WorldWideScience

Sample records for helmholtz-gemeinschaft deutscher forschungszentren

  1. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Seven sections are dedicated to the activities of Deutscher Wetterdienst during the first year after unification. Emphasis is on general aspects, measurement and observation networks, technical equipment, research, weather forecasts, climatology and agricultural meteorology. A flow sheet facilitates access to the organizational structure of Deutscher Wetterdienst. (KW) [de

  2. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Seven chapters are dedicated to the main activities of the German weather services Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) in 1992. The report is completed by a folding chart which illustrates the DWD organizational structure and includes a map of the DWD stations. A detailed description is given of the DWD interconnected radar system. (orig.) [de

  3. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt. Research and development programme 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Research Center is a national research establishment placed under the responsibility of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg, and as a member of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren belongs to the most important and independent research centers in Germany working in the fields of the natural sciences and engineering sciences. The center's research and development activities are defined in coordination with the policy and programmes of the two responsible Federal and Land Governments and span the range from pre-industrial research through to product and process development, research of a provident nature, and fundamental scientific research work, with almost all R and D activities of the center relating in one way or other to technology and the environment. The research programme of the center today covers subjects and aspects relating to the environment, energy, key technologies, and fundamental research, whereas at the time the center was founded, nuclear science and engineering was the dominating field of activities. The current spectrum of activities reflects the evolution in the past and is characterized by a great complexity of problems involved, which requires cross-disciplinary cooperation, and foresight in the definition of tasks and time horizons. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Thermalhydraulic and material specific investigations into the realization of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) to transmute minor actinides. 1999 Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Mueller, G.; Schumacher, G.; Konys, J.; Wedemeyer, O.; Groetzbach, G.; Carteciano, L.

    2000-10-01

    At Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an HGF Strategy Fund Project entitled ''Thermalhydraulic and Material Specific Investigations into the Realization of an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to Transmute Minor Actinides'' is performed which is funded by the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) in the section ''Energy Research and Energy Technology'' over a time period from 07/1999 to 06/2002 with a financial support of 7.0 million DM (35 man years). The objective of this HGF Strategy Fund Project is the development of new methods and technologies to design and manufacture thin-walled thermally highly-loaded surfaces (e.g. beam window) which are cooled by a corrosive heavy liquid metal (lead-bismuth eutectic). The beam window is a vital component of an ADS spallation target. The results of this project will provide the scientific-technical basis which allows the conception and the design of an ADS spallation target and later on a European Demonstrator of an ADS system. The work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is embedded in a broad European research and development programme on ADS systems. (orig.)

  5. Climate. The earth and its atmosphere in the changing times. 3. upd. ed.; Klima. Die Erde und ihre Atmosphaere im Wandel der Zeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchal, Christoph [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Peter-Gruenberg-Institut PGI-9; Schoenwiese, Christian-Dietrich [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt

    2016-08-01

    The Climate Change Challenge. Throughout the world, great efforts are being made to better understanding the development of the global climate and to model future trends. What characterizes the weather what the climate? How did the climate history of the Earth? What factors are affecting the climate? In the third, updated edition 2016 of the widespread attractive and scientifically-based four-volume nonfiction series ENERGY, AIR, POWER and MOBILITY which clearly explained basic knowledge of the climate system is expanded to include the latest information about the IPCC and keep up-to-date insight into modern research, especially the REKLIM project of the Helmholtz Association of German research Centres. [German] Herausforderung Klimawandel. Ueberall auf der Welt werden grosse Anstrengungen unternommen, um die Entwicklung des Weltklimas genauer zu verstehen und zukuenftige Trends zu modellieren. Was kennzeichnet das Wetter, was das Klima? Wie verlief die Klimageschichte der Erde? Welche Faktoren beeinflussen das Klima? In der dritten, aktualisierten Auflage 2016 der weit verbreiteten attraktiven und wissenschaftlich fundierten vierbaendigen Sachbuchreihe ENERGIE, KLIMA, STROM und MOBILITAeT wird das verstaendlich erlaeuterte Basiswissen zum Klimageschehen erweitert um die neusten Daten des IPCC sowie um up-to-date Einblicke in die moderne Forschung, insbesondere auch das REKLIM-Projekt der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft deutscher Forschungszentren.

  6. The HGF strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Fellmoser, F.; Lefhalm, C.; Mack, K.; Pettan, C.; Piecha, H.; Konys, J.; Adelhelm, C.; Glasbrenner, H.; Muscher, H.; Novotny, J.; Voss, Z.; Wedemeyer, O.; Mueller, G.; Heinzel, A.; Schumacher, G.; Huber, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Groetzbach, G.; Dorr, B.; Carteciano, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    Within the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) an HGF-Strategy Fund Project entitled 'Innovative Technologies to Reduce Radiotoxicity' is funded since October 1999. The objectives of this HGF-Strategy Fund Project is the development of new methods and technologies to design and manufacture thin-walled and highly thermally-loaded surfaces which are cooled by a corrosive heavy liquid metal (lead-bismuth eutectic). The result of this project will be the basic scientific-technical tool which allows the conception and the design of a European Demonstrator of an ADS system (cf. 32.23.05). The work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is embedded in a broad European research and development programme on ADS systems. The project is divided in three sub-projects: Sub-Project 1: Thermalhydraulic Investigations, Sub-Project 2: Material Specific Investigations, Sub-Project 3: Oxygen Control System. This progress report gives a general description of the project and its envisaged objectives. As a selection of the results achieved, first, FLUTAN calculations for the COULI beam window design and, second, the oxygen control system for the KArlsruhe Lead LAboratory KALLA are described in detail. Finally, the design and status of KALLA is given. (orig.)

  7. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt. Research and development program 2001 and program budget 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Research Center is a national research center founded and substantially funded by the German Federal Government and the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg, the federal state where it is located. It is a member of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren and is one of the most important, independent research centers in Germany working in the fields of the natural sciences and engineering sciences. The Center's R and D programmes encompass research activities up to pre-industrial scale as well as product and process development, research for precautionary policy and purposes, and fundamental research. The focal points of the R and D programme 2001 are explained under the following subject titles: - Environment - Public Health - Energy - Key Technologies - Fundamental Research. The programme reveals the shift of emphasis of activities which commenced in the early 1980s, away from nuclear engineering as the major focus in the early days towards a much wider spectrum of activities today, characterized by aspects such as complexity of tasks, long-term planning, and the need for cross-disciplinary and multilateral cooperation. The second volume of the publication explains the programme budget and apportionment of funds. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt. Program budget for research and development 2001. Planning period 2001 - 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The Karlsruhe Research Center is a national research center founded and substantially funded by the German Federal Government and the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg, the federal state where it is located. It is a member of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren and is one of the most important, independent research centers in Germany working in the fields of the natural sciences and engineering sciences. The Center's R and D programmes encompass research activities up to pre-industrial scale as well as product and process development, research for precautionary policy and purposes, and fundamental research. The focal points of the R and D programme 2001 are explained under the following subject titles: - Environment - Public Health - Energy - Key Technologies - Fundamental Research. The programme reveals the shift of emphasis of activities which commenced in the early 1980s, away from nuclear engineering as the major focus in the early days towards a much wider spectrum of activities today, characterized by aspects such as complexity of tasks, long-term planning, and the need for cross-disciplinary and multilateral cooperation. The second volume of the publication explains the programme budget and apportionment of funds. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). Annual report 2004; Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). Jahresbericht 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Today, the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) with its measuring and observation networks is already an important component in the planned world-spanning Earth observation system. The exchange of data as well as the harmonisation and further development of the networks on a partnership basis have also been a matter of course of the National Meteorological Services for decades now. With its experience and expertise the DWD will be taking an active part in Germany's contributions to the global Earth observation. On a national level, the major tasks of the Deutscher Wetterdienst include the monitoring of the environment, the weather, and the climate change in Germany. In 2004, too, the DWD was able to reinforce its position as an innovative, efficient, and customer-oriented National Meteorological Service and as a reference for meteorology. For example, the radar-supported FEWIS weather information system for fire brigades was installed throughout Germany in almost all professional fire brigade units and numerous other disaster relief organisations. This is an important contribution to improving the warning management in the case of severe weather events in Germany. The cooperation between the DWD as a federal authority and the Laender was further intensified. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear safety research in HGF 2012; Fortschrittsbericht 2012. Programm 'Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung' Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    After the events at the Japanese nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi, the German Federal government decided that Germany will give up electricity generation from nuclear power within a decade. The last reactor will be disconnected from the power grid in 2022. Helping to make this opt-out safe is one of the duties of the Helmholtz Association with its Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area. Also the demolition of nuclear power plants and the repository problem will keep society, and thus also research, busy for a number of decades to come. Giving up electricity production from nuclear power thus must not mean giving up the required nuclear technology competences. In the fields of reactor safety, demolition, final storage, radiation protection, and crisis management, in critical support of international developments, and for competent evaluation of nuclear facilities around Germany, these competences will be in demand far beyond the German opt-out. This is the reason why the final report by the Ethics Committee on 'Safe Energy Supply' emphasizes the importance of nuclear technology research. Close cooperation on national, European and international levels is indispensable in this effort. Also nuclear safety research in the Helmholtz Association is aligned with the challenges posed by the opt-out of the use of nuclear power. It is important that the high competences in the areas of plant safety and demolition, handling of radioactive waste, and safe final storage as well as radiation protection be preserved. The Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area of the Helmholtz Association therefore will continue studying scientific and technical aspects of the safety of nuclear reactors and the safety of nuclear waste management. These research activities are provident research conducted for society and must be preserved for a long period of time. The work is closely harmonized with the activities of the partners in the Nuclear Competence Association. The Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, HZDR Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology are involved in the Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Helmholtz Association. The work and results in 2012 are presented. (orig.)

  11. Anticipatory opt-out of nuclear power at German universities and research centers? Employment and education opportunities in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Closs, K.D.; Kuczera, B.; Erlenwein, P.; Langetepe, G.; Weiss, F.P.; Wolfert, K.

    2001-01-01

    The energy policy objectives of the present German federal government include the regulated, not-to-be-indemnified termination of the use of nuclear power for electricity generation in Germany. This objective was initialed in an agreement between the federal government and the operators of nuclear power plants in June 2000. The criterion it contains for the residual life of existing nuclear power plants are the 'residual electricity volumes' to be generated by existing plants. According to present data, the first nuclear power plant would be decommissioned in late 2002, the last one, in early 2021. A report by an evaluating committee established by the competent German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology published in January 2000 indicates that, even in the light of this medium-term perspective for the use of nuclear power for electricity generation, sufficient competence in terms of manpower in this field must be maintained and promoted in all areas of research, industry, expert consultant organizations, and regulatory authorities far beyond 2021. This makes government support indispensable in the light of the political criteria requiring the preservation of competence in this sector. The 'Kompetenzverbund Kerntechnik' (Association for Nuclear Technology Competence) was established within the framework of the Energy Research Division of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren. Its mandate outlines its objectives as follows: 'Irrespective of political decisions establishing criteria for terminating the use of nuclear power in Germany, it is necessary that competence in nuclear safety be preserved for the next few decades. Only this will ensure that the government's provident duties can be fulfilled, and the safety of nuclear installations and waste and spent fuel management pathways can be ensured in accordance with the international state of the art'. (orig.) [de

  12. The Climate Data Centre of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, F.; Schreiber, K.-J.; Behrendt, J.

    2010-09-01

    In 2009 the German meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) has started to set up a Climate Data Centre (CDC) in order to provide unified access to its variety of climate data especially to users from research, educational and public institutions. CDC acts as a central point of contact to various data collections of DWD. These include observations from German weather stations and DWD's observatories, special data as e.g. from hydroclimatology, agro-climatology and medical climatology, but also from international activities of DWD, such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC), EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF) or marine climatological data (ship and buoy observations) of the Global Collecting Centre for Marine Climatological Data. Data are based on conventional surface observations over land and ocean as well as on various remote sensing methods, such as satellite observation. The major part consists of climate data from the past, but CDC will also include results from scenario calculations and projections for the future. In addition to pure observational data, CDC offers derived statistical parameters and spatial analyses as gridded datasets. As first step, a central data catalogue provides standardised descriptions and information on data access. It follows national and international rules for the description of geo-referenced data (GDI-DE; INSPIRE). The individual data providers of DWD can use the catalogue to easily edit and publish their metadata in a unified way. These metadata contain information on data access, data policy, data quality, spatial and temporal coverage, responsible persons, etc. The catalogue is based on an open source software product (geonetwork-opensource) that is also used by a large number of international organizations. Metadata can be exchanged (harvested) between these catalogues. This will allow implementing a structure that provides search capabilities over institutions

  13. International business activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-/Erdgasproduzenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-04-15

    The contribution reports on international business activities of the following German companies: RWE Dea; Petro-Canada; E.ON Ruhrgas; EWE; Bayerngas. [German] Es wird ueber die Auslandsaktivitaeten folgender deutscher Firmen berichtet: Wintershall; RWE Dea; Petro-Canada; E.ON Ruhrgas; EWE; Bayerngas.

  14. [Affect, medicine and public enlightenment: the origin of the film genre "Deutscher Kulturfilm"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of professionalisation of medical films in Germany between 1910 and 1920. At the beginning of this decade, government institutions showed a growing interest in hygiene campaigns and started to cooperate with medical experts as well as with professional advertisers. When the German film industry was nationalised at the end of World War I, these informal structures were strengthened. New theories described the film as a most powerful tool for propaganda purposes. This profoundly changed the expectations towards medical films. Now their content had to be bedded into the dramatised form of a photoplay. After 1918, in anticipation of the reprivatisation of the German film industry, government officials of the Weimar Republic developed complex measures to obtain and keep control over a new genre of documentary film which was now called "Deutscher Kulturfilm". Some of the political expectations linked to the Kulturfilm can be exemplified in the first documentary of feature length released by the Berlin-based Universal Film Corporation in 1920. It contained elements of medical films that had been shot during the last decade of the German Empire, and it was newly composed in 1919 to meet the presumable needs of a broader public in an uncertain democratic future.

  15. Korpusbasierte Wörterbucharbeit mit den Daten des Projekts Deutscher Wortschatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quasthoff, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The corpus project Deutscher Wortschatz (German Vocabulary at Leipzig University is collecting and processing textual data for 15 years. It now consists of approx. 2 billion running words in 160 million sentences. The dictionary is online available at www.wortschatz.uni-leipzig.de and, moreover, contains word co-occurrence data.The pre-processing of the data used mainly language independent methods and were used for corpora in other languages, too.The paper describes the production process for three dictionaries for which these corpus data were used: a thesaurus, a dictionary of neologisms, and a collocation dictionary. In all cases, the raw data for the dictionary entries were produced automatically, and the final entries were written only using these pre-selections. In the case of the thesaurus, the preprocessing consisted in a corpus based detection of semantically similar words. For the neologism dictionary the yearly frequency information were used and for the collocation dictionary, word co-occurrences and part of speech information were combined.

  16. Surveillance of radioactivity in the atmosphere by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) in the framework of nuclear emergency response programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkopff, T.; Dalheimer, A.; Dyck, W.; Fay, B.; Glaab, H.; Jacobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), German Meteorological Service, is charged with the surveillance of radioactivity in the atmosphere as a part of the emergency information network of the 'Integrated Measurement and Information System' (IMIS) in Germany. The results of measurements of radioactivity and the meteorological products are transferred regularly to this network. The DWD is also integrated into the Environmental Emergency Response Programme (EER) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a communication hub. The computer infrastructure, the operational experience in data management as well as the national and international communication systems in operation are significant arguments to run the early alert system on the surveillance of atmospheric radioactivity at the national meteorological service. (author)

  17. [Dimitri Steinke: Die Zivilrechtsordnungen des Baltikums unter dem Einfluss ausländischer, insbesondere deutscher Rechtsquellen. (Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte, Bd. 16.) V&R unipress. Göttingen 2009. 243 S. ISBN 978-3-89971-573-6] / M

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luts-Sootak, Marju, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Dimitri Steinke. Die Zivilrechtsordnungen des Baltikums unter dem Einfluss ausländischer, insbesondere deutscher Rechtsquellen. (Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte ; 16). Göttingen, 2009

  18. Nuclear safety research in HGF 2011; Nukleare Energieforschung 2011. Forschungszentren. Status und Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromm, Walter [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Programm NUKLEAR

    2012-06-15

    After the events at the Japanese nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi, the German federal government decided that Germany will give up electricity generation from nuclear power within a decade. The last reactor will be disconnected from the power grid in 2022. Helping to make this opt-out as safe as possible is one of the duties of the Helmholtz Association with its Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area. Also the demolition of nuclear power plants and the repository problem will keep society, and thus also research, busy for a number of decades to come. Giving up electricity production from nuclear power thus must not mean giving up the required nuclear technology competences. In the fields of reactor safety, demolition, final storage, radiation protection, and crisis management, in critical support of international developments, and for competent evaluation of nuclear facilities around Germany, these competences will be in demand far beyond the German opt-out. This is the reason why the final report by the Ethics Committee on 'Safe Energy Supply' emphasizes the importance of nuclear technology research. Close cooperation on national, European and international levels is indispensable in this effort. Also nuclear safety research in the Helmholtz Association is aligned with the challenges posed by the opt-out of the use of nuclear power. It is important that the high competences in the areas of plant safety and demolition, handling of radioactive waste, and safe final storage as well as radiation protection be preserved. The Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area of the Helmholtz Association therefore will continue studying scientific and technical aspects of the safety of nuclear reactors and the safety of nuclear waste management. These research activities are provident research conducted for society and must be preserved for a long period of time. The work is closely harmonized with the activities of the partners in the Nuclear Competence Association. As of January 2011, the Dresden-Rossendorf Helmholtz Center (HZDR), with its 2 Institutes of Safety Research and for Radiochemistry, is an integral part of the Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area. Both institutes work on topics of safety research for nuclear reactors and safety research for nuclear waste management. In this way, the 2 institutes represent very welcome added value as well as a supplement to the Nuclear Safety Research Program. (orig.)

  19. German energy market 2014; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Energie fuer Deutschland'

    2015-03-15

    In 2014 the German government's primary goal of engaging German power suppliers to step up their production of renewable energy while speeding up energy efficiency improvement measures continued to dominate the debate. The present article provides an updated overview of the German energy market. Following on from last year's edition it gives a condensed synopsis of key indicators of the energy economy. Besides summarising general facts about the energy mix it goes into detail about the following individual energy resources: crude oil, natural gas, brown coal, hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. It also explains current price trends in both the international and domestic markets.

  20. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  1. German energy market 2017; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2018-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply as specified in the energy concept of the Federal Government towards the increased use of renewable energies with simultaneous increase of energy efficiency still determines the market development. In the present case, a current overview of the German energy market 2017 is given, which provides a concentrated compilation of the key figures of the energy industry. As in previous years, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also deals in detail with the development of the individual energy sources oil, natural gas, brown and hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends are explained on the international markets and inland. An overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2017 concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt nach wie vor die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt 2017 gegeben, der eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun und Steinkohle, Kernenergie sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen von 1990 bis 2017 schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  2. Verein Deutscher Kohlenimporteure. Annual report 2000; Verein Deutscher Kohlenimporteure. Jahresbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-25

    Energy economy developments of the world, the EU and West Germany are gone into. The main aspects discussed are the coal market and trade which depends on political decisions and concepts, but also on the availability of other primary energy sources such as oil and nuclear power. The situation of the various countries in the field of coal is illustrated by so-called country reports. (HS) [German] Es wird auf die energiewirtschaftliche Entwicklung sowohl der Welt als auch der europaeischen Union und speziell der Bundesrepublik Deutschland eingegangen. Im Vordergrund steht dabei der Kohlenmarkt und -handel, der von politischen Erscheinungen und Konzepten abhaengig ist, aber auch von der Entwicklung anderer Primaerenergien wie Oel und Kernkraft. In den sogenannten Laenderberichten wird die kohlewirtschaftliche Diskussion einzelner Laender behandelt. (HS)

  3. Verein Deutscher Kohlenimporteure. Annual report 2001; Verein Deutscher Kohlenimporteure. Jahresbericht 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Energy economy developments of the world, the EU and West Germany are gone into. The main aspects discussed are the coal market and trade which depends on political decisions and concepts, but also on the availability of other primary energy sources such as oil and nuclear power. The situation of the various countries in the field of coal is illustrated by so-called country reports. [German] Es wird auf die energiewirtschaftliche Entwicklung sowohl der Welt als auch der europaeischen Union und speziell der Bundesrepublik Deutschland eingegangen. Im Vordergrund steht dabei der Kohlenmarkt und -handel, der von politischen Erscheinungen und Konzepten abhaengig ist, aber auch von der Entwicklung anderer Primaerenergien wie Oel und Kernkraft. In den sogenannten Laenderberichten wird die kohlewirtschaftliche Diskussion einzelner Laender behandelt.

  4. German energy market in 2015; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Energie fuer Deutschland' '

    2016-03-15

    The given basic orientation of the energy concept of the federal government for the German energy supply increased towards renewable energy while increasing energy efficiency determines the market trend. In the present case, a current overview of the German energy market will be given of this year providing a concentrated compilation of the central main features of the energy industry. As in previous years, the article summarizes not only general facts about the energy, but also goes in detail on the development of the individual fuels such as oil, natural gas, lignite and hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends are described in the international markets and in the domestic market. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Kernenergie sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert.

  5. German telecommunications satellite (Deutscher fernmelde satellit) (DFS-1 and -2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendlmeier, G.; Schmeller, H.

    1991-01-01

    The German Telecommunications Satellite (DFS) Program is to provide telecommunications service for high data rate transmission of text and video data to the Federal Republic of Germany within the 11-14 GHz and 20-30 GHz bands. The space segment of this program is composed of three satellites, DFS-1, DFS-2, and DFS-3, which will be located at 23.5 degrees E longitude of the geostationary orbit. The DFS will be launched from the Center Spatial Guyanis in French Giana on an Ariane launch vehicle. The mission follows the typical injection sequence: parking orbit, transfer orbit, and earth orbit. Attitude maneuvers will be performed to orient the spacecraft prior to Apogee Kick Motor (AKM) firing. After AKM firing, drift phase orbital and attitude maneuvers will be performed to place the spacecraft in its final geostationary position. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. Information is presented in tabular form for the following areas: DSN support, compatibility testing, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibilities.

  6. Gustav Steinmann (1856-1929): Ein deutscher Ordinarius der Kaiserzeit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2010-10-01

    Gustav Steinmann (1856-1929) was a typical German professor of the time around the turn of the twentieth century. He was active in all fields of geology, palaeontology and marginally mineralogy with a list of about 200 publications. Unfortunately, only a few documents referring to him exist today. We try to outline some details of his life and his scientific and organisational achievements and discuss some aspects of his somewhat discordant character. The geology (structure, stratigraphy including the Pleistocene) of Chile and Peru was one of his main topics. Extracts from the unpublished fieldbooks of his expeditions (1903/1904 and 1908) are given. Other regional investigations cover the Southern Black Forest, the Swiss folded Jura Mountains and their relationships with the Oberrheingraben, the Alps and Apennines. Another lifelong topic was palaeontology and the theory of evolution. Beside some pioneering scientific discoveries, he published various hypotheses that, however, were purely speculative. By contrast, the discovery of the close association of deep-sea sediments and ophiolites in the Alps and the Apennines (1905, 1927), later named the “Steinmann Trinity”, was to inspire later the theories of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. He also was the first to prove two phases of glacial activity in the Black Forest. On the other hand, he erroneously believed that Middle Europe was once completely covered with ice and that folding in the Swiss Jura produced empty spaces in the cores of anticlines in analogy to folds in the Andes that were “passively filled by diorites”. His ideas about the evolution of organisms were also extremely speculative if not absurd. He constructed lineages that were based only on morphological appearance thus bringing together, e.g. dinosaurs and giraffes. In 1877, Steinmann finished a dissertation on fossil hydrozoa in Munich, and in 1880, as an assistant at the University of Strasbourg, a habilitation on the Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy of parts of Bolivia. In 1885 he was appointed Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Jena. By 1886, he moved to a full professorship to the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, starting a period of wide-ranging activities covering a great variety of subjects in seminars, lectures and often strenuous fieldtrips, for he was also an enthusiastic mountaineer. With the authoritarian style of his period, he kept his staff and students enormously busy in all respects. He successfully convinced the regional government to erect a new institute building that is still in use today. Nevertheless, in 1906, he accepted the chair of geology and palaeontology in Bonn, along with the title of “Geheimer Bergrat”. Once again he successfully built a new institute, along the lines of the one in Freiburg. His ceaseless activity also continued in Bonn. In addition, he founded new scientific societies: in 1907 the “Niederrheinische Geologische Verein” and in 1910 the “Geologische Vereinigung” amongst others. However, he suffered from severe restrictions during World War I, the occupation of Bonn and the financial crisis during the 1920s. In 1924, he retired, and in 1925, his wife passed away. Nevertheless, with the help of former students, his “Geology of Peru” was published in 1929 and a summary of his ophiolite research appeared in 1927 in Madrid. Throughout his life, he attempted to participate in all International Geological Congresses with their long fieldtrips and the opportunities for personal contacts. Steinmann was a multi-faceted personality, some of them quite “sharp”. He had diverse interests and ideas combined with a profound knowledge in many fields. He had enormous energy and also expected the same from others. After a long trip to the Far East he died in 1929 in Bonn. His most important organizational achievement was certainly the foundation of the “Geologische Vereinigung” (1910) with its renowned annual meetings and its journal, the “Geologische Rundschau”. As an academic enterprise, it was both complementary and a counter balance to the “Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft” with its long tradition rooted in the Geological Surveys. Up to his retirement, Steinmann served either as editor or as chairman, posts which remained in Bonn with his successor Hans Cloos. The meetings and the journal were to inform German-speaking geologists about new results and methods in research and teaching, personal news and extensive reviews of relevant literature covering all branches of the science but with emphasis on physical geology. His editorial work and the number of his review articles illustrate how much he felt responsible for the geosciences in general. In scientific discussions, Steinmann used his knowledge and excellent memory to argue with sharp-witted comments that often offended his colleagues. He also caused many controversies in the scientific community because of his partly incredible speculations. These were perhaps reasons why he did not receive any major scientific honours. We give a final illustration of a very different facet of his personality with a touching letter written by his granddaughter who gives a private portrait of him as an admired grandfather.

  7. 20. German materials flow congress; 20. Deutscher Materialfluss-Kongress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 20th German Material Flow Meeting of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) at 14th to 15th April, 2011 in Garching (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) From group logistics to service provider - The innovation process of Hermes Fulfilment GmbH (D. Urbanke); (2) Production structures of the future - Challenges for fabrics through the ages (M. Schenk); (3) Value-driven supply of materials for the implementation of a switching cabinet of great diesel engines (S. Meissner); (4) Material and optimisation of productions with APS - Real operation since January 2008 (M. Mayer); (5) Automation of the material flow in the production - Fully automatic supply of production using the multi-shuttle technology at Siemens site Amberg (M. Paehr); (6) Sustainable enhancement of the process efficiency at Demag Cranes Group (R. Harkort); (7) 'Activity-based logistics' Logistics at Strauss Innovation (A. Witte); (8) A new dimension in e-commerce: Handling of retours at the company Next (UK) - Tendencies and developments in E-Commerce - Handling of increasing quota of retours - A new intralogistic concept approach for handling retours - Green logistics at mail-order companies (V. Welsch); (9) Requirements concerning a tailor-made distribution logistics at office management wholesale trade (R. Barth); (10) New concepts for te distribution logistics - Trading Logistics Center Schweinfurt - The perfect combination of processes and technology for the delivery of an international free spare parts market (T. Nuss); (11) LEAN, BI, APS: Opposition or complementation (A. de Windt); (12) Next E-commerce Generations: How brand manufacturers generate new online sales channels via the utilisation of existing trading structures (M. Thomas); (13) From bus assembly to service provider for spare part logistics - Choice of location (U.J. Unger); (14) Design and implementation of a modular overall logistic system (M. Dombracht); (15) Directly integrated: Storage automation and production connection with SAP EWM/MFS - saturn petfood rises logistical processes on a new quality level (R. Luedecke); (16) An efficient integration of KEP and hazardous material in terms of the delivery process in SAP - How the utilization of a packing dialogue with KEP linking and hazardous material linking directly may function in SAP without using external systems (F. Abel); (17) An optimized and integrated logistics solution with SAP LES at Stabilo International (R. Hackenberg); (18) Monitoring and managing of emissions for the optimization of supply chains and logistics (J. Demmer); Strategies and status of implementation of Green Warehousing (H. Augustin); (19) Calculation of emissions and possibilities of the control in a global logistic network for textiles (O. Kruse); (20) New European regulations in the storage technology - What does that mean for the operator and planner? (W. Manz); (21) Cellular intralogistics - nothing but multi-shuttles in future? (M. ten Hompel); (22) Optimization of industrial truck wheels with plastics bandage by means of experimental and numerical analysis - Enhancement of the lifetime of wheels and rolls consisting of polyurethane (M. Manthey); (23) New out of old, retrofitting of a logistics centre without operational disruption (G. Falke); (24) Epochal development of FTS (G. Ullrich).

  8. 10 Jahre Transparenz in der Aufsichtsratsvergütung deutscher Prime-Standard-Unternehmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Schuchardt, Hendrik; Wolff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    untersuchte Datensatz beinhaltet über 300 Beobachtungen der Prime-Standard-Unternehmen über die Jahre von 2005 bis 2014. Die Auswertung zeigt, dass die Aufsichtsratsvergütung über die vergangenen zehn Jahre einem grundlegenden Transformationsprozess unterlag. Die Vergütungshöhe ist deutlich angestiegen und...... die Vergütungsstruktur hat sich stark verändert. Sowohl Vergütungshöhe als auch Vergütungsstruktur werden signifikant von der Unternehmensgröße bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen jedoch auch, dass eine Übereinstimmung zwischen den an den Aufsichtsrat gestellten Anforderungen einerseits und der...

