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Sample records for helmets descriptive note

  1. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  2. Helmet blastometer

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  3. Notes on Japanese Rhizocephala, with description of two new species

    Boschma, H.

    1935-01-01

    The following notes are based upon material of parasites on two Crustaceans from Japan, viz., Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall and Petrolisthes japonicus de Haan 1). Each of these two species may be infested by two different species of Rhizocephala: on Pachygrapsus crassipes occur the parasites

  4. A Note on the Field-Theoretical Description of Superfluids

    Andrianopoli, L; Grassi, P A; Trigiante, M

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a Lagrangian description of superfluids attracted some interest from the fluid/gravity-correspondence viewpoint. In this respect, the work of Dubovksy et al. has proposed a new field theoretical description of fluids, which has several interesting aspects. On another side, we have provided in arXiv:1304.2206 a supersymmetric extension of the original works. In the analysis of the Lagrangian structures a new invariant appeared which, although related to known invariants, provides, in our opinion, a better parametrisation of the fluid dynamics in order to describe the fluid/superfluid phases.

  5. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    2006-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  6. Immigrant fertility in Sweden, 2000-2011: A descriptive note

    Lotta Persson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern Scandinavian population registers provide excellent data sources that allow a user to quickly gain an impression of the level of fertility and its structure across subpopulations. This may also allow the analyst to check a feature of the much-cited disruption hypothesis, at least in part. Objective: The purpose of this note is to exploit this potential to give an overview of the structure of recent total fertility after immigration to Sweden from various groups of sending countries, separately for males and females. In the process we demonstrate to what extent the post-migration fertility compensation which is part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is fulfilled in our study population. Due to the nature of our data we have refrained from studying fertility before migration. Methods: Based on data from a combination of two Swedish administrative registers (the Historic Population Register and the Multi-Generation Register that cover both men and women in the entire population for the years 2000-2011, we compute and plot TFR-like age-cumulated fertility levels, specific for years since immigration, for six groups of sending countries, separately for men and women. Results: We find that the post-migration fertility compensation specified as part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is visibly confirmed in our Swedish study population for female European immigrants from non-EU countries and for female immigrants from non-European countries with a low or medium UN Human Development Index, but not so for other female immigrants, i.e. not for those who come from a Nordic country or from a non-Nordic EU country, and not for female immigrants from a non-European country with a high Human Development Index, including the United States. We find mild but less conclusive evidence for the same feature for males. Conclusions: This shows that at least as far as post-migration fertility compensation is concerned, the disruption

  7. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  8. Helmet Use and Head Injury in Homer's Iliad.

    Swinney, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Homer's detailed descriptions of head injuries inflicted during the Trojan War are of particular interest to individuals in the medical community. Although studies have examined the prevalence of such injuries, none have examined the preventive measures taken to avoid them. An in-depth review of helmet use in Homer's Iliad was conducted to address this previously unexplored facet of the epic. An English translation of Homer's text was reviewed for all references to helmet use. The number of helmet references in each book was recorded, along with other pertinent details for each reference. There were 87 references to helmets (40 combat, 47 noncombat). The helmet belonged to a Greek warrior in 41 cases (47.1%), a Trojan warrior in 38 cases (43.6%), a divinity in 5 cases (5.7%), and a general group of warriors in 3 cases (3.4%). Helmet use provided protective benefit to Greek warriors at a rate of 30.0% (3 of 10) and Trojan warriors at a rate of 11.1% (2 of 18). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). The overall combined protective benefit of helmet use in the text was 17.9% (5 of 28). Helmets belonging to 15 specific Greek warriors and 18 specific Trojan warriors were referenced in the text. Helmets belonging to Hector (n = 12) and Achilles (n = 8) were most frequently mentioned. Helmet use and head injury both play a prominent role in Homer's Iliad. Helmets are frequently used in combat settings but with relatively little success. Helmets are also used in various noncombat settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  10. Build Your Own Equiluminance Helmet

    Connolly, Salammbo; Connolly, Denis; Cleary, Anne; Herman, Laura; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A wearable ?helmet? version of the S cone isolating technique was constructed to explore vision at equiluminance. For my high school summer science project, I visited parks and streets while wearing the helmet and report that the helmet appears to have captured the main properties described for the large-scale, more cumbersome stage version.

  11. Noted

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  12. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  13. Impact of Soldier Helmet Configuration on Survivability

    2011-03-01

    helmet cannot sit too low, which is evident when the helmet covers the eyebrows and the helmet interferes with eyewear . The helmet should remain in...agencies, academia, and private industry have also aided in model development. ORCA is a high-resolution computerized personnel casualty model that can

  14. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  15. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players.

    Greenhill, Dustin A; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R Dawn; Boden, Barry P

    2016-05-01

    There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder-lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. A note on the translation of conceptual data models into description logics: disjointness and covering assumptions

    Casini, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available possibilities for conceptual data modeling. It also raises the question of how existing conceptual models using ER, UML or ORM could be translated into Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics that have proved to be particularly appropriate for formalizing...

  17. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  18. Description and biological notes of the first species of Xenos (Strepsiptera:Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in Mexico

    Kathirithamby, J.; Hughes, David P.

    2006-01-01

    A description and biological notes on the first species of Xenos (X. hamiltoni) (Strepsiptera: Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. from Mexico is given. A list of Strepsiptera and their hosts from Mexico is provided....

  19. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle ...

    users are vulnerable on the road and are at high risk of death resulting from head ..... time of injury sustained head injury reflecting its importance in prevention of head .... WHO (2006) Helmets: A Road Safety Manual for Decision-makers and ...

  20. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour.

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise in completing design information questionnaire for model research reactor: model description, notes, questionnaire

    Bellinger, J.; Ho, T.

    1989-01-01

    The document which defines the inspection measures which the IAEA can deploy at any given nuclear facility is known as the Facility Attachment. For the Agency to negotiate an effective Facility Attachment it must have available certain design information, including the facility's identity, capacity and location; the form, location and flow of nuclear material and the layout of important items of equipment; and a description of the features and procedures relating to nuclear material accountancy, containment and surveillance. In practice such information is solicited in a format, standardized for each facility type, known as the Design Information Questionnaire or the D.I.Q. The nuclear activities used as a model in this course are those of a fictitious country called Pacifica. These nuclear activities bear some resemblance to those at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. Specifically, Pacifica has a 10 MW heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor using enriched uranium fuel which is very similar to the HIFAR reactor. The reactor and the associated laboratories are described and the Design Information Questionnaire for them is completed. figs., tabs

  2. Taxonomic notes of Hemixantha (Diptera: Richardiidae with description of a new species from the Amazon Region

    Lisiane Dilli Wentd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Richardiidae is represented by ca. 180 species in 33 genera. A new species of Hemixantha, now totaling 20 species, is described from the Amazon Region, state of Pará, Brazil, and from Teoponte, Bolivia. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov., H. picta Hennig, 1937 and H. pulchripennis Hendel, 1911 are richardiids known to have an extensively banded wing pattern. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov. represents the first record of Hemixantha from the state of Pará and this species can be distinguished from H. picta and H. pulchripennis by anepisternum and dorsal half of anepimeron bright yellow and vein R2+3 slightly sinuous. Besides the hyaline areas on the wing of H. maculosa are very distinct from these other species, as follows: (1 subtrapezoidal median area in cell cua1 extended anteriorly to vein M1, separated from hyaline area in cell dm; (2 two oblique areas from costal margin almost to or beyond vein R4+5, one proximal to and one distal to level of crossvein r-m; (3 a circular area on basal part of cell r4+5 and (4 a triangular area on basal region of cell m1. An identification key, diagnoses, description and redescriptions, and illustrations to the species of Hemixantha with an extensively banded wing pattern are provided.

  3. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players

    Greenhill, Dustin A.; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R. Dawn; Boden, Barry P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Hypothesis: Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Results: Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P < 0.001); had more symptoms (5.34 vs 4.54, P = 0.004); and had longer symptom duration (P = 0.04). Athletes with helmets lined with an air bladder had greater rates of sensitivity to light (RR, 1.13; P = 0.02), sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.25; P = 0.009), and longer symptom duration (P = 0.004) compared with foam or gel liners. Conclusion: An improperly fitted football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder–lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Clinical Relevance: Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. PMID:27005467

  4. Head and Helmet Biodynamics and Tracking Performance in Vibration Environments

    Smith, Suzanne D; Smith, Jeanne A

    2006-01-01

    ...) and Up (40" elevation, 0" azimuth)], and three helmet CCs were tested. The overall head, helmet, and helmet slippage displacement rotations, and rms tracking error and percent time-on-target were evaluated...

  5. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  6. Auditory and visual reaction time and peripheral field of vision in helmet users

    Abbupillai Adhilakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and

  7. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L

    2008-01-01

    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  8. Maintaining neutral sagittal cervical alignment after football helmet removal during emergency spine injury management.

    Decoster, Laura C; Burns, Matthew F; Swartz, Erik E; Murthi, Dinakar S; Hernandez, Adam E; Vailas, James C; Isham, Linda L

    2012-04-15

    Descriptive laboratory study. To determine whether the placement of padding beneath the occiput after helmet removal is an effective intervention to maintain neutral sagittal cervical spine alignment in a position comparable with the helmeted condition. Current on-field recommendations for managing football athletes with suspected cervical spine injuries call for face mask removal, rather than helmet removal, because the combination of helmet and shoulder pads has been shown to maintain neutral cervical alignment. Therefore, in cases when helmet removal is required, recommendations also call for shoulder pad removal. Because removal of equipment causes motion, any technique that postpones the need to remove the shoulder pads would reduce prehospital motion. Four lateral radiographs of 20 male participants were obtained (age = 23.6 ± 2.7 years). Radiographs of participants wearing shoulder pads and helmet were first obtained. The helmet was removed and radiographs of participants with occipital padding were obtained immediately and 20 minutes later and finally without occipital padding. Cobb angle measurements for C2-C6 vertebral segments were determined by an orthopedic spine surgeon blinded to the study's purpose. Intraobserver reliability was determined using intraclass coefficient analysis. Measurements were analyzed using a 1×4 repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction. Intraobserver analysis showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.999-1.0). Repeated-measures analysis of variance detected significant differences (F(3,17) = 13.34; P football helmet in the field, occipital padding (along with full body/head immobilization techniques) may be used to limit cervical lordosis, allowing safe delay of shoulder pad removal.

  9. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes

  10. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    2012-08-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  11. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  12. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Helmet-based physiological signal monitoring system.

    Kim, Youn Sung; Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-02-01

    A helmet-based system that was able to monitor the drowsiness of a soldier was developed. The helmet system monitored the electrocardiogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram (alpha waves) without constraints. Six dry electrodes were mounted at five locations on the helmet: both temporal sides, forehead region and upper and lower jaw strips. The electrodes were connected to an amplifier that transferred signals to a laptop computer via Bluetooth wireless communication. The system was validated by comparing the signal quality with conventional recording methods. Data were acquired from three healthy male volunteers for 12 min twice a day whilst they were sitting in a chair wearing the sensor-installed helmet. Experimental results showed that physiological signals for the helmet user were measured with acceptable quality without any intrusions on physical activities. The helmet system discriminated between the alert and drowsiness states by detecting blinking and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters extracted from ECG. Blinking duration and eye reopening time were increased during the sleepiness state compared to the alert state. Also, positive peak values of the sleepiness state were much higher, and the negative peaks were much lower than that of the alert state. The LF/HF ratio also decreased during drowsiness. This study shows the feasibility for using this helmet system: the subjects' health status and mental states could be monitored without constraints whilst they were working.

  14. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against.

    McCarthy, M

    1996-03-01

    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children.

  15. Helmet Sensor - Transfer Function and Model Development

    2010-09-01

    that helmets be examined forensically when estimating the impact direction and location and the electronic HMSS data not be used in that determination... forensic analysis of the helmet itself is therefore recommended to determine the direction and severity of the ballistic impact 5. The helmet shell does...ot83 HTI l ot 8J HT1 lot S ,HTt IOt S , HTI l otiH HTt lotSS HTt l vt85 HTI l o)t 85 HT1 Front Level Acceleration ~~,--~----~--,30’p~g

  16. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    Rash, Clarence

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  17. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating?

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line

    2015-07-01

    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  18. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States.

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-03-09

    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  19. Application of Auxetic Foam in Sports Helmets

    Leon Foster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored the viability of using open cell polyurethane auxetic foams to augment the conformable layer in a sports helmet and improve its linear impact acceleration attenuation. Foam types were compared by examining the impact severity on an instrumented anthropomorphic headform within a helmet consisting of three layers: a rigid shell, a stiff closed cell foam, and an open cell foam as a conformable layer. Auxetic and conventional foams were interchanged to act as the helmet’s conformable component. Attenuation of linear acceleration was examined by dropping the combined helmet and headform on the front and the side. The helmet with auxetic foam reduced peak linear accelerations (p < 0.05 relative to its conventional counterpart at the highest impact energy in both orientations. Gadd Severity Index reduced by 11% for frontal impacts (38.9 J and 44% for side impacts (24.3 J. The conformable layer within a helmet can influence the overall impact attenuating properties. The helmet fitted with auxetic foam can attenuate impact severity more than when fitted with conventional foam, and warrants further investigation for its potential to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injuries in sport specific impacts.

  20. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA.

  1. Notes on the genus Conchapelopia Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from southern China, with description of a new species.

    Niitsuma, Hiromi; Tang, Hongqu

    2017-02-22

    Two interesting species, Conchapelopia togamaculosa Sasa & Okazawa and a new species, Conchapelopia brachiata sp. n., were collected from southern China. The male, pupa and larva of the new species are described, and new distributions of the former species are noted. Although the male of the new species is very distinct from that of the former in the hypopygial median volsella, the pupa and larva stunningly resemble those of the former.

  2. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  3. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    opperwjj

    in Malaysia and the highest (10) in Brunei Duressalam. Stricter .... in line with the global findings that the introduction and enforcement of legislation on helmet .... Motorcycle helmet wearing behavior among Naresuan university students.

  4. Neck Muscle Fatigue Resulting from Prolonged Wear of Weighted Helmets

    Gallagher, Hilary L; Caldwell, Erin; ALbery, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    .... While these systems undoubtedly increase a pilot's capabilities, one obvious drawback to putting all this equipment on the pilot's helmet is the increase in helmet weight that shifts the combined...

  5. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  6. Taxonomic notes on Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Sichuan Province of China with the description of two new species.

    Li, Weihai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-17

    Species of the perlid genus Neoperla from Sichuan Province, China are reviewed. Two new species are described, Neoperla caii Li & Wang, sp. nov. and N. emeishana Li & Wang, sp. nov. The new species are compared with related congeners. Available types of several known Neoperla species from Sichuan Province were studied and complementary descriptions or brief taxonomic comments are presented for N. bilineata Wu & Claassen, N. chui Wu & Claassen, N. microtumida Wu & Claassen, N. quadrata Wu & Claassen and N. truncata Wu.

  7. Description of the female of Navicordulia aemulatrix Pinto & Lamas and additional notes on the male (Odonata: Corduliidae).

    Pinto, A P; Lamas, C J E

    2011-01-01

    The female of Navicordulia aemulatrix Pinto & Lamas is described and illustrated for the first time based on a single specimen from the same locality of the type series (state of Santa Catarina, [municipality of São Bento do Sul, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W, railroad station] Rio Vermelho, 29.I.1952, in MZSP). In addition, further morphological notes for the male are provided based on three specimens collected at the type locality and at a new locality in the state of Santa Catarina (Timbó municipality). The pronotal process present in N. aemulatrix is re-evaluated and considered non-homologous to that found in Neocordulia setifera (Hagen in Selys) as previously suggested.

  8. Helmets or not? Use science correctly.

    Trégouët, Paul

    2015-08-01

    In a recent article, Hooper and Spicer make several arguments against legislation that would mandate the use of bicycle helmets. While they present reasonable objections to the utilitarian as well as the justice defence of such legislation, their review of the empirical evidence contains inaccuracies, omissions and a bias in the selection of empirical data. While there are legitimate reasons to argue against mandating helmet legislation, these arguments should still be based on clinically and scientifically sound evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  11. Notes on some sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa from the tropical western Pacific, with descriptions of nine new species

    Horia R. Galea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three species of sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae, collected from the tropical western Pacific (Taiwan, Philippines, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands during various expeditions of the French Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos program, are discussed. Of these, nine are new to science: Gonaxia nova sp. nov., G. plumularioides sp. nov., Sertularella folliformis sp. nov., Se. plicata sp. nov., Se. pseudocatena sp. nov., Se. splendida sp. nov., Se. tronconica sp. nov., Se. tubulosa sp. nov., and Symplectoscyphus paucicatillus sp. nov. The subspecies Symplectoscyphus johnstoni (Gray, 1843 tropicus Vervoort, 1993 is raised to species but, in order to avoid the secondary homonymy with Sy. tropicus (Hartlaub, 1901, the replacement name, Sy. fasciculatus nom. nov., is introduced. The male and female gonothecae of Diphasia cristata Billard, 1920, the male gonothecae of Gonaxia elegans Vervoort, 1993, as well as the female gonothecae of Salacia macer Vervoort & Watson, 2003, are described for the first time. Additional notes on the morphology of several other species are provided. All taxa are illustrated, in most cases using figures drawn at the same scale, so as to highlight the differences between related species.

  12. Effects of repealing the motorcycle helmet law in Michigan.

    Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy

    2017-09-01

    In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts.

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine

    2016-03-01

    Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91-100) than after the first few impacts (11-20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season.

  14. The first record of Litargus tetraspilotus (Coleoptera, Mycetophagidae in Brazil, with biological notes and complementary description of the species

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Litargus tetraspilotus LeConte, 1856 was collected feeding on Oidium sp. (Fungi, Ascomycota, Erysiphaceae associated with fruit trees. This is the first time L. tetraspilotus is recorded in Brazil, totaling three species of Mycetophagidae for this country. This study aims to provide a complementary description of this species based on new characters and to present information on its life cycle under laboratory conditions and fluctuation in population in the field. During the period of inventories between July 2004 and August 2006, about every fifteen days, a total of 565 specimens of L. tetraspilotus were collected, with the highest abundance found on citrus plants, with values differing significantly between the two years. The population levels differed between the seasons; spring had the greatest abundance and autumn the least. There was a significant positive correlation of L. tetraspilotus abundance with rainfall and relative humidity. Mycetophagidae, as well as other mycophagous families of Brazilian coleopterans, are barely studied, warranting further future studies of their bioecology and systematics.

  15. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  16. Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD) for simulator applications

    Sisodia, Ashok; Riser, Andrew; Bayer, Michael; McGuire, James P.

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD), augmented reality visual system first presented at last year's Cockpit and Future Displays for Defense and Security conference, has now been evaluated in a number of military simulator applications and by L-3 Link Simulation and Training. This paper presents the preliminary results of these evaluations and describes current and future simulator and training applications for HMD technology. The AHMD blends computer-generated data (symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery) with the actual and simulated visible environment. The AHMD is designed specifically for highly mobile deployable, minimum resource demanding reconfigurable virtual training systems to satisfy the military's in-theater warrior readiness objective. A description of the innovative AHMD system and future enhancements will be discussed.

  17. A study of emergency American football helmet removal techniques.

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Hernandez, Adam E

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to compare head kinematics between the Eject Helmet Removal System and manual football helmet removal. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-two certified athletic trainers (sex, 19 male and 13 female; age, 33 ± 10 years; height, 175 ± 12 cm; mass, 86 ± 20 kg) removed a football helmet from a healthy model under 2 conditions: manual helmet removal and Eject system helmet removal. A 6-camera motion capture system recorded 3-dimensional head position. Our outcome measures consisted of the average angular velocity and acceleration of the head in each movement plane (sagittal, frontal, and transverse), the resultant angular velocity and acceleration, and total motion. Paired-samples t tests compared each variable across the 2 techniques. Manual helmet removal elicited greater average angular velocity in the sagittal and transverse planes and greater resultant angular velocity compared with the Eject system. No differences were observed in average angular acceleration in any single plane of movement; however, the resultant angular acceleration was greater during manual helmet removal. The Eject Helmet Removal System induced greater total head motion. Although the Eject system created more motion at the head, removing a helmet manually resulted in more sudden perturbations as identified by resultant velocity and acceleration of the head. The implications of these findings relate to the care of all cervical spine-injured patients in emergency medical settings, particularly in scenarios where helmet removal is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  19. GPK helmets protecting from gas and dusts

    Il' inskii, Eh.G.; Kogan, Yu.A.; Mazanenko, V.P.

    1983-08-01

    The GPK protective helmet with an integrated respirator system protecting a miner's respiratory system and eyes from gases and dusts is described. The system uses compressed air from the mine compressed air system. Air is supplied to the respirator by an elastic rubber pipe to 30 m long. The air cools the miner's head under the helmet and passes between a protective shield and the miner's face protecting eyes and the respiratory system. Air supply ranges from 100 to 150 l/min. The air supplied to the respirator is cleaned by a filter. The GPK system weighs 1.2 kg. The system has been tested under laboratory conditions and in two coal mines under operational conditions at longwall faces and during mine drivage. Tests showed that the GPK guarantees efficient cooling and protection from dust. Design of the GPK helmet with a respirator is shown in two schemes. Technical specifications of the system are given.

  20. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  1. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  2. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    helmets in direct impact are well documented and helmets have been found to ... conditions during a drop test and studied the influence of shell stiffness and liner ... the latter authors use a SI (Structural Intensity) approach to study power flow ...

  3. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  4. Using voice to create hospital progress notes: Description of a mobile application and supporting system integrated with a commercial electronic health record.

    Payne, Thomas H; Alonso, W David; Markiel, J Andrew; Lybarger, Kevin; White, Andrew A

    2018-01-01

    We describe the development and design of a smartphone app-based system to create inpatient progress notes using voice, commercial automatic speech recognition software, with text processing to recognize spoken voice commands and format the note, and integration with a commercial EHR. This new system fits hospital rounding workflow and was used to support a randomized clinical trial testing whether use of voice to create notes improves timeliness of note availability, note quality, and physician satisfaction with the note creation process. The system was used to create 709 notes which were placed in the corresponding patient's EHR record. The median time from pressing the Send button to appearance of the formatted note in the Inbox was 8.8 min. It was generally very reliable, accepted by physician users, and secure. This approach provides an alternative to use of keyboard and templates to create progress notes and may appeal to physicians who prefer voice to typing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  6. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  7. DETECTION OF MOTORCYCLISTS WITHOUT HELMET AND FINEPAYMENT USING OPEN CV

    Stemy Simon, Divya Kumaran A.K.

    2018-01-01

    The helmet is the main safety equipment of motorcyclists, but many drivers do not use it. The main aim of this project is to construct an automatic detection of the motorcyclist without helmet from video using OpenCV library tools. If they are not wearing the helmet, the license plate of the motorcycle is focused automatically. By using Computer Vision technique we can detect and recognize the license plate number. We make the training set of different characters of different sizes. Based on ...

  8. The implementation of a municipal indoor ice skating helmet policy: effects on helmet use, participation and attitudes.

    O'Mahony-Menton, Colleen; Willmore, Jacqueline; Russell, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    In Ottawa, between 2005 and 2009 there was an annual average of 47.2 head injuries due to ice skating in children and youth (1-19 years of age) requiring a visit to the emergency department, with the highest rates among those aged 5-14 years. Between 2002 and 2007, only 6% of children were wearing a helmet during ice skating when the head injury occurred. During indoor public skating sessions, 93% of children (skating helmet policy coupled with education and promotional activities on helmet use, participation and attitudes towards helmet use. An ice skating helmet policy for children (skating experience at indoor rinks during public skating sessions was developed, implemented and evaluated. Supportive activities such as discount coupons, promotional materials, a media launch, social marketing and staff training are described. The helmet policy was associated with increased helmet use for young children and for older children, youth and adults not included in the policy, without decreasing attendance to public skating sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006

    Ann Burgess

    Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding ... The conclusion is that cyclists need information on the importance of wearing a helmet. ... Leading safety advocates recommend the.

  10. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries.

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  11. Methodologies for Blunt Trauma Assessment in Military Helmets

    2010-09-13

    Assessment; Monorail Drop Tower 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 10 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Laboratory Test Procedure for Motorcycle Helmets (TP-218-06) [8]. TP-218-06 specifies a guided monorail drop and provides requirements for how helmets...a hemispherical anvil. The monorail restricts movement to control the impact location, and acceleration is measured using a uniaxial accelerometer

  12. Combat Helmet-Headform Coupling Characterized from Blunt Impact Events

    2011-11-01

    Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect of helmet/headform coupling on the blunt impact behavior of ACH helmets using FMVSS...designates its own methods and test equipment: a drop tower ( monorail or twin- wire), headform (DOT, ISO, NOCSAE), headform CG accelerometer (single or...the more anthropomorphic International Standard Organization (ISO) half headform. Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect

  13. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session

    1994-01-01

    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  14. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana.

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  15. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm 3 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm 2 ) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements

  16. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  17. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  18. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Prehospital emergency removal of football helmets using two techniques.

    Swartz, Erik E; Hernandez, Adam E; Decoster, Laura C; Mihalik, Jason P; Burns, Matthew F; Reynolds, Cathryn

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Eject Helmet Removal (EHR) System with manual football helmet removal. This quasiexperimental counterbalanced study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty certified athletic trainers (17 men and 13 women; mean ± standard deviation age: 33.03 ± 10.02 years; height: 174.53 ± 12.04 cm; mass: 85.19 ± 19.84 kg) participated after providing informed consent. Participants removed a Riddell Revolution IQ football helmet from a healthy model two times each under two conditions: manual helmet removal (MHR) and removal with the EHR system. A six-camera, three-dimensional motion capture system was used to record range of motion (ROM) of the head. A digital stopwatch was used to time trials and to record a split time associated with EHR system bladder insertion. A modified Borg CR10 scale was used to measure the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Mean values were created for each variable. Three pairwise t-tests with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels tested for differences between time for removal, split time, and RPE. A 2 x 3 (condition x plane) totally within-subjects repeated-measures design analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested for differences in head ROM between the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Analyses were performed using SPSS (version 18.0) (alpha = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in perceived difficulty between EHR (RPE = 2.73) and MHR (RPE = 2.55) (t(29) = 0.76; p = 0.45; d = 0.20). Manual helmet removal was, on average, 28.95 seconds faster than EHR (t(29) = 11.44; p football helmets and in helmets used in other sports such as lacrosse, motorsports, and ice hockey.

  20. Brain tissue analysis of impacts to American football helmets.

    Post, Andrew; Kendall, Marshall; Cournoyer, Janie; Karton, Clara; Oeur, R Anna; Dawson, Lauren; Hoshizaki, T Blaine

    2018-02-01

    Concussion in American football is a prevalent concern. Research has been conducted examining frequencies, location, and thresholds for concussion from impacts. Little work has been done examining how impact location may affect risk of concussive injury. The purpose of this research was to examine how impact site on the helmet and type of impact, affects the risk of concussive injury as quantified using finite element modelling of the human head and brain. A linear impactor was used to impact a helmeted Hybrid III headform in several locations and using centric and non-centric impact vectors. The resulting dynamic response was used as input for the Wayne State Brain Injury Model to determine the risk of concussive injury by utilizing maximum principal strain as the predictive variable. The results demonstrated that impacts that occur primarily to the side of the head resulted in higher magnitudes of strain in the grey and white matter, as well as the brain stem. Finally, commonly worn American football helmets were used in this research and significant risk of injury was incurred for all impacts. These results suggest that improvements in American football helmets are warranted, in particular for impacts to the side of the helmet.

  1. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  2. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  3. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Shaun Fitzgerald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  4. Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets.

    Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T

    2017-12-01

    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.

  5. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel.

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  6. Description of a new species of Apterotoxitiades Adlbauer, 2008 (Cerambycidae, Dorcasominae, Apatophyseini and the female of A. vivesi Adlbauer, 2008, with notes on the biology of the genus

    Karl Adlbauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the description of the Apatophyseini genus Apterotoxitiades Adlbauer, 2008 (Cerambycidae: Dorcasominae from South Africa, a new species has now been discovered in the eastern Drakensberg range of the country. The holotype female is here described as A. aspinosus Björnstad, sp. n. Also, a new small series collected at Hogsback, in the Amathole range, has allowed the description of the previously unknown female of the type species, A. vivesi Adlbauer, 2008. Both species are high altitude dwellers, occurring above 1300 m asl and their habitat consists mainly of mountain grassland interspersed with mistbelt forest pockets. All specimens were recorded in the austral winter to early spring, when these mountain ranges are occasionally covered in snow and night temperature plummet below 0 °C. They appear to be nocturnal and their complete lack of wings indicates a remarkable adaptation to cold conditions at high altitude.

