. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the various meanings and uses of touch, particularly within the context of relationship and helping. There will be no attempt to formulate a protocol for touch or to lay claim to a definitive meaning for touch. Reflection about touch may instead clarify some of its meanings and dynamics while encouraging care providers to embrace the experience of helping-through-touch. This paper supports a considered use of empathie touch because of its power and its ability to embody care.

  16. Cost analysis helps evaluate contract profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, R W

    2000-02-01

    A cost-accounting analysis can help group practices assess their costs of doing business and determine the profitability of managed care contracts. Group practices also can use cost accounting to develop budgets and financial benchmarks. To begin a cost analysis, group practices need to determine their revenue and cost centers. Then they can allocate their costs to each center, using an appropriate allocation basis. The next step is to calculate costs per procedure. The results can be used to evaluate operational cost efficiency as well as help negotiate managed care contracts.

  17. Responses to Change Helping People Make Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing state of many organizations is one of change. People who experience major change tend to exhibit one of four patterns of response: entrenched, overwhelmed, poser, or learner. As a leader, you need to understand the patterns of response that people express and to customize intervention strategies to help them make the transition. People can pass through a given response stage and move to one that is more effective--especially if you provide timely intervention and support. This guidebook will help you understand how people, including yourself, are responding to change and what you c

  18. Recommendations for healthy nutrition in female endurance runners: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eDeldicque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2-1.4g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels.

  19. Relations between social status and the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone system in females of two cooperatively breeding species of African mole-rats, Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus and Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae: neuroanatomical and neuroendocrinological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Lydia; Bennett, Nigel C; Katz, Arieh A; Kalló, Imre; Coen, Clive W

    2006-01-10

    In common (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) and highveld (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) mole-rats, reproduction is subject to two forms of regulation in addition to incest avoidance. These are the only social bathyergids known to restrict breeding to a particular season; furthermore, subordinate members of their colonies show suppressed reproduction throughout the year. Females from both species were assessed and compared for social and seasonal effects on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system. GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) structures were visualized immunohistochemically; GnRH content was determined by radioimmunoassay. In both species, GnRH-ir cell bodies and processes are loosely distributed along the septopreopticoinfundibular continuum, with dense fiber aggregations in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median eminence. The two species differ in the rostrocaudal distribution of their GnRH-ir cell bodies. In highveld mole-rats, most of these cells are in the septal/preoptic area; in common mole-rats, more than half of them are in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Compared with common mole-rats, highveld mole-rats have a greater total number of GnRH-ir cell bodies, higher GnRH content, and more intense GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence. Within highveld colonies, the nonreproductive females have larger GnRH-ir cell bodies, more intense GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence, and higher GnRH content than the reproductive females; these findings suggest inhibited release of GnRH in the nonreproductive, subordinate females. In contrast, in common mole-rat females, neither status nor season appears to affect the investigated parameters of the GnRH system; this suggests a predominantly behavioral basis to their suppressed reproduction.

  20. Helping at the bedside: spouses' preferences for helping critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Deborah

    2004-10-01

    Spouses of patients in intensive care units (ICU) need to be close and helpful to ill partners. According to adult attachment theory, emotional responses may be related to preferences for closeness and helpfulness, and according to control theory optimism also may influence spouses' emotional responses. Spouses' goals and helping behaviors were assessed in 88 spouses of ICU patients. Using a repeated-measures design, the relationships of closeness, helpfulness, and optimism to emotional outcomes were assessed. Preferences for closeness and helpfulness were strongly related, and together with optimism, predicted spouses' mood at some point of the illness trajectory. Spouses who were over-involved with partners' care requirements were at greater risk for emotional distress. Results suggest that closeness and helpfulness are integrated concepts, and that attachment dimensions of a relationship and optimism are useful for understanding spouses' emotional responses to critical illness.

  1. Can Cognitive Theory Help Us Teach Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert L.; Lochhead, Jack

    The idea that cognitive science can provide useful guidance to the teaching of physics has been met by some with skepticism. One argument is that the current understanding of cognition is too crude to be helpful; another, that any scientific approach to education stifles the art of teaching. Some feel that art and science need not be incompatible.…

  2. Using Motivational Interviewing to Help Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which began as a counseling technique in addiction recovery, is a client-centered tool for making changes, increasing helpful behaviors and decreasing unhelpful behaviors. It relies on an individual's intrinsic motivation and interest in change, using a non-confrontational approach to frame goals in a practical,…

  3. Urine Specimens: Tips to Help Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ... Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Share this page: Was ...