  9. German congress on X-ray radiography 1981. Deutscher Roentgenkongress 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The book contains abstracts of 280 papers read at the 1981 German X-ray Congress - some abstracts, unfortunately, are not given. The following subjects were discussed: Diagnosis of internal injuries, traumatic lesions of the skull and brain, diagnosis in orthopaedics and ophthalmology, gastric examinations, diagnosis of pancreatitis due to alcoholism, ultrasonographic diagnosis, biopsy, CT diagnosis of the pelvis and nephro-urology, CT-diagnosis of the thorax, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, radiobiology, radiological techniques and other subjects.

  10. Competition on the weg: Product strategies of German utilities; Wettbewerb per Internet. Produktstrategien deutscher Stromversorger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke-Ewald, Andreas [Ernst und Young AG, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Deregulation and regulation of the energy markets pose enormous challenges to German utilities. Further, consumer consultants and internet portals make it easier for consumers to find the best buy, which in turn enhances competition. An attractive online representation makes it possible for utilities to acquire new customers and satisfy regular ones. A current study analysed the web pages of German utilities with the intention to get a picture of the innovative capacity of the product range on offer to private customers. It was found that there is still vast room for improvement. (orig.)

  11. Untersuchung strategischer Marketingkonzeptionen deutscher Handelsunternehmen in Russland am Beispiel der Einzelhandelsbranche

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Durch die zunehmenden wirtschaftlichen Verflechtungen wird auch der russische Markt für deutsche Unternehmen immer interessanter. Im Rahmen der Globalisierung müssen sich die erfolgreichen Unternehmen neu positionieren, um dem anwachsenden Wettbewerbsdruck einerseits entgegen zu treten und andererseits neue Märkte zu entdecken. Gerade auf dem russischen Markt, der durch die wirtschaftsstrukturelle Umorientierung eine hohe Dynamik aufweist, spielen marketingstrategische Entscheidungen über den...

  12. Internationale Markteintrittsstrategien mittelgroßer Industrieunternehmen (MU) : am Beispiel deutscher Unternehmen in der VR China

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Guichen

    2005-01-01

    Aufgrund der Globalisierung der Wirtschaft und der zunehmenden Bedeutung des chinesischen Marktes sind immer mehr Unternehmen mit Fragestellungen, welche die Wahl einer optimalen Markteintrittsstrategie für China betreffen, konfrontiert. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Versuch unternommen, auf Basis einer Kombination von Transaktionskostentheorie, Ressourcenansatz und standorttheoretischen Ansätzen ein Erklärungsmodell zur Entscheidungsunterstützung bei der Wahl der Markteintrittsstrate...

  13. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-ErdgasProduzenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The contribution under consideration is engaged in the foreign activities of German producers of natural gas and oil: Wintershall Holding AG (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), Petro Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), VNG Norge AG (Leipzig), Bavaria gas GmbH (Munich) and EWE AG (Oldenburg). Data according to the petroleum of petroleum and natural gas abroad are published for the period between 2007 and 2009. Besides this, the activities of these companies in individual countries are specified exactly.

  14. Die Weihnachtslieder im Gesangbuch Jesličky (1658) zwischen deutscher Hymnographie und übernationalem Repertoire

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavický, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2012), s. 399-415 ISSN 0018-7003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP406/10/1454 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Christmas songs * Friedrich Bridelius * hymnographie Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. 96. German Roentgen congress of the DRG. Program with abstracts; 96. Deutscher Roentgenkongress der DRG. Vollstaendiges Program mit Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-15

    The volume contains the program and the abstracts of the 96th German Roentgen congress of the DRG covering the following issues: profession and environment caused diseases, medical imaging - image processing - software, experimental radiology, whole-body diagnostics, gastro- and abdomen diagnostics, vascular diagnostics, device technology, heart diagnostics, interventional radiology (vascular diseases, oncology, others), pediatric radiology, contrast agents, head- and neck diagnostics, molecular imaging, musco-skeletal diagnostics, neuroradiology, emergency diagnostics - intensive care, oncologic imaging, quality management, radiation protection, thorax diagnostics.

  16. Post Fukushima change of energy policy. German special way or worldwide example?; Energiewende nach Fukushima. Deutscher Sonderweg oder weltweites Vorbild?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennicke, Peter; Welfens, Paul J.J.

    2012-07-01

    Based on a critical evaluation of the nuclear power discussion the authors show a reasonable way for nuclear phase-out or change to alternative energy sources. Germany has a historically unique key role to show that a climate protecting energy policy without nuclear power can evolve economic and social advantages, in case the right measures are selected and realized. The Fukushima accidents could trigger a paradigm change for the power industry with a worldwide effect toward industrial ecology and democracy. The worldwide underinsurance of nuclear power plants is a trick to reduce the nuclear power cost. Without subsidization of nuclear power there is no need for subsidization of renewable energy sources.

  17. Liability of German suppliers and service providers for foreign projects; Haftung deutscher Lieferanten und Dienstleister bei Auslandsprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Main topic is the question of the extent to which German plant constructors, suppliers, engineering consultants, experts or operators expose themselves to liability for the delivery of their products and services abroad. In principle, in almost all nuclear power countries, liability is channelled to the operator; suppliers and service providers are exempted from liability. However, there are conceivable cases in which this principle does not apply. This can occur, for example, if a major accident is assumed to have an impact on neighbouring countries of the country of destination; here, depending on the applicable law, the German supplier or service provider could be ordered to pay for damages. The risk of liability remaining in this way can be reduced if necessary by means of an exemption clause in the supply contract. The regulation of the operator's recourse to the contractor, insofar as the latter is responsible for the accident, and the - controversial -question of to what extent damage to the plant itself gives rise to claims for damages by the operator against the contractor are also discussed.

  18. Advanced handbook for accident analyses of German nuclear power plants; Weiterentwicklung eines Handbuches fuer Stoerfallanalysen deutscher Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Alexander; Broecker, Annette; Hartung, Juergen; Mayer, Gerhard; Pallas Moner, Guim

    2014-09-15

    The advanced handbook of safety analyses (HSA) comprises a comprehensive electronic collection of knowledge for the compilation and conduction of safety analyses in the area of reactor, plant and containment behaviour as well as results of existing safety analyses (performed by GRS in the past) with characteristic specifications and further background information. In addition, know-how from the analysis software development and validation process is presented and relevant rules and regulations with regard to safety demonstration are provided. The HSA comprehensively covers the topic thermo-hydraulic safety analyses (except natural hazards, man-made hazards and malicious acts) for German pressurized and boiling water reactors for power and non-power operational states. In principle, the structure of the HSA-content represents the analytical approach utilized by safety analyses and applying the knowledge from safety analyses to technical support services. On the basis of a multilevel preparation of information to the topics ''compilation of safety analyses'', ''compilation of data bases'', ''assessment of safety analyses'', ''performed safety analyses'', ''rules and regulation'' and ''ATHLET-validation'' the HSA addresses users with different background, allowing them to enter the HSA at different levels. Moreover, the HSA serves as a reference book, which is designed future-oriented, freely configurable related to the content, completely integrated into the GRS internal portal and prepared to be used by a growing user group.

  19. Environmental policy in the 8th Deutscher Bundestag (Federal Parliament) and Bundesrat (Federal Council) (1976-1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This description of environmental policy is the follow-up to Vol 49 of the ''Materialien'' (material) (Environmental policy in the 7th Federal Parliament). It also covers the main dealings in the Bundesrat (Federal Council). References to terms especially when speeches are quoted, are related to the subject index of the ''Verhandlungen des Dt. Bundestages und Bundesrates'' (''Negotiations of the German Federal Parliament and Federal Council) which are the basis for the booklet mentioned above. Contents: general fundamentals, aspects of structural policy, scientific, technical and organisational fundamentals; international and bilateral cooperation, emission control, waste management, environmental chemicals, protection of nature and landscape, coastal and deep sea waters, nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  20. 97. German Roentgen congress of the DRG. Program with abstracts; 97. Deutscher Roentgenkongress der DRG. Vollstaendiges Programm mit Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The Volume with program and abstracts of the 97. German Roentgen congress of the DRG covers the following issues: The future of radiology - where are we heading? Cardiovascular imaging - the future; brain imaging - the essentials; chest imaging - not only nodules; abdominal imaging - the liver and beyond; muscoskeletal imaging - joints and bones; head and neck radiology - made easy.

  1. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas in 2011; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-Erdgas-Produzenten in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-04-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the foreign activities of the German producers of petroleum/natural gas Wintershall Holding GmbH (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), Petro-Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), VNG Verbundnetz Gas Aktiengesellschaft (Leipzig), Bayerngas Norge AS (Oslo, Norway) und EWE Aktiengesellschaft (Oldenburg) in the year 2011. In Norway, Wintershall has more than fourty licences, around twenty of tem self-operated. RWE DEA has the operating lead at five from nine field development projects. At E.ON Ruhrgas AG, the exploration and production are a high-growth segment with good perspectives in the future. In Norway, Bayerngas Norge As promoted nearly 6.3 billion kWh gas equivalent in 2011.

  2. Anmerkungen zu Goethe : eine psychoanalytische Untersuchung über Goethe als Repräsentant deutscher Kultur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaus, Rainer J.

    1994-01-01

    De oorspronkelijke aanleiding tot dit onderzoek was de invloedrijke psychoanalytische studie in twee delen van K.R. Eissler, Goethe: A Psychoanalytic Study 1775-1786, oorspronkelijk verschenen in de Verenigde Staten (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1963), in Duitse vertaling bij uitgeverij Stroemfeld/Roter

  3. Rezension zu: Rebecca Pates, Daniel Schmidt: Die Verwaltung der Prostitution. Eine vergleichende Studie am Beispiel deutscher, polnischer und tschechischer Kommunen. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Künkel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Die aus dem Forschungsprojekt ‚Verwaltung der Prostitution‘ an der Universität Leipzig heraus entstandene Publikation geht der Frage nach, welche Problemdefinitionen, Kategorisierungen und Wissensbestände lokale Verwaltungsakteure/-innen in Deutschland, Polen und Tschechien der Prostitutionsregulierung zugrunde legen. Die Studie zeigt, dass teilautonomes Verwaltungshandeln Recht nicht nur umsetzt, sondern auch produziert. Durch den Fokus auf die lokale Ebene der Prostitutionsregulierung und durch den staatsethnographischen Zugang ist die Monographie in zweierlei Hinsicht innovativ. Lediglich etwas mehr Informationen zum methodischen Vorgehen sowie ein expliziteres Aufgreifen der theoretischen Konzepte bei der Aufbereitung des empirischen Materials wären wünschenswert gewesen.

  4. Wie bewerten die Fluggäste den Klimaeinsatz und die Klimakommunikation von Fluggesellschaften? - eine empirische Studie der Haltungen deutscher und dänischer Flugreisenden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    . Wittmer (2010) hat die Haltung der Fluggäste der SWISS quantitativ untersucht und festgestellt, dass der Klimaeinsatz die Fluggäste anspricht und die Kommunikation darüber positiv auf das Image einwirkt. Diese Studie trägt jedoch den bei Larsen & Pedersen (2010) aufgedeckten Unterschieden nicht Rechnung......, sind: - Inwieweit unterscheiden sich die Passagierhaltungen bezüglich der Klimakommunikation und der erwarteten Klima-Einsatzgebiete? - Inwieweit beeinflusst die Klimakommunikation der Fluggesellschaften ihr Image und ihre Identität? Die auf bisherigen Untersuchungen gegründete Hypothese ist, dass die...

  5. Medical aspects of renewable energy shown by the example of German hospitals; Umweltmedizinische Gesichtspunkte der regenerativen Energieerzeugung am Beispiel deutscher Krankenhaeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waschnewski, R.

    2007-07-01

    To what extend are renewable energy sources used in German hospitals? This is the main objective, this is paper is dealing with. The energy consumption profile is very specific in hospitals. In a questionnaire based study, 79 hospitals have been questioned to elucidate the current situation in German hospitals with respect to energy consumption, and to get an idea of the proportion of alternative energy sources already in use. Our analysis reveals that 14% of the hospitals analysed are already using renewable energy sources. Main sources already utilized are photovoltaic, solar thermal devices, and to a lower extend geothermic energy as well comes into operation. Almost three quarters of the questioned institutions claim, they are aware of funding possibilities and the option of contracting with respect to providing financial support in relation to aquisition of new establishments of alternative energy systems within their institution. Roughly half of the hospital's technical supervisors are aware of the precise energy potential of their institution. The situation about information and awareness with respect to possibilities related to the usage of green energy is deficient and should be improved, but the openness with respect to the topic in general seems to be very positive and advantage of that climate should be taken. Our survey allowed to get an initial estimate on the green energy situation in German hospitals. The focus of the discussion is channeled towards the environmental aspects of the energy production. The survey data allow to conclude that the current information situation is deficient. The data further provide insight into what are the main barriers with respect to the use of renewable energy. Based on our results future analyses can not focus on specific aspects and further evaluate approaches allowing to extend the usage of alternative energy sources in hospitals. (orig.)

  6. Corporate Governance - een Nederlands-Duits rechtscultureel perspectief = ein niederländisch-deutscher rechtskultureller Überblick = a comparison of Dutch and German legal cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedorn, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sinds de boekhoudkundige schandalen zoals Enron en Worldcom heeft de discussie omtrent goed ondernemingsbestuur vaart gekregen en aan het begin van deze eeuw tot de invoering van corporate governance codes voor beursgenoteerde ondernemingen in Nederland en Duitsland geleid. Anders dan soms wordt

  7. Technology and globalization: the 15th World Petroleum Congress as viewed by German industry; Technologie und Globalisierung: Der 15. Welt-Erdoel-Kongress aus deutscher Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitkamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie I

    1998-03-01

    For the 15th World Petroleum Congress, held from 12 to 16 October 1997 in Peking, the programme committee had chosen the following central motto: `Technology and globalization - Leading the Petroleum Industry into the 21st Century`. For the petroleum and natural gas industry, this congress represents the most important international forum for discussing technical, economic, and increasingly also ecological issues. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Fuer den 15. Welt-Erdoel-Kongress, der vom 12. bis 16. Oktober 1997 in Peking abgehalten wurde, hatte das Programmkomitee als Leitthema `Technology and Globalisation - Leading the Petroleum Industry into the 21st Century` gewaehlt. Der Kongress stellt fuer die Erdoel- und Erdgasindustrie das bedeutendste internationale Forum fuer eine Diskussion technischer, oekonomischer und zunehmend auch oekologischer Fragen. (orig./HS)

  8. Market monitoring. Globalization of professional education for engineers. Chances and market potentials of German sellers; Marktsondierung. Internationalisierung beruflicher Weiterbildung fuer Ingenieure. Chancen und Marktpotenziale deutscher Anbieter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, W.; Baron, W.; Zweck, A.

    2002-09-01

    A market monitoring study was carried to determine which countries and which business fields offer opportunities for developing promising activities. The results of the market monitoring study, which was carried out by the VDI Technology Centre, will also be made available to other interested training institutions with a view to promoting the globalisation of professional education for engineers. The following countries were included in the study: USA, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Spain. The study focused chiefly on technically specialised staff and executives. As regards products and services the main focus is on training events with a short runtime and areas where there is a strong interest in the globalisation of training providers. [German] Mittels einer Marktsondierung wurde untersucht, in welchen Laendern und in welchen Geschaeftsfeldern aussichtsreiche Aktivitaeten entfaltet werden koennen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Marktuntersuchung des VDI-Technologiezentrums werden auch weiteren interessierten Weiterbildungseinrichtungen zur Verfuegung gestellt, um auf diese Weise einen Beitrag zur staerkeren Internationalisierung beruflicher Weiterbildung fuer Ingenieure zu leisten. Die Studie analysiert folgende Ziellaender: USA, Belgien, Frankreich, Grossbritannien, Irland, Niederlande, Schweden und Spanien. Als Zielgruppe werden technische Fach- und Fuehrungskraefte fokussiert. Als moegliche Produkte und Dienstleistungen stehen Veranstaltungen mit relativ kurzer Laufzeit und Handlungsfelder im Vordergrund, die fuer eine Internationalisierung der Weiterbildungsanbieter von besonderem Interesse sind. (orig.)

  9. 94th German Roentgen congress. Program and abstracts; 94. Deutscher Roentgenkongress ''Radiologie ist Zukunft''. Vollstaendiges Kongressprogramm und Abstracts der wissenschaftlichen Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The volume includes the abstracts of the 94th German Roentgen congress concerning the following topics: Interventional oncology; mammary carcinoma; medical care and imaging; news in radio-oncology; regional therapy of lung malign tumors; medical ontology intelligent searching strategy; image fusion; oncology - imaging in screening; cardiovascular emergency - an update; innovations in the physics of radiology; risk management and budget; mobile computing; mammary diagnostics; elucidation and liability benchmarking in radiology; cost and performance in the medical office; research: innovation or self-purpose; cost refunding PET/CT and MRT PET; economic strategy in health care; options of radiological practice in medical offices and hospitals; trends in imaging; radiological diagnostics in emergency cases; X-ray regulations; neuroradiology; muscuskeletal radiology; chest radiology; pediatric radiology, radiation protection for the medical personnel.

  10. Model calculations of the space and time distribution of cooling tower clouds on the basis of aerological data delivered by the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a large amount of aerological data, the simulation model for cooling tower cloud propagation Smoka has been used to allow for a statistical evaluation of the influence of cooling towers. In addition to local differences, the annual and daily variations in the formation of clouds can be obtained together with the dependence on the cloud coverage conditions and the cooling tower characteristics. With these model calculations of the cooling tower clouds, the respective decrease in sunshine duration can be evaluated. (orig.) [de

  11. ESR modes in a Strong-Leg Ladder in the Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, S.; Ozerov, M.; Maksymenko, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Honecker, A.; Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M.; Furuya, S. C.; Giamarchi, T.

    Magnetic excitations in the strong-leg quantum spin ladder compound (C7H10N)2CuBr4 (known as DIMPY) in the field-induced Tomonaga-Luttinger spin liquid phase are studied by means of high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The presence of a gapped ESR mode with unusual non-linear frequency-field dependence is revealed experimentally. Using a combination of analytic and exact diagonalization methods, we compute the dynamical structure factor and identify this mode with longitudinal excitations in the antisymmetric channel. We argue that these excitations constitute a fingerprint of the spin dynamics in a strong-leg spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder and owe its ESR observability to the uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. This work was partially supported by the DFG and Helmholtz Gemeinschaft (Germany), Swiss SNF under Division II, and ERC synergy UQUAM project. We acknowledge the support of the HLD at HZDR, member of the European Magnetic Field Laboratory (EMFL).

  12. Langfristige Wiedereingliederung nach der beruflichen Rehabilitation : Ergebnisse einer Langzeituntersuchung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Berufsförderungswerke (Long-term reintegration after occupational rehabilitation : results of a longitudinal study by the working group of German occupational rehabilitation centres)

    OpenAIRE

    Beiderwieden, Kay

    2001-01-01

    "In Germany a complex system of rehabilitation has developed in which the occupational rehabilitation centres (Berufsförderungswerken) are allocated the occupational rehabilitation of the 'more difficult cases'. In order to investigate how many of those undergoing rehabilitation find work after completing the training measure, the occupational rehabilitation centres have been conducting so-called 'follow-up surveys' since the mid-1960s. In addition to short-term and medium-term follow-up surv...

  13. Review: Dirk Michel (2009. Politisierung und Biographie. Politische Einstellungen deutscher Zionisten und Holocaustüberlebender [Political Socialization and Biography: German Zionists and Holocaust Survivors and Their Political Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bressan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How do extraordinary experiences, especially during childhood and adolescence, affect political attitudes? Most studies focusing on political movements only implicitly address the connection between biographical experiences and political attitudes. Moreover, a detailed understanding of these impacts often remains merely hypothetical. Biographical studies increasingly address the relationship between politics and biography through empirical and hermeneutic approaches. For his doctoral thesis, Dirk MICHEL conducts autobiographical narrative interviews with 20 Jewish Israelis. Based on their extraordinary biographical experiences, MICHEL categorized the interviewees into two groups—the "German Zionists" and the "German Holocaust survivors." He then conducts semi-structured interviews with each of the participants with the aim of analyzing their political attitudes. However, the conceptual categorization of the interviewees, the empirical investigation of the research question and the subsequent analysis all challenge the underpinning theoretical and methodological concepts of the study. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203165

  14. Building Energy Management Systems BEMS, German contribution to the IEA research projects Annex 16 and 17. Building Energy Management System BEMS; deutscher Beitrag zu den IEA-Forschungsvorhaben Annex 16 und 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H.; Stephan, W.; Madjidi, M. (Univ. Stuttgart, IKE, Abt. HLK (Germany)); Brendel, T.; Schneider, A. (Ingenieurbuero Dr. Brendel, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Ast, H.; Kellner, H. (IFB, Dr. R. Braschel GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    As part of the IEA project Annex 16 and 17 Germany carries out the project Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS). With digital control systems energetic and low-cost operation of space hvac systems can be attained. The project aims at abolishing impediments to efficient use of energy. Potential savings are shown for three examples: A conventional heating system for an office building, a VAV system (circulating air, heating, cooling, washer humidifcation) for an office building and VAV systems (FWRG, heating, cooling, steam humidification) for an office building in compact design. (BWI).

  15. 95. German Roentgen congress and 7. joint congress of the DRG and OeRG. Program with abstracts; 95. Deutscher Roentgenkongress und 7. Gemeinsamer Kongress von DRG und OeRG. Vollstaendiges Programm mit Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, Stefan; Lammer, Johannes (eds.)

    2014-05-15

    The volume contains the program and the abstracts of the 95th German Roentgen congress and the 7th joint congress of the DRG and OeRG. The radiological focal points of the congress were thorax radiology (pneumology: lung fibrosis, emphysema); oncological radiology: skeletal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, kidneys, lung metastases, primary liver carcinoma, liver metastases. Further topics included radiology in hospitals and medical centers, tele-radiology, ambulant health care, legal issues, financial accounting and management issues. Several courses an specific radiological issues and radiological techniques were offered, including radiation protection and legal aspects.

  16. Criminal law in the system of legal instruments under environmental law. Shown by examples of German and U.S. American clean air policy; Das Strafrecht im System umweltrechtlicher Instrumentarien. Am Beispiel deutscher und US-amerikanischer Luftreinhaltepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, B.M. von

    1995-12-31

    The authoress presents an analysis of the entire range of governmental instruments and measures and their systematic interlacement, as available under the German or the U.S. American law for protection of the environment. This analysis is the basis for the subsequent study aiming at clarifying the legitimacy and the required design of laws and regulations defining crimes and sanctions or penalties in the system of environmental law. The authoress derives a characterisation of legislative intent and mode of application of environmental criminal law which differs from that of the ``classic`` criminal law. Pursuing from this characterisation of legal instruments and methods, and from the framework of governmental action and related alternatives available under U.S. legislation, the authoress explains a number of appoaches recommended for reform and amendment of the current German system of environmental criminal law, which hitherto has shown low efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Autorin nimmt eine Analyse der Gesamtheit staatlicher Massnahmen und ihrer systematischen Beziehungen im deutschen und US-amerikanischen Umweltrecht vor. Diese Analyse bildet die Grundlage der zentralen Frage der Untersuchung nach der Legitimitaet und notwendigen Struktur umweltstrafrechtlicher Normen. Dabei kommt die Autorin zu einer vom klassischen Kernstrafrecht abweichenden Funktionsbestimmung des Umweltstrafrechts. Ausgehend von dieser Positionsbestimmung des Strafrechts und den in den USA vorgefundenen Handlungsalternativen entwickelt die Autorin eine Reihe von Reformvorschlaegen als Antwort auf die derzeitige Ineffizienz der des deutschen Umweltstrafrechts. (orig.)

  17. Survey of the energy market in Germany in 2000. Primary energy consumption - carbon dioxide emissions - mineral oil - lignite - coal - natural gas - electricity - energy prices - import bill; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2000. Primaerenergie - Treibhausgas-Emissionen - Mineraloel - Braunkohle - Steinkohle - Erdgas - Elektrizitaet - Energiepreise - Importrechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.W. [RWE Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    Primary energy consumption in Germany in 2000 amounted to 483.6m tonnes of coal equivalent and thus decreased by 0.2%, as compared to 1999. The comprehensive survey consists of tabulated data and explanatory comments relating to the developments linked to the various energy sources, change of energy mix, generation technologies and systems, demand factors and consumer behavior, carbon dioxide emissions, renewable energies and cogeneration and the government policies, imports and prices. (orig./CB) [German] Der Primaerenergieverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland belief sich im Jahr 2000 auf 483,6 Millionen Tonnen Steinkohleneinheiten (Mio. t SKE), d.h. er war 0,2% niedriger als im Vorjahr. Hinsichtlich der Entwicklung in 2000 im Vergleich zu 1999 wurden u.a. folgende Tendenzen festgestellt: 1. Wandel im Energiemix. 2. Rueckgang der CO2-Emissionen, ausser im Verkehrssektor. 3. Gestiegenes Mineraloelaufkommen, aber veraenderte Zusammensetzung. 4. Anstieg bei Gewinnung und Einsatz von Braunkohle, Verringerung bei Steinkohle. Die Daten werden erlaeutert, wobei auch auf geaenderte rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen und die neuere Energiepolitik hingewiesen wird. (orig./CB)

  18. Catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events; Anforderungskatalog fuer anlagenbezogene Ueberpruefungen deutscher Kernkraftwerke unter Beruecksichtigung der Ereignisse in Fukushima-I (Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-30

    The catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events worked out by the German RSK (reactor safety commission) includes the following inspection topics: natural events like earth quakes, floods, weather-based consequences and possible superposition; civilization-based events like airplane crash, gas release, reactor accident consequences for neighboring units, terroristic impacts, external attacks on computer-based control systems. Further event-independent assumptions have to be considered: station blackout, long-term emergency power supply requirement, failure of auxiliary cooling water supply, efficacy of preventive measures, aggravating boundary conditions for the performance of emergency measures.

  19. Views on information literacy / Sichten auf Informationskompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Hapke, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Poster (in English and German language) illustrating different views on information literacy. Poster in deutscher und englischer Sprache zur Veranschaulichung verschiedener Sichten auf Informationskompetenz.

  20. Sing, immer sing

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, Erna

    1993-01-01

    Sing, immer sing : fünf Chorlieder für Frauenst. nach Worten von William Shakespeare. - In: Deutscher Chor-Wettbewerb : 3. Deutscher Chor-Wettbewerb ´90. - Freiburg : dt. harmonia mundi. - Vol. 3. (p 1993). - Compact disc (digital). - Best.-Nr. HM/DMR 2052-2

  1. Calendar of Selected Aeronautical & Space Meetings (Calendrier des Manifestations Aeronautiques et Spatiales (Selection)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    de l’Atmospbhre et Environnement terrestre 68 09 - Information, Documentation et Informatique 73 10 - Themes g~n~raux (pluridisciplinaires) et divers...76019 US VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker: Zentrastelle Tagungen, Stresemannallee 21, D-6000 Frankfurt-am-Main 70 GE VDI Verein Deutscher

  2. Ownership unbundling in the electric power industry. Reconcilability with German constitutional law and with EU law relating to German vertically integrated utilities; Ownership unbundling in der Energiewirtschaft. Vereinbarkeit einer eigentumsrechtlichen Entflechtung in der Energiewirtschaft mit den Grundrechten des Grundgesetzes und des Gemeinschaftsrechts deutscher vertikal integrierter Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachovius, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The publication investigates legal problems relating to ownership unbundling of vertically integrated utilities according to new EU law, especially the draft directive of the EU Commission of 19 September 2007. After a definition of the term and its historical development, the problem of law giving competence of the EU is discussed. Another issue is the problem if a new structure of European and German energy law is compatible with the basic laws defined in EU law and German constitutional law, namely with the principle of guarantee of ownership, professional freedom, and general freedom of action.

  3. New challenges to public utilities. Shaping change - first German I.I.R. energy congress in Wiesbaden on 21/22 March 1995; Neue Herausforderungen in der Versorgungswirtschaft. Den Wandel gestalten - 1. Deutscher I.I.R.-Energiekongress am 21./22. Maerz 1995 in Wiesbaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, F

    1995-05-01

    The issues discussed at the First German I.I.R. Energy Congress comprise various aspects of a public supplies system undergoing conversion: changed framework conditions; customer grooming measures in core business areas; diversification into appropriate new fields of business; consequences of these processes for personnel management; and steering and control of the transformation process through efficient Controlling. The congress was organised jointly by the Institute for International Research (I.I.R.) and ``et``. It attracted around 250 participants and was flanked by the proclamation of the 1995 Energy Management Award. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aktuelle Aspekte der Versorgungswirtschaft im Umbruch, von den veraenderten Rahmenbedingungen ueber Kundenbindungsmassnahmen im Stammgeschaeft, Diversifikation in geeignete neue Geschaeftsfelder, die Konsequenzen dieser Prozesse fuer die Personalwirtschaft, bis zur Steuerung und Kontrolle der Transformation durch effizientes Controlling, waren Thema des 1. Deutschen I.I.R.-Energiekongresses, gemeinsam ausgerichtet vom Institute for International Research (I.I.R) und der ``et``. Die Verleihung des Energie Management Award `95 sowie eine Fachausstellung flankierten die von rund 250 Teilnehmern besuchte Veranstaltung. (orig.)

