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Sample records for helobdella stagnalis hirudinea

  1. First report of freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhyncobdellida: Glossiphoniidae as a parasite of an anuran amphibian

    Rocco Tiberti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the first case of parasitism on anuran amphibian, Rana temporaria, by the freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis, in a mountainous area of northwestern Italy. The presence of skin abrasions and haemorrhages attributable to leech attack discards the hypothesis of a simple phoretic relationship between leech and frog.

  2. A new leech species of Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae from San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina Una especie nueva de sanguijuela del género Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae de San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina

    Bettina S. Gullo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A new freshwater leech species Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. is described. This description is based on the examination of 12 specimens collected in Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'W, during December 2002. Leeches were found attached to submerged plants. They were relaxed with gradual addition of 70% ethanol, fixed in 10% formalin, stored in 70% ethanol and stained with borax carmine. Examination of external morphology, dissections and microphotographs were accomplished with a Leica Wild M3Z stereo microscope aided with an Olympus C-4000 digital camera. H. fantasmae n. sp. differs from other species of the genus by the presence of 1 pair of eyes on somite III, crop without gastric chambers, digitiform caeca and postcaeca., short sperm ducts reaching the back of somite XV, atrium pyriform, short ovisacs reaching somite XIII. This is the first record of leeches from an ephemeral wetland in North Patagonia. This finding expands current knowledge of the biodiversity of Hirudinea in South America, increasing the number of known Helobdella spp. from the Río Negro province (North Patagonia to 10 species.Se describe una especie de sanguijuela dulceacuícola Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. Esta descripción se basa en el examen de 12 ejemplares recolectados en la Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'O durante diciembre de 2002. Los individuos se hallaron asociados a la vegetación sumergida. Fueron relajados con la adición gradual de etanol 70%, fijados en formalina al 10%, preservados en etanol 70% y teñidos con carmín borácico. El examen de la morfología externa, disecciones y microfotografías fueron realizados con la ayuda de un estereomicroscopio Leica Wild M3Z con cámara digital Olympus C-4000. H. fantasmae n. sp. difiere de otras especies del género por los siguientes caracteres: un par de ojos en el somito III, estómago recto sin cámaras, ciegos laterales ni postciegos, espermiductos cortos que descienden hasta el

  3. Occurrence of Hirudinea species in a post urban reach of a Patagonian mountain stream

    M. Laura Miserendino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal (May 2005 to February 2006 and habitat distribution (pools and riffles of Hirudinea species was analyzed at a post urban reach from Esquel stream (Chubut province, Patagonia, Argentina. Site was located 5.7 km downstream a Waste Treatment Plant. Mean values of nutrients: ammonia, nitrates and soluble reactive phosphate, as well water conductivity, turbidity and total suspended solids indicated physical and organic pollution. Leeches assemblage was composed by the glossiphonids: Helobdella scutifera Blanchard, 1900, H. michaelseni (Blanchard, 1900, H. simplex (Moore, 1911, Helobdella sp., H. hyalina Ringuelet, 1942, H. obscura Ringuelet, 1942 and the semiscolecid Patagoniobdella variabilis (Blanchard, 1900. From these H. hyalina and H. obscura are new records for Chubut province. Helobdella hyalina (810 ind.m-2 and H. simplex (465 ind. m-2 clearly dominated the assemblage at the reach. Only H. simplex displayed a spatial preference being significantly more abundant in pools than in riffle habitats (p<0.001. Species recruitment occurred mostly at September, December and March when juveniles were very abundant. Although several species of Helobdella were able to live in the disturbed section of the stream, only H. simplex and H. hyalina sustained large populations at the site and can be considered as tolerant to organic enrichment. This information is valuable to future studies on stream condition assessment in mountainous areas in Patagonia, and in other areas in which these species are present.

  4. Respiratory adaptations to oxygen lack in three species of Glossiphoniidae (Hirudinea) in Lake Esrom, Denmark

    Pohle, B. D.; Hamburger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The weight-specific respiration rate (µl O2 mg-1 AFDW h-1) of three species of leech from Lake Esrom, Denmark, Glossiphonia concolor, G. complanata and Helobdella stagnalis was measured in a closed stirred chamber with a micro electrode. At declining oxygen concentration (mg O2 l-1) all three spe...... at 10 and 20 °C, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to habitat and spatial distribution of the three species in the lake....

  5. A new molecular logic for BMP-mediated dorsoventral patterning in the leech Helobdella.

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-08-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is broadly implicated in dorsoventral (DV) patterning of bilaterally symmetric animals [1-3], and its role in axial patterning apparently predates the birth of Bilateria [4-7]. In fly and vertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists (primarily Sog/chordin) diffuse and interact to generate signaling gradients that pattern fields of cells [8-10]. Work in other species reveals diversity in essential facets of this ancient patterning process, however. Here, we report that BMP signaling patterns the DV axis of segmental ectoderm in the leech Helobdella, a clitellate annelid (superphylum Lophotrochozoa) featuring stereotyped developmental cell lineages, but the detailed mechanisms of DV patterning in Helobdella differ markedly from fly and vertebrates. In Helobdella, BMP2/4s are expressed broadly, rather than in dorsal territory, whereas a dorsally expressed BMP5-8 specifies dorsal fate by short-range signaling. A BMP antagonist, gremlin, is upregulated by BMP5-8 in dorsolateral, rather than ventral territory, and yet the BMP-antagonizing activity of gremlin is required for normal ventral cell fates. Gremlin promotes ventral fates without disrupting dorsal fates by selectively inhibiting BMP2/4s, not BMP5-8. Thus, DV patterning in the development of the leech revealed unexpected evolutionary plasticity of the conserved BMP patterning system, presumably reflecting its adaptation to different modes of embryogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Voelt de medicinale bloedzuiger Hirudo medicinalis zich wel zo lekker in Nederland (Hirudinea)?

    Felix, R.P.W.H.; Velde, van der G.

    2000-01-01

    Does the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis feel well in the Netherlands (Hirudinea)? This paper provides information on the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 particularly in The Netherlands. Although this species was common in The Netherlands in the 18th century, nowadays it is very

  7. Voelt de medicinale bloedzuiger Hirudo medicinalis zich wel zo lekker in Nederland (Hirudinea)?

    Felix, R.P.W.H.; Velde, van der, G.

    2000-01-01

    Does the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis feel well in the Netherlands (Hirudinea)? This paper provides information on the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 particularly in The Netherlands. Although this species was common in The Netherlands in the 18th century, nowadays it is very rare. Most animals were found in waters on sandy soil (71%): dune pools (10%) and pleistocene sandy areas (61%), where it inhabits especially soft water moor and heathland pools. About 20% of the ...

  8. Chemosensitivity of the osphradium of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Wedemeyer; Schild

    1995-01-01

    The osphradium of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was studied to determine the stimuli to which this organ responds. The following stimuli were tested: hypoxia, hypercapnia, a mixture of amino acids, a mixture of citralva and amyl acetate and a mixture of lyral, lilial and ethylvanillin. The mean nerve activity consistently increased with elevated PCO2, whereas hypoxia produced variable effects. The nerve activity became rhythmic upon application of citralva and amyl acetate, but it increased in a non-rhythmic way upon application of the other two odorant mixtures tested. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from a group of 15 neurones that lay next to the issuing osphradial nerve, to determine whether ganglion cells were involved in olfactory signal processing. All neurones tested responded to at least one of the three mixtures of odorants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses occurred. Our results indicate that the osphradium of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is sensitive to elevated PCO2 as well as to three different classes of odorants. In addition, at least some neurones within the osphradium are involved in the processing of olfactory information.

  9. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae) from the Mexican Pacific coast

    López-Peraza D. J.; Hernández-Rodríguez M.; Barón-Sevilla B.; Bückle-Ramírez L. F.; Grano-Maldonado M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910) (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983) (Mollusca: Octopodidae). Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924) is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the...

  10. Differential expression of conserved germ line markers and delayed segregation of male and female primordial germ cells in a hermaphrodite, the leech helobdella.

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Weisblat, David A

    2014-02-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are often set aside early in embryogenesis, a strategy that minimizes the risk of genomic damage associated with replication and mitosis during the cell cycle. Here, we have used germ line markers (piwi, vasa, and nanos) and microinjected cell lineage tracers to show that PGC specification in the leech genus Helobdella follows a different scenario: in this hermaphrodite, the male and female PGCs segregate from somatic lineages only after more than 20 rounds of zygotic mitosis; the male and female PGCs share the same (mesodermal) cell lineage for 19 rounds of zygotic mitosis. Moreover, while all three markers are expressed in both male and female reproductive tissues of the adult, they are expressed differentially between the male and female PGCs of the developing embryo: piwi and vasa are expressed preferentially in female PGCs at a time when nanos is expressed preferentially in male PGCs. A priori, the delayed segregation of male and female PGCs from somatic tissues and from one another increases the probability of mutations affecting both male and female PGCs of a given individual. We speculate that this suite of features, combined with a capacity for self-fertilization, may contribute to the dramatically rearranged genome of Helobdella robusta relative to other animals.

  11. Peptidergic modulation of male sexual behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis: structural and functional characterization of -FVamide neuropeptides

    Smit, A.B.; van Kesteren, R.E.; van Minnen, J.; van Golen, F.A.; Jimenez, C.R.; Li, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    In the simultaneous hermaphrodite snail Lymnaea stagnalis, copulation as a male is controlled by neurons that send axons to the male copulatory organs via a single penis nerve. Using direct mass spectrometry of a penis nerve sample, we show that one of the molecular ions has a mass corresponding to

  12. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    laboratories in Denmark, Germany and the UK for the OECD pre-validation work to date. Laboratory cultures of L. stagnalis are traditionally fed fresh (preferably organic) lettuce; however, interrupted supplies of fresh lettuce in some countries in 2011 highlighted a potential problem for the draft OECD test...... of a mollusc reproduction test guideline. An ad hoc mollusc expert group has been formed in Europe to validate methods that can meet this need. Currently, a key species for use in this context is the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis. An important aspect of this work is to first develop a specific...... pathogen free defined strain of L. stagnalis and second to establish a historical database of growth and reproductive rates under defined culturing conditions. A mass culture of the RENILYS® strain of L. stagnalis have been established at INRA (France) since 2002 and has been distributed to research...

  13. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of transuranics for a freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.)

    Thiels, G.M.; Murray, C.N.; Rade, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is now becoming clear that the determination of the physico-chemical forms of transuranic elements is an important step in assessing their behaviour at very low environmental levels. Data from both simulated environmental systems as well as in-situ investigations have shown the necessity of understanding the source term of contamination, which probably plays a major role in the long-term distribution of these elements. In the present paper an experimental procedure is outlined, which allows a more extensive investigation into some aspects of the biogeochemical behaviour of two transuranics: 237 Pu and 241 Am. Two chemical methods were applied to a study of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis L.. Data were obtained on the uptake and retention patterns of different oxidation states of 237 Pu and 241 Am at the organ and cellular levels of the pond snail. An attempt was made to relate the environmental chemistry of both radionuclides to the fixation in L. stagnalis. (author)

  14. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from...... nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental...... protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary...

  15. Assessment of anoxia tolerance and photoperiod dependence of GABAergic polarity in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Buck, Leslie T; Bond, Hilary C; Malik, Aqsa

    2017-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is reported to be anoxia-tolerant and if the tolerance mechanism is similar to that of the anoxia-tolerant painted turtle, GABA should play an important role. A potentially confounding factor investigating the role of GABA in anoxia tolerance are reports that GABA has both inhibitory and excitatory effects within L. stagnalis central ganglion. We therefore set out to determine if seasonality or photoperiod has an impact on: 1) the anoxia-tolerance of the intact pond snail, and 2) the response of isolated neuroganglia cluster F neurons to exogenous GABA application. L. stagnalis maintained on a natural summer light cycle were unable to survive any period of anoxic exposure, while those maintained on a natural winter light cycle survived a maximum of 4h. Using intracellular sharp electrode recordings from pedal ganglia cluster F neurons we show that there is a photoperiod dependent shift in the response to GABA. Snails exposed to a 16h:8h light:dark cycle in an environmental chamber (induced summer phenotype) exhibited hyperpolarizing inhibitory responses and those exposed to a 8h:16h light:dark cycle (induced winter phenotype) exhibited depolarizing excitatory responses to GABA application. Using gramicidin-perforated patch recordings we also found a photoperiod dependent shift in the reversal potential for GABA. We conclude that the opposing responses of L. stagnalis central neurons to GABA results from a shift in intracellular chloride concentration that is photoperiod dependent and is likely mediated through the relative efficacy of cation chloride co-transporters. Although the physiological ramifications of the photoperiod dependent shift are unknown this work potentially has important implications for the impact of artificial light pollution on animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier; Benstead, Rachel; Brettschneider, Denise; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Filipe Goncalves, Sandra; Green, John W; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Faber, Daniel; Laranjeiro, Filipe; Matthiessen, Peter; Norrgren, Leif; Oehlmann, Jörg; Reategui-Zirena, Evelyn; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Teigeler, Matthias; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Tobor Kaplon, Marysia; Weltje, Lennart; Lagadic, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary statistical analysis, the optimal test duration was established and the most sensitive and cost-effective reproduction toxicity endpoint was identified, to be used as the core endpoint. This validation process and the resulting optimized protocol were used to consolidate the OECD Test Guideline for the evaluation of reproductive effects of chemicals in L. stagnalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  18. Isolation, characterization, and expression of Le-msx, a maternally expressed member of the msx gene family from the glossiphoniid leech, Helobdella.

    Master, V A; Kourakis, M J; Martindale, M Q

    1996-12-01

    The msx gene family is one of the most highly conserved of the nonclustered homeobox-containing genes. We have isolated an msx homolog (Le-msx) from the glossiphoniid leech, Helobdella robusta, and characterized its pattern of expression by whole mount in situ hybridization. In situ expression and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data results show that Le-msx is a maternal transcript initially uniformly distributed in the cortex of immature oocytes that becomes asymmetrically localized to the polar regions of the uncleaved zygote. This is the earliest reported expression for the msx gene family and the first maternally expressed homeodomain-containing transcription factor reported in annelids. During embryonic development, Le-msx is expressed in all 10 embryonic stem cells and their segmental founder cell descendants. At midembryonic stages, Le-msx is expressed in the expanding germinal plate. Le-msx is confined to the central nervous system and nephridia at late (stage 9) stages and subsequently disappears from nephridia. In addition, we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of the msx gene family, including the identification of a putative C. elegans msx homolog and the realignment of the sponge msx homolog to the NK class of homeodomain genes.

  19. Evidence of trophic transfer of microcystins from the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Lance, Emilie; Petit, Anais; Sanchez, Wilfried; Paty, Christelle; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    According to our previous results the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria accumulates microcystins (MCs) both as free and covalently bound forms in its tissues, therefore representing a potential risk of MC transfer through the food web. This study demonstrates in a laboratory experiment the transfer of free and bound MCs from L. stagnalis intoxicated by MC-producing Planktothrix agardhii ingestion to the fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. Fish were fed during five days with digestive glands of L. stagnalis containing various concentrations of free and bound MCs, then with toxin-free digestive glands during a 5-day depuration period. MC accumulation was measured in gastropod digestive gland and in various fish organs (liver, muscle, kidney, and gills). The impact on fish was evaluated through detoxification enzyme (glutathion-S-transferase, glutathion peroxydase and superoxyde dismutase) activities, hepatic histopathology, and modifications in gill ventilation, feeding and locomotion. G. aculeatus ingestion rate was similar with intoxicated and toxin-free diet. Fish accumulated MCs (up to 3.96±0.14μgg -1 DW) in all organs and in decreasing order in liver, muscle, kidney and gills. Hepatic histopathology was moderate. Glutathion peroxydase was activated in gills during intoxication suggesting a slight reactive oxygen species production, but without any impact on gill ventilation. Intoxication via ingestion of MC-intoxicated snails impacted fish locomotion. Intoxicated fish remained significantly less mobile than controls during the intoxication period possibly due to a lower health condition, whereas they showed a greater mobility during the depuration period that might be related to an acute foraging for food. During depuration, MC elimination was total in gills and kidney, but partial in liver and muscle. Our results assess the MC transfer from gastropods to fish and the potential risk induced by bound MCs in the food web. Copyright

  20. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae from the Mexican Pacific coast

    López-Peraza D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983 (Mollusca: Octopodidae. Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924 is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the oral sucker. The present finding throws new light on the biodiversity and host preference of the ectoparasite and suggests a successful migration to unusual host. The coast of the Pacific Ocean, particularly in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico is a new geographical distribution area for S. moorei, and O. bimaculatus is a new host reported for this leech. The morphology of this ectoparasite is briefly described.

  1. Rapid colonisation of Lymnaea stagnalis by larval trematodes in eutrophic ponds in central Europe

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), 981-990 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lymnaea stagnalis * Freshwater pulmonate snail * Larval trematodes * Colonisation and extinction * Competition-colonisation trade-off * Eutrophic ponds * Central Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  2. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Giusti, Arnaud; Barsi, Alpar; Dugué, Maël; Collinet, Marc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Roig, Benoit; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2013-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed to compare the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the range of 0 ng Sn/L to 600 ng Sn/L. Tests were performed on the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis, a freshwater snail in which effects of TPT were unknown. Survival, shell length, and reproduction were monitored in a 21-d semistatic test. Frequency of abnormal eggs was assessed as an additional endpoint. Triphenyltin hampered survival while TBT did not. Major effects on shell solidity and reproduction were observed for both compounds, reproductive outputs being more severely hampered by TBT than by TPT. Considering the frequency of abnormal eggs allowed increasing test sensitivity, because snail responses to TBT could be detected at concentrations as low as 19 ng Sn/L. However, the putative mode of action of the 2 compounds could not be deduced from the structure of the molecules or from the response of apical endpoints. Sensitivity of L. stagnalis to TBT and TPT was compared with the sensitivity of prosobranch mollusks with different habitats and different reproductive strategies. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Diet quality affects chemical tolerance in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Fidder, Bridgette N; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Salice, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Organisms generally select high-quality diets to obtain maximal energy while devoting the least amount of time and energy. Diets, however, can vary in natural systems. In ecotoxicological testing, the effect of diet type on organismal responses to toxicants has not been explored despite the potential for dietary effects to influence toxicological endpoints. We first evaluated diet quality using growth rate and sensitivity to the fungicide pyraclostrobin of Lymnaea stagnalis fed lettuce (common laboratory diet), turtle pellets (high nutrient composition), and a combination diet of both food items. We also measured the macronutrient content of snails raised on the multiple diets to determine how diet may have impacted energy allocation patterns. Finally, we evaluated whether snails discernibly preferred a particular diet. Snails fed high-nutrient and combination diets grew larger overall than snails fed a lettuce-only diet. Snails fed the high-nutrient and combination diets, both juvenile and adult, were significantly more tolerant to pyraclostrobin than snails fed lettuce. When measured for macronutrient content, snails raised on high-nutrient and combination diets had significantly higher carbohydrate content than snails fed lettuce. Despite the strong effects of diet type, snails did not exhibit a clear diet choice in preference trials. Dietary composition clearly influences growth rate, sensitivity, and macronutrient content of Lymnaea stagnalis. These results suggest that the nutritional environment has potentially strong impacts on toxicant sensitivity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1158-1167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of the Reproductive Organs of the Hermaphroditic Gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Different Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Giusti, Arnaud; Leprince, Pierre; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD). In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin) could constitute relevant

  6. Proteomic analysis of the reproductive organs of the hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to different endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Arnaud Giusti

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD. In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin could

  7. Genetic variation of Lymnaea stagnalis tolerance to copper: A test of selection hypotheses and its relevance for ecological risk assessment

    Côte, Jessica; Bouétard, Anthony; Pronost, Yannick; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Coke, Maïra; Piquet, Fabien; Caquet, Thierry; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2015-01-01

    The use of standardized monospecific testing to assess the ecological risk of chemicals implicitly relies on the strong assumption that intraspecific variation in sensitivity is negligible or irrelevant in this context. In this study, we investigated genetic variation in copper sensitivity of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, using lineages stemming from eight natural populations or strains found to be genetically differentiated at neutral markers. Copper-induced mortality varied widely among populations, as did the estimated daily death rate and time to 50% mortality (LT50). Population genetic divergence in copper sensitivity was compared to neutral differentiation using the Q ST -F ST approach. No evidence for homogenizing selection could be detected. This result demonstrates that species-level extrapolations from single population studies are highly unreliable. The study provides a simple example of how evolutionary principles could be incorporated into ecotoxicity testing in order to refine ecological risk assessment. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in copper tolerance occurs between Lymnaea stagnalis populations. • We used the Q ST -F ST approach to test evolutionary patterns in copper tolerance. • No evidence for uniform selection was found. • Results suggest that extrapolations to the species level are not safe. • A method is proposed to refine ecological risk assessment using genetic parameters. - Genetic variation in copper tolerance occurs in Lymnaea stagnalis. A method is proposed for considering evolutionary parameters in ecological risk assessment

  8. The marine leech Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, parasitic on the angel shark Squatina spp. and sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae, Carchariidae in Southern Brazilian waters

    Soto J. M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the marine leech, Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, is reported on the southern coast of Brazil, based on seven lots with 47 specimens, between 71 and 182 mm in total length, collected on the dorsal region of angel sharks, Squatina argentina (Marini, 1930; S. guggenheim Marini, 1936; S. punctata Marini, 1936 (Chondrichthyes, Squatinidae; and on the head of a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Carchariidae. This is the first record of S. loricata in the western Atlantic and of its parasitic association with S. argentina, S. guggenheim, S. punctata, and C. taurus.

  9. Protein kinase C mediates memory consolidation of taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Kuzirian, Alan M; Alkon, Daniel L; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    In Lymnaea stagnalis, in order to obtain a 10 min short-term memory (STM) of taste avoidance conditioning (TAC) at least 10 paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus (CS), sucrose, and an unconditioned stimulus (US), tactile stimulation to the animal's head, are required. Pre-exposure of snails to the protein kinase C (PKC) α and ε activator bryostatin (Bryo) facilitated STM formation in that only 5 paired CS-US trials were required. Typically 20 paired presentations of the CS-US are required for formation of STM and LTM. However, 20 paired presentations do not result in STM or LTM if snails are pre-incubated with a PKC inhibitor, Ro-32-0432. We also found that LTM lasting longer than 48 h was acquired with Bryo incubation for 45 min even after termination of the conditioning paradigm. These data suggest that activation of the α and ε isozymes of PKC is crucially involved in the formation of LTM and provide further support for a mechanism that has been conserved across the evolution of species ranging from invertebrate molluscs to higher mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structures of Lymnaea stagnalis AChBP in complex with neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and clothianidin.

    Ihara, Makoto; Okajima, Toshihide; Yamashita, Atsuko; Oda, Takuma; Hirata, Koichi; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Morimoto, Takako; Akamatsu, Miki; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Mega, Ryosuke; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Sattelle, David B; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2008-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides, which act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in a variety of ways, have extremely low mammalian toxicity, yet the molecular basis of such actions is poorly understood. To elucidate the molecular basis for nAChR-neonicotinoid interactions, a surrogate protein, acetylcholine binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis (Ls-AChBP) was crystallized in complex with neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI) or clothianidin (CTD). The crystal structures suggested that the guanidine moiety of IMI and CTD stacks with Tyr185, while the nitro group of IMI but not of CTD makes a hydrogen bond with Gln55. IMI showed higher binding affinity for Ls-AChBP than that of CTD, consistent with weaker CH-pi interactions in the Ls-AChBP-CTD complex than in the Ls-AChBP-IMI complex and the lack of the nitro group-Gln55 hydrogen bond in CTD. Yet, the NH at position 1 of CTD makes a hydrogen bond with the backbone carbonyl of Trp143, offering an explanation for the diverse actions of neonicotinoids on nAChRs.

  11. Sensory mediation of memory blocking stressors in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Dalesman, Sarah; Karnik, Vikram; Lukowiak, Ken

    2011-08-01

    The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as a model species to study how stress affects the ability to form long-term memory (LTM); however, we still have little information about how the snail senses stressful stimuli. The osphradium is an external sensory organ that demonstrates electrophysiological responses to a variety of external chemical stimuli. We examined the role, if any, played by the osphradium in sensing two environmental stressors, crowding and low environmental calcium, both known to block LTM in intact animals. We severed the osphradial nerve, blocking external sensory input from this organ to the central nervous system, and then exposed the snails to low environmental calcium or crowding stress to assess whether these stressors continued to block LTM formation. When exposed to low environmental calcium, snails with their osphradial nerve severed responded as if they were maintained in our standard calcium environment. That is, they did not respond to low calcium as a stressor blocking LTM; therefore, the osphradium plays a crucial role in mediating how snails respond to this stressor. However, following crowding, LTM formation was blocked in both control groups and snails that had the osphradial nerve severed, indicating that sensory information from the osphradium is not required to sense crowded conditions. Together these data show that two stressors that result in the same behavioural phenotype, blocking LTM formation, do so via two distinct sensory pathways.

  12. Interactions between cyanobacteria and gastropods II. Impact of toxic Planktothrix agardhii on the life-history traits of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Lance, Emilie; Paty, Chrystelle; Bormans, Myriam; Brient, Luc; Gérard, Claudia

    2007-03-30

    Hepatotoxins are frequently produced by many cyanobacterial species. Microcystins (MCs) are the most frequent and widely studied hepatotoxins, with potentially hazardous repercussions on aquatic organisms. As a ubiquitous herbivore living in eutrophic freshwaters, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) is particularly exposed to cyanobacteria. The toxic filamentous Planktothrix agardhii is common in temperate lakes and is therefore, a potential food resource for gastropods. In the first part of this study, we demonstrated the ingestion of toxic P. agardhii by L. stagnalis during a 5 weeks exposure, with concomitant accumulation of, on average, 60% of total MCs ingested. After 3 weeks of non-toxic food (lettuce), approximately 90% of MCs were eliminated from tissues. Here, we investigate the impact of toxic P. agardhii consumption on the life-history traits (survival, growth and fecundity), locomotion and the structure of digestive and genital glands of juvenile and adult L. stagnalis. We observed a decrease of growth regardless of age, although this was more marked in juveniles, and a reduction of fecundity in adults. Survival and locomotion were not affected. Reduction of growth and fecundity continued to be observed even after feeding of non-toxic food for 3 weeks. The structure of the digestive gland was altered during the intoxication period but not irreversibly as cells tended to recover a normal status after the 3-week detoxification period. No histopathological changes occurred in the genital gland and oocytes, and spermatozoids were present in the gonadic acini. The density of cyanobacterial suspensions used in this study was comparable to those regularly observed in lakes, particularly in eutrophic waters. These results are discussed in terms of the negative impact of toxic cyanobacteria on natural communities of freshwater gastropods, and potential cascading effects on the equilibrium and functioning of the ecosystem.

