WorldWideScience

Sample records for helmet type brain-scanning

  1. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  2. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  3. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of radionuclides in brain scan

    Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Brain scanning is easy to perform, safe and well tolerated by the patient. It has a high sensitivity, and accuracy (85-90%) in detecting focal lesions with a minimal size of 1.5-2cm, located superior to the brain stem; however, it lacks specificity. It does not compete with other procedures such as CT scan and angiography bit they rather complement one another. The brain scan is useful as a screening exam. (Author) [pt

  5. Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children.

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Law, Emily F; Sil, Soumitri; Herbert, Linda Jones; Horn, Susan Berrin; Wohlheiter, Karen; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality (VR) type head-mounted display helmet for children undergoing cold pressor pain. Fifty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered via a VR helmet or without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvements in pain threshold and pain tolerance during both distraction conditions. However, the two distraction conditions did not differ in effectiveness. Using the VR helmet did not result in improved pain tolerance over and above the effects of interactive videogame distraction without VR technology. Clinical implications and possible developmental differences in elementary school-aged children's ability to use VR technology are discussed.

  6. Use of bone and brain scans as screening procedures in patients with malignant lesions

    Felix, E.L.; Sindelar, W.F.; Bagley, D.H.; Johnston, G.S.; Ketcham, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    A retrospective study to determine the value of bone and brain scans was performed in preoperative patients with melanoma, sarcoma, cancer of the head and neck and carcinoma of the pelvis. No occult metastases were identified in 170 patients in whom brain scan was performed. On late follow-up data, eight patients had neurologic symptoms develop and had brain metastases identified on scan. Of 223 bone scans performed, only one distant metastatic lesion was identified. It is, therefore, suggested that, in these types of patients, bone and brain scans be reserved for those with symptoms referable to the neurologic or skeletal systems

  7. Helmet blastometer

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  8. Neutron and X-ray characterisation of the metallurgical properties of a 7th century BC Corinthian-type bronze helmet

    Pantos, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Chapon, L. C.; Lutterotti, L.; Bennet, S. L.; Tobin, M. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pradell, T.; Salvado, N.; Butí, S.; Garner, R.; Prag, A. J. N. W.

    2005-09-01

    Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and FTIR were used to examine a Corinthian-type bronze helmet which is now on display at The Manchester Museum, UK. This type of helmet was manufactured out of a single piece of bronze, probably on a rod-anvil, and like all body-armour it was made to measure. Neutron diffraction sampling of the bronze volume in different areas was used to study the composition, microstructure and crystallographic texture of the alloy in order to draw conclusions about the manufacturing processes. The neutron data revealed the presence of microstrains and non-random distributions of bronze grains hinting at annealing-hammering working cycles in order to harden and shape the alloy. X-ray fluorescence showed that the main body of the helmet is a copper-tin alloy, while the noseguard contains zinc in high abundance. This key compositional difference confirms that the noseguard is not the original but is a modern substitute fabricated for restoration purposes. SR XRD and FTIR from several spots on the head and noseguard identified several surface corrosion products and showed a variation of the Cu-Sn or Cu-Zn percentage compositions, and of the mineral phases. Small samples of corrosion flakes extracted from the outside and inside of the helmet were used to obtain powder XRD patterns.

  9. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submer...

  10. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    2006-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  11. Effects of videogame distraction using a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in children.

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Clendaniel, Lindsay Dillinger; Law, Emily F; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D

    2009-06-01

    To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Forty-one children, aged 6-14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited.

  12. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children

    Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Results Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. PMID:18367495

  13. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of brain scanning in epilepsy of late onset

    Jain, A.N.; Ramanathan, P.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Brain scans of 513 patients with epilepsy of late onset were analysed with reference to the patient's age and sex and to the nature of convulsion. Only 17 of them showed an abnormal concentration of radionuclide indicating a space-occupying lesion in the brain. The findings of those patients who had positive brain scans were correlated with EEG findings. It was found that the incidence of epilepsy of late onset is almost 3 times higher in males than in females and that the age cannot be considered as a criterion for screening the patients for brain scan investigation as far as epilepsy of late onset is concerned. In the authors' opinion, the incidence of 3.3% is not too low. A positive brain scan finding calls for further investigation and helps in deciding the management and further line of treatment of the patients. Moreover, a normal scan rules out the presence of a space-occupying lesion and helps as a screening procedure. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  15. Technetium 99mTc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi; Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon

    1968-01-01

    Technetium 99 mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or 131 I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced 99 mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  16. Technetium {sup 99m}Tc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi [Capital Army Hospital, ROKA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1968-03-15

    Technetium {sup 99}mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or {sup 131}I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced {sup 99}mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  17. Unusual cause of 'doughnut' sign in brain scanning

    Beauchamp, J.M.; Belanger, M.A.; Neitzschman, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    The ''doughnut'' sign in brain scanning was originally described in association with certain mass lesions having central necrotic, cystic, or avascular areas. A case in which this pattern occurred as a result of a superficial lesion, a large cephalhematoma, is presented. (U.S.)

  18. Application of Auxetic Foam in Sports Helmets

    Leon Foster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored the viability of using open cell polyurethane auxetic foams to augment the conformable layer in a sports helmet and improve its linear impact acceleration attenuation. Foam types were compared by examining the impact severity on an instrumented anthropomorphic headform within a helmet consisting of three layers: a rigid shell, a stiff closed cell foam, and an open cell foam as a conformable layer. Auxetic and conventional foams were interchanged to act as the helmet’s conformable component. Attenuation of linear acceleration was examined by dropping the combined helmet and headform on the front and the side. The helmet with auxetic foam reduced peak linear accelerations (p < 0.05 relative to its conventional counterpart at the highest impact energy in both orientations. Gadd Severity Index reduced by 11% for frontal impacts (38.9 J and 44% for side impacts (24.3 J. The conformable layer within a helmet can influence the overall impact attenuating properties. The helmet fitted with auxetic foam can attenuate impact severity more than when fitted with conventional foam, and warrants further investigation for its potential to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injuries in sport specific impacts.

  19. The Influence of Friction Between Football Helmet and Jersey Materials on Force: A Consideration for Sport Safety.

    Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.

  20. Build Your Own Equiluminance Helmet

    Connolly, Salammbo; Connolly, Denis; Cleary, Anne; Herman, Laura; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A wearable ?helmet? version of the S cone isolating technique was constructed to explore vision at equiluminance. For my high school summer science project, I visited parks and streets while wearing the helmet and report that the helmet appears to have captured the main properties described for the large-scale, more cumbersome stage version.

  1. Computed tomographic brain scanning in the diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms

    Ringelstein, E.B.; Zeumer, H.; Hacke, W.; Keulers, P.

    1981-01-01

    Clinical investigations and computed brain scanning were done in 305 patients with primary extracerebral malignant tumours. One third of the patients had cerebral metastases. In most patients with brain metastases extracerebral secondary tumours were known already. Silent brain metastases were present in only 0.6% of all investigated tumour patients. All other patients had either objective neurologic-psychiatric defects or at least symptoms (headache, vomiting). Use of cranial computed tomography in all tumour patients as a pure screening method is thus not justified. The indication for the investigation is dependent on the clinical symptomatology. However, not only objective neurologic-psychiatric defects must be taken into account, but also occurrence of new symptoms. (orig.) [de

  2. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  3. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  4. Radiation exposure distribution in patients undergoing CT brain scans

    Yang Zhanshan; Feng Dinghua; Chang Zichi; Li Shijun

    1989-12-01

    The distribution of surface exposures in patients undergoing single and multiple computerized tomographic brain scans with Hitachi CT-W500 was measured by LiF(Mg, Ti) thermoluminescent dosimetry. It was found that there was no significant difference in the sufrace exposures from different scanning slices. However, the exposure doses at different scanning angles around the head were different significantly. The reference point of the maximum surface exposure was at the temporal part of the head. the maximum surface exposure was at 1.65 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 while the average exposure was 1.55 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 . The ratio of the average dose resulting from nine scans to that from a single scan was 1.3, and the surface exposure contribution of scattered radiation was computed. At the same time the radiation doses to eyes, thyroid, chest and gonads of patiens at corresponding position were also measured and were compared with those from CT cranial scans in children and skull radiographic procedures respectively

  5. Use of routine computed tomography brain scanning of psychiatry patients

    Agzarian, M.J.; Chryssidis, S.; Davies, R.P.; Pozza, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CT of the brain in patients presenting with a psychiatric condition without focal neurological signs. The reports of 397 consecutive CT brain scans of patients presenting to two acute tertiary hospital psychiatric services over a 2-year period were assessed retrospectively. Of the 397 patients, 241 had psychosis, 87 had depression, 44 had bipolar affective disorder, seven had alcohol dependence, five had dementia, and the remaining 13 had a variety of diagnoses including personality disorder and transient ischaemic attack. Findings on 377 (95%) of the CT scans showed no abnormality. Specific abnormalities were described in 20 (5%) of the CT scans. Three scans showed non-specific minor abnormalities, which, when followed up by MRI, showed no relevant abnormality. All the abnormalities shown on CT were considered to be clinically unrelated to the patient's psychiatric condition. In conclusion, the pretest probability of finding a space-occupying lesion or other pertinent abnormality in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses in this retrospective study appears not to be greater than that of the general population. The outcome of this study could be implemented to develop a clinical pathway for limiting assessment by CT for possible organic pathology in acute psychiatric illness. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Intrapartum FHR monitoring and neonatal CT brain scan

    Takahashi, Yoshiki; Ukita, Masahiko; Nakada, Eizo

    1982-01-01

    The effect of fetal distress on the neonatal brain was investigated by neonatal CT brain scan, FHR monitoring and mode of delivery. This study involved 11 cases of full term vertex delivery in which FHR was recorded by fetal direct ECG during the second stage labor. All infants weighed 2,500 g or more. FHR monitoring was evaluated by Hon's classification. Neonatal brain edema was evaluated by cranial CT histgraphic analysis (Nakada's method). 1) Subdural hemorrhage was noted in 6 of 7 infants delivered by vacuum extraction or fundal pressure (Kristeller's method). 2) Intracranial hemorrhage was demonstrated in all of 3 infants with 5-min. Apgar score 7 or less. 3) Two cases with prolonged bradycardia and no variability had intraventricular or intracerebral hemorrhage which resulted in severe central nervous system damage. 4) The degree of neonatal brain edema correlated with 5-min. Apgar score. 5) One case with prolonged bradycardia and no variability resulted in severe neonatal brain edema. Four cases with variable deceleration and increased variability resulted in mild neonatal brain edema. Two cases with late deceleration and decreased variability resulted in no neonatal brain edema. (author)

  7. Networked neuroscience : brain scans and visual knowing at the intersection of atlases and databases

    Beaulieu, Anne; de Rijcke, Sarah; Coopmans, Catelijne; Woolgar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the development of authoritative collections of brain scans known as “brain atlases”, focusing in particular on how such scans are constituted as authoritative visual objects. Three dimensions are identified: first, brain scans are parts of suites of networked technologies

  8. Impact of Soldier Helmet Configuration on Survivability

    2011-03-01

    helmet cannot sit too low, which is evident when the helmet covers the eyebrows and the helmet interferes with eyewear . The helmet should remain in...agencies, academia, and private industry have also aided in model development. ORCA is a high-resolution computerized personnel casualty model that can

  9. Camouflage design and head measurement characteristic of Indonesian armoured vehicle helmet

    Sya'bana, Yukhi Mustaqim Kusuma; Sanjaya, K. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper discussed camouflage design helmet for armored vehicles with comparing head measurement of Indonesian anthropometric. Design process conduct with considering of design aspects involves function, materials, operational, technology, user, and appearance (camouflage). As an application of Indonesian National Army that qualifies factors needs: safety, comfort, practical and service. MIL-H-44099A Military Specification: Helmet, Ground Troops And Parachutists is minimum limitation standard of military helmet production. Head measurement for product design process guide is presented. Model simulation and helmet measurement using the design for ego and design for more types ergonomics concept. Appearance shape concept is engaging camouflage towards background and environment to deceive enemy viewpoint. Helmet prototype has tested ergonomically to an Indonesian National Army soldier and stated that the helmet size is a comfort and fitted on the head when in use.

  10. Glue-sniffing as a cause of a positive radio-isotope brain scan

    Lamont, C M; Adams, F G

    1982-08-01

    Convulsions are a known complication of the acute intoxicant effects of solvent abuse. A radio-isotope brain scan done 9 months following status epilepticus secondary to toluene inhalation, in a previously normal school-boy, demonstrated several wedge-shaped areas of increased uptake, in both cerebral hemispheres, consistent with infarcts. It is worth remembering that a positive brain scan in a young person, with recent onset of epilepsy, may be due to glue-sniffing.

  11. Glue-sniffing as a cause of a positive radio-isotope brain scan

    Lamont, C.M.; Adams, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Convulsions are a known complication of the acute intoxicant effects of solvent abuse. A radio-isotope brain scan done 9 months following status epilepticus secondary to toluene inhalation, in a previously normal school-boy, demonstrated several wedge-shaped areas if increased uptake, in both cerebral hemispheres, consistent with infarcts. It is worth remembering that a positive brain scan in a young person, with recent onset of epilepsy, may be due to glue-sniffing. (orig.)

  12. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  13. Brain tissue analysis of impacts to American football helmets.

    Post, Andrew; Kendall, Marshall; Cournoyer, Janie; Karton, Clara; Oeur, R Anna; Dawson, Lauren; Hoshizaki, T Blaine

    2018-02-01

    Concussion in American football is a prevalent concern. Research has been conducted examining frequencies, location, and thresholds for concussion from impacts. Little work has been done examining how impact location may affect risk of concussive injury. The purpose of this research was to examine how impact site on the helmet and type of impact, affects the risk of concussive injury as quantified using finite element modelling of the human head and brain. A linear impactor was used to impact a helmeted Hybrid III headform in several locations and using centric and non-centric impact vectors. The resulting dynamic response was used as input for the Wayne State Brain Injury Model to determine the risk of concussive injury by utilizing maximum principal strain as the predictive variable. The results demonstrated that impacts that occur primarily to the side of the head resulted in higher magnitudes of strain in the grey and white matter, as well as the brain stem. Finally, commonly worn American football helmets were used in this research and significant risk of injury was incurred for all impacts. These results suggest that improvements in American football helmets are warranted, in particular for impacts to the side of the helmet.

  14. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Shaun Fitzgerald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  15. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle ...

    users are vulnerable on the road and are at high risk of death resulting from head ..... time of injury sustained head injury reflecting its importance in prevention of head .... WHO (2006) Helmets: A Road Safety Manual for Decision-makers and ...

  16. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  17. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  18. Evaluative studies in nuclear medicine research. Interim progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976. [Diagnostic value of brain scans

    Potchen, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Data relating to the determination of the efficacy of radionuclide brain scanning have been analyzed. The data were gathered at a teaching hospital by use of a prospective questionnaire followed by a retrospective study of the result of the brain scan examination. Data analysis was accomplished using a method of pattern discovery which relates selected outcomes such as normal and abnormal brain scans to patient attributes (signs, symptoms, history, and previous test results). The objective of the analysis was the identification of patterns or clusters of patient attributes which have a high probability of acting as predictors of the outcome of the brain scan.

  19. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel.

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  20. Brain scan in cerebral ischemia. An experimental model in the rat

    Turner, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid embolic method for consistent induction of stroke in the rat is described. Brain scans were performed using a micro-pinhole collimator system, and the value of the model for studies in localization of radiopharmaceuticals in cerebral ischemia is demonstrated

  1. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  2. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  3. Head and Helmet Biodynamics and Tracking Performance in Vibration Environments

    Smith, Suzanne D; Smith, Jeanne A

    2006-01-01

    ...) and Up (40" elevation, 0" azimuth)], and three helmet CCs were tested. The overall head, helmet, and helmet slippage displacement rotations, and rms tracking error and percent time-on-target were evaluated...

  4. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  5. The evaluation of speed skating helmet performance through peak linear and rotational accelerations.

    Karton, Clara; Rousseau, Philippe; Vassilyadi, Michael; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Like many sports involving high speeds and body contact, head injuries are a concern for short track speed skating athletes and coaches. While the mandatory use of helmets has managed to nearly eliminate catastrophic head injuries such as skull fractures and cerebral haemorrhages, they may not be as effective at reducing the risk of a concussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of speed skating helmets with respect to managing peak linear and peak rotational acceleration, and to compare their performance against other types of helmets commonly worn within the speed skating sport. Commercially available speed skating, bicycle and ice hockey helmets were evaluated using a three-impact condition test protocol at an impact velocity of 4 m/s. Two speed skating helmet models yielded mean peak linear accelerations at a low-estimated probability range for sustaining a concussion for all three impact conditions. Conversely, the resulting mean peak rotational acceleration values were all found close to the high end of a probability range for sustaining a concussion. A similar tendency was observed for the bicycle and ice hockey helmets under the same impact conditions. Speed skating helmets may not be as effective at managing rotational acceleration and therefore may not successfully protect the user against risks associated with concussion injuries.

  6. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  7. Helmet-Induced Occipital Neuralgia in a Military Aviator.

    Chalela, Julio A

    2018-04-01

    Headaches among military personnel are very common and headgear wear is a frequently identified culprit. Helmet wear may cause migrainous headaches, external compression headache, other primary cranial neuralgias, and occipital neuralgia. The clinical features and the response to treatment allow distinction between the different types of headaches. Headaches among aviators are particularly concerning as they may act as distractors while flying and the treatment options are often incompatible with flying status. A 24-yr-old door gunner presented with suboccipital pain associated with the wear of his helmet. He described the pain as a paroxysmal stabbing sensation coming in waves. The physical exam and history supported the diagnosis of primary occipital neuralgia. Systemic pharmacological options were discussed with the soldier, but rejected due to his need to remain in flying status. An occipital nerve block was performed with good clinical results, supporting the diagnosis of occipital neuralgia and allowing him to continue as mission qualified. Occipital neuralgia can be induced by helmet wear in military personnel. Occipital nerve block can be performed in the deployed setting, allowing the service member to remain mission capable and sparing him/her from systemic side effects.Chalela JA. Helmet-induced occipital neuralgia in a military aviator. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):409-410.

  8. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L

    2008-01-01

    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  9. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; plegislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Over-all accuracy of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate brain scanning for brain tumours

    Bjoernsson, O.G.; Petursson, E.; Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Davidsson, D.

    1978-01-01

    A 3-year follow-up and re-evaluation of all scans on all patients referred for brain scanning in Iceland during 1 year was performed in order to assess the diagnostic reliability of radioisotope scanning for brain tumours. The study included 471 patients. Of these 25 had primary brain tumours and 7 brain metastases. Scans were positive and correctly interpreted in 68% of the patients with primary brain tumours and in 3 of the 7 patients with metastases. The over-all accuracy of brain scanning for brain tumours defined as the total number of correct positive scans and correct negative scans versus total number of scans examined was 96%, this figure being mainly influenced by the high number of true negative scans. (orig.) [de

  11. What do we know about bicycle helmets?

    Bogerd, C.P. Halldin, P. Houtenbos, M. Otte, D. Rossi, R.M. Walker, L. Willinger, R. & Shinar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to driving for many journeys. But cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users, with a helmet being the main safety device that is available. However, there are indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage through legislation causes

  12. Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football.

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C

    2014-06-01

    In cases of possible cervical spine injury, medical professionals must be prepared to achieve rapid airway access while concurrently restricting cervical spine motion. Face mask removal (FMR), rather than helmet removal (HR), is recommended to achieve this. However, no studies have been reported that compare FMR directly with HR. The purpose of this study was to compare motion, time, and perceived difficulty in two commonly used American football helmets between FMR and HR techniques, and when helmet air bladders were deflated before HR compared with inflated scenarios. The study incorporated a repeated measures design and was performed in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants included 22 certified athletic trainers (15 men and seven women; mean age, 33.9±10.5 years; mean experience, 11.4±10.0 years; mean height, 172±9.4 cm; mean mass, 76.7±14.9 kg). All participants were free from upper extremity or central nervous system pathology for 6 months and provided informed consent. Dependent variables included head excursion in degrees (computed by subtracting the minimum position from the maximum position) in each of the three planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse), time to complete the required task, and ratings of perceived exertion. To address our study purposes, we used two-by-two repeated-measures analysis of variance (removal technique×helmet type, helmet type×deflation status) for each dependent variable. Independent variables consisted of removal technique (FMR and HR), helmet type (Riddell Revolution IQ [RIQ] and VSR4), and helmet deflation status (deflated [D], inflated, [I]). After familiarization, participants conducted two successful trials for each of six conditions in random order (RIQ-FMR, VSR4-FMR, RIQ-HR-D, VSR4-HR-D, RIQ-HR-I, and VSR4-HR-I). Face masks, helmets, and shoulder pads were removed from a live model wearing a properly fitted helmet and shoulder pads. The participant and an investigator stabilized the model's head. A six

  13. Ballots and Blue Helmets

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt

    This paper provides an answer to the question of why early post-conflict elections have been so frequent in the post-Cold War era, when they are widely believed to be prone to result in renewed violence. I show that their popularity stems from their utility as an exit strategy for peacekeeping...... contributions to UN missions after 1989. The data reveal that UN troops rapidly accumulate before the first election in a mission and then leave just as rapidly afterwards. This pattern is independent of the income and regime type of contributor countries and of the level of violence in the mission country....

  14. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    2012-08-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  15. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  16. Helmet-based physiological signal monitoring system.

    Kim, Youn Sung; Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-02-01

    A helmet-based system that was able to monitor the drowsiness of a soldier was developed. The helmet system monitored the electrocardiogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram (alpha waves) without constraints. Six dry electrodes were mounted at five locations on the helmet: both temporal sides, forehead region and upper and lower jaw strips. The electrodes were connected to an amplifier that transferred signals to a laptop computer via Bluetooth wireless communication. The system was validated by comparing the signal quality with conventional recording methods. Data were acquired from three healthy male volunteers for 12 min twice a day whilst they were sitting in a chair wearing the sensor-installed helmet. Experimental results showed that physiological signals for the helmet user were measured with acceptable quality without any intrusions on physical activities. The helmet system discriminated between the alert and drowsiness states by detecting blinking and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters extracted from ECG. Blinking duration and eye reopening time were increased during the sleepiness state compared to the alert state. Also, positive peak values of the sleepiness state were much higher, and the negative peaks were much lower than that of the alert state. The LF/HF ratio also decreased during drowsiness. This study shows the feasibility for using this helmet system: the subjects' health status and mental states could be monitored without constraints whilst they were working.

  17. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against.

    McCarthy, M

    1996-03-01

    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children.

  18. The value of brain scanning in cerebro-vascular disease by CT

    Huber, G.; Emde, H.