  4. Dictionary of legal, commercial and political terms with commentaries in German and English. Pt. 2. German-English, incorporating American usage. 3. ed. Woerterbuch fuer Recht, Wirtschaft und Politik mit Kommentaren in deutscher und englischer Sprache. T. 2. Deutsch-Englisch, einschliesslich der Besonderheiten des amerikanischen Sprachgebrauchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietl, C E

    1988-01-01

    The progressive internationalization of law, economics and politics, together with the brisk demand for the existing dictionary, have made a new edition necessary only a short time after the appearance of the second edition. The stock of technical vocabulary has been expanded substantially through the updating of old concepts and the incorporation of new terms arising from laws, commentaries, international agreements, financial innovations and neologisms in specialized literature, daily press, etc. As with earlier editions, expressions with more than one meaning are itemized and provided with the appropriate translation variants. The use of keywords is clarified by showing them in the context of model sentences. Cross-references to related terms and to sources furnish the user with further information. (orig.).

  5. German planning atlas. Vol. 1: North Rhine Westphalia. No. 11. Brown coal 2 - ownership of brown coal deposits, resettlement, surface balance, coal, rock, and energy economy, future developments. Deutscher Planungsatlas. Bd. 1: Nordrhein-Westfalen. Nr. 11. Braunkohle 2 - Feldesbesitz, Umsiedlung, Grundwasser, Flaechenbilanz, Kohle-, Abraum- und Energiewirtschaft, kuenftige Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In map No. III of the atlas on the develpment of Rhenish coal mining, the ownership in brown coal deposits and planning, resettlement, ground water and an area balance are presented. Map No. IV discusses coal economy, rock economy, energy economy, structure and development. Details are described in the text.

  6. Communication of corporate responsibility measures as pictured by the practice of communication of the climate protection engagement of German and Australian energy companies; Die Kommunikation von Corporate Responsibility-Massnahmen dargestellt an der Praxis der Kommunikation des Klimaschutz-Engagements deutscher und australischer Energieunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, Christian

    2013-06-01

    In his assessment of the CSR communication practices (CSR - corporate social responsibility) the author of the book under consideration reports on a conflictual field of action for the takeover of social responsibility which is discussed highly controversial in the public. The realization of the idea of climate protection in their corporate strategies by large energy companies is discussed. Politics and society see a special responsibility for climate protection in such energy companies which may influence the market by means of active corporate actions due to their size or business segments.

  7. Strategische Beschaffung: Grundlagen, Planung und Umsetzung eines integrierten Supply Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, A.J.; Eßig, M.

    2017-01-01

    Dieses Buch bietet – erstmalig in deutscher Übersetzung – eine umfassende und sehr anschauliche Darstellung zu Grundlagen, Planung und Umsetzung einer modernen Beschaffungsfunktion. Beschaffung und Supply Management werden dabei als wesentliches Bindeglied innerhalb des Managementsystems eines

  8. Netzformen und VDE-Bestimmungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Herbert

    Der Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) hat eine Reihe von Vorschriften ausgearbeitet, die dem Schutz von Leben und Sachen beim Umgang mit elektrischer Energie dienen. Besonders wichtig sind die in den VDE-Bestimmungen 0100 und 0411 festgelegten Vorschriften.

  9. Studies on the deterministic and probabilistic assessment of external effects. Deterministic investigation of the robustness of German nuclear power plants against external effects under consideration of actual findings on the events to be assumed; Untersuchungen zur deterministischen und probabilistischen Bewertung von Einwirkungen von aussen (EVA-Ereignisse). Deterministische Untersuchung der Widerstandsfaehigkeit deutscher Kernkraftwerke gegen Einwirkungen von aussen, unter Beruecksichtigung aktueller Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich der anzusetzenden Einwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperbeck, Silvio; Strack, Christian; Thuma, Gernot

    2013-11-15

    The aim of the analyses on natural hazards described in this report was to evaluate the advantages of innovative hazard assessment methods available today over the hazard assessment methods commonly applied for German nuclear power plant sites in the past. For each hazard under consideration (earthquake, flooding, and wind loads) it has been assessed whether the new methods provide additional insights that could call for their mandatory application in future site specific hazard assessments. If no additional insights are gained, the hitherto applied methods can be considered adequate according to today's standards. In the context of this work, no areas could be identified where the hazard assessment methods stipulated in German (nuclear) regulations are generally inadequate. These methods that are commonly applied in practice do not seem to be prone to significantly underestimate the site specific hazard. Nevertheless, some newer methods allow for more precise (reduction of uncertainties) and more comprehensive (consideration of additional hazard characteristics) hazard assessments. Therefore, depending on the hazard under consideration, it could be advisable to supplement future site specific hazard assessments by some additional analyses. As the methods for some of these additional analyses are not yet fully developed, further research will be necessary to enable these amendments.

  10. Neustart des LHC CERN und die Beschleuniger : die Weltmaschine anschaulich erklärt

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Hauschild führt den Leser dieses essentials zurück zu den Anfängen des CERN, des Europäischen Forschungszentrums für Teilchenphysik bei Genf; einem der faszinierendsten Forschungszentren überhaupt, zu seiner Geschichte, zu seinen Menschen und seinen Beschleunigern. Der Autor erläutert die Funktionsweise von Teilchenbeschleunigern und wie ausgehend von den ersten Ideen schließlich der Large Hadron Collider LHC gebaut wurde, der größte Teilchenbeschleuniger der Welt und die heutige Weltmaschine. Nach einer Pause von mehr als zwei Jahren wurde der LHC im Frühjahr 2015 wieder in Betrieb genommen, um mit höherer Energie als je zuvor die Geheimnisse der Natur zu enträtseln.

  11. Das lexikographische Beispiel in der Parömiographie. Formen und ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    „idealtypischen“ Fällen erarbeitet.9 Funktional ausgerichtet sind auch Arbeiten von Nikula (1986) und ... bar wird. In den wenigen (germanistischen) Arbeiten, die sich ausdrücklich mit der lexi- kographischen ...... Budapest: Gesellschaft ungarischer Germanisten/Bonn: Deutscher Akademischer. Austauschdienst. Kispál ...

  12. Zapojení německy píšících badatelů do dvou projektů soupisů památek v českých zemích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlíková, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2013), s. 25-46 ISSN 1803-9448 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : sight inventories * Archaeology Commission of Czech Academy of Science and Art (CASA) * historiography of history of art * Gesellschaft zur Förderung deutscher Wissenschaft, Kunst und Literatur in Böhmen Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. Annual report 1978. [Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    In the 1978 annual reports of the Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW), the Bundesverband der deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft (BGW), and the Technische Vereinigung der Firmen im Gas- und Wasserfach e.V. (FIGAWA), the activities of organisations and Laender groups are dealt with, as well as tasks, work, and sales promotion measures.

  14. Resolution concerning the preconditions of an effective energy policy with in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The resolution of the European Parliament of March 11sup(th), 1983 deals with all problems of energy policy. It will be transmitted to the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (Deutscher Bundestag) and to the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesregierung). (HSCH) [de

  15. Resolution concerning the preconditions of an effective energy policy of the Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The resolution of the European Parliament of March 11th, 1983 deals with all problems of energy policy. It will be transmitted to the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (Deutscher Bundestag) and to the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesregierung). (HSCH) [de

  16. Calendar of Selected Aeronautical and Space Meetings July 1987 (Calendrier des Manifestations Aeronautiques et Spatiales (Selection) Juillet 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    terrestre 74 09 - Information, Documentation et Informatique 78 10 - Themes g~n~raux (pluridisciplinaires) et divers 92 11 - Salons et Expositions 98...Australia: Nedlands 6009, Western Australia OS VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker: Zentralstelle Tagungen. Stresemannallee 2 1. D-6000 Frankfurt-am

  17. Calendar of Selected Aeronautical & Space Meetings, January 1990 (Calendrier des Manifestations Aeronautiques et Spatiales (Selection) Janvier 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    38 08 - Physique de I’Atmosph~re et Environnement terrestre 51 09 - Information, Documentation et Informatique 55 10 - Themes g&n~raux...Lancaster 32, B-I 1180 Bruxelles. Tel. 02 374 13 08 BE VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker:- Zentraistelle Tagungen, Stresemann-Allee 15. D-6000

  18. Strengthening German Programs through Community Engagement and Partnerships with Saturday Morning Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebrandt, Josef

    2014-01-01

    German university programs can increase enrollments and diversify their curricula through academic community partnerships with surrounding schools. This article informs about two community-supported initiatives between the German Studies Program at Santa Clara University and the South Bay Deutscher Schulverein, a Saturday Morning School in…

  19. Ringtest to evaluate four methods of resistance testing in fodder radish against Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Berg, van den W.; Korthals, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    To measure levels of resistance in fodder radish cultivars a reliable, objective and cost effective testing method is required. In 2006 German and Dutch plant breeder’s organizations (Bundesverband Deutscher Pflanzenzüchter; BDP and Plantum), a number of research institutes (PRI, PPO (WUR) and JKI)

  20. Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and

  1. E-Books in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Niemeyer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Die zweitägige Veranstaltung „E-Books in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken, die am 18. und 19. März 2014 im Leibnizhaus in Hannover stattfand, beschäftigte sich mit verschiedenen Aspekten von E-Books. So standen unter anderem Themen wie die Nutzung von E-Books, Erwerbungsmodelle und Lizenzverträge auf dem Programm. Organisiert wurde die Veranstaltung von Technischen Informationsbibliothek (TIB und dem Verein Deutscher Bibliothekare (VDB.

  2. Funktionen des Sports im modernen Staat und in der modernen Diktatur

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Kai; Krüger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    'Die Argumentation grenzt sich von der Eigenweltthese des Sports ab und gibt einen Überblick über Funktionen, die verschiedenen Formen von Gymnastik, Turnen und Sport im modernen Staat und in der modernen Diktatur übernehmen konnten. Theoretischer Hintergrund der Darstellung ist die Macht- und Subjekttheorie Michel Foucaults. In Beispielen aus dem 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts wird deutlich, dass sich staatliche Körpererziehung in preußisch-deutscher Tradition als 'Technologie der Macht' verstehen...

  3. Beiträge zu einer vergleichenden Soziologie der Polizei

    OpenAIRE

    Grutzpalk, Jonas; Schülzke, Björn; Mochan, Christiane; Fatianova, Julia; Bruhn, Anja; Harnisch, Franziska; Zischke, Tanja; Ellenbeck, Saskia; Graßmann, Mathias; Sixtus, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Soziologische Polizeiforschung hebt zumeist folgende Aspekte der Polizei hervor: Ihre Zuständigkeit für öffentliche Sicherheit, ihr Einsatz von Gewalt im Namen eines staatlichen Gewaltmonopols, die Tätigkeit des Polizisten als Beruf. Häufig wird auch die Verwurzelung des Polizeiwesens in okzidentalen Kulturen hervorgehoben. In dieser kulturvergleichenden Studie werden diese Punkte anhand historischer und nicht-deutscher Polizeien untersucht. 1. Sicherheit: Wie in Gesellschaften, in denen es e...

  4. Vergleich verschiedener Beurteilungsverfahren an Röntgenbildern des Ellbogengelenkes beim Deutschen Schäferhund und Rottweiler unter Berücksichtigung des Einflusses der Lagerung als Basis einer züchterischen Selektion gegen die Ellbogengelenksdysplasie

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, drei Bewertungsverfahren zur Beurteilung der Ellbogengelenksdysplasie bei Hunden der Rasse Deutscher Schäferhund und Rottweiler miteinander zu vergleichen. Hierbei sollte insbesondere ein Einfluss der Lagerung während der Röntgenaufnahme überprüft werden. Bewertet wurden Röntgenaufnahmen von 19.798 Deutschen Schäferhunden und 2.430 Rottweiler, von denen bereits ein offizieller ED – Befund vorlag. Es erfolgte eine Beurteilung entsprechend der zwei Punktesch...

  5. Electrochemical energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreysa, G.; Juettner, K.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings encompass 40 conference papers belonging to the following subject areas: Baseline and review papers; electrochemical fuel cells; batteries: Primary and secondary cells; electrochemical, regenerative systems for energy conversion; electrochemical hydrogen generation; electrochemistry for nuclear power plant; electrochemistry for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; energy efficiency in electrochemical processes. There is an annex listing the authors and titles of the poster session, and compacts of the posters can be obtained from the office of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Abteilung Tagungen. (MM) [de

  6. Investigation of the characteristics of multicrystalline silicon for solar cell production: Defects in crystalline silicon (DIXSI). Final report; Verbesserung des Materialverstaendnisses von multikristallinem Silicium fuer Solarzellen: Defekte in kristallinem Silicium (DIXSI). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kittler, M. [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik GmbH, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany); Wolf, E. [Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (IKZ) (Germany); Breitenstein, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle/Saale (Germany); Schulz, M.; Pensl, G.; Strunk, H.P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften; Schroeter, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). 4. Physikalisches Inst. - Halbleiterphysik; Gottschalk, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Moeller, H.J. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Physik

    1997-02-01

    The report describes trends and advances in the fabrication of solar cells from silicon. The investigations were restricted to mc-Si and GZ-Si wafers from German producers and on solar cells made from these. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Bericht beschreibt die Entwicklung und die Fortschritte bei der Fabrikation von Siliziumsolarzellen. Die Untersuchungen wurden auf mc-Si und GZ-Si-Scheiben deutscher Hersteller und auf daraus von der deutschen Industrie gefertigte Solarzellen beschraenkt. (HW)

  7. La théorie de la diplomatie dans le Saint Empire Romain

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Wolfgang E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Principes Dans ce que l’on nomme officiellement, depuis 1500 environ jusqu’à sa fin en 1806, le Saint Empire romain de la nation allemande (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation), le développement de la théorie de la diplomatie, autrement dit de conceptions relatives aux diplomates et à la diplomatie, est le fait d’élites soucieuses de mieux comprendre des problèmes posé...

  8. Blended Learning in der Musiklehrerbildung. Erfahrungen und Perspektiven am Beispiel eines Praxisprojekts

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In der Lehrerbildung zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts wird einem hohen Bezug zum Berufsfeld Schule, phasenübergreifender Zusammenarbeit und lebenslangem Lernen zunehmend Bedeutung geschenkt. Mehr und mehr kommt in Veröffentlichungen und auf den Internetseiten von Lehrerbildungszentren deutscher Universitäten ein umfassendes Verständnis von Lehrerbildung zum Ausdruck, das alle Phasen der Aus- und Fortbildung von Lehrkräften einschließt: Studium, Vorbereitungsdienst („Referendariat“) und Fortbild...

  9. Politische Graffiti als Instrument der Sozialraumforschung in Konfliktregionen - das Beispiel Baskenland

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzel, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Die zwischen Sozialpädagogik und Kriminologie interdisziplinär angelegte Arbeit beleuchtet im empirischen Verfahren und diesbezüglich erstmals in deutscher Sprache die Charakteristik baskischer politischer Graffiti und ihre Rolle in einer konfliktgeladenen Gesellschaft. In ihrer Ausgangsfrage lotet die vorliegende Arbeit die Bedeutung des Kommunikationsmediums Graffiti als Informationsquelle für die Sozialraumanalyse in Konfliktregionen aus. Als Grundlage für weitere Überlegungen und als V...

  10. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Recent Developments in Air- and Structure-Borne Sound and Vibration (2nd) Held in Auburn University, Alabama on 4-6 March 1992. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-06

    AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, INC. VEREIN DEUTSCHER INGENIEURE ( VDI -EDV), GERMANY THE SOUTH AFRICAN ACOUSTICS INSTITUTE SOCIPT]k FRANVAISE...K=2 " 1 48 44 720 e8 1670 3 89 47 788 92 1784 K1 r (X2,Y2) 8 177 51 880 103 2048 12 241 .52 913 107 2295 E) 0 a-X 14 266 66 1134 1/0 23951 x17 313 61

  11. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (3rd), University of California, Davis, California, 9-11 September 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    34, 2 9. Deutscher Flammentag, Aachen, (1979), VDI -Bericht * Nr. 346 7 Yamaoka, I. and Tsuji, H. : "An Experimental Study of Flammability Limits Using...not exceed 23 amplitude of oscillations KHz. Thus. 1024. 2048 or 4096 points were sampled or critical value Scritical pase a gper period per channel...K Rohren," VDI -Forschungsheft, No. 361, 1933. z d = 0.439 ft. 7 Rodi, W., "Turbulence Models for Environmental .7_ X Problems," Prediction Methods

  12. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Recent Developments in Air- and Structure-Borne Sound and Vibration (2nd) Held in Auburn University, Alabama on 4-6 March 1992. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-06

    DEUTSCHER INGENIEURE ( VDI -EDV), GERMANY THE SOUTH AFRICAN ACOUSTICS INSTITUTE SOCIATA FRANQAISE D’ACOUSTIQUE SOVIET ACOUSTICAL ASSOCIATION ACOUSTICAL...Schallquellen. VDI 2159, 1985. 181 L Cremer, M Heckl and E E Ungar: Structure-Borne Sound. Second Edition. Springer-Verlag, 1988. [91 B Gdransson...RESULTS The experiment was first conducted using a 2048 -point number of samples x(n) sampled from a random signal with a Gaussian distribution. A Hanning

  13. Umfrageforschung: Entscheidungsgrundlage für Politik und Wissenschaft

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    "Der vorliegende Tagungsband dokumentiert die Beiträge der wissenschaftlichen Tagung 'Umfrageforschung - Entscheidungsgrundlage für Politik und Wissenschaft', die am 30. Juni und 1. Juli 2011 gemeinsam vom Statistischen Bundesamt, dem ADM Arbeitskreis Deutscher Markt- und Sozialforschungsinstitute e.V. und der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sozialwissenschaftlicher Institute e.V. (ASI) in Wiesbaden durchgeführt wurde." (Autorenreferat). Inhaltsverzeichnis: Christian König, Matthias Stahl, Erich Wiegand:...

  14. Quantifizierung von Ökosystemeigenschaften als Grundlage für die Umweltbewertung

    OpenAIRE

    Steinborn, Wolf

    2001-01-01

    (Keine Zusammenfassung in deutscher Sprache vorhanden.) (No summary in German language.) The ecological law of thermodynamics states that a system that receives a through-flow of exergy (high quality energy) will utilise the energy to move away from thermodynamic equilibrium in a process of self-organisation (JØRGENSEN 1997c). The capacity of ecosystems to self-organise is under way to become an important concept in environmental assessment. (KUTSCH et al. 2000). But for this purpose i...

  15. The upper Rhine waste heat project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.

    1977-03-01

    The tasks and targets of the project are: 1) Determination of the parameters relevant for an assessment of consequences, e.g.: General influences on weather and climate, anthropogenic influences on weather and climate, effects, affected systems, boundary conditions, anthropogenic changes in boundary conditions. 2) Developing a method of evaluation. 3) Establishing a sensitivity model and carrying out analyses. 4) Determining interface parameters which relate this project to other projects. 5) Summary of the findings and preparation of the main study. The cooperating institutions are: UBA, GfK, KFA, Deutscher Wetterdienst, University Bonn (Inst. f. Meteorology), Bonnenberg + Drescher GmbH, ISI (FhG Karlsruhe). (orig./HP) [de

  16. Monitoring CO{sub 2} emissions along the logistics chain. Carbon footprinting; Monitoring fuer den CO{sub 2}-Ausstoss in der Logistikkette. Carbon Footprint - Teilgutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmied, Martin [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Knoerr, Wolfgang [ifeu - Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a standardized methodology to calculate GHG emissions along the logistics chain and to incorporate this methodology in the development of the european CEN standard prEN 16258. Meanwhile a draft standard - entitled ''Methodology for calculation and declaration on energy consumptions and GHG emissions in transport services'' is existing. To simplify the usage of the draft standard prEN 16258 for freight forwarders and logistics operators, guidelines/ a manual was developed in addition, which are published and distributed by the Association of German Freight Forwarders and Logistics Operators (Deutscher Speditions- und Logistikverband - DSLV).

  17. Autonomy of industry - possibilities and limits in a pluralistic society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoch, W.

    1976-01-01

    Examples of free enterprise acting on its own responsibility are given which relate to the state-independent area in which the state has no need to intervene, or to an area in which the state cooperates with the autonomous forces of society in solving tasks as one of the responsible partners. The examples are a) the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehaelter (AD), b) the Deutsches Institut fuer Normung (DIN), c) the Deutscher Dampfkessel-Ausschuss (DDA) and the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (KTA) as the initiators of standards, and d) the Technische Ueberwachungs-Vereine (TUeV) as service organizations. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Nauji duomenys apie B. Vilento literatūrinę veiklą

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kabelka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available NEUE ANGABEN ÜBER DIE LITERARISCHE  TÄTIGKEIT B. WILLENT'S(ZusammenfassungIm Aufsatz wird ein Brief der Witwe Willent's (Urtext in deutscher Sprache und seine litauische Übersetzung mit Erläuterungen angeführt. Aus dem Briefe stellt sich heraus, dass Willent neben schon bekannten Werken auch die grössere Hälfte der Postilla von Veit Dietrich ins Litauische übersetzt hat.Der Brief trägt manches zur Ergänzung der Biographie B. Willent's bei.

  19. Databases in welding engineering - definition and starting phase of the integrated welding engineering information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmess, H.; Queren, W.; Stracke, M.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the Information AAssociation for Welding Engineering, newly established by the Deutscher Verband fuer Schweisstechnik, are presented. Examined are: special literature for welding techniques - value and prospects; databases accessible to the public for information on welding techniques; concept for the Information Association for Welding Engineering; the four phases to establish databasis for facts and expert systems of the Information Association for Welding Engineering; the pilot project 'MVT-Data base' (hot crack data base for data of modified varestraint-transvarestraint tests). (orig./MM) [de

  20. Jakob Wassermann e Kaspar Hauser : 100 anos depois

    OpenAIRE

    Krausz, Luis S.

    2007-01-01

    This article draws a parallel between Jakob Wassermann's interest in the history of Kaspar Hauser, which led him to write a novel still considered as the most eloquent literary rendering of this episode, and his own situation as an outsider in German culture. Wassermann's feeling of alienation towards his own country is expressed in his autobiography, titled “Mein Weg als Deutscher und Jude” and his “Kaspar Hauser” is seen here a kind of "estrangement novel", a term which is a counterpoint to...

  1. Economics of regulation. New rules for capital markets and grid industries. Congress documentation; Oekonomie der Regulierung. Neue Spielregeln fuer Kapitalmaerkte und Netzindustrien. Kongress-Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picot, Arnold [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Information, Organisation und Management; Schenck, Marcus (eds.) [E.ON AG, Duesseldorf (Germany). Unternehmenskommunikation

    2010-07-01

    In industries subject to intensive regulation, especially grid-based industries (telecommunication, energy, railways, postal services), the current regulation framework must be reviewed and updated. This book provides deeper expert knowledge and empirical knowledge in the field of regulation and attempts to enhance awareness of the importance of regulation for corporate policy and national economy. It contains the papers presented by renowned experts and decision-makers of industry, politics and economy at the 63rd German Business Experts Day 2009 (Deutscher Betriebswirtschafter-Tag).

  2. Legal regulations in the field of electrotechnics. New regulations by the State and the professional associations concerning electrical appliances. Texts and explanations. Rechtsvorschriften im Bereich der Elektrotechnik. Neue staatliche und berufsgenossenschaftliche Rechtsvorschriften fuer elektrische Betriebsmittel. Texte und Erlaeuterungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethlichs, M; Jeiter, W [Bundesministerium fuer Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Bonn-Duisdorf (Germany, F.R.); Stuerk, P [Hauptverband der Gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften e.V., Bonn (Germany, F.R.). Zentralstelle fuer Unfallverhuetung und Arbeitsmedizin

    1979-01-01

    Apart from the Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE), also the State and the professional associations have discussed the hazards of electric power. Protection against these hazards is provided by a large number of legal regulations differing greatly in their form, text, addressers, and supervisory authorities. One point which all these regulations have in common is the statement that VDE regulations have the ultimate binding force for the safety of electrical plant and equipment. The regulations issued by the State and the professional regulations are rendered in full wording and discussed under the aspects of accident insurance, consumer protection and protection duties of producers and importers.

  3. Franz Kugler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Garberson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michel Espagne, Bénédicte Savoy, Céline Trautmann-Waller, Franz Theodor Kugler. Deutscher Kunsthistoriker und Berliner Dichter, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 2010. Reviews a collection of essays based on papers delivered at the Berlin conference (2008 celebrating Franz Kugler (1808-1858, a key figure in the disciplinary history of art history and an active player the cultural and intellectual life of Berlin in the mid-nineteenth century. Written by historians, art historians, and historians of literature, these essays examine Kugler’s work as an art historian, critic, journal editor, Prussian bureaucrat, poet, and member of several art and literary societies.

  4. Nuclear education and training in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this summary is to give a survey of the facilities for further education and training in the field of nuclear science and nuclear technology within the FRG. The classification of the different facilities presently existing, such as universities, technical colleges, engineering schools, and special institutes, seemed the most appropriate way of making the survey as straight forward as possible. The survey is mainly based on information received from the institutes concerned in reply to questionnaires distributed at the end of 1976. Further references are available in the Personal- und Vorlesungsverzeichnisse of the universities as well as in the Deutscher Fachhochschulfuehrer. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Kalevipoeg tänapäeval - ühe tulevase Euroopa kultuuri document humain : psühholoogilis-antropoloogilisi aspekte / Peter Petersen ; tõlkinud Krista Räni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petersen, Peter, 1933-

    2003-01-01

    Lisa 1. William Butler Yeats. Ta igatseb endale taevakangaid / tõlkinud Märt Väljataga, lk. 2587 ; Lisa 2. Novalis. Neue Fragmente. Nr. 393 (Novalis. Werke und Briefe. Stuttgart ; Hamburg : Deutscher Bücherbund, 1962), lk. 2587-2588 ; Lisa 3. Tabel väärtuste kohta, mida Kalevipoja-eeposes esile tuuakse, lk. 2588. Bibl. lk. 2589-2590. Tõlgitud käsikirjast: "Kalevipoeg heute - document humain einer künftigen Kultur Europas: psychologisch-anthropologische Aspekte"

  6. Gas appliances in the domestic market - legal basis and questioning concerning the Directive for Gas Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienen, W. van

    1994-01-01

    Four years after the Directive for Gas Appliances has been passed by the European Community it shows the first effects on the market. Gas appliances bearing an CE label can prove that the EC-standardised demands are observed. Thus it can be demanded from every member state by law not to hinder a launch on the market and the initiation. The directive also effects the demands for national environmental protection. A new DVGW (Deutscher Verein des Gas und Wasserfaches e.V.) quality label for gas appliances is going to certify the observance of a quality level which exceeds the minimum EC level. (orig.) [de

  7. Welding in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The 3rd international conference 'Welding in nuclear engineering', organized in 1978 by the Deutscher Verband fuer Schweisstechnik e.V., was, like the two foregoing conferences in 1970 and 1974, an absolute success. The noteworthy echo to this meeting in the international technical world - the number of 650 participants from 26 countries is self-evidence - and this fact, was for the Deutscher Verband fuer Schweisstechnik e.V. occasion and at the same time an obligation now to follow in the same way, the meeting that was started 12 years ago, by organizing the international conference 'Welding in nuclear engineering'. The conference this year offers in addition to the two plenary session lectures, 34 short reports and a further 28 single contributions in the form of two poster-sessions. Unfortunately, it was again not possible to accept all the papers submitted because the conference was limited to 2 days only. Nevertheless, the papers will offer a representative cross-section through the total range of welding engineering. In particular, the poster session, which take place for the first time within the scope of a meeting organized by the Working Group 'Welding in Nuclear Engineering', should contribute to the aim that this time again the discussions will form the main point of the conference. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Energy modelling with SOPKA-E for the energy paths of the Commission of Inquiry on ''Future nuclear energy policy''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faude, D.

    1983-03-01

    The Commission of Inquiry on ''Future nuclear energy policy'' of the 8th Deutscher Bundestag has examined the question of the longterm exploitation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany within a more general framework of energy policy and, for this purpose, created the concept of energy paths. To calculate these energy paths, the SOPKA-E simulation model has been developed and applied at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. In Chapter 2, the central part of this report, the form and contents of path modeling are described in detail. To help readers understand the energy paths concept, the general background of energy policy in the seventies, which gave rise to the contents of the energy paths, is outlined in a survey article in Chapter 1. Chapter 3 is a description of the energy projections contained in the joint expert opinion on the third updated version of the Energy Program in the light of the energy paths. In Chapter 4 some approaches - albeit fragmentary - are outlined which have been adopted by the Commission of Inquiry of the 9th Deutscher Bundestag in adapting energy paths to the present situation. The presentation in this report of the model computations with SOPKA-E is meant to be a documentation. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Jews and Cosmopolitanism: An Arc of European Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marci Shore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isaac Deutscher, raised in his youth to be a Talmudic scholar, instead became a communist. In 1958, he addressed the World Jewish Congress on the topic of “The Non-Jewish Jew.” There was a Jewish tradition – Deutscher began, citing Spinoza and Marx, Freud and Luxemburg and Trotsky – of breaking with Jewish tradition. Jews had always been restless and rootless, always lived on the borders of various heritages, languages, and cultures, at once in and apart from society. Victimized by religious intolerance and nationalist sentiments, Jews longed for a universalist Weltanschauung. It is true that “non-Jewish Jews” played a disproportionate role in the history of European Marxism. Yet Jews’ contributions to Marxism might be understood in a larger context: namely, that “non-Jewish Jews” have played a disproportionate role in the intellectual history of modern Europe much more broadly. This essay is an attempt to place the relationship between Jews and Marxism in a larger context – less the larger sociological context than the larger intellectual context of European modernity.