  13. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    Oliver, Ana López-Serrano; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. - Highlights: • AgNP coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), PVP-AgNP were efficiently assimilated by Lymnaea stagnalis. • Water chemistry has no influence on the dietary uptake of PVP-AgNP by snails. - L. Stagnalis assimilated PVP-AgNPs efficiently from food and water chemistry had no influence on their uptake and toxicity

  14. On the Ultrastructure and Function of Rhogocytes from the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Maria Kokkinopoulou

    Full Text Available Rhogocytes, also termed "pore cells", occur as solitary or clustered cells in the connective tissue of gastropod molluscs. Rhogocytes possess an enveloping lamina of extracellular matrix and enigmatic extracellular lacunae bridged by cytoplasmic bars that form 20 nm diaphragmatic slits likely to act as a molecular sieve. Recent papers highlight the embryogenesis and ultrastructure of these cells, and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Rhogocytes are the site of hemocyanin or hemoglobin biosynthesis in gastropods. Based on electron microscopy, we recently proposed a possible pathway of hemoglobin exocytosis through the slit apparatus, and provided molecular evidence of a common phylogenetic origin of molluscan rhogocytes, insect nephrocytes and vertebrate podocytes. However, the previously proposed secretion mode of the respiratory proteins into the hemolymph is still rather hypothetical, and the possible role of rhogocytes in detoxification requires additional data. Although our previous study on rhogocytes of the red-blooded (hemoglobin-containing freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provided much new information, a disadvantage was that the hemoglobin molecules were not unequivocally defined in the electron microscope. This made it difficult to trace the exocytosis pathway of this protein. Therefore, we have now performed a similar study on the rhogocytes of the blue-blooded (hemocyanin-containing freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The intracellular hemocyanin could be identified in the electron microscope, either as individual molecules or as pseudo-crystalline arrays. Based on 3D-electron microscopy, and supplemented by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and stress response experiments, we provide here additional details on the structure and hemocyanin biosynthesis of rhogocytes, and on their response in animals under cadmium and starvation stress. Moreover, we present an advanced model on the release of synthesized

  15. Sensory input from the osphradium modulates the response to memory-enhancing stressors in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Karnik, Vikram; Braun, Marvin; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-02-01

    In the freshwater environment species often rely on chemosensory information to modulate behavior. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is a model species used to characterize the causal mechanisms of long-term memory (LTM) formation. Chemical stressors including crayfish kairomones and KCl enhance LTM formation (≥24 h) in Lymnaea; however, how these stressors are sensed and the mechanism by which they affect the electrophysiological properties of neurons necessary for memory formation are poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the osphradium, a primary chemosensory organ in Lymnaea, modulates LTM enhancement. To test this we severed the osphradial nerve proximal to the osphradium, using sham-operated animals as controls, and assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological response to crayfish kairomones and KCl. We operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in intact, sham and osphradially cut animals, and tested for enhanced memory formation after exposure to the chemical stressors. Sham-operated animals displayed the same memory enhancement as intact animals but snails with a severed osphradial nerve did not show LTM enhancement. Extracellular recordings made from the osphradial nerve demonstrate that these stressors evoked afferent sensory activity. Intracellular recordings from right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), a neuron necessary for LTM formation, demonstrate that its electrophysiological activity is altered by input from the osphradium following exposure to crayfish kairomones or KCl in sham and intact animals but no response is seen in RPeD1 in osphradially cut animals. Therefore, sensory input from the osphradium is necessary for LTM enhancement following exposure to these chemical stressors.

  16. Silver nanoparticles alter learning and memory formation in an aquatic organism, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Young, Austin; Protheroe, Amy; Lukowiak, Ken

    2017-06-01

    We tested the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the ability of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, to learn and form long-term memory (LTM) following operant conditioning of aerial respiration. We hypothesized that the AgNPs would act as a stressor and prevent learning and LTM formation. We tested snails exposed for either 72 h or only during training and testing for memory (i.e. 0.5 h) and found no difference between those treatments. We found that at a low concentration of AgNPs (5 μg/L) neither learning and nor memory formation were altered. When we increased the concentration of AgNPs (10 μg/L) we found that memory formation was enhanced. Finally, at a higher concentration (50 μg/L) memory formation was blocked. To determine if the disassociation of Ag + from the AgNPs caused the effects on memory we performed similar experiments with AgNO 3 and found similar concentration-dependent results. Finally, we found that snails perceive the AgNPs differently from Ag+ as there was context specific memory. That is, snails trained in AgNPs did not show memory when tested in Ag + and vice-versa. We believe that changes in memory formation may be a more sensitive determination of AgNPs on aquatic organisms than the determination of a LC 50 . Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coordination of locomotor and cardiorespiratory networks of Lymnaea stagnalis by a pair of identified interneurones.

    Syed, N I; Winlow, W

    1991-07-01

    1. The morphology and electrophysiology of a newly identified bilateral pair of interneurones in the central nervous system of the pulmonate pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is described. 2. These interneurones, identified as left and right pedal dorsal 11 (L/RPeD11), are electrically coupled to each other as well as to a large number of foot and body wall motoneurones, forming a fast-acting neural network which coordinates the activities of foot and body wall muscles. 3. The left and right sides of the body wall of Lymnaea are innervated by left and right cerebral A cluster neurones. Although these motoneurones have only ipsilateral projections, they are indirectly electrically coupled to their contralateral homologues via their connections with L/RPeD11. Similarly, the activities of left and right pedal G cluster neurones, which are known to be involved in locomotion, are also coordinated by L/RPeD11. 4. Selective ablation of both neurones PeD11 results in the loss of coordination between the bilateral cerebral A clusters. 5. Interneurones L/RPeD11 are multifunctional. In addition to coordinating motoneuronal activity, they make chemical excitatory connections with heart motoneurones. They also synapse upon respiratory motoneurones, hyperpolarizing those involved in pneumostome opening (expiration) and depolarizing those involved in pneumostome closure (inspiration). 6. An identified respiratory interneurone involved in pneumostome closure (visceral dorsal 4) inhibits L/RPeD11 together with all their electrically coupled follower cells. 7. Both L/RPeD11 have strong excitatory effects on another pair of electrically coupled neurones, visceral dorsal 1 and right parietal dorsal 2, which have previously been shown to be sensitive to changes in the partial pressure of environmental oxygen (PO2). 8. Although L/RPeD11 participate in whole-body withdrawal responses, electrical stimulation applied directly to these neurones was not sufficient to induce this behaviour.

  18. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  19. Genetic variation of Lymnaea stagnalis tolerance to copper: A test of selection hypotheses and its relevance for ecological risk assessment.

    Côte, Jessica; Bouétard, Anthony; Pronost, Yannick; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Coke, Maïra; Piquet, Fabien; Caquet, Thierry; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2015-10-01

    The use of standardized monospecific testing to assess the ecological risk of chemicals implicitly relies on the strong assumption that intraspecific variation in sensitivity is negligible or irrelevant in this context. In this study, we investigated genetic variation in copper sensitivity of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, using lineages stemming from eight natural populations or strains found to be genetically differentiated at neutral markers. Copper-induced mortality varied widely among populations, as did the estimated daily death rate and time to 50% mortality (LT50). Population genetic divergence in copper sensitivity was compared to neutral differentiation using the QST-FST approach. No evidence for homogenizing selection could be detected. This result demonstrates that species-level extrapolations from single population studies are highly unreliable. The study provides a simple example of how evolutionary principles could be incorporated into ecotoxicity testing in order to refine ecological risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of ammonium chloride concentrationson the content of carotenoid pigments in the body of Lymnaea stagnalis

    G. E. Kyrychuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of distribution of β-carotene and xanthophylls in the body of Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pulmonata, Lymnaeidae in the normal conditions and under the action of different concentrations of NH4Cl, depending on duration of exposure (2, 7, 14 and 21 days. L. stagnalis (300 copies were collected in September 2013–2014 (in Zhytomyr region. Toxicant NH4Cl was used in concentrations corresponding to 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 MAC. The content of β-carotene and xanthophylls was determined by the Taylor method. 2400 biochemical analyses were carried out. The article shows that under the action of 0.5 MPC NH4Cl adaptive processes are stimulated in the body of L. stagnalis and total antioxidant activity is activated, as evidenced by changes in the content of β-carotene and xanthophylls in the organs (hepatopancreas, pallium and foot and tissues (hemolymph of the mollusks under study. The research proves that the action of concentration discussed above during 2, 14 and 21 days causes the increase in the content of β-carotene in hepatopancreas (1.63–5.73 times, pallium (1.68–5.37 times and foot (1.81–3.89 times of animals. Incubation of mollusks in solutions of NH4Cl (0.5 MAC for 7 days resulted in the decrease of figures in these organs by 23,6–38,8% relatively to control. It should be noted that from the overall dynamics hemolymph is somewhat distracting; for it 1.35–1.46 times’ decrease in the content of β-carotene after short-term action of the toxicant (2 and 7 days and β-carotene increase by 2.79–7.38 times under conditions of prolonged exposure (14 and 21 days is recorded. The content of xanthophylls correlates with the content of β-carotene on the 2nd, 7th and 14th day of toxic action, but by increasing the time of contact with toxic substances to 21 days the decrease in figures by 20,9–40,7% in foot and pallium is recorded. When the toxicant concentration is increased to 2 MAC (with 2

  1. Larval trematodes (Digenea) of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Faltýnková, Anna; Našincová, Vanda; Kablásková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 39-51 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Mollusca * cercaria * metacercaria * Lymnaea stagnalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2007

  2. Modelling effects of diquat under realistic exposure patterns in genetically differentiated populations of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R R; Lagadic, Laurent

    2010-11-12

    Pesticide use leads to complex exposure and response patterns in non-target aquatic species, so that the analysis of data from standard toxicity tests may result in unrealistic risk forecasts. Developing models that are able to capture such complexity from toxicity test data is thus a crucial issue for pesticide risk assessment. In this study, freshwater snails from two genetically differentiated populations of Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to repeated acute applications of environmentally realistic concentrations of the herbicide diquat, from the embryo to the adult stage. Hatching rate, embryonic development duration, juvenile mortality, feeding rate and age at first spawning were investigated during both exposure and recovery periods. Effects of diquat on mortality were analysed using a threshold hazard model accounting for time-varying herbicide concentrations. All endpoints were significantly impaired at diquat environmental concentrations in both populations. Snail evolutionary history had no significant impact on their sensitivity and responsiveness to diquat, whereas food acted as a modulating factor of toxicant-induced mortality. The time course of effects was adequately described by the model, which thus appears suitable to analyse long-term effects of complex exposure patterns based upon full life cycle experiment data. Obtained model outputs (e.g. no-effect concentrations) could be directly used for chemical risk assessment.

  3. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  4. Metabolomics to Explore Imidacloprid-Induced Toxicity in the Central Nervous System of the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Tufi, Sara; Stel, Jente M; de Boer, Jacob; Lamoree, Marja H; Leonards, Pim E G

    2015-12-15

    Modern toxicology is seeking new testing methods to better understand toxicological effects. One of the most concerning chemicals is the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Although imidacloprid is designed to target insects, recent studies have shown adverse effects on nontarget species. Metabolomics was applied to investigate imidacloprid-induced sublethal toxicity in the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The snails (n = 10 snails) were exposed for 10 days to increasing imidacloprid concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/L). The comparison between control and exposure groups highlighted the involvement and perturbation of many biological pathways. The levels of several metabolites belonging to different metabolite classes were significantly changed by imidacloprid exposure. A change in the amino acids and nucleotide metabolites like tryptophan, proline, phenylalanine, uridine, and guanosine was found. Many fatty acids were down-regulated, and the levels of the polyamines, spermidine and putrescine, were found to be increased which is an indication of neuron cell injury. A turnover increase between choline and acetylcholine led us to hypothesize an increase in cholinergic gene expression to overcome imidacloprid binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Metabolomics revealed imidacloprid induced metabolic changes at low and environmentally relevant concentration in a nontarget species and generated a novel mechanistic hypothesis.

  5. Metallothionein and glutathione in Lymnaea stagnalis determine the specificity of responses to the effects of ionising radiation

    Gnatyshyna, L.; Falfushynska, H.; Stoliar, O.; Bodilovska, O.; Oleynik, O.; Golubev, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to distinguish the stress-related molecular response of the pulmonate mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis from the Chernobyl area in comparison with the consequences of other harmful effects, including the short-term effects of radiation and heating. Specimens inhabiting ponds near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the cooling channel of the electric power station and the soil reclamation channel (groups R, T and C, correspondingly), and specimens adapted to laboratory conditions (a control group (CL), a disposable group exposed to 2 mGy X-ray radiation over the body (RL), and a group exposed to 25 deg. C for 4 days (TL)) were compared. Despite high variability of responses, Principle Component Analysis distinctly separated the laboratory and feral groups into two sets. In the feral groups, low levels of the stress-related and metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT), protein carbonyls and lactate dehydrogenase in the digestive gland were indicated. The main separating criteria selected by classification and regression tree analysis were the protein carbonyls, cholinesterase and MT. Molluscs from group R were clearly distinguished by the lowest levels of MT, Mn-superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase, and the highest level of glutathione, demonstrating that the oppression of the gene-determined stress-related response and its partially metabolic compensation can be possible markers for chronic environmental effects of irradiation. (authors)

  6. Development of partial life-cycle experiments to assess the effects of endocrine disruptors on the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis: a case-study with vinclozolin.

    Ducrot, Virginie; Teixeira-Alves, Mickaël; Lopes, Christelle; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Charles, Sandrine; Lagadic, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Long-term effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs) on aquatic invertebrates remain difficult to assess, mainly due to the lack of appropriate sensitive toxicity test methods and relevant data analysis procedures. This study aimed at identifying windows of sensitivity to EDs along the life-cycle of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a candidate species for the development of forthcoming test guidelines. Juveniles, sub-adults, young adults and adults were exposed for 21 days to the fungicide vinclozolin (VZ). Survival, growth, onset of reproduction, fertility and fecundity were monitored weekly. Data were analyzed using standard statistical analysis procedures and mixed-effect models. No deleterious effect on survival and growth occurred in snails exposed to VZ at environmentally relevant concentrations. A significant impairment of the male function occurred in young adults, leading to infertility at concentrations exceeding 0.025 μg/L. Furthermore, fecundity was impaired in adults exposed to concentrations exceeding 25 μg/L. Biological responses depended on VZ concentration, exposure duration and on their interaction, leading to complex response patterns. The use of a standard statistical approach to analyze those data led to underestimation of VZ effects on reproduction, whereas effects could reliably be analyzed by mixed-effect models. L. stagnalis may be among the most sensitive invertebrate species to VZ, a 21-day reproduction test allowing the detection of deleterious effects at environmentally relevant concentrations of the fungicide. These results thus reinforce the relevance of L. stagnalis as a good candidate species for the development of guidelines devoted to the risk assessment of EDs.

  7. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    Zivkovic, Dana; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; Bruijn, Wim; Dohmen, M.René

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs of Lymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas in Bithynia eggs it was localized...

  8. The bioavailability of the transuranic elements 237Pu and 241Am for the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L., and their behaviour in selected natural surface waters

    Thiels, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt was made to characterise the bioavailability of 237 Pu and 241 Am for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L. in selected surface waters. The uptake, distribution and retention patterns were studied through the contamination route water-snail. The effects of a number of parameters, such as seasonal variation, water type (pH, conductivity, ionic composition) and presence of food, on the bioavailability of the transuranics were evaluated. Finally, an assessment was made concerning the chemical speciation of plutonium and americium in the selected freshwaters

  9. Aptitude of Lymnaea palustris and L. stagnalis to Fasciola hepatica larval development through the infection of several successive generations of 4-mm-high snails.

    Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-06-01

    Bimiracidial infections of Lymnaea palustris and Lymnaea stagnalis (shell height at exposure, 4 mm) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during six successive snail generations to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants issuing from eggs laid by parents already exposed to this digenean. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula (a single generation) infected according to the same protocol. In a first experiment performed with the F1 to F5 generations of L. palustris, the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased. Immature rediae and a few cercariae-containing rediae of the digenean were observed in L. stagnalis from the F3 generation, but no free cercaria was noted in the bodies of this lymnaeid from the F4 to F6 generations. In another experiment carried out with the F6 generation of L. palustris, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. palustris than in G. truncatula. This mode of snail infection suggests an explanation for cases of human fasciolosis occurring in central France after the collection of wild watercress from beds where L. palustris was the sole lymnaeid.

  10. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  11. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  12. Accumulation and detoxication responses of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to single and combined exposures to natural (cyanobacteria) and anthropogenic (the herbicide RoundUp(®) Flash) stressors.

    Lance, Emilie; Desprat, Julia; Holbech, Bente Frost; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam; Lawton, Linda A; Edwards, Christine; Wiegand, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Freshwater gastropods are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors in the field such as the herbicide glyphosate in Roundup formulations and cyanobacterial blooms either producing or not producing microcystins (MCs), potentially leading to interacting effects. Here, the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis to a 21-day exposure to non-MC or MC-producing (33μgL(-1)) Planktothrix agardhii alone or in combination with the commercial formulation RoundUp(®) Flash at a concentration of 1μgL(-1) glyphosate, followed by 14days of depuration, were studied via i) accumulation of free and bound MCs in tissues, and ii) activities of anti-oxidant (catalase CAT) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase GST) enzymes. During the intoxication, the cyanobacterial exposure induced an early increase of CAT activity, independently of the MC content, probably related to the production of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites. The GST activity was induced by RoundUp(®) Flash alone or in combination with non MC-producing cyanobacteria, but was inhibited by MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash. Moreover, MC accumulation in L. stagnalis was 3.2 times increased when snails were concomitantly exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with RoundUp(®), suggesting interacting effects of MCs on biotransformation processes. The potent inhibition of detoxication systems by MCs and RoundUp(®) Flash was reversible during the depuration, during which CAT and GST activities were significantly higher in snails previously exposed to MC-producing cyanobacteria with or without RoundUp(®) Flash than in other conditions, probably related to the oxidative stress caused by accumulated MCs remaining in tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the redox-cycling herbicide diquat on transcript expression and antioxidant enzymatic activities of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Bouetard, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.bouetard@rennes.inra.fr [INRA, UMR INRA-Agrocampus Ouest ESE 0985, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Besnard, Anne-Laure; Vassaux, Daniele; Lagadic, Laurent; Coutellec, Marie-Agnes [INRA, UMR INRA-Agrocampus Ouest ESE 0985, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    The presence of pesticides in the environment results in potential unwanted effects on non-target species. Freshwater organisms inhabiting water bodies adjacent to agricultural areas, such as ditches, ponds and marshes, are good models to test such effects as various pesticides may reach these habitats through several ways, including aerial drift, run-off, and drainage. Diquat is a non-selective herbicide used for crop protection or for weed control in such water bodies. In this study, we investigated the effects of diquat on a widely spread aquatic invertebrate, the holarctic freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Due to the known redox-cycling properties of diquat, we studied transcript expression and enzymatic activities relative to oxidative and general stress in the haemolymph and gonado-digestive complex (GDC). As diquat is not persistent, snails were exposed for short times (5, 24, and 48 h) to ecologically relevant concentrations (22.2, 44.4, and 222.2 {mu}g l{sup -1}) of diquat dibromide. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the transcription of genes encoding catalase (cat), a cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod), a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (gpx), a glutathione reductase (gred), the retinoid X receptor (rxr), two heat shock proteins (hsp40 and hsp70), cortactin (cor) and the two ribosomal genes r18S and r28s. Enzymatic activities of SOD, Gpx, Gred and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were investigated in the GDC using spectrophoto/fluorometric methods. Opposite trends were obtained in the haemolymph depending on the herbicide concentration. At the lowest concentration, effects were mainly observed after 24 h of exposure, with over-transcription of cor, hsp40, rxr, and sod, whereas higher concentrations down-regulated the expression of most of the studied transcripts, especially after 48 h of exposure. In the GDC, earlier responses were observed and the fold-change magnitude was generally much higher: transcription of all target genes increased

  14. Reversal of age-related learning deficiency by the vertebrate PACAP and IGF-1 in a novel invertebrate model of aging: the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis).

    Pirger, Zsolt; Naskar, Souvik; László, Zita; Kemenes, György; Reglődi, Dóra; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2014-11-01

    With the increase of life span, nonpathological age-related memory decline is affecting an increasing number of people. However, there is evidence that age-associated memory impairment only suspends, rather than irreversibly extinguishes, the intrinsic capacity of the aging nervous system for plasticity (1). Here, using a molluscan model system, we show that the age-related decline in memory performance can be reversed by administration of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP). Our earlier findings showed that a homolog of the vertebrate PACAP38 and its receptors exist in the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) brain (2), and it is both necessary and instructive for memory formation after reward conditioning in young animals (3). Here we show that exogenous PACAP38 boosts memory formation in aged Lymnaea, where endogenous PACAP38 levels are low in the brain. Treatment with insulin-like growth factor-1, which in vertebrates was shown to transactivate PACAP type I (PAC1) receptors (4) also boosts memory formation in aged pond snails. Due to the evolutionarily conserved nature of these polypeptides and their established role in memory and synaptic plasticity, there is a very high probability that they could also act as "memory rejuvenating" agents in humans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  15. Crystal structure of Lymnaea stagnalis AChBP complexed with the potent nAChR antagonist DHβE suggests a unique mode of antagonism.

    Azadeh Shahsavar

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that belong to the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. These receptors are allosteric proteins that exist in different conformational states, including resting (closed, activated (open, and desensitized (closed states. The acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP is a structural homologue of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. In previous studies, the degree of the C-loop radial extension of AChBP has been assigned to different conformational states of nAChRs. It has been suggested that a closed C-loop is preferred for the active conformation of nAChRs in complex with agonists whereas an open C-loop reflects an antagonist-bound (closed state. In this work, we have determined the crystal structure of AChBP from the water snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Ls in complex with dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE, which is a potent competitive antagonist of nAChRs. The structure reveals that binding of DHβE to AChBP imposes closure of the C-loop as agonists, but also a shift perpendicular to previously observed C-loop movements. These observations suggest that DHβE may antagonize the receptor via a different mechanism compared to prototypical antagonists and toxins.

  16. Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Barsi, Alpar; Jager, Tjalling; Collinet, Marc; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-07-01

    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) modeling offers many advantages in the analysis of ecotoxicity test data. Calibration of TKTD models, however, places different demands on test design compared with classical concentration-response approaches. In the present study, useful complementary information is provided regarding test design for TKTD modeling. A case study is presented for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to the narcotic compound acetone, in which the data on all endpoints were analyzed together using a relatively simple TKTD model called DEBkiss. Furthermore, the influence of the data used for calibration on accuracy and precision of model parameters is discussed. The DEBkiss model described toxic effects on survival, growth, and reproduction over time well, within a single integrated analysis. Regarding the parameter estimates (e.g., no-effect concentration), precision rather than accuracy was affected depending on which data set was used for model calibration. In addition, the present study shows that the intrinsic sensitivity of snails to acetone stays the same across different life stages, including the embryonic stage. In fact, the data on egg development allowed for selection of a unique metabolic mode of action for the toxicant. Practical and theoretical considerations for test design to accommodate TKTD modeling are discussed in the hope that this information will aid other researchers to make the best possible use of their test animals. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. 'Different strokes for different folks': geographically isolated strains of Lymnaea stagnalis only respond to sympatric predators and have different memory forming capabilities.

    Orr, Michael V; Hittel, Karla; Lukowiak, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Gaining insight into how natural trait variation is manifest in populations shaped by differential environmental factors is crucial to understanding the evolution, ecology and sensory biology of natural populations. We have demonstrated that lab-reared Lymnaea detect and respond to the scent of a crayfish predator with specific, appropriate anti-predator behavioral responses, including enhanced long-term memory (LTM) formation, and that such predator detection significantly alters the electrophysiological activity of RPeD1, a neuron that is a necessary site for LTM formation. Here we ask: (1) do distinct populations of wild Lymnaea stagnalis respond only to sympatric predators and if so, can these traits be quantified at both the behavioral and neurophysiological levels, and (2) does the presence of a non-sympatric predator elicit anti-predator behaviors including augmentation of LTM? We tested three different populations of wild (i.e. not lab-reared) snails freshly collected from their natural habitat: (1) polders near Utrecht in The Netherlands, (2) six seasonally isolated ponds in the Belly River drainage in southern Alberta, Canada and (3) a 20-year-old human-made dugout pond in southern Alberta. We found strain-specific variations in the ability to form LTM and that only a sympatric predator evoked anti-predatory behaviors, including enhanced LTM formation and changes in RPeD1 activity.

  18. Cell cycle-related fluctuations in transcellular ionic currents and plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity during early cleavages of Lymnaea stagnalis embryos.

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Dohmen, René

    1991-08-01

    During the first four mitotic division cycles of Lymnaea stagnalis embryos, we have detected cell cycle-dependent changes in the pattern of transcellular ionic currents and membrane-bound Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase activity. Ionic currents ranging from 0.05 to 2.50 μA/cm 2 have been measured using the vibrating probe technique. Enzyme activity was detected using Ando's cytochemical method (Ando et al. 1981) which reveals Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localization at the ultrastructural level, and under high-stringency conditions with respect to calcium availability, it reveals Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase. The ionic currents and Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase localization have in common that important changes occur during the M-phase of the cell cycles. Minimal outward current at the vegetal pole coincides with metaphase/anaphase. Maximal inward current at the animal pole coincides with the onset of cytokinesis at that pole. Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase is absent from one half of the embryo at metaphase/anaphase of the two- and four-cell stage, whereas it is present in all cells during the remaining part of the cell cycle. Since fluctuations of cytosolic free calcium concentrations appear to correlate with both karyokinesis and cytokinesis, we speculate that part of the cyclic pattern of Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase localization and of the transcellular ionic currents reflects the elevation of cytosolic free calcium concentration during the M-phase.