  7. INTER LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON

    2018-03-26

    data by Instrumentation for Impact  Test , SAE standard J211‐1 [4]. Although the entire curve is collected, the interest of this  project  team  solely...HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON by Tony J. Kayhart Charles A. Hewitt and Jonathan Cyganik March 2018 Final...INTER-LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  8. The Influence of Friction Between Football Helmet and Jersey Materials on Force: A Consideration for Sport Safety.

    Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.

  9. Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health.

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-02-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.

  10. Descriptions of two new species and one new subspecies from the Exocelina okbapensis-group, and notes on the E. aipo-group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae

    Helena Shaverdo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species and one new subspecies of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described: E. okbapensis Shaverdo & Balke, sp. n., E. okbapensis hajeki Shaverdo & Balke, ssp. n., and E. may Shaverdo & Balke, sp. n. These and two already described species are assigned to the E. okbapensis-group, which is morphologically (based on setation of the paramere and phylogenetically close to the E. aipo-group. On the latter, morphological and taxonomic notes are provided. An identification key to all known species of the groups is presented, and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. Data on the species distributions are mapped and show that the species occur only in the central mountain part of the island restricted by Wamena in the west and Sandaun Province in the east.

  11. Revision of Bondariella Hustache & Bondar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with descriptions of the first species from the Amazon and notes on natural history.

    Valente, Roberta De Melo; Cordeiro Júnior, Mariano Brandão

    2015-09-15

    Bondariella Hustache & Bondar, 1942 is revised. In addition to the redescription of the genus and its four previously known species, we report and describe the first species from the Amazonian region: Bondariella rudicula sp. nov. and Bondariella crenata sp. nov. We also provide a key to the species, illustrations and notes on natural history. All six species of Bondariella have been collected on palm flowers from Brazil, with the previously known species having only been recorded from species of Syagrus Mart. from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga biomes. The two new species have only been recorded from species of Euterpe Mart. from the Amazon biome. Future work may prove if the associations with Syagrus and Euterpe are specific to the biomes.

  12. Description of the last nymphal instar of Talipes appendiculatus (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Membracinae, and notes on the biology of the immatures and adults

    Frederico Lencioni-Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The last instar nymph of Talipes appendiculatus (Fonseca is described and illustrated, and biological data are given on the immatures and adults. The 5th instar nymph has the body covered with tuberculate chalazae; head and thorax without scoli; abdomen with terga III-VIII with single dorsal scoli, all different in size, III and VIII small, V the largest about 2x longer than wide. Descriptions of the adults (male and female are also provided, with the addition of some new characters. The species (adults, immatures of various stages has been collected on branches of Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidea, and is frequently attended by bees and wasps.

  13. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  15. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  16. Effects of ventilated safety helmets in a hot environment

    G.A. Davis; E.D. Edmisten; R.E. Thomas; R.B. Rummer; D.D. Pascoe

    2001-01-01

    Forest workers are likely to remove head protection in hot and humid conditions because of thermal discomfort. However, a recent Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation revision requires all workers in logging operations to wear safety helmets, thus creating a compliance problem. To determine which factors contribute to forest workers’ thermal...

  17. Helmets: A Threat to the Preservation of Women's Lacrosse

    Bull, Ashley; Cavanaugh, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    A recent debate has raised controversy over the implementation of helmets in the game of women's lacrosse. Women have been participating in this game of finesse and skill without the need for safety equipment, yet in the past decade goggles have been mandated to compensate for the technological advancements in equipment that has increased the…

  18. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    ... common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate ...

  19. Helmet-Induced Occipital Neuralgia in a Military Aviator.

    Chalela, Julio A

    2018-04-01

    Headaches among military personnel are very common and headgear wear is a frequently identified culprit. Helmet wear may cause migrainous headaches, external compression headache, other primary cranial neuralgias, and occipital neuralgia. The clinical features and the response to treatment allow distinction between the different types of headaches. Headaches among aviators are particularly concerning as they may act as distractors while flying and the treatment options are often incompatible with flying status. A 24-yr-old door gunner presented with suboccipital pain associated with the wear of his helmet. He described the pain as a paroxysmal stabbing sensation coming in waves. The physical exam and history supported the diagnosis of primary occipital neuralgia. Systemic pharmacological options were discussed with the soldier, but rejected due to his need to remain in flying status. An occipital nerve block was performed with good clinical results, supporting the diagnosis of occipital neuralgia and allowing him to continue as mission qualified. Occipital neuralgia can be induced by helmet wear in military personnel. Occipital nerve block can be performed in the deployed setting, allowing the service member to remain mission capable and sparing him/her from systemic side effects.Chalela JA. Helmet-induced occipital neuralgia in a military aviator. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):409-410.

  20. Further Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Using CODES Linked Data

    1998-01-01

    Linked data from the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) in seven : states was used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as the : basis of a 1996 Report to Congress on the Benefits of Safety Belts and : Motorcycle Helmets (D...

  1. A description of two new species of the genus Erenna (Siphonophora: Physonectae: Erennidae), with notes on recently collected specimens of other Erenna species.

    Pugh, P R; Haddock, S H D

    2016-11-10

    Two new Erenna species, E. insidiator sp. nov. and E. sirena sp. nov., are described from specimens collected in the vicinity of Monterey Bay, California, and also, for E. sirena at the southern end of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Further information on the three extant Erenna species is given, based on specimens collected in the same areas. These have enabled, for instance, the identification of three types of tentilla on the tentacles of E. cornuta Pugh, 2001, rather than the two noted on the single previously known specimen. The genus is remarkable for the presence of bioluminescent lures on the tentilla of all five species. In E. sirena sp. nov. the tentilla are also covered by a red-fluorescent layer, which was briefly described by Haddock et al. (2005), and further details are given herein. Another extraordinary feature of the colonies E. sirena sp. nov. is that the main part of the tentacle, with its tentilla, can be extended away from the siphosomal stem on a long peduncle. This phenomenon also appears to occur in E. laciniata Pugh, 2001, and has not been observed before for other physonect species.

  2. Amended diagnosis and redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900 (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, with a description of its advertisement call and notes on its breeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships

    Philippe J.R. Kok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Pristimantis marmoratus was originally described as Hylodes marmoratus by George A. Boulenger in 1900 based on a single specimen reported to have been collected at the foot of Mount Roraima in Guyana in 1898. We herein discuss the exact location of the type locality of P. marmoratus and provide a redescription of the species based on new material from Kaieteur National Park and from the slopes of Maringma-tepui in Guyana. We also describe the previously unknown vocalization and breeding ecology of the species, and conducted an exploratory molecular analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pristimantis represented by the members of the “unistrigatus species group” in the Guiana Shield. Pristimantis marmoratus is a small-sized species mainly distinguished from its known Guiana Shield congeners by the combination of F I < II, SVL ≤ 20.4 in males, presence of vocal slits in males, granular/pustulate dorsal skin with well-developed scapular ridges, basal webbing between fingers, fringes on fingers and toes, crossed iris, diffuse yellow or pale green wash on groin, and absence of flashy colour on axillary/pre-axillary region. The advertisement call consists of a single note repeated at a rate of ca 11 calls/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 2756 to 3101 Hz. Pristimantis marmoratus is primarily arboreal, exclusively active at dusk, and probably restricted to the pristine rainforests of the Pantepui uplands and highlands, east of the Gran Sabana between ca 600 and 1800 m above sea level. Preliminary molecular analyses recovered Pristimantis marmoratus as sister to an unnamed species from the Eastern Guiana Shield. On grounds of the newly established distributional extent we suggest maintaining the IUCN conservation status as Least Concern.

  3. Children should wear helmets while ice-skating: a comparison of skating-related injuries.

    McGeehan, Jennifer; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2004-07-01

    This study compares injuries, especially head injuries, among ice-skaters with those among skateboarders, rollerskaters, and in-line skaters, to determine the need for helmet use during recreational ice-skating by children. A comparative study of a consecutive series of patients. The emergency department of a large, urban, academic, children's hospital. Children treated for injuries related to recreational ice-skating, skateboarding, rollerskating, and in-line skating. During a 31-month period, 419 consecutive children were evaluated in the emergency department for skating-related injuries. Children were predominantly male (53.9%), with a mean age of 10.0 years (SD: 3.0 years; median: 10.0 years; range: 1-18 years). The most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall. Overall, 76.5% of children (215 of 281 children) were reported to be wearing no protective equipment, such as a helmet or padding on the elbows or knees, at the time of injury. Ice-skaters were more likely to have adult supervision than were skateboarders (relative risk [RR]: 5.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13-12.46), rollerskaters (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35), and in-line skaters (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.72-2.51). Ice-skaters were at greater risk of injury to the head (20.0%) than were in-line skaters (4.9%) (RR: 4.09; 95% CI: 1.81-9.23); a weak difference was noted between ice-skaters and rollerskaters (9.9%) (RR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.04-4.57), with no significant difference in head injuries between ice-skaters and skateboarders (15.9%) (RR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.54-2.93). Ice-skaters demonstrated lacerations to the head in 68.8% of abnormal head examinations, compared with 37.0% for rollerskaters (RR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.08-3.20) and 50.0% for in-line skaters (RR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.35-3.16); however, there was no significant difference in lacerations to the head between ice-skaters and skateboarders (53.3%) (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.76-2.19). Injuries to ice-skaters occurred more often in an indoor skating facility (92

  4. Research Note:

    Behuria, Pritish; Buur, Lars; Gray, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    its core conceptual and methodological features. This Research Note starts by setting out our understanding of political settlements and provides an overview of existing political settlements literature on African countries. The note then explores how the key concept of ‘holding power’ has been...

  5. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  6. Camouflage design and head measurement characteristic of Indonesian armoured vehicle helmet

    Sya'bana, Yukhi Mustaqim Kusuma; Sanjaya, K. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper discussed camouflage design helmet for armored vehicles with comparing head measurement of Indonesian anthropometric. Design process conduct with considering of design aspects involves function, materials, operational, technology, user, and appearance (camouflage). As an application of Indonesian National Army that qualifies factors needs: safety, comfort, practical and service. MIL-H-44099A Military Specification: Helmet, Ground Troops And Parachutists is minimum limitation standard of military helmet production. Head measurement for product design process guide is presented. Model simulation and helmet measurement using the design for ego and design for more types ergonomics concept. Appearance shape concept is engaging camouflage towards background and environment to deceive enemy viewpoint. Helmet prototype has tested ergonomically to an Indonesian National Army soldier and stated that the helmet size is a comfort and fitted on the head when in use.

  7. RESEARCH NOTE

    Navya

    RESEARCH NOTE. CDKN2A and MC1R ... Department of Pharmacy and Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Frederick. University, Nicosia ..... Appears with highest frequency in African, Asian-Indian, and Papua. New Guinean ...

  8. Editorial note

    Tore Ahlbäck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note of the Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, vol. 21, Postmodern Spirituality, based on papers read at the symposium on Postmodern Spirituality held at Åbo, Finland, on 11–13 June 2008.

  9. Project Notes

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  10. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  11. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6

    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  12. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  13. Writing a technical note.

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  14. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  15. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  16. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  17. Does listening to music with an audio ski helmet impair reaction time to peripheral stimuli?

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M

    2012-12-01

    With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents.

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  19. Neck muscle strain when wearing helmet and NVG during acceleration on a trampoline.

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Siitonen, Simo

    2008-02-01

    The helmet-mounted equipment worn by military pilots increases the weight of the helmet system and shifts its center of gravity, increasing the loads on neck structures, especially during acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neck muscle strain with different head-loads during trampoline-induced G loads (0 to +4 G). Under three conditions [no helmet, helmet, helmet with night vision goggles (NVG)], 14 subjects performed trampoline exercises including basic, hand-and-knee, and back bouncing. EMG activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical erector spinae (CES), trapezoid (TRA), and thoracic erector spinae (TES) muscles. Muscle strain was determined as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). For the three exercises combined, the following significant changes were found: compared to control, the helmet increased muscle strain by 18%, 28%, and 18% in the SCM, CES, and TRA, respectively; NVG produced a further increase of 11% in the SCM and 6% in the CES. During back bouncing, the helmet increased muscle strain by 14% in the SCM and 19% in the CES, and NVG further increased this strain by 14% in the SCM. Hand-and-knee bouncing loaded extensors: the helmet caused increases of 46% in the CES and 29% in the TES, while NVG produced a further 13% increase in CES activation. Helmet weight alone had a large effect on muscular workload. The additional frontal weight of the NVG caused a further increase in the activity of cervical muscles that were already subjected to high strain.

  20. Achieving all-age helmet use compliance for snow sports: strategic use of education, legislation and enforcement.

    Fenerty, Lynne; Heatley, Jennifer; Young, Julian; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Kureshi, Nelofar; Bruce, Beth S; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B

    2016-06-01

    Nova Scotia is the first jurisdiction in the world to mandate ski and snowboard helmet use for all ages at ski hills in the province. This study represents a longitudinal examination of the effects of social marketing, educational campaigns and the introduction of helmet legislation on all-age snow sport helmet use in Nova Scotia. A baseline observational study was conducted to establish the threshold of ski and snowboarding helmet use. Based on focus groups and interviews, a social marketing campaign was designed and implemented to address factors influencing helmet use. A prelegislation observational study assessed the effects of social marketing and educational promotion on helmet use. After all-age snow sport helmet legislation was enacted and enforced, a postlegislation observational study was conducted to determine helmet use prevalence. Baseline data revealed that 74% of skiers and snowboarders were using helmets, of which 80% were females and 70% were males. Helmet use was high in children (96%), but decreased with increasing age. Following educational and social marketing campaigns, overall helmet use increased to 90%. After helmet legislation was enacted, 100% compliance was observed at ski hills in Nova Scotia. Results from this study demonstrate that a multifaceted approach, including education, legislation and enforcement, was effective in achieving full helmet compliance among all ages of skiers and snowboarders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. SAFETY NOTES

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  2. The problem of the pillion rider: India's helmet law and New Delhi's exemption.

    Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L

    2014-05-01

    In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical Note

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  4. Please note

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding. (Version française la semaine prochaine.)

  5. Editor's Note

    On another note: the editor and the editorial team acknowledge the financial support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York through the University of Ghana Building A New Generation of Academics in Africa (BANGA-Africa) Project. We also use this platform to express our gratitude for the support of various stakeholders, ...

  6. Characteristics of helmet or knit cap use in head injury of snowboarders.

    Fukuda, Osamu; Hirashima, Yutaka; Origasa, Hideki; Endo, Shunro

    2007-11-01

    The rate of head injury is 1.86-6 times higher for snowboarding than for skiing. Detailed data about the usefulness of a helmet or knit cap for protecting against serious head injuries have not been reported. The present study evaluated the use of a helmet or knit cap for preventing head injuries. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,190 consecutive patients in a hospital during the 1999/2000-2002/2003 winter seasons at Uonuma ski resort, Niigata, Japan. Patients were divided into the helmet, knit cap, and no cap groups. Upper technical level was highest and jumping as the cause of injury was most frequent in the helmet group. After adjustment for other confounders, there was a significant negative association between the occurrence of serious head injury during snowboarding and female sex (adjusted odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.718, p jumping (adjusted odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.43, p = 0.0001). Among snowboarding maneuvers, only jumping showed a significant negative association between wearing of a helmet or knit cap and the occurrence of serious head injury (p = 0.036). Snowboarders who wear helmets might attempt dangerous maneuvers causing injuries. Wearing of a helmet or knit cap protected against serious head injuries on jumping. Every snowboarder should wear a helmet or knit cap on jumping to prevent head injury.

  7. In defence of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation: response to Hooper and Spicer.

    Biegler, Paul; Johnson, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    We invoke a triple rationale to rebut Hooper and Spicer's argument against mandatory helmet laws. First, we use the laws of physics and empirical studies to show how bicycle helmets afford substantial protection to the user. We show that Hooper and Spicer erroneously downplay helmet utility and that, as a result, their attack on the utilitarian argument for mandatory helmet laws is weakened. Next, we refute their claim that helmet legislation comprises unjustified paternalism. We show the healthcare costs of bareheaded riding to pose significant third party harms. It follows, we argue, that a utilitarian case for helmet laws can be sustained by appeal to Mill's Harm Principle. Finally, we reject Hooper and Spicer's claim that helmet laws unjustly penalise cyclists for their own health-affecting behaviour. Rather, we show their argument to suffer by disanalogy with medical cases where injustice may be more evident, for example, denial of bypass surgery to smokers. We conclude that mandatory helmet laws offer substantial utility and are entirely defensible within the framework of a liberal democracy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  9. Viet Nam’s mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children

    Pervin, Aaron; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. Methods The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and χ² was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). Findings The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90–99% among adults, from 15–53% among children ≤ 7 years of age, and from 38–53% among children > 7 but ≤ 14. Of the parents surveyed, 67% said the fear of neck injury was the most important reason their children did not wear a helmet. Conclusion Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions. PMID:19551255

  10. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.

    1993-12-01

    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  11. Application note :

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  12. Psychological models for development of motorcycle helmet use among students in Vietnam

    Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Satiennam, W.; Trinh, Tu Anh

    2018-04-01

    A helmet can reduce head accident severity. The aim of this research study was to study the intention for helmet use of students who ride motorcycles in Vietnam, by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Questionnaires developed by several traffic psychology modules, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Traffic Locus of Control (T-LOC), and Health Belief Model (HBM), were distributed to students at Ton Thang University and University of Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City. SEM was used to explain helmet use behaviour. The results indicate that TPB, T-LOC and HBM could explain the variance in helmet use behaviour. However, TPB can explain behaviour (helmet use intention) better than T-LOC and HBM. The outcome of this study is useful for the agencies responsible to improve motorcycle safety.

  13. Methods of estimating the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and psychological performance.

    Bogdan, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Luczak, Anna; Konarska, Maria; Pietrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method for a comprehensive assessment of the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and cognitive responses of motorcyclists. To verify the reliability of commonly used tests, we conducted experiments with 5 motorcyclists. We recorded changes in physiological parameters (heart rate, local skin temperature, core temperature, air temperature, relative humidity in the space between the helmet and the surface of the head, and the concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and in psychological parameters (motorcyclists' reflexes, fatigue, perceptiveness and mood). We also studied changes in the motorcyclists' subjective sensation of thermal comfort. The results made it possible to identify reliable parameters for assessing the effect of integral helmets on performance, i.e., physiological factors (head skin temperature, internal temperature and concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and on psychomotor factors (reaction time, attention and vigilance, work performance, concentration and a subjective feeling of mood and fatigue).

  14. Long-term use of neonatal helmet-CPAP: a case report.

    Doglioni, N; Micaglio, M; Zanardo, V; Trevisanuto, D

    2009-12-01

    In a recent short-term physiological study, we demonstrated a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP) that could be a feasible device for managing preterm infants needing continuous distending pressure with better tolerability than nasal-CPAP. However, its application for a long-term period has never been reported in neonates. Here, we describe the use of neonatal helmet-CPAP in a neonate with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Twenty minutes after neonatal helmet-CPAP placement, the baseline post-ductal tcSaO2 (66%) and alveolar-arterial gradient O2 improved from 66% and 648 mmHg to 100% and 465 mmHg, respectively. The neonatal helmet-CPAP was applied for 48 hours and was well-tolerated by the patient without complications. Long-term use of neonatal helmet-CPAP appears feasible and well-tolerated. Comparative trials are needed.

  15. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  16. Prenatal forehead edema in 4p- deletion: the 'Greek warrior helmet' profile revisited.

    Levaillant, J M; Touboul, C; Sinico, M; Vergnaud, A; Serero, S; Druart, L; Blondeau, J R; Abd Alsamad, I; Haddad, B; Gérard-Blanluet, M

    2005-12-01

    Deletion of short arm of chromosome 4 is difficult to ascertain prenatally, and can be missed. A prenatal suspicion of 4p- syndrome was thoroughly investigated by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional sonography, with a description of the fetal face dysmorphological pattern. The cytogenetic confirmation, obtained by karyotype and FISH technique, allowed a precise description of the prenatal abnormalities. Post-termination tridimensional helicoidal scanner of the fetal face was performed. The main anomaly discovered using two-dimensional sonography was the presence of a strikingly thick prefrontal edema (8 mm, twice the normal values, at 22 weeks: 3.81 +/- 0.62 mm). Three-dimensional sonography showed the classical postnatal profile, with the phenotypic aspect of a 'Greek warrior helmet'. Nasal bones were normal in size and placement, confirmed by helicoidal scanner. Prenatal diagnosis of 4p deletion syndrome can be difficult, and it is the presence of prefrontal edema, associated with more subtle facial anomalies (short philtrum, microretrognathia) which should trigger cytogenetic investigation for 4p- deletion, even with only borderline growth retardation. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  17. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  18. Rates of motorcycle helmet use and reasons for non-use among adults and children in Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M

    2015-09-28

    Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.

  19. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking Accidents With or Without Helmet Use.

    Dagher, Jehane H; Costa, Camille; Lamoureux, Julie; de Guise, Elaine; Feyz, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    To determine if health outcomes and demographics differ according to helmet status between persons with cycling-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI). This is a retrospective study of 128 patients admitted to the Montreal General Hospital following a TBI that occurred while cycling from 2007-2011. Information was collected from the Quebec trauma registry and the coroner's office in cases of death from cycling accidents. The independent variables collected were socio-demographic, helmet status, clinical and neurological patient information. The dependent variables evaluated were length of stay (LOS), extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOS-E), injury severity scale (ISS), discharge destination and death. 25% of cyclists wore a helmet. The helmet group was older, more likely to be university educated, married and retired. Unemployment, longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, severe intracranial bleeding and neurosurgical interventions were more common in the no helmet group. There was no significant association between the severity of the TBI, ISS scores, GOS-E or death and helmet wearing. The median age of the subjects who died was higher than those who survived. Cyclists without helmets were younger, less educated, single and unemployed. They had more severe TBIs on imaging, longer LOS in ICU and more neurosurgical interventions. Elderly cyclists admitted to the hospital appear to be at higher risk of dying in the event of a TBI.

  1. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  2. The evaluation of speed skating helmet performance through peak linear and rotational accelerations.

    Karton, Clara; Rousseau, Philippe; Vassilyadi, Michael; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Like many sports involving high speeds and body contact, head injuries are a concern for short track speed skating athletes and coaches. While the mandatory use of helmets has managed to nearly eliminate catastrophic head injuries such as skull fractures and cerebral haemorrhages, they may not be as effective at reducing the risk of a concussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of speed skating helmets with respect to managing peak linear and peak rotational acceleration, and to compare their performance against other types of helmets commonly worn within the speed skating sport. Commercially available speed skating, bicycle and ice hockey helmets were evaluated using a three-impact condition test protocol at an impact velocity of 4 m/s. Two speed skating helmet models yielded mean peak linear accelerations at a low-estimated probability range for sustaining a concussion for all three impact conditions. Conversely, the resulting mean peak rotational acceleration values were all found close to the high end of a probability range for sustaining a concussion. A similar tendency was observed for the bicycle and ice hockey helmets under the same impact conditions. Speed skating helmets may not be as effective at managing rotational acceleration and therefore may not successfully protect the user against risks associated with concussion injuries.

  3. A Discussion of the Issue of Football Helmet Removal in Suspected Cervical Spine Injuries

    Segan, Ross D.; Cassidy, Christine; Bentkowski, Jamie

    1993-01-01

    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan. ImagesFig. 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6. PMID:16558244

  4. Editors' note

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  5. Editorial note

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hrymak, A.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    industrial and educational applications. These articles will highlight theory, models, algorithms and applications with respect to value preservation and/or value creation or growth within the chemical product supply chain. To highlight and motivate research in the emerging challenges in PSE, we plan...... components of PSE—modeling, numerical analysis, optimization, systems and control theory, computer science, and, management science will be highlighted through the published articles (full-length papers, perspective papers, review papers, short notes and letters to the editor). They will cover...... and intelligent systems, integrated approaches to design, control and data analysis, systematic techniques for managing complexity, etc.), PSE emerging domains (product-process design, enterprise-wide optimization, energy and sustainability, biological engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, etc.) and novel...

  6. BICYCLE HELMET DESIGN AND THE VIRTUAL VALIDATION OF THE IMPACT, AERODYNAMICS AND PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Bojan Boshevski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development process of a bicycle helmet through individual research, creation, presentation and analysis of the results of the most important product development stages. The quality of the development and manufacturing process of the protective equipment for extreme sports is an imperative for a successful product and its flawless function. The design of the bicycle helmet is made following the rules of the design in order to create a well-founded and functional product. After creating design sketches, a virtual prototype was developed in "SolidWorks" using the required ergonomic dimensions. 3D printed model of the human head with adapted ergonomic dimensions and the designed bicycle helmet was developed in order to verify the applied ergonomic measures. The virtual model will be used as an input in the finite element analysis of the helmet impact test based on the EN1078 standard and the aerodynamic simulations executed in "SolidWorks Simulation and Flow Simulation", for verification of the impact and aerodynamic properties. Virtual testing of aerodynamic features and the ability of the bicycle helmet to allow ventilation of the user's head indicate that the helmet performs its function in the desired way. Also, the virtual prototype will be used for the production process simulation in "SolidWorks Plastics" in order to analyze the production of the bicycle helmet. The polycarbonate helmet outer shell is subject to a number of simulations for the sake of analyzing the production process in order to obtain the desired characteristics of the polycarbonate outer shell and to avoid the disadvantages that occur in the manufacturing process. The main goal of this paper is to develop a safety bicycle helmet with improved ergonomic, validation of impact, aerodynamic characteristics and production process in order to produce a high quality product for mass use.

  7. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP.

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V

    2011-01-01

    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; plegislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  10. Editorial Note

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  11. Note & Recensioni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available VolumiVito Campanelli, Web Aesthetics. How Digital Media Affect Culture and Society; Id., Remix It Yourself. Analisi socio-estetica delle forme comunicative del Web [Emanuele Crescimanno] • Jean-François Bordron, Image et vérité. Essais sur les dimensions iconiques de la connaissance [Veronica Estay Stange] • Stéphane Dumas, Les peaux créatrices – Esthétique de la sécrétion [Marc-Vincent Howlett]NoteQuidam veritatis effectus. A proposito di A Plea for Balance in Philosophy. Essays in honour of Paolo Parrini [Fabrizio Desideri] • A Single Face to Capture the Whole World: Literary Shapes and Shadows. An Interview With Tolm Coibin [Fabrizia Abbate] •Convegno Le sensible a l’oeuvre: savoirs du corps entre esthetique et neurosciences, Parigi, 15 Maggio 2014 [Jessica Murano] 

  12. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays

    Parise, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  13. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football.

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C

    2014-06-01

    In cases of possible cervical spine injury, medical professionals must be prepared to achieve rapid airway access while concurrently restricting cervical spine motion. Face mask removal (FMR), rather than helmet removal (HR), is recommended to achieve this. However, no studies have been reported that compare FMR directly with HR. The purpose of this study was to compare motion, time, and perceived difficulty in two commonly used American football helmets between FMR and HR techniques, and when helmet air bladders were deflated before HR compared with inflated scenarios. The study incorporated a repeated measures design and was performed in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants included 22 certified athletic trainers (15 men and seven women; mean age, 33.9±10.5 years; mean experience, 11.4±10.0 years; mean height, 172±9.4 cm; mean mass, 76.7±14.9 kg). All participants were free from upper extremity or central nervous system pathology for 6 months and provided informed consent. Dependent variables included head excursion in degrees (computed by subtracting the minimum position from the maximum position) in each of the three planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse), time to complete the required task, and ratings of perceived exertion. To address our study purposes, we used two-by-two repeated-measures analysis of variance (removal technique×helmet type, helmet type×deflation status) for each dependent variable. Independent variables consisted of removal technique (FMR and HR), helmet type (Riddell Revolution IQ [RIQ] and VSR4), and helmet deflation status (deflated [D], inflated, [I]). After familiarization, participants conducted two successful trials for each of six conditions in random order (RIQ-FMR, VSR4-FMR, RIQ-HR-D, VSR4-HR-D, RIQ-HR-I, and VSR4-HR-I). Face masks, helmets, and shoulder pads were removed from a live model wearing a properly fitted helmet and shoulder pads. The participant and an investigator stabilized the model's head. A six

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response During Lateral +Gy Impact

    Perry, Chris

    2003-01-01

    .... A series of tests was conducted by AFRL/HEPA on a horizontal impulse accelerator using human subjects to investigate the effects of helmet inertial properties on human response to short duration...