  10. Führer, Volk und Vaterland verpflichtet The Obligations Towards Führer, People and Fatherland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schoppmann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Organisation „Glaube und Schönheit“ war eine Gründung innerhalb des Bundes Deutscher Mädel (BDM, die den 18- bis 21-jährigen ‚arischen‘ Frauen im ‚Dritten Reich‘ vorbehalten war, um diese für die Ziele der ‚Volksgemeinschaft‘ zu instrumenalisieren. Sabine Hering und Kurt Schilde rekonstruieren nicht nur die Struktur der kaum noch bekannten Organisation; in zwölf Gesprächen mit Zeitzeuginnen gehen sie auch den bis in die heutige Zeit reichenden Auswirkungen auf die Beteiligten nach.The organization “Glaube und Schönheit” ("Belief and Beauty" was an organization within the Bund Deutscher Mädel, which was reserved for 18 up to 21 year old “Aryan” women during the Nazi period in order to functionalize them according to the goals of the “Volksgemeinschaft”. Sabine Hering and Kurt Schilde not only reconstruct the structure of the organization, which is mostly unknown today; in twelve interviews with contemporaries they also deal with the far reaching impacts on the people who were involved in this organization.

  11. Decisions on sites by Laender parliaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke (VDEW, Association of German Electricity Utilities) proposes two independent steps in the licensing procedure for each nuclear power plant constuction project: one first phase in which to establish site guarantees, and one licensing phase for construction and operation of the power plant. The first phase should henceforth proceed with the active participation of the public involved within the framework of a plans approval procedure. The novel aspect would be the binding clarification in this procedure not only of the nuclear aspects of the case, as formerly, but of all public aspects relating to the site. The construction and operating permits, which would constitute phase two, could then be handled in the usual procedure without any need for urgency. (orig.) [de

  12. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  13. Hot weather in Potsdam in the years 1896-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Arkadiusz M.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this article was the analysis of multiannual variability in the occurrence of hot days and heat waves in Potsdam in the last 120 years. The article used data concerning the maximum and minimum daily air temperature in Potsdam between 1896 and 2015, which were obtained from the Deutscher Wetterdienst database. A hot day was defined as a day with T max >30 °C, and a heat wave was considered a sequence of at least three hot days. The analysed multiannual period showed a statistically significant increase in T max in summer, which was 0.13 °C per 10 years. The observed increase in T max translated into an increase in the number of hot days and, consequently, in the frequency of the occurrence of heat waves. Within the analysed multiannual period, the lowest number of heat waves was recorded between 1896 and 1905, while the highest was observed between 2006 and 2015.

  14. Quick estimate of the heat transfer characteristics of annular fins of hyperbolic profile with the power series method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arauzo, Inmaculada; Campo, Antonio; Cortes, Cristobal

    2005-01-01

    This technical paper addresses an elementary analytic procedure for the approximate solution of the quasi-one-dimensional heat conduction equation (a generalized Bessel equation) that governs the temperature variation in annular fins of hyperbolic profile. This fin shape is of remarkable importance because its heat transfer performance is close to that of the annular fin of convex parabolic profile, the so-called optimal annular fin that is capable of delivering maximum heat transfer for a given volume of material [Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure 70 (1926) 885]. The salient feature of the analytic procedure developed here is that for realistic combinations of the two parameters: the enlarged Biot number and the normalized radii ratio, the truncated power series solutions embracing a moderate number of terms yields unprecedented results of excellent quality. The analytic results are conveniently presented in terms of the two primary quantities of interest in thermal design applications, namely the heat transfer rates and the tip temperature

  15. [Social security for people in need of care -- proposals for the development and financing of aids for this group (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, M; Fichtner, O; Gröttrup, B; Jochheim, K A; Kulenkampff, C; Lohmann, S; Mierzwiak, H G; Prössdorf, K; Robbers, I; Rückert, W

    1979-11-01

    The article points out a serious deficiency in the social security system, i.e., that the old and infirm can only seldon obtain institutional care without calling on social assistance. It discusses possible solution of including the attendance allowances into the scope of social security benefits. The solutions are formulated in the amendment of the Association of German Cities and Towns (Deutscher Städtetag) to the insurance regulations of the earlier German Reich (Reichsversicherungsordnung). It is proposed that the Länder and communities as well as, to a small extent the Federal Government, assume the responsibility for investments, whereas the legal sickness insurance funds cover the costs for medical treatment and nursing and the patient pays an estimated rent value and the "hotel services".

  16. Simulation of car collision with an impact block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostek, R.; Aleksandrowicz, P.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the experimental results of crash test of Fiat Cinquecento performed by Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club (ADAC) and the simulation results obtained with program called V-SIM for default settings. At the next stage a wheel was blocked and the parameters of contact between the vehicle and the barrier were changed for better results matching. The following contact parameters were identified: stiffness at compression phase, stiffness at restitution phase, the coefficients of restitution and friction. The changes lead to various post-impact positions, which shows sensitivity of the results to contact parameters. V-SIM is commonly used by expert witnesses who tend to use default settings, therefore the companies offering simulation programs should identify those parameters with due diligence.

  17. On discontinuous Galerkin approach for atmospheric flow in the mesoscale with and without moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Schuster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss discontinuous Galerkin (DG schemes for dry and moist atmospheric flows in the mesoscale. We derive terrain-following coordinates on the sphere in strong-conservation form, which makes it possible to perform the computation on a Cartesian grid and yet conserves the momentum density on an f$f$-plane. A new DG model, i.e. DG-COSMO, is compared to the operational model COSMO of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD. A simplified version of the suggested terrain-following coordinates is implemented in DG-COSMO and is compared against the DG dynamical core implemented within the DUNE framework, which uses unstructured grids to capture orography. Finally, a few idealised test cases, including 3d and moisture, are used for validation. In addition an estimate of efficiency for locally adaptive grids is derived for locally and non-locally occurring phenomena.

  18. The Chernobyl reactor accident, ten years on. Teaching projects for mathematics instruction in interdisciplinary working groups; 10 Jahre nach Tschernobyl. Unterrichtsprojekte fuer den Mathematikunterricht in faecheruebergreifenden Kooperationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, H. [comp.; Delle, E. [comp.; Mies, K. [comp.; Warmeling, A. [comp.

    1996-10-01

    The booklet presents background information and addresses the following aspects: ionizing radiation and radiation effects; safety of German nuclear power plants; statistical evidence of radiation injuries; short-lived and long-lived ionizing radiation; radioactive waste; CO{sub 2} emissions as an argument in favour of nuclear power generation. The material presented is intended for use by a school project team interested in the subjects, or as a basis for collaborative, interdisciplinary teaching in working groups, and it offers information and problems for mathematics teaching. (HP) [Deutsch] Neben vielen Informationen behandelt die Broschuere: Strahlen und Strahlenwirkungen; Sicherheit deutscher Kernkraftwerke; statistischer Nachweis von Strahlenschaeden; Kurz- und Langfestigkeit der Strahlenbelastung; radioaktiver Abfall; CO{sub 2}-Problematik als Argument fuer die Kernenergie. Die Broschuere ist gedacht z.B. fuer eine Projektgruppe, einen Projekttag, fuer eine Lerngruppe in faecheruebergreifender Kooperation. Die Materialien sind ausgearbeitet fuer die Themembearbeitung im Mathematikunterricht mit Uebungsaufgaben. (HP)

  19. Global and local - air pollution abatement in the 21st century. Seminar No. 14 of Zentrale Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern; Global und Lokal - Klimaschutz fuer das 21. Jahrhundert. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, U.; Behling, G.; Rauh, K.; Haury, H.J. (comps.)

    1999-08-01

    Scientists of Germany's major climate research institutes and an expert of the world climate research programme presented current information on climate trends. They informed on the results of international efforts to prevent global warming after the Buenos Aires conference and presented global climate scenarios of the future. Further issues were local air pollution abatement (energy management, thermal insulation), communal air pollution abatement concepts, and state funding in Bavaria and elsewhere. [German] Wissenschaftler aus den bedeutendsten Instituten deutscher Klimaforschung sowie ein Vertreter des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms stellten aktuelle Erkenntnisse zur Entwicklung unseres Klimas vor. Sie informierten ueber Ergebnisse internationaler Klimaschutzpolitik nach der Klimakonferenz in Buenos Aires und praesentierten Szenarien fuer das globale Klima der Zukunft. Sie widmeten sich ausserdem Fragen des lokalen Klimaschutzes unter den Aspekten Energiemanagement, Waermeschutz und diskutierten ueber kommunale Klimaschutzkonzepte sowie Foerdermoeglichkeiten in und ausserhalb Bayerns. (orig.)

  20. Safety in nuclear technology through introduction of internationally binding agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Presents the Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) views in favour of continued utilisation of nuclear energy for electrical power generation. Nuclear energy helps to conserve finite natural resources of coal, oil, and gas for future generations, and avoids the considerable amount of environmental pollution produced by coal-burning power stations. Risks arise in every technology, but these must be considered in relation to the utility of the technology. Development of other forms of energy conversion must continue, but use of nuclear energy at the present time cannot be avoided without incurring great adverse economic and environmental pollution consequences. Safety aspects must be the object of committed and continuous research, and must be internationally agreed. (H.V.H.)

  1. Mädchenerziehung im Nationalsozialismus Girl’s Education in Nationalsocialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hering

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Das von Gisela Miller-Kipp herausgegebene Buch stellt die erste auf Vollständigkeit ausgelegte Sammlung von Quellen und Dokumenten zur Geschichte des BDM dar. Damit ist für die Forschungen zur Erziehung der zehn bis 18jährigen Mädchen im Nationalsozialismus eine wichtige Grundlage in Form einer Dokumentation geschaffen worden, welche durch umfangreiche Kommentare und Interpretationen ergänzt und erschlossen wird.Miller-Kipp’s book presents the first complete compilation and analysis of documents about the history of the BDM (Bund Deutscher Mädel—Association of German Girls, a national organisation for girls founded by the Nazis. The volume, which contains a wealth of noteworthy comments and interpretation texts, thus offers an important basis for anyone doing research on this topic.

  2. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The present paper gives a summary of the initiatives taken by the Deutscher Bundestag (Federal Assembly) for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy consideration of relevant secondary aspects like area planning, assessment of technology consequences, the introduction of the Verbandsklage (write of associations to enter in public proceedings) etc. It is an extended table of contents of the 7th and 8th election period. Fixed days was the 1rst of Jan, 1980. Apart from this temporary limitation, only the Enquete-Commission's report Future Nuclear Energy Policy was taken into consideration because in this report the discussion about energy policy of the last two election periods is brought to an end. (orig.) [de

  3. [Does medicine limit enlightenment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipperges, H

    1977-01-01

    In the first, historical part the most important programs of "Medical Enlightenment", are pointed out, beginning with Leibniz, followed by the public health movement of the 18th century, up to the time of Immanuel Kant. Based on this historical background several concepts of a "Medical Culture" are analysed in detail, for instance the "Theorie einer Medizinal-Ordnung" by Johann Benjamin Ehrhard (1800), the "Medicinische Reform" by Rudolf Virchow (1848) and the programs of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Arzte" (about 1850-1890), the latter bearing both scientific and political character. Following the historical part, the question is raised whether "Enlightenment" is limited by medicine and whether medicine is able to provide a program for individual health education resulting in a more cultivated style of private life, and lastly how this might be realized.

  4. Supraleitung Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Seit nunmehr drei Jahrzehnten ist der "Buckel" das Referenzwerk in deutscher Sprache zum Thema Supraleitung. Immer wieder aktualisiert, hat das Lehrbuch Generationen von Studenten begleitet. In der 6., vollständig überarbeiteten Auflage wird das bewährte didaktische Konzept beibehalten, inhaltlich wurde der Band dem aktuellen Stand von Forschung und Technik angepasst. Das Autorenteam um Prof. Kleiner verzichtet auf komplizierte mathematische Herleitungen. Es baut ganz auf das bewährte Step-by-Step-Prinzip: Der Schwierigkeitsgrad wird von Kapitel zu Kapitel gesteigert. So können auch Einsteiger ohne einschlägige Vorkenntnisse dem Stoff bequem folgen. Dank seiner klaren Sprache und zahlreicher Abbildungen eignet sich der Band hervorragend als einführendes Lehrbuch - und zwar nicht nur für Physik-Studenten, sondern auch für Studierende angrenzender Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften. Grundlegende Eigenschaften, supraleitende Elemente, Cooper-Paarung, Thermodynamik, kritische Ströme, Josephsonkontakte...

  5. 2011 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings; Deutsche Kaelte-Klima-Tagung 2011. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the DKV conference of the Deutscher Kaelte- und Klimatechnischer Verein e.V. (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) from 16th to 18th November, 2011, at the Eurogress Aachen (Federal Republic of Germany) 112 lectures were held according to the following themes: cryomedicine, cryobiology, cryocomponents, mobility, cryoapplications, miniature cooler, Fundamentals and materials in the cryotechnology and heat pump technology, heat transfer, absorption processes, materials characteristics and phase change materials, storage and phase change, plants and components of refrigerating and heat pump technology - compressors, control and systems, energy efficiency (and CO{sub 2}), standardization and standard, application of refrigeration, supermarket/coolant, enhancement of efficiency in the air conditioning of passenger cars, indoor air conditioning in automobiles, enhancement of efficiency in different vehicles, climate technology and application of heat pumps - field tests and optimization, test rigs and simulations, heat pumps, optimisation in new buildings and stock buildings, climate coolants and quality of air. Beside this conference twelve student meetings were presented.

  6. Länderschwerpunkt Niederlande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Zajas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Länderschwerpunkt Niederlande: The Siegfried Unseld Archives and Dutchliterature In 2009 Deutsches Literaturarchiv in Marbach (DLA acquired the Siegfried Unseld Archives (SUA. SUA covers the period from 1945-2002 and includes material from the publishing houses such as Suhrkamp Verlag, Insel Verlag, Jüdischer Verlag and Deutscher Klassiker Verlag. The archive constitutes an important resource not only for the historians of literature and science, but also for the sociologists of literature dealing with literary translation. Scholars interested in Dutch literature will also find a wealth of research data in the archive. Suhrkamp Verlag, next to the publishers such as Hanser and Klett- Cotta, played a very important part in shaping the reception of Dutch literature in Germany. The paper discusses three stages in the production of literary translations in Suhrkamp Verlag between 1957-1990, focusing in particular on the selection procedure and the participation of the individual actors of the transfer.

  7. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs in field soils, sediments and sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, H.

    1992-01-01

    As requested by the Ministry of Agriculture of the FRG, the 'Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten (VDLUFA)' built up a data collection over chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs in field soils, sediments, sewage sludges. Nearly 70.000 samples were collected and statistically evaluated. The results of these investigations will be described. The major constituents of the chlorinated hydrocarbons generally were Lindane, DDT(total) and HCB. In sewage sludges PCBs could be detected in nearly every sample. The contents of PCBs in field soils are smaller than in sewage sludges. Rather 'high contents', greater than 100-200 μg/kg d.m./organic pollutants, were detected only in 2% of the samples. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Library Consortia in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Reinhardt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

  9. Regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, Christian; Craig, George C. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2011-04-15

    Forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation is influenced by all scales, but in different ways in different meteorological situations. Forecasts of the high resolution ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) are used to examine the dominant sources of uncertainty of convective precipitation. A validation with radar data using traditional as well as spatial verification measures highlights differences in precipitation forecast performance in differing weather regimes. When the forecast uncertainty can primarily be associated with local, small-scale processes individual members run with the same variation of the physical parameterisation driven by different global models outperform all other ensemble members. In contrast when the precipitation is governed by the large-scale flow all ensemble members perform similarly. Application of the convective adjustment time scale confirms this separation and shows a regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation. (orig.)

  10. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  11. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices.

  12. Grenzgängerin in der Frauenbewegung. Eine biographische Annäherung an Marie Stritt An Intermediary in the Women’s Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Weller

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Im politischen Wirken der Frauenrechtlerin Marie Stritt (1855–1928 liefen unterschiedliche Traditionslinien der organisierten bürgerlichen Frauenbewegung zusammen. Stritt stand sowohl dem kleinen Kreis kompromissloser Stimmrechtsaktivistinnen und Sexualreformerinnen nahe, der damals wie heute häufig als ‚radikal‘ bezeichnet wird. Beeinflusst war sie aber auch von der als ‚gemäßigt‘ etikettierten Majorität im Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine (BDF. Sie lehnte das Denken in vereinfachenden, polarisierenden Kategorien ab und bemühte sich vor allem in ihrer Funktion als Vorsitzende des BDF von 1899 bis 1910 um Vermittlung zwischen den konkurrierenden Frauenkreisen. Zu einer Zeit, in der sich die Frauenvereinsbewegung immer stärker ausdifferenzierte und politisierte, agierte Stritt an der Schnittstelle der verschiedenen treibenden Kräfte. Dass Marie Stritts Vita bislang nur oberflächlich untersucht wurde, erstaunt angesichts dieser herausgehobenen Bedeutung. Elke Schüllers quellengesättigte „biographische Annäherung“ (S. 89 füllt diese Forschungslücke jetzt dankenswerter Weise und bietet dabei neue Erkenntnisse über die Geschichte des BDF.Women’s rights activist Marie Stritt’s (1855–1928 political influence shows the coming together of different strands of the traditional lines of the organized bourgeois women’s movement. Stritt was close to the small circle of uncompromising voter rights activists and sexual reformists, both of which were and still are often characterized as “radical.” She was also influenced by the majority in the League of German Women (Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine BDF, whom she labeled “moderate.” As chairperson for the BDF from 1899 to 1910, she dismissed thinking in simplified and polarized categories and appealed for the intermediation between the competing groups of women. Stritt operated at the place of intersection of the different driving forces in a time in which the organization of

  13. Experimental Approach for the Uncertainty Assessment of 3D Complex Geometry Dimensional Measurements Using Computed Tomography at the mm and Sub-mm Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Roberto; Torralba, Marta; Yagüe-Fabra, José A; Ontiveros, Sinué; Tosello, Guido

    2017-05-16

    The dimensional verification of miniaturized components with 3D complex geometries is particularly challenging. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactile techniques. However, the establishment of CT systems' traceability when measuring 3D complex geometries is still an open issue. In this work, an alternative method for the measurement uncertainty assessment of 3D complex geometries by using CT is presented. The method is based on the micro-CT system Maximum Permissible Error (MPE) estimation, determined experimentally by using several calibrated reference artefacts. The main advantage of the presented method is that a previous calibration of the component by a more accurate Coordinate Measuring System (CMS) is not needed. In fact, such CMS would still hold all the typical limitations of optical and tactile techniques, particularly when measuring miniaturized components with complex 3D geometries and their inability to measure inner parts. To validate the presented method, the most accepted standard currently available for CT sensors, the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure/Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDI/VDE) guideline 2630-2.1 is applied. Considering the high number of influence factors in CT and their impact on the measuring result, two different techniques for surface extraction are also considered to obtain a realistic determination of the influence of data processing on uncertainty. The uncertainty assessment of a workpiece used for micro mechanical material testing is firstly used to confirm the method, due to its feasible calibration by an optical CMS. Secondly, the measurement of a miniaturized dental file with 3D complex geometry is carried out. The estimated uncertainties are eventually compared with the component's calibration and the micro manufacturing tolerances to demonstrate the suitability of the presented CT calibration procedure. The 2U/T ratios resulting from the

  14. 2012 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings; Deutsche Kaelte-Klima-Tagung 2012 Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the DKV conference of the Deutscher Kaelte- und Klimatechnischer Verein e.V. (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) from 21st to 23rd November, 2012, in Wuerzburg (Federal Republic of Germany) 121 lectures were held according to the following themes: Measurement and process control in cryotechnology; energy storage and energy application; application of cryotechnology in biology and medicine, new concepts and plants; fundamentals and materials for the technology of cold pumps and heat pumps - pool boiling; flow boiling / CO{sub 2}; adsorption processes; adsorption processes / phase change materials; condensation / dehumidification; plants and components of the technology of cold pumps and heat pumps - compressors; expansion and regulation; heat exchanger and reflux cooling; heat exchangers; systems simulation; systems and materials; application of cold - energy controlling / application; foodstuff / supermarket; air conditionings of passenger cars; air-conditioning of electric-powered automobiles; railway air-conditioning / system analyses; standardization and regulations; air conditioning and application of heat pumps - regulation / hardware-in-the-loop; net-zero-energy building; building engineering and simulation; standardization / IAQ / building materials; heat pumps; thermal comfort and performance in office accommodations.

  15. Karlsruhe Research Center, Nuclear Safety Research Project (PSF). Annual report 1994; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung. Jahrsbericht 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, R. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    The reactor safety R and D work of the Karlsruhe Research Centre (FZKA) has been part of the Nuclear Safety Research Projet (PSF) since 1990. The present annual report 1994 summarizes the R and D results. The research tasks are coordinated in agreement with internal and external working groups. The contributions to this report correspond to the status of early 1995. An abstract in English precedes each of them, whenever the respective article is written in German. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit Beginn 1990 sind die F+E-Arbeiten des Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZKA) zur Reaktorsicherheit im Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung (PSF) zusammengefasst. Der vorliegende Jahresbericht 1994 enthaelt Beitraege zu aktuellen Fragen der Sicherheit von Leichtwasserreaktoren und innovativen Systemen sowie der Umwandlung von minoren Aktiniden. Die konkreten Forschungsthemen und -vorhaben werden mit internen und externen Fachgremien laufend abgestimmt. An den beschriebenen Arbeiten sind die folgenden Institute und Abteilungen des FZKA beteiligt: Institut fuer Materialforschung IMF I, II, III; Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik INR; Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik IATF; Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit IRS; Hauptabteilung Ingenieurtechnik HIT; Hauptabteilung Versuchstechnik HVT sowie vom KfK beauftragte externe Institutionen. Die einzelnen Beitraege stellen den Stand der Arbeiten zum Fruehjahr 1995 dar und sind entsprechend dem F+E-Programm 1994 numeriert. Den in deutscher Sprache verfassten Beitraege sind Kurzfassungen in englischer Sprache vorangestellt. (orig.)

  16. Low-cost development of the Algyoefield in Hungary by means of horizontal re-entry boreholes; Die kostenguenstige Entwicklung des Algyoe-West-Feldes in Ungarn durch horizontale Re-Entry-Bohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzel, H. [Weatherford Oil Tool GmbH, Langenhagen (Germany); Osz, A. [Magyar Olaj (MOL), Budapest (Hungary); Kerk, T. [Becfield Drilling Services, Edemissen-Berkhoepen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Planning and implementation of a typical re-entry borehole in southern Hungary are described. The cost is about half that of a new borehole, and the available infrastructure can be used. The production index of a typical Algyoehorizontal borehole is higher by a factor of 12 than for a vertical borehole in the same field. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Beispielbohrung (Algyoe488) wird die Planung und Durchfuehrung einer typischen Re-Entry Bohrung in Suedungarn beschrieben. Durch die weitgehende Verwendung von standardisierten Komponenten und Verfahren sowie durch die enge Zusammenarbeit zweier deutscher Service Unternehmen mit dem Auftraggeber wurde bei insgesamt 35 Horizontalbohrungen in Ungarn der Effekt der Lernkurve zur optimierten Erstellung der Bohrung und damit zur Kostensenkung effektiv eingesetzt. Die so aufgearbeiteten Bohrungen werden im Vergleich zu einer neuen Bohrung fuer etwa die Haelfte der Kosten erstellt. Die vorhandene Infrastruktur des Feldes kann weiter verwendet werden. Der Produktionsindex einer typischen AlgyoeHorizontalbohrung liegt um den Faktor 12 hoeher als eine Vertikalbohrung im gleichen Feld. (orig.)

  17. The analysis of loading losses from tank trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ana P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of loading losses, which are the primary source of evaporative emissions from tank cars and trucks was analyzed in this paper. Loading losses occur as organic vapors in "empty" cargo tanks are displaced to the atmosphere by the liquid being loaded into the tanks. Emissions from loading petroleum liquid were estimated using three methods: the API (American Petroleum Institute method, the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure -Association of German Engineers method and the Yugoslav Standard JUS B.HO.531 method. The mass of evaporative losses from loading operations is a function of the following parameters: the method of loading the cargo, the physical and chemical characteristics of the cargo and the ambient temperature during loading. Evaporation losses from the loading of motor gasoline (MB-95, BMB-95, MB-98 and MB-86 and diesel fuels (D-2, Euro D-2 were calculated. Losses on a monthly and annual basis were presented for an assumed amount of loaded cargo. It was estimated that the highest loading losses occur in the summer period because of high ambient daily temperatures and in the period of higher transporting levels. It should be pointed out that the loading losses of diesel fuel calculated using an empirical coefficient according to JUS B.HO.531 are significantly higher in comparison with the loading losses calculated using emission factors from the EPA and the VDI method. The gasoline loading losses calculated using emission factors derived from the three methods are similar.

  18. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T.; Salvamoser, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  19. Radon-222 and beryllium-7 as natural tracer; Radon-222 und Beryllium-7 als natuerliche Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany). Radioaktivitaetsueberwachung; Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Program (GAW) is intended to analyse worldwide the influence of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere. Data are continuously transferred to the ''World Data Centre for Green House Gases'' of the WMO. For the study of atmospheric transports the natural radionuclides Rn-222, Be-7, Pb-210, Pb- 214 and Bi-214 are continuously measured at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (2650 m) and at the Zugspitze (2962 m) by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Weather Service). The measurements support the classification of atmospheric transport, atmospheric dilution and dispersion models of gaseous and aerosol bond micro pollutants. Results are carried out in combination with meteorological data. It is shown the optimization and effect of a new sampling site for the measurement of Rn-222 activity at the Zugspitze. Results of Rn-222 and Be-7 concentrations are shown in relation to horizontal and vertical dispersion of air masses. The origin of natural Rn-222 and Be-7 are known, therefore both nuclides are well suited for the research of atmospheric transport. Rn-222 is an ideal tracer, because there is no influence by atmospheric processes (chemical processes, wash out effects).

  20. Literatur zu Gast im Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Der deutsche Schriftsteller Thomas LEHR liest am 23. März 2006 aus seinem Roman '42', einem philosophischen Abenteuerroman über die Suche nach der Zeit, erzählt in einer funkelnden und souveränen Sprache. Eine Welt von vernichtender Schönheit und bizarren Schrecken wartet auf eine Besuchergruppe, die in der Nähe von Genf die unterirdischen Anlagen des Forschungszentrums für Teilchenphysik CERN besichtigt. Als sie um 12:47:42 wieder ans Tageslicht tritt, scheint ganz Europa in einen Dornröschenschlaf gefallen. Allein die 70 Besucher können sich noch bewegen. Monate und Jahre verharrt die Welt wie in einer riesigen dreidimensionalen Fotografie, bis ein wiederum schockierendes Ereignis die 'Chronifizierten' aus ihren physikalischen Spekulationen und seltsamen Lebensformen reisst. Zu dieser literarischen Veranstaltung im 'Globe of Science and Innovation' laden gemeinsam das Generalkonsulat der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Genf und CERN ein. Vor Beginn der Lesung wird eine Führung in deutscher Sprac...

  1. [Hidden allergens in processed food : An update from the consumer's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadt, Sabine; Pfaff, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    Despite improved allergen labelling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food remain a substantial risk for unintended reactions for consumers with food allergies. New data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund - DAAB) shows a slight decrease in the number of consumers that report allergic reactions to prepacked food. Still, 75 % (compared to 85 % in 2008) have experienced at least one allergic reaction after eating a prepacked food. In more than half of the cases, the reaction was classified as severe (with airway and/or cardiovascular symptoms such as respiratory distress, loss of blood pressure or anaphylactic shock). Again, more than 40 % (2008: 47 %, 2015: 42 %) reported that no information on the presence of the food allergens had been present on the label either as ingredients or as precautionary allergen labelling (PAL). Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens may not be recognized or recognizable by consumers with food allergies, such as allergen labelling that is not easy to understand, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as recipe changes in known foods. Examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation in order to better meet the goals of food information regulations to enable consumers with food allergies to make "informed choices which are safe for them" (Quote Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 - Reason 24).

  2. A hybrid convection scheme for use in non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kuell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct representation of convection in numerical weather prediction (NWP models is essential for quantitative precipitation forecasts. Due to its small horizontal scale convection usually has to be parameterized, e.g. by mass flux convection schemes. Classical schemes originally developed for use in coarse grid NWP models assume zero net convective mass flux, because the whole circulation of a convective cell is confined to the local grid column and all convective mass fluxes cancel out. However, in contemporary NWP models with grid sizes of a few kilometers this assumption becomes questionable, because here convection is partially resolved on the grid. To overcome this conceptual problem we propose a hybrid mass flux convection scheme (HYMACS in which only the convective updrafts and downdrafts are parameterized. The generation of the larger scale environmental subsidence, which may cover several grid columns, is transferred to the grid scale equations. This means that the convection scheme now has to generate a net convective mass flux exerting a direct dynamical forcing to the grid scale model via pressure gradient forces. The hybrid convection scheme implemented into the COSMO model of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD is tested in an idealized simulation of a sea breeze circulation initiating convection in a realistic manner. The results are compared with analogous simulations with the classical Tiedtke and Kain-Fritsch convection schemes.