    1980-01-01

    Brain scanning by scintigraphy and CT studies of the brain are complementary methods. The precise demonstration of the anatomy and the pathology of the brain by CT is supplemented by brain scintigraphy due to the latter's value to assess the hemodynamic properties of a lesion and thus provide important clues to its site and sometimes even its histology. This is especially true in vascular brain disease thus either dispensing the need for an invasive procedure such as angiography or providing information for a specific approach. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MKO [de

  19. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  20. Helmet Sensor - Transfer Function and Model Development

    2010-09-01

    that helmets be examined forensically when estimating the impact direction and location and the electronic HMSS data not be used in that determination... forensic analysis of the helmet itself is therefore recommended to determine the direction and severity of the ballistic impact 5. The helmet shell does...ot83 HTI l ot 8J HT1 lot S ,HTt IOt S , HTI l otiH HTt lotSS HTt l vt85 HTI l o)t 85 HT1 Front Level Acceleration ~~,--~----~--,30’p~g

  1. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    Rash, Clarence

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  2. MR brain scan tissues and structures segmentation: local cooperative Markovian agents and Bayesian formulation

    Scherrer, B.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate magnetic resonance brain scan segmentation is critical in a number of clinical and neuroscience applications. This task is challenging due to artifacts, low contrast between tissues and inter-individual variability that inhibit the introduction of a priori knowledge. In this thesis, we propose a new MR brain scan segmentation approach. Unique features of this approach include (1) the coupling of tissue segmentation, structure segmentation and prior knowledge construction, and (2) the consideration of local image properties. Locality is modeled through a multi-agent framework: agents are distributed into the volume and perform a local Markovian segmentation. As an initial approach (LOCUS, Local Cooperative Unified Segmentation), intuitive cooperation and coupling mechanisms are proposed to ensure the consistency of local models. Structures are segmented via the introduction of spatial localization constraints based on fuzzy spatial relations between structures. In a second approach, (LOCUS-B, LOCUS in a Bayesian framework) we consider the introduction of a statistical atlas to describe structures. The problem is reformulated in a Bayesian framework, allowing a statistical formalization of coupling and cooperation. Tissue segmentation, local model regularization, structure segmentation and local affine atlas registration are then coupled in an EM framework and mutually improve. The evaluation on simulated and real images shows good results, and in particular, a robustness to non-uniformity and noise with low computational cost. Local distributed and cooperative MRF models then appear as a powerful and promising approach for medical image segmentation. (author)

  3. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  4. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating?

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line

    2015-07-01

    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  5. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States.

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-03-09

    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  6. Demonstration of cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers with SPECT perfusion brain scans

    Nagel, J.S.; Tumeh, S.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Lee, V.W.; Holman, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports I-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) brain scans performed on cocaine users to investigate the effects of cocaine on the cerebral perfusion in a manner similar to previous CT, angiographic and positron-emission tomographic (PET) studies. Ten asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic cocaine users, two users with major neurovascular complications, and five normal subjects were studied with IMP SPECT. Rotating-brain images of the cerebral IMP uptake were displayed by using a distance-weighted surface-projection technique and were visually analyzed for focal cortical perfusion deficits. Eleven cocaine users had multiple scattered cortical IMP defects. Frontal lobe defects were most prominent. One user had confluent defects resembling swiss cheese. Concurrent CT scans available in nine patients were negative in seven and showed infarcts in two. No similar focal findings were visible in normals

  7. A fundamental study on brain scanning with sup(99m)Tc-citrate

    Ishii, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Nobuaki; Horiike, Shigeharu; Nakazawa, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    We examined the sup(99m)Tc-citrate obtained by labelling citrate with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate using Solcocitran Kit. For our fundamental study--we measured the ratio of labelling by means of paper chromatography. By picking out each organs of each rats we also measured the velocity at which radiopharmaceuticals disappeared in each of their organs, and the distribution of radio-pharmaceuticals in their organs. For our clinical study--we performed brain scanning on 47 patients. The following are the results; Citrate was labelled as much as 99 - 95% into sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate. The velocity of disappearance in each organ of the rats was quicker than in the case of sup(99m)TcO 4 - . Accumulation in the choroid plexus and salivary gland was not obserbed despite the fact that we did not use KClo 4 , and images of brain tumor were obtainable to a high degree. (author)

  8. On cerebral celebrity and reality TV: subjectivity in times of brain scans and psychotainment.

    De Vos, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The philosopher Daniel Dennett developed a theory of consciousness in which he replaces the so-called Cartesian theater with conceptions such as "fame in the brain" and "cerebral celebrity." The paradox of this is that Dennett unwittingly reintroduces the metaphors of the stage and the screen. The use of this trope is pursued in this essay in order to juxtapose Dennett's theory with reality TV and celebrity culture. This will allow us to sketch out late-modern subjectivity in times of brains scans and "psychotainment." Drawing on Walter Benjamin, Giorgi Agamben, Slavoj Žižek, and others, a plea is made for a materialism of the zero-level of subjectivity.

  9. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA.

  10. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  11. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    opperwjj

    in Malaysia and the highest (10) in Brunei Duressalam. Stricter .... in line with the global findings that the introduction and enforcement of legislation on helmet .... Motorcycle helmet wearing behavior among Naresuan university students.

  12. Neck Muscle Fatigue Resulting from Prolonged Wear of Weighted Helmets

    Gallagher, Hilary L; Caldwell, Erin; ALbery, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    .... While these systems undoubtedly increase a pilot's capabilities, one obvious drawback to putting all this equipment on the pilot's helmet is the increase in helmet weight that shifts the combined...

  13. Effect of Filters on the Noise Generated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivered via a Helmet

    Ricardo Hernández-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the problems that the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP via a helmet poses is the generation of noise. The objective of our study was to assess the effect that the use of filter has on sound pressure levels generated by the delivery of positive airway pressure at different gas flow rates. Materials and Methods: Sound pressure levels generated by neonatal helmet CPAP delivery were measured at different gas flows (20, 30, and 40 l/min with and without a breathing filter. Noise intensity was measured by installing microphones in the inner ear of dummy heads wearing helmets. Results: The sound pressure level increased by 38% at a gas flow of 40 l/min, as compared to a gas flow of 20 l/min {74 dBA [interquartile range (IQR 2,2] vs 52 dBA (IQR 5,9, respectively}. Using the breathing filter as a diffuser has a variety of effects on sound pressure levels according to the gas flow rate. Conclusion: The intensity of the noise generated by helmet delivery of positive airway pressure depends on the type of helmet used, gas flow, and use or not of a diffuser filter. Breathing filters with gas flows over 30 l/min might not be recommended since they would not attenuate but will rather amplify sound pressure.

  14. Helmets or not? Use science correctly.

    Trégouët, Paul

    2015-08-01

    In a recent article, Hooper and Spicer make several arguments against legislation that would mandate the use of bicycle helmets. While they present reasonable objections to the utilitarian as well as the justice defence of such legislation, their review of the empirical evidence contains inaccuracies, omissions and a bias in the selection of empirical data. While there are legitimate reasons to argue against mandating helmet legislation, these arguments should still be based on clinically and scientifically sound evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Effects of repealing the motorcycle helmet law in Michigan.

    Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy

    2017-09-01

    In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  17. Clinical observations of the brain abscesses, especially on the computed tomographic brain scan findings

    Kitano, Masahiko; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Yamada, Yasufumi; Yorimae, Akira; Akai, Fumiharu; Watanabe, Masaru; Nakatani, Jiro; Ioku, Masahiko

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen cases with pyogenic brain abscess were experienced in our clinic during the last 7 years. The records of these patients were examined to evaluate the clinical stage and the result of several treatments. In 12 operative cases, diagnosis was made by fluid aspirated from the abscess. Bacteria were cultured from the fluid in 5 among these cases. In 3 other non-operative patients, diagnosis was based on computed tomographic (CT) brain scans and laboratory studies. Each volume of the brain abscess and surrounding brain edema was measured on serial CT scans to evaluate the clinical stage and the abscess evolution. In symptoms and signs, it has been thought that one of the factors contributing to mortality was the level of consciousness. In this study, the disturbance of consciousness did not correlate with the size of abscess, but with that of edema. The cases reported here were divided into 3 groups according to the volume of abscess and of edema on initial CT scans. The cases of group A had small surrounding edema ( 50 ml) and small abscess ( 25 ml). The group A had slight change in the clinical status and the size of edema, but the others had severe change. Three phase changes in edema size were seen in the group B regardless of therapeutic modalities ; showing almost constant increase in first 2 weeks, great decrease in second 2 weeks and moderate decrease following these 4 weeks. In the group C, however, these phases were seen only in early operation cases. (J.P.N.)

  18. A study of emergency American football helmet removal techniques.

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Hernandez, Adam E

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to compare head kinematics between the Eject Helmet Removal System and manual football helmet removal. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-two certified athletic trainers (sex, 19 male and 13 female; age, 33 ± 10 years; height, 175 ± 12 cm; mass, 86 ± 20 kg) removed a football helmet from a healthy model under 2 conditions: manual helmet removal and Eject system helmet removal. A 6-camera motion capture system recorded 3-dimensional head position. Our outcome measures consisted of the average angular velocity and acceleration of the head in each movement plane (sagittal, frontal, and transverse), the resultant angular velocity and acceleration, and total motion. Paired-samples t tests compared each variable across the 2 techniques. Manual helmet removal elicited greater average angular velocity in the sagittal and transverse planes and greater resultant angular velocity compared with the Eject system. No differences were observed in average angular acceleration in any single plane of movement; however, the resultant angular acceleration was greater during manual helmet removal. The Eject Helmet Removal System induced greater total head motion. Although the Eject system created more motion at the head, removing a helmet manually resulted in more sudden perturbations as identified by resultant velocity and acceleration of the head. The implications of these findings relate to the care of all cervical spine-injured patients in emergency medical settings, particularly in scenarios where helmet removal is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  20. Osmotic blood-brain barrier modification: clinical documentation by enhanced CT scanning and/or radionuclide brain scanning

    Neuwelt, E.A.; Specht, H.D.; Howieson, J.; Haines, J.E.; Bennett, M.J.; Hill, S.A.; Frenkel, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Results of initial clinical trials of brain tumor chemotherapy after osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption are promising. In general, the procedure is well tolerated. The major complication has been seizures. In this report, data are presented which indicate that the etiology of these seizures is related to the use of contrast agent (meglumine iothalamate) to monitor barrier modification. A series of 19 patients underwent a total of 85 barrier modification procedures. Documentation of barrier disruption was monitored by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning, radionuclide brain scanning, or a combination of both techniques. In 56 procedures (19 patients) monitored by enhanced CT, seizures occurred a total of 10 times in eight patients. Twenty-three barrier modification procedures (in nine of these 19 patients) documented by nuclear brain scans alone, however, resulted in only one focal motor seizure in each of two patients. In eight of the 19 patients who had seizures after barrier disruption and enhanced CT scan, four subsequently had repeat procedures monitored by radionuclide scan alone. In only one of these patients was further seizure activity noted; a single focal motor seizure was observed. Clearly, the radionuclide brain scan does not have the sensitivity and spatial resolution of enhanced CT, but at present it appears safer to monitor barrier modification by this method and to follow tumor growth between barrier modifications by enhanced CT. Four illustrative cases showing methods, problems, and promising results are presented

  1. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  2. Helmet Use and Head Injury in Homer's Iliad.

    Swinney, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Homer's detailed descriptions of head injuries inflicted during the Trojan War are of particular interest to individuals in the medical community. Although studies have examined the prevalence of such injuries, none have examined the preventive measures taken to avoid them. An in-depth review of helmet use in Homer's Iliad was conducted to address this previously unexplored facet of the epic. An English translation of Homer's text was reviewed for all references to helmet use. The number of helmet references in each book was recorded, along with other pertinent details for each reference. There were 87 references to helmets (40 combat, 47 noncombat). The helmet belonged to a Greek warrior in 41 cases (47.1%), a Trojan warrior in 38 cases (43.6%), a divinity in 5 cases (5.7%), and a general group of warriors in 3 cases (3.4%). Helmet use provided protective benefit to Greek warriors at a rate of 30.0% (3 of 10) and Trojan warriors at a rate of 11.1% (2 of 18). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). The overall combined protective benefit of helmet use in the text was 17.9% (5 of 28). Helmets belonging to 15 specific Greek warriors and 18 specific Trojan warriors were referenced in the text. Helmets belonging to Hector (n = 12) and Achilles (n = 8) were most frequently mentioned. Helmet use and head injury both play a prominent role in Homer's Iliad. Helmets are frequently used in combat settings but with relatively little success. Helmets are also used in various noncombat settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GPK helmets protecting from gas and dusts

    Il' inskii, Eh.G.; Kogan, Yu.A.; Mazanenko, V.P.

    1983-08-01

    The GPK protective helmet with an integrated respirator system protecting a miner's respiratory system and eyes from gases and dusts is described. The system uses compressed air from the mine compressed air system. Air is supplied to the respirator by an elastic rubber pipe to 30 m long. The air cools the miner's head under the helmet and passes between a protective shield and the miner's face protecting eyes and the respiratory system. Air supply ranges from 100 to 150 l/min. The air supplied to the respirator is cleaned by a filter. The GPK system weighs 1.2 kg. The system has been tested under laboratory conditions and in two coal mines under operational conditions at longwall faces and during mine drivage. Tests showed that the GPK guarantees efficient cooling and protection from dust. Design of the GPK helmet with a respirator is shown in two schemes. Technical specifications of the system are given.

  4. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  5. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  6. North Caucasian helmets from the Crimean Tatar Nobility from the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Turkey. Design Features, Design and Combat Use

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the helmets of the Crimean Tatar nobility stored in the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Republic of Turkey. Based on the analysis of design and system design determined that hats were made of Circassian masters of the XVIII century. Helmet No. 1/810 in shape of the dome relates to the type of bevel. Forged a gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, pads, conical pommel, and ringed barmitsa Persian type. In Cherkessia similar hats were known as Tang (from the Arab. "the Taj", i.e. "crown". It is most likely that the owner of the helmet was the last Noureddine Crimean khanate, Bahadir Giray (1789-1792 was the son of MuminGirei (?-1747 and grandson of Khan Saadet Giray IV (1717-1724. Helmet No. 1/812по the shape of a dome refers to the type of conal. Forged iron gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, plates and funnel-shaped topping. Dome placed on the manufacture date of the helmet – "1180 of the Hijra" (i.e., 1766-1767 in the Gregorian calendar, as well as the inscription: "Owner Sultan Ali", "Muhammad Giray", "Mansour". Helmet No. 1/811по the shape of a dome refers to the type of cylindrical. Faceted iron supplemented gilt crown ornamented Hoop, conical pommel and Aventail Persian type. On the front of hats placed the inscription, "Sultan Mohammed Ibn AdilGiray". This suggests that the owner of the helmet could be the son of Nureddin (1718, serasker Budjaka and Editcol (1727-1728 Adil Ibn Selim I Giray or seraskier EditcolAdil Ibn Selim III Giray (1766-1767. In the framework of the interdisciplinary research were made copies of these helmets, which have become the object of scientific experiments aimed at the study of the functional properties of the considered hats. According to the results of the experimental tests it was found that all three of the helmet provide very reliable protection of the head and neck of the warrior from the cutting and cut-and-cutting blows of the enemy. The saber blade

  7. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  8. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    helmets in direct impact are well documented and helmets have been found to ... conditions during a drop test and studied the influence of shell stiffness and liner ... the latter authors use a SI (Structural Intensity) approach to study power flow ...

  9. Manufacture and impact analysis of bmx helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Mahadi

    2018-02-01

    Helmets are protective head gears wear by bicycle riders for protection against injury in case of the accident. Helmet standards require helmets to be tested with a simple drop test onto an anvil. The purpose of research is to know toughness of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber. This research contains report result manufacture and impacts analysis of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite materials strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB). The geometric helmet structure consists of shell and liner; both layers have sandwich structure. The shell uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157EX material, chopped strand mat 300 glass fiber reinforce and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) catalyst with the weight composition of 100 gr, 15 gr, and 5 gr. The liner uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157 EX material, EFB fiber reinforces, Polyurethane blowing agent, and MEKPO catalyst with the composition of 275 gr (50%), 27.5 gr (5%), 247 gr (45%), and 27.5 gr (5%). Layers of the helmet made by using hand lay-up method and gravity casting method. Mechanical properties of polymeric foam were the tensile strength (ơt) 1.17 Mpa, compressive strength (ơc) 0.51 MPa, bending strength (ơb) 3.94 MPa, elasticity modulus (E) 37.97 Mpa, density (ρ) 193 (kg/m3). M4A model helmet is the most ergonomic with the thickness 10 mm and the amount of air channel 11. Free fall impact test was done in 9 samples with the thickness of 10 mm with the height of 1.5 m. The result of the impact test was impacted force (Fi) 241.55 N, Impulse (I) 6.28 Ns, impact Strength (ơi) 2.02 Mpa and impact Energy (Ei) 283.77 Joule. The properties of bicycle helmet model BMX-M4A type was 264 mm length, 184 mm width, 154 mm height, 10 mm thick, 580 mm head circle, 331 g mass and 11 wind channels.

  10. Estimation of eye lens dose during brain scans using Gafchromic XR-QA2 film in various multidetector CT scanners

    Akhilesh, Philomina; Jamhale, Shramika H.; Sharma, S.D.; Kumar, Rajesh; Datta, D.; Kulkarni, Arti R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate eye lens dose during brain scans in 16-, 64-, 128- and 256-slice multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanners in helical acquisition mode and to test the feasibility of using radiochromic film as eye lens dosemeter during CT scanning. Eye lens dose measurements were performed using Gafchromic XR-QA2 film on a polystyrene head phantom designed with outer dimensions equivalent to the head size of a reference Indian man. The response accuracy of XR-QA2 film was validated by using thermoluminescence dosemeters. The eye lens dose measured using XR-QA2 film on head phantom for plain brain scanning in helical mode ranged from 43.8 to 45.8 mGy. The XR-QA2 film measured dose values were in agreement with TLD measured dose values within a maximum variation of 8.9%. The good correlation between the two data sets confirms the viability of using XR-QA2 film for eye lens dosimetry. (authors)

  11. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  12. An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City.

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Johnson, Glen D; Hammond, Rodney; Chow, Ching Man; Varsos, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike(®) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings.

  13. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  14. DETECTION OF MOTORCYCLISTS WITHOUT HELMET AND FINEPAYMENT USING OPEN CV

    Stemy Simon, Divya Kumaran A.K.

    2018-01-01

    The helmet is the main safety equipment of motorcyclists, but many drivers do not use it. The main aim of this project is to construct an automatic detection of the motorcyclist without helmet from video using OpenCV library tools. If they are not wearing the helmet, the license plate of the motorcycle is focused automatically. By using Computer Vision technique we can detect and recognize the license plate number. We make the training set of different characters of different sizes. Based on ...

  15. The implementation of a municipal indoor ice skating helmet policy: effects on helmet use, participation and attitudes.

    O'Mahony-Menton, Colleen; Willmore, Jacqueline; Russell, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    In Ottawa, between 2005 and 2009 there was an annual average of 47.2 head injuries due to ice skating in children and youth (1-19 years of age) requiring a visit to the emergency department, with the highest rates among those aged 5-14 years. Between 2002 and 2007, only 6% of children were wearing a helmet during ice skating when the head injury occurred. During indoor public skating sessions, 93% of children (skating helmet policy coupled with education and promotional activities on helmet use, participation and attitudes towards helmet use. An ice skating helmet policy for children (skating experience at indoor rinks during public skating sessions was developed, implemented and evaluated. Supportive activities such as discount coupons, promotional materials, a media launch, social marketing and staff training are described. The helmet policy was associated with increased helmet use for young children and for older children, youth and adults not included in the policy, without decreasing attendance to public skating sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006

    Ann Burgess

    Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding ... The conclusion is that cyclists need information on the importance of wearing a helmet. ... Leading safety advocates recommend the.

  17. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries.

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  18. Methodologies for Blunt Trauma Assessment in Military Helmets

    2010-09-13

    Assessment; Monorail Drop Tower 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 10 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Laboratory Test Procedure for Motorcycle Helmets (TP-218-06) [8]. TP-218-06 specifies a guided monorail drop and provides requirements for how helmets...a hemispherical anvil. The monorail restricts movement to control the impact location, and acceleration is measured using a uniaxial accelerometer

  19. Combat Helmet-Headform Coupling Characterized from Blunt Impact Events

    2011-11-01

    Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect of helmet/headform coupling on the blunt impact behavior of ACH helmets using FMVSS...designates its own methods and test equipment: a drop tower ( monorail or twin- wire), headform (DOT, ISO, NOCSAE), headform CG accelerometer (single or...the more anthropomorphic International Standard Organization (ISO) half headform. Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect

  20. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session

    1994-01-01

    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  1. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana.

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  2. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings.

    Lau M Andersen

    Full Text Available The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways.

  3. Automatic helmet-wearing detection for law enforcement using CCTV cameras

    Wonghabut, P.; Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Ung-arunyawee, R.; Leelapatra, W.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an application for enforcing helmet wearing using CCTV cameras. The developed application aims to help law enforcement by police, and eventually resulting in changing risk behaviours and consequently reducing the number of accidents and its severity. Conceptually, the application software implemented using C++ language and OpenCV library uses two different angle of view CCTV cameras. Video frames recorded by the wide-angle CCTV camera are used to detect motorcyclists. If any motorcyclist without helmet is found, then the zoomed (narrow-angle) CCTV is activated to capture image of the violating motorcyclist and the motorcycle license plate in real time. Captured images are managed by database implemented using MySQL for ticket issuing. The results show that the developed program is able to detect 81% of motorcyclists on various motorcycle types during daytime and night-time. The validation results reveal that the program achieves 74% accuracy in detecting the motorcyclist without helmet.

  4. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm 3 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm 2 ) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements

  5. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  6. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  7. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Prehospital emergency removal of football helmets using two techniques.

    Swartz, Erik E; Hernandez, Adam E; Decoster, Laura C; Mihalik, Jason P; Burns, Matthew F; Reynolds, Cathryn

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Eject Helmet Removal (EHR) System with manual football helmet removal. This quasiexperimental counterbalanced study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty certified athletic trainers (17 men and 13 women; mean ± standard deviation age: 33.03 ± 10.02 years; height: 174.53 ± 12.04 cm; mass: 85.19 ± 19.84 kg) participated after providing informed consent. Participants removed a Riddell Revolution IQ football helmet from a healthy model two times each under two conditions: manual helmet removal (MHR) and removal with the EHR system. A six-camera, three-dimensional motion capture system was used to record range of motion (ROM) of the head. A digital stopwatch was used to time trials and to record a split time associated with EHR system bladder insertion. A modified Borg CR10 scale was used to measure the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Mean values were created for each variable. Three pairwise t-tests with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels tested for differences between time for removal, split time, and RPE. A 2 x 3 (condition x plane) totally within-subjects repeated-measures design analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested for differences in head ROM between the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Analyses were performed using SPSS (version 18.0) (alpha = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in perceived difficulty between EHR (RPE = 2.73) and MHR (RPE = 2.55) (t(29) = 0.76; p = 0.45; d = 0.20). Manual helmet removal was, on average, 28.95 seconds faster than EHR (t(29) = 11.44; p football helmets and in helmets used in other sports such as lacrosse, motorsports, and ice hockey.