  16. Aerodynamic study of time-trial helmets in cycling racing using CFD analysis.

    Beaumont, F; Taiar, R; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Grappe, F

    2018-01-23

    The aerodynamic drag of three different time-trial cycling helmets was analyzed numerically for two different cyclist head positions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used to investigate the detailed airflow patterns around the cyclist for a constant velocity of 15 m/s without wind. The CFD simulations have focused on the aerodynamic drag effects in terms of wall shear stress maps and pressure coefficient distributions on the cyclist/helmet system. For a given head position, the helmet shape, by itself, obtained a weak effect on a cyclist's aerodynamic performance (CFD results have also shown that both helmet shape and head position significantly influence drag forces, pressure and wall shear stress distributions on the whole cyclist's body due to the change in the near-wake behavior and in location of corresponding separation and attachment areas around the cyclist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of a Helmet Liner for Improved Low Velocity Impact Protection

    2013-05-01

    FIGURE 14. MONORAIL DROP TEST WITH DOT-SIZE C HEADFORM AND HEMISPHERICAL ANVIL ........................... 14  FIGURE 15. ACH PAD CONFIGURATION. LEFT...materials. In this project, the monorail drop test device, used for the helmeted headform drop test, was modified for material testing as shown in Figure...a guided free fall drop test using a monorail drop test apparatus as shown in Figure 14. All helmets tested in this study were ACH-Size Large and

  19. [Prevalence of helmet use in children and adolescents in Germany and preventable bicycle-related head injuries].

    Gutsche, J; Hintzpeter, B; Neuhauser, H; Schlaud, M

    2011-08-01

    Head injuries are the main cause of death in bicycle-related accidents among children and adolescents. According to a Cochrane Review, the risk of head injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.26-0.37) or brain injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.23-0.42) decreases by 69% if a helmet is worn. This study presents the prevalence of helmet use in cycling children and adolescents in Germany and the proportion of head injuries that could be prevented by wearing helmets. The potential effects of increased helmet wearing rates on the population attributable risk percentage for head injuries (PAR%) are demonstrated. The prevalence of helmet use in children aged 3-17 years was analysed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The percentage of head injuries preventable by helmet use in this group is estimated by calculating PAR%. Prevalence rates of helmet use and odds ratios from a Cochrane Review about the effectiveness of bicycle helmets for the prevention of head injuries were used for analysis. The potential effect of increased helmet use is shown in 3 scenarios by means of differences of PAR% values in the most relevant age groups. The older the children, the less likely they are to wear a helmet: 89.5% (95% CI 88.0%-90.8%) of the 3- to 6-year-old children wear a helmet when cycling but only 11.0% (95% CI 9.3%-12.9%) of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents do. In the youngest group (3-6 years) 19% of bicycle-related head injuries are attributable to the non-use of helmets, but this proportion rises to 67% in the oldest group (14-17 years). The PAR% of head injuries associated with not wearing a helmet may be reduced by more than a third by increasing the helmet wearing rate to 67% (2 out of 3) among adolescents, and may be reduced to half if 75% of adolescents wore a helmet. Particularly older children and adolescents hardly use bicycle helmets, hence the rate of preventable head injury is high. Efforts towards increasing helmet use

  20. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  1. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  2. Implementation of an all-ages mandatory helmet policy for ice skating.

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Fenerty, Lynne; Wheadon-Hore, Kathie; Walling, Simon; Cusimano, Michael D; Clarke, David B

    2015-12-01

    Ice skaters sustain a significant number of head injuries each winter. We are the first to implement an all-ages helmet policy at a university-based Canadian arena. We report our experience from a cross-sectional observational study as well as the policy's consequences on helmet use and skating participation. Educational programming was provided prior to policy implementation. Observations of helmet use, falls and skater demographics were conducted prior to education/implementation and after policy implementation. The number of skaters observed was essentially unchanged by the policy; 361 skaters were observed pre-implementation, while 358 were observed post-implementation during the same number of observation-hours. Pre-implementation, helmet use ranged from 97% among children under 12 to 10% among adults; post-implementation use in all skaters was 99%. Falls were observed among all age groups, with preponderance among those aged 4-12. An all-ages helmet policy was successful both in achieving helmet use among all skaters and in maintaining participation rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam.

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  4. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase bicycle helmet use by children.

    Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E

    1993-04-01

    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.

  5. Facial asymmetry correction with moulded helmet therapy in infants with deformational skull base plagiocephaly.

    Kreutz, Matthias; Fitze, Brigitte; Blecher, Christoph; Marcello, Augello; Simon, Ruben; Cremer, Rebecca; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Kunz, Christoph; Mayr, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The recommendation issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics in the early 1990s to position infants on their back during sleep to prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dramatically reduced the number of deaths due to SIDS but has also markedly increased the prevalence of positional skull deformation in infants. Deformation of the base of the skull occurs predominantly in very severe deformational plagiocephaly and is accompanied by facial asymmetry, as well as an altered ear position, called ear shift. Moulded helmet therapy has become an accepted treatment strategy for infants with deformational plagiocephaly. The aim of this study was to determine whether facial asymmetry could be corrected by moulded helmet therapy. In this retrospective, single-centre study, we analysed facial asymmetry of 71 infants with severe deformational plagiocephaly with or without deformational brachycephaly who were undergoing moulded helmet therapy between 2009 and 2013. Computer-assisted, three-dimensional, soft-tissue photographic scanning was used to record the head shape before and after moulded helmet therapy. The distance between two landmarks in the midline of the face (i.e., root of the nose and nasal septum) and the right and left tragus were measured on computer-generated indirect and objective 3D photogrammetry images. A quotient was calculated between the two right- and left-sided distances to the midline. Quotients were compared before and after moulded helmet therapy. Infants without any therapy served as a control group. The median age of the infants before onset of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 3-16 months). The median duration of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 1-16 months). Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment quotients of the left vs. right distances measured between the tragus and root of the nose (n = 71) and nasal septum (n = 71) revealed a significant reduction of the asymmetry (Tragus-Nasion-Line Quotient: 0

  6. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  7. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

    Esquinas Rodriguez, Antonio M; Papadakos, Peter J; Carron, Michele; Cosentini, Roberto; Chiumello, Davide

    2013-04-25

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO₂ rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  8. Injuries and helmet use related to non-motorized wheeled activities among pediatric patients.

    Lindsay, H; Brussoni, M

    2014-07-01

    Patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for injuries resulting from recreational activities represent a unique source of information on important directions for injury prevention efforts. We describe the epidemiology of non-motorized wheeled activity-related injury in pediatric patients presenting to Canadian EDs as well as patients' helmet use. Data for the years 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national ED injury surveillance program in fifteen hospitals. Most of the 28 618 children aged 1 to 16 years injured during non-motorized wheeled activities were injured while cycling, followed by skateboarding. Most injuries occurred among boys. Children injured on scooters tended to be younger whereas skateboarders were the oldest. On average, the number of all injuries decreased by 6% over the time period. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury; 8.3% of patients had head injuries, which were seen more often among cyclists than other wheeled-activity users. Helmet use was greatest among cyclists (62.2%) and lowest among skateboarders (32.9%). Injured patients presenting to EDs in jurisdictions with legislation mandating helmet use had 2.12 greater odds of helmet use and 0.86 lesser odds of head injury compared with those presenting in jurisdictions without helmet laws. These results provide further evidence that legislation mandating helmet use may be an effective way of reducing injury among all wheeled-activity users. The small number of patients who presented with helmet use and protective gear (59.4% overall) suggests that this remains an area for intervention.

  9. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign.

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2017-08-05

    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Descriptive Characteristics of Concussions in National Football League Games, 2010-2011 to 2013-2014.

    Clark, Michael D; Asken, Breton M; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2017-03-01

    Despite a high reported incidence rate of concussion, little is known about the on-field characteristics of injurious head impacts in National Football League (NFL) games. To characterize on-field features (location, player position, and time during game) and biomechanical features (anticipation status, closing distance, impact location and type) associated with concussions in NFL games over a 4-season period (2010-2011 to 2013-2014). Descriptive epidemiology study. We analyzed video of a subset of reported, in-game concussions for the 2010-2011 to 2013-2014 seasons. These videos represented a sample of injuries that were diagnosed and reported on the same day and that could be clearly associated with an in-game collision as captured on video. We determined anticipation status, closing distance, impact location on the injured player's helmet, and impact type (helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-body, or helmet-to-ground). Associations between these variables were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and tests of association. A total of 871 diagnosed concussions were reported as occurring during NFL preseason, regular season, and postseason games for the 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 seasons. A total of 1324 games were played during this period, giving a concussion incidence rate of 0.658 per game (95% CI, 0.61-0.70). From the video-reviewed subset (n = 429; 49.3%), the majority of injurious impacts occurred with good anticipation (57.3%) and concussions in the NFL occurred through a diverse variety of mechanisms, surprisingly tended to be well-anticipated, and, also surprisingly, occurred with concussion were broadly distributed over the helmet. More concussions occurred during the second half of game play, but we do not have evidence to explain this finding.

  11. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala.

    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S

    2014-06-01

    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  12. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    van Wijk Renske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  13. The effect of helmet use on injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders.

    Hagel, Brent; Pless, I Barry; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert; Robitaille, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of helmet use on non-head-neck injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. We used a matched case-control study over the November 2001 to April 2002 winter season. 3295 of 4667 injured skiers and snowboarders reporting to the ski patrol at 19 areas in Quebec with non-head, non-neck injuries agreed to participate. Cases included those evacuated by ambulance, admitted to hospital, with restriction of normal daily activities (NDAs) >6 days, with non-helmet equipment damage, fast self-reported speed, participating on a more difficult run than usual, and jumping-related injury. Controls were injured participants without severe injuries or high-energy crash circumstances and were matched to cases on ski area, activity, day, age, and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate each outcome to helmet use. There was no evidence that helmet use increased the risk of severe injury or high-energy crash circumstances. The results suggest that helmet use in skiing and snowboarding is not associated with riskier activities that lead to non-head-neck injuries.

  14. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  15. Effect of Filters on the Noise Generated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivered via a Helmet

    Ricardo Hernández-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the problems that the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP via a helmet poses is the generation of noise. The objective of our study was to assess the effect that the use of filter has on sound pressure levels generated by the delivery of positive airway pressure at different gas flow rates. Materials and Methods: Sound pressure levels generated by neonatal helmet CPAP delivery were measured at different gas flows (20, 30, and 40 l/min with and without a breathing filter. Noise intensity was measured by installing microphones in the inner ear of dummy heads wearing helmets. Results: The sound pressure level increased by 38% at a gas flow of 40 l/min, as compared to a gas flow of 20 l/min {74 dBA [interquartile range (IQR 2,2] vs 52 dBA (IQR 5,9, respectively}. Using the breathing filter as a diffuser has a variety of effects on sound pressure levels according to the gas flow rate. Conclusion: The intensity of the noise generated by helmet delivery of positive airway pressure depends on the type of helmet used, gas flow, and use or not of a diffuser filter. Breathing filters with gas flows over 30 l/min might not be recommended since they would not attenuate but will rather amplify sound pressure.

  16. Head position in the MEG helmet affects the sensitivity to anterior sources.

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2004-11-30

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people's heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential "invisibility" of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position ("front" vs. "back") secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the "visibility" of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks.

  17. Investigation of the reasons for not using helmet among motorcyclists in Kerman, Iran.

    Maghsoudi, Aliasghar; Boostani, Dariush; Rafeiee, Manoochehr

    2018-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate reasoning and interpretation of motorcyclists for not using helmet utilizing qualitative methodology of 'grounded theory'. The field of the study was Kerman, a cultural-historical city at the south-east of Iran. Participants were 21 young male motorcyclists. Two sampling strategies were used: maximum variation and snowball sampling. To collect data, in-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted. Data analysis yielded seven categories: fatalism; a barrier to social relationships; peer group pressure and negative labelling; messing up the appearance; disturbance in hearing and vision; barrier to normal breathing; and heaviness and superfluity of helmet. Based on the findings of the current study, it could be concluded that socio-cultural contexts, motorcyclists' worldview and partly helmet-related problems are of the main factors which affect motorcycling. Therefore, the studies, policy-makings, and intervening programmes to control injury and to promote safety among motorcyclists should be focused on socio-cultural barriers to helmet use in general and changing the motorcyclists' standpoints toward fatalism in particular. Helmet-related problems should be considered, too.

  18. Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT.

    Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Determination of the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet relative output factor using a variety of detectors

    Tsai, J.-S.; Rivard, Mark J.; Engler, Mark J.; Mignano, John E.; Wazer, David E.; Shucart, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Though the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet is used routinely, there is disagreement in the Gamma Knife users community on the value of the 4 mm helmet relative output factor. A range of relative output factors is used, and this variation may impair observations of dose response and optimization of prescribed dose. To study this variation, measurements were performed using the following radiation detectors: silicon diode, diamond detector, radiographic film, radiochromic film, and TLD cubes. To facilitate positioning of the silicon diode and diamond detector, a three-dimensional translation micrometer was used to iteratively determine the position of maximum detector response. Positioning of the films and TLDs was accomplished by manufacturing custom holders for each technique. Results from all five measurement techniques indicate that the 4 mm helmet relative output factor is 0.868±0.014. Within the experimental uncertainties, this value is in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using diverse techniques

  20. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  1. The Association Between Risk-taking Behavior and Helmet Use Among Motorcyclist

    Trinh, Tu Anh; Phuong Linh Le, Thi

    2018-04-01

    The central aim of the research was to examine speeding behavior without helmet wearing among motorcycle riders in Ho Chi Minh City. The research model expanded the Theory of Planned Behavior by both psychological flow theory and sensation-seeking. 268 motorcyclists were involved in the research. A Confirmatory factor analysis and a Structural equation modeling were employed for model specification. The findings indicated a significant effect between predictors and the intention of speeding without helmet wearing. In addition, there was direct relation between intention and actual behavior. Also, sensation-seeking proved to be important in moderating predictors between the low-sensation-seeking motorcyclists and high-sensation-seeking ones. A deeper understanding of why motorcycle riders exceed the speed limit without wearing helmet played key role in changing their behavior.

  2. Feasibility of nitric oxide administration by neonatal helmet-CPAP: a bench study.

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2007-09-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may have a role in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory failure. We evaluated the feasibility of administering NO therapy by a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP). While maintaining a constant total flow of 8, 10, and 12 l.min(-1), NO concentrations were progressively increased to 5, 10, 20, and 40 p.p.m. in the neonatal helmet-CPAP pressure chamber (5 cmH2O). NO, NO2, and O2 concentrations were measured in the pressure chamber and the immediate external environment. In the chamber, NO2 levels remained low (neonatal helmet-CPAP system. This method allows the delivery of accurate NO levels and high O2 concentrations avoiding NO2 accumulation. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed.

  3. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods.

  4. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  5. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  6. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia.

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2018-01-02

    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  7. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Azam Dadkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  8. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  9. Development of a helmet-mounted PLZT thermal/flash protection system

    Harris, J.O. Jr.; Cutchen, J.T.; Pfoff, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing PLZT thermal/flash protective devices (TFPD's) goggles to prevent exposure and resultant eye damage from nuclear weapon detonations. The primary emphasis of the present program is to transfer technology and establish production capability for helmet-mounted PLZT/TFPD goggles for USAF flight crews, with a non-helmet-mounted configuration to follow. The first production units are anticipated in the fall of 1977. The operating principles of the PLZT/TFPD goggle device are briefly outlined, and the device configuration and operational characteristics are described

  10. The differences between storms driven by helmet streamer CIRs and storms driven by pseudostreamer CIRs

    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Denton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A corotating interaction region (CIR) is formed when fast coronal hole origin solar wind overtakes slow solar wind and forms a region of compressed plasma and magnetic field. The slow wind upstream of the coronal hole fast wind can be either of helmet streamer origin or pseudostreamer origin. For a collection of 125 CIR-driven geomagnetic storms, the slow wind ahead of each CIR is examined; for those storm not containing ejecta, each CIR is categorized as a helmet streamer CIR (74 of the 125 ...

  11. Spectrum of acute clinical characteristics of diagnosed concussions in college athletes wearing instrumented helmets: clinical article.

    Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Maerlender, Arthur C; McAllister, Thomas W; Crisco, Joseph J; Duma, Stefan M; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Rowson, Steven; Flashman, Laura A; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M

    2012-12-01

    Concussive head injuries have received much attention in the medical and public arenas, as concerns have been raised about the potential short- and long-term consequences of injuries sustained in sports and other activities. While many student athletes have required evaluation after concussion, the exact definition of concussion has varied among disciplines and over time. The authors used data gathered as part of a multiinstitutional longitudinal study of the biomechanics of head impacts in helmeted collegiate athletes to characterize what signs, symptoms, and clinical histories were used to designate players as having sustained concussions. Players on 3 college football teams and 4 ice hockey teams (male and female) wore helmets instrumented with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) technology during practices and games over 2-4 seasons of play. Preseason clinical screening batteries assessed baseline cognition and reported symptoms. If a concussion was diagnosed by the team medical staff, basic descriptive information was collected at presentation, and concussed players were reevaluated serially. The specific symptoms or findings associated with the diagnosis of acute concussion, relation to specific impact events, timing of symptom onset and diagnosis, and recorded biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Data were collected from 450 athletes with 486,594 recorded head impacts. Forty-eight separate concussions were diagnosed in 44 individual players. Mental clouding, headache, and dizziness were the most common presenting symptoms. Thirty-one diagnosed cases were associated with an identified impact event; in 17 cases no specific impact event was identified. Onset of symptoms was immediate in 24 players, delayed in 11, and unspecified in 13. In 8 cases the diagnosis was made immediately after a head impact, but in most cases the diagnosis was delayed (median 17 hours). One diagnosed concussion involved a 30-second loss of consciousness; all other players retained

  12. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae

    Pothalil A. Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, S. albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of S. lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported.

  13. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  14. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    1999-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  15. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  16. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their

  17. X-ray, synchrotron, and neutron diffraction analysis of Roman cavalry parade helmet fragment

    Smrcok, L.; Petrik, I.; Langer, V.; Filinchuk, Y.; Beran, Přemysl

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 10 (2010), s. 1025-1031 ISSN 0232-1300 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : archaeometry * Roman helmet * phase analysis Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2010

  18. The motivational safety helmet : Redesign suggestions improving the intrinsic motivation of construction site workers

    Beldman, T. (Teunis); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Lemmens, P. (Pim); Stilma, M. (Margot)

    2014-01-01

    In reaction to the lack of intrinsic motivation of construction site workers, to wear their safety helmets at all times, a series of research projects studied causes and possible solutions. Goal is to gain an inspirational discussion to get the design onto the next level. This paper describes a

  19. Impact of Helmet Use on Severity of Epidural Hematomas in Cambodia.

    Gupta, Saksham; Iv, Vycheth; Sam, Nang; Vuthy, Din; Klaric, Katherine; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often necessitating neurosurgical intervention to evacuate intracranial bleeding. Since the early 2000s, Cambodia has been undergoing a rapid increase in motorcycle transit and in road traffic accidents, but the prevalence of helmet usage remains low. Epidural hematomas are severe traumatic brain injuries that can necessitate neurosurgical intervention. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents who presented to a major national tertiary care center in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between November 2013 and March 2016. All patients were diagnosed with computed tomography of the head. In this cohort, 21.6% of patients in motorcycle accidents presented with epidural hematoma and 89.1% of patients were men, 47.6% were intoxicated, and were 87.8% were not wearing helmets at the moment of impact. Not wearing a helmet was associated with a 6.90-fold increase in odds of presenting with a moderate-to-severe Glasgow coma scale score and a 3.76-fold increase in odds of requiring craniotomy or craniectomy for evacuation of hematoma. Male sex was also associated with increased odds of higher clinical severity at presentation and indication for craniotomy or craniectomy, and alcohol intoxication at the time of accident was not associated with either. Helmet usage is protective in reducing the severity of presentation and need for neurosurgical intervention for patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of humidification on comfort during noninvasive ventilation with a helmet.

    Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Toshiji; Uchiyama, Akinori; Ohta, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Naoya; Goto, Yukiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate optimal humidifier water temperature when using a helmet for noninvasive ventilation. Twenty-eight healthy individuals underwent 8 cm H2O CPAP ventilation with FIO2 of 0.21 and 0.5. Each was sequentially tested in the following order: using the helmet without humidification at ambient temperature; with humidification with unheated chamber water; and with humidification with the chamber water at 31°C, 34°C, and 37°C. At each setting, after a 20 min stabilization period, measurements were taken. Comfort level at each setting was evaluated using a visual analog scale rated zero (least comfortable) to 10 (most comfortable). Temperature and relative and absolute humidity inside the helmet increased; however, the comfort scores significantly decreased as the humidification chamber water temperature increased. Regardless of the FIO2, statistically significantly highest comfort scores were obtained when humidification water, with and without active humidification, was at ambient temperature. Unacceptable absolute humidity was obtained only without humidification at room temperature when FIO2 was 0.5. With the clinical use of a helmet, for patient comfort and mucosal humidification during CPAP, the most desirable conditions are likely to be obtained by humidifying without heating, that is by leaving the water in the humidifier chamber at room temperature.

  1. Randomized Comparison of Helmet CPAP Versus High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Pediatric Respiratory Distress.

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Vitaliti, Maria Concetta; Finocchiaro, Maria Carla; Di Stefano, Vita Antonella; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Lubrano, Riccardo; Falsaperla, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 noninvasive respiratory support methods, which included helmet CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with respiratory distress admitted to a pediatric intermediate care unit. This study was a prospective observational study conducted on children with respiratory distress (age 1-24 months) who were admitted to our acute and emergency operative unit. All included subjects were randomly treated with helmet CPAP or HFNC in a 1:1 fashion until their clinical picture, oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters resolved. The efficiencies of helmet CPAP and HFNC were evaluated by breathing frequency, S pO 2 , ABG pH, ABG P aCO 2 , ABG P aO 2 , and P aO 2 /F IO 2 , recorded once at baseline and then after 1 and 6 h of treatment. Both noninvasive respiratory support modalities were compared with a control group of subjects with respiratory distress under standard therapeutic pharmaceutical protocols. We found that both helmet CPAP and HFNC were efficient in improving the clinical conditions of subjects with mild-to-moderate respiratory distress, although clinical response to helmet CPAP was more efficient and rapid compared with HFNC. Children who received respiratory support had a better clinical course in terms of hospitalization, days of intravenous rehydration therapy, and days of drug administration compared with the control group ( P CPAP and HFNC in respiratory distress resolution in a pediatric intermediate care setting. It aims to identify the most efficient treatment to avoid pediatric ICU admissions and endotracheal intubation and reduce the administration of drugs and days of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Note Taking and Recall

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  3. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submer...

  4. Description of a new species of skate of the genus Malacoraja Stehmann, 1970: the first species from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, with notes on generic monophyly and composition (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae

    Marcelo R. de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The first report of a western South Atlantic soft skate, genus Malacoraja Stehmann, 1970, is described as Malacoraja obscura, new species, from the southeastern Brazilian continental slope off the states of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, in depths ranging from 808-1105 m. The new species is known from five specimens and is distinguished from congeners by its unique dorsal coloration with small, faded white spots on disc and pelvic fins, by retaining in larger specimens an irregular row of thorns along dorsal midline of tail (extending from tail base to two-thirds of tail length in 680 mm total length female, and by presenting a ventral tail midline devoid of small denticles only at base (naked region not extending posterior to pelvic fin rear margin. Further diagnostic characters in combination include the lack of scapular thorns in larger specimens, elevated number of tooth rows (64/62 tooth rows in subadult male of 505 mm TL, and 76/74 in large female of 680 mm TL and vertebrae (27-28 Vtr, 68-75 Vprd, ventral disc and tail with a uniform dark brown coloration, paired postventral fenestrae on scapulocoracoid, enlarged posterior postventral fenestra, circular foramen magnum and paired internal carotid foramina on braincase floor. Adult males were unavailable for study, but an anatomical description of M. obscura, n. sp., is provided. Comparisons are made with all known material of M. kreffti, literature accounts of M. senta, and with abundant material of South African M. spinacidermis; M. obscura, n. sp., most closely resembles M. spinacidermis from the eastern South Atlantic in squamation, coloration and size. Malacoraja is monophyletic due to its unique squamation and rostral appendices, and apparently comprises two species-groups, one for M. obscura and M. spinacidermis, and the other for M. kreffti and M. senta, but clarification of species-level relationships must await more anatomical information, particularly of the latter two

  5. Influence of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation for children: a prospective observational study.

    Parkin, Patricia C; Khambalia, Amina; Kmet, Leanne; Macarthur, Colin

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of average family income in a geographic area on the effectiveness of helmet legislation on observed helmet use by children (5-14 years). The study was conducted in East York, a health district of Metropolitan Toronto, in collaboration with the East York Health Unit. In 1996, the total population was 107 822, 11 340 of which were children 5 to 14 years. Census data were used to group the 21 census tracts in East York into 7 geographically distinct areas. The boundaries of these areas are natural barriers to travel, such as expressways, ravines, railway tracks, and hydroelectric power lines. The areas were also ranked according to average family income (based on Statistics Canada data). For analytical purposes, areas were defined as low-, mid-, and high-income areas. Census data profiles of the areas have been previously described. For each consecutive year from 1990 to 1997 inclusive, direct observations of children riding bicycles in East York during the months of April through October were made. In 1995, observations were completed before the introduction of the law on October 1, 1995. Only children who were between 5 and 14 years of age and riding a 2-wheeled bicycle were included in the study. In total, 111 sites across all 7 areas were selected for observation. Observational sites included school yards of all elementary and middle schools (kindergarten to grade 8) and all parks in East York. In addition, 5 major intersections and 5 residential streets from each area were randomly selected. Observers were trained and used a standardized data collection form. A pilot study showed that the data collected by observers were reliable and valid. Observers remained at each site for 1 hour and collected data on helmet use and sex. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Hospital for Sick Children Research Ethics Board, the East York Board of Education, and the Metropolitan Separate School Board. The proportion of children who were

  6. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae: Corixini, with ecological notes Descripción de los estadios larvales de Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Heteroptera: Corixidae, con notas acerca de su ecología

    María Cecilia Melo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski is the smallest species of the subgenus ranging from 4.2-4.7 mm, and it is characterized by the absence of a strigil, the small and narrow genital capsule with a short hypandrium in males, and the shape of the abdominal tergite VII in females. This species is endemic to the Patagonian subregion (Andean region in Argentina. A monthly sampling study was performed during a year in northern Mendoza, and additional material was collected in southern Mendoza, more precisely from Bañado Carilauquen in the Llancanelo Lake Reserve (Malargüe Department. Since little is known about the ecological requirements of S. (T. jensenhaarupi, herein we describe its habitat, the environmental conditions and its association with other macroinvertebrates. Also, we provide a morphological description of larval stages, and provide new records of this species.Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski es la especie más pequeña del subgénero (4.2-4.7 mm, y se caracteriza por la ausencia de estrigilo, la cápsula genital masculina pequeña y angosta con el hipandro corto, y la forma característica del tergito abdominal VII en las hembras. Esta especie es endémica de la subregión Patagónica (región Andina en Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza, material adicional fue recolectado en el sur de la provincia, más precisamente en el Bañado Carilauquen en la Reserva Laguna Llancanelo (Departamento de Malargüe. Poco se conoce acerca de los requerimientos ecológicos de S. (T. jensenhaarupi, por lo que en este trabajo describimos su hábitat, las condiciones ambientales y su asociación con otros macroinvertebrados. Además, describimos los estadios larvales y damos nuevos registros de esta especie.

  8. Descriptive Research

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  9. 1. On note taking.

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the author explores the theoretical and technical issues relating to taking notes of analytic sessions, using an introspective approach. The paper discusses the lack of a consistent approach to note taking amongst analysts and sets out to demonstrate that systematic note taking can be helpful to the analyst. The author describes his discovery that an initial phase where as much data was recorded as possible did not prove to be reliably helpful in clinical work and initially actively interfered with recall in subsequent sessions. The impact of the nature of the analytic session itself and the focus of the analyst's interest on recall is discussed. The author then describes how he modified his note taking technique to classify information from sessions into four categories which enabled the analyst to select which information to record in notes. The characteristics of memory and its constructive nature are discussed in relation to the problems that arise in making accurate notes of analytic sessions.