  19. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure

    Lance, Emilie; Neffling, Milla-Riina; Gerard, Claudia; Meriluoto, Jussi; Bormans, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 μg L -1 ) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 μg MC-LR equivalents L -1 over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 μg total MCs g -1 dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 μg total MCs g -1 DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 μg g -1 DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. - The study concerns accumulation and elimination of both free and bound microcystins (MCs) in tissues of a gastropod exposed to MCs producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC-LR.

  20. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure.

    Lance, Emilie; Neffling, Milla-Riina; Gérard, Claudia; Meriluoto, Jussi; Bormans, Myriam

    2010-03-01

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 microg L(-1)) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 microg MC-LR equivalents L(-1) over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 microg total MCs g(-1) dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 microg total MCs g(-1) DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 microg g(-1) DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure

    Lance, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.lance@live.f [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 265 Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Neffling, Milla-Riina [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Gerard, Claudia [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 265 Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Meriluoto, Jussi [Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Bormans, Myriam [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 265 Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 mug L{sup -1}) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 mug MC-LR equivalents L{sup -1} over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 mug total MCs g{sup -1} dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 mug total MCs g{sup -1} DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 mug g{sup -1} DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. - The study concerns accumulation and elimination of both free and bound microcystins (MCs) in tissues of a gastropod exposed to MCs producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC-LR.

  2. Two Strains of Lymnaea stagnalis and the Progeny from Their Mating Display Differential Memory-Forming Ability on Associative Learning Tasks.

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Totani, Yuki; Nakamura, Ryota; Sakakibara, Manabu; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2017-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns and forms long-term memory (LTM) following both operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior and classical conditioning of taste aversive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether there are interstrain differences in the ability to form LTM following these two types of conditioning. A strain of Lymnaea (TC1) collected in Alberta, Canada exhibits superior memory-forming ability following aerial respiratory operant conditioning compared to a laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea from Netherlands known as the Dutch strain. We asked whether the offspring of the Canadian TC1 and Dutch snails (i.e., filial 1 (F 1 ) cross snails) would have the superior memory ability and found, rather, that their memory ability was average like the Dutch snails. That is, the Canadian TC1 snails have superior ability for LTM formation following aerial respiratory operant conditioning, but the Dutch and the generated F 1 cross have average ability for memory forming. We next examined the Canadian TC1, Dutch and F 1 cross snails for their ability to learn and form memory following conditioned taste aversion (CTA). All three populations showed similar associative CTA responses. However, both LTM formation and the ratio of good-to-poor performers in the memory retention test were much better in the Dutch snails than the Canadian TC1 and F 1 cross snails. The memory abilities of the Canadian TC1 and F 1 cross snails were average. Our present findings, therefore, suggest that snails of different strains have different memory abilities, and the F 1 cross snails do not inherit the memory ability from the smart strain. To our knowledge, there have been a limited number of studies examining differences in memory ability among invertebrate strains, with the exception of studies using mutant flies.

  3. Two Strains of Lymnaea stagnalis and the Progeny from Their Mating Display Differential Memory-Forming Ability on Associative Learning Tasks

    Hiroshi Sunada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns and forms long-term memory (LTM following both operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior and classical conditioning of taste aversive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether there are interstrain differences in the ability to form LTM following these two types of conditioning. A strain of Lymnaea (TC1 collected in Alberta, Canada exhibits superior memory-forming ability following aerial respiratory operant conditioning compared to a laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea from Netherlands known as the Dutch strain. We asked whether the offspring of the Canadian TC1 and Dutch snails (i.e., filial 1 (F1 cross snails would have the superior memory ability and found, rather, that their memory ability was average like the Dutch snails. That is, the Canadian TC1 snails have superior ability for LTM formation following aerial respiratory operant conditioning, but the Dutch and the generated F1 cross have average ability for memory forming. We next examined the Canadian TC1, Dutch and F1 cross snails for their ability to learn and form memory following conditioned taste aversion (CTA. All three populations showed similar associative CTA responses. However, both LTM formation and the ratio of good-to-poor performers in the memory retention test were much better in the Dutch snails than the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails. The memory abilities of the Canadian TC1 and F1 cross snails were average. Our present findings, therefore, suggest that snails of different strains have different memory abilities, and the F1 cross snails do not inherit the memory ability from the smart strain. To our knowledge, there have been a limited number of studies examining differences in memory ability among invertebrate strains, with the exception of studies using mutant flies.

  4. Involvement of insulin-like peptide in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Murakami, Jun; Okada, Ryuichi; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Mita, Koichi; Sakamoto, Yuki; Yamagishi, Miki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Otsuka, Emi; Okuta, Akiko; Sunada, Hiroshi; Takigami, Satoshi; Sakakibara, Manabu; Fujito, Yutaka; Awaji, Masahiko; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-01-02

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning taste aversion and consolidating this learning into long-term memory (LTM) that is called conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Previous studies showed that some molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIPs) were upregulated in snails exhibiting CTA. We thus hypothesized that MIPs play an important role in neurons underlying the CTA-LTM consolidation process. To examine this hypothesis, we first observed the distribution of MIP II, a major peptide of MIPs, and MIP receptor and determined the amounts of their mRNAs in the CNS. MIP II was only observed in the light green cells in the cerebral ganglia, but the MIP receptor was distributed throughout the entire CNS, including the buccal ganglia. Next, when we applied exogenous mammalian insulin, secretions from MIP-containing cells or partially purified MIPs, to the isolated CNS, we observed a long-term change in synaptic efficacy (i.e., enhancement) of the synaptic connection between the cerebral giant cell (a key interneuron for CTA) and the B1 motor neuron (a buccal motor neuron). This synaptic enhancement was blocked by application of an insulin receptor antibody to the isolated CNS. Finally, injection of the insulin receptor antibody into the snail before CTA training, while not blocking the acquisition of taste aversion learning, blocked the memory consolidation process; thus, LTM was not observed. These data suggest that MIPs trigger changes in synaptic connectivity that may be correlated with the consolidation of taste aversion learning into CTA-LTM in the Lymnaea CNS.

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present and biochemically active in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Pirger, Zsolt; Laszlo, Zita; Hiripi, Laszlo; Hernadi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Mark, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.

  6. Effects of chronic waterborne nickel exposure on growth, ion homeostasis, acid-base balance, and nickel uptake in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Niyogi, Som; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive aquatic organism tested to date for Ni. We undertook a series of experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) for this observed hypersensitivity. Consistent with previous experiments, juvenile snail growth in a 21-day exposure was reduced by 48% relative to the control when exposed to 1.3 μg l(-1) Ni (EC20 less than the lowest concentration tested). Ca(2+) homeostasis was significantly disrupted by Ni exposure as demonstrated by reductions in net Ca(2+) uptake, and reductions in Ca(2+) concentrations in the hemolymph and soft tissues. We also observed reduced soft tissue [Mg(2+)]. Snails underwent a significant alkalosis with hemolymph pH increasing from 8.1 to 8.3 and hemolymph TCO2 increasing from 19 to 22 mM in control versus Ni-exposed snails, respectively. Unlike in previous studies with Co and Pb, snail feeding rates were found to be unaffected by Ni at the end of the exposure. Snails accumulated Ni in the soft tissue in a concentration-dependent manner, and Ni uptake experiments with (63)Ni revealed a biphasic uptake profile - a saturable high affinity component at low exposure concentrations (36-189 nM) and a linear component at the high exposure concentrations (189-1,897 nM). The high affinity transport system had an apparent Km of 89 nM Ni(2+) and Vmax of 2.4 nmol g(-1)h(-1). This equates to a logK of 7.1, significantly higher than logK's (2.6-5.2) for any other aquatic organisms evaluated to date, which will have implications for Biotic Ligand Model development. Finally, pharmacological inhibitors that block Ca(2+) uptake pathways in snails did not inhibit Ni uptake, suggesting that the uptake of Ni does not occur via Ca(2+) uptake pathways. As with Cu and Pb, the exact mechanism for the significant disruption in Ca(2+) homeostasis and reduction in juvenile snail growth remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata (Mollusca).

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; de Bruijn, Willem C; Dohmen, M René

    1990-11-01

    During extrusion of the first polar body in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata a localized Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs ofLymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas inBithynia eggs it was localized both in the vegetal hemisphere and at the animal pole. This pattern of enzyme activity corresponds to the polar pattern of transcellular ionic currents measured with the vibrating probe, which we showed to be partially carried or regulated by calcium [Zivkovic and Dohmen (1989) Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 176 (Suppl):103-109]. The characteristics of the ATPase were studied using a variety of approaches such as ion and substrate depletions and substitutions, addition of specific inhibitors of ATPase activity, treatment with EDTA/EGTA and electron energy-loss spectrometry. The results indicate that, inLymnaea, there are at least two enzymatic entities. The first one is a Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localized along the membrane and in the cortex of the vegetal hemisphere. The second one is a Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase (calcium pump of the plasma membrane) localized in a small region of the membrane at the vegetal pole. We speculate that in the eggs ofLymnaea andBithynia a functional relationship exists between the plasma-membrane-associated ATPase activity and the transcellular ionic currents measured in the same region.

  8. Collection of Hirudinea submitted by F.M. Chutter (national institute for water research, Pretoria) and the geographical distribution of Hirudinea in South Africa

    Sciacchitano, I

    1963-08-01

    Full Text Available The leeches collected from the Vaal Barrage and from the streams and rivers of the Vaal dam Catchment Barrage by F.andM. from Chutter, which I have just studied, constitute a collection of 121 specimens. I sincerely thank Mr F. M. Chutter for having...

  9. Duration of sperm storage in the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis

    Nakadera, Y.; Blom, C.; Koene, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success is a crucial variable to understand the action of sexual selection, but its quantification is not straightforward because several factors cause nonrandom fertilization success. One of these factors is female sperm storage, which leads to prolonged paternity gain (paternity

  10. Infection, specificity and host manipulation of Australapatemon sp (Trematoda, Strigeidae) in two sympatric species of leeches (Hirudinea)

    Karvonen, A.; Faltýnková, Anna; Choo, J. M.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 10 (2017), s. 1346-1355 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : complex life cycle * Digenea * host manipulation * host-parasite relationship * spatiotemporal variation * specificity * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  11. Caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana aerobia en sanguijuelas (Hirudinea, Haementeria sp. (Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia = Characterization of the aerobic bacterial community in leeches Haementeria sp (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Hirudinea: Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia

    López Isaza, Laura Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha incrementado el uso terapéutico de las sanguijuelas y se ha demostrado que ellas pueden inocular bacterias causantes de infecciones en el 20% de los pacientes. El hallazgo en Antioquia de dos especies de sanguijuelas promisorias para hirudoterapia motivó este estudio para identificar las bacterias en la superficie, la probóscide y el intestino de estos anélidos y evaluar su sensibilidad a antibióticos. Las sanguijuelas estudiadas se identificaron como Haementeria sp., y Oxytychus ornatus. Muestras de la superficie, boca e intestino de ambos anélidos se inocularon en agar sangre, agar sangre con ampicilina y agar eosina azul de metileno. La identificación de las bacterias y su sensibilidad a antibióticos se evaluaron por el método automatizado Vitek (Biomerieux®. Se hicieron en total 26 aislamientos pertenecientes a 12 especies de nueve géneros. Enterobacter cloacae fue la especie más frecuente en ambos anélidos. Las bacterias fueron sensibles a los antibióticos comúnmente empleados en las infecciones causadas por este tipo de microorganismos. Se sugiere hacer profilaxis con antibióticos en los pacientes que reciban terapia con los anélidos investigados e implementar los protocolos estandarizados para el lavado de los animales antes de su uso y para el aseo de los acuarios en donde se los mantenga.

  12. High voltage with little current as an unconditional stimulus for taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-10-25

    A new and better taste avoidance conditioning paradigm for Lymnaea has been developed that replaces the previously used tactile unconditional stimulus (US) with an brief electrical stimulus (1000V, 80μA), while continuing to use a sucrose application to the lips as the conditional stimulus (CS). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The LTM persisted for at least one week. While STM was elicited with 5, 8, or 10 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. The new US used here was more consistent than the previously used US, and this stimulus consistency may explain why 15 paired CS-US presentations now result in LTM formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical period of memory enhancement during taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Takahashi, Tomoyo; Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimal training procedure leading to long-lasting taste avoidance behavior in Lymnaea. A training procedure comprising 5 repeated pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS, sucrose), with an unconditional stimulus (US, a tactile stimulation to the animal's head), over a 4-day period resulted in an enhanced memory formation than 10 CS-US repeated pairings over a 2-day period or 20 CS-US repeated pairings on a single day. Backward conditioning (US-CS) pairings did not result in conditioning. Thus, this taste avoidance conditioning was CS-US pairing specific. Food avoidance behavior was not observed following training, however, if snails were immediately subjected to a cold-block (4°C for 10 min). It was critical that the cold-block be applied within 10 min to block long-term memory (LTM) formation. Further, exposure to the cold-block 180 min after training also blocked both STM and LTM formation. The effects of the cold-block on subsequent learning and memory formation were also examined. We found no long lasting effects of the cold-block on subsequent memory formation. If protein kinase C was activated before the conditioning paradigm, snails could still acquire STM despite exposure to the cold-block.

  14. Reproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis

    Giusti, Arnaud; Barsi, Alpar; Dugue, Mael; Collinet, Marc; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Celia; Roig, Benoit; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed at comparing the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the 0–600 ng Sn/L...

  15. Transgenerational endpoints provide increased sensitivity and insight into multigenerational responses of Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to cadmium.

    Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Fidder, Bridgette N; Olson, Adric D; Dawson, Daniel E; Bilbo, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Ecotoxicology provides data to inform environmental management. Many testing protocols do not consider offspring fitness and toxicant sensitivity. Cadmium (Cd) is a well-studied and ubiquitous toxicant but little is known about the effects on offspring of exposed parents (transgenerational effects). This study had three objectives: to identify endpoints related to offspring performance; to determine whether parental effects would manifest as a change in Cd tolerance in offspring and how parental exposure duration influenced the manifestation of parental effects. Adult snails were exposed to Cd 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg Cd/L for eight weeks. There were effects on adult endpoints (e.g., growth, reproduction) but only at the highest concentrations (>100 μg/L). Alternatively, we observed significant transgenerational effects at all Cd concentrations. Surprisingly, we found increased Cd tolerance in hatchlings from all parental Cd exposure concentrations even though eggs and hatchlings were in Cd-free conditions for 6 weeks. Explicit consideration of offspring performance adds value to current toxicity testing protocols. Parental exposure duration has important implications for offspring effects and that contaminant concentrations that are not directly toxic to parents can cause transgenerational changes in resistance that have significant implications for toxicity testing and adaptive responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mating rate influences female reproductive investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Hoffer, J.N.A.; Schwegler, D.; Ellers, J.; Koene, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple mating often imposes direct fitness costs on females but can provide indirect benefits such as enhanced genetic diversity and offspring quality. The costs and benefits of multiple mating have been investigated extensively in separate-sex species but less so in simultaneous hermaphrodites,

  17. Critical period of memory enhancement during taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Tomoyo Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the optimal training procedure leading to long-lasting taste avoidance behavior in Lymnaea. A training procedure comprising 5 repeated pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS, sucrose, with an unconditional stimulus (US, a tactile stimulation to the animal's head, over a 4-day period resulted in an enhanced memory formation than 10 CS-US repeated pairings over a 2-day period or 20 CS-US repeated pairings on a single day. Backward conditioning (US-CS pairings did not result in conditioning. Thus, this taste avoidance conditioning was CS-US pairing specific. Food avoidance behavior was not observed following training, however, if snails were immediately subjected to a cold-block (4°C for 10 min. It was critical that the cold-block be applied within 10 min to block long-term memory (LTM formation. Further, exposure to the cold-block 180 min after training also blocked both STM and LTM formation. The effects of the cold-block on subsequent learning and memory formation were also examined. We found no long lasting effects of the cold-block on subsequent memory formation. If protein kinase C was activated before the conditioning paradigm, snails could still acquire STM despite exposure to the cold-block.

  18. Statistical refinements for data analysis of mollusc reproduction tests: an example with Lymnaea stagnalis

    Holbech, Henrik

    -contribution of each individual to the measured response. Furthermore, the combination of a Gamma-Poisson stochastic part with a Weibull concentration-response model allowed accounting for the inter-replicate variability. Second, we checked for the possibility of optimizing the initial experimental design through...... was twofold. First, we refined the statistical analyses of reproduction data accounting for mortality all along the test period. The variable “number of clutches/eggs produced per individual-day” was used for EC x modelling, as classically done in epidemiology in order to account for the time...

  19. Genetics and morphology of the genus Tritetrabdella (Hirudinea, Haemadipsidae) from the mountainous rain forests of Sabah, Borneo, reveal a new species with two new subspecies

    Kappes, H.

    2013-01-01

    Blood-feeding terrestrial leeches of the family Haemadipsidae are a notorious part of the invertebrate diversity in Asian and Australian rain forests. All hitherto published records of terrestrial leeches of Borneo belong to the genus Haemadipsa. Here, a second, poorly known haemadipsid genus is

  20. Estádios evolutivos de tripanossomas de Hipostomus punctatus Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae em infecção natural de Batracobdella gemmata Blanchard (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae Evolutive stages of tripanosomes of Hipostomus punctatus Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae in natural infection of Batracobdella gemmata Blanchard (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae

    Marta D'Agosto

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen leeches obtained from armoured catfish (Hypostomus punclatus Valenciennes, 1840 infected with Trypanosoma spp. were examined. It was observed the presence of tripomastigotes, epimastigotes and amastigotes forms as well as dividing forms in the proboscis and in the stomach, different from the ones found in the vertebrate host as regards the morfometric features and developing forms. The examination of the contents of rectum did not show tripanosomes. These facts seem to demonstrate that Batracobdella gemmata (Blanchard, 1900 is an invertebrate host of trypanosomes and the transmission is done by means of inoculation.

  1. Cytogenetic and morphophysiological differences in snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from reservoirs of the Chernobyl NPP resettling zone

    Koneva, A.Yu.; Afonin, V.Yu.; Dramashka, S.Ya.; Golubew, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis of the molluscs obtained from animals of two populations of the Chernobyl NPP zone was carried out. Preservation of the raised number of cells with micronuclei in hemolymph of the molluscs obtained from animals lived under conditions with the highest level of radiation contamination was noted. Interpopulational distinctions in a number of biological parameters were revealed. Away of fertilization which is used for animal production under laboratory conditions affects sensitivity of molluscs to additional acute irradiation was established. (authors)

  2. The Early Worm Catches the Bird? Productivity and Patterns of Trichobilharzia szidati Cercarial Emission from Lymnaea stagnalis

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Selbach, C.; Sures, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2016), č. článku e0149678. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14198S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : living endohelminth stages * Diplostomum spathaceum * Schistosoma mansoni Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  3. [Ultrastructural changes in the MP3 neuron of the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis after cryopreservation of the isolated brain].

    Dmitrieva, E V; Moshkov, D A; Gakhova, E N

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of a possibility of long-term storage of frozen (-196 degrees C) viable neurons and nervous tissue is one of the central present day problems. In this study ultrastructural changes in neurons of frozen-thawed snail brain were examined as a function of time. We studied the influence of cryopreservation, cryoprotectant (Me2SO), cooling to 4-6 degrees C, and a prolonged incubation in physiological solution at 4-6 degrees C on dictyosomes of Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae and mitochondria. It has been found that responses of these intracellular structures of cryopreserved neurons to the above influences are similar: dissociation of Golgi dictyosomes, swelling of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and mitochondrial cristae. Both freezing-thawing and cryoprotectant were seen to cause an increase in the number of lysosomes, liposomes, myelin-like structures, and to form large vacuoles. The structural changes in molluscan neurons caused by cryopreservation with Me2SO (2 M) were reversible.

  4. New Insights to Compare and Choose TKTD Models for Survival Based on an Interlaboratory Study for Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Cd.

    Baudrot, Virgile; Preux, Sara; Ducrot, Virginie; Pave, Alain; Charles, Sandrine

    2018-02-06

    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models, as the General Unified Threshold model of Survival (GUTS), provide a consistent process-based framework compared to classical dose-response models to analyze both time and concentration-dependent data sets. However, the extent to which GUTS models (Stochastic Death (SD) and Individual Tolerance (IT)) lead to a better fitting than classical dose-response model at a given target time (TT) has poorly been investigated. Our paper highlights that GUTS estimates are generally more conservative and have a reduced uncertainty through smaller credible intervals for the studied data sets than classical TT approaches. Also, GUTS models enable estimating any x% lethal concentration at any time (LC x,t ), and provide biological information on the internal processes occurring during the experiments. While both GUTS-SD and GUTS-IT models outcompete classical TT approaches, choosing one preferentially to the other is still challenging. Indeed, the estimates of survival rate over time and LC x,t are very close between both models, but our study also points out that the joint posterior distributions of SD model parameters are sometimes bimodal, while two parameters of the IT model seems strongly correlated. Therefore, the selection between these two models has to be supported by the experimental design and the biological objectives, and this paper provides some insights to drive this choice.

  5. Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail lymnaea stagnalis.

    Barsi, A.; Jager, T.; Collinet, M.; Lagadic, L.; Ducrot, V.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) modeling offers many advantages in the analysis of ecotoxicity test data. Calibration of TKTD models, however, places different demands on test design compared with classical concentration-response approaches. In the present study, useful complementary information

  6. The Role of Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity and Competition In Structuring Trematode Communities In the Great Pond Snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Kuris, A. M.; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2012), s. 460-471 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : LARVAL TREMATODES * HELISOMA-ANCEPS * INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS * DIPLOSTOMUM-SPATHACEUM * CENTRAL-EUROPE * ANTAGONISM * PARASITES * HOST * PATTERNS * DYNAMICS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012

  7. Accumulation and detoxication responses of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis to single and combined exposures to natural (cyanobacteria) and anthropogenic (the herbicide RoundUp® Flash) stressors

    Lance, Emilie; Desprat, J.; Holbech, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    , and ii) activities of anti-oxidant (catalase CAT) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase GST) enzymes. During the intoxication, the cyanobacterial exposure induced an early increase of CAT activity, independently of the MC content, probably related to the production of secondary cyanobacterial...

  8. Evolutionary Origin of Body Axis Segmentation in Annelids and Arthropods

    Shankland, S. Martin

    2003-01-01

    During the period of this report, we have made a number of important discoveries. To date this work has led to 4 peer-reviewed publications in primary research journals plus 1 minireview and 1 chapter in the proceedings of a meeting. Publications resulting from this grant support are enumerated at the end of the report. Two additional, on-going studies also described. 1. Using laser cell ablation, we have obtained evidence that an annelid - the leech Helobdella robusta - patterns the anteroposterior (AP) polarity of its nascent segment primordia independent of cell interactions oriented along the AP axis. 2. We cloned a Helobdella homologue (hro-hh) of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog, and used in situ hybridization and northern blots to characterize its expression in the embryo. 3. We have used laser cell ablations to examine the possible role of cell interactions during the developmental patterning of the 4 rostralmost "head" segments of the leech Helobdella robusta.

  9. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    The invertebrate fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes in the littoral of Lake Kariba was studied over a three-month period in 2002. Animals from seven classes — Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Turbellaria, Insecta, Crustacea, Bivalvia and Gastropoda — were collected. Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., ...

  10. Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure.

    Custer, Kevin W; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and (62)Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. (62)Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating (62)Ni was attributed to (62)Ni-water ((62)Ni flux from food), (62)Ni-TSS, and (62)Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water > Ni-sediment > Ni-all (water, sediment, food) > Ni-food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L....... stagnalis embryos to rotate in the eggs is serotonin/dopamine regulated. We have developed a system to quantify embryo rotation and present results of exposure to serotonin, dopamine and different anti-depressive pharmaceuticals (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI´s) using the L. stagnalis...

  12. The fate of received sperm in the reproductive tract of a hermaphroditic snail and its implications for fertilisation.

    Koene, J.M.; Montagne-Wajer, K; Roelofs, D.; ter Maat, A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple mating, sperm storage and internal fertilisation enhance sperm competition. The great pond snail can use stored sperm for over three months, and frequently mates with different partners. This hermaphrodite, Lymnaea stagnalis, can also self-fertilise and often produces egg masses containing

  13. On the identity of Dorylaimus robustus de Man

    Loof, P.A.A.

    1961-01-01

    The taxonomic position of Dorylaimus robustus de Man, 1876 is fully discussed. It is concluded that D. robustus de Man, 1876 is a synonym of D. stagnalis Dujardin, 1845; also included in this synonymy are D. robustus apud de Man, 1880, apud de Man, 1884 (male, partim) and Labronema robustum (de Man,

  14. Change of hemoagglutinin and hemolysin titers in hemolymph of gastropod molluscs in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes

    Baskakov, AV; Polevshchikov, AV; Harazova, AD; Krasnodembskii, EG

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with analysis of changes of the levels of hemoagglutinins (HA) and hemolysins (HL) in hemolymph of three gastropod species, Planorbius corneus, Lymnea stagnalis, and Achatina fulica, in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes (ShE). The levels of HA and HL were determined

  15. Cell type-specific sorting of neuropeptides : a mechanism to modulate peptide composition of large dense core vesicles

    Klumperman, J.; Spijker, S.; Minnen, J. van; Sharp-Baker, H.; Smit, A.B.; Geraerts, W.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis contains two populations of egg-laying hormone (ELH)-producing neurons that differ in size and topology. In type I neurons, all peptides located C-terminally from the cleavage site Arg-Ser-Arg-Arg180-183 are sorted into secretory large dense-core vesicles (LDCV), whereas

  16. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    Horák, P.; Mikeš, L.; Lichtenbergová, L.; Skála, V.; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2015), s. 165-190 ISSN 0893-8512 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fresh water snails * Lymnae stagnalis hemocytes * Trichobilharzia regenti schistosomatidae Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 16.187, year: 2015

  17. Single-cell analysis of peptide expression and electrophysiology of right parietal neurons involved in male copulation behavior of a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    El Filali, Z.; de Boer, P.A.C.M.; Pieneman, A.W.; de Lange, R.P.J.; Jansen, R.F.; Ter Maat, A.; van der Schors, R.C.; Li, K.W.; van Straalen, N.M.; Koene, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Male copulation is a complex behavior that requires coordinated communication between the nervous system and the peripheral reproductive organs involved in mating. In hermaphroditic animals, such as the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, this complexity increases since the animal can behave both as

  18. Interference microscopy under double-wavelet analysis: A new approach to studying cell dynamics

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    This Letter combines a novel experimental approach to the study of intracellular processes with a newly developed technique for multimode time-series analysis. Experiments are performed on isolated pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) neurons. Local variations in the cellular refractive index as detect...