  9. Impact of Helmet Use on Injury and Financial Burden of Motorcycle and Moped Crashes in Hawai‘i: Analysis of a Linked Statewide Database

    Castel, Nikki A; Wong, Linda L; Steinemann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai‘i between 2007–2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition. Unhelmeted riders of either type of vehicle suffered more head injuries, especially skull fractures (adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.48, P motorcycle and moped riders, with a significant (P = .006) difference between helmeted ($27,176) and unhelmeted ($40,217) motorcycle riders. Unhelmeted riders were twice as likely to self-pay (19.3%, versus 9.8% of helmeted riders), and more likely to have Medicaid or a similar income-qualifying insurance plan (13.5% versus 5.0%, respectively). Protective associations with helmet use are stronger among motorcyclists than moped riders, suggesting the protective effect is augmented in higher speed crashes. The public financial burden is higher from unhelmeted riders who sustain more severe injuries and are less likely to be insured. PMID:27980882

  10. Improved brain scan specificity utilizing /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate and /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate

    Fischer, K.C.; McKusick, K.A.; Pendergrass, H.P.; Potsaid, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Each of 36 patients was studied with two separate brain scans performed sequentially after the injection of 20 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate or 20 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate. The resulting scans were qualitatively compared, and lesion-to-nonlesion ratios of activity determined. Diagnoses were established by clinical criteria and were supported in the majority of cases by computerized axial tomography or roentgen angiography or both. Histologic confirmation was available in five cases of tumor and in the single cases of subdural hematoma and cerebral abscess. Of 22 cerebral infarctions, 15 were better demonstrated with /sup 99m/Tc-(Sn)-diphosphonate than with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate. Of the seven remaining cases, three were visualized equally well with each agent, and three were better demonstrated with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate. One was not seen with either agent. Of the 12 tumors, 11 were visualized better with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate than with /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate while in one case the lesion was seen equally as well with both agents. In no case was a lesion definitely seen with one radio- pharmaceutical and not with the other. These results indicate that this dual method is helpful in differentiating gliomas and metastases from cerebral infarctions. (U.S.)

  11. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  12. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  13. Influence of an Enforcement Campaign on Seat-Belt and Helmet Wearing, Karachi-Hala Highway, Pakistan

    Bhatti, Junaid A.; Ejaz, Kiran; Razzak, Junaid A.; Tunio, Israr Ali; Sodhar, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed to what extent an enforcement campaign influenced seat-belt and helmet wearing on a Pakistani highway. The study setting was the Karachi-Hala highway where a traffic enforcement campaign was conducted from Dec 2009 to Feb 2010. Seat-belt and helmet wearing were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010 at Karachi toll plaza. Differences in wearing rates as a function of occupants’ age, sex, and vehicle type were compared between the two periods. On average, 9 119 (Standard deviation=1 896) traffic citations were issued per month from Aug 2009 to Feb 2010; 4.2% of which were for not wearing helmet. A 22.5% increase in citations was observed for Dec 2009 to Feb 2010 periods compared with Aug 2009 to Oct 2009 periods. Nearly six thousand four-wheeled and four hundred two-wheeled motorized vehicle occupants were observed in Nov 2009 and Apr 2010. Overall, two of the five drivers and one of the five front seat occupants wore seat belts. This proportion was significantly higher in drivers and front-seat occupants of cars than those of heavier vehicles. Similarly, one of two motorcyclists used a helmet but this proportion was 5.8% for pillion riders in Nov 2009. The increased enforcement had a limited influence on belt wearing in drivers (+4.0%; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]=1.8–6.1) and occupants (+6.2%; 95%CI=4.2–8.2). A higher increase was observed for motorcyclists (+9.8%; 95%CI=2.6–16.8) and pillion riders (+12.8%; 95%CI=5.4, 20.5). These results suggested that serious efforts are required to increase seat-belt and helmet use on Pakistani highways. Improving enforcement resources, increased fines, not allowing such vehicles on roads, and awareness campaigns targeting drivers of heavy vehicles might increase wearing rates in Pakistan. PMID:22105384

  14. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  15. Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets.

    Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T

    2017-12-01

    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.

  16. INTER LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON

    2018-03-26

    data by Instrumentation for Impact  Test , SAE standard J211‐1 [4]. Although the entire curve is collected, the interest of this  project  team  solely...HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON by Tony J. Kayhart Charles A. Hewitt and Jonathan Cyganik March 2018 Final...INTER-LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  17. Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health.

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-02-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.

  18. A fully-automated computer-assisted method of CT brain scan analysis for the measurement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces and brain absorption density

    Baldy, R.E.; Brindley, G.S.; Jacobson, R.R.; Reveley, M.A.; Lishman, W.A.; Ewusi-Mensah, I.; Turner, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-assisted methods of CT brain scan analysis offer considerable advantages over visual inspection, particularly in research; and several semi-automated methods are currently available. A new computer-assisted program is presented which provides fully automated processing of CT brain scans, depending on ''anatomical knowledge'' of where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-containing spaces are likely to lie. After identifying these regions of interest quantitative estimates are then provided of CSF content in each slice in cisterns, ventricles, Sylvian fissure and interhemispheric fissure. Separate measures are also provided of mean brain density in each slice. These estimates can be summated to provide total ventricular and total brain volumes. The program shows a high correlation with measures derived from mechanical planimetry and visual grading procedures, also when tested against a phantom brain of known ventricular volume. The advantages and limitations of the present program are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Fully-automated computer-assisted method of CT brain scan analysis for the measurement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces and brain absorption density

    Baldy, R.E.; Brindley, G.S.; Jacobson, R.R.; Reveley, M.A.; Lishman, W.A.; Ewusi-Mensah, I.; Turner, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    Computer-assisted methods of CT brain scan analysis offer considerable advantages over visual inspection, particularly in research; and several semi-automated methods are currently available. A new computer-assisted program is presented which provides fully automated processing of CT brain scans, depending on ''anatomical knowledge'' of where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-containing spaces are likely to lie. After identifying these regions of interest quantitative estimates are then provided of CSF content in each slice in cisterns, ventricles, Sylvian fissure and interhemispheric fissure. Separate measures are also provided of mean brain density in each slice. These estimates can be summated to provide total ventricular and total brain volumes. The program shows a high correlation with measures derived from mechanical planimetry and visual grading procedures, also when tested against a phantom brain of known ventricular volume. The advantages and limitations of the present program are discussed.

  20. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  2. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  3. Effects of ventilated safety helmets in a hot environment

    G.A. Davis; E.D. Edmisten; R.E. Thomas; R.B. Rummer; D.D. Pascoe

    2001-01-01

    Forest workers are likely to remove head protection in hot and humid conditions because of thermal discomfort. However, a recent Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation revision requires all workers in logging operations to wear safety helmets, thus creating a compliance problem. To determine which factors contribute to forest workers’ thermal...

  4. Helmets: A Threat to the Preservation of Women's Lacrosse

    Bull, Ashley; Cavanaugh, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    A recent debate has raised controversy over the implementation of helmets in the game of women's lacrosse. Women have been participating in this game of finesse and skill without the need for safety equipment, yet in the past decade goggles have been mandated to compensate for the technological advancements in equipment that has increased the…

  5. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    ... common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate ...

  6. Further Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Using CODES Linked Data

    1998-01-01

    Linked data from the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) in seven : states was used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as the : basis of a 1996 Report to Congress on the Benefits of Safety Belts and : Motorcycle Helmets (D...

  7. Football helmet drop tests on different fields using an instrumented Hybrid III head.

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An instrumented Hybrid III head was placed in a Schutt ION 4D football helmet and dropped on different turfs to study field types and temperature on head responses. The head was dropped 0.91 and 1.83 m giving impacts of 4.2 and 6.0 m/s on nine different football fields (natural, Astroplay, Fieldturf, or Gameday turfs) at turf temperatures of -2.7 to 23.9 °C. Six repeat tests were conducted for each surface at 0.3 m (1') intervals. The Hybrid III was instrumented with triaxial accelerometers to determine head responses for the different playing surfaces. For the 0.91-m drops, peak head acceleration varied from 63.3 to 117.1 g and HIC(15) from 195 to 478 with the different playing surfaces. The lowest response was with Astroplay, followed by the engineered natural turf. Gameday and Fieldturf involved higher responses. The differences between surfaces decreased in the 1.83 m tests. The cold weather testing involved higher accelerations, HIC(15) and delta V for each surface. The helmet drop test used in this study provides a simple and convenient means of evaluating the compliance and energy absorption of football playing surfaces. The type and temperature of the playing surface influence head responses.

  8. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  9. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  10. Children should wear helmets while ice-skating: a comparison of skating-related injuries.

    McGeehan, Jennifer; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2004-07-01

    .9%, 52 of 56 cases), compared with injuries to skateboarders (3.6%, 1 of 28 cases) (RR: 13.96; 95% CI: 2.01-96.76), rollerskaters (63.4%, 59 of 93 cases) (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.23-1.74), and in-line skaters (10.9%, 15 of 137 cases) (RR: 8.48; 95% CI: 5.23-13.75). The proportion of head injuries among ice-skaters in this study was greater than that observed for participants in other types of skating, for which helmet use is recommended and often required. Children should wear a helmet during recreational ice-skating. Mandatory helmet use by pediatric ice-skaters at indoor rinks should be implemented. Use of other types of protective equipment, such as wrist guards, knee pads, and elbow pads, should be considered for prevention of injuries to the extremities during ice-skating. Caution should be used when allowing young children to participate in recreational ice-skating. Additional research should be conducted in other populations, to corroborate these findings and to evaluate ice-skating safety recommendations for children.

  11. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6

    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  13. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  14. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  15. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  16. Does listening to music with an audio ski helmet impair reaction time to peripheral stimuli?

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M

    2012-12-01

    With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents.

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  18. Neck muscle strain when wearing helmet and NVG during acceleration on a trampoline.

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Siitonen, Simo

    2008-02-01

    The helmet-mounted equipment worn by military pilots increases the weight of the helmet system and shifts its center of gravity, increasing the loads on neck structures, especially during acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neck muscle strain with different head-loads during trampoline-induced G loads (0 to +4 G). Under three conditions [no helmet, helmet, helmet with night vision goggles (NVG)], 14 subjects performed trampoline exercises including basic, hand-and-knee, and back bouncing. EMG activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical erector spinae (CES), trapezoid (TRA), and thoracic erector spinae (TES) muscles. Muscle strain was determined as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). For the three exercises combined, the following significant changes were found: compared to control, the helmet increased muscle strain by 18%, 28%, and 18% in the SCM, CES, and TRA, respectively; NVG produced a further increase of 11% in the SCM and 6% in the CES. During back bouncing, the helmet increased muscle strain by 14% in the SCM and 19% in the CES, and NVG further increased this strain by 14% in the SCM. Hand-and-knee bouncing loaded extensors: the helmet caused increases of 46% in the CES and 29% in the TES, while NVG produced a further 13% increase in CES activation. Helmet weight alone had a large effect on muscular workload. The additional frontal weight of the NVG caused a further increase in the activity of cervical muscles that were already subjected to high strain.

  19. A universal and smart helmet-mounted display of large FOV

    Zhang, Nan; Weng, Dongdong; Wang, Yongtian; Li, Xuan; Liu, Youhai

    2011-11-01

    HMD (head-mounted display) is an important virtual reality device, which has played a vital role in VR application system. Compared with traditional HMD which cannot be applied in the daily life owing to their disadvantage on the price and performance, a new universal and smart Helmet-Mounted Display of large FOV uses excellent performance and widespread popularity as its starting point. By adopting simplified visual system and transflective system that combines the transmission-type and reflection-type display system with transflective glass based on the Huggens-Fresnel principle, we have designed a HMD with wide field of view, which can be easy to promote and popularize. Its resolution is 800*600, and field of view is 36.87°(vertical)* 47.92°(horizontal). Its weight is only 1080g. It has caught up with the advanced world levels.

  20. Elevated Extravascular Lung Water Index (ELWI) as a Predictor of Failure of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Via Helmet (Helmet-CPAP) in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Major Surgery.

    Redondo Calvo, Francisco Javier; Bejarano Ramirez, Natalia; Uña Orejon, Rafael; Villazala Garcia, Ruben; Yuste Peña, Ana Sofia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-01

    NIV is increasingly used for prevention and treatment of respiratory complications and failure. Some of them are admitted to the PACU with advanced hemodynamic monitors which allow quantification of Extravascular Lung Water (EVLW) by transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD) and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability (PVP) providing information on lung edema. The objective of this study was to ascertain if EVLW Index and PVP Index may predict failure (intubation) or success (non-intubation) in patients developing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the postoperative period following major abdominal surgery, where the first line of treatment was non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure via a helmet. Hemodynamic variables, EVLWI and PVPI were monitored with a transpulmonary thermodilution hemodynamic monitor device (PiCCO™) before and after the application of CPAP. Avoidance of intubation was observed in 66% of patients with Helmet-CPAP. In these patients after the first hour of application of CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased (303.33±65.2 vs. 141.6±14.6, P<.01). Before starting Helmet-CPAP values of EVLWI and PVPI were significantly lower in non-intubated patients (EVLWI 8.6±1.08 vs. 11.8±0.99ml/kg IBW, P<.01 and PVPI 1.7±0.56 vs. 3.0±0.88, P<.01). An optimal cut-off value for EVLWI was established at 9.5, and at 2.45 for PVPI (sensitivity of 0.7; specificity of 0.9, P<.01). In this type of patient the physiological parameters that predict the failure of Helmet-CPAP with the greatest accuracy were the value of the EVLWI and PVPI before Helmet-CPAP institution and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the respiratory rate after one hour of CPAP. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Achieving all-age helmet use compliance for snow sports: strategic use of education, legislation and enforcement.

    Fenerty, Lynne; Heatley, Jennifer; Young, Julian; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Kureshi, Nelofar; Bruce, Beth S; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B

    2016-06-01

    Nova Scotia is the first jurisdiction in the world to mandate ski and snowboard helmet use for all ages at ski hills in the province. This study represents a longitudinal examination of the effects of social marketing, educational campaigns and the introduction of helmet legislation on all-age snow sport helmet use in Nova Scotia. A baseline observational study was conducted to establish the threshold of ski and snowboarding helmet use. Based on focus groups and interviews, a social marketing campaign was designed and implemented to address factors influencing helmet use. A prelegislation observational study assessed the effects of social marketing and educational promotion on helmet use. After all-age snow sport helmet legislation was enacted and enforced, a postlegislation observational study was conducted to determine helmet use prevalence. Baseline data revealed that 74% of skiers and snowboarders were using helmets, of which 80% were females and 70% were males. Helmet use was high in children (96%), but decreased with increasing age. Following educational and social marketing campaigns, overall helmet use increased to 90%. After helmet legislation was enacted, 100% compliance was observed at ski hills in Nova Scotia. Results from this study demonstrate that a multifaceted approach, including education, legislation and enforcement, was effective in achieving full helmet compliance among all ages of skiers and snowboarders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. The problem of the pillion rider: India's helmet law and New Delhi's exemption.

    Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L

    2014-05-01

    In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of helmet or knit cap use in head injury of snowboarders.

    Fukuda, Osamu; Hirashima, Yutaka; Origasa, Hideki; Endo, Shunro

    2007-11-01

    The rate of head injury is 1.86-6 times higher for snowboarding than for skiing. Detailed data about the usefulness of a helmet or knit cap for protecting against serious head injuries have not been reported. The present study evaluated the use of a helmet or knit cap for preventing head injuries. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,190 consecutive patients in a hospital during the 1999/2000-2002/2003 winter seasons at Uonuma ski resort, Niigata, Japan. Patients were divided into the helmet, knit cap, and no cap groups. Upper technical level was highest and jumping as the cause of injury was most frequent in the helmet group. After adjustment for other confounders, there was a significant negative association between the occurrence of serious head injury during snowboarding and female sex (adjusted odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.718, p jumping (adjusted odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.43, p = 0.0001). Among snowboarding maneuvers, only jumping showed a significant negative association between wearing of a helmet or knit cap and the occurrence of serious head injury (p = 0.036). Snowboarders who wear helmets might attempt dangerous maneuvers causing injuries. Wearing of a helmet or knit cap protected against serious head injuries on jumping. Every snowboarder should wear a helmet or knit cap on jumping to prevent head injury.

  4. In defence of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation: response to Hooper and Spicer.

    Biegler, Paul; Johnson, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    We invoke a triple rationale to rebut Hooper and Spicer's argument against mandatory helmet laws. First, we use the laws of physics and empirical studies to show how bicycle helmets afford substantial protection to the user. We show that Hooper and Spicer erroneously downplay helmet utility and that, as a result, their attack on the utilitarian argument for mandatory helmet laws is weakened. Next, we refute their claim that helmet legislation comprises unjustified paternalism. We show the healthcare costs of bareheaded riding to pose significant third party harms. It follows, we argue, that a utilitarian case for helmet laws can be sustained by appeal to Mill's Harm Principle. Finally, we reject Hooper and Spicer's claim that helmet laws unjustly penalise cyclists for their own health-affecting behaviour. Rather, we show their argument to suffer by disanalogy with medical cases where injustice may be more evident, for example, denial of bypass surgery to smokers. We conclude that mandatory helmet laws offer substantial utility and are entirely defensible within the framework of a liberal democracy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players.

    Greenhill, Dustin A; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R Dawn; Boden, Barry P

    2016-05-01

    There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder-lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  7. Viet Nam’s mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children

    Pervin, Aaron; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. Methods The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and χ² was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). Findings The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90–99% among adults, from 15–53% among children ≤ 7 years of age, and from 38–53% among children > 7 but ≤ 14. Of the parents surveyed, 67% said the fear of neck injury was the most important reason their children did not wear a helmet. Conclusion Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions. PMID:19551255

  8. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.

    1993-12-01

    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  9. Psychological models for development of motorcycle helmet use among students in Vietnam

    Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Satiennam, W.; Trinh, Tu Anh

    2018-04-01

    A helmet can reduce head accident severity. The aim of this research study was to study the intention for helmet use of students who ride motorcycles in Vietnam, by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Questionnaires developed by several traffic psychology modules, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Traffic Locus of Control (T-LOC), and Health Belief Model (HBM), were distributed to students at Ton Thang University and University of Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City. SEM was used to explain helmet use behaviour. The results indicate that TPB, T-LOC and HBM could explain the variance in helmet use behaviour. However, TPB can explain behaviour (helmet use intention) better than T-LOC and HBM. The outcome of this study is useful for the agencies responsible to improve motorcycle safety.

  10. Methods of estimating the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and psychological performance.

    Bogdan, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Luczak, Anna; Konarska, Maria; Pietrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method for a comprehensive assessment of the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and cognitive responses of motorcyclists. To verify the reliability of commonly used tests, we conducted experiments with 5 motorcyclists. We recorded changes in physiological parameters (heart rate, local skin temperature, core temperature, air temperature, relative humidity in the space between the helmet and the surface of the head, and the concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and in psychological parameters (motorcyclists' reflexes, fatigue, perceptiveness and mood). We also studied changes in the motorcyclists' subjective sensation of thermal comfort. The results made it possible to identify reliable parameters for assessing the effect of integral helmets on performance, i.e., physiological factors (head skin temperature, internal temperature and concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and on psychomotor factors (reaction time, attention and vigilance, work performance, concentration and a subjective feeling of mood and fatigue).

  11. Long-term use of neonatal helmet-CPAP: a case report.

    Doglioni, N; Micaglio, M; Zanardo, V; Trevisanuto, D

    2009-12-01

    In a recent short-term physiological study, we demonstrated a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP) that could be a feasible device for managing preterm infants needing continuous distending pressure with better tolerability than nasal-CPAP. However, its application for a long-term period has never been reported in neonates. Here, we describe the use of neonatal helmet-CPAP in a neonate with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Twenty minutes after neonatal helmet-CPAP placement, the baseline post-ductal tcSaO2 (66%) and alveolar-arterial gradient O2 improved from 66% and 648 mmHg to 100% and 465 mmHg, respectively. The neonatal helmet-CPAP was applied for 48 hours and was well-tolerated by the patient without complications. Long-term use of neonatal helmet-CPAP appears feasible and well-tolerated. Comparative trials are needed.

  12. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  13. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  14. Rates of motorcycle helmet use and reasons for non-use among adults and children in Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M

    2015-09-28

    Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.

  15. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking Accidents With or Without Helmet Use.

    Dagher, Jehane H; Costa, Camille; Lamoureux, Julie; de Guise, Elaine; Feyz, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    To determine if health outcomes and demographics differ according to helmet status between persons with cycling-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI). This is a retrospective study of 128 patients admitted to the Montreal General Hospital following a TBI that occurred while cycling from 2007-2011. Information was collected from the Quebec trauma registry and the coroner's office in cases of death from cycling accidents. The independent variables collected were socio-demographic, helmet status, clinical and neurological patient information. The dependent variables evaluated were length of stay (LOS), extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOS-E), injury severity scale (ISS), discharge destination and death. 25% of cyclists wore a helmet. The helmet group was older, more likely to be university educated, married and retired. Unemployment, longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, severe intracranial bleeding and neurosurgical interventions were more common in the no helmet group. There was no significant association between the severity of the TBI, ISS scores, GOS-E or death and helmet wearing. The median age of the subjects who died was higher than those who survived. Cyclists without helmets were younger, less educated, single and unemployed. They had more severe TBIs on imaging, longer LOS in ICU and more neurosurgical interventions. Elderly cyclists admitted to the hospital appear to be at higher risk of dying in the event of a TBI.

  17. A Discussion of the Issue of Football Helmet Removal in Suspected Cervical Spine Injuries

    Segan, Ross D.; Cassidy, Christine; Bentkowski, Jamie

    1993-01-01

    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan. ImagesFig. 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6. PMID:16558244

  18. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players

    Greenhill, Dustin A.; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R. Dawn; Boden, Barry P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Hypothesis: Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Results: Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P < 0.001); had more symptoms (5.34 vs 4.54, P = 0.004); and had longer symptom duration (P = 0.04). Athletes with helmets lined with an air bladder had greater rates of sensitivity to light (RR, 1.13; P = 0.02), sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.25; P = 0.009), and longer symptom duration (P = 0.004) compared with foam or gel liners. Conclusion: An improperly fitted football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder–lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Clinical Relevance: Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. PMID:27005467

  19. BICYCLE HELMET DESIGN AND THE VIRTUAL VALIDATION OF THE IMPACT, AERODYNAMICS AND PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Bojan Boshevski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development process of a bicycle helmet through individual research, creation, presentation and analysis of the results of the most important product development stages. The quality of the development and manufacturing process of the protective equipment for extreme sports is an imperative for a successful product and its flawless function. The design of the bicycle helmet is made following the rules of the design in order to create a well-founded and functional product. After creating design sketches, a virtual prototype was developed in "SolidWorks" using the required ergonomic dimensions. 3D printed model of the human head with adapted ergonomic dimensions and the designed bicycle helmet was developed in order to verify the applied ergonomic measures. The virtual model will be used as an input in the finite element analysis of the helmet impact test based on the EN1078 standard and the aerodynamic simulations executed in "SolidWorks Simulation and Flow Simulation", for verification of the impact and aerodynamic properties. Virtual testing of aerodynamic features and the ability of the bicycle helmet to allow ventilation of the user's head indicate that the helmet performs its function in the desired way. Also, the virtual prototype will be used for the production process simulation in "SolidWorks Plastics" in order to analyze the production of the bicycle helmet. The polycarbonate helmet outer shell is subject to a number of simulations for the sake of analyzing the production process in order to obtain the desired characteristics of the polycarbonate outer shell and to avoid the disadvantages that occur in the manufacturing process. The main goal of this paper is to develop a safety bicycle helmet with improved ergonomic, validation of impact, aerodynamic characteristics and production process in order to produce a high quality product for mass use.