  10. Material property determination of the lining layers of a versatile helmet

    Kottner Radek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with material property identification of a helmet lining consisting of an outer layer of an expanded polystyrene (EPS and inner layer of an open-closed cell foam (OCCF. A combined numerical simulation and experimental testing was used for the material property identification. Compression and drop tests were performed. The ABAQUS finite element commercial code was used for numerical simulations in which the OOCF was modelled as a rate dependent viscoelastic material, while the EPS as a crushable foam. The reaction force time histories coming from the numerical simulation and the experiment have been used as a criterion for material parameter determination. After the identification of the material properties, numerical drop-tests were used to study the behaviour of a plate and a conical composite OOCF and EPS liners to decide which of them suits more for the helmet.

  11. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Predictions of Helmet Pad Suspension System Performance using Isolated Pad Impact Results

    2010-09-13

    Equation 2 and Equation 3, respectively. 3. METHOD The primary method of data collection for this report is detailed in the 2008 Joint Live Fire ...tests and the helmet system tests (see Figure 3). All testing was performed with a monorail drop tower (see Figure 4) at three conditioning...right) and system test setup (right and center left) Figure 5. MEP monorail drop test setup with a hemispherical impactor (left and center left

  13. Comparison of an in-helmet temperature monitor system to rectal temperature during exercise.

    Wickwire, P Jason; Buresh, Robert J; Tis, Laurie L; Collins, Mitchell A; Jacobs, Robert D; Bell, Marla M

    2012-01-01

    Body temperature monitoring is crucial in helping to decrease the amount and severity of heat illnesses; however, a practical method of monitoring temperature is lacking. In response to the lack of a practical method of monitoring the temperature of athletes, Hothead Technologies developed a device (HOT), which continuously monitors an athlete's fluctuations in body temperature. HOT measures forehead temperature inside helmets. The purpose of this study was to compare HOT against rectal temperature (Trec). Male volunteers (n = 29, age = 23.5 ± 4.5 years, weight = 83.8 ± 10.4 kg, height = 180.1 ± 5.8 cm, body fat = 12.3 ± 4.5%) exercised on a treadmill at an intensity of 60-75% heart rate reserve (HRR) (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 28.7° C) until Trec reached 38.7° C. The correlation between Trec and HOT was 0.801 (R = 0.64, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 0.25, p = 0.00). One reason for this relatively high correlation is the microclimate that HOT is monitoring. HOT is not affected by the external climate greatly because of its location in the helmet. Therefore, factors such as evaporation do not alter HOT temperature to a great degree. HOT was compared with Trec in a controlled setting, and the exercise used in this study was moderate aerobic exercise, very unlike that used in football. In a controlled laboratory setting, the relationship between HOT and Trec showed favorable correlations. However, in applied settings, helmets are repeatedly removed and replaced forcing HOT to equilibrate to forehead temperature every time the helmet is replaced. Therefore, future studies are needed to mimic how HOT will be used in field situations.

  14. The physiological demands of horseback mustering when wearing an equestrian helmet.

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Dyer, Rodd

    2008-09-01

    The hottest months on northern Australian cattle stations are from September to November, and it is during these months that horseback cattle mustering occurs. Stockmen wear clothing that restricts heat loss, and protective helmets have recently been introduced. Anecdotal evidence points to the possibility that helmets may increase the probability of developing heat illness, or reducing workplace performance. In this project, we quantified the working (thermal) environment on such cattle stations, and measured the metabolic demands on, and concurrent physiological strain in stockmen during mustering, whilst wearing an equestrian helmet. During horseback work, the average heart rate was 102.0 beats min(-1) (SD 14.0), with almost 90% of the time (238 min) spent working at intensities <50% of the heart rate reserve. The projected metabolic heat production during mustering ranged between 178 and 333 W (women), and between 212 and 542 W (men). The average core temperature was 37.6 degrees C, while the mean skin temperature averaged 34.1 degrees C. It was concluded that the working environment is, on average, thermally uncompensable during the mustering season. However, horseback mustering per se is a relatively low-intensity activity, interspersed with short periods of high-intensity work. This activity level was reflected within core temperatures, which rarely climbed above values associated with light-moderate exercise. Thus, whilst the climatic state was uncompensable, stockmen used behavioural strategies to minimise the risk of heat illness. Finally, it was observed that the helmet, though unpleasant to wear, did not appear to increase thermal strain in a manner that would disadvantage stockmen.

  15. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings.

    Lau M Andersen

    Full Text Available The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways.

  16. Some notes about the nuclear data libraries

    Panini, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The paper gives a short description of the main nuclear data collections. The features which are particular of each source are enhanced and compared. Notes about the Nuclear Data Processing are also outlined. The paper is intended as a preliminary approach for people interested in the Nuclear Data management

  17. A note on notes: note taking and containment.

    Levine, Howard B

    2007-07-01

    In extreme situations of massive projective identification, both the analyst and the patient may come to share a fantasy or belief that his or her own psychic reality will be annihilated if the psychic reality of the other is accepted or adopted (Britton 1998). In the example of' Dr. M and his patient, the paradoxical dilemma around note taking had highly specific transference meanings; it was not simply an instance of the generalized human response of distracted attention that Freud (1912) had spoken of, nor was it the destabilization of analytic functioning that I tried to describe in my work with Mr. L. Whether such meanings will always exist in these situations remains a matter to be determined by further clinical experience. In reopening a dialogue about note taking during sessions, I have attempted to move the discussion away from categorical injunctions about what analysis should or should not do, and instead to foster a more nuanced, dynamic, and pair-specific consideration of the analyst's functioning in the immediate context of the analytic relationship. There is, of course, a wide variety of listening styles among analysts, and each analyst's mental functioning may be affected differently by each patient whom the analyst sees. I have raised many questions in the hopes of stimulating an expanded discussion that will allow us to share our experiences and perhaps reach additional conclusions. Further consideration may lead us to decide whether note taking may have very different meanings for other analysts and analyst-patient pairs, and whether it may serve useful functions in addition to the one that I have described.

  18. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics.

  19. Automatic helmet-wearing detection for law enforcement using CCTV cameras

    Wonghabut, P.; Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Ung-arunyawee, R.; Leelapatra, W.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an application for enforcing helmet wearing using CCTV cameras. The developed application aims to help law enforcement by police, and eventually resulting in changing risk behaviours and consequently reducing the number of accidents and its severity. Conceptually, the application software implemented using C++ language and OpenCV library uses two different angle of view CCTV cameras. Video frames recorded by the wide-angle CCTV camera are used to detect motorcyclists. If any motorcyclist without helmet is found, then the zoomed (narrow-angle) CCTV is activated to capture image of the violating motorcyclist and the motorcycle license plate in real time. Captured images are managed by database implemented using MySQL for ticket issuing. The results show that the developed program is able to detect 81% of motorcyclists on various motorcycle types during daytime and night-time. The validation results reveal that the program achieves 74% accuracy in detecting the motorcyclist without helmet.

  20. Structural Equation Modelling in Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System

    Rosli Naida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycle is one of private transportation which has been widely used in many countries including Malaysia. However, motorcycles are the most dangerous form of motorized transport. Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM statistics recorded that motorcycle is the highest vehicle (45.9% involved in traffic accident compared to other vehicles. The potential cause of the death to the motorcyclist was due to the head injury. One of strategy to mitigate this problem is through proper usage of safety helmet. Therefore, this paper was introduce a new approach on motorcyclist safety by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM with additional determinants that contribute to behavioral intention and to increase the proper usage of safety helmets among Malaysian motorcyclists. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was used to test the structural TAM proposed. The evaluation for structural model showed the goodness of fit indices are excellent fit. This study found that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and social norm are significant towards behavioral intention to use Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR.

  1. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS FROM A BIPOLAR HELMET STREAMER IN THE SUN

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo

    2012-01-01

    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  2. Societal cost of traumatic brain injury: A comparison of cost-of-injuries related to biking with and without helmet use.

    Costa, Camille K; Dagher, Jehane H; Lamoureux, Julie; de Guise, Elaine; Feyz, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine if a difference in societal costs exists from traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in patients who wear helmets compared to non-wearers. This is a retrospective cost-of-injury study of 128 patients admitted to the Montreal General Hospital (MGH) following a TBI that occurred while cycling between 2007-2011. Information was collected from Quebec Trauma Registry. The independent variables collected were socio-demographic, helmet status, clinical and neurological patient information. The dependent variables evaluated societal costs. The median costs of hospitalization were significantly higher (p = 0.037) in the no helmet group ($7246.67 vs. $4328.17). No differences in costs were found for inpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.525), outpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.192), loss of productivity (p = 0.108) or death (p = 1.000). Overall, the differences in total societal costs between the helmet and no helmet group were not significantly different (p = 0.065). However, the median total costs for patients with isolated TBI in the non-helmet group ($22, 232.82) was significantly higher (p = 0.045) compared to the helmet group ($13, 920.15). Cyclists sustaining TBIs who did not wear helmets in this study were found to cost society nearly double that of helmeted cyclists.

  3. On that Note...

    Stein, Harry

    1988-01-01

    Provides suggestions for note-taking from books, lectures, visual presentations, and laboratory experiments to enhance student knowledge, memory, and length of attention span during instruction. Describes topical and structural outlines, visual mapping, charting, three-column note-taking, and concept mapping. Benefits and application of…

  4. Making Notes, Making Meaning.

    Burke, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Introduces notetaking tools used successfully with English-as-a-second-language students and low-achieving high school freshmen. Provides an overview of each tool and explains how students use them to take notes when reading textbooks and articles. Notes these tools and academic habits have helped students succeed in their mainstream academic…

  5. A note on Fukui’s note

    Tsai Cheng-Yu Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary relates Fukui’s (2015 note on weak vs. strong generation to two aspects of quantification in Chinese: quantifier scope and the syntactic licensing conditions of noninterrogative wh-expressions. It is shown that the phenomena under discussion echo Fukui’s (2015 view that only strong generation allows for a deeper understanding of natural language and that dependencies are to be distinguished structurally.

  6. Investigation of the optimal detector arrangement for the helmet-chin PET – A simulation study

    Ahmed, Abdella M., E-mail: abdellanur@gmail.com; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga, E-mail: yamaya.taiga@qst.go.jp

    2017-06-21

    High sensitivity and high spatial resolution dedicated brain PET scanners are in high demand for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. To meet the demand, we have proposed the helmet-chin PET geometry which has a helmet detector and a chin detector. Our first prototype scanner used 54 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The helmet detector of the scanner had three detector rings with different radii arranged on a surface of a hemisphere (with a radius of 126.5 mm) and a top cover detector. Therefore, in this study, for our next development, we propose a spherical arrangement, in which the central axis of each detector points toward the center of the hemisphere, and we optimize the size of the detector crystal block to be arranged on the helmet detector. We simulate the spherical arrangement with the optimized crystal block size and compare its imaging performance with the multi-ring arrangement, which has a similar detector arrangement to that of our first prototype. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to model the scanners having the 4-layer DOI detectors which consist of LYSO crystals. A dead space of 2 mm is assumed on each side of the crystal blocks such as for wrapping. The size of the crystal block is varied from 4×4 mm{sup 2} to 54×54 mm{sup 2} while fixing the thickness of the crystal block to 20 mm. We find that the crystal block sized at 42×42 mm{sup 2} has the highest sensitivity for a hemispherical phantom. The comparison of the two arrangements with the optimized crystal blocks show that, for the same number of crystal blocks, the spherical arrangement has 17% higher sensitivity for the hemispherical phantom than the multi-ring arrangement. We conclude that the helmet-chin PET with the spherical arrangement constructed from the crystal block sized at 42×42×20 mm{sup 3} has better imaging performance especially at the upper part of the brain compared to the multi-ring arrangement while keeping similar

  7. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A study of actions in operative notes.

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  9. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  10. MixedNotes

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  11. The Effects of the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT) and the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) with and without PVS-14 Night Vision Goggles (NVG) on Neck Biomechanics During Dismounted Soldier Movements

    LaFiandra, Michael; Harman, Everett; Cornelius, Nancy; Frykman, Peter; Gutekunst, David; Nelson, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    Kevlar helmets provide the soldier with basic ballistic and impact protection. However, the helmet has recently become a mounting platform for devices such as night-vision goggles, drop down displays, weapon-aiming systems, etc...

  12. Manufacture and impact analysis of bmx helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Mahadi

    2018-02-01

    Helmets are protective head gears wear by bicycle riders for protection against injury in case of the accident. Helmet standards require helmets to be tested with a simple drop test onto an anvil. The purpose of research is to know toughness of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber. This research contains report result manufacture and impacts analysis of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite materials strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB). The geometric helmet structure consists of shell and liner; both layers have sandwich structure. The shell uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157EX material, chopped strand mat 300 glass fiber reinforce and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) catalyst with the weight composition of 100 gr, 15 gr, and 5 gr. The liner uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157 EX material, EFB fiber reinforces, Polyurethane blowing agent, and MEKPO catalyst with the composition of 275 gr (50%), 27.5 gr (5%), 247 gr (45%), and 27.5 gr (5%). Layers of the helmet made by using hand lay-up method and gravity casting method. Mechanical properties of polymeric foam were the tensile strength (ơt) 1.17 Mpa, compressive strength (ơc) 0.51 MPa, bending strength (ơb) 3.94 MPa, elasticity modulus (E) 37.97 Mpa, density (ρ) 193 (kg/m3). M4A model helmet is the most ergonomic with the thickness 10 mm and the amount of air channel 11. Free fall impact test was done in 9 samples with the thickness of 10 mm with the height of 1.5 m. The result of the impact test was impacted force (Fi) 241.55 N, Impulse (I) 6.28 Ns, impact Strength (ơi) 2.02 Mpa and impact Energy (Ei) 283.77 Joule. The properties of bicycle helmet model BMX-M4A type was 264 mm length, 184 mm width, 154 mm height, 10 mm thick, 580 mm head circle, 331 g mass and 11 wind channels.

  13. Brain response to primary blast wave using validated finite element models of human head and advanced combat helmet

    Liying eZhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a signature injury in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH, a finite element (FE study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27-0.66 MPa from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP in the head ranged from 0.68-1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10-35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44% was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%. The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence "iso-damage" curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves

  14. Investigation on the applicability of dust protection helmets in the mining industry. Untersuchungen ueber die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Staubschutzhelmen im Bergbau

    Bauer, H.D.; Werner, W.; Fuerst, E.

    1984-10-01

    In case of static ambient air, leakages for volumes of 25 x 1,5 l/min and air supplies >= 120 l/min or 25 x 2,0 l/min and >= 160 l/min do not occur. The increasing flow rate of moving ambient air leads to an increase of leakages. They show their largest extensions in case of lateral flow. In addition, they expand together with increasing physiological load. Therefore, the inherent air supply should not be below 160 l/min. The comparison of the dust protection helmet 'Airstream AH 1' with two respirators revealed the lowest additional physiological load for the dust protection helmet. Applicability tests in situ resulted in the following principal objections: contamination and scratches on the visor leading to visibility restriction of the wearer, bad fit, weight distribution and helmet dimensions, pressure sores and chafes of sealing parts and edges, lamp installation. Air supply and movement were felt as too high in case of low ambient temperatures, and in case of high temperatures and physiological strain it was considered as too low. There were only few objections against fan noise, weight and impediment by cable and battery. Based on the results, a specification including monitoring and maintenance of the helmet was made and additional tests for DIN design 58 645, item 7, were induced. Furthermore, a proposal regarding helmet optimisation was made.

  15. Towards reducing impact-induced brain injury: lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads.

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced.

  16. Lagos Notes and Records

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... Insuring the Nation: Europeans and the Emergence of Modern Insurance Business in Colonial Nigeria ...

  17. Notes on Contributors

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. Samuel AMOAKO, Associate Researcher, South African Research Unit in Social Change. Contact Details: C/o Lucinda Bercony, Humanities Research Village (House No. 3). University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524. Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006.

  18. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  19. Writing a Condolence Note

    ... through the eyes of others. For example, a mother whose son had died found out that her ... few suggestions on ending your condolence note: “Our love and support will always be here for you.” “ ...

  20. A note on name individuation and identifying descriptions

    Kate H

    used to refer to either the famous philosopher or to the shipping magnate. ..... chain that produced the use of the name is a list containing the generic name and the ... arcane issues concerning currency individuation, object to my claim that I ...

  1. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  2. Analytical dynamics course notes

    Lindenbaum, Samuel D

    1994-01-01

    This book comprises a set of lecture notes on rational mechanics, for part of the graduate physics curriculum, delivered by the late Prof. Shirley L. Quimby during his tenure at Columbia University, New York. The notes contain proofs of basic theorems, derivations of formulae and amplification of observations, as well as the presentation and solution of illustrative problems. Collateral readings from more than 50 source references are indicated at appropriate places in the text.

  3. Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Abraham, George

    2009-01-01

    Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes, and Shared Notes. Note taking significantly influenced the manner in which participants browsed for information...

  4. Descriptive statistics.

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  5. Effects of videogame distraction using a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in children.

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Clendaniel, Lindsay Dillinger; Law, Emily F; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D

    2009-06-01

    To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Forty-one children, aged 6-14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited.

  6. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children

    Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Results Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. PMID:18367495

  7. An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City.

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Johnson, Glen D; Hammond, Rodney; Chow, Ching Man; Varsos, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike(®) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings.

  8. Does helmet CPAP reduce cerebral blood flow and volume by comparison with Infant Flow driver CPAP in preterm neonates?

    Zaramella, Patrizia; Freato, Federica; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Saraceni, Elisabetta; Vianello, Andrea; Chiandetti, Lino

    2006-10-01

    We compared neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the conventional nasal Infant Flow driver (IFD) CPAP in the noninvasive assessment of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative cerebral blood volume changes (DeltaCBV) by near-infrared spectroscopy. A randomized crossover study in a tertiary referral NICU. Assessment of CBF and DeltaCBV in 17 very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress (median age 5 days) treated with two CPAP devices at a continuous distending pressure of 4 mbar. Neonates were studied for two consecutive 60-min periods with helmet CPAP and with IFD CPAP. Basal chromophore traces enabled DeltaCBV changes to be calculated. CBF was calculated in milliliters per 100 grams per minute from the saturation rise integral and rate of rise O(2)Hb-HHb. Median (range) CBF with helmet CPAP was 27.37 (9.47-48.20) vs. IFD CBF 34.74 (13.59-60.10)(p=0.049) and DeltaCBV 0.15 (0.09-0.28) with IFD and 0.13 (0.07-0.27) with helmet CPAP (NS). Using helmet and IFD CPAP, the neonates showed no difference in mean physiological parameters (transcutaneous carbon dioxide and oxygen tension, pulse oximetry saturation, heart rate, breathing rate, mean arterial blood pressure, desaturation rate, axillary temperature). Assessing CBF and DeltaCBV measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with two CPAP devices revealed no differences in relative blood volume, but CBF was lower with helmet CPAP. Greater active vasoconstriction and/or passive capillary and/or venous vessel compression seem the most likely reason, due to a positive pressure around the head, neck, and shoulders by comparison with the airway pressure.

  9. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  10. Helmet-mounted displays: why haven't they taken off?

    Havig, P.; Goff, C.; McIntire, J.; Franck, D.

    2009-05-01

    Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) technologies have been developing for over 3 decades and have been studied for multiple applications ranging from military aircraft, to virtual reality, augmented reality, entertainment and a host of other ideas. It would not be unreasonable to assume that after this much time they would be employed in our daily lives as ubiquitously as the common desktop monitor. However, this is simply not the case. How can this be when they can be used in so many ways for so many tasks? Throughout this work we will look at some of the reasons why as well of some of the ways they can be used.

  11. Successful Removal of Football Helmet Face-Mask Clips After 1 Season of Use

    Scibek, Jason S.; Gatti, Joseph M.; McKenzie, Jennifer I.

    2012-01-01

    Context Whereas many researchers have assessed the ability to remove loop straps in traditional face-mask attachment systems after at least 1 season of use, research in which the effectiveness of the Riddell Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System clip after 1 season has been assessed is limited. Objective To examine the success rate of removing the QR clips after 1 season of use at the Football Championship Subdivision level. We hypothesized that 1 season of use would negatively affect the removal rate of the QR clip but repeated clip-removal trials would improve the removal rate. Design Retrospective, quasi-experimental design. Setting Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants Sixty-three football helmets from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university located in western Pennsylvania used during the 2008 season were tested. Intervention(s) Three certified athletic trainers (2 men, 1 woman; age = 31.3 ± 3.06 years, time certified = 9.42 ± 2.65 years) attempted to remove the QR clips from each helmet with the tool provided by the manufacturer. Helmets then were reassembled to allow each athletic trainer to attempt clip removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) The dependent variables were total left clips removed (TCR-L), total right clips removed (TCR-R), and total clips removed (TCR). Success rate of clip removal (SRCR) also was assessed. Results Percentages for TCR-L, TCR-R, and TCR were 100% (189 of 189), 96.30% (182 of 189), and 98.15% (371 of 378), respectively. A paired-samples t test revealed a difference between TCR-R and TCR-L (t188 = −2.689, P = .008, μd = 0.037, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.064, −0.010). The percentage for SRCR was 96.30% (n = 182), whereas SRCR percentages for trials 1, 2, and 3 were 95.24% (n = 60), 98.41% (n = 62), and 95.24% (n = 60), respectively, and did not represent a difference (F2,186 = 0.588, P = .56, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99). Conclusions Our results indicated favorable and

  12. The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score-matched study based on a trauma registry system.

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-08-07

    Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data. Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively. The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.

  13. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study.

  14. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...... format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record ‘facts’ but also—by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information—to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty...

  15. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  16. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  17. Football helmet drop tests on different fields using an instrumented Hybrid III head.

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An instrumented Hybrid III head was placed in a Schutt ION 4D football helmet and dropped on different turfs to study field types and temperature on head responses. The head was dropped 0.91 and 1.83 m giving impacts of 4.2 and 6.0 m/s on nine different football fields (natural, Astroplay, Fieldturf, or Gameday turfs) at turf temperatures of -2.7 to 23.9 °C. Six repeat tests were conducted for each surface at 0.3 m (1') intervals. The Hybrid III was instrumented with triaxial accelerometers to determine head responses for the different playing surfaces. For the 0.91-m drops, peak head acceleration varied from 63.3 to 117.1 g and HIC(15) from 195 to 478 with the different playing surfaces. The lowest response was with Astroplay, followed by the engineered natural turf. Gameday and Fieldturf involved higher responses. The differences between surfaces decreased in the 1.83 m tests. The cold weather testing involved higher accelerations, HIC(15) and delta V for each surface. The helmet drop test used in this study provides a simple and convenient means of evaluating the compliance and energy absorption of football playing surfaces. The type and temperature of the playing surface influence head responses.

  18. Cost Analysis of Noninvasive Helmet Ventilation Compared with Use of Noninvasive Face Mask in ARDS

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care unit (ICU costs have doubled since 2000, totalling 108 billion dollars per year. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has a prevalence of 10.4% and a 28-day mortality of 34.8%. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is used in up to 30% of cases. A recent randomized controlled trial by Patel et al. (2016 showed lower intubation rates and 90-day mortality when comparing helmet to face mask NIV in ARDS. The population in the Patel et al. trial was used for cost analysis in this study. Projections of cost savings showed a decrease in ICU costs by $2527 and hospital costs by $3103 per patient, along with a 43.3% absolute reduction in intubation rates. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent cost reductions. Projected annual cost savings, assuming the current prevalence of ARDS, were $237538 in ICU costs and $291682 in hospital costs. At a national level, using yearly incidence of ARDS cases in American ICUs, this represents $449 million in savings. Helmet NIV, compared to face mask NIV, in nonintubated patients with ARDS, reduces ICU and hospital direct-variable costs along with intubation rates, LOS, and mortality. A large-scale cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to validate the findings.

  19. The European, Japanese and US protective helmet, gloves and boots for firefighters: thermoregulatory and psychological evaluations.

    Lee, Joo-Young; Yamamoto, Yota; Oe, Riichi; Son, Su-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and subjective responses of the European, Japanese (JPN) and US firefighters' helmet, gloves and boots for international standardisation. Three experimental conditions were evaluated (clothing mass: 9.4, 8.2 and 10.1 kg for the three conditions, respectively) at the air temperature of 32°C and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that there was no significant difference among the three conditions in oxygen consumption, heart rate, total sweat rate, rectal temperature and mean skin temperature, whereas peripheral temperatures and subjective perceptions were lower in the JPN condition than in the other conditions (P < 0.05). These results indicate that a 0.5-kg reduction in helmet mass and a 1.1-kg reduction in boot mass during exercise resulted in a significant decrease in head and leg temperatures and subjective perceptions, while a 1.9-kg reduction in total clothing mass had insignificant influences on the metabolic burden and overall body temperature.

  20. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  1. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  2. Note by Note: a New Revolution in Cooking

    Burke, Roisin; Danaher, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Note by note cooking is an application of Molecular Gastronomy. It was first proposed by French Physical Chemist and Molecular Gastronomy Co-founder, Hervé This. Note by Note dishes are being created as part of Ph.D. research in the Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

  3. Note Taking for Geography Students.

    Kneale, Pauline E.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses geography students' questions about why, when, and how to take notes. Outlines a step-by-step process for taking notes from written sources and from class lectures. Discusses what types of notes are appropriate for various types of sources. Suggests some ideas for making notes useful for individual learning styles. (DSK)

  4. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  5. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  7. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  8. OpenLabNotes

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management......, thus making Open-Lab Framework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management....

  9. Simulation study comparing the helmet-chin PET with a cylindrical PET of the same number of detectors

    Ahmed, Abdella M.; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-06-01

    There is a growing interest in developing brain PET scanners with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. Sensitivity of the PET scanner can be improved by increasing the solid angle. However, conventional PET scanners are designed based on a cylindrical geometry, which may not be the most efficient design for brain imaging in terms of the balance between sensitivity and cost. We proposed a dedicated brain PET scanner based on a hemispheric shape detector and a chin detector (referred to as the helmet-chin PET), which is designed to maximize the solid angle by increasing the number of lines-of-response in the hemisphere. The parallax error, which PET scanners with a large solid angle tend to have, can be suppressed by the use of depth-of-interaction detectors. In this study, we carry out a realistic evaluation of the helmet-chin PET using Monte Carlo simulation based on the 4-layer GSO detector which consists of a 16  ×  16  ×  4 array of crystals with dimensions of 2.8  ×  2.8  ×  7.5 mm3. The purpose of this simulation is to show the gain in imaging performance of the helmet-chin PET compared with the cylindrical PET using the same number of detectors in each configuration. The sensitivity of the helmet-chin PET evaluated with a cylindrical phantom has a significant increase, especially at the top of the (field-of-view) FOV. The peak-NECR of the helmet-chin PET is 1.4 times higher compared to the cylindrical PET. The helmet-chin PET provides relatively low noise images throughout the FOV compared to the cylindrical PET which exhibits enhanced noise at the peripheral regions. The results show the helmet-chin PET can significantly improve the sensitivity and reduce the noise in the reconstructed images.

  10. A note on Marx

    Olesen, Finn; Jensen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Throughout all his life Karl Marx wrote angrily about capitalism. By use of a dialectic approach he was convinced that the working class had to unite and make a social revolution and thereby free them selves from exploitation. Marx himself was in many ways a dialectic person as we try to show in the note. So in some sense he became one with his scientific methodology.

  11. Changes in motorcycle-related injuries and deaths after mandatory motorcycle helmet law in a district of Vietnam.

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Ederer, David; Vo, Van Anh Ha; Pham, An Van; Mounts, Anthony; Nolen, Leisha D; Sugerman, David

    2018-01-02

    Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nonuse of Seatbelts in Cars and Helmets on Motorcycles among People Living in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Moradi, Ghobad; Malekafzali Ardakani, Hossein; Majdzadeh, Reza; Bidarpour, Farzam; Mohammad, Kazem; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic inequalities in nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in Kurdistan Province, west of Iran, 2009. The data used in this study was collected from the data gathered in non-communicable disease surveillance system (NCDSS) in 2009 in Kurdistan. A total of 1000 people were included in this study. The outcome variable of this study was the nonuse of seatbelts and helmets. The socio-economic status (SES) was calculated based on participants' residential area and assets using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The concentration index, concentration curve, and comparison of Odds Ratio (OR) in different SES groups were used to measure the socioeconomic inequalities using logistic regression. In order to determine the contribution of determinants of inequality, decomposition analysis was used. The prevalence of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles were 47.5%, 95%CI [44%, 55%], respectively. The Concentration index was -0.097, CI [-0.148, -0.046]. The OR of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in the richest group compared with the poorest group was 0.39, 95%CI [0.23, 0.68]. The results of the decomposition analysis showed that 34% of inequalities were due to SES, 47% were due to residential area, and 12% were due to unknown factors. There is a reverse association between SES and nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles. This issue must be considered while planning to reduce traffic accidents injuries.