  19. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  20. Helminth parasites of the levantine frog (Pelophylax bedriagae Camerano, 1882 from the western part of Turkey

    Demır S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four Pelophylax bedriagae (Levantine Frog from Turkey (İzmir and Manisa Provinces were examined for helminth parasites. The frogs were collected between 2012 and 2014 years. Eight species of helminth parasites were recorded: 3 species of Nematoda (Rhabdias bufonis, Cosmocerca ornata, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Haematoloechus bre-viansa, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, 1 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus ranae and 1 species of Hirudinea (Hirudo medicinalis. Pelophylax bedriagae is a new host record for these parasite species.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16208-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available H306-1B3, complete sequ... 42 0.001 8 ( EY487360 ) CBBP15754.fwd CBBP Hirudo medicinalis hermaphrodi... 58 0....27 1 ( EY489283 ) CBBP16951.fwd CBBP Hirudo medicinalis hermaphrodi... 50 0.27 1 ( EY385189 ) CAXA5562.fwd ...ev CAWZ Helobdella robusta Primary Late... 42 0.37 2 ( EY485499 ) CBBP14631.fwd CBBP Hirudo medicinalis herm...zias latipes EST, clone M046--B11_093. 38 0.39 3 ( EY490006 ) CBBP17391.fwd CBBP Hirudo medicinalis hermaphr...odi... 44 0.39 2 ( EY485498 ) CBBP14631.rev CBBP Hirudo medicinalis hermaphrodi... 44 0.39 2 ( EY503416 ) CB

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04975-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 6227.fwd CAWX Helobdella robusta Primary Ear... 34 3.5 2 ( DY542495 ) HPO-N-S01-0370-LF Hematopoietic cDNA library...0.95 2 ( DT742604 ) EST1176453 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 36 0.95 2 ( AC178959 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratu...43 ) EST1164393 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 48 0.037 2 ( AC115684 ) Dictyostelium discoideum c...36815 ) MM2_2_4_C09 Sugar beet 10-week GH root cDNA Beta ... 50 0.087 1 ( CF886656 ) tric084xc11.b1 T.reesei mycelial culture..., Version... 50 0.087 1 ( CB907997 ) tric084xc11 T.reesei mycelial culture

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16556-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 379 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:dda53n08, 3' ... 42 0.041 2 ( FK757919 ) av01018a06r1.1 Symbioti... DW145191 ) CLVX10263.b1_M22.ab1 CLV(XYZ) lettuce virosa Lact... 48 0.050 2 ( FK759690 ) av02060a20r1.1 Symbiotic...1597 ) CAXA9355.rev CAXA Helobdella robusta Subtracted L... 44 0.053 3 ( FK724153 ) av02100l05r1.1 Symbiot...ic sea anemone (Anemonia vi... 48 0.054 3 ( CL080652 ) CH216-159D22_RM4.1 CH216 Xen

  4. Uptake of uranium by native aquatic plants: potential for bioindication and phytoremediation

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a part the on going study on the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal in which, the use of aquatic plants as indicators of uranium contamination is being probed using aquatic plants emphasizing their potential use in the emerging phytotechnologies. Even though we have observed very low concentration of U in the fresh waters of the studied sites we found a set of vegetable species with the ability to accumulate U in concentrations which are orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding environment. We have observed that Apium nodiflorum, Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor and Fontinalis antipyretica accumulated significant amounts of uranium, whereas Oenanthe crocata excluded U. These results indicate substantial scope for proper radiophytoremediation and phytosociological investigation exploiting the native flora. These species show great potential for phytoremediation because they are endemic and easy to grow in their native conditions. A. nodiflorum and C. stagnalis have high bioproductivity and yield good biomass.

  5. Species diversity of Plagiorchis Luhe, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) in lymnaeid snails from freshwater ecosystems in central Europe revealed by molecules and morphology

    Zikmundová, Jana; Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2014), s. 37-54 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval trematodes digenea * partial lsrDNA sequences * great pond snail * maximum-likelihood * Lymnea stagnalis * life -cycle * platyhelminthes * differentiation * omphalometridae * phylogenies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  6. Consolidation of long-term memory by insulin in Lymnaea is not brought about by changing the number of insulin receptors

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Okuta, Akiko; Otsuka, Emi; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns taste aversion and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). This is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The superfusion of molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIPs) over the isolated snail brain causes a long-term enhancement of synaptic input between the cerebral giant cell and the B1 buccal motor neuron. This enhancement is hypothesized to underlie CTA. The synaptic enhancement caused by the superfusion of MIPs can be blocked by the a...

  7. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  8. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. → L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. → Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  9. Impairing DNA methylation obstructs memory enhancement for at least 24?hours in Lymnaea

    Rothwell, Cailin M.; Lukowiak, Ken D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stressor-induced memory enhancement has previously been shown to involve DNA methylation in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. Specifically, injection of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-AZA one hour before exposure to a memory-enhancing stressor obstructs memory augmentation. However, the duration of the influence of 5-AZA on this memory enhancement has not yet been examined. In this study, 2 memory-enhancing stressors (a thermal stress and exposure to the scent of a predator) were used ...

  10. Parasites in a man-made landscape: contrasting patterns of trematode flow in a fishpond area in Central Europe

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Faltýnková, Anna; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 6 (2011), 789-807 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lymnaea stagnalis * trematode community structure * spatial variation * parasite flow * eutrophic fishponds Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.961, year: 2011

  11. Potentiation of zinc stress caused by parastic infection of snails

    Guth, D.J. (Univ. of Michigan, Flint); Blankespoor, H.D.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1977-09-08

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of parasitism (Schistosomatium douthitti Price and Trichobilharzia sp.) on the tolerance of snails Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) to acutely lethal concentrations of zinc. Significant reduction in tolerance occurred for snails with patent infections at 24 and 75 ppM of Zn/sup + +/. At two selected prepatent levels of parasite development, significant differences occurred at the higher concentration only.

  12. A homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is both necessary and instructive for the rapid formation of associative memory in an invertebrate

    Pirger, Zsolt; László, Zita; Kemenes, Ildikó; Tóth, Gábor; Reglődi, Dóra; Kemenes, György

    2010-01-01

    Similar to other invertebrate and vertebrate animals, cAMP dependent signaling cascades are key components of long-term memory (LTM) formation in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an established experimental model for studying evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms of long-term associative memory. Although a great deal is already known about the signaling cascades activated by cAMP, the molecules involved in the learning-induced activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) in Lymnaea remained unkno...

  13. Aquatic dance flies fauna (Diptera, Empididae: Clinocerinae and Hemerodromiinae) of Montenegro

    Ivković, Marija; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Miliša, Marko; Previšić, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Adult aquatic dance flies (Empididae) were collected during July 2012 and July 2013 in Montenegro using sweep nets and by aspirator at 21 sampling sites. From 25 species recorded in this study, 22 species are new to the fauna of Montenegro: Chelifera pyrenaica Vaillant, Hemerodromia laudatoria Collin, Clinocera stagnalis (Haliday), Clinocera wesmaeli (Macquart), Clinocerella sorex (Engel), Dolichocephala guttata (Haliday), Kowarzia barbatula Mik, Kowarzia plectrum Mik, Roederiodes macedonicus...

  14. Habitat stability, predation risk and ‘memory syndromes’

    S. Dalesman; A. Rendle; S.R.X. Dall

    2015-01-01

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonst...

  15. Predicting dietborne metal toxicity from metal influxes

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Dietborne metal uptake prevails for many species in nature. However, the links between dietary metal exposure and toxicity are not well understood. Sources of uncertainty include the lack of suitable tracers to quantify exposure for metals such as copper, the difficulty to assess dietary processes such as food ingestion rate, and the complexity to link metal bioaccumulation and effects. We characterized dietborne copper, nickel, and cadmium influxes in a freshwater gastropod exposed to diatoms labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes. Metal influxes in Lymnaea stagnalis correlated linearly with dietborne metal concentrations over a range encompassing most environmental exposures. Dietary Cd and Ni uptake rate constants (kuf) were, respectively, 3.3 and 2.3 times higher than that for Cu. Detoxification rate constants (k detox) were similar among metals and appeared 100 times higher than efflux rate constants (ke). Extremely high Cu concentrations reduced feeding rates, causing the relationship between exposure and influx to deviate from linearity; i.e., Cu uptake rates leveled off between 1500 and 1800 nmol g-1 day-1. L. stagnalis rapidly takes up Cu, Cd, and Ni from food but detoxifies the accumulated metals, instead of reducing uptake or intensifying excretion. Above a threshold uptake rate, however, the detoxification capabilities of L. stagnalis are overwhelmed.

  16. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  17. Biogeochemical controls of uranium bioavailability from the dissolved phase in natural freshwaters

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Cain, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    To gain insights into the risks associated with uranium (U) mining and processing, we investigated the biogeochemical controls of U bioavailability in the model freshwater speciesLymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda). Bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) was characterized in controlled laboratory experiments over a range of water hardness, pH, and in the presence of complexing ligands in the form of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM). Results show that dissolved U is bioavailable under all the geochemical conditions tested. Uranium uptake rates follow first order kinetics over a range encompassing most environmental concentrations. Uranium uptake rates in L. stagnalis ultimately demonstrate saturation uptake kinetics when exposure concentrations exceed 100 nM, suggesting uptake via a finite number of carriers or ion channels. The lack of a relationship between U uptake rate constants and Ca uptake rates suggest that U does not exclusively use Ca membrane transporters. In general, U bioavailability decreases with increasing pH, increasing Ca and Mg concentrations, and when DOM is present. Competing ions did not affect U uptake rates. Speciation modeling that includes formation constants for U ternary complexes reveals that the aqueous concentration of dicarbonato U species (UO2(CO3)2–2) best predicts U bioavailability to L. stagnalis, challenging the free-ion activity model postulate.

  18. Strain-specific differences of the effects of stress on memory in Lymnaea.

    Hughes, Emily; Shymansky, Tamila; Swinton, Erin; Lukowiak, Kai S; Swinton, Cayley; Sunada, Hiroshi; Protheroe, Amy; Phillips, Iain; Lukowiak, Ken

    2017-03-01

    Stress alters the ability to form, recall and maintain memory according to the Yerkes-Dodson/Hebb (YDH) law. The effects of environmentally relevant stressors, such as low environmental calcium and crowding, on learning and memory have previously been described in a laboratory-reared 'average' strain of Lymnaea stagnalis (i.e. the Dutch strain) as well as two strains of freshly collected L . stagnalis with enhanced memory formation abilities (i.e. 'smart' snails). Here, we use L . stagnalis to study the effects of other environmentally relevant stressors on memory formation in two other strains of freshly collected snails, one 'smart' and one 'average'. The stressors we examined are thermal, resource restriction combined with food odour, predator detection and, for the first time, tissue injury (shell damage). We show that the same stressor has significantly different effects on memory formation depending on whether snails are 'smart' or 'average'. Specifically, our data suggest that a stressor or a combination of stressors act to enhance memory in 'average' snails but obstruct memory formation in 'smart' snails. These results are consistent with the YDH law and our hypothesis that 'smart' snails are more easily stressed than 'average' snails. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Ectoparasites as numerical dominant species in parasite community of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Mesquita, R L B; Azevedo, R K; Abdallah, V D; Luque, J L

    2011-08-01

    Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.

  20. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  1. Co-infestation of gills by different parasite groups in the mullet, Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae): effects on relative condition factor.

    Ranzani-Paiva, M J T; Silva-Souza, A T

    2004-08-01

    This study involved 334 specimens of mullet, Mugil platanus, captured monthly in the estuarine region of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from July 1988 to June 1989, and examined for the presence of gill parasites. Parasitological inspections revealed the occurrence of the following groups: Trichodina sp., Monogenoidea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Only four mullets were not parasitized. Total weight and total length of all 334 mullet specimens examined were used for adjusting the weight-length relationship curve and calculating the relative condition factor (Kn). The 118 specimens infested with monogenoideans on average had lower weights than expected (Kn 1.0. It was possible to infer that gill infestation with monogenoideans alters mullet weight, especially in the presence of co-infestation with Trichodina sp. and copepods.

  2. Co-infestation of gills by different parasite groups in the mullet, Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae: effects on relative condition factor

    M. J. T. Ranzani-Paiva

    Full Text Available This study involved 334 specimens of mullet, Mugil platanus, captured monthly in the estuarine region of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from July 1988 to June 1989, and examined for the presence of gill parasites. Parasitological inspections revealed the occurrence of the following groups: Trichodina sp., Monogenoidea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Only four mullets were not parasitized. Total weight and total length of all 334 mullet specimens examined were used for adjusting the weight-length relationship curve and calculating the relative condition factor (Kn. The 118 specimens infested with monogenoideans on average had lower weights than expected (Kn 1.0. It was possible to infer that gill infestation with monogenoideans alters mullet weight, especially in the presence of co-infestation with Trichodina sp. and copepods.

  3. Case report of oral cavity infestation in a 3-year old jackass with Limnatis nilotica from Ilam province, west of Iran

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leeches (phylum: Annelida, class: hirudinea could infest wide range of livestock such as cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, mule, ass, dog, pig and even human. In November 2013, a 3-year old jackass from Dehloran county, Ilam province, Iran, was infected through his mouth due to drinking spring water. Symptoms including stress, anxiety and tachycardia were seen. After examining oral cavity of jackass, a leech was observed in upper gum. The leech was measured after separation which was three inches in length. The leech was adult which has dark green with orange lines, and it was identified as Limnatis nilotica species. It seems that using spring, subterranean water, pond etc. is the main causes of livestock infestation with leech. Ranchers could be recommended to decontaminate leech waters to prevent further leech infestation cases.

  4. Biodiversity of macrozoobenthos some running waters of southern Moravia

    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drai­na­ge areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.

  5. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast

    Oliva Marcelo E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

  6. Fauna parasitária de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Characidae cultivado em tanque-rede no estado do Amapá, Amazônia oriental Parasitic fauna of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum(Characidae farmed in cages in the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon

    Evandro Freitas Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi estudar a parasitofauna e a relação hospedeiro- parasito em tambaqui Colossoma macropomum cultivados em tanques-rede no Rio Matapi, município de Santana, estado do Amapá, região da Amazônia oriental, Brasil. Foram examinados 60 tambaquis, dos quais 96,7% estavam parasitados por protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora e Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideas Mymarotheciun boegeri e Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae e sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. Os maiores níveis de parasitismo foram causados por protozoários I. multifiliis e P. pillulare e os menores por sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. Porém, os índices de infestação não tiveram efeitos na saúde dos peixes hospedeiros, uma vez que o fator de condição relativo (Kn não foi estatisticamente (pThe purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parasitic fauna and the host-parasite relationship in Colossoma macropomum farmed in cages of Matapi River, municipally of Santana, State of Amapá, in eastern Amazon, Brazil. Of 60 specimens of tambaqui examined, 96.7% were parasitized by protozoans Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideans Mymarotheciun boegeri and Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae, and leeches Glossiphoniidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. The higher infestation levels were caused by protozoans I. multifiliis and P. pillulare, while the lower infestation levels were caused by leeches. No effects of parasitic infestation rates on fish health were observed. The relative condition factor (Kn was not correlated with the intensity of parasites found. This was the first record of I. multifiliis and P. pillulare in C. macropomum farmed in cages in the Brazilian Amazon.

  7. Impact of toxic cyanobacteria on gastropods and microcystin accumulation in a eutrophic lake (Grand-Lieu, France) with special reference to Physa (= Physella) acuta

    Lance, Emilie; Brient, Luc; Carpentier, Alexandre; Acou, Anthony; Marion, Loic; Bormans, Myriam; Gerard, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria are known to accumulate in gastropods following grazing of toxic cyanobacteria and/or absorption of MCs dissolved in water, with adverse effects on life history traits demonstrated in the laboratory. In the field, such effects may vary depending on species, according to their relative sensitivity and ecology. The aims of this study were to i) establish how various intensities of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations alter the structure of gastropod community and ii) compare MC tissue concentration in gastropods in the field with those obtained in our previous laboratory experiments on the prosobranch Potamopyrgus antipodarum and the pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis. We explored these questions through a one-year field study at three stations at Grand-Lieu Lake (France) affected by different intensities of cyanobacteria proliferations. A survey of the community structure and MC content of both cyanobacteria and gastropods was associated with a caging experiment involving P. antipodarum and L. stagnalis. In total, 2592 gastropods belonging to 7 prosobranch and 16 pulmonate species were collected. However, distribution among the stations was unequal with 62% vs 2% of gastropods sampled respectively at the stations with the lowest vs highest concentrations of MC. Irrespective of the station, pulmonates were always more diverse, more abundant and occurred at higher frequencies than prosobranchs. Only the pulmonate Physa acuta occurred at all stations, with abundance and MC tissue concentration (≤ 4.32 μg g DW -1 ) depending on the degrees of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations in the stations; therefore, P. acuta is proposed as a potential sentinel species. The caging experiment demonstrated a higher MC accumulation in L. stagnalis (≤ 0.36 μg g DW -1 for 71% of individuals) than in P. antipodarum (≤ 0.02 μg g DW -1 for 12%), corroborating previous laboratory observations. Results are discussed in

  8. A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.

    Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-10-15

    Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms.

  9. [Radioecological studies of freshwater mollusks in the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone].

    Gudkov, D I; Nazarov, A B; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E; Klenus, V G

    2009-01-01

    Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuranic elements accumulation in bivalve and gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1997-2008 was analyzed. The results of radiation dose and chromosome aberration rate estimation and the analysis of hemolymph composition of freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) was produced. The absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3-85.0 microGy/h. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27%) in embryo tissues, and also the change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered.

  10. Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes

    Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Aerts, Andrea

    2012-01-07

    Current genomic perspectives on animal diversity neglect two prominent phyla, the molluscs and annelids, that together account for nearly one-third of known marine species and are important both ecologically and as experimental systems in classical embryology1, 2, 3. Here we describe the draft genomes of the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea), a marine polychaete (Capitella teleta) and a freshwater leech (Helobdella robusta), and compare them with other animal genomes to investigate the origin and diversification of bilaterians from a genomic perspective. We find that the genome organization, gene structure and functional content of these species are more similar to those of some invertebrate deuterostome genomes (for example, amphioxus and sea urchin) than those of other protostomes that have been sequenced to date (flies, nematodes and flatworms). The conservation of these genomic features enables us to expand the inventory of genes present in the last common bilaterian ancestor, establish the tripartite diversification of bilaterians using multiple genomic characteristics and identify ancient conserved long- and short-range genetic linkages across metazoans. Superimposed on this broadly conserved pan-bilaterian background we find examples of lineage-specific genome evolution, including varying rates of rearrangement, intron gain and loss, expansions and contractions of gene families, and the evolution of clade-specific genes that produce the unique content of each genome.

  11. Survival and growth of freshwater pulmonate and nonpulmonate snails in 28-day exposures to copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol

    Besser, John M.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta,Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

  12. Pharmacological effects of cannabinoids on learning and memory in Lymnaea.

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Lee, Sangmin; Forest, Jeremy; Sakakibara, Manabu; Ito, Etsuro; Lukowiak, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Cannabinoids are hypothesized to play an important role in modulating learning and memory formation. Here, we identified mRNAs expressed in Lymnaea stagnalis central nervous system that encode two G-protein-coupled receptors ( Lymnaea CBr-like 1 and 2) that structurally resemble mammalian cannabinoid receptors (CBrs). We found that injection of a mammalian CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN 55) into the snail before operant conditioning obstructed learning and memory formation. This effect of WIN 55 injection persisted for at least 4 days following its injection. A similar obstruction of learning and memory occurred when a severe traumatic stimulus was delivered to L. stagnalis In contrast, injection of a mammalian CBr antagonist AM 251 enhanced long-term memory formation in snails and reduced the duration of the effects of the severe traumatic stressor on learning and memory. Neither WIN 55 nor AM 251 altered normal homeostatic aerial respiratory behaviour elicited in hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that putative cannabinoid receptors mediate stressful stimuli that alter learning and memory formation in Lymnaea This is also the first demonstration that putative CBrs are present in Lymnaea and play a key role in learning and memory formation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Silver bioaccumulation dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate after aqueous and dietary exposures to nanosized and ionic Ag

    le Croteau, Marie-Noe; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    We compared silver (Ag) bioavailability and toxicity to a freshwater gastropod after exposure to ionic silver (Ag+) and to Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) capped with citrate or with humic acid. Silver form, exposure route, and capping agent influence Ag bioaccumulation dynamics in Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails efficiently accumulated Ag from all forms after either aqueous or dietary exposure. For both exposure routes, uptake rates were faster for Ag+ than for Ag NPs. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from Ag NPs mixed with diatoms (assimilation efficiency (AE) ranged from 49 to 58%) and from diatoms pre-exposed to Ag+ (AE of 73%). In the diet, Ag NPs damaged digestion. Snails ate less and inefficiently processed the ingested food, which adversely impacted their growth. Loss rates of Ag were faster after waterborne exposure to Ag NPs than after exposure to dissolved Ag+. Once Ag was taken up from diet, whether from Ag+ or Ag NPs, Ag was lost extremely slowly. Large Ag body concentrations are thus expected in L. stagnalis after dietborne exposures, especially to citrate-capped Ag NPs. Ingestion of Ag associated with particulate materials appears as the most important vector of uptake. Nanosilver exposure from food might trigger important environmental risks.

  14. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin

    Fidder, Bridgette N.; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G.; Olson, Adric D.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. - Highlights: • We exposed a freshwater snail to relevant concentrations of pyraclostrobin. • We monitored energetic and life history endpoints. • Pyraclostrobin affected feeding, hatching success and egg macronutrient content. • Energetic-based endpoints may provide valuable insight to toxic effects. - The fungicide pyraclostrobin at environmentally relevant concentrations effects a range of life history and energetic endpoints in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

  15. The numbers game: quantitative analysis of Neorickettsia sp. propagation through complex life cycle of its digenean host using real-time qPCR.

    Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria of the genus Neorickettsia are obligate intracellular endosymbionts of parasitic flukes (Digenea) and are passed through the entire complex life cycle of the parasite by vertical transmission. Several species of Neorickettsia are known to cause diseases in domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Quantitative data on the transmission of the bacteria through the digenean life cycle is almost completely lacking. This study quantified for the first time the abundance of Neorickettsia within multiple stages of the life cycle of the digenean Plagiorchis elegans. Snails Lymnaea stagnalis collected from a pond in North Dakota were screened for the presence of digenean cercariae, which were subsequently tested for the presence of Neorickettsia. Three L. stagnalis were found shedding P. elegans cercariae infected with Neorickettsia. These snails were used to initiate three separate laboratory life cycles and obtain all life cycle stages for bacterial quantification. A quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the GroEL gene was developed to enumerate Neorickettsia sp. within different stages of the digenean life cycle. The number of bacteria significantly increased throughout all stages, from eggs to adults. The two largest increases in number of bacteria occurred during the period from eggs to cercariae and from 6-day metacercariae to 48-h juvenile worms. These two periods seem to be the most important for Neorickettsia propagation through the complex digenean life cycle and maturation in the definitive host.

  16. Effects of carbofuran and metsulfuron-methyl on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in flooded ricefields Efeito do carbofurano e metsulfuron-methyl sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de lavoura de arroz irrigado

    Joele Baumart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the effect of the insecticide carbofuran and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a paddy ricefield. METHODS: To achieve this goal, two pesticide treatments [the insecticide carbofuran (IC and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (HM] and a control (Co treatment with no added pesticide were established in an experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. Soil samples were collected in triplicate from each treatment 30 days before and 1, 10, and 51 days after the pesticide application, for macrofauna identification. RESULTS: Among the 21 taxa identified, Trichoceridae was present only in Co, Hydroptilidae was recorded only in IC, and Corixidae in HM. In Co, the most abundant group was Annelida, while in IC and HM Diptera (Chironomidae was dominant. Significant differences were observed between Co and IC, in the density of Odontoceridae (Control>IC and Hydrophilidae (ControlHM and Hirudinea (ControlOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do inseticida carbofurano e do herbicida metsulfuron-methyl na abundância e diversidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em campo de arroz irrigado. MÉTODOS: Para isto, dois tratamentos com agrotóxicos [o inseticida carbofurano (IC e o herbicida metsulfuron-methyl (HM] e um controle (Co, tratamento sem pesticida, foram aplicados em uma área experimental no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em triplicatas em cada tratamento 30 dias antes (DBA e 1, 10 e 51 dias após a aplicação dos pesticidas, posteriormente a macrofauna foi identificada. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (21 taxa foram identificados, entre esses Trichoceridae esteve presente apenas em Co, enquanto que Hydroptilidae foi coletado apenas em IC, e Corixidae em HM. Em Co e IC, o grupo mais abundante foi Annelida, e em HM foi Diptera (Chironomidae que

  17. Avaliação da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos como ferramenta para o monitoramento de um reservatório na bacia do rio Pitangui, Paraná, Brasil

    Ivana F Barbola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os macroinvertebrados bentônicos e nectônicos representam elementos importantes na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas aquáticos e sua distribuição é influenciada pela natureza química do substrato, composição da vegetação e profundidade da lâmina d'água. O conhecimento desta fauna contribui para a avaliação da qualidade da água e a elaboração de ações visando à conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo foram avaliadas diferentes medidas bióticas da comunidade de invertebrados da represa de Alagados, importante manancial da cidade de Ponta Grossa, no Paraná. Em cinco diferentes pontos de amostragem, foram coletados 18.473 exemplares de macroinvertebrados aquáticos ou semi-aquáticos, pertencentes a 46 táxons dos filos Annelida (Hirudinea e Oligochaeta, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria, Nematoda e Arthropoda (Arachnida, Crustacea e Insecta. Esta comunidade foi constituída predominantemente por organismos predadores (45,7% dos táxons amostrados, seguidos de coletores e/ou filtradores (23,9%; raspadores (15,2%, fragmentadores (13% e detritívoros (2,2%. De modo geral, os índices de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J foram significativamente baixos para os cinco locais investigados, com H' variando de 0,3301 a 1,0396. Quanto à tolerância dos organismos à poluição orgânica, alguns táxons mais sensíveis foram muito raros (Plecoptera ou em baixa frequência (Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera. Entre os grupos mais resistentes a ambientes poluídos estão os Chironomidae e os Hirudinea, ambos bastante comuns nas amostras de Alagados. Este estudo reforça a importância da análise de bioindicadores na avaliação da qualidade de água para consumo humano e também para a conservação de ecossistemas, considerando que um programa de monitoramento ambiental deve integrar medidas físicas, químicas e biológicas.