  20. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP.

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V

    2011-01-01

    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  1. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  2. Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD) for simulator applications

    Sisodia, Ashok; Riser, Andrew; Bayer, Michael; McGuire, James P.

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD), augmented reality visual system first presented at last year's Cockpit and Future Displays for Defense and Security conference, has now been evaluated in a number of military simulator applications and by L-3 Link Simulation and Training. This paper presents the preliminary results of these evaluations and describes current and future simulator and training applications for HMD technology. The AHMD blends computer-generated data (symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery) with the actual and simulated visible environment. The AHMD is designed specifically for highly mobile deployable, minimum resource demanding reconfigurable virtual training systems to satisfy the military's in-theater warrior readiness objective. A description of the innovative AHMD system and future enhancements will be discussed.

  3. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays

    Parise, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  4. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response During Lateral +Gy Impact

    Perry, Chris

    2003-01-01

    .... A series of tests was conducted by AFRL/HEPA on a horizontal impulse accelerator using human subjects to investigate the effects of helmet inertial properties on human response to short duration...

  6. Aerodynamic study of time-trial helmets in cycling racing using CFD analysis.

    Beaumont, F; Taiar, R; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Grappe, F

    2018-01-23

    The aerodynamic drag of three different time-trial cycling helmets was analyzed numerically for two different cyclist head positions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used to investigate the detailed airflow patterns around the cyclist for a constant velocity of 15 m/s without wind. The CFD simulations have focused on the aerodynamic drag effects in terms of wall shear stress maps and pressure coefficient distributions on the cyclist/helmet system. For a given head position, the helmet shape, by itself, obtained a weak effect on a cyclist's aerodynamic performance (CFD results have also shown that both helmet shape and head position significantly influence drag forces, pressure and wall shear stress distributions on the whole cyclist's body due to the change in the near-wake behavior and in location of corresponding separation and attachment areas around the cyclist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maintaining neutral sagittal cervical alignment after football helmet removal during emergency spine injury management.

    Decoster, Laura C; Burns, Matthew F; Swartz, Erik E; Murthi, Dinakar S; Hernandez, Adam E; Vailas, James C; Isham, Linda L

    2012-04-15

    Descriptive laboratory study. To determine whether the placement of padding beneath the occiput after helmet removal is an effective intervention to maintain neutral sagittal cervical spine alignment in a position comparable with the helmeted condition. Current on-field recommendations for managing football athletes with suspected cervical spine injuries call for face mask removal, rather than helmet removal, because the combination of helmet and shoulder pads has been shown to maintain neutral cervical alignment. Therefore, in cases when helmet removal is required, recommendations also call for shoulder pad removal. Because removal of equipment causes motion, any technique that postpones the need to remove the shoulder pads would reduce prehospital motion. Four lateral radiographs of 20 male participants were obtained (age = 23.6 ± 2.7 years). Radiographs of participants wearing shoulder pads and helmet were first obtained. The helmet was removed and radiographs of participants with occipital padding were obtained immediately and 20 minutes later and finally without occipital padding. Cobb angle measurements for C2-C6 vertebral segments were determined by an orthopedic spine surgeon blinded to the study's purpose. Intraobserver reliability was determined using intraclass coefficient analysis. Measurements were analyzed using a 1×4 repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction. Intraobserver analysis showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.999-1.0). Repeated-measures analysis of variance detected significant differences (F(3,17) = 13.34; P football helmet in the field, occipital padding (along with full body/head immobilization techniques) may be used to limit cervical lordosis, allowing safe delay of shoulder pad removal.

  9. Design of a Helmet Liner for Improved Low Velocity Impact Protection

    2013-05-01

    FIGURE 14. MONORAIL DROP TEST WITH DOT-SIZE C HEADFORM AND HEMISPHERICAL ANVIL ........................... 14  FIGURE 15. ACH PAD CONFIGURATION. LEFT...materials. In this project, the monorail drop test device, used for the helmeted headform drop test, was modified for material testing as shown in Figure...a guided free fall drop test using a monorail drop test apparatus as shown in Figure 14. All helmets tested in this study were ACH-Size Large and

  10. Auditory and visual reaction time and peripheral field of vision in helmet users

    Abbupillai Adhilakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and

  11. The application of microfocal radiography to neuroanatomy and neuropathology research, and its relation to cerebral magnification angiography and brain scan interpretation. Chapter 3

    Saunders, R.L. de C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Microfocal radiography is used to study post mortem, the microcirculatory and neuronal organization of the normal and diseased brain, as well as to interpret the images obtained clinically by the new techniques of cerebral magnification angiography and X-ray brain scanning. An outline of the basic technique underlying CT scanning and magnification radiography of the living human brain is given to facilitate the understanding of why microfocal radiography is central to magnification radiography and complementary to CT scanning. Microangiography, one of the microfocal radiographic techniques, is discussed at length in relation to the microvasculature of the human cerebral cortex, the vasculature of the subcortical or medullary white matter, the microvascular patterns of the central grey matter and internal capsule, the vascular patterns of the visual cortex and hippocampus; the application of microangiography to the spinal cord and nerve roots is also discussed. Another microfocal radiographic technique described is cerebral historadiography, i.e. X-ray studies of brain histology, with particular reference to the human hippocampal formation. Finally, the correlation of microfocal X-ray and brain CT scan images is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. [Prevalence of helmet use in children and adolescents in Germany and preventable bicycle-related head injuries].

    Gutsche, J; Hintzpeter, B; Neuhauser, H; Schlaud, M

    2011-08-01

    Head injuries are the main cause of death in bicycle-related accidents among children and adolescents. According to a Cochrane Review, the risk of head injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.26-0.37) or brain injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.23-0.42) decreases by 69% if a helmet is worn. This study presents the prevalence of helmet use in cycling children and adolescents in Germany and the proportion of head injuries that could be prevented by wearing helmets. The potential effects of increased helmet wearing rates on the population attributable risk percentage for head injuries (PAR%) are demonstrated. The prevalence of helmet use in children aged 3-17 years was analysed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The percentage of head injuries preventable by helmet use in this group is estimated by calculating PAR%. Prevalence rates of helmet use and odds ratios from a Cochrane Review about the effectiveness of bicycle helmets for the prevention of head injuries were used for analysis. The potential effect of increased helmet use is shown in 3 scenarios by means of differences of PAR% values in the most relevant age groups. The older the children, the less likely they are to wear a helmet: 89.5% (95% CI 88.0%-90.8%) of the 3- to 6-year-old children wear a helmet when cycling but only 11.0% (95% CI 9.3%-12.9%) of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents do. In the youngest group (3-6 years) 19% of bicycle-related head injuries are attributable to the non-use of helmets, but this proportion rises to 67% in the oldest group (14-17 years). The PAR% of head injuries associated with not wearing a helmet may be reduced by more than a third by increasing the helmet wearing rate to 67% (2 out of 3) among adolescents, and may be reduced to half if 75% of adolescents wore a helmet. Particularly older children and adolescents hardly use bicycle helmets, hence the rate of preventable head injury is high. Efforts towards increasing helmet use

  13. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  14. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  15. Implementation of an all-ages mandatory helmet policy for ice skating.

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Fenerty, Lynne; Wheadon-Hore, Kathie; Walling, Simon; Cusimano, Michael D; Clarke, David B

    2015-12-01

    Ice skaters sustain a significant number of head injuries each winter. We are the first to implement an all-ages helmet policy at a university-based Canadian arena. We report our experience from a cross-sectional observational study as well as the policy's consequences on helmet use and skating participation. Educational programming was provided prior to policy implementation. Observations of helmet use, falls and skater demographics were conducted prior to education/implementation and after policy implementation. The number of skaters observed was essentially unchanged by the policy; 361 skaters were observed pre-implementation, while 358 were observed post-implementation during the same number of observation-hours. Pre-implementation, helmet use ranged from 97% among children under 12 to 10% among adults; post-implementation use in all skaters was 99%. Falls were observed among all age groups, with preponderance among those aged 4-12. An all-ages helmet policy was successful both in achieving helmet use among all skaters and in maintaining participation rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam.

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  17. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase bicycle helmet use by children.

    Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E

    1993-04-01

    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.

  18. Facial asymmetry correction with moulded helmet therapy in infants with deformational skull base plagiocephaly.

    Kreutz, Matthias; Fitze, Brigitte; Blecher, Christoph; Marcello, Augello; Simon, Ruben; Cremer, Rebecca; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Kunz, Christoph; Mayr, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The recommendation issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics in the early 1990s to position infants on their back during sleep to prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dramatically reduced the number of deaths due to SIDS but has also markedly increased the prevalence of positional skull deformation in infants. Deformation of the base of the skull occurs predominantly in very severe deformational plagiocephaly and is accompanied by facial asymmetry, as well as an altered ear position, called ear shift. Moulded helmet therapy has become an accepted treatment strategy for infants with deformational plagiocephaly. The aim of this study was to determine whether facial asymmetry could be corrected by moulded helmet therapy. In this retrospective, single-centre study, we analysed facial asymmetry of 71 infants with severe deformational plagiocephaly with or without deformational brachycephaly who were undergoing moulded helmet therapy between 2009 and 2013. Computer-assisted, three-dimensional, soft-tissue photographic scanning was used to record the head shape before and after moulded helmet therapy. The distance between two landmarks in the midline of the face (i.e., root of the nose and nasal septum) and the right and left tragus were measured on computer-generated indirect and objective 3D photogrammetry images. A quotient was calculated between the two right- and left-sided distances to the midline. Quotients were compared before and after moulded helmet therapy. Infants without any therapy served as a control group. The median age of the infants before onset of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 3-16 months). The median duration of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 1-16 months). Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment quotients of the left vs. right distances measured between the tragus and root of the nose (n = 71) and nasal septum (n = 71) revealed a significant reduction of the asymmetry (Tragus-Nasion-Line Quotient: 0

  19. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour.

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

    Esquinas Rodriguez, Antonio M; Papadakos, Peter J; Carron, Michele; Cosentini, Roberto; Chiumello, Davide

    2013-04-25

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO₂ rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  1. Injuries and helmet use related to non-motorized wheeled activities among pediatric patients.

    Lindsay, H; Brussoni, M

    2014-07-01

    Patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for injuries resulting from recreational activities represent a unique source of information on important directions for injury prevention efforts. We describe the epidemiology of non-motorized wheeled activity-related injury in pediatric patients presenting to Canadian EDs as well as patients' helmet use. Data for the years 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national ED injury surveillance program in fifteen hospitals. Most of the 28 618 children aged 1 to 16 years injured during non-motorized wheeled activities were injured while cycling, followed by skateboarding. Most injuries occurred among boys. Children injured on scooters tended to be younger whereas skateboarders were the oldest. On average, the number of all injuries decreased by 6% over the time period. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury; 8.3% of patients had head injuries, which were seen more often among cyclists than other wheeled-activity users. Helmet use was greatest among cyclists (62.2%) and lowest among skateboarders (32.9%). Injured patients presenting to EDs in jurisdictions with legislation mandating helmet use had 2.12 greater odds of helmet use and 0.86 lesser odds of head injury compared with those presenting in jurisdictions without helmet laws. These results provide further evidence that legislation mandating helmet use may be an effective way of reducing injury among all wheeled-activity users. The small number of patients who presented with helmet use and protective gear (59.4% overall) suggests that this remains an area for intervention.

  2. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign.

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2017-08-05

    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. CPAP by helmet for treatment of acute respiratory failure after pediatric liver transplantation.

    Chiusolo, F; Fanelli, V; Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Conti, G; Tortora, F; Pariante, R; Ravà, L; Grimaldi, C; de Ville de Goyet, J; Picardo, S

    2018-02-01

    ARF after pediatric liver transplantation accounts for high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure. The role of CPAP in postoperative period is still unknown. The aim of the study was to describe current practice and risk factors associated with the application of helmet CPAP. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 119 recipients were divided into two groups based on indication to CPAP after extubation. Perioperative variables were studied, and determinants of CPAP application were analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Sixty patients (60/114) developed ARF and were included in the CPAP group. No differences were found between the two groups for primary disease, graft type, and blood product transfused. At multivariate analysis, weight 148 mL/kg (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.6-10.1; P = .004) were the main determinants of CPAP application. In the CPAP group, five patients (8.4%) needed reintubation. Pediatric liver recipients with lower weight, higher need of inotropes/vasopressors, higher positive fluid balance after surgery, and lower PaO 2 /FiO 2 before extubation were at higher odds of developing ARF needing CPAP application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala.

    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S

    2014-06-01

    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  5. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    van Wijk Renske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  6. The effect of helmet use on injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders.

    Hagel, Brent; Pless, I Barry; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert; Robitaille, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of helmet use on non-head-neck injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. We used a matched case-control study over the November 2001 to April 2002 winter season. 3295 of 4667 injured skiers and snowboarders reporting to the ski patrol at 19 areas in Quebec with non-head, non-neck injuries agreed to participate. Cases included those evacuated by ambulance, admitted to hospital, with restriction of normal daily activities (NDAs) >6 days, with non-helmet equipment damage, fast self-reported speed, participating on a more difficult run than usual, and jumping-related injury. Controls were injured participants without severe injuries or high-energy crash circumstances and were matched to cases on ski area, activity, day, age, and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate each outcome to helmet use. There was no evidence that helmet use increased the risk of severe injury or high-energy crash circumstances. The results suggest that helmet use in skiing and snowboarding is not associated with riskier activities that lead to non-head-neck injuries.

  7. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  8. Head position in the MEG helmet affects the sensitivity to anterior sources.

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2004-11-30

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people's heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential "invisibility" of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position ("front" vs. "back") secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the "visibility" of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks.

  9. Investigation of the reasons for not using helmet among motorcyclists in Kerman, Iran.

    Maghsoudi, Aliasghar; Boostani, Dariush; Rafeiee, Manoochehr

    2018-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate reasoning and interpretation of motorcyclists for not using helmet utilizing qualitative methodology of 'grounded theory'. The field of the study was Kerman, a cultural-historical city at the south-east of Iran. Participants were 21 young male motorcyclists. Two sampling strategies were used: maximum variation and snowball sampling. To collect data, in-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted. Data analysis yielded seven categories: fatalism; a barrier to social relationships; peer group pressure and negative labelling; messing up the appearance; disturbance in hearing and vision; barrier to normal breathing; and heaviness and superfluity of helmet. Based on the findings of the current study, it could be concluded that socio-cultural contexts, motorcyclists' worldview and partly helmet-related problems are of the main factors which affect motorcycling. Therefore, the studies, policy-makings, and intervening programmes to control injury and to promote safety among motorcyclists should be focused on socio-cultural barriers to helmet use in general and changing the motorcyclists' standpoints toward fatalism in particular. Helmet-related problems should be considered, too.

  10. Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT.

    Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Determination of the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet relative output factor using a variety of detectors

    Tsai, J.-S.; Rivard, Mark J.; Engler, Mark J.; Mignano, John E.; Wazer, David E.; Shucart, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Though the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet is used routinely, there is disagreement in the Gamma Knife users community on the value of the 4 mm helmet relative output factor. A range of relative output factors is used, and this variation may impair observations of dose response and optimization of prescribed dose. To study this variation, measurements were performed using the following radiation detectors: silicon diode, diamond detector, radiographic film, radiochromic film, and TLD cubes. To facilitate positioning of the silicon diode and diamond detector, a three-dimensional translation micrometer was used to iteratively determine the position of maximum detector response. Positioning of the films and TLDs was accomplished by manufacturing custom holders for each technique. Results from all five measurement techniques indicate that the 4 mm helmet relative output factor is 0.868±0.014. Within the experimental uncertainties, this value is in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using diverse techniques

  12. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  13. The Association Between Risk-taking Behavior and Helmet Use Among Motorcyclist

    Trinh, Tu Anh; Phuong Linh Le, Thi

    2018-04-01

    The central aim of the research was to examine speeding behavior without helmet wearing among motorcycle riders in Ho Chi Minh City. The research model expanded the Theory of Planned Behavior by both psychological flow theory and sensation-seeking. 268 motorcyclists were involved in the research. A Confirmatory factor analysis and a Structural equation modeling were employed for model specification. The findings indicated a significant effect between predictors and the intention of speeding without helmet wearing. In addition, there was direct relation between intention and actual behavior. Also, sensation-seeking proved to be important in moderating predictors between the low-sensation-seeking motorcyclists and high-sensation-seeking ones. A deeper understanding of why motorcycle riders exceed the speed limit without wearing helmet played key role in changing their behavior.

  14. Feasibility of nitric oxide administration by neonatal helmet-CPAP: a bench study.

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2007-09-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) may have a role in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory failure. We evaluated the feasibility of administering NO therapy by a new continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system (neonatal helmet-CPAP). While maintaining a constant total flow of 8, 10, and 12 l.min(-1), NO concentrations were progressively increased to 5, 10, 20, and 40 p.p.m. in the neonatal helmet-CPAP pressure chamber (5 cmH2O). NO, NO2, and O2 concentrations were measured in the pressure chamber and the immediate external environment. In the chamber, NO2 levels remained low (neonatal helmet-CPAP system. This method allows the delivery of accurate NO levels and high O2 concentrations avoiding NO2 accumulation. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed.

  15. Bikes, helmets, and public health: decision-making when goods collide.

    Bateman-House, Alison

    2014-06-01

    How ought public officials address policy choices that entail trade-offs between desirable public health goods? Increasing cycling improves public health both by promoting physical activity and by decreasing vehicle use, thus reducing vehicular emissions. Proponents of bicycle helmets argue that, used properly, they protect individual cyclists; however, there is concern that mandating helmet use may result in a decrease in cycling. In 2012, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg opposed a bicycle helmet mandate, concerned that it would have a negative impact on the city's cycling rate, which he had sought to increase. The mayor did not explain his rationale, leaving constituents unsure why he opposed the proposal. This case study underscores the challenge of creating public policy in the context of competing public health goods.

  16. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  17. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia.

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2018-01-02

    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  18. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Azam Dadkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  19. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  20. Development of a helmet-mounted PLZT thermal/flash protection system

    Harris, J.O. Jr.; Cutchen, J.T.; Pfoff, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing PLZT thermal/flash protective devices (TFPD's) goggles to prevent exposure and resultant eye damage from nuclear weapon detonations. The primary emphasis of the present program is to transfer technology and establish production capability for helmet-mounted PLZT/TFPD goggles for USAF flight crews, with a non-helmet-mounted configuration to follow. The first production units are anticipated in the fall of 1977. The operating principles of the PLZT/TFPD goggle device are briefly outlined, and the device configuration and operational characteristics are described

  1. The differences between storms driven by helmet streamer CIRs and storms driven by pseudostreamer CIRs

    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Denton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A corotating interaction region (CIR) is formed when fast coronal hole origin solar wind overtakes slow solar wind and forms a region of compressed plasma and magnetic field. The slow wind upstream of the coronal hole fast wind can be either of helmet streamer origin or pseudostreamer origin. For a collection of 125 CIR-driven geomagnetic storms, the slow wind ahead of each CIR is examined; for those storm not containing ejecta, each CIR is categorized as a helmet streamer CIR (74 of the 125 ...

  2. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their

  3. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts.

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine

    2016-03-01

    Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91-100) than after the first few impacts (11-20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season.

  4. X-ray, synchrotron, and neutron diffraction analysis of Roman cavalry parade helmet fragment

    Smrcok, L.; Petrik, I.; Langer, V.; Filinchuk, Y.; Beran, Přemysl

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 10 (2010), s. 1025-1031 ISSN 0232-1300 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : archaeometry * Roman helmet * phase analysis Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2010

  5. The motivational safety helmet : Redesign suggestions improving the intrinsic motivation of construction site workers

    Beldman, T. (Teunis); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Lemmens, P. (Pim); Stilma, M. (Margot)

    2014-01-01

    In reaction to the lack of intrinsic motivation of construction site workers, to wear their safety helmets at all times, a series of research projects studied causes and possible solutions. Goal is to gain an inspirational discussion to get the design onto the next level. This paper describes a

  6. Impact of Helmet Use on Severity of Epidural Hematomas in Cambodia.

    Gupta, Saksham; Iv, Vycheth; Sam, Nang; Vuthy, Din; Klaric, Katherine; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often necessitating neurosurgical intervention to evacuate intracranial bleeding. Since the early 2000s, Cambodia has been undergoing a rapid increase in motorcycle transit and in road traffic accidents, but the prevalence of helmet usage remains low. Epidural hematomas are severe traumatic brain injuries that can necessitate neurosurgical intervention. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents who presented to a major national tertiary care center in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between November 2013 and March 2016. All patients were diagnosed with computed tomography of the head. In this cohort, 21.6% of patients in motorcycle accidents presented with epidural hematoma and 89.1% of patients were men, 47.6% were intoxicated, and were 87.8% were not wearing helmets at the moment of impact. Not wearing a helmet was associated with a 6.90-fold increase in odds of presenting with a moderate-to-severe Glasgow coma scale score and a 3.76-fold increase in odds of requiring craniotomy or craniectomy for evacuation of hematoma. Male sex was also associated with increased odds of higher clinical severity at presentation and indication for craniotomy or craniectomy, and alcohol intoxication at the time of accident was not associated with either. Helmet usage is protective in reducing the severity of presentation and need for neurosurgical intervention for patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of humidification on comfort during noninvasive ventilation with a helmet.

    Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Toshiji; Uchiyama, Akinori; Ohta, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Naoya; Goto, Yukiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate optimal humidifier water temperature when using a helmet for noninvasive ventilation. Twenty-eight healthy individuals underwent 8 cm H2O CPAP ventilation with FIO2 of 0.21 and 0.5. Each was sequentially tested in the following order: using the helmet without humidification at ambient temperature; with humidification with unheated chamber water; and with humidification with the chamber water at 31°C, 34°C, and 37°C. At each setting, after a 20 min stabilization period, measurements were taken. Comfort level at each setting was evaluated using a visual analog scale rated zero (least comfortable) to 10 (most comfortable). Temperature and relative and absolute humidity inside the helmet increased; however, the comfort scores significantly decreased as the humidification chamber water temperature increased. Regardless of the FIO2, statistically significantly highest comfort scores were obtained when humidification water, with and without active humidification, was at ambient temperature. Unacceptable absolute humidity was obtained only without humidification at room temperature when FIO2 was 0.5. With the clinical use of a helmet, for patient comfort and mucosal humidification during CPAP, the most desirable conditions are likely to be obtained by humidifying without heating, that is by leaving the water in the humidifier chamber at room temperature.