  3. Zur Digitalisierung historischer Wörterbücher Zur Digitalisierung historischer Wörterbücher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dummer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    On the digitisation of historical dictionaries

    The textual and structural characteristics of printed historical German dictionaries call for special requirements in converting these works into computer-readable form. The diverse treatment of the articles requires a great deal of follow-up manual work since the often narrative structure of the texts limits automatic processing. The following article describes a series of experiments with Moriz Heyne's "Deutsches Wörterbuch" which were conducted to illustrate the limitations (but also the possibilities of converting an historical dictionary into electronic media.

     

    Die textuellen und strukturellen Eigenschaften gedruckter historischer deutscher Wörterbücher stellen besondere Bedingungen für die Umsetzung dieser Werke in eine maschinenlesbare Form. Die differenzierte Erfassung der Artikel erfordert einen großen Anteil an manueller Nacharbeit, da die vielfach narrativen Textstrukturen eine automatische Bearbeitung nicht erlauben. Der folgende Beitrag beschreibt eine Reihe von Experimenten mit Moriz Heynes Deutschem Wörterbuch, die mit den Ziel durchgeführt wurden, Grenzen (aber auch Möglichkeiten einer Umsetzung historischer Wörterbücher ins elektronische Medium zu veranschaulichen.

     

  4. Measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 as undisturbed tracers for the representing of atmospheric transport after disposal of radioactivity from nuclear facilities; Messungen von Kr-85 und Xe-133 als ungestoerte Tracer zur Darstellung atmosphaerischer Transportvorgaenge nach Freisetzung von Radioaktivitaet aus kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst (Germany); Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) operates since 1996 a sampling and measurement device for the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 in Offenbach. These measurements are embedded in the German Measurement and Information System for Monitoring Environmental Radioactivity (Integriertes Mess- und Informationssystem zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet in der Umwelt, IMIS) [1]. In addition to these measurements the DWD is sampling rare gases in Potsdam and since 2014 in Trier in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, BfS). In the frame of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)-program of the WMO the DWD operated a sampling station at the Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) from 1999 to 2005. This location at the Zugspitze is well suited for the observation of long distance transport of Kr-85 in the higher atmosphere. The DWD in Offenbach operates a complex analytical system for the measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133 since 1998. This system consists of sampling with first enrichment, second enrichment, gas chromatographic separation and preparation of Krypton and Xenon and measurement of Kr-85 and Xe-133. Using the example Fukushima, it is shown, that the radioactive rare gases Kr-85 and Xe-133 are well undisturbed tracers for atmospheric transport in case of a nuclear accident or routine nuclear reprocessing plants. Measurements of Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Kr-85 are correlated with source and atmospheric transport to the sampling sites at Offenbach and Potsdam.

  5. Wagner and Co double their solar collector sales to 20,000 m sup 2. Ecological building installation practice on a 4,500 m sup 2 area in Coelbe near Marburg, FRG. Wagner und Co verdoppelt Absatz auf 20000 m sup 2 Kollektorflaeche. Oekologische Haustechnik jetzt auf einem 4500 m sup 2 grossen Grundstueck in Coelbe bei Marburg unter einem Dach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    1992-01-21

    Wagner and Co Solartechnik GmbH, member of Deutscher Fachverband Solarenergie e.V. (DFS), was founded in 1979 as an autonomous company by one dormant partner and eight active partners. A 1991 solar collector sales volume of 20,000 m{sup 2} and a market-leading solar power position in Hesse place the company among today's major manufacturers of solar energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany. In spite of this remarkable achievement the founders' exological philosophy has always been more than a mere product advertising strategy. The fact that the staff of 40 members has made 'ecological thinking' the matter-of-course basis of any of the company's transactions is manifest in the extensions to and equipment of the new 1,300 m{sup 2} production, storage, dispatch and office building the firm has been occupying since September 1991. The adopted scheme of using low-cost, massproduced components from other branches of the industry for solar systems production and provide them with high-quality absorbers to be offered as low-cost kits has been the company's reliable pillar. Meanwhile the reasonably priced materials are also used for pre-assembled lightweight collector production on the company premises. (orig.).

  6. High resolution modelling of wind fields for optimization of empirical storm flood predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, B.; Frank, H.

    2014-05-01

    High resolution wind fields are necessary to predict the occurrence of storm flood events and their magnitude. Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) created a catalogue of detailed wind fields of 39 historical storms at the German North Sea coast from the years 1962 to 2011. The catalogue is used by the Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Wasser-, Küsten- und Naturschutz (NLWKN) coastal research center to improve their flood alert service. The computation of wind fields and other meteorological parameters is based on the model chain of the DWD going from the global model GME via the limited-area model COSMO with 7 km mesh size down to a COSMO model with 2.2 km. To obtain an improved analysis COSMO runs are nudged against observations for the historical storms. The global model GME is initialised from the ERA reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). As expected, we got better congruency with observations of the model for the nudging runs than the normal forecast runs for most storms. We also found during the verification process that different land use data sets could influence the results considerably.

  7. Rosenzweig: A ética como "primeira filosofia" e o dever de traduzir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Abdulkader

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Bedeutung und der Einfluss des Werkes von Franz Rosenzweig, jüdisch-deutscher Philosoph vom Beginn des vergangenen Jahrhunderts, werden noch immer nicht angemessen gewürdigt. Rosenzweig entwickelt in seinem Hauptwerk, der Stern der Erlösung, ausgehend von eminent theologischen Kategorien, sein philosophisches System. Dem "Monolog des Ich" der traditionellen Philosophie setzt Rosenzweig ein "Neues Denken" von existenzialistischem Gepräge entgegen, das die Mündlichkeit und den Dialog mit dem "Anderen" aufwertet und den Verstand ald Werkzeug der Reflexion ersetzt. Dieses Denken weist Korrespondenzen zur Philosophie W. Benjamins auf. Das "Neue Denken" übte einen starken Einfluss auf E. Lévinas aus, sowie auf zahlreiche interessante philosophie und theologische Ansätze nach dem "linguistic turn" und auf die postmoderne jüdische Geistigkeit. Rosenzweigs Philosophie hat andererseits in seiner Übersetzertätigkeit eine wichtige direkte Anwendung gefunden. Übersetzen erscheint Rosenzweig als Verpflichtung, die aus einer Ethik, verstanden als grundlegender Philosophie, erwächst. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert einige Aspekte der Schriften Rosenzweigs, in denen sich eine "Philosophie der Übersetzung" abzeichnet.

  8. Israel-Solidarität in Welt und Jungle World: Die Grenzen des Links-Rechts-Spektrums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hempel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Die vorliegende Studie untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede in der Israel- Berichterstattung der Zeitungen Welt und Jungle World. Trotz ihrer gegensätzlichen Positionierung im politischen Links-Rechts-Spektrum, ist den beiden Medien eine solidarische Haltung gegenüber dem Staat Israel gemeinsam. Damit stehen sie dem Mainstream deutscher Medien entgegen, die laut bestehenden empirischen Untersuchungen eher israelkritisch berichten. Eine einführende Analyse des historischen Hintergrunds verortet das Verhältnis von Deutschland und deutschen Medien zu Israel und beschreibt die Entwicklung der Israel-Solidarität innerhalb der deutschen Linken und der Axel Springer AG. Mittels einer explorativen Clusteranalyse wurden Medien-Frames ermittelt, die sich in Meinungsartikeln der Jungle World und der Welt widerspiegeln. Ein intermedialer Vergleich zur quantitativen Verwendung dieser Frames wurde durch eine qualitative Sprach- und Themenanalyse ergänzt. Im Ergebnis des Forschungsberichts werden Hypothesen abgeleitet, die vielfältige Anknüpfungspunkte für weiterführende Forschung bieten.

  9. The emergence of embedded structure: insights from Kafr Qasem Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Itamar; Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy; Dachkovsky, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces data from Kafr Qasem Sign Language (KQSL), an as-yet undescribed sign language, and identifies the earliest indications of embedding in this young language. Using semantic and prosodic criteria, we identify predicates that form a constituent with a noun, functionally modifying it. We analyze these structures as instances of embedded predicates, exhibiting what can be regarded as very early stages in the development of subordinate constructions, and argue that these structures may bear directly on questions about the development of embedding and subordination in language in general. Deutscher (2009) argues persuasively that nominalization of a verb is the first step—and the crucial step—toward syntactic embedding. It has also been suggested that prosodic marking may precede syntactic marking of embedding (Mithun, 2009). However, the relevant data from the stage at which embedding first emerges have not previously been available. KQSL might be the missing piece of the puzzle: a language in which a noun can be modified by an additional predicate, forming a proposition within a proposition, sustained entirely by prosodic means. PMID:24917837

  10. Construction of a surface air temperature series for Qingdao in China for the period 1899 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans; Wang, Qingyuan; Zhou, Qingliang; Zhu, Yani

    2018-03-01

    We present a homogenized surface air temperature (SAT) time series at 2 m height for the city of Qingdao in China from 1899 to 2014. This series is derived from three data sources: newly digitized and homogenized observations of the German National Meteorological Service from 1899 to 1913, homogenized observation data of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) from 1961 to 2014 and a gridded dataset of Willmott and Matsuura (2012) in Delaware to fill the gap from 1914 to 1960. Based on this new series, long-term trends are described. The SAT in Qingdao has a significant warming trend of 0.11 ± 0.03 °C decade-1 during 1899-2014. The coldest period occurred during 1909-1918 and the warmest period occurred during 1999-2008. For the seasonal mean SAT, the most significant warming can be found in spring, followed by winter. The homogenized time series of Qingdao is provided and archived by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) web page under overseas stations of the Deutsche Seewarte (http://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/overseas_stations/ueberseedoku/doi_qingdao.html) in ASCII format. Users can also freely obtain a short description of the data at https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD/Qing_v1" target="_blank">https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD/Qing_v1. And the data can be downloaded at http://dwd.de/EN/ourservices/overseas_stations/ueberseedoku/data_qingdao.txt.

  11. Protective effects of different marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and rosemary cream preparations against sodium-lauryl-sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S M; Schliemann-Willers, S; Fischer, T W; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The effect was evaluated visually and quantified by noninvasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and tewametry. When the test products were applied parallel to the induction period of ICD, a statistically significant protective effect of all cream preparations was observed by all methods. This effect, although not statistically significant, was superior to control by undyed marigold und faradiol ester-enriched extracts in chromametry and by dyed and undyed rosemary extracts in tewametry. The sequential treatment (postirritation) once a day for 5 days was without any effect. Thus, a protective effect of some marigold and rosemary extracts against ICD could be shown in the elicitation phase. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Conceito de amor: comparação entre estudantes brasileiros e alemães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schröder

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Das Phänomen Liebe nicht - wie im Alltagsgebrauch - als substantielle Entität, sondern als kommunikativ erzeugte Lebenswirklichkeit zu begteifen, ist Ziel der Untersuchung gewesen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde eine vergleichende Fallstudie zum Liebeskonzept brasilianischer und deutscher Studenten durchgeführt. Theoretische Grundlage der Untersuchung bildete ein im weitesten Sinne konstruktivistisches Verständnis von Kommunikation als wirklichkeitserzeugendem Verhaltensbereich. In einer theoretischen Einführung wurde der Wirklichkeitsbereich Liebe unter Einbeziehung des jeweiligen historisch-kulturellen Hintergrundes fokussiert. Die methodische Vorgehensweise bei der Durchführung der Studie war schließlich überwiegend qualitativ angelegt, um das für den Einzelnen tatsächlich relevante Begriffsinventar ermitteln zu können. In der Auswertung sind dann die Unterschiede im Hinblick auf die Internalisierung eines Liebesideals, die Strukturen der Beziehungswirklichkeit, ihre sprachliche Handhabung, die Verhaltenskoordination, die Funktion von Beziehungen sowie die Folgen für die Kommunikationspraxis herausgestellt worden. Es zeigte sich, dass Liebesbeziehungen unter deutschen Studenten stark vom romantischen Liebesideal geprägt sind, unter brasilianischen Studenten dagegen am ehesten dem passionierten Liebesiedel entsprechen.

  13. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  14. Facial width-to-height ratio differs by social rank across organizations, countries, and value systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Winter, Nils R; Anderl, Christine; Notebaert, Karolien; Wuttke, Alina Marie; Clément, Celina Chantal; Windmann, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Facial Width-to-Height Ratio (fWHR) has been linked with dominant and aggressive behavior in human males. We show here that on portrait photographs published online, chief executive officers (CEOs) of companies listed in the Dow Jones stock market index and the Deutscher Aktienindex have a higher-than-normal fWHR, which also correlates positively with their company's donations to charitable causes and environmental awareness. Furthermore, we show that leaders of the world's most influential non-governmental organizations and even the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church, the popes, have higher fWHR compared to controls on public portraits, suggesting that the relationship between displayed fWHR and leadership is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. The data speak against the simplistic view that wider-faced men achieve higher social status through antisocial tendencies and overt aggression, or the mere signaling of such dispositions. Instead they suggest that high fWHR is linked with high social rank in a more subtle fashion in both competitive as well as prosocially oriented settings.

  15. Original jurisdiction of the Superior Administrative Court for litigation on licensing of large-scale commercial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ule, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from the suggestion of the Bundesrat (Deutscher Bundestag, Document 9/1851) concerning the draft of Rules of the Administrative Courts (VwGO), according to which original jurisdiction of the Higher Administrative Court (OVG) is to be introducing legel actions concerning the licensing of large scale installations in the field of energy, the author points out the now existing regulations and former ones in administrative jurisdiction and criminal jurisdiction by which legal protection is limited to a court of first instance which is competent for fact-finding (e.g. sec. 138 Para. 1 Act of compulsory consolidation of the boundaries of land (FlurbG), sec. 47 Rules of the Administrative Courts (VwGO), sections 24 Para. 1 No. 3, 74 Para. 1 p. 2 Judicature Act (GVG). He tries to transfer the idea of accelerating legal procedure from the model of the Criminal Court in criminal jurisdiction to administrative jurisdiction. Finally, the author examines the question whether cutting down the length of proceedings is really necessary, or if the same result could be reached by making an appeal subject to special admission. (HP) [de

  16. Entry into the Postparental Phase of the Family Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wawrzyniak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche BeiträgeThe article examines entry into the postparental phase of the family life cycle, which is the familial situation when all children have moved out of the parental household. We position this event chronologically within the life course and examine the probability of occurrence. Using panel data (3 survey waves covering a period of 40 years of a cohort of former North-Rhine Westphalian grammar school pupils, event history models (Cox regression are employed to analyse what factors accelerate or decelerate the transition. This revealed that the parent’s individual biography (in particular the age at the own move out, age at the birth of the first child and the number of children has a major impact on the time of occurrence, while the occupational history has no effect. In addition, sons delay the transition, while children’s academic studies and occupation accelerate it.

  17. The energy revolution as an innovation driver; Die Energiewende als Innovationstreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Clemens; Bofinger, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany); Martin, Niklas [ForschungsVerbund Erneuerbare Energien (FVEE), Berlin-Adlershof (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Technological innovations in the fields of renewable energy and energy efficiency are an essential basis of the global energy system transformation and act with appropriate implementation as value creation engine. The size and substantial growth of international markets for energy technologies and systems makes the positioning of German companies in these markets therefore become a topic of very far-reaching economic policy relevance. Hence the question of how Germany can benefit from a consistent implementation of the energy transition and its associated pioneering role in the international markets for energy technologies. [German] Technologische Innovationen in den Bereichen erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz bilden eine wesentliche Grundlage der weltweiten Energiesystemtransformation und wirken bei geeigneter Implementierung als Wertschoepfungsmotor. Die Groesse und erhebliche Wachstumsdynamik der internationalen Maerkte fuer Energietechnologien und Systeme macht die Positionierung deutscher Unternehmen auf diesen Maerkten daher zu einem Thema von sehr weitreichender wirtschaftspolitischer Relevanz. Daraus ergibt sich die Frage, wie Deutschland von einer konsequenten Umsetzung der Energiewende und seiner damit verbundenen Vorreiterfunktion auf den internationalen Maerkten fuer Energietechnologien profitieren kann.

  18. Common project energy change. The schedule to the success; Gemeinschaftsprojekt Energiewende. Der Fahrplan zum Erfolg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosch, Ulrich [Katholische Univ. Eichstaett-Ingolstadt (Germany).; VDW Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler, Berlin (Germany); Hennicke, Peter [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany); Weiger, Hubert (ed.) [Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland e.V. (BUND), Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The energy change is the most important common work of the German after-war history. And it offers a unique collective field of learning, how the socio-ecological transformation can be converted in practice. If the energy change succeeds in an industrial country like Germany, many other countries can follow this example. The Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland (BUND) and the Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler (VDW) show as editors, what now must be done in order that the energy change becomes a success. Because currently threatens the energy change to be slowed down by the policy and talked to death by many stakeholders in the industry. This book demonstrates why the energy change is necessary and how it can succeed. It shows what has to be done and wants to use the existing enthusiasm in order to lead the common project energy change jointly to success. What is needed is a long-term policy that finally takes the reduction of energy consumption in attack.

  19. Grenzgängerin in der Frauenbewegung. Eine biographische Annäherung an Marie Stritt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Weller

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Im politischen Wirken der Frauenrechtlerin Marie Stritt (1855–1928 liefen unterschiedliche Traditionslinien der organisierten bürgerlichen Frauenbewegung zusammen. Stritt stand sowohl dem kleinen Kreis kompromissloser Stimmrechtsaktivistinnen und Sexualreformerinnen nahe, der damals wie heute häufig als ‚radikal‘ bezeichnet wird. Beeinflusst war sie aber auch von der als ‚gemäßigt‘ etikettierten Majorität im Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine (BDF. Sie lehnte das Denken in vereinfachenden, polarisierenden Kategorien ab und bemühte sich vor allem in ihrer Funktion als Vorsitzende des BDF von 1899 bis 1910 um Vermittlung zwischen den konkurrierenden Frauenkreisen. Zu einer Zeit, in der sich die Frauenvereinsbewegung immer stärker ausdifferenzierte und politisierte, agierte Stritt an der Schnittstelle der verschiedenen treibenden Kräfte. Dass Marie Stritts Vita bislang nur oberflächlich untersucht wurde, erstaunt angesichts dieser herausgehobenen Bedeutung. Elke Schüllers quellengesättigte „biographische Annäherung“ (S. 89 füllt diese Forschungslücke jetzt dankenswerter Weise und bietet dabei neue Erkenntnisse über die Geschichte des BDF.

  20. Austrägalgerichtsbarkeit – Interstate Dispute Settlement in a Confederate Arrangement, 1815 to 1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Zollmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interstate dispute settlement mechanisms between member states of the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund. The question as to how disputes between German sovereigns should be decided already had a long (pre-history dating back to the Middle Ages. Article 11 IV of the German Federal Act (1815 (Bundesakte was the basic norm of the so-called Austrägal jurisdiction enacted to resolve disputes between states of the German Confederation and stipulated the manner in which the dispute was to be brought to ›court‹ (Austrägalinstanz. During the period of the German Confederation, 10 out of 25 German courts of third instance handled altogether 54 Austrägal cases. Whereas Austrägal jurisdiction was no longer present in the German Kaiserreich, Emperor William II and the professor of public law Paul Laband attempted to resurrect the idea, but failed due to the resistance of the other German princes.

  1. Variations of electric power and district heat supply in a city with 300,000 inhabitants; Varianten zur Strom- und Fernwaermeversorgung einer 300 000-Einwohner Stadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huevel, B.

    1997-12-31

    After the end of the regulation in 1997 which demanded the use of German coal, the municipal public utility will have several possibilities to substitute its own energy generation. Several variations are compared with each other taking into account technical and economic aspects. The variations are the continued operation of coal fuelled cogeneration power plant, the installation of a gas turbine with waste heat boiler to achieve a combined cycle power generation or the contribution to a large combined cycle power plant of the regional public utility. The comparison ends with the decision for one variation. The electric power and heat supply of the city of Karlsruhe is used as an example for the comparison. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Nach dem Auslaufen der Einsatzverpflichtung von deutscher Steinkohle 1997 eroeffnen sich dem kommunalen Versorgungsunternehmen verschiedene Moeglichkeiten, die Eigenerzeugung zu substituieren. Unter technischen und wirtschaftlichen Aspekten werden dazu Varianten gegenuebergestellt, wie Weiterbetrieb eines kohlebefeuerten Heizkraftwerkes mit Importkohle, Installation einer Gasturbine mit Abhitzekessel zur Realisierung eines GuD-Prozesses oder Beteiligung an einer grossen GuD des Regionalversorgers. Die Gegenueberstellung endet mit der Entscheidung fuer eine Variante. Die Strom- und Waermeversorgung der Stadt Karlsruhe wird als Beispiel fuer die Betrachtung verwendet. (orig./AKF)

  2. Bidirectional association between weight status and motor skills in adolescents : A 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, Klaus; Drenowatz, Clemens

    2018-05-01

    Despite considerable efforts the prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth remains high. Poor motor skills have been associated with increased body weight but there is still limited information on the longitudinal association of these health parameters. This study examined the prospective association between motor skills and body weight in 10- to 14-year-old youth. Body weight, height and motor skills, assessed via the German motor test 16-18 (Deutscher Motorik Test, DMT6-18), were measured in 213 middle school students (57% male) every year over a 4‑year period. Club sports participation and migration status were assessed via a questionnaire. Besides an inverse cross-sectional association between body weight and motor skills, excess body weight was associated with impaired development of motor skills (p skills at baseline also reduced the odds of becoming overweight/obese during the observation period. These results were independent of club sports participation. There is a bidirectional, synergistic association between body weight and motor skills. Facilitating the development of motor skills in children and adolescents may therefore be a viable intervention strategy targeting weight management and physical activity in youth.

  3. ˝FLUMINENSIA˝ VON FRAN KURELAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina Veronika Banaš

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch "Fluminensia" (1862 von Fran Kurelac enthält die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschriebenen Reden, Gelegenheitsgedichte - Ehrengedichte den bedeutenden und verdienstvollen Zeitgenossen gewidmet: dem Bischof von Senj und Modrus" Mirko Ožegović, Bartol Zmajic von Bakar, dem kroatischen Ban Josip Jelačić u.a. Danach folgen Aufrufe ("Proglasi" aus stürmischem 1848, gerichtet auf die Granzlandbewohner, Deutscher, ungarische Kroaten, Rumänen und Slawonier. Die Aufrufe wurden von Kurelac im Namen der Banalregierung beschrieben. Am Ende des Buches steht eine sprachwissenschaftliche Abhandlung über die ubstantivbiegung. Die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschreibenen Reden sind wissenschaftliche Inhalte, essaystisch-didaktisch gestalltet, mit der Meldung über die Bedeutung der Wisenschaft, über die Bedeutung und Rolle der Sprache und des Buches für den Fortschritt des Volkes. Der Verfasser widmete dieses Buch seinen ehemaligen Schülern. "Fluminensia" nimmt eine wichtige Stelle in literarischer und sprachwissenschaftlicher Schöpfung auf dem Gebiet von Rijeka und Kroatien im 19. Jahrhundert ein.

  4. Evaluation, testing and further development of PV systems in Indonesia. Final report; Evaluation, Erprobung und Weiterentwicklung von PV-Systemen in Indonesien. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiser, K.; Schweizer-Ries, P.; Kuhmann, J.; Adib, R.

    2000-06-01

    The Indonesian government initiated the World's biggest decentralised rural electrification programme with PV systems, the so-called 50 MW PV programme, which is to provide 10 million households with PV systems within the next decade. The report describes the financing, distribution strategies, organisation of maintenance work, and training. The focus will be on locally produced components, with cooperation of German organisations. [German] Indonesien besteht aus mehr als 17.500 Inseln, so dass die Ausdehnung der nationalen Netze auf verschiedene Barrieren stoesst. Dort gibt es ungefaehr 23 Millionen Haushalte, die nicht an das nationale Stromnetz angeschlossen sind. Um diese zu ueberwinden, hat die indonesische Regierung das weltweit groesste dezentrale rurale Elektrifizierungsprogramm mit Photovoltaik, das sogenannte 50 MW PV-Programm, ins Leben gerufen. Im Rahmen dieses Programmes sollen in den naechsten zehn Jahren eine Million Haushalte mit Photovoltaik versorgt werden. Welchen Einfluss dabei nicht-technische Aspekte, wie Finanzierungssysteme, Verbreitungsstrategien, Organisation von Wartungsarbeiten, Ausbildung der Programmakteure auf die Zufriedenheit der Nutzer mit den gelieferten Energiedienstleistungen hat und wie diese eine dauerhaften Betrieb und eine nachhaltige Verbreitung dieser Technologie foerdern koennen, war Gegenstand detaillierter Untersuchungen. Grossen Wert legten wir auf Tests lokal produzierter Komponenten und Systeme, mit dem Ziel den beteiligten Firmen die Verbesserung der Qualitaet ihrer Produkte und Dienstleistungen zu ermoeglichen. Neben verschiedenen Projekterfolgen ist sicherlich erwaehnenswert, dass initiiert durch unsere Taetigkeiten, ein deutscher Ladereglerhersteller die Produktion seiner Regler in Zusammenarbeit mit einer indonesischen Firma ausweiten konnte. (orig.)

  5. Reseñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comité Editorial

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Petzold, M. (198ti lndische Psychologie. Eine Einfuhrüng In traditionelle Ansatze und moderne Forschung (Psicología de la India. Una introducción a los enfoques tradicionales y a la investigación moderna. Munich-Weinheim: Psychologie Velags Union. 306 pags. Rahmani, L. 1986. Psychology in Romania. Histoy and recent trends (La Psicología en Rumanía. Historia y tendencias recientes. Colonia: Bundesinstitut für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien. Informe 15-1986; 83 pgs. De Corte, E. Lodewijks, H. Parmentier, R. and Span P. (Eds. (1987. Learning.and Instruction. European Research in an lnternational Context: Volume l. Oxford: Leuven University Press and Pergamon Press. 472 pgs. Luck, H.E.; Grunwald, H.; Geuter, U.; Miller, R.; Rechtien, W. (1987. Sozialgeschichte der Psychologie. Eine Einfuhrung (Historia social de la psicología. Una introducción. Opladen: Leske - Budrich. 298 pgs. Benesch, H. (1987 DTV - Atlas zur Psycho1ogie. Tafeln und Texte Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 2 vols., 506 pgs. Pryzwansky, Walter B. & Wendt Roberto N. (1987 Psychology as a Professlon. Foundations of Practice. New York. Petgamon Press. 191 pgs. Lolas, Fernando (1988 Mehrdimensionale Medizin. Zentrum fur Medizinische Ethik. Bochum - Alemania. 22 pgs.

  6. The experience of the Hitler Youth - boys in national-socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Figiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Losing the First World War, unemployment, the generation gap and the cult of youth led to the party of Adolf Hitler gaining popularity in the Weimar Republic. Using slogans of the restoration of a strong Germany the national socialists organized structures, which formed and educated German Youth. Hitler Youth – brought up according to the rule: “youth leads youth” – was a very fertile environment for the spread of the idea of national-socialism. The specific values – racial supremacy, honour, obedience – handed down by parents were the beginning of the Nazi indoctrination. In the later period such organizations as Bund Deutscher Madel or Hitlerjugend took power over German youth. Education, upbringing, ideological content used by the institutions in Nazi Germany are described in the extensive literature on the subject. However, very important are the experiences of individual members of the Hitler Youth that show the Nazi youth activities from a time perspective. Experiences such as the wisdom of life, and gained knowledge, enable recognition and description of the reality which is discussed. The scope of historical and pedagogical research shows the essential facts constituting the full picture of the life of young people during Nazi era.

  7. Scenarios for backing out of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefold, B.; Heeren, R.; Hege, U.

    1987-01-01

    The study takes as a basis the investigations published by an Enquete Commission of the Federal German Bundestag, on 'Future atomic energy policy', and a BMFT project on 'The social compatibility of various energy systems in the development of the industrialized society', carried out by the Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler. As it has become clear by now that the strategy of pushing forward the breeder reactor technology has lost support, the authors of the study thought that it is opportune to actualize the comparison of the strategy of continued utilisation of nuclear energy by means of light-water type nuclear power plant, and the strategy relying on rational energy utilisation and renewable energy sources. In contrast to sometimes short-sighted 'backing-out scenarios' that consider only the electricity sector, the study in hand also takes into account broader economic and social connections. It demonstrates the feasibility of a cost-efficient, environmentally acceptible and socially compatible energy supply system without nuclear energy, but also defines the necessary decisions energy policy must supply - also and especially those that foster the principles of the free market economy. (orig./UA) [de

  8. INKAS – a guidance tool to assess the impact of adaptation measures against urban heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Buchholz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as heat waves, which are expected to increase in frequency, duration and intensity by the end of this century. Hence, climate adaptation in cities is necessary to improve their resilience against climate change impacts and to secure their sustainability, quality of life and economic strength. Urban planners, practitioners and decision-makers require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures to prioritise their options for action and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies in cities. The Deutscher Wetterdienst's new Information Portal for Climate Adaptation in Cities, INKAS, enables its users to assess and compare the quantitative effect of different adaptation measures for varying degrees of implementation. The impact of different climate adaptation measures designed to reduce summertime air temperatures in cities is systematically investigated by means of the urban climate modelling of idealised cities. INKAS is based on about 2000 urban climate simulations of various combinations of nine urban settlement types typical for Germany and of four urban surrounding countrysides. The simplified assumptions of idealised cities with typical urban settlement types simulated with the 3‑dimensional urban climate model MUKLIMO_3 increases the transferability of complex urban interrelations to local decision-makers and urban planners. Simulated adaptation measures include the use of materials with high reflectivity, the installation of green roofs and the transformation of impervious surfaces between buildings into pervious surfaces.