  18. Hydrobiological study of the small stream on the Czech–Moravian Highlands

    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was investigated in the years 2007–2008. Research included also physico-chemical factors of water (temperature, pH, conductivity, oxygen saturation. Altogether, 144 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in the Fryšávka Rivulet: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (6 taxa, Hirudinea (1 taxon, Mollusca (5 taxa, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Decapoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (18 taxa, Plecoptera (18 taxa, Heteroptera (1 taxon, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Planipennia (1 taxon, Trichoptera (36 taxa, Coleoptera (8 taxa, Diptera (44 taxa. Altogether, 76 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in Medlovka brook: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (2 taxa, Mollusca (1 taxon, Isopoda (1 taxon, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (14 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Trichoptera (17 taxa, Coleoptera (6 taxa, Diptera (22 taxa.The average abundance of zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was 3208 ind.m−2, the average biomass was 7.5 g . m−2, respectively. The same values for the Medlovka brook were: abundance 3238 ind.m−2 and biomass 5.8 g . m−2. The average value of the saprobic index for the whole Fryšávka Rivulet was 1.25 (oligosaprobity, for the Medlovka brook 1.42 (oligosaprobity.

  19. Benthic communities on hard substrates covered by Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (Bivalvia, Mytilidae at an estuarine beach (Río de la Plata, Argentina

    Fernando G. Spaccesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of benthic communities on hard substrates covered by the nonindigenous bivalve Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, the golden mussel, were quantified in the middle zone of the Río de la Plata Estuary (Argentina from April 2001 through March 2002. A total of 26 taxa were recorded. L. fortunei and Nematoda were the central and dominant groups, with a prodigious abundance of over 80%. The prevalence of L. fortunei, rather than the environmental variables, regulated the dynamics of the associated invertebrate fauna. The golden mussel alters both the structure and function of benthic native communities on hard substrates, allows a higher surface available for colonization and refuge, and provides food source to deposit-feeding organisms in the form of organic or residual material. The mussel also increases the abundance and diversity of taxa on hard substrata - such as Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Tardigrada, Chironomidae, Copepoda, Tanaidacea, and Hydrachnidia. Similarities and nonparametric multidimensional-scaling analyses indicated that the benthic composition had a seasonal variation. L. fortunei has an environmental impact, an ability to invade new freshwater ambiences worldwide and ecological characteristic comparable to those of Dreissena polymorpha Pallas (the zebra mussel of North America and Europe.

  20. Effects of impoundment and regulation upon the stomach contents of fish at Cow Green, Upper Teesdale

    Crisp, D.T.; Mann, R.H.K.; McCormack, J.C.

    1978-04-01

    The stomach contents of 1003 brown trout, 1551 bullheads and 800 minnows taken from the reservoir basin and below the dam, before and after impoundment of the river Tees, were examined. Their composition reflected observations by other workers on river and reservoir benthos, except for the increase in numbers of Hydra and Nais below the dam, and Mollusca, Hirudinea and oligochaetes in the reservoir. Trout below the dam ate more Ephemeroptera nymphs and Chironomidae larvae but fewer terrestrial casualties after river regulation, whereas bullheads ate more Mollusca but fewer Plecoptera nymphs. In both species Baetidae nymphs increased in numerical importance relative to Ecdyonuridae. Trout, but not bullheads, took zooplankton discharged from the reservoir. Before impoundment, trout within the reservoir basin ate chiefly benthic organisms and terrestrial casualties. Inundated terrestrial material, mainly earthworms, formed the bulk of their food for at least three years after impoundment, whilst from the second year onwards Chironomidae and, in some years, Gammarus became increasingly important. Zooplankton was taken by all sizes of reservoir trout. Bullheads within the reservoir basin ate chiefly river benthos before impoundment, with Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera nymphs predominant in older fish, and aquatic Diptera and Coleoptera also important in the fry. After impoundment, Chironomidae and Gammarus were the main items taken by older bullheads, and Chironomidae and micro-crustacea by the fry. Among all sizes of minnow, Chironomidae, micro-crustacea and detritus increased in numerical importance after impoundment.

  1. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of four pheretimoid earthworms (Clitellata: Oligochaeta) and their phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2015-12-15

    Among oligochaetes, the Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae is a major earthworm group. Recently, however, the systematics of the Pheretima complex based on morphology are challenged by molecular studies. Since little comparative analysis of earthworm complete mitochondrial genomes has been reported yet, we sequenced mitogenomes of four pheretimoid earthworm species to explore their phylogenetic relationships. The general earthworm genomic features are also found in four earthworms: all genes transcribed from the same strand, the same initiation codon ATG for each PCGs, and conserved structures of RNA genes. Interestingly we find an extra potential tRNA-leucine (CUN) in Amynthas longisiphonus. The earthworm mitochondrial ATP8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, while the gene CO1 evolves slowest. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supports the monophyly of the Clitellata, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae and Pheretima complex. Our analysis, however, reveals non-monophyly within the genara Amynthas and Metaphire. Thus the generic divisions based on morphology in the Pheretima complex should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecology of parasites of Metynnis lippincottianus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae from the eastern Amazon region, Macapá, State of Amapá, Brazil

    Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides the first investigation on the ecological aspects of the parasites M. lippincottianusfrom the Amazonian basin, as well as the parasite-host relationship. 76 out of the examined fish (98.7% were parasitized by at least one species of parasites. A total of 8,774 parasites were collected, being Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Anacanthorus jegui, Dadayius pacupeva, Digenea gen. sp. (metacercariae, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus sp., Spinoxyuris oxydoras, Contracaecum sp. larvae, Dolops longicauda and Hirudinea gen. sp. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, followed by A. jegui. Among the endoparasites, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva were predominant. The mean diversity of parasites was HB = 0.96 ± 0.32 and there was aggregate distribution pattern. A positive correlation of body weight with the abundance of I. multifiliis and S. Oxydoras was observed, whereas a negative correlation of body weight with abundance of the Contracaecum sp. larvae was found. The relative condition factor (Kn was not negatively affected by parasites, and a positive correlation between Kn and abundance of I. multifiliis, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva was found. This study is the first one to record I. multifiliis, D. longicauda and A. jegui parasitizing M. lippincottianus, as well as the first record of D. pacupeva and S. oxydoras in the Amazonas river system.

  4. Interactions between freshwater snails and tadpoles: competition and facilitation.

    Brönmark, Christer; Rundle, Simon D; Erlandsson, Ann

    1991-06-01

    Freshwater snails and anuran tadpoles have been suggested to have their highest population densities in ponds of intermediate size where abiotic disturbance (e.g. desiccation) is low and large predators absent. Both snails and tadpoles feed on periphytic algae and, thus, there should be a large potential for competitive interactions to occur between these two distantly related taxa. In a field experiment we examined the relative strength of competition between two closely related snail species, Lymnaea stagnalis and L. peregra, and between L. stagnalis and tadpoles of the common frog, Rana temporaria. Snail growth and egg production and tadpole size at and time to metamorphosis were determined. Effects on the common food source, periphyton, were monitored with the aid of artificial substrates. Periphyton dry weight was dramatically reduced in the presence of snails and/or tadpoles. There were no competitive effects on growth or egg production of the two snail species when they were coexisting. Mortality of L. peregra was high (95%) after reproduction, but independent of treatment. Growth of L. stagnalis was reduced only at the highest tadpole densities, whereas egg production was reduced both by intraspecific competition and by competition with tadpoles. Differences in egg production were retained after tadpole metamorphosis. Tadpole larval period increased, weight of metamorphosing frogs decreased and growth rate was reduced as a function of increasing tadpole density. However, contrary to expectation, snails had a positive effect on tadpole larval period, weight and growth rate. Further, in experimental containers without snails there was a dense growth of the filamentous green alga Cladophora sp. We suggest that the facilitative effects of snails on tadpoles are due to an "indirect mutualistic" mechanism, involving competition between food sources of different quality (microalgae and Cladophora sp.) and tadpoles being competitively dominant over snails for the

  5. Development and validation of OECD test guidelines on mollusc reproductive toxicity tests

    Lagadic, Laurent; Holbech, Henrik; hutchinson, tom

    the comparison of endpoints relevant for reproduction in invertebrates often shows a much higher sensitivity in molluscs vs. e.g. daphnids. The OECD test guideline programme has thus been extended to cover reproduction effects of chemicals in molluscs. Existing mollusc toxicity test protocols have been reviewed...... in an OECD Detailed Review Paper that identifies two relevant candidate species for developing freshwater tests: Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis. However, this review did not clarify which toxicity test design/conditions are the most appropriate for chemicals assessment. Therefore, a mollusc...... reproduction test guideline will be developed describing partial- and full- life-cycle test protocols in these species, so as to propose a balanced suite of apical mollusc toxicity tests applicable for the assessment of any type of chemical, including endocrine disruptors, as level 4 and 5 assays of the EDTA...

  6. Memory block: a consequence of conflict resolution.

    Ito, Etsuro; Yamagishi, Miki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Fujito, Yutaka; Dyakonova, Varvara; Lukowiak, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Food deprivation for 1 day in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis before aversive classical conditioning results in optimal conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and long-term memory (LTM) formation, whereas 5-day food deprivation before training does not. We hypothesize that snails do in fact learn and form LTM when trained after prolonged food deprivation, but that severe food deprivation blocks their ability to express memory. We trained 5-day food-deprived snails under various conditions, and found that memory was indeed formed but is overpowered by severe food deprivation. Moreover, CTA-LTM was context dependent and was observed only when the snails were in a context similar to that in which the training occurred. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The Yerkes-Dodson law and appropriate stimuli for conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Ito, Etsuro; Yamagishi, Miki; Takigami, Satoshi; Sakakibara, Manabu; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken

    2015-02-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can learn conditioned taste aversion and then consolidate it into long-term memory (LTM). A high-voltage electric shock was used as the unconditioned stimulus, where we have previously used KCl. We varied the strength of both the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli to determine whether the so-called Yerkes-Dodson law prevailed. This is an empirical relationship between the state of arousal and LTM formation, showing that there is an optimal level of arousal leading to memory formation. However, too little or too much arousal results in poorer LTM. We found here that the most appropriate stimuli to use in taste aversion training in Lymnaea were a 10 mmol l(-1) sucrose solution as the conditioned stimulus and a 3 s electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Structural and functional studies of the modulator NS9283 reveal agonist-like mechanism of action at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Olsen, Jeppe A; Ahring, Philip K; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of Cys loop receptor ion channels is a proven drug discovery strategy, but many underlying mechanisms of the mode of action are poorly understood. We report the x-ray structure of the acetylcholine-binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis with NS9283, a stoichiometry selective positive...... on efficacy. The shared modulatory profile along with a binding site located in an extracellular subunit interface suggest that modulation via an agonist-like mechanism may be a common mechanism of action that potentially could apply to Cys loop receptors beyond the α4β2 nAChRs....... modulator that targets the α4-α4 interface of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Together with homology modeling, mutational data, quantum mechanical calculations, and pharmacological studies on α4β2 nAChRs, the structure reveals a modulator binding mode that overlaps the α4-α4 interface...

  9. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    . Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work......The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals...

  10. Reproduction-associated immunoreactive peptides in the nervous systems of prosobranch gastropods.

    Ram, J L; Gallardo, C S; Ram, M L; Croll, R P

    1998-12-01

    Antibodies against reproductive peptides of Aplysia and Lymnaea were used to localize homologous immunoreactive peptides in the nervous systems of three prosobranch species: Busycon canaliculatum, Concholepas concholepas, and Tegula atra. Positive control experiments in L. stagnalis demonstrated the broad species range of the anti-egg-laying hormone (anti-ELH) antibody used in this study, and showed binding of anti-alpha-caudodorsal-cell peptide (anti-alpha-CDCP) to the same cells in cerebral and buccal ganglia. Dot immunoassays with synthetic ELH confirmed the reactivity and sensitivity (concholepas and T atra, ELH-like immunoreactivity was found in cerebral ganglia, and in T. atra in fibers in the cerebral ganglia and cerebral-pedal connectives. Thus, cerebral ganglia are the major locus of the ELH-like immunoreactivity in prosobranchs.

  11. Canadian Association of Neurosciences Review: learning at a snail's pace.

    Parvez, Kashif; Rosenegger, David; Martens, Kara; Orr, Michael; Lukowiak, Ken

    2006-11-01

    While learning and memory are related, they are distinct processes each with different forms of expression and underlying molecular mechanisms. An invertebrate model system, Lymnaea stagnalis, is used to study memory formation of a non-declarative memory. We have done so because: (1) We have discovered the neural circuit that mediates an interesting and tractable behaviour; (2) This behaviour can be operantly conditioned and intermediate-term and long-term memory can be demonstrated; and (3) It is possible to demonstrate that a single neuron in the model system is a necessary site of memory formation. This article reviews how Lymnaea has been used in the study of behavioural and molecular mechanisms underlying consolidation, reconsolidation, extinction and forgetting.

  12. Gene expression program of regeneration in Eisenia fetida: a transcriptomics study

    Aksheev Bhambri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Annelids form a connecting link between segmented and non-segmented organisms.  In other words, phylogenetically, the segmented body pattern starts from Annelida, a phylum that consists of thousands of species, including marine worms, freshwater leeches and earthworms that inhabit deep layers of soil to environmental niches in forests and cultivated land. We are using Eisenia fetida (Indian isolate a top dwelling, vermicomposting worm due to its ability to regenerate its posterior after damage, injury or complete removal. On average, Eisenia fetida has 100-110 segments. We separated the anterior (upto 55-60th segment and posterior of the worm, and allowed it to regenerate.  In this model, only the posterior could be regenerated after injury.  We isolated RNA from the regenerated tissue and the immediate adjacent old tissue at 15 days, 20 days and 30 days during regeneration. We carried out transcriptome sequencing and analysis. With the aim of identifying specific factors which promote nerve regeneration, we have annotated the differentially expressed genes. In all organisms which possess a segmented body, the expression pattern of the Hox cluster is conserved. Hox gene expression, a conserved developmental phenomenon in establishment of body plan has been studied by comparative genomics of other annelids like the marine worm Capitella telleta, the leech Helobdella robusta.  We have used a combination of high-throughput sequencing based techniques and validation through cell and molecular biology to identify key aspects of the gene expression program of regeneration in this worm. Besides the transcriptome, we have also done whole genome sequencing, miRnome and metagenome sequencing of this terrestrial annelid.

  13. Annelid Distal-less/Dlx duplications reveal varied post-duplication fates

    Korchagina Natalia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dlx (Distal-less genes have various developmental roles and are widespread throughout the animal kingdom, usually occurring as single copy genes in non-chordates and as multiple copies in most chordate genomes. While the genomic arrangement and function of these genes is well known in vertebrates and arthropods, information about Dlx genes in other organisms is scarce. We investigate the presence of Dlx genes in several annelid species and examine Dlx gene expression in the polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii. Results Two Dlx genes are present in P. lamarckii, Capitella teleta and Helobdella robusta. The C. teleta Dlx genes are closely linked in an inverted tail-to-tail orientation, reminiscent of the arrangement of vertebrate Dlx pairs, and gene conversion appears to have had a role in their evolution. The H. robusta Dlx genes, however, are not on the same genomic scaffold and display divergent sequences, while, if the P. lamarckii genes are linked in a tail-to-tail orientation they are a minimum of 41 kilobases apart and show no sign of gene conversion. No expression in P. lamarckii appendage development has been observed, which conflicts with the supposed conserved role of these genes in animal appendage development. These Dlx duplications do not appear to be annelid-wide, as the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii likely possesses only one Dlx gene. Conclusions On the basis of the currently accepted annelid phylogeny, we hypothesise that one Dlx duplication occurred in the annelid lineage after the divergence of P. dumerilii from the other lineages and these duplicates then had varied evolutionary fates in different species. We also propose that the ancestral role of Dlx genes is not related to appendage development.

  14. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles

    Stoiber, Tasha L.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Romer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO3 and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO3. Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (kuw, l g-1 d-1 ± SE) varied from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 0.2 ± 0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3 ± 0.02 to 1.3 ± 0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag.

  15. Transmission rates of the bacterial endosymbiont, Neorickettsia risticii, during the asexual reproduction phase of its digenean host, Plagiorchis elegans, within naturally infected lymnaeid snails.

    Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-10-22

    Neorickettsia are obligate intracellular bacterial endosymbionts of digenean parasites present in all lifestages of digeneans. Quantitative information on the transmission of neorickettsial endosymbionts throughout the complex life cycles of digeneans is lacking. This study quantified the transmission of Neorickettsia during the asexual reproductive phase of a digenean parasite, Plagiorchis elegans, developing within naturally parasitized lymnaeid pond snails. Lymnaea stagnalis snails were collected from 3 ponds in Nelson County, North Dakota and screened for the presence of digenean cercariae. Cercariae were identified to species by PCR and sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene. Neorickettsia infections were initially detected using nested PCR and sequencing of a partial 16S rRNA gene of pooled cercariae shed from each parasitized snail. Fifty to 100 single cercariae or sporocysts were isolated from each of six parasitized snails and tested for the presence of Neorickettsia using nested PCR to estimate the efficiency at which Neorickettsia were transmitted to cercariae during asexual development of the digenean. A total of 616 L. stagnalis were collected and 240 (39%) shed digenean cercariae. Of these, 18 (8%) were Neorickettsia-positive. Six Neorickettsia infections were selected to determine the transmission efficiency of Neorickettsia from mother to daughter sporocyst and from daughter sporocyst to cercaria. The prevalence of neorickettsiae in cercariae varied from 11 to 91%. The prevalence of neorickettsiae in sporocysts from one snail was 100%. Prevalence of Neorickettsia infection in cercariae of Plagiorchis elegans was variable and never reached 100%. Reasons for this are speculative, however, the low prevalence of Neorickettsia observed in some of our samples (11 to 52%) differs from the high prevalence of other, related bacterial endosymbionts, e.g. Wolbachia in Wolbachia-dependent filariid nematodes, where the prevalence among progeny is universally 100

  16. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms.

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which we fed the herbivorous freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis single non-toxic cyanobacterial and unialgal diets or a mixed diet to test if diet-mixing may enable these herbivores to control non-toxic cyanobacterial mass abundances. The treatments where L. stagnalis were fed non-toxic cyanobacteria and a mixed diet provided a significantly higher shell and soft-body growth rate than the average of all single algal, but not the non-toxic cyanobacterial diets. However, the increase in growth provided by the non-toxic cyanobacteria diets could not be related to typical determinants of dietary quality such as toxicity, nutrient stoichiometry or essential fatty acid content. These results strongly contradict previous research which describes non-toxic cyanobacteria as a low quality food resource for freshwater herbivores in general. Our findings thus have strong implications to gastropod-cyanobacteria relationships and suggest that freshwater gastropods may be able to control mass occurrences of benthic non-toxic cyanobacteria, frequently observed in eutrophied water bodies worldwide.

  17. Previous motor activity affects the transition from uncertainty to decision making in snails.

    Korshunova, Tatiana A; Vorontsov, Dmitry D; Dyakonova, Varvara E

    2016-11-15

    One of the most widely accepted benefits of enhanced physical activity is an improvement in the symptoms of depression, including the facilitation of decision making. Up until now, these effects have been shown in rodents and humans only. Little is known about their evolutionary origin or biological basis, and the underlying cellular mechanisms also remain relatively elusive. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that preceding motor activity accelerates decision making in an invertebrate, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis To investigate decision making in a novel environment, snails, which normally live in water, were placed on a flat dry surface to simulate the potentially threatening consequence of being in an arid environment. This stimulus initiated two distinct phases in snail behaviour: slow circular movements, followed by intense locomotion in a chosen direction. The first phase was prolonged when the test arena was symmetrically lit, compared with one with an apparent gradient of light. However, forced muscular locomotion for 2 h prior to the test promoted the transition from random circular motions to a directional crawl, accompanied by an increase in crawling speed but with no effect on the choice of direction. Intense locomotion for 2 h also produced a strong excitatory effect on the activity of serotonergic neurons in L. stagnalis Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive performance in mammals might have deep roots in evolution, granting the opportunity to unravel the origins of such effects at the single-neuron and network levels. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the environmental implications of nanotechnology lies in studying nanoparticle uptake in organisms at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Typically, high exposure concentrations are needed to trigger measurable effects and to detect accumulation above background. But application of tracer techniques can overcome these limitations. Here we synthesised, for the first time, citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles using Ag that was 99.7 % 109Ag. In addition to conducting reactivity and dissolution studies, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these isotopically modified Ag nanoparticles (109Ag NPs) to a freshwater snail under conditions typical of nature. We showed that accumulation of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs is detectable in the tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis after 24-h exposure to aqueous concentrations as low as 6 ng L–1 as well as after 3 h of dietary exposure to concentrations as low as 0.07 μg g–1. Silver uptake from unlabelled Ag NPs would not have been detected under similar exposure conditions. Uptake rates of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs mixed with food or dispersed in water were largely linear over a wide range of concentrations. Particle dissolution was most important at low waterborne concentrations. We estimated that 70 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration in L. stagnalis at exposures –1 originated from the newly solubilised Ag. Above this concentration, we predicted that 80 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration originated from the 109Ag NPs. It was not clear if agglomeration had a major influence on uptake rates.

  19. Caracterización de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados de la Quebrada Paloblanco de la Cuenca del Río Otún (Risaralda, Colombia

    Eleonora Bernal Pinilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de las comunidades de macroinvertebrados presentes en la quebrada Paloblanco, ubicada en la cuenca del río Otún (Risaralda, Colombia. Los puntos de muestreo seleccionados corresponden a la cabecera y la zona cercana a la desembocadura en el río Otún, ambos con características geomorfológicas de corrientes de primer orden. En cada punto se colectaron los macroinvertebrados de las unidades funcionales hojarasca, epiliton, musgo y grava, junto con una muestra de deriva y fauna general (sin discriminar unidad funcional. Se encontraron 42 familias de Insecta, además de Acari, Annelida, Crustacea e Hirudinea. Igualmente se encontraron familias de presencia exclusiva en cada punto, mostrando diferencias en la composición de las comunidades. Los índices ecológicos empleados mostraron una mayor diversidad en punto bajo y diferencias entre algunas de las unidades funcionales, relacionados con el medio y los hábitos presentes. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta los conceptos de continuo y zonación de los ríos. A pesar de tener condiciones de primer orden, existen variaciones a pequeña escala entre los puntos de muestreo, que están relacionadas con la intervención antrópica en la zona aledaña a punto bajo.

  20. MARINE LEECH ANTICOAGULANT DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION.

    Tessler, Michael; Marancik, David; Champagne, Donald; Dove, Alistair; Camus, Alvin; Siddall, Mark E; Kvist, Sebastian

    2018-03-16

    Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus. In spite of their ecological importance and unique host associations, there is a distinct paucity of data regarding the salivary transcriptomes of either of these families. Using next generation sequencing, we profiled transcribed, putative anticoagulants and other salivary bioactive compounds that have previously been linked to bloodfeeding from 7 piscicolid species (3 elasmobranch-feeders; 4 non-cartilaginous fish-feeders) and 1 ozobranchid species (2 samples). In total, 149 putative anticoagulants and bioactive loci were discovered in varying constellations throughout the different samples. The putative anticoagulants showed a broad spectrum of described antagonistic pathways, such as inhibition of factor Xa and platelet aggregation, that likely have similar bioactive roles in marine fish and turtles. A transcript with homology to ohanin, originally isolated from king cobras, was found in Cystobranchus vividus but is otherwise unknown from leeches. Estimation of selection pressures for the putative anticoagulants recovered evidence for both positive and purifying selection along several isolated branches in the gene trees and positive selection was also estimated for a few select codons in a variety of marine species. Similarly, phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences for several anticoagulants indicated divergent evolution.

  1. A phylogenomic profile of hemerythrins, the nonheme diiron binding respiratory proteins

    Mizuguchi Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemerythrins, are the non-heme, diiron binding respiratory proteins of brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans; they are also found in annelids and bacteria, where their functions have not been fully elucidated. Results A search for putative Hrs in the genomes of 43 archaea, 444 bacteria and 135 eukaryotes, revealed their presence in 3 archaea, 118 bacteria, several fungi, one apicomplexan, a heterolobosan, a cnidarian and several annelids. About a fourth of the Hr sequences were identified as N- or C-terminal domains of chimeric, chemotactic gene regulators. The function of the remaining single domain bacterial Hrs remains to be determined. In addition to oxygen transport, the possible functions in annelids have been proposed to include cadmium-binding, antibacterial action and immunoprotection. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree revealed a split into two clades, one encompassing archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the other comprising the remaining eukaryotes. The annelid and sipunculan Hrs share the same intron-exon structure, different from that of the cnidarian Hr. Conclusion The phylogenomic profile of Hrs demonstrated a limited occurrence in bacteria and archaea and a marked absence in the vast majority of multicellular organisms. Among the metazoa, Hrs have survived in a cnidarian and in a few protostome groups; hence, it appears that in metazoans the Hr gene was lost in deuterostome ancestor(s after the radiata/bilateria split. Signal peptide sequences in several Hirudinea Hrs suggest for the first time, the possibility of extracellular localization. Since the α-helical bundle is likely to have been among the earliest protein folds, Hrs represent an ancient family of iron-binding proteins, whose primary function in bacteria may have been that of an oxygen sensor, enabling aerophilic or aerophobic responses. Although Hrs evolved to function as O2 transporters in brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans, their function in

  2. Fauna of four streams in the Black Mountain District of South Wales

    Jones, J R.E.