  13. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube.

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  14. Influence of an Enforcement Campaign on Seat-Belt and Helmet Wearing, Karachi-Hala Highway, Pakistan

    Bhatti, Junaid A.; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A.; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants’ age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8–6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2–8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6–16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  15. Sonographic Analysis of Changes in Skull Shape After Cranial Molding Helmet Therapy in Infants With Deformational Plagiocephaly.

    Kwon, Dong Rak

    2016-04-01

    -The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in skull shape on sonography after cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. -Twenty-six infants who were treated with cranial molding helmet therapy were recruited. Caliper and sonographic measurements were performed. The lateral length of the affected and unaffected sides of the skull and cranial vault asymmetry index were measured with calipers. The occipital angle, defined as the angle between lines projected along the lambdoid sutures of the skull, was calculated by sonography. The occipital angle difference and occipital angle ratio were also measured. All caliper and sonographic measurements were performed in each infant twice before and twice after treatment. -The study group included 12 male and 14 female infants with a mean age ± SD of 6.2 ± 3.5 months. The mean treatment duration was 6.0 ± 2.5 months. The difference in lateral length before and after helmet therapy was significantly greater on the affected skull than the unaffected skull (16.7 ± 12.7 versus 9.0 ± 13.4 mm; P skull than the unaffected skull (-5.7° ± 7.3° versus 4.2° ± 7.9°; P < .01). The cranial vault asymmetry index and occipital angle ratio were significantly reduced after helmet therapy (cranial vault asymmetry index, 9.3% ± 2.3% versus 3.5% ± 3.0%; occipital angle ratio, 1.07 ± 0.05 versus 1.01 ± 0.01; P < .05). -These results suggest that occipital angle measurements using sonography, combined with cephalometry, could provide a better understanding of the therapeutic effects of cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  17. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.   Durio  cupreus Ridley is considered to  represent a  distinct  species.2.   Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm. is reported from Borneo.3.   Machilus nervosa Merr. represents Meliosma bontoeensis Merr.4.   Beilschmiedia brassii Allen represents Vavaea brassii (Allen Kosterm.5.   The author of the generic name Heritiera is Aiton.6.   Heritiera macrophylla (non Wall. Merr. is conspecific with H. ungus-tata Pierre.7.   Some specimens from N. Celebes, attributed formerly to H. sylvatica Merr., belong to H. arafurensis Kosterm.8.   Additional note on Heritiera littoralis Ait. and H. macrophylla Wall, ex Kurz.9.   Heritiera   montana   Kosterm.,   nov.   spec,   from   New   Guinea   and H. khidii Kosterm., nov. spec, from Northern Siam.10.   Additional note on Heritiera, novoguineensis Kosterm. and H. pereo-riacea Kosterm. and an undescribed species.11.   Heritiera acuminata Wall, ex Kurz represents a distinct species.12.   Heritiera  solomonensis  Kosterm.,  nov.  spec,  from the  Solomon  Isl.13.   A note on Firmiana bracteata A. DC.14.   Firmiana fulgens (Wall, ex King  Corner is based on a mixtum com-positum and has been the source of constant confusion. For the element, which occurs in Malaysia a new name is coined: F. malayana Kosterm. It does not occur in Tenasserim.15.   A revised bibliography of Firmiana colorata R. Br., F. pallens Stearn and F. malayana Kosterm. is presented.16.   Additional note on Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm.17.   Firmiana kerrii (Craib Kosterm., comb, nov., based on Sterculia kerrii Craib.18.   Additional specimens of Firmiana papuana Mildbr.19.   Cryptocarya hintonii Allen is referred to Primus as Primus hintonii (Allen  Kosterm.20.   Beilschmiedia wallichiana (G. Don   Kosterm., based on Sideroxylon wallichianum, G. Don, is described. Formerly it was relegated to Litsea by Kurz.21.   New species in Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia aborensis Kosterm., B

  18. Notes on functional analysis

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.

  19. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  20. A universal and smart helmet-mounted display of large FOV

    Zhang, Nan; Weng, Dongdong; Wang, Yongtian; Li, Xuan; Liu, Youhai

    2011-11-01

    HMD (head-mounted display) is an important virtual reality device, which has played a vital role in VR application system. Compared with traditional HMD which cannot be applied in the daily life owing to their disadvantage on the price and performance, a new universal and smart Helmet-Mounted Display of large FOV uses excellent performance and widespread popularity as its starting point. By adopting simplified visual system and transflective system that combines the transmission-type and reflection-type display system with transflective glass based on the Huggens-Fresnel principle, we have designed a HMD with wide field of view, which can be easy to promote and popularize. Its resolution is 800*600, and field of view is 36.87°(vertical)* 47.92°(horizontal). Its weight is only 1080g. It has caught up with the advanced world levels.

  1. Helmet-mounted displays in long-range-target visual acquisition

    Wilkins, Donald F.

    1999-07-01

    Aircrews have always sought a tactical advantage within the visual range (WVR) arena -- usually defined as 'see the opponent first.' Even with radar and interrogation foe/friend (IFF) systems, the pilot who visually acquires his opponent first has a significant advantage. The Helmet Mounted Cueing System (HMCS) equipped with a camera offers an opportunity to correct the problems with the previous approaches. By utilizing real-time image enhancement technique and feeding the image to the pilot on the HMD, the target can be visually acquired well beyond the range provided by the unaided eye. This paper will explore the camera and display requirements for such a system and place those requirements within the context of other requirements, such as weight.

  2. Figures of Merit Software: Description, User's Guide, Installation Notes, Versions Description, and License Agreement

    hoelzer, H. D.; Fourroux, K. A.; Rickman, D. L.; Schrader, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Figures of Merit (FoMs) and the FoM software provide a method for quantitatively evaluating the quality of a regolith simulant by comparing the simulant to a reference material. FoMs may be used for comparing a simulant to actual regolith material, specification by stating the value a simulant s FoMs must attain to be suitable for a given application and comparing simulants from different vendors or production runs. FoMs may even be used to compare different simulants to each other. A single FoM is conceptually an algorithm that computes a single number for quantifying the similarity or difference of a single characteristic of a simulant material and a reference material and provides a clear measure of how well a simulant and reference material match or compare. FoMs have been constructed to lie between zero and 1, with zero indicating a poor or no match and 1 indicating a perfect match. FoMs are defined for modal composition, particle size distribution, particle shape distribution, (aspect ratio and angularity), and density. This TM covers the mathematics, use, installation, and licensing for the existing FoM code in detail.

  3. Designing safer composite helmets to reduce rotational accelerations during oblique impacts.

    Mosleh, Yasmine; Cajka, Martin; Depreitere, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos; Ivens, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts. The ability of composite foam in the mitigation of rotational head movement is studied by performing finite element (FE) simulations of oblique impact on flat and helmet shape specimens. The performance of composite foam with respect to parameters such as compliance of the matrix foam and the number, size and cross-sectional shape of the foam columns is explored in detail, and subsequently an optimized structure is proposed. The simulation results show that using composite foam instead of single-layer foam, the rotational acceleration and velocity of the headform can be significantly reduced. The parametric study indicates that using a more compliant matrix foam and by increasing the number of columns in the composite foam configuration, the rotation can be further mitigated. This was confirmed by experimental results. The simulation results were also analyzed based on global head injury criteria such as head injury criterion, rotational injury criterion, brain injury criterion and generalized acceleration model for brain injury threshold which further confirmed the superior performance of composite foam versus single-layer homogeneous expanded polystyrene foam. The findings of simulations give invaluable information for design of protective helmets or, for instance, headliners for the automotive industry.

  4. Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children.

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Law, Emily F; Sil, Soumitri; Herbert, Linda Jones; Horn, Susan Berrin; Wohlheiter, Karen; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality (VR) type head-mounted display helmet for children undergoing cold pressor pain. Fifty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered via a VR helmet or without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvements in pain threshold and pain tolerance during both distraction conditions. However, the two distraction conditions did not differ in effectiveness. Using the VR helmet did not result in improved pain tolerance over and above the effects of interactive videogame distraction without VR technology. Clinical implications and possible developmental differences in elementary school-aged children's ability to use VR technology are discussed.

  5. North Caucasian helmets from the Crimean Tatar Nobility from the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Turkey. Design Features, Design and Combat Use

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the helmets of the Crimean Tatar nobility stored in the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Republic of Turkey. Based on the analysis of design and system design determined that hats were made of Circassian masters of the XVIII century. Helmet No. 1/810 in shape of the dome relates to the type of bevel. Forged a gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, pads, conical pommel, and ringed barmitsa Persian type. In Cherkessia similar hats were known as Tang (from the Arab. "the Taj", i.e. "crown". It is most likely that the owner of the helmet was the last Noureddine Crimean khanate, Bahadir Giray (1789-1792 was the son of MuminGirei (?-1747 and grandson of Khan Saadet Giray IV (1717-1724. Helmet No. 1/812по the shape of a dome refers to the type of conal. Forged iron gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, plates and funnel-shaped topping. Dome placed on the manufacture date of the helmet – "1180 of the Hijra" (i.e., 1766-1767 in the Gregorian calendar, as well as the inscription: "Owner Sultan Ali", "Muhammad Giray", "Mansour". Helmet No. 1/811по the shape of a dome refers to the type of cylindrical. Faceted iron supplemented gilt crown ornamented Hoop, conical pommel and Aventail Persian type. On the front of hats placed the inscription, "Sultan Mohammed Ibn AdilGiray". This suggests that the owner of the helmet could be the son of Nureddin (1718, serasker Budjaka and Editcol (1727-1728 Adil Ibn Selim I Giray or seraskier EditcolAdil Ibn Selim III Giray (1766-1767. In the framework of the interdisciplinary research were made copies of these helmets, which have become the object of scientific experiments aimed at the study of the functional properties of the considered hats. According to the results of the experimental tests it was found that all three of the helmet provide very reliable protection of the head and neck of the warrior from the cutting and cut-and-cutting blows of the enemy. The saber blade

  6. Notes on black holes and three dimensional gravity

    Banados, Maximo

    1999-01-01

    In these notes we review some relevant results on 2+1 quantum gravity. These include the Chern-Simons formulation and its affine Kac-Moody symmetry, the asymptotic algebra of Brown and Henneaux, and the statistical mechanics description of 2+1 black holes. A brief introduction to the classical and semiclassical aspects of black holes is also included. The level of the notes is basic assuming only some knowledge on Statistical Mechanics, General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory

  7. Note e Recensioni

    a cura di Mariagrazia Portera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Winfried Menninghaus, La promessa della bellezza, [Fabrizio Desideri, p. 272] • David Rothenberg, Survival of the Beautiful. Art, Science and Evolution [Danae Crocchiola, p. 274] • Lev Manovich, Software Takes Command [Angela Maiello, p. 277]. Note Method in Aesthetics: Philosophy, Evolution and the Cognitive Sciences [Aaron Meskin, Matthew Kieran, Gregory Currie, p. 280] • L’Abitare possibile. Estetica, Architettura e New Media, Ravello, Auditorium Oscar Niemeyer, 28-30 maggio 2013 [Sara Matetich, p. 282] • Copenhagen Summer School in Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind, University of Copenhagen, 12-16 Agosto 2013 [Raoul Frauenfelder, p. 289] • Ciò che è vivo e ciò che è morto nell’estetica di Archibald Ali- son. Nota a margine del convegno: Neoestetica ed emozione. Archibald Alison e l’estetica con- temporanea, Palermo, 4-5 ottobre 2013 [Giuseppe Pucci, p. 294

  8. Notes on quantum groups

    Pressley, A.; Chari, V.; Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay

    1990-01-01

    The authors presents an introduction to quantum groups defined as a deformation of the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra. After the description of Hopf algebras with some examples the approach of Drinfel'd and Jimbo is described, where the quantization of a Lie algebra represents a Hopf algebra, defined over the algebra of formal power series in an indetermined h. The authors show that this approach arises from a r-matrix, which satisfies the classical Yang-Baxter equation. As example quantum sl 2 is considered. Furthermore the approaches of Manin and Woroniwicz and the R-matrix approach are described. (HSI)

  9. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  10. Elevated Extravascular Lung Water Index (ELWI) as a Predictor of Failure of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Via Helmet (Helmet-CPAP) in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Major Surgery.

    Redondo Calvo, Francisco Javier; Bejarano Ramirez, Natalia; Uña Orejon, Rafael; Villazala Garcia, Ruben; Yuste Peña, Ana Sofia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-01

    NIV is increasingly used for prevention and treatment of respiratory complications and failure. Some of them are admitted to the PACU with advanced hemodynamic monitors which allow quantification of Extravascular Lung Water (EVLW) by transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD) and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability (PVP) providing information on lung edema. The objective of this study was to ascertain if EVLW Index and PVP Index may predict failure (intubation) or success (non-intubation) in patients developing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the postoperative period following major abdominal surgery, where the first line of treatment was non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure via a helmet. Hemodynamic variables, EVLWI and PVPI were monitored with a transpulmonary thermodilution hemodynamic monitor device (PiCCO™) before and after the application of CPAP. Avoidance of intubation was observed in 66% of patients with Helmet-CPAP. In these patients after the first hour of application of CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased (303.33±65.2 vs. 141.6±14.6, P<.01). Before starting Helmet-CPAP values of EVLWI and PVPI were significantly lower in non-intubated patients (EVLWI 8.6±1.08 vs. 11.8±0.99ml/kg IBW, P<.01 and PVPI 1.7±0.56 vs. 3.0±0.88, P<.01). An optimal cut-off value for EVLWI was established at 9.5, and at 2.45 for PVPI (sensitivity of 0.7; specificity of 0.9, P<.01). In this type of patient the physiological parameters that predict the failure of Helmet-CPAP with the greatest accuracy were the value of the EVLWI and PVPI before Helmet-CPAP institution and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the respiratory rate after one hour of CPAP. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergency face-mask removal effectiveness: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional football helmet face-mask attachment systems.

    Swartz, Erik E; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C; Armstrong, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F(4,20)  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected in RPE during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  43.20, P  =  .001), with participants reporting average

  12. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  13. The Economic Impact of Helmet Use on Motorcycle Accidents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Literature from the Past 20 Years.

    Kim, Chang-Yeon; Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Dai, Feng; Leslie, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and cost of motorcycle accidents are projected to increase. Motorcycle helmets are accepted as an effective strategy for reducing the morbidity and therefore the cost of motorcycle accidents. Despite this, states have continued to repeal helmet laws in the past 20 years. In addition, variations in the methodologies and outcomes of published reports have contributed to uncertainty regarding the health care dollars saved due to motorcycle helmet use. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify the economic impact of motorcycle helmet use. Our primary source was Medline. Search terms included "motorcycle," "motorbike," "motorcycle helmet," "head protective devices," and "cost and cost analysis." The review only included articles that were primary studies, written in English, evaluations of periods after 1994, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Two independent authors extracted data using predefined data fields. Meta-analysis was done using the R-metafor package. Twelve papers met the criteria for inclusion. Meta-analysis demonstrated that nonhelmeted patients required $12,239 more in hospital costs per patient. Nonhelmeted patients also required more postdischarge care and were more likely to use publicly funded insurance. Studies also found lower injury severity and better hospital course in the helmeted population. Study limitations included selection bias, unclear statistical assumptions, lack of precision measures, confounding variables, and lack of standardization to a common year. Meta-analysis demonstrated an I2 of 67%, attributing a significant proportion of outcome variation to study differences. Motorcycle helmet use reduces morbidity and contributes to significant health care cost savings. Continuing antihelmet legislation will impose a substantial economic burden to the health care system, the government, and the public.

  14. Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II

    Dunn Emmett Reid

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia.

  15. Notes on Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. cynodontoides (Bal. Lazarides, Boerhavia coccinea Mill., and Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit. are recently found naturalized in Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the three species. In addition, their distribution and notes on ecology and taxonomy are provided.

  16. From Dalek half balls to Daft Punk helmets: Mimetic fandom and the crafting of replicas

    Matt Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic fandom is a surprisingly understudied mode of (culturally masculinized fan activity in which fans research and craft replica props. Mimetic fandom can be considered as (inauthentic and (immaterial, combining noncommercial status with grassroots marketing or brand reinforcement as well as fusing an emphasis on material artifacts with Web 2.0 collective intelligence. Simply analyzing mimetic fandom as part of fannish material culture fails to adequately assess the nonmaterial aspects of this collaborative creativity. Two fan cultures are taken as case studies: Dalek building groups and Daft Punk helmet constructors. These diverse cases indicate that mimetic fandom has a presence and significance that moves across media fandoms and is not restricted to the science fiction, fantasy, and horror followings with which it is most often associated. Mimetic fandom may be theorized as an oscillatory activity that confuses binaries and constructions of (academic/fan authenticity. This fan practice desires and pursues a kind of ontological bridging or unity—from text to reality—that is either absent or less dominant in many other fan activities such as cosplay, screen-used prop collecting, and geographical pilgrimage. Fan studies may benefit from reassessing the place of mimesis, especially in order to theorize fan practices that are less clearly transformative in character.

  17. Thermal performance curves under daily thermal fluctuation: A study in helmeted water toad tadpoles.

    Bartheld, José L; Artacho, Paulina; Bacigalupe, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Most research in physiological ecology has focused on the effects of mean changes in temperature under the classic "hot vs cold" acclimation treatment; however, current evidence suggests that an increment in both the mean and variance of temperature could act synergistically to amplify the negative effects of global temperature increase and how it would affect fitness and performance-related traits in ectothermic organisms. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on thermal performance curves of swimming speed in helmeted water toad tadpoles (Calyptocephalella gayi). Acclimation treatments were 20°C ± 0.1 SD (constant) and 20°C ± 1.5 SD (fluctuating). We draw two key findings: first, tadpoles exposed to daily temperature fluctuation had reduced maximal performance (Z max ), and flattened thermal performance curves, thus supporting the "vertical shift or faster-slower" hypothesis, and suggesting that overall swimming performance would be lower through an examination of temperatures under more realistic and ecologically-relevant fluctuating regimens; second, there was significant interindividual variation in performance traits by means of significant repeatability estimates. Our present results suggest that the widespread use of constant acclimation temperatures in laboratory experiments to estimate thermal performance curves (TPCs) may lead to an overestimation of actual organismal performance. We encourage the use of temperature fluctuation acclimation treatments to better understand the variability of physiological traits, which predict ecological and evolutionary responses to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CPAP by helmet for treatment of acute respiratory failure after pediatric liver transplantation.

    Chiusolo, F; Fanelli, V; Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Conti, G; Tortora, F; Pariante, R; Ravà, L; Grimaldi, C; de Ville de Goyet, J; Picardo, S

    2018-02-01

    ARF after pediatric liver transplantation accounts for high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure. The role of CPAP in postoperative period is still unknown. The aim of the study was to describe current practice and risk factors associated with the application of helmet CPAP. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 119 recipients were divided into two groups based on indication to CPAP after extubation. Perioperative variables were studied, and determinants of CPAP application were analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Sixty patients (60/114) developed ARF and were included in the CPAP group. No differences were found between the two groups for primary disease, graft type, and blood product transfused. At multivariate analysis, weight 148 mL/kg (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.6-10.1; P = .004) were the main determinants of CPAP application. In the CPAP group, five patients (8.4%) needed reintubation. Pediatric liver recipients with lower weight, higher need of inotropes/vasopressors, higher positive fluid balance after surgery, and lower PaO 2 /FiO 2 before extubation were at higher odds of developing ARF needing CPAP application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Improving operation notes to meet British Orthopaedic Association guidelines.

    Morgan, David; Fisher, Noel; Ahmad, Aman; Alam, Fazle

    2009-04-01

    Operation notes are an important part of medical records for clinical, academic and medicolegal reasons. This study audited the quality of operative note keeping for total knee replacements against the standards set by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA). A prospective review of all patients undergoing total knee replacement at a district general hospital over 8 months. Data recorded were compared with those required by the BOA good-practice guidelines. Change in practice was implemented and the audit cycle completed. Data were statistically analysed. A total of 129 operation notes were reviewed. There was a significant improvement in the mean number of data points recorded from 9.6 to 13.1. The least well recorded data were diagnosis, description of findings, alignment and postoperative flexion range. All had a significant improvement except description of findings. The operating surgeon writing the note improved from 56% to 67%. Detailed postoperative instructions also improved in quality. Surgeon education and the use of a checklist produce better quality total knee replacement operation notes in line with BOA guidelines. Further improvements may be made by making the data points part of the operation note itself.

  20. A note on axial symmetries

    Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    This note describes how to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry or four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period 2π. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties. (note)

  1. The Anatomy of a Note.

    Moore, Herb

    1986-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn the physics of a musical note by learning how to synthesize sounds on a computer. Discusses ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, and release of a note) and includes a program (with listing) which students can use to examine ADSR on a Commodore 64 microcomputer. (JN)

  2. Relativistic description of atomic nuclei

    Krutov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters

  3. Impact of Helmet Use on Injury and Financial Burden of Motorcycle and Moped Crashes in Hawai‘i: Analysis of a Linked Statewide Database

    Castel, Nikki A; Wong, Linda L; Steinemann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai‘i between 2007–2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition. Unhelmeted riders of either type of vehicle suffered more head injuries, especially skull fractures (adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.48, P motorcycle and moped riders, with a significant (P = .006) difference between helmeted ($27,176) and unhelmeted ($40,217) motorcycle riders. Unhelmeted riders were twice as likely to self-pay (19.3%, versus 9.8% of helmeted riders), and more likely to have Medicaid or a similar income-qualifying insurance plan (13.5% versus 5.0%, respectively). Protective associations with helmet use are stronger among motorcyclists than moped riders, suggesting the protective effect is augmented in higher speed crashes. The public financial burden is higher from unhelmeted riders who sustain more severe injuries and are less likely to be insured. PMID:27980882

  4. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence determination of a waste tank criticality

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for criticality consequences for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Criticality scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  5. Novel Method of Weighting Cumulative Helmet Impacts Improves Correlation with Brain White Matter Changes After One Football Season of Sub-concussive Head Blows.

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Asselin, Patrick; Narayan, Darren; Abar, Beau; Jones, Courtney M C; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-12-01

    One football season of sub-concussive head blows has been shown to be associated with subclinical white matter (WM) changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Prior research analyses of helmet-based impact metrics using mean and peak linear and rotational acceleration showed relatively weak correlations to these WM changes; however, these analyses failed to account for the emerging concept that neuronal vulnerability to successive hits is inversely related to the time between hits (TBH). To develop a novel method for quantifying the cumulative effects of sub-concussive head blows during a single season of collegiate football by weighting helmet-based impact measures for time between helmet impacts. We further aim to compare correlations to changes in DTI after one season of collegiate football using weighted cumulative helmet-based impact measures to correlations using non-weighted cumulative helmet-based impact measures and non-cumulative measures. We performed a secondary analysis of DTI and helmet impact data collected on ten Division III collegiate football players during the 2011 season. All subjects underwent diffusion MR imaging before the start of the football season and within 1 week of the end of the football season. Helmet impacts were recorded at each practice and game using helmet-mounted accelerometers, which computed five helmet-based impact measures for each hit: linear acceleration (LA), rotational acceleration (RA), Gadd Severity Index (GSI), Head Injury Criterion (HIC 15 ), and Head Impact Technology severity profile (HITsp). All helmet-based impact measures were analyzed using five methods of summary: peak and mean (non-cumulative measures), season sum-totals (cumulative unweighted measures), and season sum-totals weighted for time between hits (TBH), the interval of time from hit to post-season DTI assessment (TUA), and both TBH and TUA combined. Summarized helmet-based impact measures were correlated to statistically significant changes in

  6. Comparison of helmet-mounted display designs in support of wayfinding

    Kumagai, Jason K.; Massel, Lisa; Tack, David; Bossi, Linda

    2003-09-01

    The Canadian Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) soldier modernization research and development program has conducted experiments to help determine the types and amount of information needed to support wayfinding across a range of terrain environments, the most effective display modality for providing the information (visual, auditory or tactile) that will minimize conflict with other infantry tasks, and to optimize interface design. In this study, seven different visual helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs were developed based on soldier feedback from previous studies. The displays and an in-service compass condition were contrasted to investigate how the visual HMD interfaces influenced navigation performance. Displays varied with respect to their information content, frame of reference, point of view, and display features. Twelve male infantry soldiers used all eight experimental conditions to locate bearings to waypoints. From a constant location, participants were required to face waypoints presented at offset bearings of 25, 65, and 120 degrees. Performance measures included time to identify waypoints, accuracy, and head misdirection errors. Subjective measures of performance included ratings of ease of use, acceptance for land navigation, and mental demand. Comments were collected to identify likes, dislikes and possible improvements required for HMDs. Results underlined the potential performance enhancement of GPS-based navigation with HMDs, the requirement for explicit directional information, the desirability of both analog and digital information, the performance benefits of an egocentric frame of reference, the merit of a forward field of view, and the desirability of a guide to help landmark. Implications for the information requirements and human factors design of HMDs for land-based navigational tasks are discussed.

  7. Note on the ABC Conjecture

    Carella, N. A.

    2006-01-01

    This note imparts heuristic arguments and theorectical evidences that contradict the abc conjecture over the rational numbers. In addition, the rudimentary datails for transforming this problem into the doimain of equidistribution theory are provided.

  8. Lecture notes on quantum statistics

    Gill, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    These notes are meant to form the material for an introductory course on quantum statistics at the graduate level aimed at mathematical statisticians and probabilists No background in physics quantum or otherwise is required They are still far from complete

  9. Alcune Note di Analisi Matematica

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures notes (in italian) of some arguments of classical analysis, with exercises. A particular emphasis to functional analysis and elementary operator algebra theory is given, by means of exercises and examples.

  10. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  11. Passive Attenuating Communication Earphone (PACE): Noise Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility Performance When Worn in Conjunction with the HGU-56/P and HGU-55/P Flight Helmets

    2013-10-16

    right) eartips The purpose of this study was to integrate the HGU-56/P and HGU-55/P flight helmets with PACE to measure the noise attenuation and...55/P flight helmet integrated with PACE 2.0 METHODS 2.1 Subjects Twenty paid volunteer subjects (9 male, 11 female) participated in the study ...Pan Pad Pat Path Pack Pass Buff Bus But Bug Buck Bun Sat Sag Sass Sack Sad Sap Run Sun Bun Gun Fun Nun 8 Distribution A: Approved for

  12. Helmet-mounted display requirements: just another head-up display (HUD) or a different animal altogether?

    Newman, Richard L.; Haworth, Loran A.

    1994-06-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. The present study reviewed the state-of-the-art in HMDs and identified a number of issues applying to HMDs. Several are identical to head-up display (HUD) issues: symbol standardization, excessive clutter, and the need for integration with other cockpit displays and controls. Other issues are unique to the head-mounted display: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and field-of-view (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. Symbol stabilization is critical. In the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. The underlying cause is the absence of design criteria for HMDs. The existing military standard does not reflect the current state of technology. In addition, there are inadequate test and evaluation guidelines. The situation parallels the situation for HUDs several years ago.

  13. Note

    Kullman, Mikael; Campillo, Javier; Dahlquist, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globally, more than 50% of all people are living in cities today. Enhancing sustainability and efficiency of urban energy systems is thus of high priority for global sustainable development. The European research project PLEEC (Planning for Energy Efficient Cities) focuses on technological...

  14. Technical note on drainage systems

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  15. Gaz de France. Operation note

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  16. Guidelines for Description

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  17. Predicting bicycle helmet stage-of-change among middle school, high school, and college cyclists from demographic, cognitive, and motivational variables.