  8. Comparison of helmet-mounted display designs in support of wayfinding

    Kumagai, Jason K.; Massel, Lisa; Tack, David; Bossi, Linda

    2003-09-01

    The Canadian Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) soldier modernization research and development program has conducted experiments to help determine the types and amount of information needed to support wayfinding across a range of terrain environments, the most effective display modality for providing the information (visual, auditory or tactile) that will minimize conflict with other infantry tasks, and to optimize interface design. In this study, seven different visual helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs were developed based on soldier feedback from previous studies. The displays and an in-service compass condition were contrasted to investigate how the visual HMD interfaces influenced navigation performance. Displays varied with respect to their information content, frame of reference, point of view, and display features. Twelve male infantry soldiers used all eight experimental conditions to locate bearings to waypoints. From a constant location, participants were required to face waypoints presented at offset bearings of 25, 65, and 120 degrees. Performance measures included time to identify waypoints, accuracy, and head misdirection errors. Subjective measures of performance included ratings of ease of use, acceptance for land navigation, and mental demand. Comments were collected to identify likes, dislikes and possible improvements required for HMDs. Results underlined the potential performance enhancement of GPS-based navigation with HMDs, the requirement for explicit directional information, the desirability of both analog and digital information, the performance benefits of an egocentric frame of reference, the merit of a forward field of view, and the desirability of a guide to help landmark. Implications for the information requirements and human factors design of HMDs for land-based navigational tasks are discussed.

  9. Randomized Comparison of Helmet CPAP Versus High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Pediatric Respiratory Distress.

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Vitaliti, Maria Concetta; Finocchiaro, Maria Carla; Di Stefano, Vita Antonella; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Lubrano, Riccardo; Falsaperla, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 noninvasive respiratory support methods, which included helmet CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with respiratory distress admitted to a pediatric intermediate care unit. This study was a prospective observational study conducted on children with respiratory distress (age 1-24 months) who were admitted to our acute and emergency operative unit. All included subjects were randomly treated with helmet CPAP or HFNC in a 1:1 fashion until their clinical picture, oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters resolved. The efficiencies of helmet CPAP and HFNC were evaluated by breathing frequency, S pO 2 , ABG pH, ABG P aCO 2 , ABG P aO 2 , and P aO 2 /F IO 2 , recorded once at baseline and then after 1 and 6 h of treatment. Both noninvasive respiratory support modalities were compared with a control group of subjects with respiratory distress under standard therapeutic pharmaceutical protocols. We found that both helmet CPAP and HFNC were efficient in improving the clinical conditions of subjects with mild-to-moderate respiratory distress, although clinical response to helmet CPAP was more efficient and rapid compared with HFNC. Children who received respiratory support had a better clinical course in terms of hospitalization, days of intravenous rehydration therapy, and days of drug administration compared with the control group ( P CPAP and HFNC in respiratory distress resolution in a pediatric intermediate care setting. It aims to identify the most efficient treatment to avoid pediatric ICU admissions and endotracheal intubation and reduce the administration of drugs and days of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Influence of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation for children: a prospective observational study.

    Parkin, Patricia C; Khambalia, Amina; Kmet, Leanne; Macarthur, Colin

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of average family income in a geographic area on the effectiveness of helmet legislation on observed helmet use by children (5-14 years). The study was conducted in East York, a health district of Metropolitan Toronto, in collaboration with the East York Health Unit. In 1996, the total population was 107 822, 11 340 of which were children 5 to 14 years. Census data were used to group the 21 census tracts in East York into 7 geographically distinct areas. The boundaries of these areas are natural barriers to travel, such as expressways, ravines, railway tracks, and hydroelectric power lines. The areas were also ranked according to average family income (based on Statistics Canada data). For analytical purposes, areas were defined as low-, mid-, and high-income areas. Census data profiles of the areas have been previously described. For each consecutive year from 1990 to 1997 inclusive, direct observations of children riding bicycles in East York during the months of April through October were made. In 1995, observations were completed before the introduction of the law on October 1, 1995. Only children who were between 5 and 14 years of age and riding a 2-wheeled bicycle were included in the study. In total, 111 sites across all 7 areas were selected for observation. Observational sites included school yards of all elementary and middle schools (kindergarten to grade 8) and all parks in East York. In addition, 5 major intersections and 5 residential streets from each area were randomly selected. Observers were trained and used a standardized data collection form. A pilot study showed that the data collected by observers were reliable and valid. Observers remained at each site for 1 hour and collected data on helmet use and sex. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Hospital for Sick Children Research Ethics Board, the East York Board of Education, and the Metropolitan Separate School Board. The proportion of children who were

  11. Material property determination of the lining layers of a versatile helmet

    Kottner Radek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with material property identification of a helmet lining consisting of an outer layer of an expanded polystyrene (EPS and inner layer of an open-closed cell foam (OCCF. A combined numerical simulation and experimental testing was used for the material property identification. Compression and drop tests were performed. The ABAQUS finite element commercial code was used for numerical simulations in which the OOCF was modelled as a rate dependent viscoelastic material, while the EPS as a crushable foam. The reaction force time histories coming from the numerical simulation and the experiment have been used as a criterion for material parameter determination. After the identification of the material properties, numerical drop-tests were used to study the behaviour of a plate and a conical composite OOCF and EPS liners to decide which of them suits more for the helmet.

  12. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Predictions of Helmet Pad Suspension System Performance using Isolated Pad Impact Results

    2010-09-13

    Equation 2 and Equation 3, respectively. 3. METHOD The primary method of data collection for this report is detailed in the 2008 Joint Live Fire ...tests and the helmet system tests (see Figure 3). All testing was performed with a monorail drop tower (see Figure 4) at three conditioning...right) and system test setup (right and center left) Figure 5. MEP monorail drop test setup with a hemispherical impactor (left and center left

  14. Comparison of an in-helmet temperature monitor system to rectal temperature during exercise.

    Wickwire, P Jason; Buresh, Robert J; Tis, Laurie L; Collins, Mitchell A; Jacobs, Robert D; Bell, Marla M

    2012-01-01

    Body temperature monitoring is crucial in helping to decrease the amount and severity of heat illnesses; however, a practical method of monitoring temperature is lacking. In response to the lack of a practical method of monitoring the temperature of athletes, Hothead Technologies developed a device (HOT), which continuously monitors an athlete's fluctuations in body temperature. HOT measures forehead temperature inside helmets. The purpose of this study was to compare HOT against rectal temperature (Trec). Male volunteers (n = 29, age = 23.5 ± 4.5 years, weight = 83.8 ± 10.4 kg, height = 180.1 ± 5.8 cm, body fat = 12.3 ± 4.5%) exercised on a treadmill at an intensity of 60-75% heart rate reserve (HRR) (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 28.7° C) until Trec reached 38.7° C. The correlation between Trec and HOT was 0.801 (R = 0.64, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 0.25, p = 0.00). One reason for this relatively high correlation is the microclimate that HOT is monitoring. HOT is not affected by the external climate greatly because of its location in the helmet. Therefore, factors such as evaporation do not alter HOT temperature to a great degree. HOT was compared with Trec in a controlled setting, and the exercise used in this study was moderate aerobic exercise, very unlike that used in football. In a controlled laboratory setting, the relationship between HOT and Trec showed favorable correlations. However, in applied settings, helmets are repeatedly removed and replaced forcing HOT to equilibrate to forehead temperature every time the helmet is replaced. Therefore, future studies are needed to mimic how HOT will be used in field situations.

  15. The physiological demands of horseback mustering when wearing an equestrian helmet.

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Dyer, Rodd

    2008-09-01

    The hottest months on northern Australian cattle stations are from September to November, and it is during these months that horseback cattle mustering occurs. Stockmen wear clothing that restricts heat loss, and protective helmets have recently been introduced. Anecdotal evidence points to the possibility that helmets may increase the probability of developing heat illness, or reducing workplace performance. In this project, we quantified the working (thermal) environment on such cattle stations, and measured the metabolic demands on, and concurrent physiological strain in stockmen during mustering, whilst wearing an equestrian helmet. During horseback work, the average heart rate was 102.0 beats min(-1) (SD 14.0), with almost 90% of the time (238 min) spent working at intensities <50% of the heart rate reserve. The projected metabolic heat production during mustering ranged between 178 and 333 W (women), and between 212 and 542 W (men). The average core temperature was 37.6 degrees C, while the mean skin temperature averaged 34.1 degrees C. It was concluded that the working environment is, on average, thermally uncompensable during the mustering season. However, horseback mustering per se is a relatively low-intensity activity, interspersed with short periods of high-intensity work. This activity level was reflected within core temperatures, which rarely climbed above values associated with light-moderate exercise. Thus, whilst the climatic state was uncompensable, stockmen used behavioural strategies to minimise the risk of heat illness. Finally, it was observed that the helmet, though unpleasant to wear, did not appear to increase thermal strain in a manner that would disadvantage stockmen.

  16. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics.

  17. Structural Equation Modelling in Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System

    Rosli Naida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycle is one of private transportation which has been widely used in many countries including Malaysia. However, motorcycles are the most dangerous form of motorized transport. Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM statistics recorded that motorcycle is the highest vehicle (45.9% involved in traffic accident compared to other vehicles. The potential cause of the death to the motorcyclist was due to the head injury. One of strategy to mitigate this problem is through proper usage of safety helmet. Therefore, this paper was introduce a new approach on motorcyclist safety by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM with additional determinants that contribute to behavioral intention and to increase the proper usage of safety helmets among Malaysian motorcyclists. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was used to test the structural TAM proposed. The evaluation for structural model showed the goodness of fit indices are excellent fit. This study found that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and social norm are significant towards behavioral intention to use Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR.

  18. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS FROM A BIPOLAR HELMET STREAMER IN THE SUN

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo

    2012-01-01

    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  19. Societal cost of traumatic brain injury: A comparison of cost-of-injuries related to biking with and without helmet use.

    Costa, Camille K; Dagher, Jehane H; Lamoureux, Julie; de Guise, Elaine; Feyz, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine if a difference in societal costs exists from traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in patients who wear helmets compared to non-wearers. This is a retrospective cost-of-injury study of 128 patients admitted to the Montreal General Hospital (MGH) following a TBI that occurred while cycling between 2007-2011. Information was collected from Quebec Trauma Registry. The independent variables collected were socio-demographic, helmet status, clinical and neurological patient information. The dependent variables evaluated societal costs. The median costs of hospitalization were significantly higher (p = 0.037) in the no helmet group ($7246.67 vs. $4328.17). No differences in costs were found for inpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.525), outpatient rehabilitation (p = 0.192), loss of productivity (p = 0.108) or death (p = 1.000). Overall, the differences in total societal costs between the helmet and no helmet group were not significantly different (p = 0.065). However, the median total costs for patients with isolated TBI in the non-helmet group ($22, 232.82) was significantly higher (p = 0.045) compared to the helmet group ($13, 920.15). Cyclists sustaining TBIs who did not wear helmets in this study were found to cost society nearly double that of helmeted cyclists.

  20. Investigation of the optimal detector arrangement for the helmet-chin PET – A simulation study

    Ahmed, Abdella M., E-mail: abdellanur@gmail.com; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga, E-mail: yamaya.taiga@qst.go.jp

    2017-06-21

    High sensitivity and high spatial resolution dedicated brain PET scanners are in high demand for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. To meet the demand, we have proposed the helmet-chin PET geometry which has a helmet detector and a chin detector. Our first prototype scanner used 54 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The helmet detector of the scanner had three detector rings with different radii arranged on a surface of a hemisphere (with a radius of 126.5 mm) and a top cover detector. Therefore, in this study, for our next development, we propose a spherical arrangement, in which the central axis of each detector points toward the center of the hemisphere, and we optimize the size of the detector crystal block to be arranged on the helmet detector. We simulate the spherical arrangement with the optimized crystal block size and compare its imaging performance with the multi-ring arrangement, which has a similar detector arrangement to that of our first prototype. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to model the scanners having the 4-layer DOI detectors which consist of LYSO crystals. A dead space of 2 mm is assumed on each side of the crystal blocks such as for wrapping. The size of the crystal block is varied from 4×4 mm{sup 2} to 54×54 mm{sup 2} while fixing the thickness of the crystal block to 20 mm. We find that the crystal block sized at 42×42 mm{sup 2} has the highest sensitivity for a hemispherical phantom. The comparison of the two arrangements with the optimized crystal blocks show that, for the same number of crystal blocks, the spherical arrangement has 17% higher sensitivity for the hemispherical phantom than the multi-ring arrangement. We conclude that the helmet-chin PET with the spherical arrangement constructed from the crystal block sized at 42×42×20 mm{sup 3} has better imaging performance especially at the upper part of the brain compared to the multi-ring arrangement while keeping similar

  1. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Effects of the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT) and the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) with and without PVS-14 Night Vision Goggles (NVG) on Neck Biomechanics During Dismounted Soldier Movements

    LaFiandra, Michael; Harman, Everett; Cornelius, Nancy; Frykman, Peter; Gutekunst, David; Nelson, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    Kevlar helmets provide the soldier with basic ballistic and impact protection. However, the helmet has recently become a mounting platform for devices such as night-vision goggles, drop down displays, weapon-aiming systems, etc...

  3. Brain response to primary blast wave using validated finite element models of human head and advanced combat helmet

    Liying eZhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a signature injury in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH, a finite element (FE study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27-0.66 MPa from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP in the head ranged from 0.68-1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10-35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44% was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%. The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence "iso-damage" curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves

  4. Investigation on the applicability of dust protection helmets in the mining industry. Untersuchungen ueber die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Staubschutzhelmen im Bergbau

    Bauer, H.D.; Werner, W.; Fuerst, E.

    1984-10-01

    In case of static ambient air, leakages for volumes of 25 x 1,5 l/min and air supplies >= 120 l/min or 25 x 2,0 l/min and >= 160 l/min do not occur. The increasing flow rate of moving ambient air leads to an increase of leakages. They show their largest extensions in case of lateral flow. In addition, they expand together with increasing physiological load. Therefore, the inherent air supply should not be below 160 l/min. The comparison of the dust protection helmet 'Airstream AH 1' with two respirators revealed the lowest additional physiological load for the dust protection helmet. Applicability tests in situ resulted in the following principal objections: contamination and scratches on the visor leading to visibility restriction of the wearer, bad fit, weight distribution and helmet dimensions, pressure sores and chafes of sealing parts and edges, lamp installation. Air supply and movement were felt as too high in case of low ambient temperatures, and in case of high temperatures and physiological strain it was considered as too low. There were only few objections against fan noise, weight and impediment by cable and battery. Based on the results, a specification including monitoring and maintenance of the helmet was made and additional tests for DIN design 58 645, item 7, were induced. Furthermore, a proposal regarding helmet optimisation was made.

  5. Towards reducing impact-induced brain injury: lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads.

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced.

  6. Does helmet CPAP reduce cerebral blood flow and volume by comparison with Infant Flow driver CPAP in preterm neonates?

    Zaramella, Patrizia; Freato, Federica; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Saraceni, Elisabetta; Vianello, Andrea; Chiandetti, Lino

    2006-10-01

    We compared neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the conventional nasal Infant Flow driver (IFD) CPAP in the noninvasive assessment of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative cerebral blood volume changes (DeltaCBV) by near-infrared spectroscopy. A randomized crossover study in a tertiary referral NICU. Assessment of CBF and DeltaCBV in 17 very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress (median age 5 days) treated with two CPAP devices at a continuous distending pressure of 4 mbar. Neonates were studied for two consecutive 60-min periods with helmet CPAP and with IFD CPAP. Basal chromophore traces enabled DeltaCBV changes to be calculated. CBF was calculated in milliliters per 100 grams per minute from the saturation rise integral and rate of rise O(2)Hb-HHb. Median (range) CBF with helmet CPAP was 27.37 (9.47-48.20) vs. IFD CBF 34.74 (13.59-60.10)(p=0.049) and DeltaCBV 0.15 (0.09-0.28) with IFD and 0.13 (0.07-0.27) with helmet CPAP (NS). Using helmet and IFD CPAP, the neonates showed no difference in mean physiological parameters (transcutaneous carbon dioxide and oxygen tension, pulse oximetry saturation, heart rate, breathing rate, mean arterial blood pressure, desaturation rate, axillary temperature). Assessing CBF and DeltaCBV measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with two CPAP devices revealed no differences in relative blood volume, but CBF was lower with helmet CPAP. Greater active vasoconstriction and/or passive capillary and/or venous vessel compression seem the most likely reason, due to a positive pressure around the head, neck, and shoulders by comparison with the airway pressure.

  7. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  8. Helmet-mounted displays: why haven't they taken off?

    Havig, P.; Goff, C.; McIntire, J.; Franck, D.

    2009-05-01

    Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) technologies have been developing for over 3 decades and have been studied for multiple applications ranging from military aircraft, to virtual reality, augmented reality, entertainment and a host of other ideas. It would not be unreasonable to assume that after this much time they would be employed in our daily lives as ubiquitously as the common desktop monitor. However, this is simply not the case. How can this be when they can be used in so many ways for so many tasks? Throughout this work we will look at some of the reasons why as well of some of the ways they can be used.

  9. Successful Removal of Football Helmet Face-Mask Clips After 1 Season of Use

    Scibek, Jason S.; Gatti, Joseph M.; McKenzie, Jennifer I.

    2012-01-01

    Context Whereas many researchers have assessed the ability to remove loop straps in traditional face-mask attachment systems after at least 1 season of use, research in which the effectiveness of the Riddell Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System clip after 1 season has been assessed is limited. Objective To examine the success rate of removing the QR clips after 1 season of use at the Football Championship Subdivision level. We hypothesized that 1 season of use would negatively affect the removal rate of the QR clip but repeated clip-removal trials would improve the removal rate. Design Retrospective, quasi-experimental design. Setting Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants Sixty-three football helmets from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university located in western Pennsylvania used during the 2008 season were tested. Intervention(s) Three certified athletic trainers (2 men, 1 woman; age = 31.3 ± 3.06 years, time certified = 9.42 ± 2.65 years) attempted to remove the QR clips from each helmet with the tool provided by the manufacturer. Helmets then were reassembled to allow each athletic trainer to attempt clip removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) The dependent variables were total left clips removed (TCR-L), total right clips removed (TCR-R), and total clips removed (TCR). Success rate of clip removal (SRCR) also was assessed. Results Percentages for TCR-L, TCR-R, and TCR were 100% (189 of 189), 96.30% (182 of 189), and 98.15% (371 of 378), respectively. A paired-samples t test revealed a difference between TCR-R and TCR-L (t188 = −2.689, P = .008, μd = 0.037, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.064, −0.010). The percentage for SRCR was 96.30% (n = 182), whereas SRCR percentages for trials 1, 2, and 3 were 95.24% (n = 60), 98.41% (n = 62), and 95.24% (n = 60), respectively, and did not represent a difference (F2,186 = 0.588, P = .56, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99). Conclusions Our results indicated favorable and

  10. The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score-matched study based on a trauma registry system.

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-08-07

    Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data. Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively. The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.

  11. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study.

  12. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet

  13. Cost Analysis of Noninvasive Helmet Ventilation Compared with Use of Noninvasive Face Mask in ARDS

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care unit (ICU costs have doubled since 2000, totalling 108 billion dollars per year. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has a prevalence of 10.4% and a 28-day mortality of 34.8%. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is used in up to 30% of cases. A recent randomized controlled trial by Patel et al. (2016 showed lower intubation rates and 90-day mortality when comparing helmet to face mask NIV in ARDS. The population in the Patel et al. trial was used for cost analysis in this study. Projections of cost savings showed a decrease in ICU costs by $2527 and hospital costs by $3103 per patient, along with a 43.3% absolute reduction in intubation rates. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent cost reductions. Projected annual cost savings, assuming the current prevalence of ARDS, were $237538 in ICU costs and $291682 in hospital costs. At a national level, using yearly incidence of ARDS cases in American ICUs, this represents $449 million in savings. Helmet NIV, compared to face mask NIV, in nonintubated patients with ARDS, reduces ICU and hospital direct-variable costs along with intubation rates, LOS, and mortality. A large-scale cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to validate the findings.

  14. The European, Japanese and US protective helmet, gloves and boots for firefighters: thermoregulatory and psychological evaluations.

    Lee, Joo-Young; Yamamoto, Yota; Oe, Riichi; Son, Su-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and subjective responses of the European, Japanese (JPN) and US firefighters' helmet, gloves and boots for international standardisation. Three experimental conditions were evaluated (clothing mass: 9.4, 8.2 and 10.1 kg for the three conditions, respectively) at the air temperature of 32°C and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that there was no significant difference among the three conditions in oxygen consumption, heart rate, total sweat rate, rectal temperature and mean skin temperature, whereas peripheral temperatures and subjective perceptions were lower in the JPN condition than in the other conditions (P < 0.05). These results indicate that a 0.5-kg reduction in helmet mass and a 1.1-kg reduction in boot mass during exercise resulted in a significant decrease in head and leg temperatures and subjective perceptions, while a 1.9-kg reduction in total clothing mass had insignificant influences on the metabolic burden and overall body temperature.

  15. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  16. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2017-06-01

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  17. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  18. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  19. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  20. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  1. Simulation study comparing the helmet-chin PET with a cylindrical PET of the same number of detectors

    Ahmed, Abdella M.; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-06-01

    There is a growing interest in developing brain PET scanners with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. Sensitivity of the PET scanner can be improved by increasing the solid angle. However, conventional PET scanners are designed based on a cylindrical geometry, which may not be the most efficient design for brain imaging in terms of the balance between sensitivity and cost. We proposed a dedicated brain PET scanner based on a hemispheric shape detector and a chin detector (referred to as the helmet-chin PET), which is designed to maximize the solid angle by increasing the number of lines-of-response in the hemisphere. The parallax error, which PET scanners with a large solid angle tend to have, can be suppressed by the use of depth-of-interaction detectors. In this study, we carry out a realistic evaluation of the helmet-chin PET using Monte Carlo simulation based on the 4-layer GSO detector which consists of a 16  ×  16  ×  4 array of crystals with dimensions of 2.8  ×  2.8  ×  7.5 mm3. The purpose of this simulation is to show the gain in imaging performance of the helmet-chin PET compared with the cylindrical PET using the same number of detectors in each configuration. The sensitivity of the helmet-chin PET evaluated with a cylindrical phantom has a significant increase, especially at the top of the (field-of-view) FOV. The peak-NECR of the helmet-chin PET is 1.4 times higher compared to the cylindrical PET. The helmet-chin PET provides relatively low noise images throughout the FOV compared to the cylindrical PET which exhibits enhanced noise at the peripheral regions. The results show the helmet-chin PET can significantly improve the sensitivity and reduce the noise in the reconstructed images.