    1948-01-01

    This paper is a general study of four torrential streams in the 'Black Mountain' district of South Wales. Fauna collections were made at seven collecting stations, between altitudes of 1550 and 400 ft. Observations were made on the chemical nature of the water, current speed and temperature. The fauna taken as a whole is rich, including about 151 species. Of the four streams, the one flowing north has the richest fauna, which includes about 130 species in which all the usual aquatic animal groups except the hirudinea are represented. This may be attributed to its equable temperature, abundant and uniform flow, variable gradient, adequate macroflora, and alkaline-neutral moderately calcareous water. The streams flowing south all have very soft, acid water; their stream-beds are more uniform in gradient, they are extremely variable in flow, have a more scanty macroflora, and on sunny summer days the water temperature is high, little below the shade temperature. All have a much poorer fauna than the north-flowing stream. One has a pH of 6.0-6.8, the fauna includes about 65 species, the usual insect groups are well represented but only 9 species other than insects occur. The second has a pH of 6.0 at low level to 4.4 in full flood; here 57 species were found, again mainly insects, and the ephemorophtera are very poorly represented. The third southern stream is generally even more acid, pH 5.8-4.2. Its fauna includes 55 species of which 24 are beetles, plecoptera are very poorly represented and ephemeroptera absent.

  3. Köprüçay Irmağı (Antalya Bentik Omurgasız Faunası

    Melek ZEYBEK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, Köprüçay Irmağı bentik omurgasız faunasını belirlemek üzere Şubat 2008- Ocak 2009 tarihleri arasında 7 istasyondan bentik omurgasız örnekleri alınarak, gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma sonunda toplam 85 takson ve bu taksonları oluşturan toplam 21318 birey tespit edilmiştir. Toplanan örneklerin incelenmesi sonucu Ephemeroptera takımına ait 26, Plecoptera takımına ait 6, Trichoptera takımına ait 23, Diptera takımına ait 11, Odonata takımına ait 8, Coleoptera takımına ait 4, Hemiptera takımına ait 1, Hirudinea sınıfına ait 1, Gastropoda sınıfına ait 2, Malacostraca sınıfına ait 3 takson teşhis edilmiştir. Bu çalışma Köprüçay Irmağı bentik faunasının belirlenmesine yönelik yapılmış ilk çalışmadır. Bu nedenle tespit edilen bütün taksonlar bölge için ilk kez bildirilmiştir.

  4. Fauna of four streams in the Black Mountain District of South Wales

    Jones, J.R.E.

    1948-01-01

    This paper is a general study of four torrential streams in the 'Black Mountain' district of South Wales. Fauna collections were made at seven collecting stations, between altitudes of 1550 and 400 ft. Observations were made on the chemical nature of the water, current speed and temperature. The fauna taken as a whole is rich, including about 151 species. Of the four streams, the one flowing north has the richest fauna, which includes about 130 species in which all the usual aquatic animal groups except the hirudinea are represented. This may be attributed to its equable temperature, abundant and uniform flow, variable gradient, adequate macroflora, and alkaline-neutral moderately calcareous water. The streams flowing south all have very soft, acid water; their stream-beds are more uniform in gradient, they are extremely variable in flow, have a more scanty macroflora, and on sunny summer days the water temperature is high, little below the shade temperature. All have a much poorer fauna than the north-flowing stream. One has a pH of 6.0-6.8, the fauna includes about 65 species, the usual insect groups are well represented but only 9 species other than insects occur. The second has a pH of 6.0 at low level to 4.4 in full flood; here 57 species were found, again mainly insects, and the ephemorophtera are very poorly represented. The third southern stream is generally even more acid, pH 5.8-4.2. Its fauna includes 55 species of which 24 are beetles, plecoptera are very poorly represented and ephemeroptera absent.

  5. Marine leech Ozobranchus margoi parasitizing loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Sanguessugas Ozobranchus margoi parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Carla Rosane Rodenbusch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the finding of several Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida: Hirudinea parasitizing a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta that was found in the municipality of Tavares, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Since this parasite is considered to be a vector of chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV-5, the leeches collected were tested for the presence of this virus. All the specimens were negative on PCR analysis. Although O. margoi is considered to be a common sea turtle parasite, this is the first official record describing collection of this parasite from a loggerhead turtle in southern Brazil, within the country's subtropical zone. This finding draws attention to the presence of this parasite and to the risk of leech-borne infectious diseases among turtles found along the coast of southern Brazil.Este artigo relata a descoberta de vários exemplares de Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida Hirudínea parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta encontrada no município de Tavares, Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Uma vez que esse parasito é considerado vetor do chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV 5, as sanguessugas foram testadas para a presença deste vírus. Todas as amostras foram negativas pela análise de PCR. Embora o O. margoi seja considerado um parasito comum de tartarugas marinhas, este é o primeiro registro oficial que descreve a coleta deste parasita em uma tartaruga cabeçuda no sul do Brasil, dentro da zona subtropical do país. Este achado chama a atenção para a presença deste parasita e para o risco de sanguessugas transmitirem doenças infecciosas em tartarugas no litoral sul do Brasil.

  6. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  7. Responses of epibenthic and nektonic macroinvertebrate communities to a gradient of fish size in ponds

    Marek Nieoczym

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Size relationships between fish and organisms from adjacent trophic levels are crucial for predicting the structure and dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. We compared macroinvertebrate communities along a fish-size gradient created by separate stocking of three age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio in semi-natural ponds. The specific size range of fish (small, medium and large corresponding to fish age in ponds was the factor most strongly associated with macroinvertebrate composition. The other significant habitat variables were dissolved oxygen concentration in the water and submerged vegetation abundance in the open-water zone. Among the most numerous taxa in the ponds, relative abundances of Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Odonata and Coleoptera were larger in the presence of small-sized than of larger-sized carp. However, fish size effect was not linear, in that macroinvertebrate assemblages were less similar between ponds containing medium- vs large-sized fish than between ponds with small- vs large-sized fish. The dissimilarity patterns were mainly determined by disparities in abundance of Corixidae, which unlike other taxa common in the ponds occurred in the greatest numbers in the presence of large-sized carp. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest in ponds with small-sized fish and was positively related to emergent macrophyte cover. Enhancement of emergent vegetation is recommended as the most effective management strategy to buffer adverse impacts of fish on macroinvertebrates. If fish are present in the system, assessment of the size structure of fish populations can be advantageous in unravelling the essential processes driving the variation in pond communities.

  8. The genome sequence of the protostome Daphnia pulex encodes respective orthologues of a neurotrophin, a Trk and a p75NTR: Evolution of neurotrophin signaling components and related proteins in the bilateria

    Wilson Karen HS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins and their Trk and p75NTR receptors play an important role in the nervous system. To date, neurotrophins, Trk and p75NTR have only been found concomitantly in deuterostomes. In protostomes, homologues to either neurotrophin, Trk or p75NTR are reported but their phylogenetic relationship to deuterostome neurotrophin signaling components is unclear. Drosophila has neurotrophin homologues called Spätzles (Spz, some of which were recently renamed neurotrophins, but direct proof that these are deuterostome neurotrophin orthologues is lacking. Trks belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family and among RTKs, Trks and RORs are closest related. Flies lack Trks but have ROR and ROR-related proteins called NRKs playing a neurotrophic role. Mollusks have so far the most similar proteins to Trks (Lymnaea Trk and Aplysia Trkl but the exact phylogenetic relationship of mollusk Trks to each other and to vertebrate Trks is unknown. p75NTR belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily. The divergence of the TNFR families in vertebrates has been suggested to parallel the emergence of the adaptive immune system. Only one TNFR representative, the Drosophila Wengen, has been found in protostomes. To clarify the evolution of neurotrophin signaling components in bilateria, this work analyzes the genome of the crustacean Daphnia pulex as well as new genetic data from protostomes. Results The Daphnia genome encodes a neurotrophin, p75NTR and Trk orthologue together with Trkl, ROR, and NRK-RTKs. Drosophila Spz1, 2, 3, 5, 6 orthologues as well as two new groups of Spz proteins (Spz7 and 8 are also found in the Daphnia genome. Searching genbank and the genomes of Capitella, Helobdella and Lottia reveals neurotrophin signaling components in other protostomes. Conclusion It appears that a neurotrophin, Trk and p75NTR existed at the protostome/deuterostome split. In protostomes, a "neurotrophin superfamily" includes

  9. Biogeochemistry of uranium in the soil-plant and water-plant systems in an old uranium mine

    Favas, Paulo J.C.; Pratas, João; Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-01-01

    The present study highlights the uranium (U) concentrations in water–soil–plant matrices and the efficiency considering a heterogeneous assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic native plant species to act as the biomonitor and phytoremediator for environmental U-contamination in the Sevilha mine (uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal). A total of 53 plant species belonging to 22 families was collected from 24 study sites along with ambient soil and/or water samples. The concentration of U showed wide range of variations in the ambient medium: 7.5 to 557 mg kg"− "1 for soil and 0.4 to 113 μg L"− "1 for water. The maximum potential of U accumulation was recorded in roots of the following terrestrial plants: Juncus squarrosus (450 mg kg"− "1 DW), Carlina corymbosa (181 mg kg"− "1 DW) and Juncus bufonius (39.9 mg kg"− "1 DW), followed by the aquatic macrophytes, namely Callitriche stagnalis (55.6 mg kg"− "1 DW) Lemna minor (53.0 mg kg"− "1 DW) and Riccia fluitans (50.6 mg kg"− "1 DW). Accumulation of U in plant tissues exhibited the following decreasing trend: root > leaves > stem > flowers/fruits and this confirms the unique efficiency of roots in accumulating this radionuclide from host soil/sediment (phytostabilization). Overall, the accumulation pattern in the studied aquatic plants (L. minor, R. fluitans, C. stagnalis and Lythrum portula) dominated over most of the terrestrial counterpart. Among terrestrial plants, the higher mean bioconcentration factor (≈ 1 in roots/rhizomes of C. corymbosa and J. squarrosus) and translocation factor (31 in Andryala integrifolia) were encountered in the representing families Asteraceae and Juncaceae. Hence, these terrestrial plants can be treated as the promising candidates for the development of the phytostabilization or phytoextraction methodologies based on the accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • The uranium (U) accumulation efficiency of terrestrial and aquatic

  10. Biogeochemistry of uranium in the soil-plant and water-plant systems in an old uranium mine

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, School of Life Sciences and the Environment, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Earth Sciences, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto de Geologia e Petróleo de Timor Leste, Timor-Leste (Country Unknown); Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar [University of Calcutta, Department of Marine Science, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700019, West Bengal (India); Venkatachalam, Perumal [Periyar University, Department of Biotechnology, Salem 636 011, TN (India)

    2016-10-15

    The present study highlights the uranium (U) concentrations in water–soil–plant matrices and the efficiency considering a heterogeneous assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic native plant species to act as the biomonitor and phytoremediator for environmental U-contamination in the Sevilha mine (uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal). A total of 53 plant species belonging to 22 families was collected from 24 study sites along with ambient soil and/or water samples. The concentration of U showed wide range of variations in the ambient medium: 7.5 to 557 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for soil and 0.4 to 113 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} for water. The maximum potential of U accumulation was recorded in roots of the following terrestrial plants: Juncus squarrosus (450 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), Carlina corymbosa (181 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Juncus bufonius (39.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), followed by the aquatic macrophytes, namely Callitriche stagnalis (55.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) Lemna minor (53.0 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Riccia fluitans (50.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW). Accumulation of U in plant tissues exhibited the following decreasing trend: root > leaves > stem > flowers/fruits and this confirms the unique efficiency of roots in accumulating this radionuclide from host soil/sediment (phytostabilization). Overall, the accumulation pattern in the studied aquatic plants (L. minor, R. fluitans, C. stagnalis and Lythrum portula) dominated over most of the terrestrial counterpart. Among terrestrial plants, the higher mean bioconcentration factor (≈ 1 in roots/rhizomes of C. corymbosa and J. squarrosus) and translocation factor (31 in Andryala integrifolia) were encountered in the representing families Asteraceae and Juncaceae. Hence, these terrestrial plants can be treated as the promising candidates for the development of the phytostabilization or phytoextraction methodologies based on the accumulation, abundance and biomass production

  11. Phospholipase A2 - nexus of aging, oxidative stress, neuronal excitability, and functional decline of the aging nervous system? Insights from a snail model system of neuronal aging and age-associated memory impairment.

    Hermann, Petra M; Watson, Shawn N; Wildering, Willem C

    2014-01-01

    The aging brain undergoes a range of changes varying from subtle structural and physiological changes causing only minor functional decline under healthy normal aging conditions, to severe cognitive or neurological impairment associated with extensive loss of neurons and circuits due to age-associated neurodegenerative disease conditions. Understanding how biological aging processes affect the brain and how they contribute to the onset and progress of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a core research goal in contemporary neuroscience. This review focuses on the idea that changes in intrinsic neuronal electrical excitability associated with (per)oxidation of membrane lipids and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are an important mechanism of learning and memory failure under normal aging conditions. Specifically, in the context of this special issue on the biology of cognitive aging we portray the opportunities offered by the identifiable neurons and behaviorally characterized neural circuits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in neuronal aging research and recapitulate recent insights indicating a key role of lipid peroxidation-induced PLA2 as instruments of aging, oxidative stress and inflammation in age-associated neuronal and memory impairment in this model system. The findings are discussed in view of accumulating evidence suggesting involvement of analogous mechanisms in the etiology of age-associated dysfunction and disease of the human and mammalian brain.

  12. Mitochondrial Insult in a Parkinson's like symptoms model

    Carrizales, Julio; Cantu, Manuel; Plas, Daniel; Daniel Plas Lab Team, Dr.

    2014-03-01

    Healthy cells require healthy mitochondria. If these organelles are damaged, many health consequences follow. For example, Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a major neurodegenerative disorder of unknown cause, but much evidence points to the mitochondrion as a key player in the onset of this disease. PD has been studied in animal models challenged with toxins that target the mitochondria. In our work, we have used the pesticide, Rotenone, a known inhibitor of protein Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. When this toxin is applied to the freshwater mollusk, Lymnaea stagnalis, or pond snail, severe motor deficits ensue. In this project, we are studying the direct effects of this toxin on mitochondrial structure and physiology. We expected that the morphology of the organelle may be altered. In addition, it is likely that the mitochondrial membrane potential necessary for normal function may decrease as the electron transport loses the ability to move protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space. we also are going to use Electrophysiology to compare and Identify the difference of the electrical signaling among healthy and unhealthy neurons. HHMI

  13. Natural selection on immune defense: A field experiment.

    Langeloh, Laura; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Seppälä, Otto

    2017-02-01

    Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that confounds trade-offs in empirical studies. In a field experiment where we maintained Lymnaea stagnalis snails individually in cages in a lake, we investigated phenotypic selection on two immune defense traits, phenoloxidase (PO)-like activity and antibacterial activity, in hemolymph. We used a diverse laboratory population and manipulated snail resource level by limiting their food supply. For six weeks, we followed immune activity, growth, and two fitness components, survival and fecundity of snails. We found that PO-like activity and growth were under stabilizing selection, while antibacterial activity was under positive directional selection. Selection on immune traits was mainly driven by variation in survival. The form of selection on immune defense apparently depends on the particular trait, possibly due to its importance for countering the present parasite community. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Weak involvement of octopamine in aversive taste learning in a snail.

    Aonuma, Hitoshi; Kaneda, Mugiho; Hatakeyama, Dai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2017-05-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning taste aversion by pairing presentations of a sucrose solution and an electric shock and consolidating it into long-term memory (LTM), which is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We asked here if the neurotransmitter octopamine is involved in CTA. We first determined the levels of octopamine and its catabolites in the central nervous system (CNS) of snails with varying degrees of food deprivation, because CTA grades are correlated with degrees of food deprivation. We next manipulated the octopamine signaling using both an agonist and an antagonist of octopamine receptors and correlated their respective effects with CTA grades. We found that snails with the least amount of food-deprivation obtained the best CTA grade and had low levels of octopamine; whereas the most severely food-deprived snails did not form CTA and had the highest CNS octopamine levels. In modestly food-deprived snails, octopamine application increased the basal level of feeding response to a sucrose solution, and it did not obstruct CTA formation. Application of phentolamine, an octopamine receptor antagonist, to the most severely food-deprived snails decreased the basal level of feeding elicited by sucrose, but it did not enhance CTA formation. We conclude that octopamine involvement in CTA formation in Lymnaea is at best weak, and that the changes in CNS octopamine content are an epiphenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebral Giant Cells are Necessary for the Formation and Recall of Memory of Conditioned Taste Aversion in Lymnaea.

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2017-02-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can acquire conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a long-term memory. CTA is caused by the temporal pairing of a stimulus, such as sucrose (the conditioned stimulus; CS), with another stimulus, such as electric shock (the unconditioned stimulus; US). Previous studies have demonstrated changes in both cellular and molecular properties in a pair of neurons known as the cerebral giant cells (CGCs), suggesting that these neurons play a key role in CTA. Here we examined the necessity of the pair of CGC somata for the learning, memory formation and memory recall of CTA by using the soma ablation technique. There was no difference in the feeding response elicited by the CS before and after ablation of the CGC somata. Ablation of the CGC somata before taste-aversion training resulted in the learning acquisition, but the memory formation was not observed 24 h later. We next asked whether memory was present when the CGC somata were ablated 24 h after taste-aversion training. The memory was present before performing the somata ablation. However, when we tested snails five days after somata ablation, the memory recall was not present. Together the data show that: 1) the somata of the CGCs are not necessary for learning acquisition; 2) the somata are necessary for memory formation; and 3) the somata are necessary for memory recall. That is, these results demonstrate that the CGCs function in the long-term memory of CTA in Lymnaea.

  16. Consolidation of long-term memory by insulin in Lymnaea is not brought about by changing the number of insulin receptors.

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Okuta, Akiko; Otsuka, Emi; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-05-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns taste aversion and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). This is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The superfusion of molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIPs) over the isolated snail brain causes a long-term enhancement of synaptic input between the cerebral giant cell and the B1 buccal motor neuron. This enhancement is hypothesized to underlie CTA. The synaptic enhancement caused by the superfusion of MIPs can be blocked by the application of human insulin receptor antibody, which recognizes the extracellular domain of human insulin receptor and acts as an antagonist even for MIP receptors. An injection of the human insulin receptor antibody into the abdominal cavity of trained snails blocks the consolidation process leading to LTM, even though the snails acquire taste aversion. Here, we examined whether or not taste-aversion training changes the mRNA expression level of MIP receptor in the snail brain and found that it does not. This result, taken together with previous findings, suggest that the MIPs' effect on synaptic function in the snail brain is attributable to a change in the MIP concentration, and not to a change in the mRNA expression level of MIP receptor, which is thought to reflect the number of MIP receptors.

  17. Function of insulin in snail brain in associative learning.

    Kojima, S; Sunada, H; Mita, K; Sakakibara, M; Lukowiak, K; Ito, E

    2015-10-01

    Insulin is well known as a hormone regulating glucose homeostasis across phyla. Although there are insulin-independent mechanisms for glucose uptake in the mammalian brain, which had contributed to a perception of the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ for decades, the finding of insulin and its receptors in the brain revolutionized the concept of insulin signaling in the brain. However, insulin's role in brain functions, such as cognition, attention, and memory, remains unknown. Studies using invertebrates with their open blood-vascular system have the promise of promoting a better understanding of the role played by insulin in mediating/modulating cognitive functions. In this review, the relationship between insulin and its impact on long-term memory (LTM) is discussed particularly in snails. The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has the ability to undergo conditioned taste aversion (CTA), that is, it associatively learns and forms LTM not to respond with a feeding response to a food that normally elicits a robust feeding response. We show that molluscan insulin-related peptides are up-regulated in snails exhibiting CTA-LTM and play a key role in the causal neural basis of CTA-LTM. We also survey the relevant literature of the roles played by insulin in learning and memory in other phyla.

  18. The Effect of Diet Mixing on a Nonselective Herbivore.

    Sophie Groendahl

    Full Text Available The balanced-diet hypothesis states that a diverse prey community is beneficial to consumers due to resource complementarity among the prey species. Nonselective consumer species cannot differentiate between prey items and are therefore not able to actively regulate their diet intake. We thus wanted to test whether the balanced-diet hypothesis is applicable to nonselective consumers. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which a nonselective model grazer, the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, was fed benthic green algae as single species or as a multi-species mixture and quantified the snails' somatic growth rates and shell lengths over a seven-week period. Gastropods fed the mixed diet were found to exhibit a higher somatic growth rate than the average of the snails fed single prey species. However, growth on the multi-species mixture did not exceed the growth rate obtained on the best single prey species. Similar results were obtained regarding the animals' shell height increase over time. The mixed diet did not provide the highest growth rate, which confirms our hypothesis. We thus suggest that the balanced-diet hypothesis is less relevant for non-selective generalist consumers, which needs to be considered in estimates of secondary production.

  19. Synthesis of isotopically modified ZnO nanoparticles and their potential as nanotoxicity tracers

    Dybowska, Agnieszka D., E-mail: a.dybowska@nhm.ac.u [Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum London, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Croteau, Marie-Noele [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, MS 496, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Misra, Superb K.; Berhanu, Deborah [Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum London, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Luoma, Samuel N. [Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum London, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, MS 496, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Christian, Paul; O' Brien, Paul [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, M13 9PL, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valsami-Jones, Eugenia [Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum London, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment and within organisms is perhaps the biggest obstacle to the safe development of nanotechnologies. Reliable tracing is a particular issue for nanoparticles such as ZnO, because Zn is an essential element and a common pollutant thus present at elevated background concentrations. We synthesized isotopically enriched (89.6%) with a rare isotope of Zn ({sup 67}Zn) ZnO nanoparticles and measured the uptake of {sup 67}Zn by L. stagnalis exposed to diatoms amended with the particles. Stable isotope technique is sufficiently sensitive to determine the uptake of Zn at an exposure equivalent to lower concentration range (<15 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Zn is significant at Zn exposure concentration only above 5000 {mu}g g{sup -1} which represents some of the most contaminated Zn conditions. Only by using a tracer we can study Zn uptake at a range of environmentally realistic exposure conditions. - ZnO nanoparticles with distinct isotopic composition can be tailor synthesized to be used as tracers of environmental fate and uptake by organisms.

  20. Synthesis of isotopically modified ZnO nanoparticles and their potential as nanotoxicity tracers.

    Dybowska, Agnieszka D; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K; Berhanu, Deborah; Luoma, Samuel N; Christian, Paul; O'Brien, Paul; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment and within organisms is perhaps the biggest obstacle to the safe development of nanotechnologies. Reliable tracing is a particular issue for nanoparticles such as ZnO, because Zn is an essential element and a common pollutant thus present at elevated background concentrations. We synthesized isotopically enriched (89.6%) with a rare isotope of Zn (67Zn) ZnO nanoparticles and measured the uptake of 67Zn by L. stagnalis exposed to diatoms amended with the particles. Stable isotope technique is sufficiently sensitive to determine the uptake of Zn at an exposure equivalent to lower concentration range (<15 μg g(-1)). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Zn is significant at Zn exposure concentration only above 5000 μg g(-1) which represents some of the most contaminated Zn conditions. Only by using a tracer we can study Zn uptake at a range of environmentally realistic exposure conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Small-sized euryhaline fish as intermediate hosts of the digenetic trematode Cryptocotyle concavum

    Zander, C. D.; Kollra, H.-G.; Antholz, B.; Meyer, W.; Westphal, D.

    1984-03-01

    Cercariae of the trematode Cryptocotyle concavum, which encyst in skin and/or kidney of sticklebacks and gobies, were studied in the Schlei Fjord (western Baltic Sea). Mean incidence of dermal cysts was 48 % in Gasterosteus aculeatus and 37 % in Pungitius pungitius. No cysts were found in the kidneys of sticklebacks. While 97 % of Pomatoschistus microps had encysted metacercariae in the kidneys, only 2 % had cysts in the skin. Pomatoschistus minutus, however, showed hardly any cyst infestation of either skin or kidney. In P. microps the intensity of infestation by metacercariae was frequently more than 50 cysts; in contrast, sticklebacks rarely exhibited more than 5 dermal cysts. Infested fish were larger than 10 mm in total length, the incidence rate increasing with growth. Parasitic infestation depends on ambient salinity: C. concavum was not found at salinities below 4 ‰. In contrast to the high incidence in fish, the first hosts — the snails Hydrobia stagnalis and H. neglecta — showed remarkably low infection rates (3 to 5 %). The findings reported are related to the distribution of C. concavum, the mode of life of infested fish, the feeding habits of the final hosts and the infestation of P. microps by other parasites. Evidently, P. microps represents an optimal second host for C. concavum.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of multiple neurotransmitters by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tufi, Sara; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim

    2015-05-22

    Neurotransmitters are endogenous metabolites that allow the signal transmission across neuronal synapses. Their biological role is crucial for many physiological functions and their levels can be changed by several diseases. Because of their high polarity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a promising tool for neurotransmitter analysis. Due to the large number of HILIC stationary phases available, an evaluation of the column performances and retention behaviors has been performed on five different commercial HILIC packing materials (silica, amino, amide and two zwitterionic stationary phases). Several parameters like the linear correlation between retention and the distribution coefficient (logD), the separation factor k and the column resolution Rs have been investigated and the column performances have been visualized with a heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis. An optimized and validated HILIC-MS/MS method based on the ZIC-cHILIC column is proposed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of twenty compounds consisting of neurotransmitters, precursors and metabolites: 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxy-L-tripthophan, acetylcholine, choline, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, epinephrine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glutamine, histamine, histidine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, phenylalanine, serotonin and tyramine. The method was applied to neuronal metabolite profiling of the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. This method is suitable to explore neuronal metabolism and its alteration in different biological matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of isotopically modified ZnO nanoparticles and their potential as nanotoxicity tracers

    Dybowska, Agnieszka D.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Berhanu, Deborah; Luoma, Samuel N.; Christian, Paul; O'Brien, Paul; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment and within organisms is perhaps the biggest obstacle to the safe development of nanotechnologies. Reliable tracing is a particular issue for nanoparticles such as ZnO, because Zn is an essential element and a common pollutant thus present at elevated background concentrations. We synthesized isotopically enriched (89.6%) with a rare isotope of Zn ( 67 Zn) ZnO nanoparticles and measured the uptake of 67 Zn by L. stagnalis exposed to diatoms amended with the particles. Stable isotope technique is sufficiently sensitive to determine the uptake of Zn at an exposure equivalent to lower concentration range ( -1 ). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Zn is significant at Zn exposure concentration only above 5000 μg g -1 which represents some of the most contaminated Zn conditions. Only by using a tracer we can study Zn uptake at a range of environmentally realistic exposure conditions. - ZnO nanoparticles with distinct isotopic composition can be tailor synthesized to be used as tracers of environmental fate and uptake by organisms.