  4. Family involvement and helping behaviour in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Helping behavior at work has become increasingly important, with organizations making more and more use of cooperative work practices. The difficulty is that employees are facing growing demands beyond the workplace. This study investigates the mechanisms by which family involvement (family structur

  5. Evaluation Checksheet Helps Keep Typewriters in Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Joan K.

    1981-01-01

    Students can effectively identify needed repairs before a service call is made by evaluating the operating condition of all classroom machines with the help of a typewriter evaluation checksheet such as the one illustrated in this article. Responsibilities of and benefits to students and teachers are listed. (CT)

  6. Helping Children Outgrow War. SD Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Vachel W.; Affolter, Friedrich W.

    Helping children outgrow war is an overarching goal of educational reconstruction in post-conflict settings, but responses must be highly adaptive and informed by insights gained from interventions elsewhere. This guidebook offers seven examples of successful interventions in post-conflict settings internationally, situating them within a…

  7. A guide to help children understand cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what you tell your child will help your child face cancer. Explaining things honestly at the right level for ... Other ways to talk to your child about cancer: Practice what you ... your child. Ask your child's health care provider for advice ...

  8. Three Approaches to Helping Students at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Doris; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes three approaches to helping students at risk: (1) a 30-week program to provide adults with basic proficiency in written and spoken English, problem-solving techniques, computer software, and teamwork skills; (2) motivating students by caring about them and creating a positive classroom environment; and (3) communicating effectively with…

  9. Tips for Helping a Person With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-04

    This podcast gives suggestions for helping a person with diabetes manage the disease.  Created: 10/4/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/6/2007.

  10. Bay Area Students Help Victims and Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Dave

    1978-01-01

    Aid to Victims and Witnesses (AVW), sponsored by the San Mateo (California) Probation Department and staffed almost entirely by citizen and student volunteers, offers immediate financial and emotional aid to victims of violent crime after police call AVW's hot line. AVW also helps witnesses to crime in court appearances. (MF)

  11. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As many as ... get the help they need. When there is domestic violence between partners, there is often child abuse as well. Sometimes children get hurt accidentally. ...

  12. A Robot to Help Make the Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the Pyxis HelpMate SecurePak (SP) trackless robotic courier designed by Transitions Research Corporation, to navigate autonomously throughout medical facilities, transporting pharmaceuticals, laboratory specimens, equipment, supplies, meals, medical records, and radiology films between support departments and nursing floors.

  13. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  14. Senior Volunteers: Helping Hands & Willing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Volunteers and other community-based assistants can relieve some of the financial burden brought on by school-budget cutbacks. This publication describes how enlisting the help of senior volunteers and workers benefits both children and seniors, and it presents some guidelines for implementation of intergeneration programs. The programs provide…

  15. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  16. Family involvement and helping behaviour in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Helping behavior at work has become increasingly important, with organizations making more and more use of cooperative work practices. The difficulty is that employees are facing growing demands beyond the workplace. This study investigates the mechanisms by which family involvement (family

  17. Leadership Helps Turn around a Troubled School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Von

    2013-01-01

    The author tells how he employed leadership skills to help turn around a failing school loaded with at-risk students. Dayton's Bluff Elementary School was one of the worst in St. Paul when Von Sheppard took over as principal in 2001. Changing the staff and attitudes at the largely low-income, minority majority school in a tough neighborhood…

  18. Erikson's Psychosocial Theories Help Explain Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, M. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…

  19. Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a pet inside, keep it out of your child’s bedroom. • Keep pets off of your furniture. • Vacuum carpets and furniture when your child is not around. Vacuum every week to help control pet hair and dust. 23 Cockroaches (“roaches” or other “ ...

  20. Survivors of Downsizing: Helpful and Hindering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.; Jordan, Sharalyn; Erlebach, Anne C.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one downsizing survivors from both the private and public sector were interviewed to determine incidents that either helped or hindered their transition through 1 or more organizational downsizings. A critical incident technique was used to analyze and organize the data around themes that emerged, themes were represented by both positive…

  1. Dying and Death: Helping Children Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, Melissa L.

    This paper suggests strategies for helping children understand death. The early experiences of childhood build the foundation on which the child establishes a healthy orientation towards life and living. Grieving parents are often so upset by their own loss that they do not carefully explain death to their children. Parents may feel that the child…

  2. Healthy Living: Helping Your Child Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from other family members can have a serious effect on the respiratory health of youngsters. One study shows that children up to two years old whose parents smoke suffer twice the rate of bronchitis and pneumonia as children of nonsmokers. Flu shots may help ...