  2. Changes in motorcycle-related injuries and deaths after mandatory motorcycle helmet law in a district of Vietnam.

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Ederer, David; Vo, Van Anh Ha; Pham, An Van; Mounts, Anthony; Nolen, Leisha D; Sugerman, David

    2018-01-02

    Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.

  3. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nonuse of Seatbelts in Cars and Helmets on Motorcycles among People Living in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Moradi, Ghobad; Malekafzali Ardakani, Hossein; Majdzadeh, Reza; Bidarpour, Farzam; Mohammad, Kazem; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic inequalities in nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in Kurdistan Province, west of Iran, 2009. The data used in this study was collected from the data gathered in non-communicable disease surveillance system (NCDSS) in 2009 in Kurdistan. A total of 1000 people were included in this study. The outcome variable of this study was the nonuse of seatbelts and helmets. The socio-economic status (SES) was calculated based on participants' residential area and assets using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The concentration index, concentration curve, and comparison of Odds Ratio (OR) in different SES groups were used to measure the socioeconomic inequalities using logistic regression. In order to determine the contribution of determinants of inequality, decomposition analysis was used. The prevalence of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles were 47.5%, 95%CI [44%, 55%], respectively. The Concentration index was -0.097, CI [-0.148, -0.046]. The OR of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in the richest group compared with the poorest group was 0.39, 95%CI [0.23, 0.68]. The results of the decomposition analysis showed that 34% of inequalities were due to SES, 47% were due to residential area, and 12% were due to unknown factors. There is a reverse association between SES and nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles. This issue must be considered while planning to reduce traffic accidents injuries.

  4. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube.

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  5. Sonographic Analysis of Changes in Skull Shape After Cranial Molding Helmet Therapy in Infants With Deformational Plagiocephaly.

    Kwon, Dong Rak

    2016-04-01

    -The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in skull shape on sonography after cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. -Twenty-six infants who were treated with cranial molding helmet therapy were recruited. Caliper and sonographic measurements were performed. The lateral length of the affected and unaffected sides of the skull and cranial vault asymmetry index were measured with calipers. The occipital angle, defined as the angle between lines projected along the lambdoid sutures of the skull, was calculated by sonography. The occipital angle difference and occipital angle ratio were also measured. All caliper and sonographic measurements were performed in each infant twice before and twice after treatment. -The study group included 12 male and 14 female infants with a mean age ± SD of 6.2 ± 3.5 months. The mean treatment duration was 6.0 ± 2.5 months. The difference in lateral length before and after helmet therapy was significantly greater on the affected skull than the unaffected skull (16.7 ± 12.7 versus 9.0 ± 13.4 mm; P skull than the unaffected skull (-5.7° ± 7.3° versus 4.2° ± 7.9°; P < .01). The cranial vault asymmetry index and occipital angle ratio were significantly reduced after helmet therapy (cranial vault asymmetry index, 9.3% ± 2.3% versus 3.5% ± 3.0%; occipital angle ratio, 1.07 ± 0.05 versus 1.01 ± 0.01; P < .05). -These results suggest that occipital angle measurements using sonography, combined with cephalometry, could provide a better understanding of the therapeutic effects of cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  7. Helmet-mounted displays in long-range-target visual acquisition

    Wilkins, Donald F.

    1999-07-01

    Aircrews have always sought a tactical advantage within the visual range (WVR) arena -- usually defined as 'see the opponent first.' Even with radar and interrogation foe/friend (IFF) systems, the pilot who visually acquires his opponent first has a significant advantage. The Helmet Mounted Cueing System (HMCS) equipped with a camera offers an opportunity to correct the problems with the previous approaches. By utilizing real-time image enhancement technique and feeding the image to the pilot on the HMD, the target can be visually acquired well beyond the range provided by the unaided eye. This paper will explore the camera and display requirements for such a system and place those requirements within the context of other requirements, such as weight.

  8. Designing safer composite helmets to reduce rotational accelerations during oblique impacts.

    Mosleh, Yasmine; Cajka, Martin; Depreitere, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos; Ivens, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts. The ability of composite foam in the mitigation of rotational head movement is studied by performing finite element (FE) simulations of oblique impact on flat and helmet shape specimens. The performance of composite foam with respect to parameters such as compliance of the matrix foam and the number, size and cross-sectional shape of the foam columns is explored in detail, and subsequently an optimized structure is proposed. The simulation results show that using composite foam instead of single-layer foam, the rotational acceleration and velocity of the headform can be significantly reduced. The parametric study indicates that using a more compliant matrix foam and by increasing the number of columns in the composite foam configuration, the rotation can be further mitigated. This was confirmed by experimental results. The simulation results were also analyzed based on global head injury criteria such as head injury criterion, rotational injury criterion, brain injury criterion and generalized acceleration model for brain injury threshold which further confirmed the superior performance of composite foam versus single-layer homogeneous expanded polystyrene foam. The findings of simulations give invaluable information for design of protective helmets or, for instance, headliners for the automotive industry.

  9. Practice type effects on head impact in collegiate football.

    Reynolds, Bryson B; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J; Goodkin, Howard P; Broshek, Donna K; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T Jason

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT IVE: This study directly compares the number and severity of subconcussive head impacts sustained during helmet-only practices, shell practices, full-pad practices, and competitive games in a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A football team. The goal of the study was to determine whether subconcussive head impact in collegiate athletes varies with practice type, which is currently unregulated by the NCAA. Over an entire season, a cohort of 20 collegiate football players wore impact-sensing mastoid patches that measured the linear and rotational acceleration of all head impacts during a total of 890 athletic exposures. Data were analyzed to compare the number of head impacts, head impact burden, and average impact severity during helmet-only, shell, and full-pad practices, and games. Helmet-only, shell, and full-pad practices and games all significantly differed from each other (p ≤ 0.05) in the mean number of impacts for each event, with the number of impacts being greatest for games, then full-pad practices, then shell practices, and then helmet-only practices. The cumulative distributions for both linear and rotational acceleration differed between all event types (p football players.

  10. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  11. Emergency face-mask removal effectiveness: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional football helmet face-mask attachment systems.

    Swartz, Erik E; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C; Armstrong, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F(4,20)  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected in RPE during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  43.20, P  =  .001), with participants reporting average

  12. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  13. The Economic Impact of Helmet Use on Motorcycle Accidents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Literature from the Past 20 Years.

    Kim, Chang-Yeon; Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Dai, Feng; Leslie, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and cost of motorcycle accidents are projected to increase. Motorcycle helmets are accepted as an effective strategy for reducing the morbidity and therefore the cost of motorcycle accidents. Despite this, states have continued to repeal helmet laws in the past 20 years. In addition, variations in the methodologies and outcomes of published reports have contributed to uncertainty regarding the health care dollars saved due to motorcycle helmet use. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify the economic impact of motorcycle helmet use. Our primary source was Medline. Search terms included "motorcycle," "motorbike," "motorcycle helmet," "head protective devices," and "cost and cost analysis." The review only included articles that were primary studies, written in English, evaluations of periods after 1994, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Two independent authors extracted data using predefined data fields. Meta-analysis was done using the R-metafor package. Twelve papers met the criteria for inclusion. Meta-analysis demonstrated that nonhelmeted patients required $12,239 more in hospital costs per patient. Nonhelmeted patients also required more postdischarge care and were more likely to use publicly funded insurance. Studies also found lower injury severity and better hospital course in the helmeted population. Study limitations included selection bias, unclear statistical assumptions, lack of precision measures, confounding variables, and lack of standardization to a common year. Meta-analysis demonstrated an I2 of 67%, attributing a significant proportion of outcome variation to study differences. Motorcycle helmet use reduces morbidity and contributes to significant health care cost savings. Continuing antihelmet legislation will impose a substantial economic burden to the health care system, the government, and the public.

  14. From Dalek half balls to Daft Punk helmets: Mimetic fandom and the crafting of replicas

    Matt Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic fandom is a surprisingly understudied mode of (culturally masculinized fan activity in which fans research and craft replica props. Mimetic fandom can be considered as (inauthentic and (immaterial, combining noncommercial status with grassroots marketing or brand reinforcement as well as fusing an emphasis on material artifacts with Web 2.0 collective intelligence. Simply analyzing mimetic fandom as part of fannish material culture fails to adequately assess the nonmaterial aspects of this collaborative creativity. Two fan cultures are taken as case studies: Dalek building groups and Daft Punk helmet constructors. These diverse cases indicate that mimetic fandom has a presence and significance that moves across media fandoms and is not restricted to the science fiction, fantasy, and horror followings with which it is most often associated. Mimetic fandom may be theorized as an oscillatory activity that confuses binaries and constructions of (academic/fan authenticity. This fan practice desires and pursues a kind of ontological bridging or unity—from text to reality—that is either absent or less dominant in many other fan activities such as cosplay, screen-used prop collecting, and geographical pilgrimage. Fan studies may benefit from reassessing the place of mimesis, especially in order to theorize fan practices that are less clearly transformative in character.

  15. Thermal performance curves under daily thermal fluctuation: A study in helmeted water toad tadpoles.

    Bartheld, José L; Artacho, Paulina; Bacigalupe, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Most research in physiological ecology has focused on the effects of mean changes in temperature under the classic "hot vs cold" acclimation treatment; however, current evidence suggests that an increment in both the mean and variance of temperature could act synergistically to amplify the negative effects of global temperature increase and how it would affect fitness and performance-related traits in ectothermic organisms. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on thermal performance curves of swimming speed in helmeted water toad tadpoles (Calyptocephalella gayi). Acclimation treatments were 20°C ± 0.1 SD (constant) and 20°C ± 1.5 SD (fluctuating). We draw two key findings: first, tadpoles exposed to daily temperature fluctuation had reduced maximal performance (Z max ), and flattened thermal performance curves, thus supporting the "vertical shift or faster-slower" hypothesis, and suggesting that overall swimming performance would be lower through an examination of temperatures under more realistic and ecologically-relevant fluctuating regimens; second, there was significant interindividual variation in performance traits by means of significant repeatability estimates. Our present results suggest that the widespread use of constant acclimation temperatures in laboratory experiments to estimate thermal performance curves (TPCs) may lead to an overestimation of actual organismal performance. We encourage the use of temperature fluctuation acclimation treatments to better understand the variability of physiological traits, which predict ecological and evolutionary responses to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal forehead edema in 4p- deletion: the 'Greek warrior helmet' profile revisited.

    Levaillant, J M; Touboul, C; Sinico, M; Vergnaud, A; Serero, S; Druart, L; Blondeau, J R; Abd Alsamad, I; Haddad, B; Gérard-Blanluet, M

    2005-12-01

    Deletion of short arm of chromosome 4 is difficult to ascertain prenatally, and can be missed. A prenatal suspicion of 4p- syndrome was thoroughly investigated by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional sonography, with a description of the fetal face dysmorphological pattern. The cytogenetic confirmation, obtained by karyotype and FISH technique, allowed a precise description of the prenatal abnormalities. Post-termination tridimensional helicoidal scanner of the fetal face was performed. The main anomaly discovered using two-dimensional sonography was the presence of a strikingly thick prefrontal edema (8 mm, twice the normal values, at 22 weeks: 3.81 +/- 0.62 mm). Three-dimensional sonography showed the classical postnatal profile, with the phenotypic aspect of a 'Greek warrior helmet'. Nasal bones were normal in size and placement, confirmed by helicoidal scanner. Prenatal diagnosis of 4p deletion syndrome can be difficult, and it is the presence of prefrontal edema, associated with more subtle facial anomalies (short philtrum, microretrognathia) which should trigger cytogenetic investigation for 4p- deletion, even with only borderline growth retardation. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  17. Spectrum of acute clinical characteristics of diagnosed concussions in college athletes wearing instrumented helmets: clinical article.

    Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Maerlender, Arthur C; McAllister, Thomas W; Crisco, Joseph J; Duma, Stefan M; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Rowson, Steven; Flashman, Laura A; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M

    2012-12-01

    Concussive head injuries have received much attention in the medical and public arenas, as concerns have been raised about the potential short- and long-term consequences of injuries sustained in sports and other activities. While many student athletes have required evaluation after concussion, the exact definition of concussion has varied among disciplines and over time. The authors used data gathered as part of a multiinstitutional longitudinal study of the biomechanics of head impacts in helmeted collegiate athletes to characterize what signs, symptoms, and clinical histories were used to designate players as having sustained concussions. Players on 3 college football teams and 4 ice hockey teams (male and female) wore helmets instrumented with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) technology during practices and games over 2-4 seasons of play. Preseason clinical screening batteries assessed baseline cognition and reported symptoms. If a concussion was diagnosed by the team medical staff, basic descriptive information was collected at presentation, and concussed players were reevaluated serially. The specific symptoms or findings associated with the diagnosis of acute concussion, relation to specific impact events, timing of symptom onset and diagnosis, and recorded biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Data were collected from 450 athletes with 486,594 recorded head impacts. Forty-eight separate concussions were diagnosed in 44 individual players. Mental clouding, headache, and dizziness were the most common presenting symptoms. Thirty-one diagnosed cases were associated with an identified impact event; in 17 cases no specific impact event was identified. Onset of symptoms was immediate in 24 players, delayed in 11, and unspecified in 13. In 8 cases the diagnosis was made immediately after a head impact, but in most cases the diagnosis was delayed (median 17 hours). One diagnosed concussion involved a 30-second loss of consciousness; all other players retained

  18. Novel Method of Weighting Cumulative Helmet Impacts Improves Correlation with Brain White Matter Changes After One Football Season of Sub-concussive Head Blows.

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Asselin, Patrick; Narayan, Darren; Abar, Beau; Jones, Courtney M C; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-12-01

    One football season of sub-concussive head blows has been shown to be associated with subclinical white matter (WM) changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Prior research analyses of helmet-based impact metrics using mean and peak linear and rotational acceleration showed relatively weak correlations to these WM changes; however, these analyses failed to account for the emerging concept that neuronal vulnerability to successive hits is inversely related to the time between hits (TBH). To develop a novel method for quantifying the cumulative effects of sub-concussive head blows during a single season of collegiate football by weighting helmet-based impact measures for time between helmet impacts. We further aim to compare correlations to changes in DTI after one season of collegiate football using weighted cumulative helmet-based impact measures to correlations using non-weighted cumulative helmet-based impact measures and non-cumulative measures. We performed a secondary analysis of DTI and helmet impact data collected on ten Division III collegiate football players during the 2011 season. All subjects underwent diffusion MR imaging before the start of the football season and within 1 week of the end of the football season. Helmet impacts were recorded at each practice and game using helmet-mounted accelerometers, which computed five helmet-based impact measures for each hit: linear acceleration (LA), rotational acceleration (RA), Gadd Severity Index (GSI), Head Injury Criterion (HIC 15 ), and Head Impact Technology severity profile (HITsp). All helmet-based impact measures were analyzed using five methods of summary: peak and mean (non-cumulative measures), season sum-totals (cumulative unweighted measures), and season sum-totals weighted for time between hits (TBH), the interval of time from hit to post-season DTI assessment (TUA), and both TBH and TUA combined. Summarized helmet-based impact measures were correlated to statistically significant changes in

  19. Passive Attenuating Communication Earphone (PACE): Noise Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility Performance When Worn in Conjunction with the HGU-56/P and HGU-55/P Flight Helmets

    2013-10-16

    right) eartips The purpose of this study was to integrate the HGU-56/P and HGU-55/P flight helmets with PACE to measure the noise attenuation and...55/P flight helmet integrated with PACE 2.0 METHODS 2.1 Subjects Twenty paid volunteer subjects (9 male, 11 female) participated in the study ...Pan Pad Pat Path Pack Pass Buff Bus But Bug Buck Bun Sat Sag Sass Sack Sad Sap Run Sun Bun Gun Fun Nun 8 Distribution A: Approved for

  20. Helmet-mounted display requirements: just another head-up display (HUD) or a different animal altogether?

    Newman, Richard L.; Haworth, Loran A.

    1994-06-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. The present study reviewed the state-of-the-art in HMDs and identified a number of issues applying to HMDs. Several are identical to head-up display (HUD) issues: symbol standardization, excessive clutter, and the need for integration with other cockpit displays and controls. Other issues are unique to the head-mounted display: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and field-of-view (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. Symbol stabilization is critical. In the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. The underlying cause is the absence of design criteria for HMDs. The existing military standard does not reflect the current state of technology. In addition, there are inadequate test and evaluation guidelines. The situation parallels the situation for HUDs several years ago.

  1. Predicting bicycle helmet stage-of-change among middle school, high school, and college cyclists from demographic, cognitive, and motivational variables.

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Okun, Morris; Quay, Nancy

    2004-09-01

    To apply Prochaska's Transtheoretical model of behavior change to bicycle helmet use among middle school, high school, and college students. A battery of questionnaires was administered to cyclists in the seventh and ninth grades and to college students in Phoenix, Arizona (N=797). The battery included: (1) a question to determine respondent's stage of behavior change in Prochaska's Transtheoretical model; (2) items assessing the perceived pros and cons of helmet use; (3) a bicycle safety knowledge test; and (4) demographic information. Forty-three percent of the students were in "Precontemplation," 17% were in either "Contemplation" or "Preparation," 16% were in either "Action" or "Maintenance," and 24% were in the "Relapse" stage of change. Grade, Sex, Knowledge, Pros, and Cons, and the Grade by sex and the Grade by knowledge interactions were significant predictors of helmet use stages. Compared with students in Precontemplation, students in the Contemplation stage were disproportionately younger and had higher Pro scores, lower Con scores, and more knowledge (except in the ninth grade). The Transtheoretical model of behavior change is a viable theoretical framework for designing interventions aimed at increasing bicycle helmet use in children and adolescents.

  2. Full-color wide field-of-view holographic helmet-mounted display for pilot/vehicle interface development and human factors studies

    Burley, James R., II; LaRussa, Joseph A.

    1990-10-01

    A Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) which utilizes highly efficient trichromatic holographic elements has been designed to support pilot vechicle interface development and human factors studies at the NASA-Langley Research Center. While the optics are fully color corrected, the miniature CRT's are monochromatic. This design provides an upgrade path to full-color when miniature display technology matures to color. The optical design conforms to the helmet shape and provides a 50 degree field-of-view (FOV) to each eye. Built-in adjustments allow each ocular to be independently moved so that the overall horizontal FOV may be varied from 50 degrees to 100 degrees with a corresponding change in the stereo overlap region. The helmet design and interpupillary adjustment allow for the 5th through 95th percentile male and female wearer. Total head-borne weight is approximately 4.2 pounds. The high-resolution monochromatic CRTs are driven by a set of multisync electronics with a maximum video bandwidth of 88 Mhz and supports bith raster and stroke modes. The electronics are designed to be compatiable with the Silicon Graphics IRIS 4D graphics workstations and the ADAGE 340 stroke graphics computer. A Polhemus magnetic tracking device is used to determine the helmet line-of-sight. The helmet will be used to develop innovative new display concepts for the F- 1 8 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) which make use of the unique display properties of the HMD. Pictorial displays, which convey the appropriate information intuitively, are envisioned. Human factors studies are also planned to evaluate the utility of stereopsis and determine the FOV requirements for different tasks. Concepts proven in the simulator will be carried to flight test in 1993 with a lighter weight, "hardened" version of this HMD design.

  3. A Dosimetric Evaluation of Conventional Helmet Field Irradiation Versus Two-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique

    Yu, James B.; Shiao, Stephen L.; Knisely, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric differences between conventional two-beam helmet field irradiation (external beam radiotherapy, EBRT) of the brain and a two-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Ten patients who received helmet field irradiation at our institution were selected for study. External beam radiotherapy portals were planned per usual practice. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy fields were created using the identical field angles as the EBRT portals. Each brain was fully contoured along with the spinal cord to the bottom of the C2 vertebral body. This volume was then expanded symmetrically by 0.5 cm to construct the planning target volume. An IMRT plan was constructed using uniform optimization constraints. For both techniques, the nominal prescribed dose was 3,000 cGy in 10 fractions of 300 cGy using 6-MV photons. Comparative dose-volume histograms were generated for each patient and analyzed. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improved dose uniformity over EBRT for whole brain radiotherapy. The mean percentage of brain receiving >105% of dose was reduced from 29.3% with EBRT to 0.03% with IMRT. The mean maximum dose was reduced from 3,378 cGy (113%) for EBRT to 3,162 cGy (105%) with IMRT. The mean percent volume receiving at least 98% of the prescribed dose was 99.5% for the conventional technique and 100% for IMRT. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduces dose inhomogeneity, particularly for the midline frontal lobe structures where hot spots occur with conventional two-field EBRT. More study needs to be done addressing the clinical implications of optimizing dose uniformity and its effect on long-term cognitive function in selected long-lived patients

  4. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities in the wake of governmentally implemented change: a retrospective analysis of the motorcycle morbidity and mortality before, during, and after the repeal of a statewide helmet mandate.

    Strom, Shane F; Ambekar, Sudheer; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Nanda, Anil

    2013-06-01

    On August 15, 2004, Louisiana's universal motorcycle helmet mandate was reinstated. Previous studies have shown that mortality and morbidity of motorcycle riders who crashed had increased during the 5 years the mandate was repealed. The objective of this study was to discern whether the reinstatement of the universal helmet mandate has resulted in a subsequent decrease in motorcycle-related mortality and morbidity in the state of Louisiana. A retrospective analysis was performed observing the regularity of helmet use and the associated morbidity and mortality of motorcycle traffic accidents from the time before, during, and after the universal motorcycle helmet mandate was repealed in the state of Louisiana. Fatality statistics were obtained through the National Highway Safety Traffic Association. Injury, helmet use, and collision data were obtained from the Louisiana Highway Safety Commission. Motorcycle registration data were obtained from the Federal Highway Administration. Motorcycle crash-related fatalities increased significantly when the statewide helmet mandate was repealed, and interestingly, after reinstatement, these fatality rates never returned to their previous lows. Motorcycle fatalities have increased out of proportion to the increase in motorbike registrations, even when yearly fatalities are normalized to fatalities per 10,000 registered bikes. An all-time high in fatalities was seen in 2006, a year subsequent to the mandate's reinstatement. Fatalities per collision were elevated significantly after the mandate's repeal but did not return to prerepeal lows after the mandate's reinstatement. Although helmet use after reinstatement has reached all-time highs, fatality rates have remained elevated since the original mandate repeal in 1999. Other achievable changes in state policy and law enforcement should be explored to quell this heightened risk to motorcycle enthusiasts in Louisiana, and states considering changing their own motorcycle helmet

  5. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)5: Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-84/P Flight Helmet

    2017-04-06

    data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture , use, or sell any patented...airworthiness. The JSAM-TA Respirator Assembly (V)5 (Figure 2) is a chemical, biological, and radiological respirator assembly manufactured by Cam Lock...Classic™ sizing matrix for speech intelligibility Subject ID# Gender HGU- 84/P Helmet Helmet Liner (inches) Earcup Spacers (centered behind

  6. The Effect of a Monocular Helmet-Mounted Display on Aircrew Health: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Apache AH Mk 1 Pilots -(Vision and Handedness)

    2015-05-19

    the day, night, and in adverse weather through the use of nose-mounted, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) pilotage and targeting sensors that provide a...sensor video and/or symbology to each crewmember via a helmet display unit (HDU). The HDU contains a 1-inch (in.) diameter cathode ray tube (CRT...American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 12(4): 365–369. Sale, D. F., and Lund, G. J. 1993. AH-64 Apache program update

  7. The use of the virtual reality Helmet Samsung gear VR as interaction interface of a radioactive waste repository simulator

    Santos, Julio A. dos; Mól, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. Do E., E-mail: julio_andrade11@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive waste is all material resulting from human activity that contains elements that emit radiation that can generate risks to health and the environment. In this sense, they are very toxic also for those who perform the storage of radioactive waste in nuclear facilities. On the other hand, the virtual reality (VR) has been destined to the most diverse purposes, like simulations for educational systems, for military purposes as for diverse training. VR can be considered as the junction of three basic principles: immersion, interaction and involvement. Bases on these principles of VR, this work aimed to develop a simulator of a repository of nuclear tailings, for mobile computing, whose interaction interface will be through the Samsung Gear VR helmet. The simulator of the nuclear waste repository was developed in the unity 3D tool and the elements that make up the scenario in the 3D MAX program. In this work we tried to put virtual reality under scrutiny in conjunction with Gear VR, to help in the sensation of immersion, as well as, the possibility of interaction with joysticks. The purpose was to provide greater insight into the operating environment. (author)

  8. Physical and chemical properties of meat from scavenging chickens and helmeted guinea fowls in response to age and sex.