  4. Fine Mapping of the Pond Snail Left-Right Asymmetry (Chirality) Locus Using RAD-Seq and Fibre-FISH

    Han, Jie; Yang, Fengtang; Aboobaker, Aziz; Blaxter, Mark L.; Davison, Angus

    2013-01-01

    The left-right asymmetry of snails, including the direction of shell coiling, is determined by the delayed effect of a maternal gene on the chiral twist that takes place during early embryonic cell divisions. Yet, despite being a well-established classical problem, the identity of the gene and the means by which left-right asymmetry is established in snails remain unknown. We here demonstrate the power of new genomic approaches for identification of the chirality gene, “D”. First, heterozygous (Dd) pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis were self-fertilised or backcrossed, and the genotype of more than six thousand offspring inferred, either dextral (DD/Dd) or sinistral (dd). Then, twenty of the offspring were used for Restriction-site-Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) to identify anonymous molecular markers that are linked to the chirality locus. A local genetic map was constructed by genotyping three flanking markers in over three thousand snails. The three markers lie either side of the chirality locus, with one very tightly linked (chirality gene and the variation that underpins sinistral and dextral coiling. More generally, the results also show that combining genomic technologies, such as RAD-Seq and high resolution FISH, is a robust approach for mapping key loci in non-model systems. PMID:23951082

  5. Diaphanous gene mutation affects spiral cleavage and chirality in snails

    Kuroda, Reiko; Fujikura, Kohei; Abe, Masanori; Hosoiri, Yuji; Asakawa, Shuichi; Shimizu, Miho; Umeda, Shin; Ichikawa, Futaba; Takahashi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    L-R (left and right) symmetry breaking during embryogenesis and the establishment of asymmetric body plan are key issues in developmental biology, but the onset including the handedness-determining gene locus still remains unknown. Using pure dextral (DD) and sinistral (dd) strains of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as well as its F2 through to F10 backcrossed lines, the single handedness-determining-gene locus was mapped by genetic linkage analysis, BAC cloning and chromosome walking. We have identified the actin-related diaphanous gene Lsdia1 as the strongest candidate. Although the cDNA and derived amino acid sequences of the tandemly duplicated Lsdia1 and Lsdia2 genes are very similar, we could discriminate the two genes/proteins in our molecular biology experiments. The Lsdia1 gene of the sinistral strain carries a frameshift mutation that abrogates full-length LsDia1 protein expression. In the dextral strain, it is already translated prior to oviposition. Expression of Lsdia1 (only in the dextral strain) and Lsdia2 (in both chirality) decreases after the 1-cell stage, with no asymmetric localization throughout. The evolutionary relationships among body handedness, SD/SI (spiral deformation/spindle inclination) at the third cleavage, and expression of diaphanous proteins are discussed in comparison with three other pond snails (L. peregra, Physa acuta and Indoplanorbis exustus). PMID:27708420

  6. Impairing DNA methylation obstructs memory enhancement for at least 24 hours in Lymnaea.

    Rothwell, Cailin M; Lukowiak, Ken D

    2017-01-01

    Stressor-induced memory enhancement has previously been shown to involve DNA methylation in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis . Specifically, injection of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-AZA one hour before exposure to a memory-enhancing stressor obstructs memory augmentation. However, the duration of the influence of 5-AZA on this memory enhancement has not yet been examined. In this study, 2 memory-enhancing stressors (a thermal stress and exposure to the scent of a predator) were used to examine whether injection of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-AZA 24 hours before stress exposure would still impair memory enhancement. Indeed, it was observed that memory is still obstructed when 5-AZA is injected 24 hours before exposure to either of these stressors in Lymnaea . Understanding that 5-AZA still effectively impairs memory enhancement after a period of 24 hours is valuable because it indicates that experimental manipulations do not need to be made within one hour after the injection of this DNA methylation inhibitor and can instead be made within one day (i.e. 24 hours). These results will allow for a future examination of the possible involvement of DNA methylation in memory enhancement related to longer-term stressors or environmental changes. This study further elucidates the involvement of epigenetic changes in memory enhancement in Lymnaea , providing insight into the process of memory formation in this mollusc.

  7. Phospholipase A2 - nexus of aging, oxidative stress, neuronal excitability and functional decline of the aging nervous system? Insights from a snail model system of neuronal aging and age-associated memory impairment.

    Petra Maria Hermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TThe aging brain can undergo a range of changes varying from subtle structural and physiological changes causing only minor functional decline under healthy normal aging conditions, to severe cognitive or neurological impairment associated with extensive loss of neurons and circuits due to age-associated neurodegenerative disease conditions. Understanding how biological aging processes affect the brain and how they contribute to the onset and progress of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a core research goal in contemporary neuroscience. This review focuses on the idea that changes in intrinsic neuronal electrical excitability associated with (peroxidation of membrane lipids and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 enzymes are an important mechanism of learning and memory failure under normal aging conditions. Specifically, in the context of this special issue on the Biology of cognitive aging we (1 portray the opportunities offered by the identifiable neurons and behaviorally characterized neural circuits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in neuronal aging research and (2 recapitulate recent insights indicating a key role of lipid peroxidation-induced PLA2 as instruments of aging, oxidative stress and inflammation in age-associated neuronal and memory impairment in this model system. The findings are discussed in view of accumulating evidence suggesting involvement of analogous mechanisms in the etiology of age-associated dysfunction and disease of the human and mammalian brain.

  8. On the role of water and forage in penetration of some radionuclides into the Limnaea organism

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Polikarpov, G.G.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Sevastopol. Inst. Biologii Yuzhnykh Morej)

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study under laboratory conditions the significance of elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich.) and aqueous medium in accumulation of strontium-90, cesium-137, cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 by limnetic gastropods (Limnaea Stagnalis L.). The study revealed that only 2 and 5% of strontium-90 and cerium-144 respectively were accumulated in molluscs shell from radioactive food, and 4 and 26% - in the body. The authors believed that higher accumulation levels of cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 in mollusca body when the molluscs are fed with radioactive elodea were caused by high accumulation coefficients (AC) of radionuclides in food, i.e. elodea, and their accumulation in the gastrointestinal tracts of molluscs. To appreciates the significance of elodea and water as sources of radionuclide accumulation by mollusca, strontium-90 and cerium-144 AC in molluscs were estimated in relation to water and elodea. The results obtained indicated that AC of these radionuclides in mollusca was much lower in relation to food than to water

  9. Single-cell analysis of peptide expression and electrophysiology of right parietal neurons involved in male copulation behavior of a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    El Filali, Z; de Boer, P A C M; Pieneman, A W; de Lange, R P J; Jansen, R F; Ter Maat, A; van der Schors, R C; Li, K W; van Straalen, N M; Koene, J M

    2015-12-01

    Male copulation is a complex behavior that requires coordinated communication between the nervous system and the peripheral reproductive organs involved in mating. In hermaphroditic animals, such as the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, this complexity increases since the animal can behave both as male and female. The performance of the sexual role as a male is coordinated via a neuronal communication regulated by many peptidergic neurons, clustered in the cerebral and pedal ganglia and dispersed in the pleural and parietal ganglia. By combining single-cell matrix-assisted laser mass spectrometry with retrograde staining and electrophysiology, we analyzed neuropeptide expression of single neurons of the right parietal ganglion and their axonal projections into the penial nerve. Based on the neuropeptide profile of these neurons, we were able to reconstruct a chemical map of the right parietal ganglion revealing a striking correlation with the earlier electrophysiological and neuroanatomical studies. Neurons can be divided into two main groups: (i) neurons that express heptapeptides and (ii) neurons that do not. The neuronal projection of the different neurons into the penial nerve reveals a pattern where (spontaneous) activity is related to branching pattern. This heterogeneity in both neurochemical anatomy and branching pattern of the parietal neurons reflects the complexity of the peptidergic neurotransmission involved in the regulation of male mating behavior in this simultaneous hermaphrodite.

  10. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon.

    Lewis, Ariel S; Huntington, Thomas G; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-05-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of isotopically modified ZnO nanoparticles and their potential as nanotoxicity tracers

    Dybowska, A.D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Misra, S.K.; Berhanu, D.; Luoma, S.N.; Christian, P.; O'Brien, P.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment and within organisms is perhaps the biggest obstacle to the safe development of nanotechnologies. Reliable tracing is a particular issue for nanoparticles such as ZnO, because Zn is an essential element and a common pollutant thus present at elevated background concentrations. We synthesized isotopically enriched (89.6%) with a rare isotope of Zn (67Zn) ZnO nanoparticles and measured the uptake of 67Zn by L. stagnalis exposed to diatoms amended with the particles. Stable isotope technique is sufficiently sensitive to determine the uptake of Zn at an exposure equivalent to lower concentration range (<15 ??g g-1). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Zn is significant at Zn exposure concentration only above 5000 ??g g-1 which represents some of the most contaminated Zn conditions. Only by using a tracer we can study Zn uptake at a range of environmentally realistic exposure conditions. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

    Szabó Henriette

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium – free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 μM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P Conclusion We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  13. The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Yousif, F; Lämmler, G

    1975-10-16

    Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Stagnicola elodes; the physid snail Physa acuta (an Egyptian and a German strain) and the ampullariid snails Marisa cornuarietis and Lanistes carinatus. All these snail species proved to be susceptible to infection with A. cantonensis, and first stage larvae reached the infective third stage in all of them. However, the rate and intensity of infection varied with different species. B. glabrata was the most susceptible snail species with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 26.1. This was followed by S. elodes and B. africanus, with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 15.6 and 14.6 respectively. The rest of snail species proved to be less susceptible. For comparative evaluation of the suitability of the various snail species as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis a "Capacity Index" was determined. This index should provide a useful method for the evaluation of the suitability of various snails as intermediate hosts of nematode parasites under standardized conditions in the laboratory.

  14. Habitat stability, predation risk and ‘memory syndromes’

    Dalesman, S.; Rendle, A.; Dall, S.R.X.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonstrates consistency among memory traits (‘memory syndrome’) related to threat avoidance and foraging. We used eight populations originating from three different habitat types: i) laboratory populations (stable habitat, predator-free); ii) river populations (fairly stable habitat, fish predation); and iii) ditch populations (unstable habitat, invertebrate predation). At a population level, there was a negative relationship between memories related to threat avoidance and food selectivity, but no consistency within habitat type. At an individual level, covariance between memory traits was dependent on habitat. Laboratory populations showed no covariance among memory traits, whereas river populations showed a positive correlation between food memories, and ditch populations demonstrated a negative relationship between threat memory and food memories. Therefore, selection pressures among habitats appear to act independently on memory trait covariation at an individual level and the average response within a population. PMID:26013966

  15. Habitat stability, predation risk and 'memory syndromes'.

    Dalesman, S; Rendle, A; Dall, S R X

    2015-05-27

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonstrates consistency among memory traits ('memory syndrome') related to threat avoidance and foraging. We used eight populations originating from three different habitat types: i) laboratory populations (stable habitat, predator-free); ii) river populations (fairly stable habitat, fish predation); and iii) ditch populations (unstable habitat, invertebrate predation). At a population level, there was a negative relationship between memories related to threat avoidance and food selectivity, but no consistency within habitat type. At an individual level, covariance between memory traits was dependent on habitat. Laboratory populations showed no covariance among memory traits, whereas river populations showed a positive correlation between food memories, and ditch populations demonstrated a negative relationship between threat memory and food memories. Therefore, selection pressures among habitats appear to act independently on memory trait covariation at an individual level and the average response within a population.

  16. Effects of 5-HT and insulin on learning and memory formation in food-deprived snails.

    Aonuma, Hitoshi; Totani, Yuki; Kaneda, Mugiho; Nakamura, Ryota; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Dyakonova, Varvara E; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2018-02-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). How well they learn and form memory depends on the degree of food deprivation. Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in mediating feeding, and insulin enhances the memory consolidation process following CTA training. However, the relationship between these two signaling pathways has not been addressed. We measured the 5-HT content in the central nervous system (CNS) of snails subjected to different durations of food deprivation. One-day food-deprived snails, which exhibit the best learning and memory, had the lowest 5-HT content in the CNS, whereas 5-day food-deprived snails, which do not learn, had a high 5-HT content. Immersing 1-day food-deprived snails in 5-HT impaired learning and memory by causing an increase in 5-HT content, and that the injection of insulin into these snails reversed this impairment. We conclude that insulin rescues the CTA deficit and this may be due to a decrease in the 5-HT content in the CNS of Lymnaea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient Expression of Acetylcholine-Binding Protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac System

    Bo Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ∼5 mg/L, which needs 55 h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2 × 106 cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1 : 100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies.

  18. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    Otto Seppälä

    Full Text Available Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability. We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  19. Assessing the Dietary Bioavailability of Metals Associated with Natural Particles: Extending the Use of the Reverse Labeling Approach to Zinc.

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Cain, Daniel J; Fuller, Christopher C

    2017-03-07

    We extend the use of a novel tracing technique to quantify the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) associated with natural particles using snails enriched with a less common Zn stable isotope. Lymnaea stagnalis is a model species that has relatively fast Zn uptake rates from the dissolved phase, enabling their rapid enrichment in 67 Zn during the initial phase of labeling. Isotopically enriched snails were subsequently exposed to algae mixed with increasing amounts of metal-rich particles collected from two acid mine drainage impacted rivers. Zinc bioavailability from the natural particles was inferred from calculations of 66 Zn assimilation into the snail's soft tissues. Zinc assimilation efficiency (AE) varied from 28% for the Animas River particles to 45% for the Snake River particles, indicating that particle-bound, or sorbed Zn, was bioavailable from acid mine drainage wastes. The relative binding strength of Zn sorption to the natural particles was inversely related to Zn bioavailability; a finding that would not have been possible without using the reverse labeling approach. Differences in the chemical composition of the particles suggest that their geochemical properties may influence the extent of Zn bioavailability.

  20. Dietary uptake of Cu sorbed to hydrous iron oxide is linked to cellular toxicity and feeding inhibition in a benthic grazer

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Ringwood, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas feeding inhibition caused by exposure to contaminants has been extensively documented, the underlying mechanism(s) are less well understood. For this study, the behavior of several key feeding processes, including ingestion rate and assimilation efficiency, that affect the dietary uptake of Cu were evaluated in the benthic grazer Lymnaea stagnalis following 4–5 h exposures to Cu adsorbed to synthetic hydrous ferric oxide (Cu–HFO). The particles were mixed with a cultured alga to create algal mats with Cu exposures spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude at variable or constant Fe concentrations, thereby allowing first order and interactive effects of Cu and Fe to be evaluated. Results showed that Cu influx rates and ingestion rates decreased as Cu exposures of the algal mat mixture exceeded 104 nmol/g. Ingestion rate appeared to exert primary control on the Cu influx rate. Lysosomal destabilization rates increased directly with Cu influx rates. At the highest Cu exposure where the incidence of lysosomal membrane damage was greatest (51%), the ingestion rate was suppressed 80%. The findings suggested that feeding inhibition was a stress response emanating from excessive uptake of dietary Cu and cellular toxicity.

  1. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin.

    Fidder, Bridgette N; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Olson, Adric D; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon

    Lewis, Ariel S.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment.

  3. Estado trófico de arroyos de la cuenca de Paso Severino mediante la utilización del índice biótico TSI-BI

    Juan Pablo Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los macroinvertebrados acuáticos responden a las características de su ambiente reflejando las alteraciones en el mismo. Por ello, son frecuentemente utilizados como indicadores biológicos en estudios de calidad de agua y monitoreo ambiental. El índice de estado trófico TSI-BI creado para la cuenca del río Santa Lucía, que incluye la cuenca de estudio, permite conocer el estado trófico de los arroyos mediante su composición de macroinvertebrados acuáticos. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el estado trófico de los arroyos de la cuenca del embalse Paso Severino a través de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados mediante el índice TSI-BI. El embalse es utilizado como fuente de agua potable para la zona sur densamente poblada del país. La zona ha tenido un importante desarrollo de la actividad lechera en las últimas décadas. Se seleccionaron 10 subcuencas pertenecientes a arroyos de órdenes 2-4 tomándose muestras estacionales (2009-2010 de macroinvertebrados con red de mano de 500 µm. Se analizaron la abundancia relativa y composición de los macroinvertebrados, estimándose el estado trófico de los arroyos mediante el índice TSI-BI. Todos los arroyos estudiados presentaron niveles altos a muy altos de contaminación orgánica situándose en los rangos eutrófico-hipereutrófico. Los arroyos de mayor estado trófico (hipereutróficos presentaron una comunidad dominada por Hirudinea y Crustacea, mientras que en los de menor nivel trófico se observó una mayor abundancia de Ephemeroptera y presencia de Trichoptera. Los altos niveles tróficos de los arroyos indicarían la existencia de impacto por nutrientes, que llevó a cambios en la comunidad de macroinvertebrados hacia el dominio de organismos tolerantes a la contaminación. Dado los altos niveles tróficos de estos arroyos, y considerando que son afluentes del embalse de Paso Severino, el índice empleado y los resultados obtenidos constituyen una importante herramienta de

  4. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

    Taofikat Abosede ADESALU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different rivers in Ogun and Ondo states were investigated for both micro and macro-biota of the water bodies. Several physical and chemical properties of these rivers were determined. The pH value of the studied water bodies was essentially neutral with salinity values between 0.02 - 4.0‰. Microalgae communities were represented by three divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers (Ondo state, while at Ibefun River (Ogun state, five divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrhophyta were identified. Diatoms dominated these water bodies, with Navicula radiosa Kutz. at Ifara River, Fragilaria sp. in Oluwa River, while out of 90 algal taxa identified in Ibefun river, 64 were diatoms species belonging to 26 genera, with Melosira sp. and Synedra sp. recording the highest numbers of cell count. Dinoflagellates recorded only Peridinium sp. while Phacus orbicularis Hubner and Trachelomonas sp. dominated the euglenoids. For the zooplankton composition at Ibefun, rotifers (75.95% were represented by Brachionus sp., which recorded 62.03%, and Gastropus sp. with 13.92% of the total zooplankton, thus dominated the spectrum, while the copepod recorded 22.78% of the total organisms, with Copilia sp. and Euchirella sp. having 8.86% each. The macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 3 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, with the dominant group Insecta accounted for 57% of the total individuals (7 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Hirudinea accounted for 29% and 14% respectively of the total individuals at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers. At Ibefun River, the macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 5 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, Bivalves, Oligochaeta and Insecta, with bivalves being the dominant group (51.7% of the total individuals, as 64 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Insecta accounted for 26.6% and 21.9% respectively of the total individuals. The dominant taxon, Macoma cumana

  5. Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes

    Wincker Patrick

    2010-06-01

    evolutionarily conserved sequences, representing all known pathways involved in these important functions. Conclusions The sequences obtained for Hirudo transcripts represent the first major database of genes expressed in this important model system. Comparison of translated open reading frames (ORFs with the other openly available leech datasets, the genome and transcriptome of Helobdella robusta, shows an average identity at the amino acid level of 58% in matched sequences. Interestingly, comparison with other available Lophotrochozoans shows similar high levels of amino acid identity, where sequences match, for example, 64% with Capitella capitata (a polychaete and 56% with Aplysia californica (a mollusk, as well as 58% with Schistosoma mansoni (a platyhelminth. Phylogenetic comparisons of putative Hirudo innate immune response genes present within the Hirudo transcriptome database herein described show a strong resemblance to the corresponding mammalian genes, indicating that this important physiological response may have older origins than what has been previously proposed.

  6. Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes.

    Macagno, Eduardo R; Gaasterland, Terry; Edsall, Lee; Bafna, Vineet; Soares, Marcelo B; Scheetz, Todd; Casavant, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Salzet, Michel

    2010-06-25

    , representing all known pathways involved in these important functions. The sequences obtained for Hirudo transcripts represent the first major database of genes expressed in this important model system. Comparison of translated open reading frames (ORFs) with the other openly available leech datasets, the genome and transcriptome of Helobdella robusta, shows an average identity at the amino acid level of 58% in matched sequences. Interestingly, comparison with other available Lophotrochozoans shows similar high levels of amino acid identity, where sequences match, for example, 64% with Capitella capitata (a polychaete) and 56% with Aplysia californica (a mollusk), as well as 58% with Schistosoma mansoni (a platyhelminth). Phylogenetic comparisons of putative Hirudo innate immune response genes present within the Hirudo transcriptome database herein described show a strong resemblance to the corresponding mammalian genes, indicating that this important physiological response may have older origins than what has been previously proposed.

  7. Ecological and geographical characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells of the river Uzh

    N. M. Korniichuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater molluscs serve as test objects in the ecological monitoring of the environment, because they are able to extract in indicator quantity from the environment and accumulate in their bodies radionuclides, various macro- and micronutrients, toxic substances of inorganic and organic origin, and so on. The gastropods are a taxonomically diverse, ecologically plastic and rather widespread group of aquatic organisms, whose role in the life of freshwater ecosystems is very important. Molluscs often have various interactions in biogeocenoses that determines their trophic net. As a rule, these interactions occur in the form of ectocommensalism, endocommensalism, supercrescence, predation or parasitism. The latter type of interaction is the subject of many studies, but the epibionts of gastropods and bivalves have practically not been studied and this research is an effort towards filling this gap. Species composition of algal epibionts identifies specific sensitivity to the effects of certain environmental factors and reflects the processes occurring in their ecosystem water bodies. This determines their efficient use for analyzing changes of water bodies as aquatic habitat, particularly in terms of complex anthropogenic pressure on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the research was to determine the ecological characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. auricularia and Viviparus viviparus (the Uzh river, Korosten district, Zhytomyr region. Identified microalgae communities were grouped and studied according to such indices as: confinedness to the habitat (substrate, temperature, fluidity and water oxygenating, saprobiological characteristics according to the Pantle-Buck system in the modification of Sladecek and Watanabe, salinity according to Kolbe’s system, pH at Hustedt scale in the interpretation of M. M. Davydova and geographical limitations of the objects of study. Algal fouling on the shells L. stagnalis

  8. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  9. Determining metal assimilation efficiency in aquatic invertebrates using enriched stable metal isotope tracers

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Luoma, Samuel N.; Pellet, Bastien

    2007-01-01

    We employ a novel approach that combines pulse-chase feeding and multi-labelled stable isotopes to determine gut passage time (GPT), gut retention time (GRT), food ingestion rate (IR) and assimilation efficiency (AE) of three trace elements for a freshwater gastropod. Lettuce isotopically enriched in 53 Cr, 65 Cu and 106 Cd was fed for 2 h to Lymnaea stagnalis. The release of tracers in feces and water was monitored for 48 h, during which unlabelled lettuce was provided ad libidum. The first defecation of 53 Cr occurred after 5 h of depuration (GPT), whereas 90% of the ingested 53 Cr was recovered in the feces after 22.5 h of depuration (GRT). 53 Chromium was not significantly accumulated in the soft tissues upon exposure. In contrast, 65 Cu and 106 Cd assimilation was detectable for most experimental snails, i.e., 65/63 Cu and 106/114 Cd ratios in exposed snails were higher than those for controls. Food IR during the labelled feeding phase was 0.16 ± 0.07 g g -1 d -1 . IR was inferred from the amount of 53 Cr egested in the feces during depuration and the concentration of 53 Cr in the labelled lettuce. Assimilation efficiencies (±95% CI) determined using mass balance calculations were 84 ± 4% for Cu and 85 ± 3% for Cd. The ratio method yields similar AE estimates. Expanding the application of this novel stable isotope tracer technique to other metals in a wide variety of species will provide unique opportunities to evaluate the interplay between digestive processes and dietary influx of metals. Understanding the biological processes that modulate dietborne metal uptake is crucial to assess the toxicity of dietborne metals

  10. Increase in cyclic AMP concentration in a cerebral giant interneuron mimics part of a memory trace for conditioned taste aversion of the pond snail.

    Otsuka, Emi; Matsunaga, Miho; Okada, Ryuichi; Yamagishi, Miki; Okuta, Akiko; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be classically conditioned in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and subsequently be consolidated into long-term memory (LTM). The neural trace that subserves CTA-LTM can be summarized as follows: A polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential recorded in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell in the conditioned snails as a result of activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) is larger and lasts longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is ultimately activated by the CGC via the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell. That is, the inhibitory monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell are facilitated. The N1M and N3t cells are the members of feeding central pattern generator, whereas the CGC is a multimodal interneuron thought to play a key role in feeding behavior. Here we examined the involvement of a second messenger, cAMP, in the establishment of the memory trace. We injected cAMP into the CGC and monitored the potentials of the B3 motor neuron activated by the CGC. B3 activity is used as an index for the synaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. We found that the B3 potentials were transiently enlarged. Thus, when the cAMP concentration is increased in the CGC by taste aversion training, cAMP-induced changes may play a key role in the establishment of a memory trace in the N3t cell.