  9. Potential production from poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw; Potencial de producao de biogas da cama de aviario, esterco de galinhas e palha de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio L.; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], email: fabio.zanatta@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard; Schonberg, Mandy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Post Harvest Technology Dept.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a sub product of growth chicken, rich in nitrogen and used like fertilizer in grains and forage production. Normally is applied in the fields without treatment. It's a very good material to be used for biogas generation because his compounds are chicken manure, straw and others organics compounds like coffee and rice husks. The biogas produced by poultry litter can be used for electric generation or for the heating systems of chicken production. The aimed of this work was evaluated the biogas and methane production of poultry litter, chicken manure and wheat straw. The experiment was made in the Biogastechnikum Laboratory of Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), in Potsdam-Germany, from May to December 2010, according the rule VDI 4630 (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure). According to set conditions of the experiment, the results for biogas production are 393.25, 398.37 e 518.44 Nl biogas/kg{sub TSadded} and methane 223.72, 229.68, e 272.73 Nlmethane/kg{sub TSadded}; for poultry litter, poultry manure and wheat straw, respectively. (author)

  10. The German Middleway as Precursor for Single Embryo Transfer. A Retrospective Data-analysis of the Düsseldorf University Hospitalʼs Interdisciplinary Fertility Centre – UniKiD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliebisch, T. K.; Bielfeld, A. P.; Krüssel, J. S.; Baston-Büst, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients receiving fertility treatment in Germany appear to be disadvantaged in comparison to those in other countries due to the restrictive Embryo Protection Act (“Embryonenschutzgesetz, ESchG”), which prohibits the selection of a “top” embryo. The so-called German Middleway (“Deutscher Mittelweg, DMW”) now provides for a liberal interpretation of the ESchG by allowing the culture of numerous pronuclear stages (2PN stage). Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 2 assisted reproduction treatment cycles in n = 400 patients between the ages of 21 and 45 years, either treated 2× conservatively or 1× conservatively and 1× liberally according to DMW. Results: Pregnancy was achieved in 35 % of patients in the DMW group and 31 % of controls. The birth rate among controls was 28.5 % and 30.5 % in the DMW group. Most pregnancies resulted from the culture of 4 × 2PN stages. Conclusion: Patients in the DMW group had significantly higher pregnancy and birth rates compared to their previous cycles despite significantly increased age and significantly fewer transferred embryos. Key factors were the number of 2PNs generated and the quality of embryos transferred. Thus it can be assumed that particularly older patients with adequate ovarian reserves will benefit from DMW, i.e. the transfer of fewer embryos of the best possible quality. PMID:27365539

  11. The University of Stuttgart IKE/University of Arizona student research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The University of Stuttgart's Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE) and the University of Arizona have had a joint program in which graduate students from the IKE spend 1 yr on the University of Arizona campus. This program started in 1982 largely as the result of an initiative begun by K.H. Hoecker, then director of IKE. Since 1985, Alfred Voss has been director and the program has continued without interruption. Under the program, the Deutscher Akademisher Austauschdienst, a government agency of the Federal Republic of Germany has funded scholarships for students from IKE, which provide support for 1 yr during which they attend the University of Arizona as visiting student scholars and engage in a research project under the direction of one of our faculty, which satisfies a part of the requirements for the Ingenieur-Diplom Fachrichtung Maschinenbau. The students get credit for their research from the University of Stuttgart. The topics have a broad range and include software development, artificial intelligence, radiation transport, and energy management studies

  12. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Elevators and escalators in Germany from an energy perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirzel, Simon; Fleiter, Tobias; Rosende, Daniel

    2010-01-31

    This report aims to provide a brief introduction to the German elevator and escalator market, and gives an aggregated view of current and future developments focusing on energy consumption and energy-related emissions. This update report of January 2010 is an extended version of a report published in April 2009 before the final results from a monitoring campaign carried out within the project were available. During this campaign, 81 installations (74 elevators and 7 escalators) were monitored in terms of energy consumption. In the first section, the structure of the installed German elevator and escalator capacity is presented. The estimates1 were provided courtesy of the two main associations representing elevators and escalators in Germany: the VDMA (Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau - German Engineering Federation) and the VFA-Interlift e.V. -Verband fuer Aufzugstechnik (Association for Lift Technology). This section is followed by a short description of the German construction sector and its implications for elevators and escalators. The third section describes German electricity production in terms of its environmental impact with the main focus on the carbon dioxide emissions of the national power plants. Then the energy consumption of elevators and escalators in Germany is analyzed, comparing the results to total energy production in Germany.2 The final section summarizes the different aspects and derives indications about the future development of the total energy consumption of elevators and escalators in Germany. (orig.)

  13. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  14. Fractional Matching Effect due to Pinning of the Vortex Lattice by an Array of Magnetic Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, O. M.; Montero, M. I.; Jönsson-Åkerman, B. J.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated the pinning of magnetic flux quanta by rectangular arrays of nanoscaled magnetic dots. We measured the resistivity vs. magnetic field characteristics using a high magnetic field resolution of up to 0.1 G over the full field range ( 2 kG to 2 kG). By this we the appearance of minima at half and third integer values of the matching field. It is well known that a reconfiguration of the vortex lattice from a rectangular to a square type geometry occurs in rectangular arrays of magnetic dots when the magnetic field is increased over a threshold value H_r. If we lower the magnetic field after crossing H_r, we find that some of the minima at the full integer matching field are missing. This hysteretic behavior occurs only when Hr is exceeded before the subsequent decrease of the magnetic field. We present the experimental results and discuss preliminary models for the explanation of these observations. This work was supported by the grants NSF and DOE. Two of us acknowledge postdoctoral fellowships by the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) (O.M.S.) and the Secretaria De Estado De Educacion Y Universidades (M.I.M.) respectively.

  15. [Specific immunotherapy. Hyposensitization with allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, B; Kapp, A

    2004-04-01

    Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) induces complex immunologic chan-ges resulting in reduced allergic inflammatory reactions. SIT has long-term effects in mild forms of inhalant allergies and is effective even when standard pharmacotherapy fails. Moreover, the risk to develop additional allergic sensitizations and the development of asthma is significantly reduced in children with allergic rhinitis. SIT is the treatment of choice in patients with systemic reactions to hymenoptera venoms. Although the exact effector mechanisms of SIT still have to be clarified, the most probable effect is a modulation of regulatory T cells associated with a switch of allergen-specific B-cells towards IgG4 production. The critical point to insure efficacy and safety is the selection of patients and allergens, task best performed by a specialist trained in allergology. Further details are available in the position papers of the German allergy societies - DGAI(Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Allergologie und Klinische Immunologie) and ADA (Arzte-verband Deutscher Allergologen) - which can be found at www.dgaki.de.

  16. Common project energy change. The schedule to the success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosch, Ulrich; Hennicke, Peter; Weiger, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The energy change is the most important common work of the German after-war history. And it offers a unique collective field of learning, how the socio-ecological transformation can be converted in practice. If the energy change succeeds in an industrial country like Germany, many other countries can follow this example. The Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland (BUND) and the Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler (VDW) show as editors, what now must be done in order that the energy change becomes a success. Because currently threatens the energy change to be slowed down by the policy and talked to death by many stakeholders in the industry. This book demonstrates why the energy change is necessary and how it can succeed. It shows what has to be done and wants to use the existing enthusiasm in order to lead the common project energy change jointly to success. What is needed is a long-term policy that finally takes the reduction of energy consumption in attack.

  17. Theseus is shaping up. 50 MW solar thermal power plant projected on Crete; Projekt Theseus nimmt Gestalt an. Solarthermisches 50-MW-Kraftwerk auf Kreta in Planung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, O.; Brakmann, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    On the Greek island of Crete, with 8331 km{sup 2}, electric power is mainly generated by combustion of oil. This will change with Theseus (Thermal Solar European Power Station). Theseus is projected on a site with 2,200 sunshine hours per annum. The power station will cost around 125 Mio. ECU. It will have a capacity of 50 MWe. An auxiliary fossil-fuel boiler will provide steam for the turbines in the evening hours and in times of low insolation. Theseus is being constructed by a consortium under German leadership (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf der 8331 km{sup 2} grossen Insel Kreta wird die elektrische Energie bisher zum ueberwiegenden Teil durch Verbrennen von Oel erzeugt. Dies soll sich mit Theseus (Thermal Solar European Power Station) aendern. Theseus wird an einem Ort, der 2.200 Stunden pro Jahr Solarbetrieb gewaehrleistet, errichtet. Das rund 135 Mio. ECU teure Kraftwerk soll 50 MWe leisten und mit einem zusaetzlichen konventionellen, fossil gefeuerten Kessel ausgeruestet werden, der in den Abendstunden und bei geringer Sonnenstrahlung Dampf fuer die Turbinen erzeugt. Fuer die Realisierung von Theseus hat sich ein unter deutscher Leitung stehendes Konsortium gebildet. (orig./AKF)

  18. Position paper on main areas of nuclear chemistry research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear chemistry, with its specialized areas of nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, and radiation chemistry, mainly covers these fields: basic research in nuclear chemistry; actinide chemistry; radioanalysis; nuclear chemistry in the life sciences, geosciences, and cosmic chemistry; radiotracers in technology; nuclear power technology; nuclear waste management; tritium chemistry in fusion technology, and radiation protection and radioecology. In the more than one hundred years of history of this branch of science and technology, which was opened up by the discovery of radioactivity and of the radioelements, pioneering discoveries and developments have been made in many sectors. Far beyond the confines of this area of work, they have achieved overriding importance in applications in many fields of technology and industry and in the life sciences. Research and application in nuclear chemistry continue to be highly relevant to society, ecology, and the economy, and the potential of science and technology in this field in Germany is acknowledged internationally. In the light of this vast area of activity, and against the need to maintain competence in nuclear chemistry for the use of nuclear power, irrespective of the status of this continued use in Germany, nuclear chemistry is indispensable to the solution of future problems. The Nuclear Chemistry Group of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker therefore uses this position paper to draw attention to the urgent need to keep up and further advance nuclear chemistry applications in a variety of areas of science and technology, also as a public duty of thorough education and research. (orig.) [de

  19. Global drought outlook by means of seasonal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziese, Markus; Fröhlich, Kristina; Rustemeier, Elke; Becker, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Droughts are naturally occurring phenomena which are caused by a shortage of available water due to lower than normal precipitation and/or above normal evaporation. Depending on the length of the droughts, several sectors are affected starting with agriculture, then river and ground water levels and finally socio-economic losses at the long end of the spectrum of drought persistence. Droughts are extreme events that affect much larger areas and last much longer than floods, but are less geared towards media than floods being more short-scale in persistence and impacts. Finally the slow onset of droughts make the detection and early warning of their beginning difficult and time is lost for preparatory measures. Drought indices are developed to detect and classify droughts based on (meteorological) observations and possible additional information tailored to specific user needs, e.g. in agriculture, hydrology and other sectors. Not all drought indices can be utilized for global applications as not all input parameters are available at this scale. Therefore the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) developed a drought index as combination of the Standardized Drought Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the GPCC-DI. The GPCC-DI is applied to drought monitoring and retrospective analyses on a global scale. As the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) operates a seasonal forecast system in cooperation with Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology Hamburg and University of Hamburg, these data are also used for an outlook of drought conditions by means of the GPCC-DI. The reliability of seasonal precipitation forecasts is limited, so the drought outlook is available only for forecast months two to four. Based on the GPCC-DI, DWD provides a retrospective analysis, near-real-time monitoring and outlook of drought conditions on a global scale and regular basis.

  20. GPS atmosphere sounding project - An innovative approach for the recovery of atmospheric parameters. WP 232 - Validation of regional models - BALTEX - and contributions to WP 341 and WP 344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.P.

    2003-07-01

    The atmospheric water vapor content is one of the most important parameters for the hydrological cycle. In order to investigate the energy and water balance over the BALTEX study region this report describes comparisons of specific humidity profiles of the hydrostatic High resolution Regional weather forecast Model HRM of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) with profiles derived from spaceborne radio occultation data of GPS/MET and CHAMP and comparisons with the vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) of different networks of groundbased GPS receivers within Europe. High correlations (with a correlation coefficient around 0.9) between the HRM IWV and GPS IWV were found. It is shown that the analysis data used to initialize the HRM model can explain a large part of the mean difference between the IWV from the model and the GPS data. Specific humidities and the IWVs were determined from the refractivity profiles of the radio occultations of GPS/MET and CHAMP/GPS using an iterative algorithm of Gorbunov and Sokolovski (1993). The comparisons of the specific humidity profiles have shown that both receivers, GPS/MET and CHAMP/GPS, measure significantly lower mean specific humidities below about 4 km than HRM. This is e.g. supported by comparisons between the HRM model and the ECMWF analysis data, between the HRM model and radiosonde ascents at Lindenberg/Germany (which have shown lower mean absolute differences of about 0.2 g/kg) as well as between HRM and further spaceborne data like AMSU-A/B and TERRA/MODIS. Comparisons between CHAMP/GPS and AMSU-A over oceans and AMSU-B over Antarctica show the high value of GPS radio occultations for applications worldwide. (orig.)

  1. [Incidence of infection from catheter procedures for regional anesthesia: first results from the network of DGAI and BDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, T; Engelhardt, L; Spies, C; Steinfeldt, T; Gruenewald, D; Kutter, B; Heller, A; Werner, C; Heid, F; Bürkle, H; Gastmeier, P; Wernecke, K-D; Koch, T; Vicent, O; Geiger, P; Wulf, H

    2009-11-01

    To analyze safety issues of regional anaesthesia and analgesia in Germany only a few single center studies are available. Therefore, the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin, DGAI) and the Professional Association of German Anaesthetists (Berufsverband Deutscher Anästhesisten, BDA) initiated a network for safety in regional anaesthesia. From this the first results on infectious complications will be reported. In a Delphi process the documentation of the setup and maintenance of regional anaesthesia and analgesia was agreed with the participants in a working group from the DGAI. After approval by the officially authorized representative for patient data privacy protection a registry was programmed to collect anonymous data. Up to October 2008 data from 6 centers could be analyzed. After testing for plausibility 8,781 regional anaesthesia procedures (22,112 catheter days) could be analyzed. The 5,057 neuraxial and 3,724 peripheral catheter-based procedures were in place for a median of 2.48 days (range 1.0-3.0 days) and 4 severe, 15 moderate and 128 mild infections were recorded. Diabetics were not found to show a statistically significant increase in risk (2.6% compared to 1.9% for non-diabetics: n.s.). Neuraxial procedures seem to have a higher rate of infections than peripheral procedures (2.7% vs. 1.3%, p<0.0001). Multiple punctures of the skin also seem to be associated with a higher infection rate than single skin punctures (4.1% vs. 1.6%, p<0.0001). Infectious complications of catheter-based regional anaesthesia are common. Strict hygienic standards must therefore be complied with. More data are necessary to calculate risk factors. The registry provided can also be used as a benchmark to reduce these rates further.

  2. Hormonally active substances in the environment: Xeno-estrogens. Opinion of an expert commission of the Toxicology Section of Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer experimentelle und klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie (DGPT); Hormonell aktive Substanzen in der Umwelt: Xenooestrogene. Stellungnahme der Beratungskommission der Sektion Toxikologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie (DGPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degen, G.H.; Foth, H.; Kahl, R.; Kappus, H.; Neumann, H.G.; Oesch, F.; Schulte-Hermann, R. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitsphysiologie

    1999-12-01

    )'' mit Mitteln der Bundesregierung (Deutscher Bundestag 1998) und weitere Projekte durch den Verband der Chemischen Industrie und einzelne Bundeslaender. Weitere Informationen zu abgeschlossenen und zu laufenden Projekten sind beim Umweltbundesamt erhaeltlich, das auch die nationalen Aktivitaeten koordiniert. (orig./MG)

  3. Near Real Time MISR Wind Observations for Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K. J.; Protack, S.; Rheingans, B. E.; Hansen, E. G.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Baker, N.; Liu, J.; Val, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) project, in association with the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), has this year adapted its original production software to generate near-real time (NRT) cloud-motion winds as well as radiance imagery from all nine MISR cameras. These products are made publicly available at the ASDC with a latency of less than 3 hours. Launched aboard the sun-synchronous Terra platform in 1999, the MISR instrument continues to acquire near-global, 275 m resolution, multi-angle imagery. During a single 7 minute overpass of any given area, MISR retrieves the stereoscopic height and horizontal motion of clouds from the multi-angle data, yielding meso-scale near-instantaneous wind vectors. The ongoing 15-year record of MISR height-resolved winds at 17.6 km resolution has been validated against independent data sources. Low-level winds dominate the sampling, and agree to within ±3 ms-1 of collocated GOES and other observations. Low-level wind observations are of particular interest to weather forecasting, where there is a dearth of observations suitable for assimilation, in part due to reliability concerns associated with winds whose heights are assigned by the infrared brightness temperature technique. MISR cloud heights, on the other hand, are generated from stereophotogrammetric pattern matching of visible radiances. MISR winds also address data gaps in the latitude bands between geostationary satellite coverage and polar orbiting instruments that obtain winds from multiple overpasses (e.g. MODIS). Observational impact studies conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and by the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst) have both demonstrated forecast improvements when assimilating MISR winds. An impact assessment using the GEOS-5 system is currently in progress. To benefit air quality forecasts, the MISR project is currently investigating the feasibility of generating near-real time aerosol products.

  4. Erratum: Erratum to: The Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Reis, Stefan; Newman, Paul; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Rex, Markus; Santee, Michelle L.; Eckman, Richard S.; Zheng, Xiangdong; Tully, Matthew B.; Stevenson, David S.; Young, Paul; Pyle, John; Weber, Mark; Tamminen, Johanna; Mills, Gina; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Heaviside, Clare; Zerefos, Christos

    2018-03-01

    The Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016 Sophie GODIN-BEEKMANN*1, Irina PETROPAVLOVSKIKH2, Stefan REIS3,20, Paul NEWMAN4, Wolfgang STEINBRECHT5, Markus REX6, Michelle L. SANTEE7, Richard S. ECKMAN8, Xiangdong ZHENG9, Matthew B. TULLY10, David S. STEVENSON11, Paul YOUNG12, John PYLE13, Mark WEBER14, Johanna TAMMINEN15, Gina MILLS16, Alkiviadis F. BAIS17, Clare HEAVISIDE18, and Christos ZEREFOS19 1 Observatoire de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS, 78280 Guyancourt, France 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 3 NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh EH26 0QB, UK 4 Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA 5 Hohenpeissenberg Meteorological Observatory, Deutscher Wetterdienst, 82383 Hohenpeissenberg, Germany 6 Alfred Wegener Institute, 14401 Potsdam, Germany 7 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, CA 91109, USA 8 NASA Headquarters, Earth Science Division, Washington, DC, USA 9 Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China 10 Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia 11 University of Edinburgh, School of GeoSciences, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, UK 12 Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK 13 University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK 14 University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, 28359 Bremen, Germany 15 Finnish Meteorological Institute, Earth Observation, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland 16 NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales, UK 17 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece 18 Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, London, UK 19 Research Center for Atmospheric Physics & Climatology, Academy of Athens, Athens 10680, Greece 20 University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD, UK

  5. Delphi report 1995 on developments in science and technology. Mini Delphi; Delphi-Bericht 1995 zur Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik. Mini-Delphi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    veroeffentlichten Ergebnistabellen mit den Einschaetzungen japanischer und deutscher Experten aus zwei Befragungsrunden bieten die notwendigen Basisdaten. (orig./RHM)

  6. Nail psoriasis as a severity indicator: results from the PsoReal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Marc A; Langenbruch, Anna K; Schäfer, Ines; Herberger, Katharina; Reich, Kristian; Augustin, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    Although nail psoriasis affects a substantial proportion of psoriasis patients and causes significant psychologic distress, few epidemiologic data characterizing patients with nail involvement are available. The aim of this research was to elucidate differences between patients with nail psoriasis and those without any nail involvement, taking quality indicators of health care from the patient's perspective into account. In total, 2449 patient members of the Deutscher Psoriasis Bund, the largest patient organization for psoriasis in Germany, were interviewed in this nationwide, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Patients with nail psoriasis were compared with patients without any nail involvement with regard to gender, age, disease duration, affected body surface area, health-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] ED-5D), patient-defined treatment benefit, amount of inpatient treatments, disease duration, and numbers of work days lost. Data from 2449 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. Overall, 44.8% (1078) of patients were female, mean age was 57.0 ± 11.7 years, and 72.8% had nail involvement and showed higher values for affected body surface area than those without nail involvement (8.3% versus 5.6%, respectively; P < 0.004). Health-related quality of life was significantly lower in patients with nail psoriasis (DLQI 7.2 versus 5.3; ED-5D 60.1 versus 67.3), who had more days off work (9.8 versus 3.3). Nail involvement is an important symptom of psoriasis and is associated with greater disease severity and quality of life impairment. Accordingly, management of psoriasis should include a special focus on nail involvement.

  7. Looking at the work of Raul Lino, in comparison with Frank Lloyd Wright: from the Arts & Crafts, the nature, the organic and the house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El texto hace un análisis comparativo de las obras de Raul Lino (1879-1974, portugués, y Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959, de Estados Unidos- dos arquitectos (casi contemporáneos, cada uno exponente de la cultura y la sociedad de su tiempo y de su espacio de vida y de trabajo.El artículo se refiere al contexto histórico y cultural del primer periodo creativo de estos autores. En este contexto trata de las obras de John Ruskin y William Morris, creadores del Arts & Crafts, así como de las características de este movimiento artístico, de las peculiaridades del Deutscher Werkbund y de los trabajos de Sullivan y Berlage. Acerca de Lino y Wright, este artículo presenta la “comprensión del mundo” que tenían: sus temas conceptuales y arquitectónicos, así como los movimientos estéticos y culturales asociados a sus trabajos - “Casa Portuguesa” y “Arquitectura Orgánica”. Se exponen y analizan los “seis principios” de Wright y los “seis principios” de Lino -destacando los aspectos comunes de las concepciones de ambos autores. Se describen y ejemplifican, también, algunos de los temas y materiales arquitectónicos comunes en la primera fase de las obras los arquitectos. Así mismo, se estudia con mayor profundidad el diseño de obras concretas, casas, de su autoría, en sus similitudes y contrastes.

  8. Die reg op godsdiensvryheid in Suid-Afrikaanse skole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Oosthuizen

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to religious freedom in South African schoolsIn general, religion is to be regarded as one of the most important aspects of human life and as one of the key human functions that distinguishes a human being from the rest of creation. For this reason, religious freedom is deemed by many to be the “first liberty" to be protected by any Bill of Rights. However, protecting everyone’s religious freedom on an equal and equitable basis is sometimes easier said than done. In the USA, for instance, in an effort to protect the religious rights and freedom of all, a wall of separation between state and religion was implemented on the basis of the US "establishment clause”: the American State is compelled to maintain a neutral stance as far as religious matters are concerned. In the eyes of some representatives of the US academe, this approach to the protection of religious freedom ultimately led to the US government’s becoming the “enemy of religion” in American schools. In the 1998 case of Wittmann v Deutscher Schulverein, Pretoria the court confirmed that the drafters of the South African constitution steered the issue of religious freedom on a different course to that of the United States. In Wittmann it was held that the South African constitution did not create a wall of separation between church and state (i.e. schools and that it is the constitutional right of every person (i.e. the learner and the teacher at school to "entertain such beliefs as a person chooses". The court also held that everyone at school has the right to confess his/her faith and to participate freely in religious worship and religious practice (and even teach and disseminate religion at school.

  9. A Lagrangian particle model to predict the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D.; Reiczigel, J.; Rubel, F.

    Airborne spread of bioaerosols in the boundary layer over a complex terrain is simulated using a Lagrangian particle model, and applied to modelling the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Two case studies are made with study domains located in a hilly region in the northwest of the Styrian capital Graz, the second largest town in Austria. Mountainous terrain as well as inhomogeneous and time varying meteorological conditions prevent from application of so far used Gaussian dispersion models, while the proposed model can handle these realistically. In the model, trajectories of several thousands of particles are computed and the distribution of virus concentration near the ground is calculated. This allows to assess risk of infection areas with respect to animal species of interest, such as cattle, swine or sheep. Meteorological input data like wind field and other variables necessary to compute turbulence were taken from the new pre-operational version of the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model LMK ( Lokal-Modell-Kürzestfrist) running at the German weather service DWD ( Deutscher Wetterdienst). The LMK model provides meteorological parameters with a spatial resolution of about 2.8 km. To account for the spatial resolution of 400 m used by the Lagrangian particle model, the initial wind field is interpolated upon the finer grid by a mass consistent interpolation method. Case studies depict a significant influence of local wind systems on the spread of virus. Higher virus concentrations at the upwind side of the hills and marginal concentrations in the lee are well observable, as well as canalization effects by valleys. The study demonstrates that the Lagrangian particle model is an appropriate tool for risk assessment of airborne spread of virus by taking into account the realistic orographic and meteorological conditions.

  10. Numerical simulation of heavy precipitation events using mesoscale weather forecast models. Validation with radar data and diagnosis of the atmospheric moisture budget; Numerische Simulation von Starkniederschlagsereignissen mit mesoskaligen Wettervorhersagemodellen. Ueberpruefung mit Radar-Daten und Diagnose der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, C.

    2000-07-01

    Convective precipitation systems contribute substantially to the summertime rainfall maximum in the northern Alpine region. The capability of mesoscale weather forecast models in capturing such heavy precipitation events is investigated. The complementary application of so far hardly used areal radar data and conventional rain gauge observations enables a case-study-type evaluation of summertime precipitation episodes. Different rainfall episodes are simulated with the former operational model (DM, meshsize 14 km) of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). The influence of the horizontal resolution and the parameterization of moist convection is subsequently studied with a higher resolution atmospheric model (MC2, meshsize 2 km). Diagnostic studies on the atmospheric water budget regarding the rainfall episode, which instigated the Oder-flood in summer 1997, allow an examination of the origin of the moisture and the genesis of the copious precipitation. (orig.) [German] Konvektive Niederschlagssysterne tragen im Nordalpenraum wesentlich zum sommerlichen Niederschlagsmaximum bei. Die Faehigkeit mesoskaliger Wettervorhersagemodelle, solche Starkniederschlagsereignisse zu erfassen, wird in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Durch den komplementaeren Gebrauch von, bisher kaum genutzten, flaechendeckenden Radardaten und konventionellen Niederschlagsmessungen des Bodenmessnetzes werden Modellergebnisse sommerlicher Niederschlagssysteme fallstudienhaft detailliert ueberprueft. Fuer verschiedene Starkniederschlagsereignisse werden dazu Modellsimulationen mit dem in den 90er Jahren operationellen Modell (DM, Maschenweite 14 km) des Deutschen Wetterdienstes (DWD) durchgefuehrt. Zur Untersuchung des Einflusses der horizontalen Maschenweite und der Niederschlagsparametrisierung werden ferner numerische Simulationen mit einem hoeher aufloesdenden Atmosphaerenmodell (MC2, Maschenweite 2 km) behandelt. Anhand diagnostischer Untersuchungen der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz laesst sich ausserdem die

  11. Development of a computing program for prediction of wind power for midsize and wide grid areas. Final report; Entwicklung eines Rechenmodells zur Vorhersage der Windleistung fuer mittlere und grosse Versorgungsgebiete. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, L.; Rohrig, K.; Ernst, B.; Schorn, P.; Bettels, B.

    2002-06-30

    In co-operation with partners out of industry and research a machine program was developed predicting the output of wind power plants. Three attributes should be realised by this prediction tool: Short computing time, usable for various grid regions, high reliability. Therewith the transmission system operators get a tool for reducing the amount of control energy which is needed to ensure the balance between power generation and consumption in their networks. This prediction tool for up to two days was developed exemplary for the northern grid area of the transmission system operator 'E.ON Netz GmbH' (ENE). The wind power prediction is based on numerical weather forecast from the German weather service (Deutscher Wetterdienst). The weather forecast is given for 16 representative sites within the ENE-area. The meso-scale model KLIMM (Klima Model Mainz) was used to calculate the meteorological variables near to the wind farms, which are connected to the one transformer substation belonging to one representative place. Therefor KLIMM is fed with the weather forecast given for one limited location in the representative sites. The transformation of the meteorological variables to the output of wind power plants at the representative site is done by Neural Networks. These Neural Networks have been trained with corresponding measurements. Using an existing online-model the total wind power for the whole ENE-area will be calculated from the individual wind power of the representative sites. The Evaluation of the prediction- and measured data from 2001 shows comparing with reference-models, that the prediction-model evolved in the project lead to very good results. (orig.)

  12. The DLR project Wirbelschleppe. Detecting, characterizing, controlling, attenuating, understanding, and predicting aircraft wake vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    This collection of reports presents an excerpt of the investigations that were performed in the framework of the DLR Projekt Wirbelschleppe. A similar sample of reports was presented as part of three dedicated wake vortex sessions accomplished at the 1{sup st} European Air and Space Conference (CEAS 2007) and Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2007 in Berlin. The Projekt Wirbelschleppe was conducted in two phases in the time frame from 1999 to 2007 with the five contributing DLR Institutes: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Institute of Flight Systems, Institute of Flight Guidance, Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics and the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics of the University of Technology Berlin. The project unified a multitude of different aspects and disciplines of wake vortex research which can be characterized by four main themes: - minimization of wake vortices by measures at the aircraft; - development and demonstration of a system for wake vortex prediction and observation; - airborne wake vortex detection and active control; - integration of systems into air traffic control. The Projekt Wirbelschleppe greatly benefited from the European projects AWIATOR, ATC-Wake, Credos, C-Wake, Eurowake, FAR-Wake, FLYSAFE, I-Wake, S-Wake, WakeNet, WakeNet2-Europe, WakeNet3-Europe, and Wavenc. DLR's wake vortex activities will be continued in the Projekt Wetter and Fliegen (2008-2011): Because the current compilation represents only a limited extract of the accomplished work, it is completed by a list of references emerging from the project. (orig.)