    Musundire, M T; Halimani, T E; Chimonyo, M

    2017-08-01

    1. The effects of age and sex on body weight, carcass traits, physical and chemical properties of breast muscle from chickens and helmeted guinea fowls managed under village free-range conditions were assessed in random samples of 48 guinea fowls and 48 chickens obtained from local markets. 2. Guinea fowls had higher body weight, hot carcass weight, cold dressed weight and breast weight than chickens. 3. Guinea fowls had more dry matter, protein and less fat than chickens. Ash content did not differ between guinea fowls and chickens. Protein and fat increased, whereas dry matter and ash decreased with age (P meat was lighter, less red and more yellow than guinea fowl meat. Cooking loss was higher in guinea fowls, male and grower birds than chickens, females and adult birds, respectively. Shear force was affected by age, as mature birds had a higher value than growers. 5. Guinea fowl carcasses contained more meat that was leaner, higher in protein and redder compared with chicken meat. As age increased the meat increased in protein and fat content and shear force, whereas colour became darker, redder and yellower.

  9. The use of the virtual reality Helmet Samsung gear VR as interaction interface of a radioactive waste repository simulator

    Santos, Julio A. dos; Mól, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. Do E.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste is all material resulting from human activity that contains elements that emit radiation that can generate risks to health and the environment. In this sense, they are very toxic also for those who perform the storage of radioactive waste in nuclear facilities. On the other hand, the virtual reality (VR) has been destined to the most diverse purposes, like simulations for educational systems, for military purposes as for diverse training. VR can be considered as the junction of three basic principles: immersion, interaction and involvement. Bases on these principles of VR, this work aimed to develop a simulator of a repository of nuclear tailings, for mobile computing, whose interaction interface will be through the Samsung Gear VR helmet. The simulator of the nuclear waste repository was developed in the unity 3D tool and the elements that make up the scenario in the 3D MAX program. In this work we tried to put virtual reality under scrutiny in conjunction with Gear VR, to help in the sensation of immersion, as well as, the possibility of interaction with joysticks. The purpose was to provide greater insight into the operating environment. (author)

  10. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. An intelligent system and a relational data base for codifying helmet-mounted display symbology design requirements

    Rogers, Steven P.; Hamilton, David B.

    1994-06-01

    To employ the most readily comprehensible presentation methods and symbology with helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), it is critical to identify the information elements needed to perform each pilot function and to analytically determine the attributes of these elements. The extensive analyses of mission requirements currently performed for pilot-vehicle interface design can be aided and improved by the new capabilities of intelligent systems and relational databases. An intelligent system, named ACIDTEST, has been developed specifically for organizing and applying rules to identify the best display modalities, locations, and formats. The primary objectives of the ACIDTEST system are to provide rapid accessibility to pertinent display research data, to integrate guidelines from many disciplines and identify conflicts among these guidelines, to force a consistent display approach among the design team members, and to serve as an 'audit trail' of design decisions and justifications. A powerful relational database called TAWL ORDIR has been developed to document information requirements and attributes for use by ACIDTEST as well as to greatly augment the applicability of mission analysis data. TAWL ORDIR can be used to rapidly reorganize mission analysis data components for study, perform commonality analyses for groups of tasks, determine the information content requirement for tailored display modes, and identify symbology integration opportunities.

  12. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  13. Specific diagnosis of brain disease with double isotope brain scanning

    Ell, P J; Lotritsch, K H; Hilbrand, E; Meixner, M; Barolin, G; Scholz, H [Landesunfallkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Landesnervenkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Dept. of Neurology)

    1976-02-01

    25 patients with known cerebral disease (either CVA's or primary or secondary tumours) diagnosed by clinical and angiographic criteria were submitted to a double siotope imaging technique using sup(99m)TcO/sub 4/- and sup(99m)Tc-EHDP. The different biological behaviour of these radiopharmaceuticals has provided specific and differential diagnosis between vascular and neoplastic disease of the brain. sup(99m)Tc-EHDP is shown to be the tracer of choice for the imaging of CVA's and sup(99m)TcO/sub 4/- is confirmed as the tracer of choice for the imaging of primary or secondary tumours in the brain.

  14. Computed tomographic brain scan findings in Q fever encephalitis

    Gomez Aranda, F.; Romero Acebal, M.; Maestre Moreno, J.; Pachon Diaz, J.; Lopez Cortes, L.; Navarro Rodriguez, A.

    1984-07-01

    Neurological involvement in Q Fever is unusual. We present a case of encephalitis due to Coxiella Burnetii with neuroradiologic findings on CT not described previously, consisting in areas of decreased absorption coefficient in the subcortical white matter of both hemispheres, predominantly in the right. Differential diagnosis must be established from viral encephalitis, of similar clinical presentation, which may show similar CT lesions to those in this case.

  15. Travelling without a helmet: tourists' vulnerabilities and responses to disasters in Indonesia.

    Rindrasih, Erda; Hartmann, Thomas; Witte, Patrick; Spit, Tejo; Zoomers, Annelies

    2018-03-13

    Tourists are particularly vulnerable when natural disasters occur in regions that they are visiting. It is assumed that they lack awareness and understanding of the actions that they need to take in such circumstances. This study examines the responses of tourists in times of disaster, building on empirical data collected through large-scale surveys conducted in Bali and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2015. Both are important tourist destinations in the country that have suffered major disasters in recent years. The different types of responses to these events are framed using a grid/group analysis stemming from cultural theory. The study resulted in three key findings: (i) current disaster management planning largely follows a single rationale; (ii) tourists are not a homogeneous group, but rather a complex, diverse, and dynamic body of stakeholders; and (iii) the focus of disaster management planning should shift from a single rationale to a polyrational methodology. Disaster managers need to consider, therefore, these different aspects in the context of preparedness. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  16. Travelling without a helmet

    Rindrasih, Erda; Hartmann, Thomas; Witte, Patrick; Spit, Tejo; Zoomers, Annelies

    2018-01-01

    Tourists are particularly vulnerable when natural disasters occur in regions that they are visiting. It is assumed that they lack awareness and understanding of the actions that they need to take in such circumstances. This study examines the responses of tourists in times of disaster, building on

  17. Fusion Helmet: Electronic Analysis

    2014-04-01

    Table 1: LYR203-101B Board Feature P1 (SEC MODULE) DM648 GPIO PORn Video Ports (2) Bootmode SPI/UART I2C CLKIN MDIO DDR2 128MB/16bit SPI Flash 16...McASP EMAC-SGMII /2 MDIO I2C GPIO DDR2 128MB/16bit JTAG Memory CLKGEN I2C PGoodPGood PORn Pwr LED Power DSP SPI/UART DSP SPI/UARTSPI/UART Video Display

  18. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Rhythms and Entropy during Self-Paced Finger Movement using the Epoc Helmet

    Mario U. Manto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the cerebellum is emerging as a novel non-invasive tool to modulate the activity of the cerebellar circuitry. In a single blinded study, we applied anodal tDCS (atDCS of the cerebellum to assess its effects on brain entropy and brain rhythms during self-paced sequential finger movements in a group of healthy volunteers. Although wearable electroencephalogram (EEG systems cannot compete with traditional clinical/laboratory set-ups in terms of accuracy and channel density, they have now reached a sufficient maturity to envision daily life applications. Therefore, the EEG was recorded with a comfortable and easy to wear 14 channels wireless helmet (Epoc headset; electrode location was based on the 10–20 system. Cerebellar neurostimulation modified brain rhythmicity with a decrease in the delta band (electrode F3 and T8, p < 0.05. By contrast, our study did not show any significant change in entropy ratios and laterality coefficients (LC after atDCS of the cerebellum in the 14 channels. The cerebellum is heavily connected with the cerebral cortex including the frontal lobes and parietal lobes via the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway. We propose that the effects of anodal stimulation of the cerebellar cortex upon cerebral cortical rhythms are mediated by this key-pathway. Additional studies using high-density EEG recordings and behavioral correlates are now required to confirm our findings, especially given the limited coverage of Epoc headset.

  19. Influence of timer end-effects on Gamma knife (Type B) treatment

    Baba, Sadaaki; Ito, Teruo; Toyoda, Tatsuya; Wakamatsu, Osamu; Machida, Toru

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the influence of timer end-effects retrospectively in cases treated with Gamma knife (Type B) in the first year and in the fifth year after installation. Objects were 113 cases from April 1997 to December 1997 and 230 cases between January 2001 and December 2001. The influence of timer end-effects was calculated in the following formula: influence of timer end-effects=Σ (timer end-effects/shot time)/(number of lesions x number of shots). Ten factors such as the output at the center of polystyrene sphere phantom, the number of lesions, the number of shots, the delivered maximum absorbed dose, total irradiation time and the frequency in the use of each collimator helmet were examined as factors of the influence. The average values of timer end-effects were 4.7±0.27, 4.3±0.27, 3.6±0.24 and 3.5±0.29%/min. for 18, 14, 8 and 4 mm collimator helmets, respectively and depended on field size. We believe that the unit '%/min.' must be accepted instead of '%'. Gamma knife treatment is stereotactic radiosurgery and 40-50 Gy is irradiated within several hours with about ten shots. So the influence of timer end-effects was calculated 0.82±0.80% in 1997 and 0.51±0.41% in 2001 on average. These data suggest that there was little influence on the treatment. These figures were average values per lesion, so the influence may be more complicated in each part of lesions. The difference between the influence of timer end-effects in 1997 and 2001 was considered to be caused by the elongation of shot time according to Cobalt-60 decay, the reduction of the number of shots by frequent use of 14 mm collimator helmet, and the restriction of the number of treated lesions. (author)

  20. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes.

    Teoh, Eric R; Campbell, Marvin

    2010-12-01

    Motorcycles vary in design and performance capability, and motorcyclists may select certain motorcycle types based on driving preferences. Conversely, motorcycle performance capability may influence the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding. Both mechanisms may affect fatal crash risk when examined by motorcycle type. Although it was not possible to estimate the effect of each mechanism, the current study analyzed fatal crash data for evidence of motorcycle type differences in risky driving behaviors and risk of driver death. Street legal motorcycles were classified into 10 types based on design characteristics and then further grouped as cruiser/standard, touring, sport touring, sport/unclad sport, supersport, and all others. For each motorcycle type, driver death rates per 10,000 registered vehicle years and the prevalence of fatal crash characteristics such as speeding were analyzed. Differences among motorcycle types concerning the effect of engine displacement were examined using Poisson regression. Overall, driver death rates for supersport motorcycles were four times as high as those for cruiser/standard motorcycles. Fatally injured supersport drivers were most likely to have been speeding and most likely to have worn helmets, but least likely to have been impaired by alcohol compared with drivers of other motorcycle types. The patterns in driver factors held after accounting for the effects of age and gender. Increased engine displacement was associated with higher driver death rates for each motorcycle type. Strong effects of motorcycle type were observed on driver death rates and on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding and alcohol impairment. Although the current study could not completely disentangle the effects of motorcycle type and rider characteristics such as age on driver death rates, the effects of both motorcycle type and rider age on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors were observed among fatally

  1. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system. Green helmet project for briquette production plant - Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo chosa hokokusho. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru green helmet jigyo (Thai koku Mae Moh tanko)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This Green Helmet Project is intended to suppress generation of environment polluting substances in association with coal utilization in Thailand by demonstrating and improving the proliferation infrastructure for the clean coal technology to be used widely in Thailand. The project is also intended to serve for stabilized assurance of energies for Japan. The demonstration project related to briquette manufacturing facilities executed as one of the 'Projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system' is intended to manufacture at low cost a briquette which is low in odor, free of smoke, and suppressed largely of sulfur oxide generation. The briquette is made by adding clayish minerals, sulfur, a fixing agent and a binder into brown coal being a low grade coal. The project implements proliferation of the technology to reduce environmental load associated with coal utilization in developing countries according to the situation and needs of the counterpart countries. The present project has performed the site surveys and guidance of operation and maintenance techniques as follow-up works of the demonstration project having been completed by cooperation between Japan and Thailand. It is considered that what had been intended in the beginning has been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  2. A Quest for Open Helmets

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2012-01-01

    The Danish burqa-affair contains a prohibition of wearing religious and political symbols in court as well as a re-interpretation of existing legislation in order to identify where within the limits of freedom of religion it is possible to make prohibitions towards the use of the burqa....... The reactions are in this article interpreted as concerning central values such as open-minded-ness and equality combined with respect for freedom of religion also in public institutions, understood as representing 'the people' as common...

  3. LWH & ACH Helmet Hardware Study

    2015-11-30

    cut in half lengthwise, mounted in epoxy , and polished, as shown in Figure 3, then the grain microstructure examined via optical metallography...saw, and mounted in epoxy and cured at room temperature. Initial manual sanding of the cut surfaces was no coarser than 600 grit silicon-carbide...initial attempts to perform impact tests using screws mounted in Kevlar composite panels resulted in little damage to the screws, but a lot of

  4. Blood typing

    ... detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations. Alternative Names Cross matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ...

  5. Klebsiella Typing

    Hansen, D S; Skov, R; Benedí, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and O:K-serotyping of Klebsiella in two different epidemiological settings. METHODS: One hundred and four bacteremia isolates without known epidemiological relation and 47 isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care...... unit (NICU) were K-typed by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE), O-typed by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme XbaI. RESULTS: Typing data for the 104 bacteremia isolates were compared...... with regard to typability, number of types, maximum number of isolates per type, and the Discriminative Index (DI). O-typing combined with K-typing (DI 0.98) as O:K-serotyping (DI 0.99) gave a very discriminative typing system, whereas O-typing alone was not very discriminative (DI 0.76). PFGE (DI 1...

  6. A model based system for the interpretation of MR human brain scans

    Kapouleas, I.; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype system for identifying and characterizing Multiple Scleroris (MS) lesions in the brain from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The system is designed to obtain an initial segmentation of each cross-sectional image with low level vision methods, and then derive successive refinements of image subregions through a model-driven approach that correlates relevant information from T1 and T2 images and 3-D information from complementary cross-sections when necessary. The system uses a b-spline surface model of the brain that matches the characteristics of the individual's brain. The normal internal structures of the brain are then scaled proportionately before carrying out the successive refinement operations for the detection of the MS lesions. The low level vision and the solid modeling components of the system have been successfully tested on several hundred images from a number of MR patient studies. The first steps of model fitting have been implemented and show promising results

  7. Unoperated subdural hematomas. Long-term follow-up study by brain scan and electroencephalography

    Lusins, J.; Jaffe, R.; Bender, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The authors report nine patients selected from over 100 patients with subdural hematomas successfully treated without surgery. These patients were followed for as long as 5 years. All had angiographically demonstrated subdural hematomas. Electroencephalograms (EEG) documented well the clinical improvement of the patient, but were poor guides to the true size of the hematoma, since EEG returns to normal early in the patient's course. Static scans are a better guide to the presence of a subdural hematoma, but they lag behind clinical improvement and usually remain abnormal for considerable periods of time after a major portion of the hematoma has been reabsorbed, and the patient is asymptomatic

  8. Evaluation of a 99Tcm bound brain scanning agent for single photon emission computed tomography

    Andersen, A R; Hasselbalch, S G; Paulson, O B

    1986-01-01

    D,L HM-PAO-99Tcm (PAO) is a lipophilic tracer complex which is avidly taken up by the brain. We have compared the regional distribution of PAO with regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by Tomomatic 64 after 133Xe inhalation in 41...... patients. With the same SPECT the distribution of PAO was measured after intravenous injection. High resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR) studies were performed yielding a resolution of 6-10 mm (HR) and 15-20 mm (LR). PAO images showed close resemblance to 133Xe CBF tomograms. Only 20 per cent...... of the (decay corrected) brain counts were lost during 24 hours....

  9. Dynamic CT brain scanning in the haemodynamic evaluation of cerebral arterial occlusive disease

    Davis, S.M.; Melbourne Univ.; Tress, B.M.; Hopper, J.L.; Rossiter, S.C.; Kaye, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic cerebral CT scanning (DCT) was used to quantitatively analyse the haemodynamic effects of extracranial and intracranial arterial occlusive lesions in 17 patients with TIA's or minor cerebral infarcts. Using DCT and gamma variate curve fitting, mean transit times were determined for the terminal internal carotid arteries, middle cerebral arteries and middle cerebral-supplied Sylvian cortex at the level of the Circle of Willis. Six patients were studied sequentially, four before and after transcranial bypass surgery. No arterial or tissue delays were found in patients without haemodynamic arterial lesions or cortical infarcts. Seven of nine patients with haemodynamic, extracranial carotid lesions showed ipsilateral delays in arterial or tissue transit times. Tissue delays usually correlated with CT or clinical evidence of infarction. Improved haemodynamics in patients re-studied correlated with the effects of surgery or clinical recovery. DCT has several important limitations but has the potential to provide additional haemodynamic information about the cerebral circulation in selected patients with cerebral arterial occlusive disease. (orig.)

  10. Improving efficiency of multi-modality registration of brain scans based on mutual information

    Thurfjell, L.; Lau, Y.; Hutton, B.; Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW; University of Technology, Sydney, NSW

    1999-01-01

    Full text: One approach for multi-modality registration uses a similarity measure based on mutual information (MI) of voxel intensities. MI measures the statistical dependence between two images by comparing the joint probability distribution (approximated by the 2D joint histogram), with the distribution in the case of complete independence (approximated from the I D histograms). The MI measure reaches a maximum when the images are aligned. The purpose of the current work was to investigate if the registration process could be accelerated through subsampling, i.e. by using only a subset of all voxels for the calculations. The behaviour of the MI measure at different subsampling factors was studied. It was observed that subsampling caused MI to exhibit multiple local maxima unless it was accompanied by a reduction in the number of bins used for the histograms. However, too few bins in the histograms made the peak of the MI measure broader. It was therefore concluded that a coarse-to-fine subsampling procedure, followed by a corresponding increase in the number of bins in the histogram, would be the best choice. The method was validated on SPET-MRI data from seven healthy volunteers. Using a 64:1, 32:1 and 16:1 subsampling scheme with a corresponding bin size of 24, 32 and 48, the new method converged in an average time of 2.5 min as compared to 46 min for the original method (PC Pentium 200). The average absolute differences were 0.24, 0.34, 0.30 mm translation and 0.58, 0.41, 0.66 degrees rotation. We conclude that the suggested scheme renders the registration method sufficiently rapid for routine use in the clinical setting

  11. MR brain scanning in patients with vasculitis: Differentiation from multiple sclerosis

    Miller, D.H.; Ormerod, I.E.C.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.; Gibson, A.

    1987-01-01

    We performed MR (magnetic resonance) brain imaging on 24 patients with a systemic vasculitis. MRI proved to be a sensitive method for detecting brain lesions (clinically silent or manifest) in these patients. The most frequent abnormalities were periventricular lesions seen in 12 cases. Such changes are not specific for vascular disease, and are often seen in multiple sclerosis. However, additional changes were commonly seen which suggested the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Exposure to gonads and eyes due to computerised tomography for brain scanning

    Pin-Chieh Hsu; Pao-Shan Weng; Ling-Nah Su

    1986-01-01

    Eye and gonad doses for some 150 patients were determined using thermoluminescence dosemeters. Doses received during CT scanning using a Toshiba scanner were compared with those obtained using a Pfizer scanner. A female Rando phantom was also used as the reference. For males, the average eye dose for the Toshiba was 1695+-2041 μGy per slice and the gonad dose was 2.0+-1.5 μGy per slice; for females it was 1953+-1923 μGy per slice for eyes and 0.4+-0.3 μGy per slice for gonads. (author)

  13. Transient gyriform brightness on non-contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) brain scan of seven infants

    Close, P.J.; Carty, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous gyriform brightness seen on CT scan is an unusual finding unless associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVM). There are sporadic case reports in the literature of its occurrence in association with herpex simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE), purulent meningitis, following chemotherapy for leukaemia, in a child with chronic renal failure, and in a child with folic acid deficiency. We present a series of seven cases exhibiting this phenomenon, none of whom have AVMs, who have been scanned at this hospital in the first 2 1/2 years following the installation of a CT scanner. Four of the cases had congenital heart disease requiring corrective surgery or cardiac catheterisation. The other three had probable meningo-encephalitis. In all cases the gyriform brightness followed an ischaemic insult to the child's brain. We hypothesise that this phenomenon is an ischaemic response in the immature brain and that its occurrence is not so rare as the literature may suggest. (orig.)