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Okun, Morris; Quay, Nancy

    2004-09-01

    To apply Prochaska's Transtheoretical model of behavior change to bicycle helmet use among middle school, high school, and college students. A battery of questionnaires was administered to cyclists in the seventh and ninth grades and to college students in Phoenix, Arizona (N=797). The battery included: (1) a question to determine respondent's stage of behavior change in Prochaska's Transtheoretical model; (2) items assessing the perceived pros and cons of helmet use; (3) a bicycle safety knowledge test; and (4) demographic information. Forty-three percent of the students were in "Precontemplation," 17% were in either "Contemplation" or "Preparation," 16% were in either "Action" or "Maintenance," and 24% were in the "Relapse" stage of change. Grade, Sex, Knowledge, Pros, and Cons, and the Grade by sex and the Grade by knowledge interactions were significant predictors of helmet use stages. Compared with students in Precontemplation, students in the Contemplation stage were disproportionately younger and had higher Pro scores, lower Con scores, and more knowledge (except in the ninth grade). The Transtheoretical model of behavior change is a viable theoretical framework for designing interventions aimed at increasing bicycle helmet use in children and adolescents.

  18. Neutron and X-ray characterisation of the metallurgical properties of a 7th century BC Corinthian-type bronze helmet

    Pantos, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Chapon, L. C.; Lutterotti, L.; Bennet, S. L.; Tobin, M. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pradell, T.; Salvado, N.; Butí, S.; Garner, R.; Prag, A. J. N. W.

    2005-09-01

    Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and FTIR were used to examine a Corinthian-type bronze helmet which is now on display at The Manchester Museum, UK. This type of helmet was manufactured out of a single piece of bronze, probably on a rod-anvil, and like all body-armour it was made to measure. Neutron diffraction sampling of the bronze volume in different areas was used to study the composition, microstructure and crystallographic texture of the alloy in order to draw conclusions about the manufacturing processes. The neutron data revealed the presence of microstrains and non-random distributions of bronze grains hinting at annealing-hammering working cycles in order to harden and shape the alloy. X-ray fluorescence showed that the main body of the helmet is a copper-tin alloy, while the noseguard contains zinc in high abundance. This key compositional difference confirms that the noseguard is not the original but is a modern substitute fabricated for restoration purposes. SR XRD and FTIR from several spots on the head and noseguard identified several surface corrosion products and showed a variation of the Cu-Sn or Cu-Zn percentage compositions, and of the mineral phases. Small samples of corrosion flakes extracted from the outside and inside of the helmet were used to obtain powder XRD patterns.

  19. Churchill on Stalin: A note.

    Ellman, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to draw attention to two limitations of Churchill's war memoirs as a source of accurate information about Stalin, his views ans actions. they concern, first Stalin's alleged remarks in 1942 about collectivisation, and second Stalin's allleged response to Churchill's

  20. Lecture notes on ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    Notes, prepared for a course of lectures held at the Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil (June-August 1978). An extensive theoretical treatment of the behaviour of hot plasmas caught in equations and mathematical models is presented in 12 chapters

  1. Developing INDCs: a guidance note

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Bee, Skylar; Naswa, Prakriti

    needs and low capability, would need means of implementation (MoI) for adaptation and to take ambitious mitigation actions. Developing countries would include MoI needs in the context of mitigation and adaptation. The note explains briefly how countries can identify their unconditional contributions....

  2. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  3. Full-color wide field-of-view holographic helmet-mounted display for pilot/vehicle interface development and human factors studies

    Burley, James R., II; LaRussa, Joseph A.

    1990-10-01

    A Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) which utilizes highly efficient trichromatic holographic elements has been designed to support pilot vechicle interface development and human factors studies at the NASA-Langley Research Center. While the optics are fully color corrected, the miniature CRT's are monochromatic. This design provides an upgrade path to full-color when miniature display technology matures to color. The optical design conforms to the helmet shape and provides a 50 degree field-of-view (FOV) to each eye. Built-in adjustments allow each ocular to be independently moved so that the overall horizontal FOV may be varied from 50 degrees to 100 degrees with a corresponding change in the stereo overlap region. The helmet design and interpupillary adjustment allow for the 5th through 95th percentile male and female wearer. Total head-borne weight is approximately 4.2 pounds. The high-resolution monochromatic CRTs are driven by a set of multisync electronics with a maximum video bandwidth of 88 Mhz and supports bith raster and stroke modes. The electronics are designed to be compatiable with the Silicon Graphics IRIS 4D graphics workstations and the ADAGE 340 stroke graphics computer. A Polhemus magnetic tracking device is used to determine the helmet line-of-sight. The helmet will be used to develop innovative new display concepts for the F- 1 8 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) which make use of the unique display properties of the HMD. Pictorial displays, which convey the appropriate information intuitively, are envisioned. Human factors studies are also planned to evaluate the utility of stereopsis and determine the FOV requirements for different tasks. Concepts proven in the simulator will be carried to flight test in 1993 with a lighter weight, "hardened" version of this HMD design.

  4. Notes on instrumentation and control

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  5. Notes on modeling and simulation

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    These notes present a high-level overview of how modeling and simulation are carried out by practitioners. The discussion is of a general nature; no specific techniques are examined but the activities associated with all modeling and simulation approaches are briefly addressed. There is also a discussion of validation and verification and, at the end, a section on why modeling and simulation are useful.

  6. A Dosimetric Evaluation of Conventional Helmet Field Irradiation Versus Two-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique

    Yu, James B.; Shiao, Stephen L.; Knisely, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric differences between conventional two-beam helmet field irradiation (external beam radiotherapy, EBRT) of the brain and a two-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Ten patients who received helmet field irradiation at our institution were selected for study. External beam radiotherapy portals were planned per usual practice. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy fields were created using the identical field angles as the EBRT portals. Each brain was fully contoured along with the spinal cord to the bottom of the C2 vertebral body. This volume was then expanded symmetrically by 0.5 cm to construct the planning target volume. An IMRT plan was constructed using uniform optimization constraints. For both techniques, the nominal prescribed dose was 3,000 cGy in 10 fractions of 300 cGy using 6-MV photons. Comparative dose-volume histograms were generated for each patient and analyzed. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improved dose uniformity over EBRT for whole brain radiotherapy. The mean percentage of brain receiving >105% of dose was reduced from 29.3% with EBRT to 0.03% with IMRT. The mean maximum dose was reduced from 3,378 cGy (113%) for EBRT to 3,162 cGy (105%) with IMRT. The mean percent volume receiving at least 98% of the prescribed dose was 99.5% for the conventional technique and 100% for IMRT. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces dose inhomogeneity, particularly for the midline frontal lobe structures where hot spots occur with conventional two-field EBRT. More study needs to be done addressing the clinical implications of optimizing dose uniformity and its effect on long-term cognitive function in selected long-lived patients

  7. Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response to -Gx Impact

    2016-02-01

    The test facility for this study was the Horizontal Impulse Accelerator (HIA). Engineering support was provided by General Dynamics AIS under...observed in the cadaver specimens without any observable ligamentous , disc, or bone damage as noted from x-ray analysis of the neck structures...Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers , Warrendale, PA: SAE. 5. Nichols, J.P. (2006). Overview of Ejection Neck Injury Criteria, Proceedings of the

  8. Fotonovela. Technical Note No. 13.

    Barriga, Patricio; Villacis, Rodrigo

    This report contains a description of a program that sought to develop the fotonovela as an instrument for increasing literacy and consciousness awareness in Ecuador. Following a general introduction to the work of the Nonformal Education Project, the creator of this program, the report presents information about the antecedents and…

  9. A Guide to Field Notes for Qualitative Research: Context and Conversation.

    Phillippi, Julia; Lauderdale, Jana

    2018-02-01

    Field notes are widely recommended in qualitative research as a means of documenting needed contextual information. With growing use of data sharing, secondary analysis, and metasynthesis, field notes ensure rich context persists beyond the original research team. However, while widely regarded as essential, there is not a guide to field note collection within the literature to guide researchers. Using the qualitative literature and previous research experience, we provide a concise guide to collection, incorporation, and dissemination of field notes. We provide a description of field note content for contextualization of an entire study as well as individual interviews and focus groups. In addition, we provide two "sketch note" guides, one for study context and one for individual interviews or focus groups for use in the field. Our guides are congruent with many qualitative and mixed methodologies and ensure contextual information is collected, stored, and disseminated as an essential component of ethical, rigorous qualitative research.

  10. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities in the wake of governmentally implemented change: a retrospective analysis of the motorcycle morbidity and mortality before, during, and after the repeal of a statewide helmet mandate.

    Strom, Shane F; Ambekar, Sudheer; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Nanda, Anil

    2013-06-01

    On August 15, 2004, Louisiana's universal motorcycle helmet mandate was reinstated. Previous studies have shown that mortality and morbidity of motorcycle riders who crashed had increased during the 5 years the mandate was repealed. The objective of this study was to discern whether the reinstatement of the universal helmet mandate has resulted in a subsequent decrease in motorcycle-related mortality and morbidity in the state of Louisiana. A retrospective analysis was performed observing the regularity of helmet use and the associated morbidity and mortality of motorcycle traffic accidents from the time before, during, and after the universal motorcycle helmet mandate was repealed in the state of Louisiana. Fatality statistics were obtained through the National Highway Safety Traffic Association. Injury, helmet use, and collision data were obtained from the Louisiana Highway Safety Commission. Motorcycle registration data were obtained from the Federal Highway Administration. Motorcycle crash-related fatalities increased significantly when the statewide helmet mandate was repealed, and interestingly, after reinstatement, these fatality rates never returned to their previous lows. Motorcycle fatalities have increased out of proportion to the increase in motorbike registrations, even when yearly fatalities are normalized to fatalities per 10,000 registered bikes. An all-time high in fatalities was seen in 2006, a year subsequent to the mandate's reinstatement. Fatalities per collision were elevated significantly after the mandate's repeal but did not return to prerepeal lows after the mandate's reinstatement. Although helmet use after reinstatement has reached all-time highs, fatality rates have remained elevated since the original mandate repeal in 1999. Other achievable changes in state policy and law enforcement should be explored to quell this heightened risk to motorcycle enthusiasts in Louisiana, and states considering changing their own motorcycle helmet

  11. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)5: Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-84/P Flight Helmet

    2017-04-06

    data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture , use, or sell any patented...airworthiness. The JSAM-TA Respirator Assembly (V)5 (Figure 2) is a chemical, biological, and radiological respirator assembly manufactured by Cam Lock...Classic™ sizing matrix for speech intelligibility Subject ID# Gender HGU- 84/P Helmet Helmet Liner (inches) Earcup Spacers (centered behind

  12. Descrição do girino de Lysapsus laevis (Parker, com notas sobre o ambiente, hábitos e desenvolvimento (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudinae Description of the tadpole of Lysapsus laevis (Parker, with notes on the habitat, habits, and development (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudinae

    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O girino de Lysapsus laevis (Parker, 1935 é descrito e figurado, com base em exemplares coletados na Vila Surumu, Estado de Roraima, Brasil. No estágio 37, o girino possui 61,4 mm de comprimento total; corpo triangular em vista lateral, ovóide em vistas dorsal e ventral, correspondendo a 28% do comprimento total; olhos laterais, parcialmente visíveis em vistas dorsal e ventral; disco oral ânteroventral, pequeno; fórmula dentária, 2(2/3(1; espiráculo curto, sinistro; tubo anal longo, largo, direito, mediano; em vida, dorso do corpo verde, ventre branco iridescente; musculatura caudal e nadadeiras verdes; terço anterior da nadadeira caudal e tubo anal com manchas irregulares iridescentes; metade distal da cauda cinza a cinza escuro; íris bronze. Notas sobre o ambiente, hábitos e desenvolvimento são apresentadas.The tadpole of Lysapsus laevis (Parker, 1935 is described and figured, based on specimens from Vila Surumu, State of Roraima, northern Brazil. In stage 37, the tadpole attains 61.4 mm in total length; body triangular in lateral view, ovoid in dorsal and ventral views, corresponding to 28% of the total length; eyes lateral, partially visible in dorsal and ventral views; oral disc anteroventral, small; labial tooth row formula, 2(2/3(1; spiracle short, sinistral; anal tube large, wide, medium; in life, dorsum of body green, venter iridescent white; caudal musculature and fins green; anterior third of caudal fin and anal tube with irregular iridescent stains; distal half of tail gray to dark gray; iris bronze. Notes on the habitat, habits, and development are provided.

  13. Revising Lecture Notes: How Revision, Pauses, and Partners Affect Note Taking and Achievement

    Luo, Linlin; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Samuelson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than…

  14. Descriptive set theory

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  15. Description logics of context

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  16. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  17. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented

  18. Notes on elementary particle physics

    Muirhead, William Hugh

    1972-01-01

    Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul

  19. Debriefing Note Secondary Education Support Programme

    Webster, Neil; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Thomsen, Thomas J.

    Debriefing note regarding joint programming for the Secondary Education Support Programme (2003- 2007). The note specifies preparation of SIP Physical Guidelines; Training needs assessment for Physical School Status and Rapid Technical Assessments; SIP/DEP preparation; Selection criteria...

  20. Note-Making in Social Studies.

    Fowler, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Note-making is one excellent method for helping students retain important points made by the teacher. Techniques that elementary and secondary social studies teacher can use to teach note-making skills are described. (RM)

  1. Taking notes as an interactive process

    Hornig, Wolfgang

    1984-01-01

    Taking notes as an interactive process : how to improve students´ notes / Hornig W. ; Nowak, J. - In: Nowak, Johann: Textverstehen und Textrekonstruktion in Vorlesungen. - Augsburg : HDZ, 1984. - S. 227-253. - (Augsburger Studien zur Hochschuldidaktik ; 12)

  2. The Effect of a Monocular Helmet-Mounted Display on Aircrew Health: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Apache AH Mk 1 Pilots -(Vision and Handedness)

    2015-05-19

    the day, night, and in adverse weather through the use of nose-mounted, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) pilotage and targeting sensors that provide a...sensor video and/or symbology to each crewmember via a helmet display unit (HDU). The HDU contains a 1-inch (in.) diameter cathode ray tube (CRT...American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 12(4): 365–369. Sale, D. F., and Lund, G. J. 1993. AH-64 Apache program update

  3. The new bank note distribution system

    Gerrit Bilkes

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines the recent changes made to the way Canada's bank notes are distributed. The new system allows financial institutions to exchange notes directly with one another at designated points across the country, rather than through Bank of Canada agencies, as was previously the case. The institutions communicate with the Bank of Canada through a computerized inventory-management system. Two Bank of Canada operations centres monitor note quality and supply new notes ...

  4. What Predicts Skill in Lecture Note Taking?

    Peverly, Stephen T.; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Brown, Cindy; Sumowski, James; Alidoost, Moona; Garner, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of good lecture notes to test performance, very little is known about the cognitive processes that underlie effective lecture note taking. The primary purpose of the 2 studies reported (a pilot study and Study 1) was to investigate 3 processes hypothesized to be significantly related to quality of notes: transcription…

  5. Lecture notes on diophantine analysis

    Zannier, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes originate from a course delivered at the Scuola Normale in Pisa in 2006. Generally speaking, the prerequisites do not go beyond basic mathematical material and are accessible to many undergraduates. The contents mainly concern diophantine problems on affine curves, in practice describing the integer solutions of equations in two variables. This case historically suggested some major ideas for more general problems. Starting with linear and quadratic equations, the important connections with Diophantine Approximation are presented and Thue's celebrated results are proved in full detail. In later chapters more modern issues on heights of algebraic points are dealt with, and applied to a sharp quantitative treatment of the unit equation. The book also contains several Supplements, hinted exercises and an Appendix on recent work on heights.

  6. Lecture notes on wavelet transforms

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic exposition of the basic ideas and results of wavelet analysis suitable for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers alike. The primary goal of this text is to show how different types of wavelets can be constructed, illustrate why they are such powerful tools in mathematical analysis, and demonstrate their use in applications. It also develops the required analytical knowledge and skills on the part of the reader, rather than focus on the importance of more abstract formulation with full mathematical rigor.  These notes differs from many textbooks with similar titles in that a major emphasis is placed on the thorough development of the underlying theory before introducing applications and modern topics such as fractional Fourier transforms, windowed canonical transforms, fractional wavelet transforms, fast wavelet transforms, spline wavelets, Daubechies wavelets, harmonic wavelets and non-uniform wavelets. The selection, arrangement, and presentation of the material in these ...

  7. Hardware description languages

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  8. Some Notes and Critiques of Selected Lexicographic Texts in Bikol

    Louward Allen Zubiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study revolves around notes and critiques of Bikol lexicography. Based on a selection of six dictionaries, the structure and diachronic development of Bikol lexicography were analyzed. Half of the selected dictionaries were authored in full or part by Malcolm Mintz, a renowned Bikol expert. These enabled a linear analysis of changes in lexicography that have occurred within the span of four decades. The dictionaries studied include the earliest and most influential Bikol dictionary of Lisboa (1865. The study presents a preliminary description of lexicographic work done in Bikol and traces the shift in the paradigm of dictionary making from the Spanish era to the present.

  9. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-06-27

    along with a discussion of the distributional patterns. Detailed descriptions, differential diagnoses, synonymic listings, illustrations, material listings and measurements are given of all 26 currently known species and subspecies of Haplopodini. Four new genera are described within Haplopodini. The monotypical Apteroplopus n. gen. (type-species: Dyme grosse-tuberculata Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) from Honduras is the only taxon of the tribe represented in Central America. It is only known from the male which differs from all other genera by being entirely apterous. Cephaloplopus n. gen. (type-species: Cephaloplopus pulchellus n. sp.) and Parhaplopus n. gen. (type-species: Haplopus cubensis Saussure, 1868) occur only on Hispaniola and Cuba. Both are closely related to Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 but in addition to having noticeably different eggs, both genera differ from Haplopus in several morphological characters. The monotypical Venupherodes n. gen. (type-species: Platycrana venustula Audinet-Serville, 1838) is endemic to Cuba, and in females being apterous resembles the second exclusively Cuban genus Aploploides Rehn & Hebard, 1938. It however differs from all other members of Haplopodini by the laterally expanded mesonotum of females, which overlaps the mesopleurae, as well as the morphology of the eggs. Two species-groups are recognized within Diapherodes Gray, 1835. The gigantea species-group comprises the species from the Lesser Antilles, which are: D. angulata (Fabricius, 1793), Diapherodes dominicae (Rehn & Hebard, 1938), D. gigantea gigantea (Gmélin, 1789), D. gigantea saintluciae n. ssp. and Diapherodes martinicensis Lelong & Langlois, 2005. The three species of the jamaicensis species-group, which are D. achalus (Rehn, 1904), D. jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) and D. laevicollis Redtenbacher, 1906, are restricted to the two Greater Antillean islands Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 is the most widely distributed genus being represented on all

  10. Resource description and access 2013 revision

    2013-01-01

    This e-book contains the 2013 Revision of RDA: Resource Description and Access, and includes the July 2013 Update. This e-book offers links within the RDA text and the capability of running rudimentary searches of RDA, but please note that this e-book does not have the full range of content or functionality provided by the subscription product RDA Toolkit. Included: A full accumulation of RDA- the revision contains a full set of all current RDA instructions. It replaces the previous version of RDA Print as opposed to being an update packet to that version. RDA has gone through many changes sin

  11. Quality of outpatient clinical notes: a stakeholder definition derived through qualitative research

    Hanson Janice L

    2012-11-01

    content. Conclusions Perspectives of these four stakeholder groups provide a comprehensive description of quality in outpatient clinical documentation. The resulting description of characteristics and content necessary for quality notes provides a research-based foundation for assessing the quality of clinical documentation in outpatient health care settings.

  12. Quality of outpatient clinical notes: a stakeholder definition derived through qualitative research.

    Hanson, Janice L; Stephens, Mark B; Pangaro, Louis N; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2012-11-19

    groups provide a comprehensive description of quality in outpatient clinical documentation. The resulting description of characteristics and content necessary for quality notes provides a research-based foundation for assessing the quality of clinical documentation in outpatient health care settings.

  13. Notes on neutron flux measurement

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to get an useful guide to carry out topical neutron flux measurements. Although the foil activation technique is used in the majority of the cases, other techniques, such as those based on fission chambers and self-powered neutron detectors, are also shown. Special interest is given to the description and application of corrections on the measurement of relative and absolute induced activities by several types of detectors (scintillators, G-M and gas proportional counters). The thermal arid epithermal neutron fluxes, as determined in this work, are conventional or effective (West cots fluxes), which are extensively used by the reactor experimentalists; however, we also give some expressions where they are related to the integrated neutron fluxes, which are used in neutron calculations. (Author) 16 refs

  14. The use of the virtual reality Helmet Samsung gear VR as interaction interface of a radioactive waste repository simulator

    Santos, Julio A. dos; Mól, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. Do E., E-mail: julio_andrade11@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive waste is all material resulting from human activity that contains elements that emit radiation that can generate risks to health and the environment. In this sense, they are very toxic also for those who perform the storage of radioactive waste in nuclear facilities. On the other hand, the virtual reality (VR) has been destined to the most diverse purposes, like simulations for educational systems, for military purposes as for diverse training. VR can be considered as the junction of three basic principles: immersion, interaction and involvement. Bases on these principles of VR, this work aimed to develop a simulator of a repository of nuclear tailings, for mobile computing, whose interaction interface will be through the Samsung Gear VR helmet. The simulator of the nuclear waste repository was developed in the unity 3D tool and the elements that make up the scenario in the 3D MAX program. In this work we tried to put virtual reality under scrutiny in conjunction with Gear VR, to help in the sensation of immersion, as well as, the possibility of interaction with joysticks. The purpose was to provide greater insight into the operating environment. (author)

  15. Physical and chemical properties of meat from scavenging chickens and helmeted guinea fowls in response to age and sex.

    Musundire, M T; Halimani, T E; Chimonyo, M

    2017-08-01

    1. The effects of age and sex on body weight, carcass traits, physical and chemical properties of breast muscle from chickens and helmeted guinea fowls managed under village free-range conditions were assessed in random samples of 48 guinea fowls and 48 chickens obtained from local markets. 2. Guinea fowls had higher body weight, hot carcass weight, cold dressed weight and breast weight than chickens. 3. Guinea fowls had more dry matter, protein and less fat than chickens. Ash content did not differ between guinea fowls and chickens. Protein and fat increased, whereas dry matter and ash decreased with age (P meat was lighter, less red and more yellow than guinea fowl meat. Cooking loss was higher in guinea fowls, male and grower birds than chickens, females and adult birds, respectively. Shear force was affected by age, as mature birds had a higher value than growers. 5. Guinea fowl carcasses contained more meat that was leaner, higher in protein and redder compared with chicken meat. As age increased the meat increased in protein and fat content and shear force, whereas colour became darker, redder and yellower.

  16. The use of the virtual reality Helmet Samsung gear VR as interaction interface of a radioactive waste repository simulator

    Santos, Julio A. dos; Mól, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. Do E.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste is all material resulting from human activity that contains elements that emit radiation that can generate risks to health and the environment. In this sense, they are very toxic also for those who perform the storage of radioactive waste in nuclear facilities. On the other hand, the virtual reality (VR) has been destined to the most diverse purposes, like simulations for educational systems, for military purposes as for diverse training. VR can be considered as the junction of three basic principles: immersion, interaction and involvement. Bases on these principles of VR, this work aimed to develop a simulator of a repository of nuclear tailings, for mobile computing, whose interaction interface will be through the Samsung Gear VR helmet. The simulator of the nuclear waste repository was developed in the unity 3D tool and the elements that make up the scenario in the 3D MAX program. In this work we tried to put virtual reality under scrutiny in conjunction with Gear VR, to help in the sensation of immersion, as well as, the possibility of interaction with joysticks. The purpose was to provide greater insight into the operating environment. (author)

  17. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. An intelligent system and a relational data base for codifying helmet-mounted display symbology design requirements

    Rogers, Steven P.; Hamilton, David B.

    1994-06-01

    To employ the most readily comprehensible presentation methods and symbology with helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), it is critical to identify the information elements needed to perform each pilot function and to analytically determine the attributes of these elements. The extensive analyses of mission requirements currently performed for pilot-vehicle interface design can be aided and improved by the new capabilities of intelligent systems and relational databases. An intelligent system, named ACIDTEST, has been developed specifically for organizing and applying rules to identify the best display modalities, locations, and formats. The primary objectives of the ACIDTEST system are to provide rapid accessibility to pertinent display research data, to integrate guidelines from many disciplines and identify conflicts among these guidelines, to force a consistent display approach among the design team members, and to serve as an 'audit trail' of design decisions and justifications. A powerful relational database called TAWL ORDIR has been developed to document information requirements and attributes for use by ACIDTEST as well as to greatly augment the applicability of mission analysis data. TAWL ORDIR can be used to rapidly reorganize mission analysis data components for study, perform commonality analyses for groups of tasks, determine the information content requirement for tailored display modes, and identify symbology integration opportunities.

  19. Profiling Chilean Suicide Note-Writers through Content Analysis

    Francisco Ceballos-Espinoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicides account for 2000 deaths in Chile each year. With a suicide rate of 11.3, it is classified as a country with high suicide risk. Aims: to identify personality and cognitive characteristics of the group of Chilean suicides that left suicide notes, through a content analysis. Methods: descriptive field study with an ex post facto design. All suicides registered between 2010 and 2012 by the Investigations Police of Chile were analyzed, obtaining 203 suicide notes from 96 cases. The Darbonne categories for content analysis were used with the inter-judge method. Results: The mean age of the suicides was 44.2 (SD = 18.53. Most of the notes were addressed to family members (51.7%. The most expressed reasons were marital- or interpersonal-related (24.6%; another 23.6% expressed a lack of purpose or hopelessness (including depression, wish to die, low self-esteem. The most frequent content expressed were instructions (about money, children, and funeral. All of the notes showed logical thinking and were written with coherence and clarity. Notably 42% of the notes were marked by affections of fondness, love or dependence of others. Regarding attitudes, the most common were of escape or farewell (42.4%, followed by fatalism, hopelessness, frustration or tiredness (40%. 24 statistically significant differences were found throughout the categories of analysis, according to cohorts of age, marital status and sex. Conclusions: the findings contribute to the profiling of Chilean suicides and to the implementation of suicide prevention programs

  20. Implications of observing and writing field notes through different lenses

    Hellesø R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ragnhild Hellesø,1 Line Melby,1 Solveig Hauge21Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: From a philosophy of science perspective, the literature has posited that different research approaches influence field studies. Studies addressing interdisciplinary research have focused on the challenges of organizing and running interdisciplinary teams, cultural differences between and within disciplines, and constraints in conducting interdisciplinary research. Studies exploring and discussing the process and outcome of transferring observations to notes from an interdisciplinary point of view are not identified. The aim of this paper is to explore the characteristics of field notes created by researchers representing different disciplines and experiences.Methods: A case study using a modified dynamic observation method was employed. The analyses were initiated by a researcher who had not been involved in the data collection. The field notes were analyzed using three main steps.Results: The structures of both researchers' field notes were characterized by similarities in their descriptions, but the notes' foci and analytical levels differed.Conclusion: The findings contribute new insights concerning the execution of interdisciplinary observational studies. Our findings demonstrate that entering the field with different lenses produced richer and more varied data, providing a broader platform from which to discuss and interpret a study's findings. From a theoretical point of view, the findings enable a more nuanced discussion and a conceptual elaboration regarding how observational approaches should be pursued in future studies. On a practical level, the findings show that even if the researchers agree on what the overall focus in the observations should be, differences can occur in

  1. Notes on the quantum tetrahedron

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This is a set of notes describing several aspects of the space of paths on ADE Dynkin diagrams, with a particular attention paid to the graph E6. Many results originally due to A. Ocneanu are here described in a very elementary way (manipulation of square or rectangular matrices). We define the concept of essential matrices for a graph and describe their module properties with respect to right and left actions of fusion algebras. In the case of the graph E6, essential matrices build up a right module with respect to its fusion algebra but a left module with respect to the fusion algebra of A11. We present two original results: 1) We show how to recover the Ocneanu graph of quantum symmetries of the Dynkin diagram E6 from the natural multiplication defined in the tensor square of its fusion algebra (the tensor product should be taken over a particular subalgebra); this is the Cayley graph for the two generators of the twelve dimensional algebra (E6 \\otimes_A3 E6); here A3 and E6 refer to the commutative fusion...

  2. Revisiting convergence: A research note.

    Clark, Rob

    2015-09-01

    A number of recent studies show that income inequality is declining between countries. In this research note, I question the significance of this trend by examining the role of initial conditions in producing convergence. An important (but neglected) property of inequality dynamics is the tendency for extreme distributions to become more moderate. When income disparities are large, the subsequent trend is biased toward convergence. Conversely, when initial conditions approach parity, divergence becomes the more likely long-term outcome. I apply this principle to trends in GDP PC across 127 countries during the 1980-2010 period. Using counterfactual analysis, I manipulate the initial level of inequality in GDP PC while holding constant each country's observed growth rate during the sample period. I find that the growth dynamics of GDP PC produce either convergence or divergence based simply on the initial distribution of income. The point of transition occurs at a moderate level of inequality, whether using population weights (Gini=.365) or not (Gini=.377). I conclude that the recent convergence observed in GDP PC is primarily a function of large income gaps between countries and would not have materialized at more moderate levels of initial inequality. By contrast, an examination of the pre-1950 period reveals divergent growth patterns that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  4. Open Oncology Notes: A Qualitative Study of Oncology Patients' Experiences Reading Their Cancer Care Notes.

    Kayastha, Neha; Pollak, Kathryn I; LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2018-04-01

    Electronic medical records increasingly allow patients access to clinician notes. Although most believe that open notes benefits patients, some suggest negative consequences. Little is known about the experiences of patients with cancer reading their medical notes; thus we aimed to describe this qualitatively. We interviewed 20 adults with metastatic or incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment. The semistructured qualitative interviews included four segments: assessing their overall experience reading notes, discussing how notes affected their cancer care experiences, reading a real note with the interviewer, and making suggestions for improvement. We used a constant comparison approach to analyze these qualitative data. We found four themes. Patients reported that notes resulted in the following: (1) increased comprehension; (2) ameliorated uncertainty, relieved anxiety, and facilitated control; (3) increased trust; and (4) for a subset of patients, increased anxiety. Patients described increased comprehension because notes refreshed their memory and clarified their understanding of visits. This helped mitigate the unfamiliarity of cancer, addressing uncertainty and relieving anxiety. Notes facilitated control, empowering patients to ask clinicians more questions. The transparency of notes also increased trust in clinicians. For a subset of patients, however, notes were emotionally difficult to read and raised concerns. Patients identified medical jargon and repetition in notes as areas for improvement. Most patients thought that reading notes improved their care experiences. A small subset of patients experienced increased distress. As reading notes becomes a routine part of the patient experience, physicians might want to elicit and address concerns that arise from notes, thereby further engaging patients in their care.

  5. CRAC2 model description

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions

  6. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  7. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  8. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  9. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Oct?vio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artifici...

  11. Descriptive data analysis.

    Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2009-01-01

    This 13th article of the Basics of Research series is first in a short series on statistical analysis. These articles will discuss creating your statistical analysis plan, levels of measurement, descriptive statistics, probability theory, inferential statistics, and general considerations for interpretation of the results of a statistical analysis.

  12. Osiris reactor descriptive report

    1976-03-01

    OSIRIS is a swimming pool reactor of 70 MW thermal power. Its main purpose is the irradiation of reactor materials in high neutron flux. A description is given of the air conditioning, ventilation, and radioactive gas removal system. (R.L.)

  13. Plot Description (PD)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  14. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  15. Fractal description of fractures

    Lung, C.W.

    1991-06-01

    Recent studies on the fractal description of fractures are reviewed. Some problems on this subject are discussed. It seems hopeful to use the fractal dimension as a parameter for quantitative fractography and to apply fractal structures to the development of high toughness materials. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  16. Tore Supra: technical description

    1985-08-01

    This report is aimed, after a brief recall of physics and technologic perspectives of Tore Supra, at giving a detailed description of the basic machine; details of each component are defined. Volume 1 is specifically concerned with the general aspects of Tore Supra and the toroidal field system [fr

  17. A Note on the Stability of the Job Descriptive Index (J. D. I.).

    1978-05-01

    AND A D D R E S S 10. P R O G R A M ELEMENT , PROJE CT , TASK A R E A & WORK UNIT NUMBER S Departme nt of Psychology 6 l l53 N University of...Center , University of Mary land , College Park 19. KEY WOR DS (Con t inue on re v e rse aids II necalaary ~ td ident ify by block num ber) Attitudes

  18. Notes on Wyeomyia Mosquitoes of Suriname, with a Description of Wyeomyia surinamensis sp.n.

    Bruijning, C.F.A.

    1959-01-01

    Most of the material recorded in this paper was collected by the author during his stay in Suriname from 1949 to 1955. By courtesy of Mrs. J. BONNE-WEPSTER, the author was enabled to study the Wyeomyia specimens which were collected by BONNE and BONNE-WEPSTER in Suriname and are at present in the

  19. Notes on the genus Abantis Hopffer, 1855 with description of two new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Pyrginae

    Claudio Belcastro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical genus Abantis Hopffer, 1855 includes about 23 species so far, all quite rare. In Evans’ Catalogue of the African Hesperiidae only 14 species were listed but, apart from a few newly discovered ones, some of the subspecies indicated over there have subsequently been raised to species level, although they look very similar in facies with previously recognised taxa. This article shows the presence of an unrecognised species similar to A. lucretia Druce, 1909 in West Africa, namely A. fabiana sp. n., and another one similar to both A. contigua Evans, 1937 and A. elegantula Mabille, 1890 in Central Africa, namely A. torbeni sp. n. The rarity in collections of almost all forest-dwelling Abantis spp. is reported as connected to their habit of flying high in the forest canopy, but the authors have no conclusive evidence of it. Most Abantis are hill-toppers, mud lovers and are attracted by dead animals (fish and turtles, although some of them are also flower-visiting.

  20. Some preliminary notes on Surinam Sting Rays, including the description of a new species

    Boeseman, M.

    1948-01-01

    In Dr. D. C. Geijskes' collection of Surinam fishes, mentioned in my previous paper on this subject (Boeseman, 1948), I found six specimens belonging to the so-called "sting rays" (Dasyatidae), representing three different species, and all very interesting in some respects. I. Dasyatis schmardae

  1. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: Strong anchoring model

    Lin, Te-Sheng; Cummings, Linda J.; Archer, Andrew J.; Kondic, Lou; Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. We rigorously clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness in order to provide a solid basis for further investigation: several conflicting models exist in the literature that predict qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the model one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that in the case of strong anchoring the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. Taxonomic notes and description of the male of Xenochlora nigrofemorata (Smith, 1879) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Halictinae).

    Santos, Leandro M; Melo, Gabriel A R

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes for the first time the male of the bee genus Xenochlora Engel, Brooks & Yanega, 1997. The male of X. nigrofemorata (Smith, 1879) is described and illustrated. Additionally, Megalopta opacicollis Friese, 1926 is placed as a junior synonym of X. nigrofemorata (Smith, 1879).

  3. Notes on the tribe Mimagathidini Enderlein, with the description of a new genus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.

    2000-01-01

    Eleonoria gen. nov. (type species: E. mesembria spec. nov. from Malaysia; five additional species from Japan, China (including Taiwan), Philippines, and Indonesia (Halmahera) are included), Orgilonia pasohensis spec. nov. from Malaysia, Orgilus reclinatus spec. nov. from Congo, O. alboannulatus

  4. Technical Note: Description and assessment of a nudged version of the new dynamics Unified Model

    O. Morgenstern

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a "nudged" version of the Met Office general circulation model, the Unified Model. We constrain this global climate model using ERA-40 re-analysis data with the aim of reproducing the observed "weather" over a year from September 1999. Quantitative assessments are made of its performance, focusing on dynamical aspects of nudging and demonstrating that the "weather" is well simulated.

  5. Taxonomic notes on Chironomidae (Diptera from Okinawa Island, Japan, with the description of three new species

    Masaru Yamamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.

  6. Description of male Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae with notes on habits and conservation status

    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877 are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.

  7. Notes on Pauropoda (Myriapoda from U.S.A. with descriptions of two new species

    Ulf Scheller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pauropoda are described from USA, Kionopauropus alyeskaensis sp. n. (Pauropodidae, and Eurypauropus arcuatus sp. n. (Eurypauropodidae. The genus Kionopauropus is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time.

  8. Revisionary notes on Bentonia van Achterberg, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae) with description of two new species

    Braet, Y.; Tignon, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Bentonia van Achterberg, 1992 (Braconidae: Orgilinae) (B. inca from Peru and B. xochiquetzalis from Mexico) are described and partly illustrated. A third undescribed species was found for which some characters are listed. The distribution of B. scutellaris van

  9. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  10. Notes on Loricata (Mollusca) 11-14

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Four new species of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are described, viz Leptochiton (L.) dispersus and L. (L.) permodestus from Transkei, L. (L.) meiringae from the eastern Cape Province, S Africa (note 11) and Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) vanbellei from the Mediterranean Sea (note 14). New records

  11. Suicide Notes in Hong Kong in 2000

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Yeung, April W. M.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Yip, Paul S. F.; Tang, Arthur K. H.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide notes have been regarded as one of the most informative data sources to understand the reasons why people commit suicide. However, there is a paucity of suicide note studies, leaving researchers with an assumption that this phenomenon remains static over time. This study examines this assumption by comparing the characteristics of…

  12. Stalin and Marxism: a research note

    van Ree, E.

    1997-01-01

    This article concerns the research done by the author in Stalin‘s private library. The notes made in the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin suggest that until the end of his life Stalin felt himself in general agreement with these "classics." The choice of books and the notes support the thesis that,

  13. Children's note taking as a mnemonic tool.

    Eskritt, Michelle; McLeod, Kellie

    2008-09-01

    When given the opportunity to take notes in memory tasks, children sometimes make notes that are not useful. The current study examined the role that task constraints might play in the production of nonmnemonic notes. In Experiment 1, children played one easy and one difficult memory game twice, once with the opportunity to make notes and once without that opportunity. More children produced functional notations for the easier task than for the more difficult task, and their notations were beneficial to memory performance. Experiment 2 found that the majority of children who at first made nonmnemonic notations were able to produce functional notations with minimal training, and there was no significant difference in notation quality or memory performance between spontaneous and trained note takers. Experiment 3 revealed that the majority of children could transfer their training to a novel task. The results suggest that children's production of nonmnemonic notes may be due in part to a lack of knowledge regarding what task information is important to represent or how to represent it in their notes rather than to an inability to make functional notes in general.

  14. Observing professionals taking notes on screen

    Melenhorst, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study 38 participants wrote a piece of advice based on reading and annotating information from an extensive Web site. Half of the participants took notes in a separate window, the other half used an advanced annotation tool. In text annotations were far more used than separate notes. The

  15. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  16. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  17. TMACS system description

    Scaief, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). It is intended as an introduction for those persons unfamiliar with the system as well as a reference document for the users, maintenance personnel, and system designers. In addition to describing the system, the document outlines the associated drawing documentation, provides maintenance and spare parts information, and discusses other TMACS documents that provide additional detail

  18. Input description for BIOPATH

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  19. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  20. Olkiluoto site description 2006

    Andersson, J.; Ahokas, H.; Hudson, J.A.

    2007-03-01

    This second version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2004 (Posiva 2005) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2005. The main product of the modelling has been to develop a descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. For practical reasons, the Site Descriptive Model is divided into five parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, which are presented in individual chapters. Four separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models. The consistency between the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models is assessed in a joint chapter. Chapter 1 presents an outline of the report, explains the background to its development and sets out its objectives and scope. It is also introduces and explains the integrated modelling methodology, the nomenclature used in the descriptions of the models and the prediction/outcome studies. Chapter 2 provides a brief overview of the data used for producing the Site Description. Chapters 3 to 8 present the descriptive modelling, which involves interpreting data, interpolating or extrapolating between measurement points and calibrating the model against data, based on the various assumptions made about each conceptual model. Chapter 9 presents the results of the prediction/outcome studies performed during 2005 and Chapter 10 the overall consistency and confidence assessment. Overall conclusions are provided in Chapter 11. The main advances since Site Report 2004 are: A new geological model is presented in Chapter 4, representing a significant change from Bedrock Model 2003/1. There has been extensive use of geological data, whereas hydrogeological data have deliberately not been used and more

  1. Management control system description

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Suicide note themes and suicide prevention.

    Foster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to determine if suicide note themes might inform suicide prevention strategies. The themes of 42 suicide notes from the Northern Ireland Suicide Study (major psychological autopsy study) were examined. The commonest themes were "apology/shame" (74%), "love for those left behind" (60%), "life too much to bear" (48%), "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (36%), "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (21%) and "advice for those left behind" (21%). Notes of suicides with major unipolar depression were more likely than notes of suicides without major unipolar depression to contain the themes "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (67% versus 19%, p = 0.005) and "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (40% versus 11%, p = 0.049). Notes of suicides with a previous history of deliberate self-harm were less likely than notes of suicides without a history of deliberate self-harm to contain the theme "apology/shame" (58% versus 87%, p = 0.04). Notes of elderly suicides were more likely than non-elderly notes to contain the theme "burden to others" (40% versus 3%, p = 0.03). The fact that three quarters of suicide notes contained the theme "apology/shame" suggests that the deceased may have welcomed alternative solutions for their predicaments. Scrutiny of suicide note themes in the light of previous research findings suggests that cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving, may have an important role to play in suicide prevention and that potential major unipolar depressive (possibly less impulsive) suicides, in particular, may provide fertile ground for therapeutic intervention (physical and psychological). Ideally all primary care doctors and mental health professionals working with (potentially) suicidal people should be familiar with basic cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving skills training.

  3. Note Taking on Trial: A Legal Application of Note-Taking Research

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about note taking, but it is not an exhaustive review of note-taking literature. Instead, it portrays the application of note-taking research to an unusual and important area of practice--the law. I was hired to serve as an expert witness on note taking in a legal case that hinged, in part, on the completeness and accuracy of…

  4. Bank note recognition for the vision impaired.

    Hinwood, A; Preston, P; Suaning, G J; Lovell, N H

    2006-06-01

    Blind Australians find great difficulty in recognising bank notes. Each note has the same feel, with no Braille markings, irregular edges or other tangible features. In Australia, there is only one device available that can assist blind people recognise their notes. Internationally, there are devices available; however they are expensive, complex and have not been developed to cater for Australian currency. This paper discusses a new device, the MoneyTalker that takes advantage of the largely different colours and patterns on each Australian bank note and recognises the notes electronically, using the reflection and transmission properties of light. Different coloured lights are transmitted through the inserted note and the corresponding sensors detect distinct ranges of values depending on the colour of the note. Various classification algorithms were studied and the final algorithm was chosen based on accuracy and speed of recognition. The MoneyTalker has shown an accuracy of more than 99%. A blind subject has tested the device and believes that it is usable, compact and affordable. Based on the devices that are available currently in Australia, the MoneyTalker is an effective alternative in terms of accuracy and usability.

  5. Open notes: doctors and patients signing on.

    Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan; Darer, Jonathan D; Elmore, Joann G; Feldman, Henry J; Leveille, Suzanne G; Ralston, James D; Ross, Stephen E; Vodicka, Elisabeth; Weber, Valerie D

    2010-07-20

    Few patients read their doctors' notes, despite having the legal right to do so. As information technology makes medical records more accessible and society calls for greater transparency, patients' interest in reading their doctors' notes may increase. Inviting patients to review these notes could improve understanding of their health, foster productive communication, stimulate shared decision making, and ultimately lead to better outcomes. Yet, easy access to doctors' notes could have negative consequences, such as confusing or worrying patients and complicating rather than improving patient-doctor communication. To gain evidence about the feasibility, benefits, and harms of providing patients ready access to electronic doctors' notes, a team of physicians and nurses have embarked on a demonstration and evaluation of a project called OpenNotes. The authors describe the intervention and share what they learned from conversations with doctors and patients during the planning stages. The team anticipates that "open notes" will spread and suggests that over time, if drafted collaboratively and signed by both doctors and patients, they might evolve to become contracts for care.

  6. EndNote 7.0

    Eapen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EndNote is a useful software for online literature search and efficient bibliography management. It helps to format the bibliography according to the citation style of each journal. EndNote stores references in a library file, which can be shared with others. It can connect to online resources like PubMed and retrieve search results as per the search criteria. It can also effortlessly integrate with popular word processors like MS Word. The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology website has a provision to import references to EndNote.

  7. Description logic rules

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  8. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  9. Analysis of medication adherence-related notes from a service-oriented community pharmacy.

    Witry, Matthew; Parry, Rachel; McDonough, Randal; Deninger, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Medication nonadherence is a significant public health problem. Community pharmacists are positioned to intervene, however, the process is not well understood. To classify and quantify the reasons for nonadherence documented by community pharmacists. A retrospective content analysis of pharmacist notes related to nonadherence at a service oriented community pharmacy in the Midwest United States. Notes from the site's dispensing custom documentation software were obtained from September 1, 2014 through February 28, 2015 that were labeled "compliance", either prompted by proportion of days covered calculations or entered as a drug therapy problem. A code list was iterated for the notes based on the literature and by reading the notes and generating descriptive codes. A reliability analysis was calculated for two coders. Notes were coded, check-coded, and discrepancies were resolved using a consensus process. Frequencies were calculated for each code and representative text was selected. Pharmacists documented 3491 notes as part of their continuous medication monitoring process. Nineteen codes were developed. The reliability for the coders had a Cohen's Kappa of 0.749. The majority of notes (61.4%) documented the pharmacist evaluated the refill and had no concerns or would continue to follow. Also documented were specific reasons for out of range PDCs not indicative of a nonadherence problem. Only 2.2% of notes specifically documented a nonadherence problem, such as forgetfulness or cost. While pharmacists encountered many false positive nonadherence alerts, following up with patients led to hundreds of discussions and clarifications about how patients use their medications at home. These results suggest a small minority of late refills are judged by pharmacists as indicative of an adherence problem, contrary to the prevailing literature. Pharmacists may benefit from modifying their approach to nonadherence interviewing and documentation as they seek to address

  10. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  11. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  12. A NOTE ON THE POCHHAMMER FREQUENCY EQUATION

    cistvr

    A note on the Pochhammer frequency equation. ),,,,(. ),,,,(;/. 2 zwura. ZWURA. tT ρω. µ. = ω= , where ωis the angular frequency of the wave, which is considered to be imposed in this problem. We also introduce a material parameter α defined by. )2. /(. µ+λµ=α , which is related to Poisson's ratio ν by n- n-. =a. 22. 21 . We note ...

  13. Electronic health records improve clinical note quality.

    Burke, Harry B; Sessums, Laura L; Hoang, Albert; Becher, Dorothy A; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Stephens, Mark; Pangaro, Louis N; O'Malley, Patrick G; Baxi, Nancy S; Bunt, Christopher W; Capaldi, Vincent F; Chen, Julie M; Cooper, Barbara A; Djuric, David A; Hodge, Joshua A; Kane, Shawn; Magee, Charles; Makary, Zizette R; Mallory, Renee M; Miller, Thomas; Saperstein, Adam; Servey, Jessica; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    The clinical note documents the clinician's information collection, problem assessment, clinical management, and its used for administrative purposes. Electronic health records (EHRs) are being implemented in clinical practices throughout the USA yet it is not known whether they improve the quality of clinical notes. The goal in this study was to determine if EHRs improve the quality of outpatient clinical notes. A five and a half year longitudinal retrospective multicenter quantitative study comparing the quality of handwritten and electronic outpatient clinical visit notes for 100 patients with type 2 diabetes at three time points: 6 months prior to the introduction of the EHR (before-EHR), 6 months after the introduction of the EHR (after-EHR), and 5 years after the introduction of the EHR (5-year-EHR). QNOTE, a validated quantitative instrument, was used to assess the quality of outpatient clinical notes. Its scores can range from a low of 0 to a high of 100. Sixteen primary care physicians with active practices used QNOTE to determine the quality of the 300 patient notes. The before-EHR, after-EHR, and 5-year-EHR grand mean scores (SD) were 52.0 (18.4), 61.2 (16.3), and 80.4 (8.9), respectively, and the change in scores for before-EHR to after-EHR and before-EHR to 5-year-EHR were 18% (pquality scores significantly improved over the 5-year time interval. The EHR significantly improved the overall quality of the outpatient clinical note and the quality of all its elements, including the core and non-core elements. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EHR significantly improves the quality of clinical notes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  14. Remedial action programs annual meeting: Meeting notes

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office was pleased to host the 1987 Remedial Action programs Annual Meeting and herein presents notes from that meeting as prepared (on relatively short notice) by participants. These notes are a summary of the information derived from the workshops, case studies, and ad hoc committee reports rather than formal proceedings. The order of the materials in this report follows the actual sequence of presentations during the annual meeting

  15. Lecture Notes in Statistics. 3rd Semester

    The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models.......The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models....

  16. Note-taking Strategies and Academic Achievement

    Haghverdi, Hamid; Biria, Reza; Karimi, Lotfollah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is two fold. That is, revealing the significance, underlying theory and findings concerning note-taking in the literature related and exploring, through a survey study, the Iranian professors‘ and students‘ attitudes towards the effect of teaching note-taking strategies on the students‘ academic achievement. To this end, many previous studies were reviewed and we knew that many scholars, conducting empirical studies, surveys and interviews, have highlighted ...

  17. Note taking, review, memory, and comprehension.

    Bohay, Mark; Blakely, Daniel P; Tamplin, Andrea K; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    In previous work assessing memory at various levels of representation, namely the surface form, textbase, and situation model levels, participants read texts but were otherwise not actively engaged with the texts. The current study tested the influence of active engagement with the material via note taking, along with the opportunity to review such notes, and the modality of presentation (text vs. spoken). The influence of these manipulations was assessed both immediately and 1 week later. In Experiment 1 participants read a text, whereas in Experiment 2 participants watched a video recording of the material being read as a lecture. For each experiment the opportunity to take notes was manipulated within participants, and the opportunity to review these notes before the test was manipulated between participants. Note taking improved performance at the situation model level in both experiments, although there was also some suggestion of benefit for the surface form. Thus, active engagement with material, such as note taking, appears to have the greatest benefit at the deeper levels of understanding.

  18. MITHRAS REDISCOVERED II. FURTHER NOTES ON CIMRM 1938 AND 1986

    Szabo Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an important Mithraic relief was rediscovered and republished by the author of these lines in collaboration with George Bounegru and Victor Sava. The relief, known in the literature as CIMRM 1938 was for a long time considered a „disappeared” monument, the only laconic description being that of Marteen J. Vermaseren from his monumental corpus. Due to the recently rediscovered photographs of the relief and the detailed analysis of the correspondence between Béla Cserni and Franz Cumont, the CIMRM 1938 is now became available for further research. In this article, I will add some further historiographic and iconographic notes on one of the biggest Mithraic reliefs found in Dacia, solving also another mysterious piece in Vermaseren’s catalogue, the CIMRM 1986. The article is also the first publication of Béla Cserni’s photograph about the relief.

  19. THULE: A detailed description

    Terry, M.J.

    1964-07-01

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  20. Evalutive Descriptions of Art

    Nataša Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that, throughout history, certain artworks have been considered as “worth of watching” (according to the Greek etymon ἀξιοϑέατος / aksioteatos, preservation, or theorizing, while others were not, one is led to investigate the various types of evaluative descriptions. Those artworks that are more valuable than others, or simply valuable in themselves on the basis of rather specific features, have always represented the paradigmatic model for the evaluator, thus revealing the identitary nature of value as different from one epoch to another. Our aim has been to discern, with regard to this starting point, the way in which the process of evaluating artworks fits the general matrix of the universal theory of value, with its clearly distinguished levels of evaluation, beginning with value descriptions, continuing through the features of evaluation or abstract qualities of values extracted from these descriptions, and ending with value norms or systems of accepted generalizations in evaluation. Value standpoints in such an evaluation matrix represent dispositions or preferences in procedures, which reflect the norms or signifying concepts of the time. Corresponding procedures, or applications of the hierarchicized signification of artworks, are manifested in all known forms of artwork assessment: attribution, institutionalization, and setting of priorities in terms of exhibition, conservation, acquisition, restoration, and so on. Research in the history of European art-historical ideas has corroborated the hypothesis that, prior to the late 18th century, clear normative patterns were applied when it came to the evaluation of artworks. However, with the emergence of early Romanticism, this could no longer be done in the traditional way. Before the period in question, visual art was created (regardless of some stylistic discrepancies between individual authors and classified according to well-defined thematic

  1. Metaphorical descriptions of wrongdoers

    Dryll Ewa Marta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available What is a metaphoric picture of an evil person made of? In a study devoted to the development of the ability to use metaphorical descriptions of humans, the semantic fields of four target metaphors - Human-Swamp, Human-Snake, Human-Knife, and Human-Nettle - were established and compared. Subjects (365 young adults were asked to decipher the metaphors’ meanings. The results were obtained mainly by qualitative analysis, with frequency analysis of clusters containing synonymous meanings. The results indicate that when creating imaginary characteristics of evil people, young adults seem to be more concerned about the possibility of suffering verbal harassment (most commonly: vulgarity, mockery, gossip, jeering than the threat of actual physical assault. The results may prove useful for developmental comparisons.

  2. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  3. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... aim of this thesis is to compare and evaluate selected rapid evaluation techniques for sensory profiling. Method variations have been suggested for evaluations in product development and quality control, and method insight is provided. The thesis includes three original studies, designed...... as a consequence of the current practices and needs faced in the industry. Study I compared applicability and validity of rapid methods across several panels of trained assessors. Two rapid approaches were introduced for the evaluation of foods. The first method, ‘Free Multiple Sorting’, allows subjects to perform...

  4. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Note on Louis de Broglie's duality principle

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    For a material corpuscle, the principle of relativity ought to have a more complex expression due to the wave-particle dualism. As a matter of fact, three frame changes are necessary to link descriptions of two objects with uniform relative velocity, as a particle, as a wave, as both wave and particle. Galilean, dual, and Lorentz transformations correspond to these three descriptions [fr

  7. GeneNotes – A novel information management software for biologists

    Wong Wing H

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting and managing information is a challenging task in a genome-wide profiling research project. Most databases and online computational tools require a direct human involvement. Information and computational results are presented in various multimedia formats (e.g., text, image, PDF, word files, etc., many of which cannot be automatically processed by computers in biologically meaningful ways. In addition, the quality of computational results is far from perfect and requires nontrivial manual examination. The timely selection, integration and interpretation of heterogeneous biological information still heavily rely on the sensibility of biologists. Biologists often feel overwhelmed by the huge amount of and the great diversity of distributed heterogeneous biological information. Description We developed an information management application called GeneNotes. GeneNotes is the first application that allows users to collect and manage multimedia biological information about genes/ESTs. GeneNotes provides an integrated environment for users to surf the Internet, collect notes for genes/ESTs, and retrieve notes. GeneNotes is supported by a server that integrates gene annotations from many major databases (e.g., HGNC, MGI, etc.. GeneNotes uses the integrated gene annotations to (a identify genes given various types of gene IDs (e.g., RefSeq ID, GenBank ID, etc., and (b provide quick views of genes. GeneNotes is free for academic usage. The program and the tutorials are available at: http://bayes.fas.harvard.edu/genenotes/. Conclusions GeneNotes provides a novel human-computer interface to assist researchers to collect and manage biological information. It also provides a platform for studying how users behave when they manipulate biological information. The results of such study can lead to innovation of more intelligent human-computer interfaces that greatly shorten the cycle of biology research.

  8. Ophthalmology patients' interest in online access to clinic notes at three US clinics.

    Lee, Bryan S; Oster, Natalia V; Chen, Galen Y; Ding, Leona L; Walker, Janice D; Elmore, Joann G

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions about potential benefits and harms of accessing their own ophthalmology clinic notes via an electronic patient portal as part of the OpenNotes initiative. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, in-person survey of ophthalmology patients at three US eye clinics. The paper survey was self-administered or administered with assistance from study staff before or after patients' clinical visits. The authors used descriptive statistics to summarise patient characteristics and patient attitudes about accessing their ophthalmology notes online. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to assess differences in patient responses between clinic locations. Four hundred and fifty-one patients responded (response rate 65%). Most patients thought that accessing doctors' notes online was a good idea (95%), wanted to view their clinic notes online (94%), and agreed online access would increase their understanding of their eye problems (95%) and help them better remember their care plan (94%); 14% said online access would increase their worry; 43% had privacy concerns; and 96% indicated they would show or discuss their notes with at least one other person. Non-white patients were more likely than white patients to perceive online clinic notes as a useful tool, but they were also more likely to worry and to express greater privacy concerns. Patients at three US eye clinics were strongly in favour of online access to ophthalmology notes and were optimistic this access would improve their understanding and self-care. Ophthalmologists should consider offering online access to their notes to enhance doctor-patient communication and improve clinical outcomes. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  9. An Information Foraging Analysis of Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Robertson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study of political information foraging in the context of e-voting. Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes...... with lack of scent, low value perception, and value depletion of information. Implications for the voter centered design of e-voting portals are discussed....

  10. What happens when patients can see their doctors' note? - the Open Notes movement

    Mende, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  The Open Notes movement represents a culture change, enabling patients’ access to their providers’ notes, thereby increasing transparency and patient engagement.Policy context, objective and highlights:  OpenNotes involves allowing patients on-line or hard copy access to their providers’ notes. The one-year initial pilot began in 2010 with twenty thousand patients and one hundred primary care physicians at three medical centers in the United States.  The pilot’s evaluation foun...

  11. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Octávio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-08-03

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) could be utilized to facilitate the workflows of the data collection and assembly processes, as well as to support the development of personalized, yet data-driven assessments and plans. ©Rodrigo Octávio Deliberato, Leo Anthony Celi, David J Stone. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 03.08.2017.

  12. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Travelling without a helmet

    Rindrasih, Erda; Hartmann, Thomas; Witte, Patrick; Spit, Tejo; Zoomers, Annelies

    2018-01-01

    Tourists are particularly vulnerable when natural disasters occur in regions that they are visiting. It is assumed that they lack awareness and understanding of the actions that they need to take in such circumstances. This study examines the responses of tourists in times of disaster, building on

  14. Ballots and Blue Helmets

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt

    This paper provides an answer to the question of why early post-conflict elections have been so frequent in the post-Cold War era, when they are widely believed to be prone to result in renewed violence. I show that their popularity stems from their utility as an exit strategy for peacekeeping...... contributions to UN missions after 1989. The data reveal that UN troops rapidly accumulate before the first election in a mission and then leave just as rapidly afterwards. This pattern is independent of the income and regime type of contributor countries and of the level of violence in the mission country....

  15. Fusion Helmet: Electronic Analysis

    2014-04-01

    Table 1: LYR203-101B Board Feature P1 (SEC MODULE) DM648 GPIO PORn Video Ports (2) Bootmode SPI/UART I2C CLKIN MDIO DDR2 128MB/16bit SPI Flash 16...McASP EMAC-SGMII /2 MDIO I2C GPIO DDR2 128MB/16bit JTAG Memory CLKGEN I2C PGoodPGood PORn Pwr LED Power DSP SPI/UART DSP SPI/UARTSPI/UART Video Display

  16. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  17. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  18. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  19. Olkiluoto biosphere description 2006

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Kareinen, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Mykrae, S.; Turkki, H.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2007-02-01

    This report summarises the current knowledge of the biosphere of Olkiluoto, and it is the first Biosphere Description Report. The elements considered were climate, topography, land use, overburden, terrestrial vegetation and fauna and sea flora, fauna and water. The principal aim was to present a synthesis of the present state (now to 2020) and the main features of past evolution of the biosphere at the site using currently available data. The lack of site specific parameters and their importance was discussed. Conceptual ecosystem models are presented for land and sea. Currently available data made it possible to calculate the biomass of the terrestrial vegetation and further convert it to carbon. In the case of terrestrial animals, preliminary figures are given for moose alone due to lack of sitespecific data. For the same reason, the sea ecosystem model was not quantified within this work. The ecosystems on Olkiluoto do not deviate from the surrounding areas. Since mires are few on Olkiluoto, forests are the most important land ecosystem. However, coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The major interest concerning aquatic ecosystems was laid on four future lakes potentially developing from the sea due to the land up-lift. Current sea sediments near Olkiluoto are future land areas, and thus very important. Spatially, the forest ecosystems of Olkiluoto are now most comprehensively covered, while the temporal coverage is highest in sea ecosystems. Lack of data is greatest in terrestrial fauna and sea sediments. During this work, the system boundaries were crossed and the use of data over disciplines was started. The data were mostly in agreement, but some discrepancies were detected. To solve these, and to supplement the existing data, some recommendations were given. (orig.)

  20. Description of nuclear properties

    Faessler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The lectures want to give a survey about new developments in the description of nuclei. In a first chapter we try to derive nuclear properties from the basis theory of quantum chromodynamics. This is not rigorously possible. There are still many cracks in the bridge between QCD and nuclear structure. The basic ingredient for nuclear structure calculations is the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We shall discuss the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a quark model. In a further chapter we discuss the way to come from a bare nucleon-nucleon interaction in free space to an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a limited model space for nuclear structure calculations. Such nuclear structure calculations can be done as shell model calculations. But they are due to the large number of configurations limited to light nuclei. We discuss possibilities (MONSTER and VAMPIR) to enlarge the model space for medium heavy and heavy nuclei. As the example of the low lying isovector 1 + states we discuss collective models (Bohr - Mottelson Model, interacting Boson Model) with proton and neutron degrees of freedom. The same states can also be described microscopically with the Quasi-Particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA). We discuss the removal of spurious states in RPA. We also discuss the calculation of form factors and compare with inelastic electron scattering data. Finally we apply QRPA to the double-beta decay. Grand unified models predict, that the neutrino is identical with his antiparticle, that it has a finite mass and a weak right-handed interaction. If these properties are found the standard model of the strong and the electro-weak interaction can not be correct. Presently we can only derive from lower limits of the half lives of neutrinoless double-beta decays upper limits of the neutrino mass and of the right-handedness of the weak interaction and lower limits of the mass of the right handed heavy vector boson, if a specific grand unified model is given. (author)

  1. NOTES: issues and technical details with introduction of NOTES into a small general surgery residency program.

    Kavic, Michael S; Mirza, Brian; Horne, Walter; Moskowitz, Jesse B

    2008-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a development of recent origin. In 2004, Kalloo et al first described NOTES investigation in an animal model. Since then, several investigators have pursued NOTES study in animal survival and nonsurvival models. Our objectives for this project included studying NOTES intervention in a laboratory environment using large animal (swine) models and learning to do so in a safe, controlled manner. Ultimately, we intend to introduce NOTES methodology into our surgical residency training program. The expertise of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, fellowship-trained laparoendoscopic surgeon, and veterinarian along with a senior surgical resident was utilized to bring the input of several disciplines to this study. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM/COP) approved this study. A series of 5 laboratory sessions using mixed breed farm swine varying in weight from 37 kg to 43.1 kg was planned for the initial phase of NOTES introduction into our residency program. Animals were not kept alive in this investigation. All animals were anesthetized using a standard swine protocol and euthanized following guidelines issued by the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia. Equipment included a Fujinon EVE endoscope 0.8 cm in diameter with a suction/irrigation channel and one working channel. Initially, a US Endoscopy gastric overtube, 19.5 mm OD and 50 cm in length, was used to facilitate passage of the endoscope. However, this device was found to have insufficient length. Subsequently, commercially available 5/8" diameter clear plastic tubing, 70 cm to 80 cm in length, was adapted for use as an overtube. Standard endoscopic instruments included Boston Scientific biopsy forceps, needle-knife, papillotome, endoscopic clip applier, and Valley Lab electrosurgical unit. A Karl Storz laparoscope and tower were used for

  2. EPICS release 3.11.6 specific documentation -- Release notes for EPICS 3.11.6

    1994-01-01

    These notes cover the following: (1) directions for switching to production APS release R3.11.6; (2) unbundling of channel access clients; (3) access security; (4) channel access additions; synchronous time support; and (5) description of major differences between R3.11.3 and R3.11.6 Also included is a list of new and/or updated documentation for the program

  3. Grouping Notes Through NodesThe Functions of Post-It™ Notes in Design Team Cognition

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    The Post-It™ note is a frequently used, and yet seldom studied, design material. We investigate the functions Post-It™ notes serve when providing cognitive support for creative design team practice. Our investigation considers the ways in which Post-It™ notes function as design externalisations......, both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-It™ notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-It™ note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  4. Employing Picture Description to Assess the Students' Descriptive Paragraph Writing

    Ida Ayu Mega Cahyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing is considered as an important skill in learning process which is needed to be mastered by the students. However, in teaching learning process at schools or universities, the assessment of writing skill is not becoming the focus of learning process and the assessment is administered inappropriately. In this present study, the researcher undertook the study which dealt with assessing descriptive paragraph writing ability of the students through picture description by employing an ex post facto as the research design. The present study was intended to answer the research problem dealing with the extent of the students’ achievement of descriptive paragraph writing ability which is assessed through picture description. The samples under the study were 40 students determined by means of random sampling technique with lottery system. The data were collected through administering picture description as the research instrument. The obtained data were analyzed by using norm-reference measure of five standard values. The results of the data analysis showed that there were 67.50% samples of the study were successful in writing descriptive paragraph, while there were 32.50% samples were unsuccessful in writing descriptive paragraph which was assessed by administering picture description test

  5. A note on totally normal spaces

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  7. Botswana - Accrual Accounting Policy Note and Guide

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This paper comprises two volumes: volume one, this concise policy and guidance note that deals with the request as outlined, and a volume two which provides more detailed technical guidance on the implementation of International Public Sector accounting Standards (IPSAS) accrual based standards. Recommended reforms directly relevant to this paper include: 1) fiscal reforms on both the reve...

  8. Additional notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1936-01-01

    Since the appearance of my „Notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam” (in Rec. d. Trav. bot. néerl. XXXI, 1934, 248; also in Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht no. 11, 1934) a number of species and varieties new to the flora of that country have come to light. The majority have been collected by Mr. Rombouts

  9. CIFSRF Concept Notes Call 2013 Instructions

    IDRC CRDI

    Cc: (the other principal investigators and third-party organisations). Subject: CultiAF 2013 Call for Concept Notes Submitted by (names of all principal ..... clerical, accounting, or secretarial help, general office expenses, office rental and utility ... Please provide the details of financial contributions that will be made to the ...

  10. Modern systematics, a further botanical note

    Holttum, R.E.

    1948-01-01

    As noted in Dr L.G.M. Baas Becking’s Postscript to Mr van Bemmel’s article in Chronica Naturae Vol. 104, part 4, the new systematics has not been entirely neglected by botanists. I would like to put a further botanical vieuwpoint on this subject. Firstly, I suggest that there is no sharp distinction

  11. NOTE receives the prestigious ALICE Industrial Award

    2006-01-01

    "NOTE Lund has been given the ALICE Industrial Award due to good co-operation, great capacity for innovation and high quality of work, as a PCB manufacturer in the CERN project ALICE. Only a small number of awards have so far been conferred to a select number of companies."

  12. Note from TS/FM Group

    2007-01-01

    Renovation work at Restaurant no. 1 Please note that starting from 5 March and for one week, the men's toilets in Bldg. 500 (underground) will be closed because of the renovation work at Restaurant No. 1. The women's toilets in the same place will exceptionally be open to men and women during the same period. We apologize for the inconvenience and we are at your disposal for further information. Shuttle requests Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; to/from the airport or the centre of Geneva; for long distances, must be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable on 76969. Please note that starting from 1st of March, requests for the transport of PCs from your office to the PC store (Bldg. 513) and vice-versa, must be made the 'transport request' form on EDH under the field 'removals'). Mail distribution Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, mail distrib...

  13. [Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES)].

    Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.

  14. Note from the Goods Reception services

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services

  15. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish, on the ot...... in the interpreting task, i.e. whether it functions as the source or the target language. Drawing on the concept of processing capacity and the Effort Model of consecutive, a tentative explanation of these findings is suggested......., on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...

  16. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 9.

    1987-09-01

    management system and of the following: Secretaria de la Revista the inference engine. de Psicologia Social , Facultad de Psico- Application of Knowledge-Based...Notes NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Social and Environmental Psychology .................... William D. Crano 519 Applied Artificial Intelligence...An International Journal ................................. William D. Crano 520 New Spanish Journal of Social Psychology ................. William D

  17. Lecture notes for Advanced Time Series Analysis

    Madsen, Henrik; Holst, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A first version of this notes was used at the lectures in Grenoble, and they are now extended and improved (together with Jan Holst), and used in Ph.D. courses on Advanced Time Series Analysis at IMM and at the Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of Lund, 1994, 1997, ...

  18. Note Taking in Multi-Media Settings

    Black, Kelly; Yao, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    We provide a preliminary exploration into the use of note taking when combined with video examples. Student volunteers were divided into three groups and asked to perform two problems. The first problem was explored in a classroom setting and the other problem was a novel problem. The students were asked to complete the two questions. Furthermore,…

  19. The impact of note taking style and note availability at retrieval on mock jurors' recall and recognition of trial information.

    Thorley, Craig; Baxter, Rebecca E; Lorek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Jurors forget critical trial information and what they do recall can be inaccurate. Jurors' recall of trial information can be enhanced by permitting them to take notes during a trial onto blank sheets of paper (henceforth called freestyle note taking). A recent innovation is the trial-ordered-notebook (TON) for jurors, which is a notebook containing headings outlining the trial proceedings and which has space beneath each heading for notes. In a direct comparison, TON note takers recalled more trial information than freestyle note takers. This study investigated whether or not note taking improves recall as a result of enhanced encoding or as a result of note access at retrieval. To assess this, mock jurors watched and freely recalled a trial video with one-fifth taking no notes, two-fifths taking freestyle notes and two-fifths using TONs. During retrieval, half of the freestyle and TON note takers could access their notes. Note taking enhanced recall, with the freestyle note takers and TON note takers without note access performing equally as well. Note taking therefore enhances encoding. Recall was greatest for the TON note takers with note access, suggesting a retrieval enhancement unique to this condition. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Dual descriptions of supersymmetry breaking

    Intrilligator, K.; Thomas, S.

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking is considered in models which admit descriptions in terms of electric, confined, or magnetic degrees of freedom in various limits. In this way, a variety of seemingly different theories which break supersymmetry are actually interrelated by confinement or duality. Specific examples are given in which there are two dual descriptions of the supersymmetry breaking ground state

  1. Notes on Two Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan: Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. (Convolvulaceae and Acalypha aristata Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. and Acalypha aristata Kunth, originally native to tropical America, were recently found naturalized in disturbed sites of Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the two species. In addition, their distributions and notes on ecology are provided.

  2. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflageration

    Crowe, R.D. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  3. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflagration

    Crowe, R.D.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  4. Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students

    Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Itoi, Madoka

    2011-01-01

    Taking notes from lectures or reading material can be challenging, especially for those who have learning disabilities. An alternative to traditional note-taking is a method called "guided notes," which has been found to improve the accuracy of students' notes, increase the frequency of student responses, and improve students' quiz and test…

  5. DigiMemo: Facilitating the Note Taking Process

    Kurt, Serhat

    2009-01-01

    Everyone takes notes daily for various reasons. Note taking is very popular in school settings and generally recognized as an effective learning strategy. Further, note taking is a complex process because it requires understanding, selection of information and writing. Some new technological tools may facilitate the note taking process. Among such…

  6. LLW notes. Volume 11, No.8

    1996-12-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  7. LLW notes. Vol. 11, No. 1

    1996-02-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  8. LLW notes. Vol. 11, No. 1

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  9. Writing and Music: Album Liner Notes

    Dean Leonard Biron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A deceptive aspect of the ‘writing about music is like dancing about architecture’ cliché is the function of the preposition ‘about’. Literature and music, dance and architecture, painting and film – all are discrete aesthetic forms that nonetheless simultaneously feed off and provide nourishment for each other as part of art’s perpetual drive toward diversity and innovation. Nowhere is the aptness of the association between writing and music more obvious than in the phenomenon of album liner notes. Rather than merely an attempt at describing or translating musical experience, liner notes contribute to the dialogue between composer and listener and are a significant part of the culture of contemporary music.

  10. LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  11. Flatland an edition with notes and commentary

    Abbott, Edwin A; Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Flatland, Edwin Abbott Abbott's story of a two-dimensional universe, as told by one of its inhabitants who is introduced to the mysteries of three-dimensional space, has enjoyed an enduring popularity from the time of its publication in 1884. This fully annotated edition enables the modern-day reader to understand and appreciate the many "dimensions" of this classic satire. Mathematical notes and illustrations enhance the usefulness of Flatland as an elementary introduction to higher-dimensional geometry. Historical notes show connections to late-Victorian England and to classical Greece. Citations from Abbott's other writings as well as the works of Plato and Aristotle serve to interpret the text. Commentary on language and literary style includes numerous definitions of obscure words. An appendix gives a comprehensive account of the life and work of Flatland's remarkable author.

  12. Teaching Furlow palatoplasty: the sticky note method.

    Liu, Mona Mengyue; Kim, JeeHong; Jabbour, Noel

    2014-11-01

    The double-opposing Z-plasty (Furlow palatoplasty) procedure is a well-established method for palate repair in children. We propose a simple and easily accessible sticky note model to demonstrate the lengthening in palatal anatomy afforded by this technically challenging procedure. Our model involves creating a lengthened three-dimensional representation of the Z-plasty through making specified incisions and rearrangements of the palatal layers. The sticky note model was made a total of 20 times and length of the palate model pre and post Z-plasty was measured. The average length of the palate pre-procedure was 72 mm. The average length of the palate post procedure was 78.9 mm, showing an increase of 6.9 mm (9.6%). Our model provides an accurate and valuable educational tool that will aid in the visualization and understanding of the Furlow palatoplasty procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2

    1996-03-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  14. Molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline, and note by note cuisine is the next culinary trend

    This Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the past two decades, there has been much confusion about molecular gastronomy. This confusion has arisen because people ignore that the word gastronomy does not mean cuisine, it means knowledge about food. Similar to ‘molecular biology’, molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline that looks for the mechanisms of phenomena occurring during dish preparation and consumption. As with any other scientific discipline, it can have many applications. One of the first was ‘molecular cuisine’ but since 1994, ‘note by note cuisine’ has also been promoted. The latter involves preparing dishes using pure compounds, or more practically mixture of compounds obtained by fractioning plant or animal tissues, instead of using these tissues themselves. Note by note cuisine raises issues in various fields: science, technology, nutrition, physiology, toxicology and politics.

  15. Notes on HTR applications in methanol production

    Santoso, B.; Barnert, H.

    1997-01-01

    Notes on the study of HTR applications are presented. The study in particular should be directed toward the most feasible applications of HTR for process heat generation. A prospective study is the conversion of CO 2 gas from Natuna to methanol or formic acid. Further studies needs to be deepened under the auspices of IAEA and countries that have similar interest. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs

  16. Political Investment in Economic Protection: A Note

    Arsenio M. Balisacan

    1987-01-01

    This note presents some aspects of the neoclassical political economy of economic protection. It develops a conceptual framework which focuses on the costs and benefits of investment in political in?uence to certain conditions in the society and how the benefit-cost structure may affect the level of economic protection and the amount of what Bhagwati called "directly unproductive profit-seeking" activities.

  17. Mission climate note n.7, November 2005

    Dominicis, A. de

    2005-01-01

    The year 2005 was the year of the implementing of the CO 2 quotas market and the implementing of the kyoto protocol after the ratification by Russia. This context confirmed the presence of a 'carbon finance' based on new financial products: the CO 2 actives or carbon credits which materialize the emissions reductions and exist on the new markets. This note presents the main points of these markets: the purchase funds implementing, the investments and the purchase mechanisms management. (A.L.B.)

  18. Note: How Does Product Proliferation Affect Responsiveness?

    Diwakar Gupta; Mandyam M. Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    In this note we consider some strategies that a manufacturing firm may use to deal with an increase in the variety of products it offers. We indicate how alternate strategies for dealing with product proliferation impact the firm's responsiveness, measured in terms of average production lead time and average work-in-process inventory. Focusing on the make-to-order environment and using queueing models, we derive conditions under which an increase in product variety can improve both individual...

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 2,

    1982-02-28

    noted that the alleged Symptom-limited exercise testing is gen- immunity of marathon runners to coronary erally accepted as an integral part of any...marathon runners out of coronary patients. risk, and the motivation pf both physician and Wenger emphasized that there is no fixed dose patient...never 45 ESN 36-2 (1982) RESCUE KITE The accuracy of addition of columns of 2-digit numbers was significantly worse at In emergencies at sea, detection

  20. A note on Ramsey numbers for fans

    Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    For two given graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, either G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. A fan Fl is l triangles sharing exactly one vertex. In this note, it is shown that R(Fn,

  1. Notes on two species of Processa (Decapoda: Processidae from the Mexican Pacific

    Manuel Ayón-Parente

    Full Text Available Material belonging to the genus Processa, held in the Regional Marine Invertebrates Collection in Mazatlán, Mexico, is revised including specimens of the widely distributed P. peruviana, and the scarcely collected P. hawaiensis. For comparative purposes with the specimens from Hawaii and other localities, a detailed description of a male of P. hawaiensis collected in continental Mexico is provided, including illustrations of all appendages. Small differences are noted with previous description and partial redescriptions of this species, including proportion between propodus and dactylus of the fourth pereopod, and between merus and carpus of the right cheliped. In addition, the shape and setation of the first pair of pleopods in the Mexican material differs from the description of P. hawaiensis based on African material.

  2. Optimization for Guitar Fingering on Single Notes

    Itoh, Masaru; Hayashida, Takumi

    This paper presents an optimization method for guitar fingering. The fingering is to determine a unique combination of string, fret and finger corresponding to the note. The method aims to generate the best fingering pattern for guitar robots rather than beginners. Furthermore, it can be applied to any musical score on single notes. A fingering action can be decomposed into three motions, that is, a motion of press string, release string and move fretting hand. The cost for moving the hand is estimated on the basis of Manhattan distance which is the sum of distances along fret and string directions. The objective is to minimize the total fingering costs, subject to fret, string and finger constraints. As a sequence of notes on the score forms a line on time series, the optimization for guitar fingering can be resolved into a multistage decision problem. Dynamic programming is exceedingly effective to solve such a problem. A level concept is introduced into rendering states so as to make multiple DP solutions lead a unique one among the DP backward processes. For example, if two fingerings have the same value of cost at different states on a stage, then the low position would be taken precedence over the high position, and the index finger would be over the middle finger.

  3. Energy and greenhouse effect. Twelve short notes

    Prevot, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The author proposes twelve brief notes aimed at discussing the reduction of fossil energy consumption in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and to improve the French energy supply security, without any useless expense. These notes address the reason for energy savings, the cost and price of a CO 2 ton, the issue of thermal regulation for buildings (it's not in compliance with the law, and results in higher expenses and increased CO 2 emissions), the introduction of a carbon tax to incite investments for energy saving, the status and health of the CO 2 European market, the support of actions aimed at reducing fossil energy consumption, the fact that bio-heat is ten times more efficient than bio-fuel and that therefore car holders should finance bio-heat, the development of hybrid uses of energy to avoid the difficulty of energy storage, the reduction of CO 2 emissions at low cost (by consuming as much renewable energy as nuclear energy but without wind or photovoltaic energy), the cost of less CO 2 , less fossil energy and less nuclear, and the interest of France to act on its own to reduce CO 2 emissions. The author proposes a brief synthesis of these notes and some proposals regarding thermal regulation for buildings, taxes, the European CO 2 market, the forest biomass, electricity production, and the European and word dimensions of these issues

  4. Notes on Soho and a Reminiscence.

    Melton, Hollis

    1992-01-01

    Discusses George Maciunas' pivotal contributions to the renaissance of SoHo, the New York City community south of Houston Street. Recounts the establishment of Fluxus cooperatives, the history of the FilmMakers' Cinematheque, Maciunas' long struggle with the Attorney General's office, and closes with a description of the February 1978 erotic Flux…

  5. Notes on Caribbean Phymatidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Kormilev, N.A.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1991-01-01

    New descriptive and distributional data are presented for Ambush bugs from the Dominican Republic: Phymatocoris iviei gen. nov., spec. nov. and Lophoscutus hispaniolensis spec. nov. New records are given for Phymata interjecta Dudich, 1922, Lophoscutus confusus Kormilev, 1989, and L. ypsilon

  6. Health Topic XML File Description

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing ... information categories assigned. Example of a Full Health Topic Record A record for a MedlinePlus health topic ...

  7. Understanding Digital Note-Taking Practice for Visualization.

    Willett, Wesley; Goffin, Pascal; Isenberg, Petra

    2015-05-13

    We present results and design implications from a study of digital note-taking practice to examine how visualization can support revisitation, reflection, and collaboration around notes. As digital notebooks become common forms of external memory, keeping track of volumes of content is increasingly difficult. Information visualization tools can help give note-takers an overview of their content and allow them to explore diverse sets of notes, find and organize related content, and compare their notes with their collaborators. To ground the design of such tools, we conducted a detailed mixed-methods study of digital note-taking practice. We identify a variety of different editing, organization, and sharing methods used by digital note-takers, many of which result in notes becoming "lost in the pile''. These findings form the basis for our design considerations that examine how visualization can support the revisitation, organization, and sharing of digital notes.

  8. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    A. Alonso-Izquierdo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  9. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: wifredo@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: guilarte@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-02-10

    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  10. Notes on human error analysis and prediction

    Rasmussen, J.

    1978-11-01

    The notes comprise an introductory discussion of the role of human error analysis and prediction in industrial risk analysis. Following this introduction, different classes of human errors and role in industrial systems are mentioned. Problems related to the prediction of human behaviour in reliability and safety analysis are formulated and ''criteria for analyzability'' which must be met by industrial systems so that a systematic analysis can be performed are suggested. The appendices contain illustrative case stories and a review of human error reports for the task of equipment calibration and testing as found in the US Licensee Event Reports. (author)

  11. A note on the microeconomics of migration.

    Stahl, K

    1983-11-01

    "The purpose of this note is to demonstrate in a simple model that an individual's migration from a small town to a large city may be rationalized purely by a consumption motive, rather than the motive of obtaining a higher income. More specifically, it is shown that in a large city an individual may derive a higher utility from spending a given amount of income than in a small town." A formal model is first developed that includes the principal forces at work and is then illustrated using a graphic example. The theoretical and empirical issues raised are considered in the concluding section. excerpt

  12. A note on oblique water entry

    Moore, M. R.

    2012-10-02

    A minor error in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) obscured the fact that the points at which the free surface turns over in the solution of the Wagner model for the oblique impact of a two-dimensional body are directly related to the turnover points in the equivalent normal impact problem. This note corrects some of the earlier results given in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) and discusses the implications for the applicability of the Wagner model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 1.

    1986-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry mers and copolymers of polyacrylate salt series edited by Professor J.F.J. Todd latex) rather than an inorganic or or- (University...changes in the popu- cy with two potassium dihydrogen phos- lation of a vibrational manifold were phate (KDP) crystals. Following a fil- determined by...AD-A162 235 EUROPEAN SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 48 NUMBER I(U) OFFICE OF i/1 NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) L E SHAFFER JAN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/2

  14. Note about socio-economic calculations

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices...... alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead...

  15. A note on Jauch-Piron states

    Pták, Pavel

    1986-04-01

    A state s on a logic L is called Jauch-Piron if the equality s( a)= s( b)=1 for a,b∈ L implies the existence of such an element c∈ L that c⩽ a, c⩽ b and s( c)=1. If L is a lattice then the present definition coincides with Jauch-Piron states as defined in [7], [9] and [13]. A logic is called Jauch-Piron if its every state is Jauch-Piron. In this note we investigate the size of the class of Jauch-Piron logics.

  16. A note on simultaneous Monte Carlo tests

    Hahn, Ute

    In this short note, Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit for data of the form X(t), t ∈ I are considered, that reject the null hypothesis if X(t) leaves an acceptance region bounded by an upper and lower curve for some t in I. A construction of the acceptance region is proposed that complies to a...... to a given target level of rejection, and yields exact p-values. The construction is based on pointwise quantiles, estimated from simulated realizations of X(t) under the null hypothesis....

  17. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  18. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  19. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 7.

    1987-07-01

    college preparatory that the social constructionist view, as group. (Chances are only slightly better he describes it, offers anything more for the...new method for the recognition and positioning of two-dimensionl objects. The method uses segmented descriptions of the object contours to generate...and recursively evaluate a number of selected hypotheses. This article dis- cusses the method in detail. International Symposium on Simulation of

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 4,

    1980-04-30

    used to heat another body of water and most of the petroleum- exporting coun- to, say, 80°C and then condensed to form tries. And energy and water are...stocks, export subsidies, predator-prey relationship) and/or 194 ESN 34-4 (1980) Stages of Xoonoic Development and Structure of the Individual Farm Unit...such were not useful in agriculture because as cotton, are more tolerant, while they supplied only descriptive infor- others, including avocados (a