  13. Disposal of energetic materials by alkaline pressure hydrolysis and combined techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunte, G.; Krause, H.H.; Hirth, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Due to the reduction of armament and especially due to the German reunification we are met by objective of the diposal of energetic materials. Environmentally friendly disposal methods available for the different propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics are urgently needed. The main component of gun and rocket propellants is the energetic polymer nitrocellulose. One method to dispose nitrocellulose containing propellants is the combination of rapid chemical destruction by pressure hydrolysis and the biological degradation of the reaction mixture. The study describes the results of pressure hydrolysis of different gun and rocket propellants. Under alkaline conditions (propellant to NaOH ratio 2.3:1; reaction temperature 150 C; pressure below 30 bar) biological degradable reaction products were formed. The main products in the liquid phase were simple mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Dependent on the reaction conditions 30-50% of the nitrogen content of the propellants was transformed to nitrite and nitrate. The gaseous nitrogen containing products were N{sub 2} (16-46%), N{sub 2}O (2-23%), NO{sub x} (0-5%). Overall 40%-60% of the propellant nitrogen was transformed to gaseous products. In the solid residues a nitrogen content between 2% and 9% was found. The residues were mostly due to additives used in propellant manufacturing. In the case of nitrocellulose pressure hydrolysis below 30 bar and reaction temperature about 150 C are sufficient. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nicht zuletzt aufgrund der in den letzten Jahren erfolgten Abruestungsmassnahmen sowie auch der Wiedervereinigung beider deutscher Staaten ergab sich die Problematik der Entsorgung von energetischen Materialien. Alternativ zur Verbrennung besteht Bedarf an der Entwicklung von Entsorgungsverfahren, die eine umweltfreundliche Entsorgung von Treibladungspulvern, Raketenfesttreibstoffen oder pyrotechnischen Komponenten ermoeglichen. Eine interessante Methode zur Beseitigung von auf Nitrocellulose basierenden

  14. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    and meteorological parameters (e.g. from the model COSMO-DE) to calculate global irradiance by means of the generated power of individual photovoltaic systems. For the year 2012, our method is tested for PV systems in the Allgäu region (south Germany), the distribution area of the system operator "AllgäuNetz GmbH & Co". The test region includes 215 online-monitored photovoltaic systems and one pyranometer station located at the DWD (Deutscher WetterDienst) weather station Hohenpeißenberg (operated by the German Weather Service). The present talk provides an introduction to the newly developed method along with first results for clear sky scenarios. (1) B. Mayer and A. Kylling (2005): Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations - description and examples of use. In: Chemistry and Physics Chemistry and Physics. Page: 1855 - 1877

  15. Tukums kino hronikās

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Eksta

    2016-03-01

    In diesem Artikel werden die filmwirtschaftlichen, stilistischen und ideologischen Besonderheiten der Wochenschauproduktion in Lettland untersucht und in Zusammenhang gesetzt, wobei der Wandel betont wird, den dieses Medium zwischen 1944 und 1995 durchlaufen hat. Der Artikel beruht auf Archivforschungen, Interviews mit Filmemachern sowie einer Analyse der Wochenschaufolgen, die die Autorin in seinem audiovisuellen Programm Tukums kino hronikās / Die Filmchroniken von Tukums (2013 zusammengestellt hat. Dieses 28-minütige Programm fasst die Wochenschau-Dokumentationen der Stadt Tukums (dt. Tuckum sowie ihrer Umgebung für den Zeitraum von 1944 bis 1992 zusammen und zeigt, was die Filmemacher an dieser charakteristischen lettischen Kleinstadt interessiert hat. Die stilistische Vielfalt und Kontinuität des Wochenschaumaterials in diesem Programm geben auch einen Überblick über den Wandel der filmischen Darstellungsweisen. Die ersten beiden Folgen, die ich untersuche – Ostland-Woche Nr. 83 und Ostland-Woche Nr. 115 – sind 1944 unter deutscher Besatzung entstanden; der Großteil der Produktion erfolgte in der Sowjetzeit. Bei der Analyse dieser Folgen umreiße ich die wichtigsten Zensurvoraussetzungen sowie die von den Filmemachern verinnerlichte „Logik“ bei der Auswahl von Personen und Orten, die eine „stillschweigende Selbstzensur“ schuf.  Ich gebe auch eine Übersicht über die Methoden der Dokumentarflmproduktion und die wichtigsten stilistischen Änderungen – vom übersteigerten Positivismus der 1940er bis hin zur Experimentierfreude der 1970er. Der funktionelle Wandel setzte in den 1950er mit dem Beginn der Fernseh-Ära ein, infolge derer die Wochenschau in Kinos als Zeitfüller fungierte.  Eine neue Filmemachergeneration und  Chruščev Tauwetterstimmung Anfang der 1960er brachten inhaltlich eine neue lyrische Leichtigkeit, sowie auch technische und ästhetische Experimente wie etwa Breitbild, Tonsynchronisierung, Farbe und verschiedene

  16. Threshold-Konzepte, das ANCIL-Curriculum und die Metaliteracy – Überlegungen zu Konsequenzen für die Förderung von Informationskompetenz in deutschen Hochschulen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Sühl-Strohmenger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Das Verständnis von Informationskompetenz, wie es sich im deutschsprachigen Raum seit etwa 15 Jahren entwickelt hat, steht auch aufgrund neuer Ansätze und Ideen zur Information Literacy aus dem angloamerikanischen Raum zur Diskussion. Vor allem bezieht sich das auf die Threshold-Konzepte sowie das Framework-Modell der US-amerikanischen Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL, ferner die Metaliteracy-Theorie von Mackey und Jacobson und schließlich auf das neue britische ANCIL-Curriculum. Nun sind aus deutscher bibliothekarischer Sicht nicht alle mit den oben genannten neuen Konzepten verbundenen Gedankengänge und Argumente der Kolleginnen und Kollegen aus den USA und aus Großbritannien ohne weiteres nachvollziehbar gewesen. Und wie verhalten sie sich zu den Standards der Informationskompetenz? Jetzt liegen erste Ansätze in den USA vor, die explizit auf dem Threshold-Modell bzw. dem ACRL-Framework aufbauen, so dass eine konkretere Grundlage für mögliche Übertragungen der Modelle auf Kurs- und Schulungskonzepte zur Förderung von Informationskompetenz im deutschsprachigen Raum gegeben ist.   The concept of information competency, as developed in the German-speaking countries for about 15 years, has recently come up for discussion because of new approaches and ideas about information literacy from the Anglo-American countries. This mostly refers to the threshold concepts as well as the framework model of the US-American ACRL, the Metaliteracy Theory by Mackey and Jacobson and finally the new curriculum of the British ANCIL. From a German librarian's point of view, not all of the ideas and arguments of our American and British colleagues which are connected to the above-mentioned new concepts were easy to understand. Another question is how they relate to the standards of information competency. By now, first approaches in the US, which are explicitly based on the Threshold Model or the ACRL Framework, have been made available

  17. THE EPS OF THE IFRS AS A BENCHMARK OF CORPORATE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Agota

    2015-07-01

    is able to inform the investors reliably about their earnings on their shares. In this study our aim is to introduce the theoretical framework of the standard issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC, the present the calculation methods of the basic and diluted EPS indicators. We will also the practical application of the method by analysing the financial statements of the 30 companies of the Deutscher Aktienindex (DAX. The current study focuses on the method of performance measurement supported by the IASB that alleviates the comparison of companies and not identical with the performance measurement methods used in the discipline of finance.

  18. Guide to the construction of small-scale hydropower plants; 2. ed.; Leitfaden fuer den Bau von Kleinwasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, W.; Giesecke, J.; Grabitz, R.; Haakh, F.; Haury, H.G.; Horlacher, H.B.; Hutarew, A.; Latrille, W.; Mackert, W.; Mueller, P.; Sauer, K.; Schmid, H.; Schweickert, H.; Waller, H.

    1994-12-31

    einzelnen Kapitel sind aus Fachbeitraegen der Mitglieder des eingangs erwaehnten Autorenkollektivs hervorgegangen und beruecksichtigen im wesentlichen die Verhaeltnisse in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Baden-Wuerttemberg). Sie erweitern damit das in Kapitel 3 erstmals in deutscher Sprache wiedergegebene Handbuch der Internationalen Elektrotechnischen Kommission, das weltweit gueltig sein und sich deshalb auf Technik und Ablauforganisation beschraenken muss. Bewusst ist ein Lehrbuchcharakter zugunsten der konkreten, praxisnahen Darstellung des Problemkreises zurueckgetreten. Der Wasserwirtschaftsverband und die Autoren hoffen auch, durch diesen Leitfaden in der Oeffentlichkeit das Interesse fuer den weiteren energiepolitisch, privatwirtschaftlich und oekologisch ausgewogenen Ausbau von Kleinwasserkraeften geweckt zu haben. (orig.)

  19. Hegemoniale Männlichkeit auf dem historischen Prüfstand Hegemonic Masculinity on the Historical Test Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Berlis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Konzept der „hegemonialen Männlichkeit“ des australischen Soziologen Robert William Connell hat seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre zunächst im englischsprachigen Raum und – mit Erscheinen seines Hauptwerkes Der gemachte Mann. Konstruktion und Krise von Männlichkeiten (1999 in deutscher Übersetzung – ab Ende der neunziger Jahre auch im deutschen Sprachraum erheblichen Einfluss auf die entstehende Männerforschung ausgeübt. Im vorliegenden Buch wird die „konkrete heuristische Verwertbarkeit“ (S. 22 von Connells Konzept für die historische Forschung und die historisch unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen von Männlichkeit untersucht. Der Sammelband ist als interdisziplinärer Beitrag zur Männlichkeitsforschung konzipiert und enthält insgesamt zwölf geschichts-, literatur- und kulturwissenschaftliche Beiträge sowie einen soziologischen Beitrag. Das Ziel, zur begrifflichen Präzisierung innerhalb der Männer- und Geschlechterforschung beizutragen und das Connellsche Konzept auf seine Brauchbarkeit für die historische Forschung auszuloten, wird in vielen Beiträgen des lesenswerten Sammelbandes verwirklicht.Australian sociologist Robert William Connell’s concept of “hegemonic masculinity” has had considerable influence since the mid-eighties on the emerging body of men’s research, first in English-speaking world and then, following the publication of his central text Masculinities in German translation in 1999, also in the German speaking world. The volume at hand probes the “concrete heuristic utility” of Connell’s concept for historical research and examines the historically different developments of masculinities (22. The collected volume is conceived as an interdisciplinary contribution to masculinity research and contains twelve articles combining perspectives from history, literature, and cultural studies as well as one sociological contribution. The goal of this interesting collected volume is to help make the

  20. Consequences of Enduring Low Fertility – A German Case StudyDemographic Projections and Implications for Different Policy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bujard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.Compared to all other countries in the world, Germany has been a “low-fertility country” for a longer period: the total fertility rate has been below 1.5 for four decades. Being the first to experience this development, a case study of Germany allows analysing the consequences of an enduring birth decline. In Germany, low fertility is also an increasingly big issue in politics as well as science, especially due to its extensive consequences on several policy fields that already become visible. However, the assessment of the consequences differs tremendously when it comes either to its intensity or to the question whether ageing or rather population decline is the more severe problem. Differentiated by these two processes, this article combines demographic analysis with the assessment of the consequences for different policy fields such as pensions, health, the economy, the labour market, culture, the EU, international relations and the party system.For all these policy fields, the consequences are serious, and partly ambivalent but overall negative. The occurrence of the consequences and the different policy options how to deal with these consequences differ considerably between the policy fields. Ageing is a more severe problem than shrinking, because the severe changes in the age structure in the social security system that will take place until 2040 apply to most Germans and are inevitable. On the other hand, the population decline can still be avoided demographically and does not affect all inhabitants negatively. Regarding the consequences of a declining population, one has to differentiate between an individual and a national perspective. National consequences are rather negative due to a decline of international influence and power, especially within the European Union. The study also demonstrates that the long

  1. The new oxide paradigm for solid state ultraviolet photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Arrateig, X.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. H.; Razeghi, M.; McClintock, R.; Frisch, E.; Harel, S.

    2018-03-01

    The bandgap of wurzite ZnO layers grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition was engineered from 3.7 to 4.8 eV by alloying with Mg. Above this Mg content the layers transformed from single phase hcp to mixed hcp/fcc phase before becoming single phase fcc above a bandgap of about 5.5 eV. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors based on gold Inter-Digitated-Transducer structures were fabricated from the single phase hcp layers by single step negative photolithography and then packaged in TO5 cans. The devices gave over 6 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal with solar rejection ratios (I270 : I350) of over 3 × 105 and dark signals of 300 pA (at a bias of -5V). Spectral responsivities were engineered to fit the "Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches" industry standard form and gave over two decade higher responsivities (14 A/W, peaked at 270 nm) than commercial SiC based devices. Homogeneous Ga2O3 layers were also grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by PLD. Optical transmission spectra were coherent with a bandgap that increased from 4.9 to 5.4 eV when film thickness was decreased from 825 to 145 nm. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films were of the β-Ga2O3 (monoclinic) polytype with strong (-201) orientation. β-Ga2O3 MSM photodetectors gave over 4 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal (at -5V bias) with dark currents of 250 pA and spectral responsivities of up to 40 A/W (at -0.75V bias). It was found that the spectral responsivity peak position could be decreased from 250 to 230 nm by reducing film thickness from 825 to 145 nm. This shift in peak responsivity wavelength with film thickness (a) was coherent with the apparent bandgap shift that was observed in transmission spectroscopy for the same layers and (b) conveniently provides a coverage of the spectral region in which MgZnO layers show fcc/hcp phase mixing.

  2. Self-Concept in Adolescents—Relationship between Sport Participation, Motor Performance and Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Klein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale and sporting activity, measured motor performance (German motor performance test DMT (Deutscher Motorik-Test 6–18 and report mark in physical education. Relationships were also analyzed between physical self-concept and general personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, compatibility, and conscientiousness, measured with NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. The assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism differs by sex (F(1, 962 = 35.21; p < 0.001, whereby girls assess themselves more critically. Weak significant relationships are displayed between motor performance and the assessment of own physical attractiveness (r(395 = 0.31; p < 0.01. Motor performance is given a higher predictive value with regard to a subject’s own self-concept, (physical attractiveness β = 0.37; t(249 = 5.24; p < 0.001; athleticism β = 0.40; t(248 = 6.81; p < 0.001 than the mark achieved in physical education (physical attractiveness β = −0.01; n.s.; athleticism β = −0.30; t(248 = 5.10; p < 0.001. Relationships were found overall between personality traits and physical self-concept. The influence of the ‘neuroticism’ trait is particularly strong (physical attractiveness β = −0.44; t(947 = −13.58; p < 0.001; athleticism β = −0.27; t(948 = −7.84; p < 0.001. The more pronounced this trait, the lower the assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism.

  3. Westeuropas Wiederaufbau – Made in Germany? Baumaterial aus Deutschland im Versailler Vertrag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, the historiography of reparations after World War I has a predominant focus on cash. The article proposes considering non-cash contributions a constitutive part of the Treaty of Versailles and investigating their impact on the post-World War I order. Contemporary debates on the supply of building materials to northern France illustrate the expectations on the German side that were raised by the promise of such deliveries in kind: Policymakers hoped that deliveries in kind would reduce the overall sum of reparations; smart entrepreneurs hoped for lucrative business, for instance from the sale of prefabricated houses; and trade unions saw new prospects for German workers and German building materials. Though deliveries in kind to the areas undergoing reconstruction in northern France were in practice small, the related debates disclose new perspectives on the post-war history. This example serves as a case in point for the potential of applying theoretical considerations about the social dimension of materiality to the context of the Treaty of Versailles and its consequences. Die Geschichtsschreibung der Reparationen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg handelt bislang vor allem von Geld. Dieser Aufsatz plädiert dafür, auch die Sachlieferungen als einen wesentlichen Bestandteil des Versailler Vertrags zu interpretieren. Exemplarisch wird erprobt, wie sich theoretische Überlegungen zur sozialen Dimension von Dingen auf die Geschichte des Versailler Vertrags und seiner Folgen anwenden lassen. Anhand der zeitgenössischen Diskussionen über geplante Lieferungen von Baumaterial nach Nordfrankreich lässt sich nachvollziehen, dass man auf deutscher Seite mit diesen Reparationsleistungen durchaus Erwartungen verknüpfte: Aus Sicht der Politik sollten Sachlieferungen dazu beitragen, die Gesamtsumme der Reparationen zu mindern. Findige Unternehmen hofften schon 1919 auf einträgliche Geschäfte, etwa durch den Verkauf von Fertighäusern. Auch die

  4. Soil use in gardens as chance to socially promote the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Gardening is a form for citizens to use the ecosystem functions of soils, while simultaneously contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 11, 12 and 15 of the UN. In 2016, 8.4 million people in Germany gardened several times a week and 14.2 million people worked in their garden several times a month*. Furthermore, the "Bundesverband Deutscher Gartenfreunde e.V.", an allotment gardening association, has 947.137 members that use an area of 460 km2 for gardening**. This shows that gardening is a frequent pastime for many people and thus can help achieve the SDG's. Interdisciplinary research in six gardening associations was conducted to investigate soil knowledge and soil use in Southern Germany. Questionnaires and interviews with people that chose gardening as a pastime took place in 2015 and 2016. The respondents were interviewed in the respective garden plot to also observe on-site garden management practices. The combination of sociological and ethnological approaches for investigating the soil scientific research question of soil management practices in leisure gardens is useful to start a public discourse on the importance of soil for society. The evaluation showed that soil use in gardens could contribute to the SDG's 11, 12 and 15. Goal 11 is to make cities resilient and sustainable. Soil use in form of gardening is a bottom-up approach that conserves knowledge on small-scale food production. This is important for the resilience of cities in times of crises, as has been the case during the Great Depression or the World Wars. It is closely connected to Goal 12, the sustainable consumption and production patterns. If gardening activities are sustainable in the use of fertilizers, small-scale sustainability and a resilient soil use that also protects the soil and ground water can be achieved. However, this necessitates cooperation between scientists, gardening societies and the individual gardeners on equal terms. Gardening also affects the

  5. Nail psoriasis as a severity indicator: results from the PsoReal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Schäfer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Marc A Radtke1, Anna K Langenbruch1, I Schäfer1, Katharina Herberger1, Kristian Reich2, Matthias Augustin11Institute for Health Services Research in Dermatology and Nursing, University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; 2Dermatologikum Hamburg, GermanyBackground: Although nail psoriasis affects a substantial proportion of psoriasis patients and causes significant psychologic distress, few epidemiologic data characterizing patients with nail involvement are available. The aim of this research was to elucidate differences between patients with nail psoriasis and those without any nail involvement, taking quality indicators of health care from the patient's perspective into account.Methods: In total, 2449 patient members of the Deutscher Psoriasis Bund, the largest patient organization for psoriasis in Germany, were interviewed in this nationwide, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Patients with nail psoriasis were compared with patients without any nail involvement with regard to gender, age, disease duration, affected body surface area, health-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] ED-5D, patient-defined treatment benefit, amount of inpatient treatments, disease duration, and numbers of work days lost.Results: Data from 2449 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. Overall, 44.8% (1078 of patients were female, mean age was 57.0 ± 11.7 years, and 72.8% had nail involvement and showed higher values for affected body surface area than those without nail involvement (8.3% versus 5.6%, respectively; P < 0.004. Health-related quality of life was significantly lower in patients with nail psoriasis (DLQI 7.2 versus 5.3; ED-5D 60.1 versus 67.3, who had more days off work (9.8 versus 3.3.Conclusion: Nail involvement is an important symptom of psoriasis and is associated with greater disease severity and quality of life impairment. Accordingly, management of psoriasis should include a special focus on nail

  6. The WTO ministerial conference in Seattle - results and future prospects for environmental protection; Die WTO-Ministerkonferenz in Seattle - Ergebnisse und Perspektiven fuer den Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, P; Pfahl, S; Reichert, T [AG Handel des Forums und Entwicklung im Deutschen Naturschutzring (DNR), Bonn (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    umfassenden Integration vom Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitsaspekten in zukuenftige WTO-Verhandlungen und geht dabei insbesondere auf die Position internationaler und deutscher Nichtregierungsorganisationen sowie kritischer Wissenschaftler ein. Zunaechst werden aktuelle und potentielle Konfliktfelder zwischen (inter-)nationaler Umweltpolitik und Handelspolitik diskutiert. Weiterhin werden die umweltpolitischen Aspekte einer weiteren Liberalisierung in speziellen Sektoren und Regelungsbereichen aufgezeigt, ueber die in der WTO aktuell verhandelt wird (Landwirtschaft und Dienstleistungen) bzw. Verhandlungen aufgenommen werden sollten (Forstprodukte, Investitionen etc.). Abschliessend werden Ansaetze vorgestellt, die einen konstruktiveren Umgang mit dem Themenkomplex Handel und Umwelt auf internationaler Ebene foerdern koennen. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.

    2015-03-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  8. United Nations conference of environment and development, held at Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Documents. Agenda 21; Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung im Juni 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. Dokumente. Agenda 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    With the translation of Agenda 21 all the documents released in connection with the United Nations Conference of Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio de Janeiro (June 1992) have now been made generally available also in the German language. Agenda 21, which in 40 chapters discusses the basic political platforms of environment-oriented sustainable development, is an action programme for the 21st century adopted at Rio by more than 170 states. The action programme contains detailed instructions as to the practices to be abandoned to prevent any further deteriorations as well as strategies to be adopted to gradually relieve the situation and to ensure a reasonable and sustainable exploitation of our natural resources. One important approach to this goal is that environmental issues are considered within a global context, thus being a prominent factor in all political spheres. The rules set up in this action programme are applicable to industrial and developing countries alike. It offers - in broad outline - prescriptions for the combatting poverty, control of overpopulation, reconciliation of commercial and environmental interests, disposal of refuse and chemicals, for climate, energy and agricultural policies as well as the ways in which industrial and developing countries could cooperate both financially and in terms of shared technologies. The bilateral and multilateral development policies of the Federal Government are largely based on Agende 21. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Mit der Uebersetzung der Agenda 21 sind nunmehr alle Dokumente der Konferenz fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung der Vereinten Nationen (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro (June 1992) auch in deutscher Sprache der Oeffenlichkeit zugaenglich. Die Agenda 21, die mit ihren 40 Kapiteln alle wesentlichen Politikbereiche einer umweltvertraeglichen, nachhaltigen Entwicklung anspricht, ist das in Rio von mehr als 170 Staaten verabschiedete Aktionsprogramm fuer das 21. Jahrhundert. Mit diesem Aktionsprogramm werden

  9. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: Overview of the French-German initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Dept. International Programmes, Berlin (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dept. International Relations, 92 - Clamart (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    - Purpose: The main purpose of the French-German Initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. - Coordination: GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit), supported in programme 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire) are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary. German Support by Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU), Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke (VDEW) e.V.; French Support by Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), Electricite de France (EdF). - Programmes: Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million Euro within the frame work of the French- German Initiative: Programme 1: SARCOPHAGUS: Safety of the Chernobyl 'Sarcophagus', Programme 2: RADIOECOLOGY: Study of the radioecological consequences of the accident,Programme 3: HEALTH: Study of health effects. - Background: At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real co-ordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the

  10. Using ensemble forecasting for wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Landberg, L.; Badger, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Sattler, K.

    2003-07-01

    /or parameterizations. Two of the large ensembles run this way are available from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, and from the National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) in the US. These are used to calculate the uncertainty of the prediction from the model spread. However, since the model domains are global, it is not certain that this approach will work, due to insufficient spread in Denmark. Additionally, we will try to establish an ensemble of members of DMIs forecasts together with forecasts from the Deutscher Wetterdienst. The project is funded by the Danish PSO funds under the reference no. ORDRE-101295 (FU 2101). (au)

  11. Transient receptor potential channel polymorphisms are associated with the somatosensory function in neuropathic pain patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Binder

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p = 0.03, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V with cold hypoalgesia (p = 0.0035. Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1 and impaired (2 sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p = 0.006, p = 0.005 and pG (rs222747, M315I to cold hypaesthesia (p = 0.002, but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In this study we found no evidence that genetic

  12. Intercomparación bilateral entre LATU y PTB de calibración en puntos fijos (ITS-90 del Zn al Hg de un SPRT con PTB como laboratorio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Robatto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, es el Instituto Metrológico Nacional del Uruguay, miembro fi rmante del Acuerdo de Reconocimiento Mutuo (MRA entre Laboratorios Nacionales de Metrología del Comité Internacional de Pesas y Medidas (CIPM. Las capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs del LATU fueron reconocidas en junio de 2004 y se encuentran publicadas en la BIPM- Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009. El LATU estuvo acreditado desde 2001 hasta junio de 2007 por el Deutscher Kalibrier Dienst (Servicio de Acreditación Alemán en las magnitudes Masa, Balanzas y Temperatura (Laboratorio DKD, DKD-K-25601. Se decidió a partir de ese momento probar el cumplimiento con los criterios establecidos por el CIPM MRA y los requisitos de la Norma ISO/IEC 17025 en el marco de una auditoría in situ llevada a cabo en el LATU en enero de 2008. Como parte de ese proceso de revisión de pares, se realizó una Intercomparación Bilateral entre el PTB y el LATU en los puntos fi jos de la Escala Internacional de Temperatura (ITS-90, desde el punto triple de Hg hasta el punto de congelación del Zn, con el PTB como laboratorio piloto. En este artículo los resultados son presentados y discutidos de manera de sostener ladeclaración de mejores capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs en sustitución de las ya declaradas.AbstractLaboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay, signatory of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA, has Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs in temperature that were fi rst published in the BIPM Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009 in June 2004. LATU was a DKD Laboratory accredited in Mass, Balances and Temperature from 2001 until June 2007 when it was decided to adopt the CIPM criteria for proving compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 through a Peer Review process. The LATU on site Peer Review was carried out in January 2008, as part of the process. During the

  13. Web-based Training an deutschen Universitäts-Augenkliniken – Lehre 2.0? [Web-based Training in German University Eye Hospitals – Education 2.0?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handzel, Daniel M.