  14. Diagnosis of epidural hematoma by brain scan and perfusion study: case report

    Buozas, D.J.; Barrett, I.R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    By using the arterial and venous phases of an anterior cerebral perfusion study, which showed downward displacement of the sagittal sinus, and the finding of a rim on the delayed scans, the specific diagnosis of epidural hematoma was established

  15. An open tool for input function estimation and quantification of dynamic PET FDG brain scans.

    Bertrán, Martín; Martínez, Natalia; Carbajal, Guillermo; Fernández, Alicia; Gómez, Álvaro

    2016-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) analysis of clinical studies is mostly restricted to qualitative evaluation. Quantitative analysis of PET studies is highly desirable to be able to compute an objective measurement of the process of interest in order to evaluate treatment response and/or compare patient data. But implementation of quantitative analysis generally requires the determination of the input function: the arterial blood or plasma activity which indicates how much tracer is available for uptake in the brain. The purpose of our work was to share with the community an open software tool that can assist in the estimation of this input function, and the derivation of a quantitative map from the dynamic PET study. Arterial blood sampling during the PET study is the gold standard method to get the input function, but is uncomfortable and risky for the patient so it is rarely used in routine studies. To overcome the lack of a direct input function, different alternatives have been devised and are available in the literature. These alternatives derive the input function from the PET image itself (image-derived input function) or from data gathered from previous similar studies (population-based input function). In this article, we present ongoing work that includes the development of a software tool that integrates several methods with novel strategies for the segmentation of blood pools and parameter estimation. The tool is available as an extension to the 3D Slicer software. Tests on phantoms were conducted in order to validate the implemented methods. We evaluated the segmentation algorithms over a range of acquisition conditions and vasculature size. Input function estimation algorithms were evaluated against ground truth of the phantoms, as well as on their impact over the final quantification map. End-to-end use of the tool yields quantification maps with [Formula: see text] relative error in the estimated influx versus ground truth on phantoms. The main contribution of this article is the development of an open-source, free to use tool that encapsulates several well-known methods for the estimation of the input function and the quantification of dynamic PET FDG studies. Some alternative strategies are also proposed and implemented in the tool for the segmentation of blood pools and parameter estimation. The tool was tested on phantoms with encouraging results that suggest that even bloodless estimators could provide a viable alternative to blood sampling for quantification using graphical analysis. The open tool is a promising opportunity for collaboration among investigators and further validation on real studies.

  16. Statistical analysis of CT brain scans in the evaluation of cerebral atrophy and hydrocephalus

    Oberthur, J.; Baddeley, H.; Jayasinghe, L.; Walsh, P.

    1983-01-01

    All the subjects with a visual CT diagnosis of atrophy or hydrocephalus showed variations from the normal in excess of two standard deviations so the standard deviation analysis method can be regarded as being as sensitive as the visual interpretation. However, three patients in the control group were also indicted although their results were only in the borderline range. Limitations of the study are discussed

  17. Blood Types

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  18. Type Tricks

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Type Tricks’ is about typographical rules and the underlying structure of the work process in the design of new typefaces. In that way, it is both a reference book and a user manual. In an illustrative format, it presents the different stages of type design in an easily accessible manner. Being...

  19. Type inference for correspondence types

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  20. Blood Types

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  1. Tank type LMFBR type reactors

    Shimizu, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the abnormality in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures thereby improve the safety and reliability of tank type LMFBR reactors. Constitution: Upon inspection during reactor operation period, the top end of the gripper sensing rod of a fuel exchanger is abutted against a supporting bed and the position of the reactor core supporting structures from the roof slab is measured by a stroke measuring device. Then, the sensing rod is pulled upwardly to abut against the arm portion and the position is measured by the stroke measuring device. The measuring procedures are carried out for all of the sensing rods and the measured values are compared with a previously determined value at the initial stage of the reactor operation. As a result, it is possible to detect excess distortions and abnormal deformation in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures. Furthermore, integrity of the suspended body against thermal stresses can be secured by always measuring the coolant liquid level by the level measuring sensor. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Type Classes for Lightweight Substructural Types

    Edward Gan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear and substructural types are powerful tools, but adding them to standard functional programming languages often means introducing extra annotations and typing machinery. We propose a lightweight substructural type system design that recasts the structural rules of weakening and contraction as type classes; we demonstrate this design in a prototype language, Clamp. Clamp supports polymorphic substructural types as well as an expressive system of mutable references. At the same time, it adds little additional overhead to a standard Damas-Hindley-Milner type system enriched with type classes. We have established type safety for the core model and implemented a type checker with type inference in Haskell.

  3. Viking Helmet Corroles: Activating Inert Oxidometal Corroles.

    Schweyen, Peter; Brandhorst, Kai; Hoffmann, Martin; Wolfram, Benedikt; Zaretzke, Marc-Kevin; Bröring, Martin

    2017-10-09

    Chemically inert oxidometal(V) corrols of molybdenum and rhenium undergo clean ligand-exchange reactions upon the action of SiCl 4 . The resulting dichlorido complexes show trigonal prismatic coordination of the metal ion with the chlorine atoms residing in a cis configuration, and were studied by optical and resonance spectroscopy as well as DFT calculations. In situ reactivity studies with carbon nucleophiles indicate high reactivity for chlorine replacement. Treatment with sodium cyclopentadienide paves the way to robust molybdenum corrolocene half-sandwich complexes. These organometallic compounds are the first corrole species that stabilize an air-stable and diamagnetic low spin d 2 -Mo IV center. Structural, spectroelectrochemical, and chemical investigations prove a reversible Mo IV /Mo V redox couple close to the Fc/Fc + potential for these systems. The high stability of the compounds in both redox states calls for future applications in catalysis and as redox switch. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. LWH and ACH Helmet Hardware Study

    2015-11-30

    cut in half lengthwise, mounted in epoxy , and polished, as shown in Figure 3, then the grain microstructure examined via optical metallography...saw, and mounted in epoxy and cured at room temperature. Initial manual sanding of the cut surfaces was no coarser than 600 grit silicon-carbide...initial attempts to perform impact tests using screws mounted in Kevlar composite panels resulted in little damage to the screws, but a lot of

  5. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    1997-11-03

    on openStack create menu "CSHMD" set the menuitems of "CSHMD" to "(Main Menu; References;-; Definitions;Display Criteria;Display Formats;Display Modes...34Macintosh" then put ":" into dirSep else put "V’ into dirSep put stackPathO&"Resource"&dirSep into gResPath put 0 into gXRef end openStack on

  6. Four Quarters of Football Helmet Safety

    ... faciales. Ajuste —El casco debe “sentirse” ajustado, sin espacio entre las almohadillas y la cabeza del atleta. El casco no debe ... se recuperan eventualmente, el descanso es la mejor forma de asegurar que su ... participar en el juego y recibir una evaluación de jugador. La salud a ...

  7. Respiratory Protection Performance: Impact of Helmet Integration

    2016-09-01

    usage. In addition, NVG usage did not result in significant differences within the integrated or nonintegrated configurations. Figure 4 illustrates the...DISTRIBUTION LIST The following individuals and organizations were provided with one Adobe portable document format (pdf) electronic

  8. Submissive display in young helmeted guineafowl

    1984-06-04

    Jun 4, 1984 ... ly identifiable birds in the Krugersdorp Game Reserve. (26°05'S/27°46'E) from April 1982 to March 1984. Submissive displays were observed mainly between a par- ent/guardian (senior flock members) and offspring. These activities are seen throughout the year, but appear to peak just after the fledging of ...

  9. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis; A controlled Study

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W. (Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Deans, H. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK). Dept. of Medical Physics (United Kingdom)); Crawford, J.R. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Psychology (United Kingdom)); Besson, J.A.O. (Aberdeen University Medical School (United Kingdom). Department of Mental Health (United Kingdom))

    1989-11-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ( 132 ms vs. controls 225 ) 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ( 152 ms vs. controls 236 ) 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ( 190 ms vs. controls 406 ) 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ( 19 s vs. controls 35 ) 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ( 66 s vs. controls 93 ) 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs.

  10. From the lab - Brain Scan Technology Extends Treatment Window for Stroke | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  11. Neuropsychological deficits and morphological MRI brain scan abnormalities in apparently health non-encephalopathic patients with cirrhosis

    Moore, J.W.; De Lacey, G.; Dunk, A.A.; Sinclair, T.S.; Mowat, M.A.G.; Brunt, P.W.; Deans, H.; Crawford, J.R.; Besson, J.A.O.

    1989-01-01

    By means of psychometric testing, we have determined the frequency of latent hepatic encephalopathy in a group of 19 cirrhotics with no clinical evidence of encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in order to determine whether morphological cerebral abnormalities were associated with latent encephalopathy. Nineteen age and educationally matched patient with normal liver function acted as controls. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between cirrhotics and controls were found in tests of short-term visual memory and speed of reaction to light (cirrhotics 326 ] 132 ms vs. controls 225 ] 36 ms), sound (cirrhotics 361 ] 152 ms vs. controls 236 ] 52 ms) and choice (cirrhotics 651 ] 190 ms vs. controls 406 ] 101 ms) stimuli (all values mean ] S.D.). Reitan trail test performance, however, was similar in both groups. ( Trail A: cirrhotics 43 ] 19 s vs. controls 35 ] 13 s; Trail B: cirrhotics 105 ] 66 s vs. controls 93 ] 36 s.) In patients with cirrhosis, MRI revealed statistically significant increases in the maximum fissure width of right frontal sulci, light and left parietal sulci, inter-hemispheric fissure width and in bicaudafe index. These changes, indicating cerebral atrophy, were largely confined to alcoholics. There was poor correlation between measurements of cerebral morphology and neuropsychological performance, only 10% of associations achieving statistical significance. (author). 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Diagnosis of epidural hematoma by brain scan and perfusion study: case report. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer techniques

    Buozas, D.J.; Barrett, I.R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1976-11-01

    By using the arterial and venous phases of an anterior cerebral perfusion study, which showed downward displacement of the sagittal sinus, and the finding of a rim on the delayed scans, the specific diagnosis of epidural hematoma was established.

  13. How to interpret an unenhanced CT Brain scan. Part 1: Basic principles of Computed Tomography and relevant neuroanatomy

    Thomas Osborne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to: Cover the basics of Computed Tomography (CT Brain imaging. Review relevant CT neuroanatomy. A CT image is produced by firing x-rays at a moving object which is then detected by an array of rotating detectors (Figure 1. The detected x-rays are then converted into a computerised signal which is used to produce a series of cross sectional images.

  14. Refining types using type guards in TypeScript

    de Wolff, Ivo Gabe; Hage, J.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss two adaptations of the implementation of type guards and narrowing in the TypeScript compiler. The first is an improvement on the original syntax-directed implementation, and has now replaced the original one in the TypeScript compiler. It is specifically suited for the scenario in which

  15. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular......, type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  17. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  19. Types of Dementia

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Use Map Selector Search Alzheimer’s Association Alzheimer's & Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia ...

  20. Type 1 diabetes

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes ... Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is ...

  1. Types of Diabetes

    ... Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... Planner, and tips from experts Let's Be Well: Products to help you thrive with diabetes - lets-be- ...

  3. Type 2 diabetes

    ... type 2 diabetes; Oral hypoglycemic - type 2 diabetes; High blood sugar - type 2 diabetes ... your kidneys are working well ( microalbuminuria and serum creatinine ). Visit your eye doctor at least once a ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  5. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, is conjectured to have decidable type checking, and has an implemented type-checker. Our new type theory, called guarded cubical type theory, provides a computational interpretation of extensionality for guarded recursive...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help ... Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  7. Types of Blood Donations

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  9. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  12. Type classes for mathematics in type theory

    Spitters, Bas; Van der Weegen, Eelis

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library...

  13. Concrete Types for TypeScript

    Richards, Gregor; Zappa Nardelli, Francesco; Vitek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Typescript extends JavaScript with optional type annotations that are, by design, unsound and, that the Typescript compiler discards as it emits code. This design point preserves programming idioms developers are familiar with, and allows them to leave their legacy code unchanged, while offering a measure of static error checking in parts of the program that have type annotations. We present an alternative design for TypeScript, one where it is possible to support the same degree of dynamism,...

  14. Several types of types in programming languages

    Martini, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Regular Submissions; International audience; Types are an important part of any modern programming language, but we often forget that the concept of type we understand nowadays is not the same it was perceived in the sixties. Moreover, we conflate the concept of " type " in programming languages with the concept of the same name in mathematical logic, an identification that is only the result of the convergence of two different paths, which started apart with different aims. The paper...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  16. Types and Automata

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...

  17. Type checking with open type functions

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  18. Equational type logic

    Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either

  19. Types of intersections.

    2015-01-01

    There are many types of intersections in the Netherlands. In an inherently safe road traffic system, however, the number of intersection types needs to be limited, depending on the road types that intersect. The desired types of intersections do not always correspond with the recommendations in the

  20. Type Inference with Inequalities

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both......Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...

  1. Towards Practical Gradual Typing

    Takikawa, Asumu; Feltey, Daniel; Dean, Earl; Flatt, Matthew; Findler, Robert Bruce; Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam; Felleisen, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, programmers have embraced dynamically-typed programming languages. By now, they have also come to realize that programs in these languages lack reliable type information for software engineering purposes. Gradual typing addresses this problem; it empowers programmers to annotate an existing system with sound type information on a piecemeal basis. This paper presents an implementation of a gradual type system for a full-featured class-based language as well as a novel p...

  2. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  3. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  4. Advances in Blood Typing.

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  6. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for ...

  8. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 ... Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... Tips for Caregivers ...

  11. Types of Stem Cells

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  15. Different Types of Lupus

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body ... Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey- ...

  1. Types of chemotherapy

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/treatment-types/chemotherapy/how-chemotherapy-drugs-work.html . Updated February 15, ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  5. Diabetes Type 2

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  7. Diabetes, Type 1

    Riazi, Afsane; Bradley, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of psychological stress in Type 1 diabetes. Studies relating to stress and Type 1 diabetes onset and control, as well as the evidence relating to stress management training in people with Type 1 diabetes are discussed.

  8. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  10. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  12. Tension Type Headache: Evaluation of Chronic Type

    Ömer Karadaş

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension type headache(TTH which is a primary headache has episodic and chronic forms. Episodic TTH (ETTH can also be frequent-type and non-frequent-type. According to population-based studies, annual prevalence rates are 38.3% for ETTH and 2.2% for chronic TTH (CTTH. Patients can shift between the sub-groups of TTH. In particular, patients with ETTH are at risk of developing CTTH. Peripheral and central nociceptive mechanism are thought to be responsible in occurrence of TTH. Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with TTH. Although basic and combined analgesics are used in acute treatment and antidepresants are used in prophylaxis, new treatment modalities are needed.

  13. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF CORONAL STREAMERS AS MAGNETICALLY CLOSED STRUCTURES IN SHOCK-INDUCED ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AND METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by ∼24 hr in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the type II emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. This leads us to conjecture that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer may play a role in electron acceleration and type II excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a conjecture, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that the closed field lines play the role of an electron trap via which the electrons are sent back to the shock front multiple times and therefore accelerated to high energies by the shock. Electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV concentrating at the loop apex close to the shock front with a counter-streaming distribution at most locations. These electrons are energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. Considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions, we suggest that the scenario may be important for the generation of more metric type IIs. This study also provides an explanation of the general ending frequencies of metric type IIs at or above 20-30 MHz and the disconnection issue between metric and interplanetary type IIs.

  14. Guarded Type Promotion

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  15. Improving Precision of Types

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...

  16. Type B Drum packages

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  17. TypeSan : Practical type confusion detection

    Haller, Istvan; Jeon, Yuseok; Peng, Hui; Payer, Mathias; Giuffrida, Cristiano; Bos, Herbert; Van Der Kouwe, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The low-level C++ programming language is ubiquitously used for its modularity and performance. Typecasting is a fundamental concept in C++ (and object-oriented programming in general) to convert a pointer from one object type into another. However, downcasting (converting a base class pointer to a

  18. Honesty by Typing

    Bartoletti , Massimo; Scalas , Alceste; Tuosto , Emilio; Zunino , Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We propose a type system for a calculus of contracting processes. Processes can establish sessions by stipulating contracts, and then can interact either by keeping the promises made, or not. Type safety guarantees that a typeable process is honest - that is, it abides by the contracts it has stipulated in all possible contexts, even in presence of dishonest adversaries. Type inference is decidable, and it allows to safely approximate the honesty of processes using either synchronous or async...

  19. Mastering TypeScript

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  1. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    Desta, Semere Tekeste

    2017-01-01

    Høgskulen på Vestlandet Avdeling for helsefag for sykepleiere Tittel: Diabetes type 1 Bakgrunn for val av tema: I 2000 var det ca. 130 000 personer i Norge med diabetes, av disse hadde ca. 20 000 diabetes type 1. I dag er det ca. 230 000 personer som har diabetes i Norge. Av disse ca. 28 000 type 1 diabetes. Tallet viser hvor alvorlig sykdommen er, fordi det har vært og fortsatt er, en økning av antall diabetikere i Norge. Type 1 diabetes kan komme i alle aldersgrupper, men vanligvis...

  2. TypeScript revealed

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  3. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... steps you take Help change the conversation about type 2 diabetes. Recipes and More: Diabetes Food Hub - ... }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... 2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than ...

  8. Types of Anesthesia

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Types of Anesthesia KidsHealth / For Teens / Types of Anesthesia What's in ... Get? Print en español Tipos de anestesia About Anesthesia Anesthesia is broken down into three main categories: ...

  9. Diabetes Type 1

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  10. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    ... Affiliates JDRF Celebrity Ambassadors JDRF Logo Usage Contact Us Donate Events More Type 1 Diabetes Facts Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune ... about Insulin and T1D Learn More What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing ... US CAREERS NEWSROOM FOR RESEARCHERS © JDRF 2018 • Privacy Policy • ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, and hand it out to patients. You ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ...

  13. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  14. Tension type headache

    Debashish Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension type headaches are common in clinical practice. Earlier known by various names, the diagnosis has had psychological connotations. Recent evidence has helped clarify the neurobiological basis and the disorder is increasingly considered more in the preview of neurologists. The classification, clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of tension type headache are discussed in this paper.

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  16. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  17. Beyond Type D personality

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Honor Donation Donate by phone at 1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383) Donate by mail Why Give? ... My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics ...

  20. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  1. Types Of Christian Tourism

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large number of people involved in this type of tourismworldwide. Christian tourism as a sub-category of religious tourism coversthree main sub-types: traditional pilgrimage practiced by most world religions,missionary travel to different areas in the world, and confessional voyage. Thestructure of hospitality industry is common to all types of tourism but, fortraditional pilgrimage, there must be special places for the pilgrims to sleep,eat and pray, because they belong, in most cases, to the medium-income touristcategory.

  2. Road crash fatality rates in France: a comparison of road user types, taking account of travel practices.

    Bouaoun, Liacine; Haddak, Mohamed Mouloud; Amoros, Emmanuelle

    2015-02-01

    groups and those aged 70 and over had the highest rates. Males had higher rates than females, by a factor of between 2 and 3. When exposure is taken into account, the risks for motorized two-wheeler users are extremely high compared to other types of road user. This disparity can be explained by the combination of speed and a lack of protection (except for helmets). The differential is so great that prevention measures could probably not eliminate it. The question that arises is as follows: with regard to public health, should not the use of MTW, or at least of motorcycles, be deterred? The difference between the fatality risk of cyclists and of car occupants is much smaller (1.5 times higher); besides, there is much room for improvements in cyclist safety, for instance by increasing the use of helmets and conspicuity equipment. Traffic calming could also benefit cyclists, pedestrians and perhaps moped users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Typed ψ-calculi

    Hüttel, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies a su...... for the distributed pi-calculus of Hennessy and Riely and finally show how existing type systems for secrecy and authenticity in the spi calculus can be represented and shown to be safe.......A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies...... a subject reduction property and a general notion of channel safety. A number of existing systems are shown to be instances of our system, and other, new type systems can also be obtained. We first present a new type system for the calculus of explicit fusions by Wischik and Gardner, then one...

  4. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i sykepleie, 2014 Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturst...

  5. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  6. Action Type Deontic Logic

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  7. Type 2 diabetes models

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  8. Parametric compositional data types

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...... of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala...

  9. Type I supernova models

    Canal, Ramon; Labay, Javier; Isern, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    We briefly describe the characteristics of Type I supernova outbursts and we present the theoretical models so far advanced to explain them. We especially insist on models based on the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system, even regarding the recent division of Type I supernovae into the Ia and Ib subtypes. Together with models assuming explosive thermonuclear burning in a fluid interior, we consider in some detail those based on partially solid interiors. We finally discuss models that incorporate nonthermonuclear energy contributions, suggested in order to explain Type Ib outbursts. (Author)

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  12. Making Type Inference Practical

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo......, the complexity has been dramatically improved, from exponential time to low polynomial time. The implementation uses the techniques of incremental graph construction and constraint template instantiation to avoid representing intermediate results, doing superfluous work, and recomputing type information....... Experiments indicate that the implementation type checks as much as 100 lines pr. second. This results in a mature product, on which a number of tools can be based, for example a safety tool, an image compression tool, a code optimization tool, and an annotation tool. This may make type inference for object...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ...

  17. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    ... health care team is there for you. Your child's diabetes management plan should be easy to understand, detailed, ... Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Monitoring Blood Sugar Your Child's Diabetes Health Care Team Medicines for Diabetes Type 2 ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  1. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes.org ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from ...

  6. Teaching Typing by Transcription.

    Janson, Eleanor L.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to discussing the program for teaching typewriting to blind students using the auditory mode, the article presents a sample lesson in print, along with typing rates achieved by earlier classes. (DLS)

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ... 342-2383) Copyright 1995-2018. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Make your donation today ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics ... hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  17. Tissue types (image)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  18. Types of Crude Oil

    The petroleum industry often classifies these types by geographical source, but the classification scheme here is more useful in a spill cleanup scenario. It indicates general toxicity, physical state, and changes caused by time and weathering.

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal ... at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... hotelscom.html Ways to Give Vacation for Donations Travel bookings completed through Hotels.com give 5% back ... about type 2 diabetes. Recipes and More: Diabetes Food Hub - recipes-and-more-1.html Recipes and ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of ... our 2018 Tour de Cure events. Start your team today! More from diabetes.org Healthy Recipes: Delicious ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older ... may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

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  13. Facts about Type 2

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  15. Facts about Type 2

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  16. Facts about Type 2

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  17. Facts about Type 2

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  19. Type 1 diabetes

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

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  2. Facts about Type 2

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  3. Facts about Type 2

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  4. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Eye Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up ... high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

  5. Types of Heart Failure

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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  10. Facts about Type 2

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  11. Facts about Type 2

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  12. Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Belén, Ana; Pavón, Ibarz; Maiden, Martin C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was first proposed in 1998 as a typing approach that enables the unambiguous characterization of bacterial isolates in a standardized, reproducible, and portable manner using the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis as the exemplar organism. Since then, the approach has been applied to a large and growing number of organisms by public health laboratories and research institutions. MLST data, shared by investigators over the world via the Internet, have been ...

  13. Type 1 diabetes

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identifi...

  14. Type extension trees

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  15. Helical type vacuum container

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  16. Brauer type embedding problems

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

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  19. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Chat Closed engagement en -- So…Do You Have Prediabetes? - 2017-01-ad-council.html So…Do You ...

  20. Type VI secretion system.

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group . ...

  2. Chemistry of Blood Type

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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  5. Facts about Type 2

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  6. Facts about Type 2

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  7. TypeScript essentials

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  8. Facts about Type 2

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  9. [Enterocin typing of enterococci].

    Sedov, V I

    1978-09-01

    The author worked out a method of enterocinotyping on enterococci. A possibility of enterococcus typing by means of a set of enterocinogenic enterococcus strains was shown. A mobile enterococcus 4 (10 p) strain, possessing a high antagonistic activity, is suggested for enterococcus identification. Differentiation of enterococcus species by the enterocine sensitivity proved to be impossible.

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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  12. Facts about Type 2

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  13. Facts about Type 2

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  14. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer ... time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

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    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

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