  3. Helping LD Students Make Transitions: Six Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, David

    1984-01-01

    Teachers and parents can help learning disabled students make transitions to mainstream settings by preparing them for change in physical conditions, instructing them in organization and time management, teaching them interpersonal skills through role-playing, and assisting them in identifying and responding to a variety of emotions. (CL)

  4. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  5. Helping Students Reflect: Lessons from Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gary; Jones, Lydia; Whitfield, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of teaching students to reflect on experience and, thus, learn from it, are better understood with the application of constructs from cognitive psychology. The present paper focuses on two such constructs--self-schemas and scripts--to help educators better understand both the threats and opportunities associated with effective…

  6. Helping You Buy: Integrated Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This Helping You Buy survey is the next in an annual series of surveys that have been compiled by Pamela Cibbarelli in past years. This bird's-eye view should serve to both highlight some general distinctions and to underscore the commodified similarities of a wide range of library automation systems.

  7. Helping Students Reflect: Lessons from Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gary; Jones, Lydia; Whitfield, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of teaching students to reflect on experience and, thus, learn from it, are better understood with the application of constructs from cognitive psychology. The present paper focuses on two such constructs--self-schemas and scripts--to help educators better understand both the threats and opportunities associated with effective…

  8. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  9. ESCOs: Helping Schools Save Money and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of energy savings performance contracts to help reduce costs and improve school infrastructure and the educational environment. Further discussed are how indoor air quality reduces health, productivity, and costs; and examples are provided of how other schools have achieved better school environments and reduced energy costs. (GR)

  10. Helping Classrooms Cope with Traumatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    An updated model for Classroom Crisis Intervention (CCI) including post-CCI activities is presented. CCI may be applied following various types of traumatic incident involvement and for the management of grief reactions. By promoting the idea that trauma responses are normal, CCI helps survivors regain optimism. (EMK)

  11. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  12. IU physicists help unlock universe's secrets

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A team of Indiana University physicists is helping unlock the mysteries of the universe as part of a multination, 20-year experiment based in Switzerland. Their quarry: the elusive tiny particles that make up everything from stars to humans" (1/2 page).

  13. How Computer Games Help Children Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2008-01-01

    This book looks at how particular video and computer games--such as "Digital Zoo", "The Pandora Project", "SodaConstructor", and more--can help teach children and students to think like doctors, lawyers, engineers, urban planners, journalists, and other professionals. In the process, new "smart games" will give them the knowledge and skills they…

  14. Investment policy, guidelines help providers control risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidner, A G

    1989-03-01

    Because the financial markets are volatile, every healthcare organization should establish its own investment policy and guidelines. An investment policy reflects the views of a hospital's board of trustees, and helps the trustees avoid conflict of interest situations. Investment guidelines spell out management's approach to three critical investing components: safety of principal, liquidity, and yield.

  15. CERN helps Grid cmputing into the mainstream

    CERN Multimedia

    Moran, Nuala

    2006-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, has launched the seocnd phase of Openlab, its partnership with IT companies for the development of advanced computing facilities. The industrial partners in this phase, Hewlett Packard, Intel and Oracle, will help build on the experience from the last three years when Openlab worked on cluster and Grid computing (1 page)

  16. Memory Loss: When to Seek Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memory loss: When to seek help A number of conditions — not only Alzheimer's disease — can cause memory loss in older adults. Getting a prompt diagnosis ... a person you just met? Some degree of memory problems, as well as a modest decline in ...

  17. Pediatricians Can Help When Parents Divorce: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... says. "The pediatrician can help parents understand their children's reactions to divorce or separation," said report co-lead author Dr. ... Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Mental Health Divorce Family Issues About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  18. Student Teachers in Search of Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Marla; Chiodo, John J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined to whom 43 elementary and secondary teacher education students at a large Southwestern university turned for help regarding problems during their student-teaching internship. Participants were asked to complete a survey related to student teaching. In addition, 5 students were interviewed as a follow-up to the survey. Of the…

  19. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  20. Self-help and writing. A novel about self-help: Group I+I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Passols

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available "A self-help novel" - that will probably be some postmodern text. Whether it likes it or not. Whether it wants to be, or not. Three themes which merge, mix and meld. On the one hand, the death of the author; on the other a personal interpretation of postmodernist anthropology. And finally - the Self-Help Novel is how to make self-help literature a proper topic of research.