    2011-08-01

    Deutschland angeboten werden. Methodik: Im Januar 2010 wurden in dieser prospektiven Studie alle 36 Internetseiten deutscher Universitäts-Augenkliniken besucht. Dabei wurde das angebotene Aus-, Weiter- und Fortbildungsangebot für Studierende und Ärzte quantitativ und qualitativ evaluiert. Ergebnisse: Die Homepages aller Kliniken waren zum Zeitpunkt der Besuche erreichbar. 28 Internetseiten hielten Informationen zur Aus-, Weiter- oder Fortbildung für Studierende und Ärzte vor. Eine Seite beinhaltete nur Angebote für Studenten, 3 ausschließlich für Ärzte. Auf 4 Seiten wurde für beide Zielgruppen kein Angebot gemacht. Das Angebot umfasste Informationen zu aktuellen Veranstaltungen wie ärztlichen Fortbildungen oder Lehrveranstaltungen für Studierende, weiter wurden Skripte oder ähnliches Material zum download bereitgestellt. Auf 9 Seiten wurden komplexe e-learning-Plattformen aufgefunden, welche sich einem bestimmten Thema im Rahmen einer logisch-didaktischen Gliederung widmen. Trotz der umfangreichen Möglichkeiten, welches das Web 2.0 bietet, wurden viele denkbare Hilfsmittel nur selten bereitgestellt. Die Aktualität des Angebots war nicht immer zu ermitteln, oft lag die letzte Aktualisierung lange zurück. Auf einer Seite war als letzte Aktualisierung der Fallsammlung das Jahr 2004 angegeben. Schlussfolgerung: Von den Homepages der Augenabteilungen deutscher Universitätskliniken werden 9 funktionsfähige e-learning-Applikationen zur Verfügung gestellt. Zwei weitere Kliniken verweisen auf ein Projekt der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft. Das Angebot zeigt eine erhebliche Variation in Quantität und Qualität. In keinem Fall wird die Möglichkeit der Anrechnung des Besuchs dieser Programme auf die studentische Ausbildung (z.B. OSCE-Credits oder die ärztliche Weiter- oder Fortbildung, z.B. in Form von CME-Punkten, genutzt.Der Mangel an modernen, technischen wie didaktischen Anforderungen genügenden Lernapplikationen ist alarmierend, wird doch ein

  14. Detection of Beta-Emitting Nuclides of Energy >1 Mev in Urine After an Accident by Means of Measurement of the Cerenkov Effect in a Liquid Scintillation Counting System; Detection des Radioelements Emetteurs Beta d'une Energie Superieure a 1 Mev dans l'Urine Apres un Accident, par la Mesure de l'Effet Cerenkov Avec un Ensemble de Comptage a Scintillation Liquide; 041e 0411 041d 0414 ; Deteccion en la Orina de Emisores Beta de Energia Superior a 1 Mev, Despues de un Accidente, por Medicion del Efecto Cerenkov en un Contador de Centelleador Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narrog, J. [Landesinstitut fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-06-15

    Beta particles of energy >1 MeV in water can be measured by Cerenkov effect in liquid scintillation counters without any further preparation. Since Hoffman reported about this possibility at the Symposium held by the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (1-2 April 1964) in Karlsruhe-Leopoldshafen, experiments have been carried out in our institute to apply this method to urine. When experiments were carried out with unprepared urine, the measurements were insensitive because of the strong absorption effect. The urine must be cleared. Therefore we tried to oxidate with KMnO{sub 4} and got a clear liquid. The background was very high, because the K of the KMnO{sub 4} contains the radioactive K{sup 40}, which also emits {beta}-rays of energy > 1 MeV (1.32 MeV). We used Na MnO{sub 4} instead of KMnO{sub 4} and got better results. The background is now about 30 counts/min, the lower limit (measured with Sr{sup 90}/Y{sup 90}) about 1 pc/ml urine. If in accidents the content of radioactive K{sup 40} in urine cannot be assessed (e.g. by flame-photometry of the K-content in urine) this method gives the same sensitivity as other methods (e.g. bum and measure in a large-area proportional counting system), in this case (> 2 pc/ml). The measurement with the large-area proportional counter and additional assessment of the K{sup 40} {beta}-activity of the urine is mere sensitive and more accurate. This method is useful for a rapid measurement of large body burdens (and following excretion) of {beta}-nuclides of energy > 1 MeV, demanded by an accidental situation. With these methods we need no more than 90 min total time. (author) [French] On peut mesurer les particules beta d'une energie superieure a 1 MeV grace a l'effet Cerenkov dans des compteurs a scintillation liquide sans aucune autre preparation. Depuis que Hoffmann en a signale la possibilite a un colloque organise par la Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker les 1{sup er} et 2 avril 1964 a Karlsruhe-Leopoldshafen, l'auteur a

  15. A model-based approach to adjust microwave observations for operational applications: results of a campaign at Munich Airport in winter 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Güldner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the project "LuFo iPort VIS" which focuses on the implementation of a site-specific visibility forecast, a field campaign was organised to offer detailed information to a numerical fog model. As part of additional observing activities, a 22-channel microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP was operating at the Munich Airport site in Germany from October 2011 to February 2012 in order to provide vertical temperature and humidity profiles as well as cloud liquid water information. Independently from the model-related aims of the campaign, the MWRP observations were used to study their capabilities to work in operational meteorological networks. Over the past decade a growing quantity of MWRP has been introduced and a user community (MWRnet was established to encourage activities directed at the set up of an operational network. On that account, the comparability of observations from different network sites plays a fundamental role for any applications in climatology and numerical weather forecast. In practice, however, systematic temperature and humidity differences (bias between MWRP retrievals and co-located radiosonde profiles were observed and reported by several authors. This bias can be caused by instrumental offsets and by the absorption model used in the retrieval algorithms as well as by applying a non-representative training data set. At the Lindenberg observatory, besides a neural network provided by the manufacturer, a measurement-based regression method was developed to reduce the bias. These regression operators are calculated on the basis of coincident radiosonde observations and MWRP brightness temperature (TB measurements. However, MWRP applications in a network require comparable results at just any site, even if no radiosondes are available. The motivation of this work is directed to a verification of the suitability of the operational local forecast model COSMO-EU of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD for the calculation

  16. Max Planck in the Social Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1983-07-01

    ündete und die Quantisierung einführte, von Mach zu Boltzmann über. Einstein war zeit seines Lebens ein Verfechter der Atomistik, während Mach bis zum Ende ein Gegner blieb. Planck war von Anfang an ein Förderer der Relativitätstheorie und Einsteins. In der Weimarer Republik trat er für Einstein gegen die sogenannte 'Deutsche Physik' ein. Er hatte sogar den Mut, Einstein noch unter dem Naziregime in Ansprachen zu würdigen. Stets philosophisch interessiert, stand Planck zuerst im Banne des Positivismus von Mach, doch wandte er sich später ähnlich wie Einstein dem Realismus zu. Boltzmann war schon immer Realist und Materialist gewesen. Man verdankt Planck auch wichtige Überlegungen zum Problem der Willensfreiheit. In der Politik war Planck vor dem ersten Weltkrieg ein konventioneller, konservativer preußisch-deutscher Patriot. Nach der Machtergreifung Hitlers ging er jedoch auf Distanz zum Staat. Er versuchte nach Kräften, wenn auch mit wenig Erfolg, das ärgste Unheil zu verhindern. Planck war stets religiös und er schrieb der Religion auch im öffentlichen Leben eine große Rolle zu. Jedoch akzeptierte er keinen persönlichen und daher auch keinen christlichen Gott. Es wird versucht, die diesbezügliche, widerspruchsvolle Stellung Plancks zu deuten. Plancks Leben war zwar voller beruflicher Erfolge, doch wurde es in tragischer Weise durch Schicksalsschläge verdüstert. Zusammenhänge mit dem Schicksal Deutschlands und seiner konservativen intellektuellen Obetschicht werden hergestellt. (author)

  17. Criteria for the successful completion of medical dissertations - A multicenter study [Kriterien für den erfolgreichen Abschluss medizinischer Dissertationen – eine multizentrische Studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: In order to acquire the academic title “doctor” in Germany, it is essential to complete a dissertation. A high number of publications at German universities are based on medical dissertations. The reasons why some dissertations are successfully accomplished and why some are not completed – despite far-reaching consequences – have been barely investigated to date. Methods: 467 students in the ninth semester at five German universities participated in this study in 2003. A questionnaire (return rate 93.5% was used, asking details about the circumstances of a current or completed dissertation (Group A, an abandoned doctoral project (Group B, or one which was never started (Group C. Results: Students in Group A referred significantly more often to their supervisor as being essential for choosing the topic of their dissertation project. Furthermore, students in Group A worked together with other students in self-organized support groups to debate methodological questions. They also discussed their project more frequently with a statistician. Students in Group C gave “interference with undergraduate studies” and “no time” as the most common reasons for not starting a dissertation. Conclusions: As the supervisor seems to play an important role for the successful completion of dissertations, universities should think about professional programs that would prepare supervisors for this educational task. Courses for doctoral candidates in scientific research methodology could also be a helpful tool toward successfully accomplishing a doctoral thesis or scientific projects in general. [german] Zielsetzung: Zum Erlangen des Titels „Doktor“ ist in Deutschland die Durchführung einer Dissertationsarbeit erforderlich. Ein bedeutender Anteil der Publikationsleistungen deutscher Fakultäten rekrutiert sich aus Ergebnissen medizinischer Dissertationen. Die Gründe für den Abbruch einer Dissertation bzw. für ihre

  18. Physician empathy: Definition, outcome-relevance and its measurement in patient care and medical education [Ärztliche Empathie: Definition, Outcome-Relevanz und Messung in der Patientenversorgung und medizinischen Ausbildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann, Melanie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The present study gives a brief introduction into FurthermoreThe latter topic will be explored in detail as we conducted a pilot study on the German versions of two self-assessment instruments of empathy, which are mostly used in medical education research, namely the “Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, Student Version” (JSPE-S and the “Interpersonal Reactivity Index” (IRI.Methods: We first present an overview of the current empirical and theoretical literature on the definition and outcome-relevance of PE. Additionally, we conducted basic psychometric analyses of the German versions of the JSPE-S and the IRI. Data for this analyses is based on a cross-sectional pilot-survey in N=44 medical students and N=63 students of other disciplines from the University of Cologne. Results: PE includes the of the patient as well as verbal and non-verbal , which should result in a helpful therapeutic action of the physician. Patients’ health outcomes in different healthcare settings can be improved considerably from a high quality empathic encounter with their clinician. Basic psychometric results of the German JSPE-S and IRI measures show first promising results.Conclusion: PE as an essential and outcome-relevant element in the patient-physician relationship requires more consideration in the education of medical students and, thus, in medical education research. The German versions of the JSPE-S and IRI measures seem to be promising means to evaluate these education aims and to conduct medical education research on empathy.[german] Ziel: Die vorliegende Studie gibt einen kurzen Überblick Des Weiteren werden Letzteres Thema wird ausführlich behandelt, da eine Pilotstudie zur Testung zwei deutscher Versionen von Selbsteinschätzungsinstrumenten durchgeführt wurde, die derzeit am häufigsten in der internationalen Medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung genutzt werden. Dazu gehören die “Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy

  19. [Gone with the wind or... Fate of scientific articles presented at large anesthesia congresses--an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, D; Bück, M; Bohlmann, S; Weber, C F; Strouhal, U; Ihlow, K; Zacharowski, K; Byhahn, C

    2011-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the publication rate of abstracts presented during the German Anesthesia Congress (Deutscher Anästhesiecongress, DAC) and the meeting of the European Society of Anesthesiologists (ESA) in the years 2000 and 2005 in Medline listed journals (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). In addition, the respective impact factors of the journals in which the articles were published were evaluated (http://www.isiknowledge.com). All abstracts of free papers and posters presented at the DAC and ESA from the years 2000 and 2005 were included into the study. The presence of authors and the topics of abstracts in the literature were analyzed by a Medline based inquiry over a time period of 5 years. The search was based on the last name and initials of authors and when these could not be identified in Medline the search was extended by keywords of relevant topics of the abstract. Umlauts "ä/ö/ü" were replaced by "ae/oe/ue" and "ß" was replaced by "ss". Only original papers were included in this analysis. Once an original paper was found the impact factor of the journal in that year was identified. A total of 465 abstracts from the DAC 2000, 378 abstracts from the DAC 2005, 644 abstracts from the ESA 2000 and 720 abstracts from the ESA 2005 were included. Of the abstracts from the DAC 2000, 183 (39%) were published in Medline listed journals, 179 (47%) from DAC 2005, 218 (34%) from ESA 2000 and 233 (32%) from ESA 2005. The ESA abstracts were published in English more often than the DAC abstracts (ESA 2000: 95%; ESA 2005: 95%; DAC 2000: 78%; DAC 2005: 86%). While the publication rate after the ESA remained nearly unchanged between 2000 and 2005, the publication rate after the DAC increased by about 7%. The average impact factors of the publications were 1.777 (DAC 2000), 2.836 (DAC 2005), 1.825 (ESA 2000) and 2.36 (ESA 2005). Independent of the congress (DAC or ESA) where the abstract was presented, most articles were published in the

  20. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    the German and French Weather Services (Deutscher Wetterdienst and Météo-France). Historical fire events are taken from Prométhée database. Time series 2000-2010 are used as learning data and data from 2011 is used as the validation data. The resulting model can support real-time fire risk estimation for improved allocation of firefighting resources and planning of other mitigation actions. [1] Keeley, J.E.; Bond, W.J.; Bradstock, R.A.; Pausas, J.G.; Rundel, P.W. (2012): Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems: ecology, evolution and management. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp.515 [2] Lawson, B.D.; Armitage, O.B. (2008): Weather Guide for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. [3] Van Wagner, C.E.; Pickett, T.L. (1985): Equations and FORTRAN Program for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Forestry Technical Report 33. Canadian Forestry Service, Government of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada [4] Syphard, A.D.; Radeloff, V.C.; Keuler, N.S.; Taylor, R.S.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Clayton, M.K. (2008): Predicting spatial patterns of fire on a southern California landscape. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 17, pp.602-613 [5] Papakosta, P.; Klein, F.; König, S.; Straub, D. (2012): Linking spatio-temporal data to the Fire Weather Index to estimate the probability of wildfire in the Mediterranean. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.14, EGU2012-12737, EGU General Assembly 2012

  1. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    , databases, information portals with processed evidence as well as specific journals and finally teaching are appropriate vehicles. One problem is the multitude of information so that knowledge gaps may affect the clinical routine despite actually existing evidence. Generally, it still takes several years until new knowledge is implemented in daily routine. Tasks: The German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie e.V., DGHNOKHC) and the Professional Association of Otolaryngologists (Deutscher Berufsverband der HNO-Ärzte e.V., BVHNO) have fundamental interest in supporting their members in generating, processing, and providing evidence as well as accompanying knowledge transfer. It encompasses the fields of diagnostics, therapy, and prognosis in the same way as prevention and applies to medicinal products as well as to medical devices or surgical procedures. The base for this is the regular assessment of evidence gaps, also in the area of established procedures, that has to be followed by a prioritization of research questions and the subsequent initiation of clinical research. In addition, large trials verifying therapies and diagnostics, for example in the context of daily conditions after approval, can only be conducted combining all resources in the ENT community. Method, results, and outlook: Together, the executive committees of the DGHNOKHC and the BVHNO founded the German Study Center of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsches Studienzentrum für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie, DSZ-HNO). First projects have been initiated, among those a clinical trial on the therapy of sudden hearing loss supported by the BMBF and a survey on evidence gaps in oto-rhino-laryngology. It seems to be both reasonable and feasible to make available methodological expertise via such an infrastructure of a study center for physicians in

  2. Lehre 2.0 - Wie werden Social Media und Web 2.0 in die medizinische Ausbildung eingebunden? Ein systematischer Literaturüberblick [Education 2.0 - How has social media and Web 2.0 been integrated into medical education? A systematical literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ückert, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Ausbildung eingesetzt werden.Methode: Es wurde eine systematische Literaturrecherche über die letzten 5 Jahre mit MeSH in PubMed durchgeführt. Ergebnis: Unter den 20 identifizierten Publikationen konnte nur ein deutscher Artikel identifiziert werden. Mehrheitlich stammen die Artikel aus USA und England. Neuere Veröffentlichungen befassen sich mit dem konkreten Einsatz der Tools in der Lehre. Hierzu zählen Social Networking, Podcasts, Blogs, Wikis, YouTube, Twitter und Skype.Schlussfolgerung: Die Einbindung von Web 2.0 und Social Media stellt die heutige Form des selbstbestimmten Lernens dar. Es stimuliert die Reflektion und bindet die Lernenden aktiv, ein Wissen zu konstruieren. Mit diesen neuen Tools lernen Studierende Fertigkeiten, die sie sowohl im sozialen als auch im beruflichen Kontext benötigen.

  3. A Radar Climatology for Germany - a 16-year high resolution precipitation data and its possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, Ewelina; Winterrath, Tanja; Brendel, Christoph; Hafer, Mario; Junghänel, Thomas; Klameth, Anna; Weigl, Elmar; Becker, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    One of the main features of heavy precipitation events is their small-scale distribution. Despite a local occurrence, these intensive rainfalls may, however, cause most serious damage and have significant impact on the whole river basin area resulting in e.g. flash floods or urban flooding. Thus, it is of great importance not only to detect the life-cycle of extreme precipitation during its occurrence but also to collect precise climatological information on such events. The German weather service (Deutscher Wetterdienst) operates a very dense network of more than 2000 weather stations collecting data on precipitation. It is however not sufficient for detecting spatially limited phenomena. Thanks to radar data, current monitoring of such events is possible. A quality control process is applied to real-time radar products, however only automatic rain gauges data can be used in the adjustment procedure. To merge both radar data and all available rain gauges data, the radar climatology dataset was established. Within the framework of a project financed by the federal agencies' strategic alliance 'Adaptation to Climate Change', 16 years (2001-2016) of radar data have been reanalyzed in order to gain a homogenous, quality-controlled, high-resolution precipitation data set suitable for analyzing extreme events in a climatological approach. Additional corrections methods (e.g. clutter, spokes and beam height correction) were defined and used for the reprocessing procedure to enhance the data quality. Although the time series is still rather short for a climatology, for the first time the data set allows an insight into e.g. the distribution, size, life cycle, and duration of extreme events that cannot be measured by point measurements alone. All radar climatology products share the same spatial and temporal coverage. The whole dataset has been produced for the area of Germany. With the relatively high spatial resolution of 1km, the data can be used as a component of wide

  4. Experimenting with Educational Games using the Xbox, PC, and iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrlick, D.; Kilb, D. L.; Peach, C. L.; Simms, E.; Yang, A.; Layman, C.; Deutscher, R.

    2012-12-01

    Daniel Rohrlick, Alan Yang, Eric Simms, Debi Kilb, Cheryl Peach, Charina Layman, Rebecca Deutscher 1. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, USA 2. Harvard University Center for the Environment, Cambridge, MA, USA 3. Birch Aquarium at Scripps, La Jolla, CA, USA 4. The Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA As videogames continue to grow in popularity, especially with today's youth, it is becoming clear that gaming can be a potent learning tool. But what is the best way to engage a player in learning from a videogame? Based on our five years of developing and testing our own educational games, we experimented with various forms of gaming techniques and player interaction. Our first game, "Deep-sea Extreme Environment Pilot (DEEP)", is an Xbox 360 game where players learn about deep-sea environments while controlling a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). DEEP is a "traditional" videogame where players interact with a controller and a TV screen. The second game we developed for the PC is called the "Quake Catcher Network (QCN)" game. With the gameplay focused on earth sciences, players must quickly deploy seismic sensors to record aftershocks from a large earthquake. Instead of using a game controller to play the QCN game, we instead incorporate the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor for the game input. Finally, the "Glider Game" is our third and most recent game designed for use on the mobile device platform such as iPods and iPads. In this game players control ocean gliders and must complete missions while battling ocean currents, power consumption, and other unanticipated problems. Here, the gameplay is aimed toward the casual gamer using touch-screen based controls in the hope that players can easily pick up and play this game with little gaming experience. After testing our games numerous times in museums, informal science learning centers, and classrooms we have been able to track qualitatively which educational

  5. De Louis Delluc à Caligari... L'introduction du cinéma allemand en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lavastrou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dès 1919, le boycott du cinéma allemand interdit toute confrontation avec les réalisations de l'ennemi héréditaire. Cette négation inquiète Louis Delluc qui réagit en publiant deux articles sur la situation du cinéma allemand. Ces chroniques proposent un premier état des lieux mais, sans film distribué, ces analyses restent lettre morte et ne font que souligner ce manque. Il faut attendre 1921 et la création de la revue Cinéa pour que Delluc organise la première projection du Cabinet du docteur Caligari. Cet événement prend vite une ampleur nationale. Le succès mondial de ce film démontre la possibilité d'un équilibre entre industrie mondialisée et spécificité nationale. Dès lors, le cinéma allemand peut servir de modèle pour la recherche d'une telle unité au sein du cinéma français dont la crise structurelle démontre son incapacité à s'adapter aux nouvelles exigences du marché global. Louis Delluc parvient donc à imposer les productions allemandes en France, mais il ne réussit cependant pas à effectuer la transition entre artisanat anarchique et industrie cinématographique rationalisée. Ainsi, une autre unité voit-elle le jour, dépassant les cadres nationaux pour s'inscrire sur le vaste espace européen ouvrant ainsi la voie à des échanges culturels et techniques franco-allemands.Seit 1919 verhindert das Verbot des deutschen Kinos in Frankreich jegliche Konfrontation mit den Produktionen des Erzfeindes. Diese Ablehnung des deutschen Films beschäftigt und beunruhigt Louis Delluc, der daraufhin zwei Artikel über die Situation des deutschen Films veröffentlicht. Seine Artikel zeigen einen ersten Stand der Dinge auf, der aber in Anbetracht fehlender deutscher Filmvorführungen keine weitere Beachtung findet. Erst im Jahr 1921 wird mit der Revue Cinéa, deren Gründer Delluc ist, eine erste Aufführung des Kabinett des Dr. Caligari organisiert. Dieses Ereignis nimmt schnell nationale Dimensionen an. Der

  6. Assessing the effect of wind speed/direction changes on urban heat island intensity of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim Temizoz, Huriye; Unal, Yurdanur S.

    2017-04-01

    (Deutscher Wetterdienst). The study is focused on the spatial gradients of temperature, humidity and winds during summer. The model run by the average temperature and humidity vertical profiles over Istanbul during summer season with 200 m resolution. A series of sensitivity tests are carried out for different wind speeds (1-5 m/sec) and prevailing wind directions. Land use data are created by combining the geographical data obtained from Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and CORINE Land Cover Raster Data. The land use table involves 25 land use types. The residential areas are classified considering the percentage of the building coverages and the average height of the buildings within the grid cell. The associated parameters in land use table of MUCLIM3 are modified accordingly. Simulations show that the urban model MUCLIM3 is able to capture typical observed characteristics of urban climate of Istanbul qualitatively. The UHI effect at night is stronger at low wind speeds, depending on the two competing factors: reduced cold advection from outlying rural areas and the magnitude of the sensible heat flux over cities which offsets the reduced advective cooling. The preliminary results of the sensitivity tests are discussed by concentrating on the changes of the hot spots in Istanbul, the diurnal cycle range over different land use types at different reference levels of 5m, 30m and 50m, and the vertical profile of the meteorological variables in relation to the sea-breeze circulation. This work is funded by the ERAfrica Project LOCLIM3 and TUBITAK with the Grant Number 114Y047.

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Germany. Report of the federal installations and the Federal office of radiation protection. Data and evaluation; Umweltradioaktivitaet in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bericht der Leitstellen des Bundes und des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Stand 2014. Daten und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This report is a compilation and evaluation of data on radioactivity in the environment and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Germany from 2011 to 2013. The mean radiation exposure of the public in Germany was about 4.0 mSv in 2013, of which natural radiation exposure accounted for about 2.1 mSv and man-made radiation exposure for 1.9 mSv. An international work group is in charge of the preparation of quality standards for radon measurements. These latter also serve as a basis to implement the regulations of the new EURATOM Basic Safety Standards Directive. Rice grown within the contaminated zone around Fukushima has been certified as reference material for food monitoring. The trace analysis laboratory for airborne radioactive substances obtained several striking results of measurements performed during the reporting period. Man-made radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident were detectable, too. Assessment of anthropogenic radioactivity also requires thorough measurement of ''natural'' radiation components. Three different measurement areas are used as a reference for calibration. Discharges of radioactive substances into the exit air and wastewaters from nuclear power plants remained far below the authorised limit from 2011 to 2013. There has been a trend of decreasing discharges since 1975. The nine nuclear power plant units in operation at the end of the reporting period had a total capacity of 12.7 GW and accounted for 15 per cent of power generation. The annual mean values provided by the measuring network of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD; German Meteorological Service) amounted to 0.6 mBq/m{sup 3}, 0.7 mBq/m{sup 3} and 0.7 mBq/m{sup 3} for the total -activity in the air and 58 Bq/m{sup 2}, 38 Bq/m{sup 2}, and 27 Bq/m{sup 2} for the total -activity deposited by precipitation in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The higher annual value for 2011 is due to the Fukushima releases. The activity concentrations of {sup 85}Kr

  8. Environmental radioactivity in Germany. Report of the federal installations and the Federal office of radiation protection. Data and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This report is a compilation and evaluation of data on radioactivity in the environment and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Germany from 2011 to 2013. The mean radiation exposure of the public in Germany was about 4.0 mSv in 2013, of which natural radiation exposure accounted for about 2.1 mSv and man-made radiation exposure for 1.9 mSv. An international work group is in charge of the preparation of quality standards for radon measurements. These latter also serve as a basis to implement the regulations of the new EURATOM Basic Safety Standards Directive. Rice grown within the contaminated zone around Fukushima has been certified as reference material for food monitoring. The trace analysis laboratory for airborne radioactive substances obtained several striking results of measurements performed during the reporting period. Man-made radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident were detectable, too. Assessment of anthropogenic radioactivity also requires thorough measurement of ''natural'' radiation components. Three different measurement areas are used as a reference for calibration. Discharges of radioactive substances into the exit air and wastewaters from nuclear power plants remained far below the authorised limit from 2011 to 2013. There has been a trend of decreasing discharges since 1975. The nine nuclear power plant units in operation at the end of the reporting period had a total capacity of 12.7 GW and accounted for 15 per cent of power generation. The annual mean values provided by the measuring network of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD; German Meteorological Service) amounted to 0.6 mBq/m"3, 0.7 mBq/m"3 and 0.7 mBq/m"3 for the total -activity in the air and 58 Bq/m"2, 38 Bq/m"2, and 27 Bq/m"2 for the total -activity deposited by precipitation in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The higher annual value for 2011 is due to the Fukushima releases. The activity concentrations of "8"5Kr measured by the BfS in Freiburg remained at about 1.5 Bq

  9. Improvement of the energy balances, material balances and emission balances in the production of bioethanol from renewable raw materials; Verbesserung der Energie-, Stoff- und Emissionsbilanzen bei der Bioethanolproduktion aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Sven

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, a process was realized that uses starchy raw material (triticale) as well as lignocellulosic biomass (corn silage) in one ethanol production process. In contrast to other so called 2{sup nd} generation ethanol processes, which only use lignocellulosic material, the problem of the very low potential ethanol concentration (< max 6%mas) in such mashes is avoided. By the addition of starchy material to the pre-treated and pre-hydrolysed lignocellulosic biomass, it is possible to produce up to 96g ethanol/l in the mash within 144h of fermentation at ethanol yields of at least 84%. If such a process would be performed longer, the ethanol yield should approach the yields of current starch only processes. This process not only produces ethanol concentrations that can be distilled profitably, it also has an ecobalance very positive. If the resulting stillage is used to produce biogas and part of the biogas is then used in a combined heat and power plant to supply the distillery process with heat and electricity, a self-sustaining distillery process can be realised. Using such self-sustaining ethanol production process about 83% of CO{sub 2}-emissions (CO{sub 2}-equipollents) can be avoided associated with the production of surplus energy via the energy products ethanol [ca. 65,14GJ/(ha . a)] and surplus non-purified biogas [ca. 88,49GJ/(ha . a)]. Even if such a process would be run using fossil fuels to produce heat and electricity (''Deutscher-Strommix'') about 48% of the CO{sub 2}-emissions (CO{sub 2}-equipollents) could be avoided. Such a process already fulfils the demands of the ''Biomasse-Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung'' (BioNachV) [30% CO{sub 2} reduction potential; and from 1st of January 2011 minimum 40% CO{sub 2} reduction potential] that finally will be enacted in 2010. In this thesis, also the basic so-called 1st generation process using only starchy material for ethanol production is eco-balanced. Such a

  10. Schulische und nicht-schulische Prädiktoren für die Studienplatzzusage an der Universität Witten / Herdecke - Ergebnisse einer QUEST-Analyse [Academic and non-academic predictors for acceptance to medical studies at Witten/Herdecke University - findings of a QUEST-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann, Marzellus

    2007-11-01

    replacing the existing admission process, but might be used for pre-selecting candidates. Further studies have to show whether the found effects are specific to the investigated group (applicants 2005 or whether they can be seen as representative for other cohorts of applicants at Witten/Herdecke. [german] Zielsetzung: Die Auseinandersetzung mit unterschiedlichen Verfahren der Studierendenauswahl rückt durch die Novellierung des Hochschulrahmengesetzes zunehmend in den Verantwortungsbereich deutscher Fakultäten. Als private Universität führt die Universität Witten/Herdecke (UWH seit 20 Jahren universitätseigene Auswahlverfahren durch. Seit 2005 besteht dieses aus einer schriftlichen ersten Phase und einem zweitägigen Assessment-Center. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung fand eine retrospektive Klassifizierung der Studierendenbewerber 2005 statt. Ziel war es, existierende schulische und nicht-schulische Prädiktoren für die Studienplatzzusage an der UWH zu identifizieren. Methodik: Allen Bewerber/innen der Phase des Assessment-Centers (n=172 wurde ein Fragebogen mit den Items: Alter, Geschlecht, Abiturnote, Leistungskurse, Schulform, Berufsziel, Teilnahme am Tag der offenen Tür, Beruf- und Bildungsabschluss der Eltern vorgelegt. Das Einschlusskriterium war ein vollständig ausgefüllter Fragebogen (n=155. Nach deskriptiver Datenauswertung erfolgte die weitere Klassifizierung auf der Basis der QUEST-Analyse unter dem Gesichtspunkt „Zusage versus Absage“ eines Studienplatzes. Ergebnis: Die QUEST-Analyse klassifiziert, in welcher Reihenfolge abnehmender Stärke die Kriterien des Fragebogens im Zusammenhang mit der Zielvariablen „Zusage“ stehen. Mit einer erhöhten Zusagewahrscheinlichkeit waren ein Abitur = 1,3, die Schulform Waldorfschule/Montessorischule, die Abwesenheit am Tag der offenen Tür, das Berufsziel „Forschung“ und die Leistungskurskombination rein naturwissenschaftlich bzw. Sprache/Gesellschaftswissenschaft verbunden. Die Sensitivität der Pr

  11. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases: S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Merk, Hans; Rabe, Uta; Saloga, Joachim; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuster, Antje; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Sitter, Helmut; Umpfenbach, Ulrich; Wedi, Bettina; Wöhrl, Stefan; Worm, Margitta; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaul, Susanne; Schwalfenberg, Anja

    The present guideline (S2k) on allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) was established by the German, Austrian and Swiss professional associations for allergy in consensus with the scientific specialist societies and professional associations in the fields of otolaryngology, dermatology and venereology, pediatric and adolescent medicine, pneumology as well as a German patient organization (German Allergy and Asthma Association; Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) according to the criteria of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF). AIT is a therapy with disease-modifying effects. By administering allergen extracts, specific blocking antibodies, toler-ance-inducing cells and mediators are activated. These prevent further exacerbation of the allergen-triggered immune response, block the specific immune response and attenuate the inflammatory response in tissue. Products for SCIT or SLIT cannot be compared at present due to their heterogeneous composition, nor can allergen concentrations given by different manufacturers be compared meaningfully due to the varying methods used to measure their active ingredients. Non-modified allergens are used for SCIT in the form of aqueous or physically adsorbed (depot) extracts, as well as chemically modified allergens (allergoids) as depot extracts. Allergen extracts for SLIT are used in the form of aqueous solutions or tablets. The clinical efficacy of AIT is measured using various scores as primary and secondary study endpoints. The EMA stipulates combined symptom and medication scores as primary endpoint. A harmonization of clinical endpoints, e. g., by using the combined symptom and medication scores (CSMS) recommended by the EAACI, is desirable in the future in order to permit the comparison of results from different studies. The current CONSORT recommendations from the ARIA/GA2LEN group specify standards for the