  11. Altered gene activity correlated with long-term memory formation of conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Azami, Sachiyo; Wagatsuma, Akiko; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Hatakeyama, Dai; Usami, Takeshi; Fujie, Manabu; Koyanagi, Ryo; Azumi, Kaoru; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2006-11-15

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and then consolidating that learning into long-term memory (LTM) that persists for at least 1 month. LTM requires de novo protein synthesis and altered gene activity. Changes in gene activity in Lymnaea that are correlated with, much less causative, memory formation have not yet been identified. As a first step toward rectifying this situation, we constructed a cDNA microarray with mRNAs extracted from the central nervous system (CNS) of Lymnaea. We then, using this microarray assay, identified genes whose activity either increased or decreased following CTA memory consolidation. We also identified genes whose expression levels were altered after inhibition of the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) that is hypothesized to be a key transcription factor for CTA memory. We found that the molluscan insulin-related peptide II (MIP II) was up-regulated during CTA-LTM, whereas the gene encoding pedal peptide preprohormone (Pep) was down-regulated by CREB2 RNA interference. We next examined mRNAs of MIP II and Pep using real-time RT-PCR with SYBR Green. The MIP II mRNA level in the CNS of snails exhibiting "good" memory for CTA was confirmed to be significantly higher than that from the CNS of snails exhibiting "poor" memory. In contrast, there was no significant difference in expression levels of the Pep mRNA between "good" and "poor" performers. These data suggest that in Lymnaea MIP II may play a role in the consolidation process that forms LTM following CTA training.

  12. One-trial conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea: good and poor performers in long-term memory acquisition.

    Sugai, Rio; Azami, Sachiyo; Shiga, Hatsuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Hatakeyama, Dai; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2007-04-01

    In the majority of studies designed to elucidate the causal mechanisms of memory formation, certain members of the experimental cohort, even though subjected to exactly the same conditioning procedures, remember significantly better than others, whereas others show little or no long-term memory (LTM) formation. To begin to address the question of why this phenomenon occurs and thereby help clarify the causal mechanism of LTM formation, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure on individuals of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and analyzed their subsequent behavior. Using sucrose as an appetitive stimulus and KCl as an aversive stimulus, we obtained a constant ratio of ;poor' to ;good' performers for CTA-LTM. We found that approximately 40% of trained snails possessed LTM following a one-trial conditioning procedure. When we examined the time-window necessary for the memory consolidation, we found that if we cooled snails to 4 degrees C for 30 min within 10 min after the one-trial conditioning, LTM was blocked. However, with delayed cooling (i.e. longer than 10 min), LTM was present. We could further interfere with LTM formation by inducing inhibitory learning (i.e. backward conditioning) after the one-trial conditioning. Finally, we examined whether we could motivate snails to acquire LTM by depriving them of food for 5 days before the one-trial conditioning. Food-deprived snails, however, failed to exhibit LTM following the one-trial conditioning. These results will help us begin to clarify why some individuals are better at learning and forming memory for specific tasks at the neuronal level.

  13. What are the elements of motivation for acquisition of conditioned taste aversion?

    Mita, Koichi; Okuta, Akiko; Okada, Ryuichi; Hatakeyama, Dai; Otsuka, Emi; Yamagishi, Miki; Morikawa, Mika; Naganuma, Yuki; Fujito, Yutaka; Dyakonova, Varvara; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of being classically conditioned to avoid food and to consolidate this aversion into a long-term memory (LTM). Previous studies have shown that the length of food deprivation is important for both the acquisition of taste aversion and its consolidation into LTM, which is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Here we tested the hypothesis that the hemolymph glucose concentration is an important factor in the learning and memory of CTA. One-day food deprivation resulted in the best learning and memory, whereas more prolonged food deprivation had diminishing effects. Five-day food deprivation resulted in snails incapable of learning or remembering. During this food deprivation period, the hemolymph glucose concentration decreased. If snails were fed for 2days following the 5-day food deprivation, their glucose levels increased significantly and they exhibited both learning and memory, but neither learning nor memory was as good as with the 1-day food-deprived snails. Injection of the snails with insulin to reduce glucose levels resulted in better learning and memory. Insulin is also known to cause a long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between the feeding-related neurons. On the other hand, injection of glucose into 5-day food-deprived snails did not alter their inability to learn and remember. However, if these snails were fed on sucrose for 3min, they then exhibited learning and memory formation. Our data suggest that hemolymph glucose concentration is an important factor in motivating acquisition of CTA in Lymnaea and that the action of insulin in the brain and the feeding behavior are also important factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular cloning and transcriptional analysis of a NPY receptor-like in common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica

    Yang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuchao; Xu, Ke; Ping, Hongling; Shi, Huilai; Lü, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen; Wang, Tianming

    2017-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a pivotal role in the regulation of many physiological processes. In this study, the gene encoding a NPY receptor-like from the common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (SjNPYR-like) was identified and characterized. The full-length SjNPYR-like cDNA was cloned containing a 492-bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 1 182 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 393 amino acid residues, and 228 bp of 3' UTR. The putative protein was predicted to have a molecular weight of 45.54 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.13. By informatic analyses, SjNPYR-like was identified as belonging to the class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family (the rhodopsin-type). The amino acid sequence contained 12 potential phosphorylation sites and five predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. Multiple sequence alignment and 3D structure modeling were conducted to clarify SjNPYR bioinformatics characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis identifies it as an NPYR with identity of 33% to Lymnaea stagnalis NPFR. Transmembrane properties of SjNPYR-like were demonstrated in vitro using HEK293 cells and the pEGFP-N1 plasmid. Relative quantification of SjNPYR-like mRNA level confirmed a high level expression and broad distribution of SjNPYR - like in various tissues of female S. japonica. In addition, the transcriptional profile of SjNPYR - like in the brain, liver, and ovary during gonadal development was analyzed. The results provide basic understanding on the molecular characteristics of SjNPYR-like and its potentially physical functions.

  15. Effect of cysteine and humic acids on bioavailability of Ag from Ag nanoparticles to a freshwater snail

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Tasha Stoiber,; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Isabelle Romer,; Ruth Merrifeild,; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) will undergo transformations that will affect their bioavailability, toxicity and ecological risk when released to the environment, including interactions with dissolved organic material. The purpose of this paper is to determine how interactions with two different types of organic material affect the bioavailability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Silver uptake rates by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were determined after exposure to 25 nmol l-1 of Ag as PVP AgNPs, PEG AgNPs or AgNO3, in the presence of either Suwannee River humic acid or cysteine, a high-affinity thiol-rich organic ligand. Total uptake rate of Ag from the two NPs was either increased or not strongly affected in the presence of 1 – 10 mg 1-1 humic acid. Humic substances contain relatively few strong ligands for Ag explaining their limited effects on Ag uptake rate. In contrast, Ag uptake rate was substantially reduced by cysteine. Three components of uptake from the AgNPs were quantified in the presence of cysteine using a biodynamic modeling approach: uptake of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs, uptake of a polymer or large (>3kD) Ag-cysteine complex and uptake of the nanoparticle itself. Addition of 1:1 Ag:cysteine reduced concentrations of dissolved Ag, which contributed to, but did not fully explain the reductions in uptake. A bioavailable Ag-cysteine complex (> 3kD) appeared to be the dominant avenue of uptake from both PVP AgNPs and PEG AgNPs in the presence of cysteine. Quantifying the different avenues of uptake sets the stage for studies to assess toxicity unique to NPs.

  16. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  17. Ejaculates are not used as nuptial gifts in simultaneously hermaphroditic snails.

    Lodi, Monica; Meijer, Fedde W; Koene, Joris M

    2017-08-01

    Promoted by sexual selection, males usually adopt different ways to increase their fertilization chances. In many insect taxa males donate nuptial gifts, together with sperm, which represent a valuable additional nutrient source that females can use to provision eggs. This has also been suggested to occur in simultaneous hermaphrodites, organisms with both sex functions. In theory, donation of nuptial gifts or extra nutrients might work in hermaphrodites that mate unilaterally (one-way donation of ejaculates), but will not be effective when these organisms mate reciprocally (mutual exchange of ejaculates), since on average each partner would receive the amount it also transfers. Hence, for the latter the net amount gained would be zero, and when considering the non-trivial costs of metabolic conversion the energy balance of this exchange ends up negative. To test this prediction, we measured the material (dry weight) and resource (carbon and nitrogen content) investment into ejaculates of the unilaterally mating freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis and spermatophores of the reciprocally mating land snail Cornu aspersum. When compared to eggs, our measurements indicate that the investment is low for ejaculates and spermatophores, neither of which represent a significant contribution to egg production. Importantly, during reciprocal matings, couples exchanged similar amounts of material and resources, thus a gain of extra substances seems irrelevant. Hence, caution is needed when generalizing functions of male reproductive strategies across mating systems. Although digestion of ejaculates does not provide extra material and resources in simultaneous hermaphrodites, their absorption could still be important to eliminate an excess of received sperm and to select sperm via cryptic female choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community.

  19. Toxicity of aluminium in natural waters controlled by type rather than quantity of natural organic matter

    Papathanasiou, Grigorios; White, Keith N.; Walton, Rachel; Boult, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Extension of the conditions under which Al toxicity is tested is required. Environmentally representative preparation of waters is used in investigating roles of alginate (AA) and humic acids (HA) in partitioning of Al (0.5 mg L -1 ), subsequent uptake and accumulation by and toxicity to Lymnaea stagnalis. HA and AA did not alter precipitation of Al(OH) 3 , but altered subsequent behaviour of Al. High (40 mg L -1 ) HA concentrations, and to a lesser extent AA, prevented settling and availability for benthic grazing but made deposited Al more likely to be ingested. HA detoxified but AA increased toxicity relative to Al alone. Low concentration (4 mg L -1 ) AA and HA do not change partitioning but increase uptake; they both detoxify, but AA less than HA. The study shows OC:Al ratio is critical in predicting Al behaviour in natural waters, also uptake is mediated by snail behaviour, not solely a function of concentration and form of Al. Therefore, predicting Al behaviour will be subject to errors in determining relevant water composition and response of biota to the new speciation. However, with respect to toxicity, rather than other aspects of Al behaviour, different ratios of HA and Al are insignificant compared to whether AA is present rather than HA. - Highlights: → Toxicity assessment in which environmental relevance is of primary concern. → Mass balance of Al monitored throughout the exposure period. → Al behaviour influenced by concentration of organic matter. → Strong dependence of toxicity on type rather than concentration of organic matter. → Toxicity is a function of Al behaviour but also animal behaviour.

  20. Responses of neurons to extreme osmomechanical stress.

    Wan, X; Harris, J A; Morris, C E

    1995-05-01

    Neurons are often regarded as fragile cells, easily destroyed by mechanical and osmotic insult. The results presented here demonstrate that this perception needs revision. Using extreme osmotic swelling, we show that molluscan neurons are astonishingly robust. In distilled water, a heterogeneous population of Lymnaea stagnalis CNS neurons swelled to several times their initial volume, yet had a ST50 (survival time for 50% of cells) > 60 min. Cells that were initially bigger survived longer. On return to normal medium, survivors were able, over the next 24 hr, to rearborize. Reversible membrane capacitance changes corresponding to about 0.7 muF/cm2 of apparent surface area accompanied neuronal swelling and shrinking in hypo- and hyperosmotic solutions; reversible changes in cell surface area evidently contributed to the neurons' ability to accommodate hydrostatic pressures then recover. The reversible membrane area/capacitance changes were not dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Neurons were monitored for potassium currents during direct mechanical inflation and during osmotically driven inflation. The latter but not the former stimulus routinely elicited small potassium currents, suggesting that tension increases activate the currents only if additional disruption of the cortex has occurred. Under stress in distilled water, a third of the neurons displayed a quite unexpected behavior: prolonged writhing of peripheral regions of the soma. This suggested that a plasma membrane-linked contractile machinery (presumably actomyosin) might contribute to the neurons' mechano-osmotic robustness by restricting water influx. Consistent with this possibility, 1 mM N-ethyl-maleimide, which inhibits myosin ATPase, decreased the ST50 to 18 min, rendered the survival time independent of initial size, and abolished writhing activity. For neurons, active mechanical resistance of the submembranous cortex, along with the mechanical compliance supplied by insertion or eversion of membrane

  1. Learning-dependent gene expression of CREB1 isoforms in the molluscan brain

    Hisayo Sadamoto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein1 (CREB1 has multiple functions in gene regulation. Various studies have reported that CREB1-dependent gene induction is necessary for memory formation and long-lasting behavioral changes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we characterized Lymnaea CREB1 (LymCREB1 mRNA isoforms of spliced variants in the central nervous system (CNS of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Among these spliced variants, the three isoforms that code a whole LymCREB1 protein are considered to be the activators for gene regulation. The other four isoforms, which code truncated LymCREB1 proteins with no kinase inducible domain, are the repressors. For a better understanding of the possible roles of different LymCREB1 isoforms, the expression level of these isoform mRNAs was investigated by a real-time quantitative RT-PCR method. Further, we examined the changes in gene expression for all the isoforms in the CNS after conditioned taste aversion (CTA learning or backward conditioning as a control. The results showed that CTA learning increased LymCREB1 gene expression, but it did not change the activator/repressor ratio. Our findings showed that the repressor isoforms, as well as the activator ones, are expressed in large amounts in the CNS, and the gene expression of CREB1 isoforms appeared to be specific for the given stimulus. This was the first quantitative analysis of the expression patterns of CREB1 isoforms at the mRNA level and their association with learning behavior.

  2. Dose-dependent effects of the clinical anesthetic isoflurane on Octopus vulgaris: a contribution to cephalopod welfare.

    Polese, Gianluca; Winlow, William; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in animal welfare legislation relating to invertebrates has provoked interest in methods for the anesthesia of cephalopods, for which different approaches to anesthesia have been tried but in most cases without truly anesthetizing the animals. For example, several workers have used muscle relaxants or hypothermia as forms of "anesthesia." Several inhalational anesthetics are known to act in a dose-dependent manner on the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a pulmonate mollusk. Here we report, for the first time, on the effects of clinical doses of the well-known inhalational clinical anesthetic isoflurane on the behavioral responses of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris. In each experiment, isoflurane was equilibrated into a well-aerated seawater bath containing a single adult O. vulgaris. Using a web camera, we recorded each animal's response to touch stimuli eliciting withdrawal of the arms and siphon and observed changes in the respiratory rate and the chromatophore pattern over time (before, during, and after application of the anesthetic). We found that different animals of the same size responded with similar behavioral changes as the isoflurane concentration was gradually increased. After gradual application of 2% isoflurane for a maximum of 5 min (at which time all the responses indicated deep anesthesia), the animals recovered within 45-60 min in fresh aerated seawater. Based on previous findings in gastropods, we believe that the process of anesthesia induced by isoflurane is similar to that previously observed in Lymnaea. In this study we showed that isoflurane is a good, reversible anesthetic for O. vulgaris, and we developed a method for its use.

  3. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Favas, Paulo J.C.; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S.

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L −1 . The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg −1 ) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg −1 ), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg −1 ), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg −1 ), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg −1 ), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg −1 ). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg −1 ). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg −1 ) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water

  4. The calmodulin-binding, short linear motif, NSCaTE is conserved in L-type channel ancestors of vertebrate Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels.

    Valentina Taiakina

    Full Text Available NSCaTE is a short linear motif of (xWxxx(I or Lxxxx, composed of residues with a high helix-forming propensity within a mostly disordered N-terminus that is conserved in L-type calcium channels from protostome invertebrates to humans. NSCaTE is an optional, lower affinity and calcium-sensitive binding site for calmodulin (CaM which competes for CaM binding with a more ancient, C-terminal IQ domain on L-type channels. CaM bound to N- and C- terminal tails serve as dual detectors to changing intracellular Ca(2+ concentrations, promoting calcium-dependent inactivation of L-type calcium channels. NSCaTE is absent in some arthropod species, and is also lacking in vertebrate L-type isoforms, Cav1.1 and Cav1.4 channels. The pervasiveness of a methionine just downstream from NSCaTE suggests that L-type channels could generate alternative N-termini lacking NSCaTE through the choice of translational start sites. Long N-terminus with an NSCaTE motif in L-type calcium channel homolog LCav1 from pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has a faster calcium-dependent inactivation than a shortened N-termini lacking NSCaTE. NSCaTE effects are present in low concentrations of internal buffer (0.5 mM EGTA, but disappears in high buffer conditions (10 mM EGTA. Snail and mammalian NSCaTE have an alpha-helical propensity upon binding Ca(2+-CaM and can saturate both CaM N-terminal and C-terminal domains in the absence of a competing IQ motif. NSCaTE evolved in ancestors of the first animals with internal organs for promoting a more rapid, calcium-sensitive inactivation of L-type channels.

  5. A homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is both necessary and instructive for the rapid formation of associative memory in an invertebrate.

    Pirger, Zsolt; László, Zita; Kemenes, Ildikó; Tóth, Gábor; Reglodi, Dóra; Kemenes, György

    2010-10-13

    Similar to other invertebrate and vertebrate animals, cAMP-dependent signaling cascades are key components of long-term memory (LTM) formation in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an established experimental model for studying evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms of long-term associative memory. Although a great deal is already known about the signaling cascades activated by cAMP, the molecules involved in the learning-induced activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) in Lymnaea remained unknown. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy in combination with biochemical and immunohistochemical methods, recently we have obtained evidence for the existence of a Lymnaea homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and for the AC-activating effect of PACAP in the Lymnaea nervous system. Here we first tested the hypothesis that PACAP plays an important role in the formation of robust LTM after single-trial classical food-reward conditioning. Application of the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP6-38 around the time of single-trial training with amyl acetate and sucrose blocked associative LTM, suggesting that in this "strong" food-reward conditioning paradigm the activation of AC by PACAP was necessary for LTM to form. We found that in a "weak" multitrial food-reward conditioning paradigm, lip touch paired with sucrose, memory formation was also dependent on PACAP. Significantly, systemic application of PACAP at the beginning of multitrial tactile conditioning accelerated the formation of transcription-dependent memory. Our findings provide the first evidence to show that in the same nervous system PACAP is both necessary and instructive for fast and robust memory formation after reward classical conditioning.

  6. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    Denis Kudryavtsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt, and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds.

  7. Marine Natural Products Acting on the Acetylcholine-Binding Protein and Nicotinic Receptors: From Computer Modeling to Binding Studies and Electrophysiology

    Denis Kudryavtsev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For a small library of natural products from marine sponges and ascidians, in silico docking to the Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP, a model for the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, was carried out and the possibility of complex formation was revealed. It was further experimentally confirmed via competition with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin ([125I]-αBgt for binding to AChBP of the majority of analyzed compounds. Alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines С and G had relatively high affinities (Ki 0.5–1.3 μM. With the muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica ray and human neuronal α7 nAChR, heterologously expressed in the GH4C1 cell line, no competition with [125I]-αBgt was detected in four compounds, while the rest showed an inhibition. Makaluvamines (Ki ~ 1.5 μM were the most active compounds, but only makaluvamine G and crambescidine 359 revealed a weak selectivity towards muscle-type nAChR. Rhizochalin, aglycone of rhizochalin, pibocin, makaluvamine G, monanchocidin, crambescidine 359 and aaptamine showed inhibitory activities in electrophysiology experiments on the mouse muscle and human α7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Thus, our results confirm the utility of the modeling studies on AChBPs in a search for natural compounds with cholinergic activity and demonstrate the presence of the latter in the analyzed marine biological sources.

  8. Balanced plasticity and stability of the electrical properties of a molluscan modulatory interneuron after classical conditioning: a computational study

    Dimitris Vavoulis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cerebral Giant Cells (CGCs are a pair of identified modulatory interneurons in the Central Nervous System of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis with an important role in the expression of both unconditioned and conditioned feeding behavior. Following single-trial food-reward classical conditioning, the membrane potential of the CGCs becomes persistently depolarized. This depolarization contributes to the conditioned response by facilitating sensory cell to command neuron synapses, which results in the activation of the feeding network by the conditioned stimulus. Despite the depolarization of the membrane potential, which enables the CGGs to play a key role in learning-induced network plasticity, there is no persistent change in the tonic firing rate or shape of the action potentials, allowing these neurons to retain their normal network function in feeding. In order to understand the ionic mechanisms of this novel combination of plasticity and stability of intrinsic electrical properties, we first constructed and validated a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of the CGCs. We then used this model to elucidate how learning-induced changes in a somal persistent sodium and a delayed rectifier potassium current lead to a persistent depolarization of the CGCs whilst maintaining their firing rate. Including in the model an additional increase in the conductance of a high-voltage-activated calcium current allowed the spike amplitude and spike duration also to be maintained after conditioning. We conclude therefore that a balanced increase in three identified conductances is sufficient to explain the electrophysiological changes found in the CGCs after classical conditioning.

  9. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [School of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Varun, Mayank; D' Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L{sup −1}. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg{sup −1}) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg{sup −1}), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg{sup −1}), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg{sup −1}). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg{sup −1}). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg{sup −1}) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water.

  10. The effect of pH on chronic aquatic nickel toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: Extending the chronic nickel bioavailability models.

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; Van Sprang, Patrick; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The environmental quality standard for Ni in the European Commission's Water Framework Directive is bioavailability based. Although some of the available chronic Ni bioavailability models are validated only for pH ≤ 8.2, a considerable fraction of European surface waters has a pH > 8.2. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of a change in pH from 8.2 to 8.7 on chronic Ni toxicity in 3 invertebrate (Daphnia magna, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Brachionus calyciflorus) and 2 plant species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor). Nickel toxicity was almost always significantly higher at pH 8.7 than at pH 8.2. To test whether the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2 can be used at higher pH levels, Ni toxicity at pH 8.7 was predicted based on Ni toxicity observed at pH 8.2. This resulted in a consistent underestimation of toxicity. The results suggest that the effect of pH on Ni(2+) toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: the slope of the pH effect is steeper above than below pH 8.2 for species for which a species-specific bioavailability model exists. Therefore, the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models were modified to allow predictions of chronic Ni toxicity to invertebrates and plants in the pH range of 8.2 to 8.7 by applying a pH slope (SpH ) dependent on the pH of the target water. These modified Ni bioavailability models resulted in more accurate predictions of Ni toxicity to all 5 species (within 2-fold error), without the bias observed using the bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2. The results of the present study can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based environmental quality standard under the Water Framework Directive for high-pH regions in Europe. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Etsuro Ito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG, and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1 the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t cell and (2 the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  12. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Ito, Etsuro; Otsuka, Emi; Hama, Noriyuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Okada, Ryuichi; Hatakeyama, Dai; Fujito, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG), and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1) the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell and (2) the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  13. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  14. Failure of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity underlies age-associated long-term associative memory impairment

    Watson Shawn N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment associated with subtle changes in neuron and neuronal network function rather than widespread neuron death is a feature of the normal aging process in humans and animals. Despite its broad evolutionary conservation, the etiology of this aging process is not well understood. However, recent evidence suggests the existence of a link between oxidative stress in the form of progressive membrane lipid peroxidation, declining neuronal electrical excitability and functional decline of the normal aging brain. The current study applies a combination of behavioural and electrophysiological techniques and pharmacological interventions to explore this hypothesis in a gastropod model (Lymnaea stagnalis feeding system that allows pinpointing the molecular and neurobiological foundations of age-associated long-term memory (LTM failure at the level of individual identified neurons and synapses. Results Classical appetitive reward-conditioning induced robust LTM in mature animals in the first quartile of their lifespan but failed to do so in animals in the last quartile of their lifespan. LTM failure correlated with reduced electrical excitability of two identified serotonergic modulatory interneurons (CGCs critical in chemosensory integration by the neural network controlling feeding behaviour. Moreover, while behavioural conditioning induced delayed-onset persistent depolarization of the CGCs known to underlie appetitive LTM formation in this model in the younger animals, it failed to do so in LTM-deficient senescent animals. Dietary supplementation of the lipophilic anti-oxidant α-tocopherol reversed the effect of age on CGCs electrophysiological characteristics but failed to restore appetitive LTM function. Treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine reversed both the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of age in senior animals. Conclusions The results identify the CGCs as cellular loci of age-associated appetitive

  15. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  17. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Stubblefield, W.; Rodriguez, P.; Vleminckx, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO 4 2- ). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this

  18. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which

  19. Quantitative modeling of responses to chronic ionizing radiation exposure using targeted and non-targeted effects.

    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available The biological effects of chronic ionizing radiation exposure can be difficult to study, but important to understand in order to protect the health of occupationally-exposed persons and victims of radiological accidents or malicious events. They include targeted effects (TE caused by ionizations within/close to nuclear DNA, and non-targeted effects (NTE caused by damage to other cell structures and/or activation of stress-signaling pathways in distant cells. Data on radiation damage in animal populations exposed over multiple generations to wide ranges of dose rates after the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident are very useful for enhancing our understanding of these processes. We used a mechanistically-motivated mathematical model which includes TE and NTE to analyze a large published data set on chromosomal aberrations in pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis embryos collected over 16 years from water bodies contaminated by Chernobyl fallout, and from control locations. The fraction of embryo cells with aberrations increased dramatically (>10-fold and non-linearly over a dose rate range of 0.03-420 μGy/h (0.00026-3.7 Gy/year. NTE were very important for describing the non-linearity of this radiation response: the TE-only model (without NTE performed dramatically worse than the TE+NTE model. NTE were predicted to reach ½ of maximal intensity at 2.5 μGy/h (0.022 Gy/year and to contribute >90% to the radiation response slope at dose rates <11 μGy/h (0.1 Gy/year. Internally-incorporated 90Sr was possibly more effective per unit dose than other radionuclides. The radiation response shape for chromosomal aberrations in snail embryos was consistent with data for a different endpoint: the fraction of young amoebocytes in adult snail haemolymph. Therefore, radiation may affect different snail life stages by similar mechanisms. The importance of NTE in our model-based analysis suggests that the search for modulators of NTE-related signaling pathways

  20. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    Gruenhagen, Jason Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca2+ imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca2+ signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K+ and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol

  1. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Shevtsova, Natalia L.; Pomortseva, Natalia A.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Dzyubenko, Elena V. [G. Skovoroda Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk State Teacher Training University, Sukhomlinskogo Str. 30, UA-08401 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk (Ukraine); Rodionova, Natalia K. [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Vasilkovskaya Str. 45, UA-04073 Kiev (Ukraine); Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10{sup -3} - 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10{sup -3} Gy year{sup -1}. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant

  2. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@ugent.be; Nys, C., E-mail: chnys.nys@ugent.be; Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be

    2014-10-15

    accurate toxicity predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7-fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 μg/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment.

  3. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Nys, C.; Janssen, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7-fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 μg/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment