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Sample records for hell north troendelag

  1. Applied watercourse research - An analysis of future needs. Report from a seminar at Hell, North Troendelag, November 20-21, 1995; Anvendt vassdragsforskning - en analyse av fremtidige behov. Rapport fra seminar paa Hell, Nord-Troendelag, 20-21 november 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarboevik, E.; Faugli, P.E. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    The future needs for research on issues related to Norwegian watercourse management were discussed at a seminar at Hell near Trondheim, on November 20-21, 1995. This publication reviews the work done on the seminar. Several topics in hydrology and applied watercourse management were discussed and suggestions were made for future research activities. General factors believed to influence future research activities include the possible shift in hydrologic and water science perspective from a segmented to a more holistic view of the watercourse: the expected increasing need for interdisciplinary research and institutional cooperation, the continued need for in-depth understanding of certain disciplines, the significance of an upcoming law on watercourse issues, and the effect of climate change. It is recommended that future research should be concentrated to a few watercourses and that a research programme on watercourse environment should be established. Projects are recommended on floods and flood control, on climate change and its effect on watercourses, on knowledge distribution, on the effects of new strategies such as peaking for management of hydroelectric power plants. These recommendations will be used to develop a research programme for the period 1997-2000. 35 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Helle Metslang filoloogiadoktoriks / Mati Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Mati, 1941-

    1995-01-01

    Helle Metslangi doktoriväitekirjast: Temporal relations in the predicate and the grammatical system of Estonian and Finnish. Oulu : Oulun yliopisto, 1994. (Oulun yliopiston suomen ja saamen kielen laitoksen tutkimusraportteja ; 39)

  3. Altitude of the top of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston...

  4. Preventing Hell on Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehezkel Dror

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill its mission a human-centered paradigm as envisioned by World Academy of Art & Science should combine optimism with pessimism. An essential meta-value is avoiding the bad, in addition to achieving “the good”. Realistic assessment of human beings is a must. An appropriate phased time horizon of 10 to 80 years should frame the paradigm. Evaluation of emerging science and technology with very dangerous potentials, such as those posed by synthesizing viruses and radical “human enhancement,” followed perhaps by human cloning and deep genetic engineering, is essential. Thinking ahead realistically on alternative futures of the human species as a whole and their drivers is a must, giving due weight to dangerous propensities as well as virtues of human beings. Only a small minority of humanity and its political leaders have the understanding essential for coping with fateful choices increasingly facing humanity. Inter alia essential is the regulation of dangerous research and technologies enforced by a strict global regime headed by a duly constituted circumscribed global authority. An upgraded genre of political leaders within redesigned democracy is essential. No human-centered paradigm should ignore such requirements. All this lead to my suggestion to focus the paradigm on the most important and urgent, what Dag Hammarskjöld appropriately called “preventing Hell on Earth”.

  5. Põimunud ajastud vanalinnakodus / Helle Neemre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neemre, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Kaasajastatud vanalinnakorter Väike-Karja tänavas. Muljeid ja meenutusi tehtust sisekujundaja Helle Neemrelt. Pildiallkirjad - Jüri Kuuskemaa. Korterist võib leida Hansa-aegseid detaile, regionalistlikku laadi, moodsaid mugavusi kaasaegses kujunduses. Sepised (kardinapuud, trepikäsipuu, kaminariistad, -rest) - sepp Raivo Uus. Paekivist detailid restaureeris KAR Grupp. Diivan ja laud - Mang.

  6. Altitude of the top of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River...

  7. The Problem of Hell Revisited: Towards a Gentler Theology of Hell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The doctrines of hell and the existence of God seem to pose a formidable paradox for both Christianity and Islam. The paradox can be stated as follows: Given that God is perfect in every sense, how can he allow any of his creatures to suffer eternal perdition? In this paper, I undertake a critical examination of the arguments ...

  8. Heaven and Hell at the Paradise Motel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Chudy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece is taken from the novel “Heaven and Hell at the Paradise Motel” and the exegesis that together forms my PhD thesis. The three main strands of this thesis are Gothic, Noir and sense of place. The novel, ‘‘Heaven and Hell at the Paradise Motel”, is preoccupied with the natural environment, its subtle seasonal changes and the way the environment impacts on its human inhabitants and how they in turn affect it. The novel is, in a very Gothic sense, haunted by dreams, apparitions and narratives – specifically mini-narratives that reflect the nature of fairy tales, horror stories and urban myths. It contains elements of melodrama, horror, romance. The story follows a deeply dysfunctional family through a seasonal cycle: beginning in Spring and ending once again in Spring. A key focus for both the creative and the theoretical work was the everyday application of the Gothic and Noir – for example a house doesn’t have to be a castle to be haunted; people don’t have to be monsters to be monstrous. The dark, the strange, the sinister and the perverse lurk in the shadows of everyday reality, but also how these elements intertwined within the landscape.

  9. Small-x resummation from HELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford, England (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Peraro, Tiziano [The University of Edinburgh, Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Small-x logarithmic enhancements arising from high-energy gluon emissions affect both the evolution of collinearly-factorized parton densities and partonic coefficient functions. With the higher collider energy reached by the LHC, the prospect of a future high-energy collider, and the recent deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) results at small-x from HERA, providing phenomenological tools for performing small-x resummation has become of great relevance. In this paper we discuss a framework to perform small-x resummation for both parton evolution and partonic coefficient functions and we describe its implementation in a computer code named High-Energy Large Logarithms (HELL). We present resummed and matched results for the DGLAP splitting functions and, as a proof of principle, for the massless structure functions in DIS. Furthermore, we discuss the uncertainty from subleading terms on our results. (orig.)

  10. God, Heaven and Hell : The Philosophy of Belief | Asekhauno | Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While heaven is God's promised reward for all who accept Christ and do His will, hell is the abode for all who denounce him. To merit heaven, one is required to renounce worldliness and love God in one's neighbour. While many are undecided, some others remain confused about the reality or otherwise of both the ...

  11. Multibeam Bathymetry to Measure Volumetric Change and Particle Size Distributions in the Snake River through Hells Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K.; Morehead, M. D.; Anderson, K.; Wilson, T.; Butler, M.; Conner, J. T.; Hocker, B.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-beam bathymetry (MBB) surveys can be used to measure the change in storage and particle size distributions on riverbeds even in the inaccessible and rugged Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River. Our work to date has shown that differencing repeated MBB surveys can be an effective method of measuring volumetric changes in riverbed storage of sediment and that the data can also be used to categorize particle size distributions across the entire riverbed. The volumetric and particle size information allows us to investigate the patterns of sand and salmon spawning gravels and the underlying transport and supply processes. These methods will continue to be refined as part of Idaho Power's long-term compliance monitoring program and will provide a unique, long-term record of sediment transport in a steep, canyon-bound river. The Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River flows north 95 kilometers from Hells Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Salmon River and forms the border between Idaho and Oregon. The reach contains 15 named rapids (Class II to IV) and has an average slope of approximately 0.002%, an average bankfull width of 75-100 m, and an extreme confinement ratio (bankfull width: floodplain width) of 1. The bankfull flow (recurrence interval of about 2 years) of 1,400 cms has not been changed by the construction of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) immediately upstream, because the HCC reservoirs can only store 11% of the mean annual flow and 87% of the upstream drainage area had already been impounded by dams. Most methods of bathymetric surveying and particle size characterization were developed in small, wadeable streams and cannot be used in large, unwadeable channels like Hells Canyon. Many of the previous methods also require too much time or effort to feasibly cover the 950 hectares of riverbed in Hells Canyon. Instead, we have adapted multibeam sonar technology typically used in coastal areas or large, low-gradient rivers to the steep, canyon

  12. Hell revisited: A socio-critical enquiry into the roots and relevance of hell for the church today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanre Janse van Rensburg

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hell is being written out of theology and banned from serious conversation; for most scholars and modern- minded people it has more or less become a theoretical issue. Yet it remains alive and burning in the Western mind – there has been a surge in the amount of popular literature written on the subject from the 1990’s onwards. Why the sudden interest? Is there a pattern or social trend that could begin to explain the phenomenon? Part of the responsible way of dealing with the history of a concept such as hell is to point towards the social and political reasons for the emergence and need for certain concepts in particular contexts and circumstances, as they are all utilitarian concepts which are employed and abandoned as needs change and sentiments shift. This article will investigate the rise of the concept of hell by investigating the ancient sources in which it first appeared, in order to establish what factors made the concept popular then and now. In doing so, a continuum will be identified between the first origin of these ideas and their present popularity.

  13. Just for the hell of it : A comparison of two taboo-term constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, J.; Napoli, D.J.

    The two English constructions exemplified in Let's get the hell out of here (type G) and They beat the hell out of him (type B) differ both syntactically and semantically, but in both the taboo expression has the force of an intensifier. History (through a corpus investigation) reveals that the

  14. Maurice Car̊me'i lihtsad laulud lastele / Helle Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Helle, 1929-

    2003-01-01

    Car̊me, Maurice. Muinasjutud Caprine'ile / tõlkinud Helle Michelson. [Tallinn] : Tiritamm, 2002 ; Car̊me, Maurice. Naeruhull kirsipuu : [luuletused] / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Helvi Jürisson. [Tallinn] : Tiritamm, 2002 ; Car̊me, Maurice. Margareetapäev : [jutustused] / tõlkinud Helle Michelson. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2000

  15. Hell revisited: A socio-critical enquiry into the roots and relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Hell revisited: A socio-critical enquiry into the roots and relevance of hell for the church today”, in the ... leaders (Van Holten 2003:457). One rarely hears ..... So this theory contends that all will not be saved, but neither will any be in conscious torment forever – God resurrects the wicked to judge them, after which they are.

  16. Lootusetult loomulik - intuitsiooni varal läbi elu / Helle Gern ; interv. Jaana Liigand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gern, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Raamatu "Mentorlus kui jagatud areng" üks autoritest ja SEB Eesti Ühispanga Tallinna kontori erakliendi osakonna juhataja kirjeldab oma karjääri sekretärist osakonnajuhatajani ning tutvustab oma juhtimispõhimõtteid. Vt. samas: Helle Gern; Marek Kiisa intervjuud Helle Gerniga

  17. Thickness of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files...

  18. Moral Objections and Fear of Hell: An Important Barrier to Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Bart; Schaap, Hanneke; Braam, Arjan W

    2018-02-08

    This review explores the literature to test the hypothesis that 'moral objections to suicide (MOS), especially the conviction of going to hell after committing suicide, exert a restraining effect on suicide and suicidality.' Medline and PsycInfo were searched using all relevant search terms; all relevant articles were selected, rated and reviewed. Fifteen cross-sectional studies were available on this topic, and raise sufficient evidence to confirm a restraining effect of MOS, and sparse data on fear of hell. MOS seem to counteract especially the development of suicidal intent and attempts, and possibly the lethality of suicidal attempts. A differential pattern of influence of MOS on the suicidal continuum is suggested.

  19. Hell revisited: A socio-critical enquiry into the roots and relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Abstract. Hell is being written out of theology and banned from serious conversation; for most scholars and modern-minded people it has more or less become a theoretical issue. Yet it remains alive and burning in the Western mind – there has been a surge in the amount of popular literature written on the subject from the ...

  20. War Isn’t Hell, It’s Entertainment: 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    The interdisciplinary anthology War Isn’t Hell, It’s Entertainment analyses the relationship between war and the military on the one hand, and, on the other hand, entertainment, fiction, visual media, and cultural products. It examines war and film stars; war and films; war memorials; war...

  1. Hell revisited: A socio-critical enquiry into the roots and relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet it remains alive and burning in the Western mind – there has been a surge in the amount of popular literature written on the subject from the 1990's onwards. Why the sudden interest? Is there ... This article will investigate the rise of the concept of hell by investigating the ancient sources in which it first appeared, in order ...

  2. K Mbugua The Problem of Hell Revisited pp93-103

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K Mbugua

    The doctrines of hell and the existence of God seem to pose a formidable paradox for both. Christianity and Islam. The paradox can be stated as follows: Given that God is perfect in every sense, how can he allow any of his creatures to suffer eternal perdition? In this paper, I undertake a critical examination of the arguments ...

  3. Escape from Management Hell: 12 Tales of Horror, Humor, and Heroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreath, Robert D.

    This book offers a set of stories in which corporate executives demonstrate the folly and futility of their own business practices. In the stories, 12 executives are trying to escape from a hell of their own making. The tales provide insights into the management woes with which people at all levels deal on a daily basis. Topics include: the…

  4. Kuidas jagate oma linnas 1. klassi minevate laste vahel koolikohti? / Andrus Haugas, Helle Aunap, Maira Bogdanova, Anneli Rants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Pärnu linnavalitsuse haridusosakonna juhataja Andrus Haugas, Viljandi aselinnapea Helle Aunap, Tartu linnavalitsuse haridusosakonna peaspetsialist Maira Bogdanova, Valga linnavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuriosakonna juhataja Anneli Rants

  5. Superhuman Cognitions, Fourth Dimension and Speculative Comics Narrative : Panel Repetition in Watchmen and From Hell

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Oskari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This article investigates the use of repeating panels in relation to speculative fiction storytelling in graphic novels Watchmen and From Hell , written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Dave Gibbons and Eddie Campbell, respectively. Presenting the same panel several times over the course of the narrative is an expressive medium-specific narrative technique available only to comics. In the discussed graphic novels, panel repetition is used to repres...

  6. Teine muutuva keele ettekandepäev / Helle Metslang, Ilona Tragel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metslang, Helle, 1950-

    2007-01-01

    Teisest muutuva keele ettekandepäevast Tartus, 3.11.2006. Muutuva keele ettekandepäevi korraldab ETF-i kahe grandiprojekti töörühm: "Eesti keele grammatilise süsteemi muutumine ja selle põhjused : keelemuutuste analüüs kasutuskontekstis" (Tartu Ülikool, grandihoidja Ilona Tragel) ja "Eesti keele grammatika ja sõnavara dünaamika 1990-2000. aastatel" (Tallinna Ülikool, grandihoidja Helle Metslang)

  7. Escaping Dante’s hell with an informed virtual environment for interactive bodies in movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseaux Francis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of Informed Virtual Environments from the point of view of some philosophical and ethical key-issues. By browsing some eclectic experiences like dancing, serving Asturian cider, trying to escape Dante’s Hell or manufacturing a tyre, important questions are raised, and some answers are sketched about some possible ways of designing our future environments: but gestures have then to be considered as cultural objects too, being not reducible to their physical traces.

  8. Seismic profile analysis of sediment deposits in Brownlee and Hells Canyon Reservoirs near Cambridge, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James; Kelso, Kyle; Fosness, Ryan; Welcker, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the USGS Idaho Water Science Center and the Idaho Power Company, collected high-resolution seismic reflection data in the Brownlee and Hells Canyon Reservoirs, in March of 2013.These reservoirs are located along the Snake River, and were constructed in 1958 (Brownlee) and 1967 (Hells Canyon). The purpose of the survey was to gain a better understanding of sediment accumulation within the reservoirs since their construction. The chirp system used in the survey was an EdgeTech Geo-Star Full Spectrum Sub-Bottom (FSSB) system coupled with an SB-424 towfish with a frequency range of 4 to 24 kHz. Approximately 325 kilometers of chirp data were collected, with water depths ranging from 0-90 meters. These reservoirs are characterized by very steep rock valley walls, very low flow rates, and minimal sediment input into the system. Sediments deposited in the reservoirs are characterized as highly fluid clays. Since the acoustic signal was not able to penetrate the rock substrate, only the thin veneer of these recent deposits were imaged. Results from the seismic survey indicate that throughout both of the Brownlee and Hells Canyon reservoirs the accumulation of sediments ranged from 0 to 2.5 m, with an average of 0.5 m. Areas of above average sediment accumulation may be related to lower slope, longer flooding history, and proximity to fluvial sources.

  9. Understanding the gravitational-wave Hellings and Downs curve for pulsar timing arrays in terms of sound and electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenet, Fredrick A.; Romano, Joseph D.

    2015-07-01

    Searches for stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds using pulsar timing arrays look for correlations in the timing residuals induced by the background across the pulsars in the array. The correlation signature of an isotropic, unpolarized gravitational-wave background predicted by general relativity follows the so-called Hellings and Downs curve, which is a relatively simple function of the angle between a pair of Earth-pulsar baselines. In this paper, we give a pedagogical discussion of the Hellings and Downs curve for pulsar timing arrays, considering simpler analogous scenarios involving sound and electromagnetic waves. We calculate Hellings-and-Downs-type functions for these two scenarios and develop a framework suitable for doing more general correlation calculations.

  10. Politicians, Patriots and Plotters: Unlikely Debates Occasioned by Maximilian Hell's Venus Transit Expedition of 1769

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontler, Laszlo

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and political contexts and reception of the most important by-product of Maximilian Hell's famous Venus transit expedition of 1768-69, the Demonstratio. Idioma Ungarorum et Lapponum idem esse (1770) by Hell's associate Janos Sajnovics. Now considered a landmark in Finno-Ugrian linguistics, the Demonstratio addressed an academic subject that was at that time almost destined to be caught up in an ideological battlefield defined by the shifting relationship between the Habsburg government, the Society of Jesus, and the Hungarian nobility. The "enlightened absolutist" policies of the former aimed at consolidating the Habsburg monarchy as an empire, at the expense of privileged groups, including religious orders as well as the noble estates. In the situation created by the 1773 suppression of the Jesuit order (a signal of declining patronage from the dynasty), the growing preoccupation on the part of ex-Jesuits like Hell and Sajnovics with "things Hungarian" could have been part of an attempt to re-situate themselves on the Central European map of learning. At the same time, the founding document of this interest, the Demonstratio, evoked violent protests from the other target of Habsburg policies, the Hungarian nobility, because its basic assumptions - the kinship of the Hungarian and the Sami (Lappian) language - potentially undermined the noble ideology of social exclusiveness, established on the alleged "Scythian" ancestry of Hungarians. By exploring the complex motives, intentions, reactions and responses of the chief agents in this story, it is possible to highlight the extra-scientific constraints and facilitators for the practice of knowledge in late eighteenth century Central Europe.

  11. Crime, Adaptation and Collective Guilt: Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell’s From Hell

    OpenAIRE

    Onge, Ruth-Ellen St.

    2016-01-01

    L’ombre jetée par Jacques l’Éventreur marque toujours l’imaginaire social et figure au cœur du roman graphique From Hell (1999), écrit par Alan Moore et illustré par Eddie Campbell. Cet article cherche à comprendre les motivations qui poussent Moore à réécrire et à repenser l’histoire d’un des premiers tueurs en série modernes sous forme d’un roman graphique qui sert comme adaptation de plusieurs textes, mythologies et imaginaires. Adaptation révisionniste, selon les critères proposés par Hut...

  12. Evaluation of Cultural and Ideological Manipulations in Four Persian Translations of Jhumpa Lahiri’s Hell-Heaven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Kaveyaninia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined cultural and ideological implications in translation studies. For  this purpose, four Persian translations of Hell-Heaven were chosen. Hell-Heaven is a story adopted from “Unaccustomed Earth” (2008, written by the Indian-American writer, Jhumpa Lahiri.  Therefore, the translations were explored to detect translators’ ideological shifts; in the way that all components of translations were pondered to detect translational adaptations chosen by four translators. The result showed that translators had adopted translational strategies such as addition, deletion and substitution to deal with American and Indian’s cultural and ideological differences.

  13. Miks liisiti Arnold Rüütlile ja Helle Merile kallid ametiautod? / Toomas Sildam ; interv. Rain Pruul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas

    2008-01-01

    Presidendi kantselei liisis president Lennart Meri lesele Helle Merile 640 000 krooni maksva Jeep Grand Cherokee ja president Arnold Rüütlile 633 500 krooni maksva mahtuniversaali Chrysler Grand Voyageri. Selgitab Vabariigi Presidendi avalike suhete nõunik Toomas Sildam

  14. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah and Allameh Tabataba’i on Immortality in Hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janan Izadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Immortality of the people of hell and their eternal torment is one of the most important and complex debates, preoccupying religious scholars of different religions and sects. Each of them has taken a different way based on their intellectual principles of belief to solve this problem and the questions thereof, including how the immortality of the inhabitants of hell hellions and their eternal torment is consistent with the mercy and justice of God. How is it reasonable to endure infinite torment for limited and finite sins? Does a Merciful God, born a sinful slave forever in the fire of the hereafter? Or  is this not the case and He punishes the sinful people for a limited period of time, whether it is short or long, and then releases them from  torture and provides them with  comfort. There is a difference of opinions on these problems in the works of Ibn Qayyim Al- Jawziyyah Al-Ash͑ari and Allameh Tabataba’i, the Shiite philosopher and commentator.Ibn Qayyim addresses widely and systematically the issue of the immortality of the inhabitants of hell. In fact, he interprets immortality (khulūd as a long time, so that the long fire and scourge annihilate the evil from the souls that evil has mixed in their being.  In his viewpoint God has created human monotheist. If the monotheistic nature of the person is changed by vices, these vices and the corrupted nature can be changed by torment and fire. He quotes in his works the ideas of the believers in immortality in torment and criticizes and rebuts them. Stating so many arguments, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya tries to deny the immortality and eternality in torment. Interpreting the verses of The Holy Quran on immortality of the inhabitants of hell in torment, Allameh Tabataba’i strongly asserts the immortality principle. He relates the happiness and misery, and good and evil among human beings to the development and appearance of the carnal states and habits they gained in the earthly

  15. Stories of Hell and Healing: Internet Users' Construction of Benzodiazepine Distress and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, Alison M; Ridge, Damien

    2017-11-01

    Benzodiazepines are a group of drugs used mainly as sedatives, hypnotics, antiepileptics, and muscle relaxants. Consumption is recommended for 2 to 4 weeks only, due to fast onset of dependency and potentially distressing withdrawal symptoms. Few peer-review studies have drawn on the user experiences and language to appreciate firsthand experiences of benzodiazepine withdrawal or discontinuation syndrome. We looked extensively at patient stories of benzodiazepine withdrawal and recovery on Internet support sites and YouTube. Our analysis indicated that users employ rich metaphors to portray the psychologically disturbing and protracted nature of their suffering. We identified seven major themes: hell and isolation, anxiety and depression, alienation, physical distress, anger and remorse, waves and windows, and healing and renewal. By posting success stories, ex-users make known that "healing" can be a long, unpredictable process, but distress does lessen, and recovery can happen.

  16. Dinosaur census reveals abundant Tyrannosaurus and rare ontogenetic stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R; Goodwin, Mark B; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-02-09

    A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999-2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic

  17. Afraid of the Dark and the Light: Visceralizing Ecocide in The Road and Hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Weik von Mossner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay is concerned with the ways in which contemporary science fiction films explore the future subjectivities and societies that may result from radical ecological changes, looking at two pertinent examples from two different national traditions: John Hillcoat’s 2009 film adaptation of Cormac McCarthy’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Road (2006, and one of the very few German-Swiss science fiction films with an environmental theme, Tim Fehlbaum’s Hell (2011. It is particularly interested in the relationship between the films’ imagined ecological spaces and the actions of the protagonists of each film on the one hand, and in the relationship between these futuristic diegetic spaces and the contemporary real-life ecological spaces that “play” them on the other hand. Together with the performances of the human actors and the tension and suspense built by the narratives, it argues, the spectacle and insinuated agency of these ecological spaces are centrally responsible for the films’ emotional force and for their ability to engage viewers in stories of global ecocide and human survival.

  18. ULYSSES IN THE DIVINE COMEDY – HELL – A COMPARISON OF THE HERO IN DANTE, HOMER AND VIRGIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson Ramos Artuso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulysses is a constant character in Western literature and Dante Alighieri was an author that rework him. In the Divine Comedy, Ulysses is in Hell, in the eighth ditch of the eighth circle, corresponding to the fraudsters. In the construction of this character, Dante recovered Ulysses characteristics from Greek and Latin tradition, which is analyzed and compared in this article with the Homer’s and Virgil’s characters. At the end, Ulysses and Dantes - author and character of Comedy – are related.

  19. A kidney from hell? A nephrological view of the Whitechapel murders in 1888.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gunter

    2008-10-01

    In the poor Whitechapel district of the East End of London in the fall of 1888, at least five prostitutes were brutally murdered, and in all but one case, also mutilated. The murderer was never caught and became known by his nickname 'Jack the Ripper'. The left kidney and the uterus were cut out and taken away from one of the victims named Catherine Eddowes. A kidney was also cut out of the body from another victim, but not taken away. Two weeks later, George Lusk, president of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, received a small cardboard box with half of a longitudinally divided kidney and a letter entitled 'From hell' claiming that the kidney inside the box was taken from the victim. The kidney was brought to Dr Thomas Horrocks Openshaw, the Curator of the London Pathological Museum, where the kidney could be microscopically examined. The press jumped on the topic and made a circumstantial case that this kidney had been indeed torn from the body of Catherine Eddowes. According to the later memoirs of Major Henry Smith of the City Police published more than 20 years after the incident, the kidney left in the corpse of Catherine Eddowes was in an advanced stage of Bright's disease and the kidney sent to George Lusk was in exactly a similar stage. Today, the majority of criminologists believe that the kidney sent to Mr Lusk was a hoax as were other letters signed with Jack the Ripper. However, the murderer took organs from his victims, and in the case of Catherine Eddowes, the kidney. Serial killers often mutilate their victims and abscond with the removed body parts as trophies. By removing the kidney from Catherine Eddowes, Jack the Ripper may have tried to take possession of the conscience, emotions and desires of one of his victims, attributes residing in the kidney as described in the Bible. Jack the Ripper was never caught; many suspects have been suggested, and the murder series ended as suddenly as it had begun. We will never know who this mentally

  20. Interview: Professor Helle Neergaard, President of the European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, on the Nature of Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    On August 13, 2014, Rita G. Klapper conducted a Skype interview with Helle Neergaard. Neergaard is not only President of the European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, but also Docent at the Hanken School of Economics, and Professor at iCARE, Department of Business Administration, School of Business and Social Sciences, University…

  1. Hell is other people? Gender and interactions with strangers in the workplace influence a person's risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Wiemer, Anita; Diedrich, Laura; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    We suggest that interactions with strangers at work influence the likelihood of depressive disorders, as they serve as an environmental stressor, which are a necessary condition for the onset of depression according to diathesis-stress models of depression. We examined a large dataset (N = 76,563 in K = 196 occupations) from the German pension insurance program and the Occupational Information Network dataset on occupational characteristics. We used a multilevel framework with individuals and occupations as levels of analysis. We found that occupational environments influence employees' risks of depression. In line with the quotation that 'hell is other people' frequent conflictual contacts were related to greater likelihoods of depression in both males and females (OR = 1.14, p<.05). However, interactions with the public were related to greater likelihoods of depression for males but lower likelihoods of depression for females (ORintercation = 1.21, p<.01). We theorize that some occupations may involve interpersonal experiences with negative emotional tones that make functional coping difficult and increase the risk of depression. In other occupations, these experiences have neutral tones and allow for functional coping strategies. Functional strategies are more often found in women than in men.

  2. Hell is other people? Gender and interactions with strangers in the workplace influence a person's risk of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fischer

    Full Text Available We suggest that interactions with strangers at work influence the likelihood of depressive disorders, as they serve as an environmental stressor, which are a necessary condition for the onset of depression according to diathesis-stress models of depression. We examined a large dataset (N = 76,563 in K = 196 occupations from the German pension insurance program and the Occupational Information Network dataset on occupational characteristics. We used a multilevel framework with individuals and occupations as levels of analysis. We found that occupational environments influence employees' risks of depression. In line with the quotation that 'hell is other people' frequent conflictual contacts were related to greater likelihoods of depression in both males and females (OR = 1.14, p<.05. However, interactions with the public were related to greater likelihoods of depression for males but lower likelihoods of depression for females (ORintercation = 1.21, p<.01. We theorize that some occupations may involve interpersonal experiences with negative emotional tones that make functional coping difficult and increase the risk of depression. In other occupations, these experiences have neutral tones and allow for functional coping strategies. Functional strategies are more often found in women than in men.

  3. Experience with two large-scale Hell-cryostats for a superconducting RF particle separator working in closed cycle with a 300 W refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of the Karlsruhe Institut fur Experimental Kernphysik to the RF particle separator at the SPS/CERN consists of the two superconducting deflectors and their Hell-cryostats with the cryogenic and vacuum accessories. The cryostats have to fulfil specifications concerning tightness, thermal insulation, adjustment of the cavities to the beam and reliability. Corresponding cryogenic and RF tests are performed in Karlsruhe before a 300 W refrigerator simulating normal and emergency conditions. Following a description of cryostats design the results of these measurements are compared with the specifications. Operating experience with the cryostats in closed circuit with the refrigerator are reported. (5 refs).

  4. La epigrafía del Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete y un nuevo municipio romano del conventus Carthaginensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad Casal, Lorenzo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with several inscriptions found in the Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete in the last years. Some of them belong to a monumental inscription dated in 9 bC, which must commemorate the concession to the town —perhaps Ilunum— of a privileged statute, in a similar way to the process of municipalization in other towns of the Meseta. There are also several types of funerary steles, which forms and personal names attest relations with the Alta Andalucía and the interior of the Peninsule.Se estudia un conjunto de inscripciones del Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete encontrado en los últimos años. Algunas corresponden a un epígrafe monumental del año 9 aC que debe conmemorar la concesión a la ciudad —tal vez la Ilunum citada por Ptolomeo— de un estatuto privilegiado, en un proceso similar al de la municipalización de otras ciudades de la Meseta. Hay también estelas funerarias de diverso tipo, con formas y nombres que atestiguan relaciones con la alta Andalucía y el interior de la Península.

  5. Archive of digital chirp subbottom profile data collected during USGS Cruise 13GFP01, Brownlee Dam and Hells Canyon Reservoir, Idaho and Oregon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Welcker, Chris; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    From March 16 - 31, 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Idaho Power Company conducted a geophysical survey to investigate sediment deposits and long-term sediment transport within the Snake River from Brownlee Dam to Hells Canyon Reservoir, along the Idaho and Oregon border; this effort will help the USGS to better understand geologic processes. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital chirp subbottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  6. Geomorphic Change Detection and Quantification Using LiDAR, SONAR and RTK-GPS of Sandbars along the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, M. D.; Wilson, T.; Butler, M.; Seal, N.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment depletion downstream of large dams causes long-term geomorphic change along a river reach. Short- and long-term, natural and human-altered discharge patterns cause additional geomorphic change. Annual high-resolution, topobathymetry data are being collected on sandbars to track patterns of geomorphic and volumetric change through time. The sandbars are located along the Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River on the Oregon/Idaho border. The bars are downstream of a number of dams that have cut off the upstream source of sand to the Hells Canyon reach. We are combining LiDAR data for above water areas, multibeam SONAR data for below water areas and RTK-GPS data for the water/land interface and densely vegetated areas. Idaho Power has installed and surveyed a control point network to allow accurate positioning of the data and aligning of the various data sets. Data densities are a few points per square meter with the RTK-GPS, tens of points per square meter with the SONAR, and up to hundreds of points per square meter with the ground-based LiDAR. Automated and manual methods are being used to clean the point cloud data. A number of techniques are being used to convert the point clouds to grids, typically utilizing a unique technique for each data type (GPS, LiDAR, and SONAR). Surface roughness data are being used to determine the edges of the sand region, especially in the underwater area where we do not have visual confirmation of the boundary. After the different data types are gridded, they are combined to create seamless surfaces which are then analyzed. The morphologies of the central crest and the back channel of the sandbars are changing between years. In years with higher than average spring flows, the central crest of the sandbars increases in elevation and the back channels deepen. In years with moderate and low spring flows, the height of the crests decline and the back channels fill in. The flattening of the sandbars is attributed to natural

  7. Terrestrial ecosystem destabilization at the K/T boundary in southwestern North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Pearson, Dean; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

    2010-05-01

    Much of the debate regarding mass extinction events tend to discuss the relationship between such events relative to the moment and timing of internal or external factors (such as volcanism, impact(s), climate, sea-level changes and so on). However, the details of the extinction process itself is still poorly understood, and most of the analysis are based on biodiversity patterns without integrating the biogeographic and environmental context. Another way of approaching the problem would be to propose precise paleoenvironment reconstructions and analyzing their evolution through time, which allows for the understanding of such processes. The badlands of southwestern North Dakota provides some of the most prolific exposures of the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in the world. The stratigraphical context indicates that the K/T boundary is coincident or lies in close proximity to the contact between the Hell Creek and the Fort Union Formations. In this area, a series of eight stratigraphical sections across a 40 km north-south transect were studied. These sections bracket the formational contact on a 10 m stratigraphical interval. Reconstruction of the depositional environment was undertaken at a centimeter scale by using sedimentological data, as well as palynological, paleobotanical and palaeontological content of the strata, using the K/T boundary as a precise chronological datum of correlation between the sections. Results shows a consistent evolution of pattern across the entire study area : 1) The uppermost 10 to 20 cm of the Hell Creek Formation always corresponds to a sequence of dark rooted mudstone. Pollen content is consistent with a Cretaceous age and displays a diversity of terrestrial taxa. 2) Immediately above, the formation contact lies at the lower part of the first laterally traceable lignite horizon. The K/T boundary indicators (iridium anomaly, shocked quartz, fern spike and boundary claystone) are located at or adjacent to this

  8. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefs, Nancy (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over

  9. Lastekirjandus aabitsast õudusjutuni / Helle Laanpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanpere, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Lastekirjanduse sõnastik / [Reet Krusten, Krista Kumberg, Mare Müürsepp ... jt. ; toimetajad ja eessõna: Jaanika Palm, Ülle Väljataga]. Tallinn : Eesti Lastekirjanduse Teabekeskus, 2006

  10. Coping with the logistical hell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Sand; Kramer, Tina; Borgnakke, Karen

    Based on two ethnographic studies in the profession-oriented learning context, the purpose of the presentation is to consider the challenges involved in developing a patient-centered, interprofessional and cross-sectorial study-pathway across health educations. The Ethnographic studies follow the...

  11. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  12. [North] Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality.

  13. A new large-bodied oviraptorosaurian theropod dinosaur from the latest Cretaceous of western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Lamanna

    Full Text Available The oviraptorosaurian theropod dinosaur clade Caenagnathidae has long been enigmatic due to the incomplete nature of nearly all described fossils. Here we describe Anzu wyliei gen. et sp. nov., a new taxon of large-bodied caenagnathid based primarily on three well-preserved partial skeletons. The specimens were recovered from the uppermost Cretaceous (upper Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation of North and South Dakota, and are therefore among the stratigraphically youngest known oviraptorosaurian remains. Collectively, the fossils include elements from most regions of the skeleton, providing a wealth of information on the osteology and evolutionary relationships of Caenagnathidae. Phylogenetic analysis reaffirms caenagnathid monophyly, and indicates that Anzu is most closely related to Caenagnathus collinsi, a taxon that is definitively known only from a mandible from the Campanian Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta. The problematic oviraptorosaurs Microvenator and Gigantoraptor are recovered as basal caenagnathids, as has previously been suggested. Anzu and other caenagnathids may have favored well-watered floodplain settings over channel margins, and were probably ecological generalists that fed upon vegetation, small animals, and perhaps eggs.

  14. Spatial niche partitioning in dinosaurs from the latest cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R.; Longrich, Nicholas R.

    2011-01-01

    We examine patterns of occurrence of associated dinosaur specimens (n = 343) from the North American Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation and equivalent beds, by comparing their relative abundance in sandstone and mudstone. Ceratopsians preferentially occur in mudstone, whereas hadrosaurs and the small ornithopod Thescelosaurus show a strong association with sandstone. By contrast, the giant carnivore Tyrannosaurus rex shows no preferred association with either lithology. These lithologies are used as an indicator of environment of deposition, with sandstone generally representing river environments, and finer grained sediments typically representing floodplain environments. Given these patterns of occurrence, we argue that spatial niche partitioning helped reduce competition for resources between the herbivorous dinosaurs. Within coastal lowlands ceratopsians preferred habitats farther away from rivers, whereas hadrosaurs and Thescelosaurus preferred habitats in close proximity to rivers, and T. rex, the ecosystem's sole large carnivore, inhabited both palaeoenvironments. Spatial partitioning of the environment helps explain how several species of large herbivorous dinosaurs coexisted. This study emphasizes that different lithologies can preserve dramatically dissimilar vertebrate assemblages, even when deposited in close proximity and within a narrow window of time. The lithology in which fossils are preserved should be recorded as these data can provide unique insights into the palaeoecology of the animals they preserve. PMID:20943689

  15. The North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Westley, K.; Erkens, G.; Hijma, M.P.; Weerts, H.J.T.

    Chapter 7 in the 'SPLASHCOS Taphonomy book', on the landscape-archaeological inventory of the North Sea as a regional sea (covering British, Dutch, Belgian, German and Danish sectors of the southern and central North Sea). Abstract: This chapter gives a general overview of knowledge regarding the

  16. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  17. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  18. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  19. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    .... No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  20. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  1. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  2. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    ... other. No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  3. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  4. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    cleavages built into the ruling circle. See “The Politics of Mourning Ritual in North Korea (1994-1997),” World Affairs (Winter 2000); “North Korean...ambassador to Iran pays the president a farewell visit. Page 5: • A special article celebrates the theme of Uri Minjokkiri (“our race only”). • ROK...doctors were ordered to cease their efforts to maintain the 82-year old Great Leader’s life. During the ensuing neo-traditional three-year mourning

  5. Infinite Descent - but not into Hell! -42 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quadratic equation x2 - cux + (u2 - d) = 0 is x = v. Since the sum of the roots of the equation is cu, the other root must be x = cu - v, implying that. C = (cu - v, u). Since c, u, v are integers, it follows that. C is a lattice point. Note that C and A lie on the same branch of the curve. So we have moved from the lattice point (u, v) to the.

  6. Primitive Earth: So Near to Hell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the atmospheric characteristics of the earth and their implications for the development of life on earth-like planets. Indicates that the chance of life developing on other planets is not as great as men might have thought. (CC)

  7. Mälestis on õpikeskkond / Helle Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Viimasel aastatel on koostatud põnevaid õppematerjale, mille abil kultuuripärand leiab tee koolitundi. Õppematerjalidega saab tutvuda Muinsuskaitseameti kodulehel http://www.muinas.ee/muinsuskaitsetegevus/haridus Mäluasutustega tutvumiseks on koostatud projekt "Muuseum ja arhiiv õppekeskkonnana". Hermen Rode altariuuringute põhjal valminud teadusveebist. Värske lähenemisega ajalooõppele paistab silma õppematerjal "Ajalooõpetus ja -pildid"

  8. Helle Brabrand body_space_interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2016-01-01

    The WEBSITE presents a responsive body-space-media praxis and questions architectonic space-making as a field of artistic research. What are the implications of architectonic modelling, conceived on terms of becoming and in exchange with, but different from actually rising buildings? How to handle...... the complexity of models as performing and presenting agencies and expressions, rather than as re-presenting a building to be? Body_space_interface questions architectural making, asking what kind of world-material may be seized and transformed to produce sensual dimensions in modeling - and vice-versa, which...... modes of model-operation may perform to give back new architectonic meaning? Expressed alternatively, how do we use gestural exchange, handle tectonic agency and strengthen kin-aesthetic agency as decisive dimensions, in dialogue with more hard-hitting agendas from an ‘outside’ world? The site invites...

  9. Sammaldest lahjas vees / Helle Mäemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäemets, Helle, 1955-

    2000-01-01

    Artiklit Vinogradov, G.A., Borisovskaja, E.V., Lapirov, A.G. Osobennosti obmena kaltsija i magnija u nekotorõh vodnõh rastenii razlitschnõh sistematitscheskih grupp. - Zurnal obchchei biologii, 2000, 61(2): 163-172. lugedes tekkinud mõtteid

  10. Matemaatika õpimotiivid ja nende kujunemine / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Õpimotivatsioonist ja selle mõjuteguritest, matemaatika õppimise motiveerimisest. 1999.a. TPÜ algõpetuse õppetooli poolt läbi viidud uuringust Tallinna koolide 2.-6. klasside õpilaste ja klassiõpetajate seas. Uurimuse eesmärgiks oli selgitada õpilaste üldisi õpimotiive, matemaatika õppimise motiive, aineseoseid argieluga, analüüsida nii õpilaste kui õpetajate hinnanguid probleemülesannete lahendamisele

  11. O social entre o céu e o inferno: a antropologia filosófica de Pierre Bourdieu The social between heaven and hell: Pierre Bourdieu's philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peters

    2012-01-01

    , attempted to make explicit that his historical-sociological investigations were founded upon, and the same time contributed to elaborate, an 'idea of "Man"'. The article retraces Bourdieu's path towards this philosophical anthropology, starting with his genetic sociology of symbolic power, conceived as a form of critical theory (latu sensu, and concluding with an account of the human condition in which recognition ("symbolic capital" appears as both the fundamental existential goal through which individuals attempt to obtain meaning to their lives and the source of the endless symbolic competition that keeps social life moving. The agonistic vision of the social universe that grounds his sociological studies returns in his philosophical anthropology under the guise of a singular synthesis between Durkheim's idea that 'Society is God' and Sartre's thesis that 'hell is other people'.

  12. Anne-Marie VÉRILHAC, Claude VIAL, Le mariage grec du vie siècle avant J.-C. à l'époque d'Auguste, Paris, De Boccard, 1998, 412 p. + 5 p. de planches (École française d'Athènes. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. Suppléments, 32).

    OpenAIRE

    Wilgaux, Jérôme

    2003-01-01

    Acte essentiellement privé, le mariage grec a pour traits constants, aux époques classique et hellénistique, la dation de la mariée au marié par son père (ekdosis), ainsi que le versement d'une dot directe (proïx ou phernè) par le père ou son substitut. La riche monographie que lui consacrent A.-M. Vérilhac et Cl. Vial, à l'issue d'une collaboration de plus de dix ans, leur permet d'en étudier les différentes dimensions (sociale, économique, juridique, rituelle…) et d'en souligner ains...

  13. Hardwoods of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Alden

    1995-01-01

    This report describes 53 taxa of hardwoods of North America, which are organized alphabetically by genus. Descriptions include scientific name, trade name, distribution, tree characteristics, wood characteristics (general, weight, mechanical properties, drying, shrinkage, working properties, durability, preservation, toxicity and uses) and additional sources for...

  14. Softwoods of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Alden

    1997-01-01

    This report describes 52 taxa of North American softwoods, which are organized alphabetically by genus. Descriptions include scientific name, trade name, distribution, tree characteristics, wood characteristics (e.g., general, weight, mechanical properties, drying, shrinkage, working properties, durability, preservation, uses, and toxicity), and additional sources of...

  15. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  16. Indians of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  17. North America [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; Fred Clark; Patrica Gerez-Fernandez; Frank Lake; Deborah McGregor; Charles M. Peters; Silvia Purata; Teresa Ryan; Alan Thomson; Alan E. Watson; Stephen Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    The colonial history of North America presents a contrast between Mexico and the two predominantly English-speaking countries, the United States and Canada. In Mexico, indigenous and other local communities own considerable forested lands, a consequence of the Mexican Revolution of the early twentieth century. In the United States, forest land is now primarily in...

  18. North-South Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Melville

    1975-01-01

    Multinational corporations operating mostly in northern Canada export natural resources thus creating jobs and money for foreign shareholders. Similarly, businesses based in southern Canada reap benefits from northern resources. Environmentalists and churches can ally north-south interests to protect northern resources and people from corporate…

  19. North Sea reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Joop Waltherus Petrus

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis was to understand the patterns of benthic biodiversity on reefs in the North Sea. To gain this understanding, I studied which species are present on natural and artificial reefs, what environmental and biotic variables influence the presence and

  20. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  1. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    religion , nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion” (1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of...Sunshine Policy, enacted in 1998 under then president Kim Dae- jung , separated the political and economic relationships between North and South Korea. It

  2. Library Programs in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Count of programs offered and program attendance numbers at public libraries in North CarolinaData is from the 2014-15 NC Statistical Report of NC Public Libraries:...

  3. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...... of Apollo the nature god. Furthermore, Pater is engaging in a complex geopolitical argument, playing out German, French and English culture against each other, as he traces the survival of the pagan gods after the onset of Christianity. The myth of the Hyperborean Apollo is a myth about the North: where...... does it begin? Where does it end? Is it a place of light or of darkness? Pater’s dark Apollo challenges conventional notions of the sun god and testifies to the strong presence of paganism in Pater’s late writings....

  4. North-South Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-15

    included. The Second World consists of the Comunist bloc of nations, includ- ing the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and...Japan Second World 3. industrial rich autarchic USSR 4. nonindustrial rich/poor autarchic China Third World 5. nonindustrial rich trading Saudi Arabia...political values issuing from the Third World itself rather than from Comunist states. They are the result of seeing North-South relations in the context

  5. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  6. North Polar Erg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. This region of the north polar erg is dominated by a different form of dunes than yesterday's image. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 81.4, Longitude 121.9 East (238.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  8. Snake City North

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    SkivproduktionJonas Kullhammar Quartet with Norrbotten Big Band – Snake City North, 2005Utgiven av Moserobie music production 2005Inspelad av Göran Stegborn och Tomas JohannessonMixad av Göran StegbornMastrad av Claes PerssonGrammisnominerad till årets jazzskiva 2005Musiker:Jonas Kullhammar: Tenor SaxophoneJonas Holgersson: DrumsTorbjörn Gulz: PianoTorbjörn Zetterberg: BassNorrbotten Big Band:Trumpets: Bo Strandberg, Magnus Ekholm, Tapio MaunuvaaraTrumpet & Fluegelhorn: Dan Johansson (2,5...

  9. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  10. Consumption Of Indigenous Fruits In Uluguru North And Ruvu North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted between 1998 and 2000 to compare the number, types and consumption of indigenous fruit species by sex and age classes in the Uluguru North Forest Reserve (UNFR) and Ruvu North Forest Reserve (RNFR). Data were collected through household interviews and forest inventory. A total of 120 ...

  11. NORTH ABSAROKA WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Willis H.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The North Absaroka Wilderness in Wyoming was studied to evaluate the resource potential of the area. The results of geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey indicate that a small area of geologic terrane with probable mineral-resource potential for silver, lead, and zinc is present on the northern edge of the wilderness. Bentonite, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced from surrounding areas; but such deposits, if present in the wilderness, are probably too deeply buried, too small, or too sporadically distributed to be classed as resources. Copper and gold mines and prospects are present on the fringes of the wilderness, but otherwise the area seems to be devoid of concentrations of metallic minerals. No surface evidence of geothermal energy resources was found.

  12. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  13. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard,

  14. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    he was officially notifying Congress of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after the 45 calender -day...of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the President is required to

  15. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    calender -day notification period to Congress as required by U.S. law. The White House stated that North Korea would thus be removed on August 11, 2008...Congress notification of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the

  16. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts of North Korean, North... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts to...

  17. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  18. Influence of North Atlantic variability on the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, M.; Huettl-Kabus, S.; Klein, B.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Sein, D.; Klein, H.

    2012-04-01

    Influence of North Atlantic variability on the North Sea Michaela Markovic, Sabine Hüttl-Kabus, Birgit Klein, Uwe Mikolajewicz *, Holger Klein and Dimitry Sein * Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH), Hamburg, Germany * Max-Planck-Institute (MPI-M), Hamburg, Germany To study the impact of the North Atlantic variability on the North Sea, observations and coupled model data were used. Temperature increases in the North Atlantic have been reported for the last twenty years and similar changes are observed in the North Sea. This study using the ocean model MPI-OM (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg ) and ship borne observations will focus on the transfer of variability signals between the North Atlantic and the North Sea. The grid structure of the MPI-OM allows for the combination of a global ocean model with a regional high resolution area and resolves scales of 5-15 km in the North Sea. Furthermore, the MPI-OM can be run in a regionally coupled mode using the REMO regional atmosphere model and includes a module for ocean tides. Atlantic inflow into the North Sea provides a major contribution in terms of water masses and a potential link of long term variability generated in the deep ocean onto the shallow shelf sea. Observational evidence of inflow variability is limited in space and time and for a better understanding of the underlying processes high resolved model data are needed. The model runs analyzed here comprise hindcasts using NCEP forcing and scenario runs for the 21 century. T/S diagrams from the model hindcast runs are -validated against the available in-situ observations and show generally good agreement. Hindcast data are used to study the annual evolution of water mass properties in the inflow region and the lateral spreading of the Atlantic Water. Variations in the water mass properties of the Atlantic Inflow between Scotland and the Orkneys and over the Shetland shelf are responsible for the interannual variations in deep

  19. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  20. Language policies in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    KUMATANI, Akiyasu

    2009-01-01

    The examination of Korean language problems under the two different political systems (Republic of Korea or South Korea,and Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea) shows a pattern of divergence of national language by political system. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of current language policies in North Korea as they have evolved since the division of the Korean Peninsula.

  1. Whither North Carolina furniture manufacturing?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Lacy

    2004-01-01

    North Carolina's furniture manufacturing industry has contracted in recent years as imports have gained a greater share of the domestic furniture market. Rapid growth of the furniture industry in China and a surge in exports from that country to the United States in particular have contributed to plant closings and consolidation of operations in the state. North Carolina's furniture manufacturers are adapting to the emergence of global competition and are developing new corporate strategies t...

  2. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  3. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    conditions, see Kim, Jack and Kitano, Masayuki. Japan, S. Korea urge N. Korea to move on crisis . Reuters News Agency, July 22, 2004. . North Korea...2002, the National Council had revealed correctly the existence of secret Iranian nuclear facilities at Natanz and Irak . Several subsequent claims of

  4. North Frisian: Dialectalization and Demise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Steven

    1995-01-01

    North Frisian is an endangered language spoken in northwest Germany near Denmark, with 8,000 speakers representing nine dialects. The paper examines factors that are impelling the language toward attrition and shift, characterizing the current state of the language, discussing the effect of language contact, and presenting dialectalization or…

  5. North Dakota Drama Content Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Roger; Lindekugel-Willis, Paula; Nilsen, Cheryl; Opp, Dean; Rauschenberger, Paula

    This document outlines the content standards for drama in North Dakota public schools, grades K-12. Following an introduction, the document lists the drama content standards: (1) Dramatic Literature; (2) Acting; (3) Production; (4) Cultural Context of Drama; (5) Consumer of Theatre; (6) Drama and Human Development; and (7) Drama and Other…

  6. North American Grasslands & Biogeographic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American grasslands are the product of a long interaction among land, people, and animals. Covering over one billion hectares across Canada, the United States, and Mexico, a defining trait of the realm is its vast surface area. From subtropical grasslands interspersed with wetlands in the sout...

  7. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Pemex Comercio Internacional (Pemex International), responsible for international trade. 30 North American Natural Gas Vision In 1995, the...important, running for 710 km from Ciudad Pemex to Mérida in the Yucatan Peninsula. It was built to provide natural gas to the Mérida III combined cycle

  8. The North Korean Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  9. (POAG) in hypertensive North Indians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPAR-γ and CYP46A1 genes polymorphism is associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) in hypertensive North Indians. ... a significantly decreased risk of POAG whereas the CT, CC genotypes and C allele were associated with an increased risk of POAG in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals.

  10. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  11. North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) was created in 2005 to consolidate data on the oceanic distribution of marine bird species in the North Pacific....

  12. NORTH KOREA'S SECURITY DILEMMA AND STRATEGIC OPTIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seong-Ryoul Cho

    2009-01-01

    .... By estimating where two factors will go, we can forecast North Korea's whereabouts. The future of nuclear weapons and Military First system will be influenced by North Korea's strategic options...

  13. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  14. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  15. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  16. 27 CFR 9.106 - North Yuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Yuba. 9.106 Section... Yuba. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Yuba.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of North Yuba viticultural area are the...

  17. 75 FR 11921 - Daimler Trucks North America, LLC, A Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corporation Gastonia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Daimler Trucks North America, LLC, A Subsidiary of Daimler North... Trucks North America, LLC, a subsidiary of ] Daimler North America Corporation, Gastonia Components and... workers of the subject firm. The workers produce truck parts and components for heavy trucks. The review...

  18. IHY Activities in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, D. M.; Mann, I. R.; Smith, R. W.

    The three primary objectives of IHY are 1 to advance our understanding of the fundamental heliophysical processes that govern the Sun Earth and Heliosphere 2 to continue the tradition of international research and advancing the legacy on the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year IGY and 3 to demonstrate the beauty relevance and significance of space and Earth science to the world This talk will provide an overview of the North American activities planned for IHY including science activities such as Coordinated Investigation Programs CIPs the deployment of instrument arrays in remote North American locations via the United Nations Basic Space Science UNBSS Observatory Development Program as well as opportunities for education and public outreach

  19. Renewable energy in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kost, Christoph Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The transition of the North African electricity system towards renewable energy technologies is analyzed in this thesis. Large potentials of photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP) and onshore wind power provide the opportunity to achieve a long-term shift from conventional power sources to a highly interconnected and sustainable electricity system based on renewable energy sources (RES). A multi-dimensional analysis evaluates the economic and technical effects on the electricity ...

  20. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  1. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  2. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  3. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  4. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  5. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...... nurses and two senior doctors. Direct observations of the clinical processes revealed problems of coordination, complex disease trajectories that did not fit with the pneumonia pathway, unclear guidelines and variation in their interpretation. Intervention We designed a measurement system to monitor...

  6. Risk for Rabies Importation from North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gautret, Philippe; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Bourhy, Hervé; Gautret, Philippe; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Bourhy, Hervé; Gautret, Philippe; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Bourhy, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    International audience; A retrospective study conducted in France indicated that a large proportion of patients injured by potentially rabid animals while in North Africa did not seek pretravel advice, and some had not received proper rabies postexposure prophylaxis while in North Africa. As a result, imported human rabies cases are still being reported, and the need for postexposure prophylaxis after exposure in North Africa is not declining. Tourists are generally unaware of the danger of i...

  7. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  8. Impact of the North Atlantic circulation on the climate change patterns of North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Mathis, Mortiz; Klein, Birgit; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The physical properties of the North Sea are characterized by the exchange of water masses with the North Atlantic at the northern boundary and Baltic Sea to the east. The combined effects of localized forcing, tidal mixing and advection of water masses make the North Sea a challenging study area. Previous investigations indicated a possibility that the variability of the North Atlantic circulation and the strength of the sub-polar gyre (SPG) might influence the physical properties of the North Sea. The assessment of the complex interaction between the North Atlantic and the North Sea in a climate change scenario requires regionally coupled global RCP simulations with enhanced resolution of the North Sea and the North Atlantic. In this study we analyzed result from the regionally coupled ocean-atmosphere-biogeochemistry model system (MPIOM-REMO-HAMOCC) with a hydrodynamic (HD) model. The ocean model has a zoomed grid which provides the highest resolution over the West European Shelf by shifting its poles over Chicago and Central Europe. An index for the intensity of SPG was estimated by averaging the barotropic stream function (ψ) over the North Atlantic. Various threshold values for ψ were tested to define the strength of the SPG. These SPG indices have been correlated with North Sea hydrographic parameters at various levels to identify areas affected by SPG variability. The influence of the Atlantic's eastern boundary current, contributing more saline waters to the North West European shelf area is also investigated.

  9. Growth Comparison of Red Jabon in North Bolaang Mongondow and North Minahasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arif irawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Red Jabon is priority species that projected to be developed in plantation forests of North Minahasa Regency. Red Jabon is can adapt well various environmental conditions. The natural habitat of the red Jabon in North Sulawesi region was known in North Bolaang Mongondow. This study aimed to compare the growth of red jabon at the age of 1 year in North Minahasa Regency and North Bolaang Mongondow. The experiment was conducted in two (2 locations i.e. in Talawaan Village (North Minahasa Regency and Nunuka Village (North Bolaang Mongondow. Two independent samples t test was conducted to determine the differences in height and diameter growth parameters at two test sites.The results showed that there was no difference in the growth of red Jabon between North Minahasa and North Bolaang Mongondow. The average height and diameter of red Jabon in North Minahasa Regency is at 215.84 cm and 4.34 cm, while the same parameters of North Bolaang Mongondow amounted to 231.79 cm and 4.14 cm. The development efforts on the plantations of red Jabon North Minahasa Regency need to be improved because of the environmental conditions in this region is very suitable for the growth of red Jabon.

  10. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  11. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  12. Live and work in North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sascha; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    This report is based on a survey among Expats in North Denmark, and was carried out in collaboration with 'Velkomstcentre - live and work in North Denmark'. It includes findings about the backgrounds of the Expats, their motives for coming to the region and their perceptions of the region before...

  13. International University Will Open in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  14. Quantifying deformation in North Borneo with GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustafar, Mohamad Asrul; Simons, W.J.F.; Tongkul, Felix; Satirapod, Chalermchon; Omar, Kamaludin Mohd; Visser, P.N.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The existence of intra-plate deformation of the Sundaland platelet along its eastern edge in North Borneo, South-East Asia, makes it an interesting area that still is relatively understudied. In addition, the motion of the coastal area of North-West Borneo is directed toward a frontal

  15. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  16. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  17. Back to "hell?" The threatening family planning crisis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugala, G

    1990-12-01

    The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.

  18. Õppima õppimine ja õppimisoskus / Helle-Mall Kadajas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadajas, Helle-Mall, 1943-

    2000-01-01

    Õppima õppimise seos õppimisoskusega, õppimisoskuse kujundamine. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli õpetajakoolituse üliõpilaste seas läbi viidud uuringust, millega selgitati nende enesehinnangut õppimisoskusele, mida nad õpetajana õppima õpetamisel oluliseks peavad, nende edukust õppimisel

  19. Eesti Muinsuskaitse Seltsi rahvusvaheline koostöö / Helle Solnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Solnask, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Osalemisest Euroopa Muinsuskaitsepäevade koordinaatorite töögrupis, HEREIN'is, Europa Nostras, Euroopa Ajalooliste Kalmistute Assotsiatsioonis ASCE, Euroopa Muuseumi- ja Turismiraudteede Föderatsioonis

  20. From El to Hell: On Stage in the Urban Underworld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Chapman SHARPE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Les images du métro new-yorkais et de ses précurseurs, le métro aérien et la voiture à chevaux occupent une place à part dans la culture américaine. Si la descente dans le métro et le déplacement sur des kilomètres de voies souterraines sont presque inévitablement envisagés comme un voyage aux Enfers, cet événement est aussi inéluctablement social. Les passagers s’adonnent à un jeu complexe de cache-cache les uns avec les autres, en essayant de scruter les gens autour d’eux sans toutefois se faire prendre. Dans cet article, j’explore la représentation visuelle et verbale du système de transports de New York dans ses dimensions les plus frappantes — la théâtralité et l’observation des spectateurs. J’emprunte des exemples à la poésie et à la prose, à la peinture et à la photographie, et plus particulièrement aux œuvres de Stephen Crane, Hart Crane, Charles Reznikoff, Allen Ginsberg, Elizabeth Bishop, Paul Blackburn, George Tooker, Edward Hopper, Everett Shinn, Thomas Hart Benton, John Sloan, Leroi Jones, et Ralph Ellison. Je me consacre en dernier lieu à une observation plus attentive des photographies de métro obsédantes que Walker Evans prit entre 1938 et 1941. Dans ces photographies d’Evans, le court-circuit visuel caractérisant le rôle des spectateurs dans le métro (voir sans être vu trouve son expression la plus poignante.Images of the New York subway and its precursors, the Elevated train and the horse-car, hold a special place in American culture. While the descent into the subway station and the ride along endless miles of subterranean tracks are almost inevitably figured as a journey to the Underworld, the whole affair is an inescapably social event. Passengers play a complex game of visual hide-and-seek with each other as they try to scrutinize the people around them without being caught in the act. In this essay I explore the visual and verbal representation of New York’s otherworldly transit system in terms of what may be its most striking motifs—theatricality and spectatorship. My examples are taken from poetry and prose, painting and photography, including works by Stephen Crane, Hart Crane, Charles Reznikoff, Allen Ginsberg, Elizabeth Bishop, Paul Blackburn, George Tooker, Edward Hopper, Everett Shinn, Thomas Hart Benton, John Sloan, Leroi Jones, and Ralph Ellison. I conclude with a more sustained look at the haunting subway photographs taken secretly by Walker Evans from 1938-1941. In Evans’s photos, the visual short circuit that characterizes subway spectatorship (look but don’t get looked at finds its most striking expression.

  1. Sakste vara: Eesti peaks õppima Poola kogemusest / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2009-01-01

    Poolas on jõutud seisukohale, et Poola riik ei pea Saksamaale ümberasunutele vara tagastama. Riigikogu liikme arvates peaks Eesti mitte kandma kulutusi, vaid hoopis küsima Saksamaalt kompensatsiooni seoses baltisakslaste varaga kantavate kulutuste katteks

  2. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on Human…

  3. Matemaatika õppimise motiveerimine - võimalused ja tegelikkus / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle

    2001-01-01

    1999/2000.a. õpilaste ja algklassiõpetajate seas läbi viidud küsitlusuuringust, millega selgitati 2.-6. kl. õpilaste matemaatika õpimotiive ja analüüsiti õpetajate ja õpilaste hinnanguid matemaatikatunni erinevatele osadele ning tundides kasutatavate tegevuste ja tööviiside sageduse kohta

  4. Andeka lapse arengukeskkond ja toimetulek koolis / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Andekuse mõistest ja selle arengust, andeka lapse isiksuseomadustest. 1998-2000.a. läbi viidud küsitlusuuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli selgitada andekate laste koolimeeldivust, hinnanguid õpetajatele, õpilaste asendit kaaslaste seas, õpilaste arvamusi oma isiksuseomaduste kohta ning andekate harrastusi ja huvisid

  5. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  6. Laughing at hell. Commentary from The Dionysian worldview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Rodríguez González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers in earnest the possibility that the true Nietzschean tragic spirit consists of humor, and not at all in the religious conformity with logos or destiny, as in Heraclitus or Sophocles. In an attempt to show and fix this point, we will focus on a brilliant text by the young Nietzsche, but in addition we will profit from some references to Schopenhauer, Dickens, Freud and Wittgenstein

  7. IMAGINING HELL: A BURKEIAN ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN RELIGIOUS AFTERLIFE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Suwarno

    2012-12-01

    Tulisan ini tidak hanya untuk membahas penggambaran neraka (hukum­an akhirat yang sangat populer sebagai­mana digambar­kan dalam pidato dan media di Indonesia, tetapi juga untuk mengungkapkan makna dan kemungkinan motif di balik gam­baran tersebut. Dengan teori logologi Burke, tulisan ini meng­ungkapkan bahwa penggambaran siksaan neraka merupakan ritual pemurni­an. Berdasarkan siklus ke­tertiban, rasa bersalah, pe­nebusan melalui pe­ngorban­an untuk mencapai kemurnian, gambar­an hukum­an di neraka adalah cerminan dari tantangan dan komplek­sitas aturan dan hukum yang pasti akan dilanggar. Pe­langgar­an ini mencipta­kan rasa bersalah dan dosa yang di­wujudkan dalam bentuk semua masalah dan kesulitan bahwa mayoritas penduduk Indonesia harus tahan-situasi yang me­nimbulkan kambing hitam. Para korban yang me­rupakan kam­bing hitam menjadi orang berdosa ter­kutuk, yang hukumannya me­rupakan sebuah pengorban­an, men­ciptakan kepuasan dan rasa dibersihkan.

  8. God, Heaven and Hell : The Philosophy of Belief | Asekhauno | Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  9. Risk for rabies importation from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Bourhy, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    A retrospective study conducted in France indicated that a large proportion of patients injured by potentially rabid animals while in North Africa did not seek pretravel advice, and some had not received proper rabies postexposure prophylaxis while in North Africa. As a result, imported human rabies cases are still being reported, and the need for postexposure prophylaxis after exposure in North Africa is not declining. Tourists are generally unaware of the danger of importing potentially rabid animals and of the rules governing the movement of pets. In France, for example, rabid dogs have frequently been imported from Morocco to France through Spain. This situation imposes heavy social and economic costs and impedes rabies control in Europe. Rabies surveillance and control should therefore be reinforced in North Africa, and travelers to North Africa should receive appropriate information about rabies risk and prevention.

  10. Popmuusika / Margus Haav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest 2 Pac "Pac's Life", "Kitsune Maison", Kenny Garrett "Beyond the Wall", Marcus Miller "Power: The Essential Marcus Miller", Clipse "Hell Hath No Fury", Moby "Go ئ The Very Best Of", Ian Archer "Magnetic North"

  11. Pop / Aivar Tõnso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnso, Aivar, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Plastikman "Closer", A Perfect Circle "Thirteenth Step", UNKLE "Never, Never, Land", Man In Formaldehyde "Copper Sulphate Crystals", Blondie "The Curse Of Blondie", Pantera "Reinventing Hell: The Best of Pantera", Pepe Deluxe "Beatitude", Elvis Costello "North"

  12. North Korean children: nutrition and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Kyung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available North Korea suffered from severe famine in the mid-1990s; this impacted many areas, including people's transnational movement, child growth, and mortality. This review carefully examined nutritional status trends of children in North Korea using published reports from national nutrition assessment surveys. Nutritional adaptation of North Korean child refugees living in South Korea was also studied with their growth and food consumption, using published researches. The nutritional status of children in North Korea has recovered to a “low” level acute malnutrition status and a "medium" level chronic malnutrition status. Large disparities by geographic region still remain. North Korean child refugees in South Korea were significantly shorter and lighter than their age- and sex-matched South Korean counterparts (P<0.05; however, North Korean child refugees were catching up, and weight was improving faster than height. Linear growth retarded (height for age Z-score < -1 North Korean children showed a significantly higher respiratory quotient than nonlinear growth retarded children, indicating metabolic adaptation responding to the food shortage. These changes, accompanied by abundant access to food in South Korea, have led to the elimination of significant differences in the obesity ratio between North Korean and South Korean children living in South Korea after approximately 2 years of residency. This nutritional adaptation may not be beneficial to North Korean child refugees, especially given the prediction of Barker’s theory. The lack of studies prevented a better understanding of this issue; therefore, large cohort studies, preferably with random sampling strategies, are needed to further understand this issue and to design appropriate interventions.

  13. North American amphibians: Distribution and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David M.; Weir, Linda A.; Casper, Gary S.; Lannoo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some 300 species of amphibians inhabit North America. The past two decades have seen an enormous growth in interest about amphibians and an increased intensity of scientific research into their fascinating biology and continent-wide distribution.This atlas presents the spectacular diversity of North American amphibians in a geographic context. It covers all formally recognized amphibian species found in the United States and Canada, many of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Illustrated with maps and photos, the species accounts provide current information about distribution, habitat, and conservation.Researchers, professional herpetologists, and anyone intrigued by amphibians will value North American Amphibians as a guide and reference.

  14. Quantifying deformation in North Borneo with GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafar, Mohamad Asrul; Simons, Wim J. F.; Tongkul, Felix; Satirapod, Chalermchon; Omar, Kamaludin Mohd; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The existence of intra-plate deformation of the Sundaland platelet along its eastern edge in North Borneo, South-East Asia, makes it an interesting area that still is relatively understudied. In addition, the motion of the coastal area of North-West Borneo is directed toward a frontal fold-and-thrust belt and has been fueling a long debate on the possible geophysical sources behind it. At present this fold-and-thrust belt is not generating significant seismic activity and may also not be entirely active due to a decreasing shelfal extension from south to north. Two sets of Global Positioning System (GPS) data have been used in this study; the first covering a time period from 1999 until 2004 (ending just before the Giant Sumatra-Andaman earthquake) to determine the continuous Sundaland tectonic plate motion, and the second from 2009 until 2011 to investigate the current deformations of North Borneo. Both absolute and relative positioning methods were carried out to investigate horizontal and vertical displacements. Analysis of the GPS results indicates a clear trend of extension along coastal regions of Sarawak and Brunei in North Borneo. On the contrary strain rate tensors in Sabah reveal that only insignificant and inconsistent extension and compression occurs throughout North-West Borneo. Moreover, station velocities and rotation rate tensors on the northern part of North Borneo suggest a clockwise (micro-block) rotation. The first analysis of vertical displacements recorded by GPS in North-West Borneo points to low subsidence rates along the western coastal regions of Sabah and inconsistent trends between the Crocker and Trusmadi mountain ranges. These results have not been able to either confirm or reject the hypothesis that gravity sliding is the main driving force behind the local motions in North Borneo. The ongoing Sundaland-Philippine Sea plate convergence may also still play an active role in the present-day deformation (crustal shortening) in North

  15. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  16. A Comprehensive Approach to North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armitage, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Since the Agreed Framework (AF) was signed by the United States and North Korea on October 21, 1994, the security situation on the Korean peninsula and in Northeast Asia has changed qualitatively for the worse...

  17. Another Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Marta J

    2003-01-01

    At the conclusion of the six-nation talks in Beijing last August, North Korea announced there was no reason for further negotiations and their only option was to continue their nuclear weapons development program...

  18. North Africa opens up for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, Rouben

    2010-07-01

    The enormous potential for the utilization of renewable energies in North Africa has become obvious at least since the planning of the Desertec concept. Now, the states themselves are sensing the opportunities and considerably strengthening their efforts. (orig.)

  19. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  20. North Dakota Piping Plover Survey : 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Packet of information on conducting piping plover surveys in North Dakota for 1992. These surveys are part of a cooperative effort with other resource agencies and...

  1. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  2. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  3. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  4. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates and assesses current developments...

  5. Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes monitoring protocols for marshbirds in North America. Monitoring parameters, field procedures, survey methods, timing of surveys, recording...

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl, seabirds, gulls and terns for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  7. North Region ROW tool implementation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    Welcome to the North Region ROW Tool Workshop. This workshop is funded under an implementation project sponsored by TxDOTs Research & Technology Implementation Office (RTI). This is the second of four regional workshops being planned for this summ...

  8. North Mississippi Refuges Complex: 2001 annual narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for North Mississippi Refgues (including Dahomey NWR, Tallahatchie NWR, and Coldwater River NWR) outlines activities and accomplishments...

  9. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  10. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  11. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector lines in this data set...

  12. Libraries in North Dakota: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northdakota.html Libraries in North Dakota To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Fargo SANFORD HEALTH SANFORD VIRTUAL LIBRARY 530 6th Ave N FARGO, ND 58102 701- ...

  13. Libraries in North Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northcarolina.html Libraries in North Carolina To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. Asheville Mountain AHEC (MAHEC) Library and Knowledge Services 121 Hendersonville Rd. Asheville, NC ...

  14. Strategies for positive engagement with North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haangsok Jung

    2013-01-01

    ... with a lack of genuine negotiation, and such measures are clearly unstable and conflict-prone. Instead, the positive engagement approach aims to achieve the peaceful transformation and social rehabilitation of North Korea...

  15. The North Caucasus Insurgency: Dead or Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    MOBILIZATION IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS The Global Jihadism Paradigm. Three major approaches have dominated the de- bate on the causes of insurgent violence in the...campaigns beyond the region.95 Against the background of high unemployment , a generation of disenfranchised youth has emerged in the North...Dagestan, where unemployment among youth has been particularly high, many have sought to join the police by bribing the authorities.170 When

  16. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  17. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  18. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Blancke

    2014-01-01

    A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions ...

  19. Have North-South Growth Linkages Changed?

    OpenAIRE

    Willy W. Hoffmaister; Mahmood Pradhan; Hossein Samiei

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides preliminary econometric evidence suggesting that the traditional trade-based business cycle linkages between the North and the South have changed. Many countries in the South, in particular in Asia, appear to have become more resilient to cyclical movements in the North, and to have come to play a more significant role in sustaining global activity, in particular during the 1991-93 slowdown. A number of factors may have contributed to these changes: improved domestic polic...

  20. The mystery of the "North of the North" in Ibsen's works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Nygaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an exaggeration to claim that several of the protagonists in Ibsen’s dramatic works are from the north, or have lived there. The few characters in Ibsen’s drama related to the North are, however, given a special emphasis in his works. They are, like the landscape and the light of the North, mysterious, strange, strong and untamed. Or they have been exiled, suppressed or forgotten – and then suddenly arrive unexpectedly and challenge the established order and open new tension and ambition. Ibsen only visited Northern Norway once, on a trip to North Cape in 1891. His only experience of the “North” before that was actually of Central Norway, Trondheim and Molde. The North in Ibsen’s dramas is accordingly just fiction, imagination – and an expression of the general Southern Norwegian understanding of the “others” living in the North and the “otherness” of the North. Especially people from the North of the North, such as Finnmark, who represent a mysterious, bewitching and magic power, like Rebekka West in Rosmersholm and the foreign sailor in Lady from the Sea. This is explained by the magic nature of the North, such as the midnight sun, the Polar light or the overwhelming and irresistible winter storms over the sea.  But Ibsen has also given other clues for the understanding of the mysterious characters from Finnmark, the North of the North. These clues are related to the cultural otherness of the characters as Sami and Kvääni.

  1. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  2. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  3. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  4. 78 FR 48315 - Safety Zone; North Hero Air Show; North Hero, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Show, an event to be held over the water. This temporary final rule is necessary to provide for the... in the area. This zone will close all waters in an area approximately 2 nautical miles by \\1/ 2\\ nautical mile east of North Hero Island in North Hero, VT for the duration of the air show. Persons or...

  5. Divergent biogeography of native and introduced soil macroinvertebrates in North America north of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; William J. Mattson; Andrew J. Storer

    2008-01-01

    To improve understanding of the biogeographical consequences of species introduction, we examined whether introduced soil macroinvertebrates differ from natives in the relationship between species richness and key environmental predictors, and whether such differences affect the relationship between native and introduced species richness. For North America north of...

  6. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  7. Do parents prefer sons in North Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1999-09-01

    Son preference in South Korea is stronger than anywhere else in the world, yet little is known about such preference in North Korea. Simple indicators of son preference in North Korea are constructed from its 1993 population census and a 1998 survey of child nutrition (conducted in the wake of the recent famine). These indicators include sex ratio at birth, sex ratios of infant and child mortality, and sex ratios of child malnutrition. North Koreans do not evince prenatal discrimination against daughters, a finding that may indicate a lack of prenatal sex-testing technologies. Neither is evidence found of excess female mortality or malnutrition in the postnatal period, during which discrimination requires no special technology. The discrepancy in son preference across the Korean peninsula seems due largely to the socialist agenda pursued in the north following political partition after World War II. An important aspect of that agenda challenged the ancient Confucian ideology presumed to underlie son preference. Apparently, this challenge was more successful in North Korea than in other Asian societies instituting similar political changes, because son preference was not eliminated in China or in Vietnam.

  8. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies.......This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... North was an imaginative region, which attracted a number of conflicting interpretations. To Christian Europe, the pagan North was an abject Other, but it also symbolized a place from which ancestral strength and energy derived. Rix maps how these discourses informed ‘national’ legends of ancestral...

  9. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  10. Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.

  11. Book review: Bumble bees of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebee identification is generally considered straightforward, yet mistakes often are made due to the degree of similarity between the color patterns of different species. Bumble Bees of North America aims to improve the accuracy of identifications by both casual observers and professionals through the use of intuitive diagrams, descriptions, and the more technical dichotomous keys. In addition to providing the first complete field guide to North American bumblebees, the authors make efficient use of the reader’s attention by summarizing taxonomic history, favored food plants, and environmental issues concerning bumblebees.

  12. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  13. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms. The Hil......Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms...

  14. Economic performance and North Korean regime legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the sources of legitimacy for the North Korean regime in an effort to explain what role, if any, economic performance has played in keeping the Kim family in power. This thesis provides a historical look at the development of the North Korean regime from the beginning under Kim Il-sung to the current generation of rule under Kim Jong-un. The core argument of the thesis is broken into two major time periods, with th...

  15. Variability of North Sea pH and CO2 in response to North Atlantic Oscillation forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Prowe, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    [1] High biological activity causes a distinct seasonality of surface water pH in the North Sea, which is a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 via an effective shelf pump. The intimate connection between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean suggests that the variability of the CO2 system...... of the North Atlantic Ocean may, in part, be responsible for the observed variability of pH and CO2 in the North Sea. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant climate mode for the North Atlantic, in governing this variability. Based on three extensive...... observational records covering the relevant levels of the NAO index, we provide evidence that the North Sea pH and CO2 system strongly responds to external and internal expressions of the NAO. Under positive NAO, the higher rates of inflow of water from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic outflow lead...

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    see Kim, Jack and Kitano, Masayuki. Japan, S. Korea urge N. Korea to move on crisis . Reuters News Agency, July 22, 2004. North Korea: Back on the...exile opposition group. In 2002, the National Council had revealed correctly the existence of secret Iranian nuclear facilities at Natanz and Irak

  19. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    Kim, Jack and Kitano, Masayuki. Japan, S. Korea urge N. Korea to move on crisis . Reuters News Agency, July 22, 2004. . North Korea: Back on the...Council had revealed correctly the existence of secret Iranian nuclear facilities at Natanz and Irak . Several subsequent claims of the National Council

  20. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  1. Forest disturbance and North American carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. N. Goward; J. G. Masek; W. Cohen; G. Moisen; G. J. Collatz; S. Healey; R. A. Houghton; C. Huang; R. Kennedy; B. Law; S. Powell; D. Turner; M. A. Wulder

    2008-01-01

    North America's forests are thought to be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon. Currently, the rate of sequestration by forests on the continent has been estimated at 0.23 petagrams of carbon per year, though the uncertainty about this estimate is nearly 50%. This offsets about 13% of the fossil fuel emissions from the continent [Pacala et al., 2007]. However...

  2. Nearshore processes along north Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.; Anand, N.M.

    obliquity. Also it was found that the distribution of longshore currents was not similar at all stations along the study region. The annual net sediment transport was 0.069 x 10 sup(6)/year towards north at Arge beach and 0.040 x 10 sup(6) m sup(3)/year...

  3. Foraging guilds of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Nancy G. Tilghman; Stanley H. Anderson

    1985-01-01

    Many approaches have been taken to describe bird feeding behavior. Comparisons between different studies, however, have been difficult because of differences in terminology. We propose to establish a classification scheme for North American birds by using common terminology based on major food type, substrate, and technique, using foraging guilds.

  4. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  5. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  6. The politics of nutrition in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, H A

    1996-01-01

    In the 100-odd years since the rise of modern nutritional science, North American' ideas about food and health have been influenced by much more than the scientists' findings. They have invariably been affected by political considerations. War, fear of revolution, leftist ideology, and the enormous financial stakes of giant food producers have all played important roles in shaping ideas about nutrition.

  7. Rubella outbreak investigation, Gokwe North District, Midlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Rubella is a contagious disease, caused by rubella virus and transmitted via the respiratory route. Rubella in pregnancy may cause Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), characterized by multiple defects to the brain, heart, eyes and ears. Gokwe North experienced an increase in rubella cases from 6 cases (24 ...

  8. North Fork Caspar Creek stream biology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal S. Parker

    1991-01-01

    Timber harvesting is one of the most widespread land-uses in forested watersheds throughout western North America. It has long been recognized that timber removal, primarily through clearcutting, may have significant impacts on some environmental conditions within streams draining forested watersheds. It is also clear that logging related impacts are highly variable...

  9. The North Star Model of Alternative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Edna

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on experience in developing and administering alternative settings, the author describes a strength-based approach for reaching students who too often fall through the cracks. The North Star psycho-educational model addresses academic, behavioral, clinical, career, and spiritual needs of troubled youth. This article defines the research…

  10. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...

  11. North Korea: Carrots Now, Sticks Later

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romig, Chirstopher C

    2003-01-01

    ...), embodies this truism today. An armistice agreement in 1953 provided for a cease-fire between North Korea and the United States, but the peace treaty to end the war has yet to be negotiated, leaving a large armed camp on either...

  12. Native American Justice Issues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    In order to assess the quality of justice available to Native Americans in Burleigh County, North Dakota, investigations were conducted from June 1976 through April 1978 with an informal fact finding meeting as well as interviews with approximately 85 persons in Burleigh County and throughout the state. The 1970 census lists Native Americans…

  13. Education in North Yemen: Problems and Hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Philip S.

    The background of the educational system in North Yemen is reviewed and some of the problems facing the system are described. The findings from examining documents and on-site visitations are summarized as follows: (1) the view is confirmed that developing countries with long history and cultural heritage are torn between keeping their traditions…

  14. Vietnamese Advanced Course: Typical North Vietnamese Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This text, prepared by the Defense Language Institute (DLI), is a dictionary of idioms which lists 621 words, phrases, and expressions frequently used in newspapers, magazines, and literary works published in North Vietnam. It is intended for use as a reference work for DLI courses in Vietnamese. Entries are listed alphabetically, translated, and…

  15. Subpolar North Atlantic glider observations for OSNAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Hodges, B.; Bower, A. S.; Yang, J.; Lin, X.

    2016-02-01

    OSNAP is an international program designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water-column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The observational efforts of this program are focused largely along lines connecting Labrador to Greenland, and Greenland to Scotland. The OSNAP experimental plan includes continuous sampling by Slocum G2 gliders along the latter (easternmost) of these two sections, specifically across the northeastward-flowing North Atlantic Current in the Iceland Basin. The glider observations, a collaboration between the Ocean University of China and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, provide higher spatial resolution of water properties than is possible from moorings alone. These observations commenced in June 2015 with a mission to fly back and forth along a section between two OSNAP moorings, profiling from the surface to 1000-m depth. As of September 2015, five sections (including over 240 profiles) have been recorded. As expected, the data indicates energetic intraseasonal variability at smaller scales than can be captured by the OSNAP mooring array. We are investigating how this variability may impact calculated fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater. The glider repeatedly crossed a cyclonic eddy between the two moorings, enabling study of fine thermohaline structure during the development and dissipation of mesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic. With additional sensors measuring fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and multispectral light, the dataset also has the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the biogeochemical processes of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic.

  16. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is an effective lens for viewing the multiple and diverse relationships that constitute the links between North and South. New empirical findings on celebrity humanitarianism on the ground in Thailand, Malawi, Bangladesh, South Africa, China, Haiti, Congo, US, Denmark and Australia illustrate the impact...

  17. Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Andrew J.

    1983-01-01

    The author is persuaded that the main purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was to raise the confidence of moderate ruling groups in Western Europe. Today NATO is an expression of support between troubled allies with a number of common interests. (RM)

  18. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  19. Nighttime Lights of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an image of nighttime lights for North America, including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data were collected in 1996 and 1997 as part of the...

  20. Structural (Performance) class Potential for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones; David E. Kretschmann; Kevin Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Structural class systems are species-independent product classification systems for structural timber. They are used throughout the world to reduce the number of species and grade choices that face the designer of wood construction projects. Structural class systems offer an opportunity to simplify timber specification in North America and to encourage more effective...

  1. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  2. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Blancke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions are grappling for power and wealth. Beside the powerful Kim clan there exist other families in North Korea whose loyalty must be secured with bribes. If the loyalty of the influential families is eroded, the power base of Kim Jong Un is likely to soon diminish. As a result, the North Korean government is searching for sources of money. Illicit drugs may be one solution the ruling regime find attractive to this problem, but there appears to be a twist: struggling ordinary citizens are showing signs that they too are taking part in this illegal enterprise. This is manifested by their willingness to become involved in crime in the same way as the corrupt regime.

  3. Predicting multiyear North Atlantic Ocean variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Wouters, B.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Corti, S.; Palmer, T.; Lloyd Smith, D.; Dunstone, N.; Kroger, J.; Pohlmann, H.; Storch, von J.S.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the skill of retrospective multiyear forecasts of North Atlantic ocean characteristics obtained with ocean-atmosphere-sea ice models that are initialized with estimates from the observed ocean state. We show that these multimodel forecasts can skilfully predict surface and subsurface ocean

  4. Railway tunnels in Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    This list of railway tunnels (longer than 1, 000 m) was compiled by the secretariat from various national and international sources. The list is intended to serve as a reference inventory for a long railway tunnels in Europe and North America. Tunnel...

  5. Establishing veterinary education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce Vivash

    2013-01-12

    The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.

  6. ( Etelerix algirus ) in north western Libya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ...

  7. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pag...

  8. The curious case of North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtland Robinson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Displacement and distress migration within and outside North Koreamay be an indicator of state fragility but a reduction in numbers should not necessarily be read as a sign of improving conditions there. In fact, increased movements might be considered as positive, if they are accompanied by increased protection for refugees, survivors of trafficking, stateless children and other vulnerable populations.

  9. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-10-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is "are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?" To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls = 120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for regions closer to the pole, and later for regions close to the periphery of the cap. The observations and calculations presented herein estimate that on average a water ice layer ∼70 microns thick is deposited during the Ls = 135-164 period. This is far larger than the results of deposition on the south pole during summer, where an average layer 0.6-6 microns deep has been estimated by Brown et al. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 406, 102-109.

  10. North American Bison Cooperative and North Dakota Natural Beef LLC: Governance of a Contractual Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.; Boland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, North American Bison Cooperative formed a contractual alliance with North Dakota Natural Beef, LLC. The alliance was formed in order to enable the cooperative to enhance returns from its physical and managerial assets by entering the natural beef market. This case describes the resources shared by the cooperative and LLC, how the alliance was governed, the risk of opportunism by the CEO and associated trust building and control mechanisms, and the benefits cooperative members receive...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  12. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2009-10 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Wheat Commission a...

  13. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2015 Phase 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  14. 2015 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  16. Sampling Lake Alice NWR Fish Populations - 2014, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS and North Dakota Game and Fish Department sampled Northern pike, walleye, yellow perch and white bass within the boundary of Lake Alice NWR in North...

  17. Freshwater algae of North America: ecology and classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wehr, John D; Sheath, R.G; Kociolek, J.P

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification, Second Edition is an authoritative and practical treatise on the classification, biodiversity, and ecology of all known genera of freshwater algae from North America...

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LENOIR COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  19. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  20. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  1. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  2. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  3. Internatioanl Experiences of Resource Management in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    The paper outlines some general characteristics regarding resource development and resource management in the Circumpolar North.......The paper outlines some general characteristics regarding resource development and resource management in the Circumpolar North....

  4. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  5. Modernizing the North Korean System: Objectives, Method, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Eberstadt, The End of North Korea, 1999; Kongdan Oh and Ralph Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass , 2000; Chol-Hwan Kang and Pierre Rigoulot...The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History, revised and updated ed., New York: Basic Books, 2002. Oh, Kongdan, and Ralph C. Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass , Washington

  6. United States’ Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    countrystudies.us/north-korea/2.htm, accessed September 8, 2006. 15 Ibid. 16 Kong Dan Oh and Ralph C. Hassig., North Korea Through the Looking Glass , The...International and Strategic Studies, 2001. Kong, Dan and Hassig Ralph C., North Korea Through the Looking Glass , The Brookings Institute, Washington

  7. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  8. Globalisation and Education: The Case of North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gay Garland

    1997-01-01

    Looks at North Korean education in terms of the tension that exists between globalization and educational sovereignty. Offers a brief historical background to North Korean education and provides a baseline for developing three possible scenarios for its future. Illustrates the impact of domestic and international forces on North Korean education.…

  9. School Emergency Preparedness in North Dakota Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiontek, Steven Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The basis for this study was to determine: (1) If school districts in North Dakota have an emergency response plan; (2) How comprehensive their emergency response plan is; (3) How well prepared school districts in North Dakota are for any type of disaster; and (4) The extent to which North Dakota LEAD Center school emergency response training and…

  10. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island... North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  11. North American paragonimiasis: epidemiology and diagnostic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter U; Weil, Gary J

    2015-06-01

    Paragonimiasis is a zoonotic, food-borne trematode infection that affects around 23 million people in Asia, Africa and the Americas. North American paragonimiasis, caused by Paragonimus kellicotti, is a common infection of crustacean-feeding mammals in parts of the USA and Canada. Although infection rates in crayfish are very high in some areas, human infections are rare and depend on the consumption of raw or undercooked crayfish. Human infections can be easily prevented and treated, but proper diagnosis of paragonimiasis is a problem. Paragonimus lung flukes often cause serious disease symptoms before they produce eggs that may be detectable in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, stool or histological sections by microscopy or PCR. Antibodies against selected Paragonimus proteins are detectable as early as 2-3 weeks after infection. Therefore, antibody serology is the most promising diagnostic approach for paragonimiasis in North America and elsewhere.

  12. Status of RNB facilities in North America

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, J A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of accelerator facilities in North America that are involved in research using radioactive nuclear beams (RNB), including existing and operating facilities, ones currently under construction or undergoing major upgrades, and ones being planned or proposed for the future. Existing RNB facilities are located at TRIUMF (TISOL) in Vancouver, B.C., the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) at Argonne National Laboratory, the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University, the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame, the 88" Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. Currently, there are two major RNB facility upgrades in progress in North America, one at TRIUMF, the ISAC project, and one at NSCL, the Intensity Upgrade project. For the future, the U.S. Nuclear Science A...

  13. Diagnosing overflow waters in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2015-04-01

    Danmark Strait overflow water (DSOW) and Iceland Faroe overflow water (ISOW) are important for the formation and transformation of deep waters in the North Atlantic. In this work the volume transport, variability, and pathways of DSOW and ISOW are diagnosed using the one degree ocean-ice coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) that is forced by CORE2 inter-annual forcing. The oceanic component (MICOM) features an isopycnal coordinate that is referenced to 2000 db. The issues related to the coarse resolution such as the southward transport of ISOW to the western European Basin, the lack of overflow water in the western North Atlantic, and the western boundary detachment of the deep western boundary current are addressed. The effects of diapycnal mixing on the behavior of overflow descent at Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel and its downstream evolution are examined.

  14. Operating in the North Atlantic MNPS Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Conor

    This paper considers the issue of operating aircraft through the North Atlantic's Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) airspace. Noting that aircraft constantly strive for reduced fuel burn and uplift, it describes how flight operators and pilots conduct safe, efficient flights through the region. Reference is made to mechanisms of the North Atlantic MNPS airspace in terms of its Organized Track Structure and other routes that exist. These different structures emphasize the level of flexibility available. Flight planning procedures and requirements necessary to obtain oceanic Air Traffic Control (ATC) clearances are mentioned, as is an account of how communication and position reporting procedures operate to apply the Mach Number technique. Other aspects of MNPS operations such as ETOPS operational restrictions, meteorological effects, the employment of Reduced Vertical Separation Minima and planned regional changes aim to provide an overview of the MNPS system's current and future air traffic management.

  15. Medicinal history of North American Veratrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Christopher M; McDougal, Owen M

    2014-09-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Veratrum have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, phytochemical investigations revealed a host of steroidal alkaloids in Veratrum species, some of which are potent bioactives. This review discusses Veratrum species that grow in North America with a focus on the medicinal history of these plants and the steroidal alkaloids they contain. While significant reviews have been devoted to singularly describing the plant species within the genus Veratrum (botany), the staggering breadth of alkaloids isolated from these and related plants (phytochemistry), and the intricacies of how the various alkaloids act on their biological targets (physiology and biochemistry), this review will straddle the margins of the aforementioned disciplines in an attempt to provide a unified, coherent picture of the Veratrum plants of North America and the medicinal uses of their bioactive steroidal alkaloids.

  16. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Surovell, Todd A.

    2009-12-01

    The late Pleistocene witnessed the extinction of 35 genera of North American mammals. The last appearance dates of 16 of these genera securely fall between 12,000 and 10,000 radiocarbon years ago (≈13,800-11,400 calendar years B.P.), although whether the absence of fossil occurrences for the remaining 19 genera from this time interval is the result of sampling error or temporally staggered extinctions is unclear. Analysis of the chronology of extinctions suggests that sampling error can explain the absence of terminal Pleistocene last appearance dates for the remaining 19 genera. The extinction chronology of North American Pleistocene mammals therefore can be characterized as a synchronous event that took place 12,000-10,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Results favor an extinction mechanism that is capable of wiping out up to 35 genera across a continent in a geologic instant.

  17. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M. Isabel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Alastuey, Andrés

    2017-06-01

    In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over ˜ 5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at ˜ 2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands) under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10) carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m-3 (20th and 80th percentiles). The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st-50th percentiles = 0.15-2.54 µg m-3) are North American dust (53 %), non-sea-salt sulfate (14 %) and organic matter (18 %). High PM10 events (75th-95th percentiles ≈ 4.0-9.0 µg m-3) are prompted by dust (56 %), organic matter (24 %) and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %). These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i) their spatial distribution in North America and (ii) the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (˜ 32° N, January-March) to high latitudes in summer (˜ 52° N, August-September). The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March-May), of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February-May) and of elemental carbon in summer (August-September). Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic); further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter) in North America.

  18. North Carolina’s forests, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Barry D. New; Tony G. Johnson; James L. Chamberlain

    2014-01-01

    The principal findings of the eighth forest survey of North Carolina are presented. In 2007, forests covered 18.6 million acres of the State, of which 18.1 million were classified as timberland. Oak-hickory was the most common forest-type group and covered 7.3 million acres of the timberland. The second most common forest-type group was loblolly-shortleaf pine, which...

  19. North-American MP Tandem accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1977-01-01

    There are six North-American MP Tandem accelerators: Yale; Minnesota; Chalk River; Rochester; and two at Brookhaven. The current status and operating characteristics of these six tandem accelerators are discussed. Upgrade and special improvements of the different machines is reviewed and new developments since the last Electrostatic Conference are discussed in detail. The overall operating characteristics of the different machines during the last year of operation are compared.

  20. Marine geotechnical data for North Pacific sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Adrian F.

    1978-01-01

    Geotechnical data from the published and unpublished literature are compiled in SI units and tabulated in a standardized format. Eight data sets are presented from a geographic area approximately bounded by 5° and 32° north latitude and 120° and 170° west longitude. The data exist in machine-readable form in the data bank of the Marine Geotechnical Laboratory, Lehigh University.

  1. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a “browning trend” in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al. 2005, Bunn et al. 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al. 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was...

  2. ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION IN NORTH-EAST NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations from Maiduguri and Yola areas of North-Eastern Nigeria were measured. Also determined were the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the SPM. Mean SPM levels were 28.3 µg/m3 (range, 1.3-144 µg/m3) and 13.6 µg/m3 (range, 1.1-52 µg/m3) for Maiduguri ...

  3. ISRAEL, NORTH KOREA AND IRAN DEAL HYPOCRISY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ... that the U.S. can't even get China and Russia to abide by sanctions on North Korea that they agreed to. When the U.S. and Israel criticize other countries for conducting business with Iran, they don't have a modicum of principle to stand on. Both nations sell their military wares to repressive regimes, and the reason the U.S. has little leverage with ...

  4. Forest health conditions in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Tkacz; B. Moody; J.V. Castillo; M.E. Fenn

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several...

  5. Wood-rotting fungi of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

  6. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Rape of Nanking,” Japanese soldiers butchered hundreds of thousands of unarmed Chinese men, women, and children . Often the ingrained hatred and...prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The

  7. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  8. The Cordilleran Ribbon Continent of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen T.

    2008-05-01

    The North American Cordilleran Orogen is the result of a two-stage process: (a) Triassic-Jurassic accretion within Panthalassa forming SAYBIA, a composite ribbon continent, and (b) Late Cretaceous collision of SAYBIA with North America. This model requires that a large portion of the continental foreland of the orogen is exotic. The exotic continental component of SAYBIA, Cassiar Platform, is distinguished from the autochthon on the basis of its (a) Triassic Eurasian fauna; (b) involvement in a major Late Triassic-Early Jurassic orogenic event; and (c) young, in part Grenvillian basement and mantle. A mid-Cretaceous magmatic arc records west-dipping subduction beneath the east-margin of SAYBIA. The related accretionary prism consists of imbricated shale, chert, and deep-water limestones (the Medial Basin) and overlies an isotopically juvenile mantle domain. Carbonatite complexes delineate the cryptic suture separating SAYBIA and the autochthon. Paleomagnetic and paleobotanical data place SAYBIA 2000 km to the south relative to the autochthon at 80 Ma. Late Cretaceous thrust belt development records transpression between the north-moving ribbon continent and the autochthon. Pinning against the Okhotsk-Chukotka arc in Siberia buckled SAYBIA, giving rise to the Alaskan promontory.

  9. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  11. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoarchean North Liaoning tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses of the North China Craton, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maojiang; Liu, Shuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kang; Yan, Ming; Guo, Boran; Bai, Xiang; Guo, Rongrong

    2016-12-01

    Tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses are dominant lithological assemblages in Archean high grade metamorphic terranes in the world. These TTG gneisses preserve important information in formation and evolution of Archean continental crust. Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock in North Liaoning Province (NLP) is one of the major Neoarchean metamorphic basement terranes in the northeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock is composed mainly of Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses, subordinate granodioritic to monzogranitic association (GMA) and minor supracrustal rocks. The tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses are divided into high MgO Group (HMG) and low MgO Group (LMG) based on their chemical compositions. Detailed petrogenetic investigations suggest that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and contaminated by the overlying mantle wedge during its ascent; whereas, magmatic precursors of the LMG samples were derived from the juvenile lower crust. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating analyses reveal that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were formed at 2553-2531 Ma. An older HMG tonalitic gneiss sample was discovered at Sandaoguan in the southmost of the studied area, with its magmatic precursor emplaced at 2680 Ma. The magmatic precursors of the LMG samples emplaced at 2595-2583 Ma. Combined with previous credible chronological data, our newly obtained zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that three episodes of magmatism at ∼2700-2680 Ma, ∼2600-2570 Ma and ∼2550-2510 Ma occurred in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock, and the TT gneisses in this microblock were subjected to generally amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼2520-2470 Ma. Based on the above Neoarchean crust-mantle thermal-dynamic processes, we propose that the Neoarchean magmatism and metamorphism in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock of North Liaoning Province occurred in

  12. Dollarization in North Korea: Evidence from a Survey of North Korean Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Min Mun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measures the degree of dollarization in North Korea using results from a survey of 231 North Korean refugees. Specifically, we compare foreign currency use of households as both store-of-value substitutes (i.e., asset substitution and transaction substitutes (i.e., currency substitution before and after the confiscatory currency reform of 2009. The degree of dollarization has advanced since the currency reform in terms of both asset and currency substitutions. Survey results also indicate that the Chinese yuan is frequently used in the Sino-North Korean border area, whereas the US dollar is predominantly used in non-border areas. Furthermore, foreign currency increasingly serves as a medium of exchange not only for large transactions but also for smaller transactions, such as food purchases.

  13. NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Dick (North American Institute, Santa Fe, NM); Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Oborotova, Marina (Center for International Studies of El Colegio de Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants envisioned a

  14. Chest CT features of North American paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Travis S; Lane, Michael A; Weil, Gary J; Bailey, Thomas C; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the chest CT findings of North American paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus kellicotti in the largest (to our knowledge) case series reported to date and to compare the findings with those reported for paragonimiasis infections in other regions. A retrospective review was performed of chest CT examinations of eight patients with North American paragonimiasis treated at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Findings were characterized by site of involvement, including lungs and pleura, heart and pericardium, lymph nodes, and upper abdomen. The most common chest CT findings in this case series were pleural effusions and internal mammary and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy. Pulmonary parenchymal findings included peripheral lung nodules of 1-3.5 cm in size with surrounding ground-glass opacity; many nodules had a linear track to the pleural surface that may correspond to the worm's burrow tunnel. Pericardial involvement (5/8 patients) and omental inflammation (5/7 patients), which are uncommon in Asian paragonimiasis, were common in this series. Pleural and pulmonary features of North American paragonimiasis are generally similar to those reported from Asia. The presence of a track between a pulmonary nodule and the pleura may help distinguish paragonimiasis from mimickers, including chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, tuberculosis, fungal infection, or malignancy. Pericarditis, lymphadenopathy, and omental inflammation were more common in our series than in reports on paragonimiasis from other regions. These differences may be related to the infecting parasite species or to the fact that radiologic examinations in the present series were performed relatively early in the course of infection.

  15. Epidemiology of rickettsioses in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaïef, Amel

    2006-10-01

    The first description of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) was made by Conor and Brush in 1910 in Tunisia, where, at the same time, Nicolle described the role of lice in transmission of epidemic typhus. However, along this century, there have been few and fragmentary reports about ecology and epidemiology of rickettsioses in North Africa. This region was always considered, for these diseases, like other Mediterranean regions. The most human tick-borne rickettsiosis known to occur in North Africa is MSF caused by R. conorii and transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Recent studies showed that other arthropode-transmitted rickettsiae are prevalent in North Africa: R. aeschlimannii, R. massiliae, and R. felis. Moreover, R. felis and R. aeschlimannii human infection were respectively confirmed, by serology in Tunisia, and by PCR in Morocco. The seroprevalence of R. conorii among healthy population was ranging from 5% to 8% in most of the countries. Epidemiological and clinical features are frequently resumed in an eruptive fever with eschar occurring in hot season in rural areas. Typhus group rickettsioses, caused by R. typhi and R. prowazekii are less frequently reported than in the 1970s. Seroprevalence of R. typhi among blood donors was from 0.5% to 4%. In Algeria about 2% of febrile patients had R. prowazekii antibodies. Moreover, reemerging threat of epidemic typhus should be considered, after the two cases recently diagnosed in the highlands of Algeria. Murine typhus, considered as "benign" typhus, is underestimated. When R. typhi was inserted in serologic tests, murine typhus became more frequently confirmed. In a recent study in Central Tunisia, we confirmed an emergence of murine typhus mistaken for R. conorii or viral infection. In addition to typhus surveillance, future studies have to determine which spotted fever group rickettsiae are prevalent in vectors and in human pathology.

  16. North American migratory bird management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    As human population and industry have grown in North America, land-use practices have greatly altered the landscape. As a result of this changed landscape, several migratory bird populations have declined in recent years. For waterbirds, there have been several milestones: the 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) and the 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act. As a result, the United States and Canada have established 12 habitat and 2 species joint ventures. The primary emphasis of waterfowl management in Canada-U.S. has been land purchase and lease, wetland restoration, and coordination of harvest rates. Because of its different biological and cultural context, Mexico has established other conservation priorities. Mexico has had a long-standing concern to conserve its biodiversity and, in addition, conservation of Mexican resources goes hand in hand with human community development. Unlike Canada-U.S., wetland conservation projects in'Mexico include information gathering, environmental education, and management planning for its 32 priority wetlands. For migratory landbirds' scientists attribute declines in several migrant populations to forest fragmentation on the breeding grounds, deforestation on the wintering grounds, pesticide poisoning, or the cumulative effects of habitat changes. In 1990, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, commonly known as Partners in Flight-Aves de las Americas-was initiated. The next step that is being proposed is the formation of a habitat conservation plan for landbirds modeled after the NAWMP. Management of migratory birds requires a strong international approach in order to coordinate actions for the benefit of migratory birds, their habitats, and the uses they provide.

  17. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  18. North American ultra-distal tephrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; Hughes, P.; Mallon, G.; Amesbury, M.; Charman, D.; Street-Perrott, A.; Loader, N.; Woodman-Ralph, J.; Mauquoy, D.; Daley, T.; Booth, R.

    2011-12-01

    PRECIP (Palaeo-REconstruction of ocean-atmosphere Coupling In Peat) is a multi-proxy project examining the influences of Gulf Stream and Labrador Current variations on Holocene raised bogs along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. The project aims to reconstruct the influences of such climate drivers at multi-decadal timescales, thus enabling the testing of hypotheses relating to ocean-atmosphere coupling of Thermohaline Circulation (THC) and terrestrial responses (e.g. the '8.2 ka' event). A valuable geochronological tool for this task is tephrochronology which utilises far-travelled volcanic ash (microtephra: 600 shards/cm3) are estimated by the age model to occur at ca. 7500 14C cal. yrs BP and ca. 1200 14C cal. yrs BP (ca. AD 800), and are the correct period and geochemistry for correlation with the widespread Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) (7627±150 Greenland GISP2 ice core yrs BP) and White River Ash (Mount Churchill, Alaska) eruptions respectively. Other sources for prominent sequence isochrons are Mount St Helens (Washington), Mount Augustine (Alaska) and Mount Aniakchak (Alaska). The tephrochronological potential of other sites in the region is anticipated to be just as promising and should therefore provide the opportunity for the development of a new Holocene tephrostratigraphic framework for north-eastern North America, enabling highly precise correlations with equivalent tephrostratigraphic records, such as occurs in the Greenland ice cores. The development of a framework in this region should be additionally valid throughout much of the continent, with additional applications in the fields of archaeology, faunal/floral shifts and extinctions and volcanic hazard assessment.

  19. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  20. Status of soil acidification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, M.E.; Huntington, T.G.; Mclaughlin, S.B.; Eagar, C.; Gomez, A.; Cook, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of leaching of base cations, increased availability of soil Al, and the accumulation and ultimate transmission of acidity from forest soils to streams. Losses of calcium from forest soils and forested watersheds have now been documented as a sensitive early indicator and a functionally significant response to acid deposition for a wide range of forest soils in North America. For red spruce, a clear link has been established between acidic deposition, alterations in calcium and aluminum supplies and increased sensitivity to winter injury. Cation depletion appears to contribute to sugar maple decline on some soils, specifically the high mortality rates observed in northern Pennsylvania over the last decade. While responses to liming have not been systematically examined in North America, in a study in Pennsylvania, restoring basic cations through liming increased basal area growth of sugar maple and levels of calcium and magnesium in soil and foliage. In the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California near the west coast, the pH of the A horizon has declined by at least 2 pH units (to pH 4.0-4.3) over the past 30 years, with no detrimental effects on bole growth; presumably, because of the Mediterranean climate, base cation pools are still high and not limiting for plant growth.

  1. Transit Migration in North Cyprus (TRNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Çolak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the flows of transit migration to North Cyprus by type: whether or not it is labour, refugee or asylum. To determine that, the question of which push factors lay behind transit migration in the origin country tries to be answered. Also this study seeks to analyze origins, routes and destinations of transit migrants in TRNC from 2004 to 2008. In addition, the paper analyzes what kind of measures TRNC government was taking to deal with illegal transit migrants, human trafficking and smuggling through its borders, and how non-state institutions in TRNC considered and dealt with transit migrants and especially refugees.

  2. Gender Inequality in North East India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, Bidisha; Nayak, Purusottam

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of gender inequality in North East India using various indicators based on secondary data. The study reveals that the northeast is better off than that of the nation as a whole in terms of gender equality. However inequality between women and men exists in the region in spite of the predominance of various ethnic groups who by and large do not believe in sex discrimination. The study reveals that women are relatively disempowered and enjoy...

  3. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  4. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  5. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    North Korea conducted its second test of a nuclear bomb following tests of its arsenal of missiles. Two factors seemed to be operating to compel...un except that he might have attended the International School of Berne (Switzerland) under an alias or a German-speaking school in Koniz. He...six bombs (2003) 3rd round of Six Party Talks (2004) In 4th Round of Six Party Talks, N.Korea agrees to give up nuclear weapons (2005) N.Korea

  6. North American poisonous bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Critters and creatures can strike fear into anyone who thinks about dangerous animals. This article focuses on the management of the most common North American scorpion, arachnid, hymenoptera, and snake envenomations that cause clinically significant problems. Water creatures and less common animal envenomations are not covered in this article. Critical care management of envenomed patients can be challenging for unfamiliar clinicians. Although the animals are located in specific geographic areas, patients envenomed on passenger airliners and those who travel to endemic areas may present to health care facilities distant from the exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  8. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  9. Political and Economic Trends in North Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Faithful: the Moro cnn Politica] Elite (Nc’¢ York, Coluibia University Press, 1970) , Dassirl. 4. Abdel Aziz Belal, L’lnvestis.went au Maroc (Paris, Mouton...mismanagement, some measure of success sees assured , but it is’not clear what class of people will emerge to lead the country and operate the economy, or with...cooperation. BY_ IUTUION/ARAMMAY AU M&T~ii and/a WK Ii. .11 O OC CO Among the four North African states Morocco possesses the most compl2m society and the

  10. Response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre to persistent North Atlantic oscillation like forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Katja; Bentsen, Mats [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Drange, Helge [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    The response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) to a persistent positive (or negative) phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model forced with idealized atmospheric reanalysis fields. The integrations are analyzed with reference to a base-line integration for which the model is forced with idealized fields representing a neutral state of the NAO. In the positive NAO case, the results suggest that the well-known cooling and strengthening of the SPG are, after about 10 years, replaced by a warming and subsequent weakening of the SPG. The latter changes are caused by the advection of warm water from the subtropical gyre (STG) region, driven by a spin-up of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the effect of an anomalous wind stress curl in the northeastern North Atlantic, which counteracts the local buoyancy forcing of the SPG. In the negative NAO case, however, the SPG response does not involve a sign reversal, but rather shows a gradual weakening throughout the integration. The asymmetric SPG-response to the sign of persistent NAO-like forcing and the different time scales involved demonstrate strong non-linearity in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation response to atmospheric forcing. The latter finding indicates that analysis based on the arithmetic difference between the two NAO-states, e.g. NAO+ minus NAO-, may hide important aspects of the ocean response to atmospheric forcing. (orig.)

  11. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over  ∼  5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at  ∼  2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10 carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m−3 (20th and 80th percentiles. The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st–50th percentiles  =  0.15–2.54 µg m−3 are North American dust (53 %, non-sea-salt sulfate (14 % and organic matter (18 %. High PM10 events (75th–95th percentiles  ≈  4.0–9.0 µg m−3 are prompted by dust (56 %, organic matter (24 % and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %. These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i their spatial distribution in North America and (ii the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (∼  32° N, January–March to high latitudes in summer (∼  52° N, August–September. The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March–May, of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February–May and of elemental carbon in summer (August–September. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic; further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter in North America.

  12. Pile hole drilling for North Sea platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressel, E.J.

    1975-05-01

    According to J.R. McDermott and Co., deep waters and a sea bottom composed of both dense sands and hard clays call for utmost sophistication of equipment and techniques for offshore platform installation in the North Sea. The water depth requires modification of conventional platform installation procedures with an intermediate foundation and temporary pile installation module. Normally, piling is installed by driving to grade with conventional pile-driving equipment. For 2 different types of offshore platform foundations now being utilized in the North Sea, however, drilling is required. One, a belled footing, requires drilling because underreaming is a necessity. The second, a deep-water platform with skirt piles, utilizes drilling because pile/follower weights coupled with soil conditions make conventional pile driving inefficient or impossible. The total equipment package required depends on the platform installation procedures used. Available packages vary from a minimal pile-top rig to a platform-contained, barge-assisted pile installation unit.

  13. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  14. Prevalence of periodontal diseases in North Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Ružica; Glavina, Domagoj; Mabić, Mirela; Cvitanović, Stipo; Šarac, Zdenko; Ivanković, Ante

    2014-08-01

    To investigate effects of smoking on periodontal tissue and the occurrence of periodontal disease in the population of North Herzegovina. The study included 800 persons of 20-49 years of age (400 smokers and 400 non-smokers), inhabitants of Prozor-Rama Municipality, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Periodontal condition assessment was made by the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index (CPITN) at representative teeth: 16, 17, 21, 26, 27, 36, 37, 31, 46, and 47.Statistically significant difference between non-smokers and smokers was tested by χ2 test with the level of significance set at p=0.05. The prevalence of healthy periodontal tissues was lower in smokers than in non-smokers, 25 (6.3%)and 36 (9%), respectively. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep periodontal pockets was higher in smokers than in non-smokers, although it was not significant. There was a risk between occurrence of deep periodontal pockets and smoking (RR=2). A total of 64 (8%)participants neededonly instructions on proper oral hygiene, 654 (81.8%) prophylaxis and initial treatment,while 21 (2.6%) needed complex periodontal treatment. Obtained results indicate a high need of preventive measures and the improvement of oral health in the population of North Herzegovina.

  15. Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.

  16. Seabird ecology in the north sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnet, G. M.; Furness, R. W.; Tasker, M. L.; Becker, P. H.

    The numbers of all species of seabirds regularly occurring in the North Sea are presented and a brief account is given of the main processes affecting their population dynamics. Monitoring of breeding numbers and known trends, distribution at sea, and the patterns of movement of both breeding and non-breeding birds are described. Feeding methods and foraging behaviour are discussed and methods for determining the diet of seabirds are critically examined. Quantitative methods for determining the amount of food taken, and the ecological energetics of seabirds are dealt with in some detail, including the problem of the availability of food to birds. Physical factors such as tide, weather and sea-state affect several aspects of seabird biology. The relationship between seabird population and fish stocks and fisheries is of increasing importance and the major aspects of these are described and discussed in detail. Other impacts of man such as pollution by oil, chemicals and rubbish are also important. Predation by introduced mammals and also by the native larger gulls, and unintentional disturbance resulting from human recreation, can have serious effects on breeding colonies. In the south-eastern North Sea low-lying coasts are vulnerable to flooding and affected by land reclamation and coastal management.

  17. The recent warming trend in North Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Anais J.; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Fettweis, Xavier; Box, Jason E.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Clow, Gary D.; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2017-06-01

    The Arctic is among the fastest warming regions on Earth, but it is also one with limited spatial coverage of multidecadal instrumental surface air temperature measurements. Consequently, atmospheric reanalyses are relatively unconstrained in this region, resulting in a large spread of estimated 30 year recent warming trends, which limits their use to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this trend. Here we present a surface temperature reconstruction over 1982-2011 at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project, 51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, based on the inversion of borehole temperature and inert gas isotope data. We find that NEEM has warmed by 2.7 ± 0.33°C over the past 30 years, from the long-term 1900-1970 average of -28.55 ± 0.29°C. The warming trend is principally caused by an increase in downward longwave heat flux. Atmospheric reanalyses underestimate this trend by 17%, underlining the need for more in situ observations to validate reanalyses.

  18. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  19. Phytoplankton Bloom in North Sea off Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The northern and western highlands of Scotland were still winter-brown and even dusted with snow in places, but the waters of the North Sea were blooming with phytoplankton on May 8, 2008, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the region and captured this image. The tiny, plant-like organisms swirled in the waters off the country's east coast, coloring the shallow coastal waters shades of bright blue and green. Phytoplankton are tiny organisms--many are just a single cell--that use chlorophyll and other pigments to capture light for photosynthesis. Because these pigments absorb sunlight, they change the color of the light reflected from the sea surface back to the satellite. Scientists have used observations of 'ocean color' from satellites for more than 20 years to track worldwide patterns in phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton are important to the Earth system for a host of reasons, including their status as the base of the ocean food web. In the North Sea, they are the base of the food web that supports Scotland's commercial fisheries, including monkfish and herring. As photosynthesizers, they also play a crucial role in the carbon cycle, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Some oceanographers are concerned that rising ocean temperatures will slow phytoplankton growth rates, harming marine ecosystems and causing carbon dioxide to accumulate more rapidly in the atmosphere.

  20. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  1. Basic needs and the north/south debate

    OpenAIRE

    Chichilnisky, Graciela

    1982-01-01

    This article re-examines the relationship between economic growth of the North and that of the South. It considers the implications of this relationship for two major issues within the current North-South debate: basic needs and exhaustible resources. The connections between international trade and national policies are explored on the basis of the theoretical research and empirical results of a United Nations Project on Technology, Distribution and North-South relations.

  2. A Nuclear North Korea and Strategic Stability in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkkevold, Jo Inge; Bowers, Ian

    2017-01-01

    North Korea continues to develop ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons despite international condemnation and increasing political and economic isolation. While war is unlikely, expectations of denuclearisation seem optimistic. Ongoing tensions will likely have substantial short-term and long-term regional strategic implications. • North Korea is and should be assessed as a rational actor. North Korea’s ballistic missile and nuclear programmes will likely continue despite international ...

  3. North American freshwater mussels: natural history, ecology, and conservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haag, Wendell R

    2012-01-01

    "Synthesizes ecology and natural history of North American freshwater mussels for scientists, natural resource professionals, students and natural history enthusiasts"-- "This well-illustrated book...

  4. NORTH KOREA'S NUCLEAR THREATS AND COUNTER-STRATEGIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samman Chung

    2016-01-01

    North Korea's nuclear weapons program and its ballistic missile programs have developed compelling capabilities that can potentially threaten South Korea and its neighbors even including the United States...

  5. Reassessing North-South Relations: An Examination of North-South Preferential Trade Agreements for Developing and Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Sahakyan, Davit

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of North-South preferential trade agreements (PTAs) during the last quarter century has had broad implications for developing and emerging economies. As a result of North-South power asymmetries and the aggressive trade policy that has been characterized as ‘competitive liberalization,’ it has been argued that these agreements have produced asymmetric results in favor of Northern countries. This thesis advances a novel approach in the assessment of North-South preferen...

  6. Oral literary traditions in North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Brakel-Papenhuyzen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with traditional literature of the Pakpak-Dairi and Karo peoples in North Sumatra, who are speakers of closely related Batak languages and have many common features in their language and culture. Their traditional life-style, based on agriculture and the use of forest products, requires the regular performance of community rituals featuring songs, dance, music and other oral traditions including storytelling. The songs, prayers, and stories belonging to their literary tradition have characteristic features that are intimately connected with the social context in which they are created and performed. Karo and Pakpak-Dairi oral genres often contain information about the natural environment, local customs and religious concepts. They may also reflect perceptions of relationships with neighbouring groups, such as the Minangkabau and the Malays who live in the coastal areas.

  7. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2017-03-31

    North Slope oil and gas resources are a critical part of US energy supplies and their development is facing a period of new growth to meet increasing national energy needs. While this growth is taking place in areas active in development for more than 20 years, there are many increasing environmental challenges facing industry and management agencies. A majority of all exploration and development activities, pipeline maintenance and other field support activities take place in the middle of winter, when the fragile tundra surface is more stable. The window for the critical oil and gas winter operational season has been steadily decreasing over the last 25 years. The number of companies working on the North Slope is increasing. Many of these companies are smaller and working with fewer resources than the current major companies. The winter operations season starts with the tundra-travel opening, which requires 15 cm of snow on the land surface in the coastal management areas and 23 cm in the foothills management areas. All state managed areas require -5°C soil temperatures at a soil depth of 30 cm. Currently there are no methods to forecast this opening date, so field mobilization efforts are dependent on agency personnel visiting field sites to measure snow and soil temperature conditions. Weeks can be easily lost in the winter operating season due to delays in field verification of tundra conditions and the resulting mobilization. After the season is open, a significant percentage of exploration, construction, and maintenance do not proceed until ice roads and pads can be built. This effort is dependent on access to lake ice and under-ice water. Ice chipping is a common ice-road construction technique used to build faster and stronger ice roads. Seasonal variability in water availability and permitting approaches are a constant constraint to industry. At the end of the winter season, projects reliant on ice-road networks are often faced with ending operations

  8. Alcohol screening in North Denmark Region hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjaer, Mette; Søndergaard, Lise Nørregaard; Klit, Mona Østergaard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for disease, disability and death. Approximately 20% of all hospital admissions are alcohol related. In Denmark, hospitalised patients undergo systematic health risk screenings to establish preventive initiatives if the screening detects a risk....... The frequency and usability of alcohol screening and health professionals' experiences of the screening is unknown. Aim: To examine the frequency and usability of alcohol screening at North Denmark Region hospitals, as well as health professionals' experiences of screening for alcohol. Methods: This study...... consisted of an initial audit of 120 patient records from medical and surgical units at four hospitals assessing information on alcohol screening. This was followed by six focus-group interviews with health professionals (n = 20) regarding their experiences of conducting alcohol screening. Results: Among...

  9. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  10. History of Eidophor projection in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott A.

    1997-05-01

    The influence of the Eidophor projection system has been felt for over fifty years, providing users with extreme brightness and unique capabilities in a wide variety of applications. The Eidophor, manufactured by Gretag AG, Switzerland, is an oil layer light valve system invented in 1943 and is still unsurpassed in brightness by any other technology. Although the technology is over 50 years old, there are still many viable uses for the system, particularly in North America. This paper will review the history, technology, applications and outlook for the Eidophor projection system. The applications include permanent locations such as sports arenas and television studios as well as a continuing impact in the large screen display rental community.

  11. Groundwater Management Along Lake Ontario's North Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holysh, S.; Gerber, R.; Doughty, M.

    2009-05-01

    A large stretch of the north shore of Lake Ontario is characterized by a till plain that slopes down from the Oak Ridges Moraine, a 160 km long ridge of sand, silt and gravel deposits oriented in an approximately east-west direction north of Lake Ontario. Since 2000, an ongoing collaborative, multi-faceted program has been underway to better characterize the groundwater flow system on the Lake's north shore. The program is a collaborative effort between Conservation Authorities (Ontario's watershed management bodies), and several large municipalities (City of Toronto, Regional Municipalities of Peel, York and Durham). The program has three main components: database, geology and groundwater flow modeling; each of which is being actively managed and updated. In Ontario, as in many jurisdictions in North America, water and environmental data has long been neglected. Studies that involve the measurement of hydrological parameters and the collection of useful data are commonly required for approval of land use change by provincial, regional and/or local government agencies. So although data is frequently collected (at a considerable cost), it has never been rigorously assembled into a comprehensive database that can be used for future reference. Rather, the data is collected by consultants, reported through various studies, and then simply lost in archived files. In a similar fashion, individuals at many government agencies have collected water related data that now reside in locations unknown and, thus, unavailable to others in the organization. With this in mind, a comprehensive digital database was assembled to establish the foundation for long term successful groundwater management. The data model design incorporates information required for groundwater modeling purposes, thus extending beyond that of traditional groundwater information. The key data sources include borehole geology, water levels, pumping rates, surface water flows, climate data and water quality

  12. Stature in Holocene foragers of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R; Pal, J N; Nelson, Greg C

    2014-03-01

    The Ganga Plain of North India provides an archaeological and skeletal record of semi-nomadic Holocene foragers in association with an aceramic Mesolithic culture. Prior estimates of stature for Mesolithic Lake Cultures (MLC) used inappropriate equations from an American White reference group and need revision. Attention is given to intralimb body proportions and geo-climatic provenance of MLC series in considering the most suitable reference population. Regression equations from ancient Egyptians are used in reconstructing stature for MLC skeletal series from Damdama (DDM), Mahadaha (MDH), and Sarai Nahar Rai (SNR). Mean stature is estimated at between 174 (MDH) and 178 cm (DDM and SNR) for males, and between 163 cm (MDH) and 179 cm (SNR) for females. Stature estimates based on ancient Egyptian equations are significantly shorter (from 3.5 to 7.1 cm shorter in males; from 3.2 to 7.5 cm shorter in females) than estimates using the American White reference group. Revised stature estimates from tibia length and from femur + tibia more accurately estimate MLC stature for two reasons: a) these elements are highly correlated with stature and have lower standard estimates of error, and b) uncertainty regarding methods of measuring tibia length is avoided. When compared with Holocene samples of native Americans and Mesolithic Europeans, MLC series from North India are tall. This aspect of their biological variation confirms earlier assessments and results from the synergistic influence of balanced nutrition from broad-spectrum foraging, body-proportions adapted to a seasonally hot and arid climate, and the functional demands of a mobile, semi-nomadic life-style. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 2005 the North American Solar Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Eberle

    2008-12-22

    In July 2005 the North American Solar Challenge (NASC) featured university built solar powered cars ran across the United States into Canada. The competition began in Austin, Texas with stops in Weatherford, Texas; Broken Arrow, Oklahoma; Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Fargo, North Dakota; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Brandon, Manitoba; Regina, Saskatchewan; Medicine Hat, Alberta; mainly following U.S. Highway 75 and Canadian Highway 1 to the finish line in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for a total distance of 2,500 miles. NASC major sponsors include the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Natural Resources Canada and DOEs National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The event is designed to inspire young people to pursue careers in science and engineering. NASCs predecessors, the American Solar Challenge and Sunrayce, generally have been held every two years since 1990. With each race, the solar cars travel faster and further with greater reliability. The NASC promotes: -Renewable energy technologies (specifically photovoltaic or solar cells) -Educational excellence in science, engineering and mathematics -Creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a wide-range of disciplines -Hands-on experience for students and engineers to develop and demonstrate their technical and creative abilities. Safety is the first priority for the NASC. Each team put its car through grueling qualifying and technical inspections. Teams that failed to meet the requirements were not allowed participate. During the race, each team was escorted by lead and chase vehicles sporting rooftop hazard flashers. An official observer accompanied each solar car team to keep it alert to any safety issues.

  14. Systematics of wolves in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R.; Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial morphology of Recent wolves throughout northern and western North America is remarkably consistent. Statistical analysis indicates the presence of four subspecies of gray wolf (Canis lupus) there, which are always distinguishable from the sympatric coyote (C. latrans). A fifth gray wolf subspecies, lycaon, occurs in southeastern Canada, and the red wolf (C. rufus), is found in the southeast. During the early 1900s the coyote moved east of the prairies and hybridized with the native wolves, thereby creating much confusion. Nonetheless, analysis of every available specimen of wild Canis, dating from before the coyote invasion in the region east of the Mississippi River and south of Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York, does indicate the presence of a small wolf, distinct from the coyote and showing the statistical consistency of other wolf populations. That series also has close affinity to specimens of the red wolf collected in Louisiana and Missouri prior to 1925, and to Pleistocene fossils from the east. There was a sharp line of morphological distinction between the wolves of the eastern United States and those of the prairies, but a closer approach by the former to the subspecies lycaon, which in turn intergrades with gray wolf populations in western Ontario and Minnesota. Although gaps in our knowledge remain, a reasonable hypothesis is that the entire forested region from southeastern Canada to the Gulf Coast originally was inhabited by populations of small wolves, with a subspecific or specific line just south of the eastern Great Lakes. There is no evidence that southeastern North America ever was occupied by large gray wolves and coyotes that hybridized to form the red wolf.

  15. North American Integration after 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Kostyunina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA among the three countries - the U.S., Canada and Mexico is the most striking example of successful development of integration processes in the Western Hemisphere. This year NAFTA marks the 20th anniversary of its foundation (1994. NAFTA covers trade in goods, services and movement of capital, intellectual property rights, environmental cooperation and labor cooperation. Its main advantages for member countries related to the dynamic growth of regional trade and investments, promoting the growth of industrial production (capital-intensive and high-tech industries in the U.S. and Canada, and labor-intensive industries in Mexico, increase the investment attractiveness of the economies of member countries and the promotion of employment. But there are costs, both general and specific to the individual member countries. Common costs are primarily asymmetrical level of economic interdependence, where mutual economic relations are the most developed between the U.S. and Canada, the U.S. and Mexico, and the least developed between Mexico and Canada due to historical conditions. Other costs are the differentiation in the levels of economic development, in volumes of overall GDP and per capita, population and size of the territory. But despite the costs, integration processes are successfully developed and repeatedly raised the issue of deepening economic integration between the U.S., Canada and Mexico. So, in 2000, there was put forward the concept of creating the North American community as an economic and security community by 2010, and in 2005 proposed the idea of a common currency called the Amero. But these proposals did not come true. On the agenda - the possibility of signing a new, more expanded NAFTA+, and even in the last year - the possibility to form a customs union under NAFTA.

  16. Diversity of birds in eastern North America shifts north with global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth W; McClure, Christopher J W; Rolek, Brian W; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of diversity along latitudinal and elevation gradients, and the coupling of this phenomenon with climate, is a pattern long recognized in ecology. Hypothesizing that climate change may have altered this pattern over time, we investigated whether the aggregate of reported northward shifts of bird ranges in North America is now detectable in community-level indices such as richness and diversity. Here, we report that bird diversity in North America increased and shifted northward between 1966 and 2010. This change in the relationship of diversity to the latitudinal gradient is primarily influenced by range expansions of species that winter in the eastern United States as opposed to species which migrate to this area from wintering grounds in the tropics. This increase in diversity and its northward expansion is best explained by an increase in regional prebreeding season temperature over the past 44 years.

  17. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  18. Alternative utilization of wheat starch, Grafton, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In 1978, North Dakota State University (NDSU), in cooperation with the Economic Development Administration, completed a study of the feasibility of a vital wheat gluten starch processing plant in North Dakota. The overall objective of this study is to determine the most feasible alternatives for utilizing the by-product starch slurry from a vital wheat gluten processing plant.

  19. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  20. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  1. Imaging North Korea : Exploring its Visual Representation in International Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Nabers, Dirk

    North Korea puzzles many observers. Mostly, it is referred to as the most isolated country in the world, being a timeless mystery, enigma, or terra incognita. While these characterizations reveal the presupposition of a genuine void of knowledge concerning the assessment of North Korean state

  2. Regime Change in North Africa and Implications for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUMO

    For most of 2011, several North African countries experienced sweeping changes in their political structures. During this ... regime changes in North Africa; the role of ICT and its social media networks and; the future of repressive regimes on ..... Singapore, South Korea, Spain and New Zealand. Today, high oil revenues and ...

  3. Introduced marine species of the North Sea coasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reise, K; Gollasch, S; Wolff, WJ

    1998-01-01

    About 80 non-indigenous species are assumed to have been introduced into the North Sea by transoceanic shipping and aquaculture. The number is certainly underestimated as most small organisms received insufficient attention at the species level. Also, the seafaring tradition of the North Sea

  4. Demand of Fulani Pastoralists for veterinary services in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demand of Fulani Pastoralists for veterinary services in North-western Nigeria. KM Baba, AO Ogungbile. Abstract. The demand of Fulani pastoralists for veterinary services was determined using data collected from 300 respondents in Sokoto and Zamfara States in north-western Nigeria. The interviewed pastoralists were ...

  5. Laboratory services in health centres within Amhara region, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify current problems in laboratory services and elicit suggestions from the technicians aimed at improving the services in health centres within Amhara region, north Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional study using a pre-tested questionnaire. Settings: Twenty seven health centres in Amhara region, north ...

  6. Is the metapopulation concept applicable to the North Sea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Held, den M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The metapopulation concept could provide an additional way of designating areas for protective measures in the North Sea, by delineating habitat preferences and population dynamics. The current study looks into the applicability of the metapopulation concept to the North Sea underwater environment.

  7. Record of North American geology for 1887 to 1889, inclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Nelson Horatio

    1891-01-01

    The literary scope of this record includes geologic publications printed in North America and publications on North American geology wherever printed. Chronologically it includes publications issued during the years 1887,1888, and 1889. The List of Publications Examined, page 9, indicates the range of the sources of information.

  8. (DRLs) for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is an essential optimization tool in radiography and radiological sciences. The objective of the study is to establish DRL for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria. A Prospective cross- sectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria.

  9. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    About 482 000 km3 of sediment (ca 24 m/Ma) accumulated in the North Sea during the Cenozoic. Early Cenozoic sedimentation was likely due to uplift of the circum North Atlantic landmasses related to continental break-up. Kilometre-scale transient uplift, and in some areas permanent uplift, generated...

  10. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense

  11. A hierarchical classification of freshwater mussel diversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide...

  12. Achievements in emergency medical care service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To analyse the performance of the Emergency Medical Rescue Service (EMRS) in North-West province. Design. A prospective study of the activity of the EMRS. Setting. North-West province, 2002 - 2004. Results. During this period the EMRS response time tended to decrease (reduction of 8 minutes for rural and ...

  13. Offshore Wind Energy Analysis of Cyclone Xaver over North Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Varlas, George; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclone Xaver (5 December 2013; North Sea) was an extreme weather event which affected northern Europe, yielding a record of wind power generation. The most striking aspects of this atmospheric phenomenon were the gale-force winds and the upcoming abrupt increase of the wind power over the North

  14. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  15. Evolution and management of the North American grassland herpetofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman J. Scott

    1996-01-01

    The modern North American grassland herpetofauna has evolved in situ since the Miocene. Pleistocene glaciation had a minimal effect except in the far North, with only minor displacements of some species. South of the glaciers, winters were warmer and summers cooler than at present. Snakelike reptiles, leaping frogs, and turtle "tanks" are favored adaptive...

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of North Atlantic tropical cyclones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    month of genesis and their lifecycles and to study the role of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) in North Atlantic cyclogenesis. Between 1980 and 2004, 269 tropical cyclones (TCs) were formed over the North Atlantic, 77% of which occurred during the August-October period and 95% of major hurricanes (TCs in which the ...

  17. Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria | Otoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:To document the pattern of primary head and neck cancers in North Eastern Nigeria. Study DesignA record-based study of primary head and neck cancers histologically diagnosed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria between 1987 and 2002. Results: A ...

  18. Investigators share improved understanding of the North American carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Robert Cook; Scott Denning; Peter Griffith; Beverly Law; Jeffrey Masek; Anna Michalak; Stephen Ogle; Dennis Ojima; Yude Pan; Christopher Sabine; Edwin Sheffner; Eric Sundquist

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North American and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientifi c disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for...

  19. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  20. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  1. Demonstrating the Collective Economic Value of North Carolina Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the collective impact of North Carolina Community Colleges on the state economy and the benefits generated by the colleges for students, society, and taxpayers. The results of this study show that North Carolina Community Colleges create a positive net impact on the state economy and generate a positive…

  2. Policy and management responses to earthworm invasions in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Grizelle Gonzalez; Cynthia M Hale; Liam Henegham; Sharon L. Lachnicht; Xiaoming Zou

    2006-01-01

    The introduction, establishment and spread of non-native earthworm species in North America have been ongoing for centuries. These introductions have occurred across the continent and in some ecosystems have resulted in considerable modifications to ecosystem processes and functions associated with above- and belowground foodwebs. However, many areas of North America...

  3. Hardwood structual flakeboard- Development of the industry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch; Norman C. Springate

    1983-01-01

    After a faltering beginning in 1958, vigorus growth in the 1970s, and extraordinary expansion in 1980, 1981, and 1982, the structuml flakeboard industry in North America is competing strongly with the soft plywood industry in midwestern, eastern, and southern structural panel markets. In early 1982, existing and planned annual capacities in North America totaled about...

  4. Coral microatoll as geodetic tool in North Andaman and Little ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coral microatolls were examined from North Andaman and Little Andaman to understand the relative sea level change due to vertical tectonic deformation above the subduction interface.The highest level of survival of coral microatoll before the 26 December,2004 earthquake at eastern coast of North Andaman has been ...

  5. 76 FR 53149 - North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service North American Waterfowl Management Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the draft North American Waterfowl Management Plan Revision... Plan Revision, which was developed in close consultation with the waterfowl management community...

  6. Trends in Infant Mortality, North Carolina: 1940 to 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Yevonne S.; Clifford, William B.

    This report presents data analyzed by county and multicounty planning region which indicate that North Carolina's infant mortality rate has declined by 59 percent since 1940. (In 1940, approximately 58 infants for every 1,000 live births died in North Carolina before their first birthday.) This reduction in infant deaths is comparable to that…

  7. Preparing for Upheaval in North Korea: Assuming North Korean Regime Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Operations, DDR in Peace Operations, 4. 7 longer-term process of reintegration. Reinsertion can include provision of food, clothes , shelter, medical...those who are seen as both academically smart and, most of all, politically reliable are chosen by the state and allowed to pursue a college...to say that insurgency is expected from whole military units. Rather, a contested leadership crisis could lead to the defection of certain North

  8. North Atlantic storm driving of extreme wave heights in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. J.; Gray, S. L.; Jones, O. P.

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between storms and extreme ocean waves in the North Sea is assessed using a long-period wave data set and storms identified in the Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). An ensemble sensitivity analysis is used to provide information on the spatial and temporal forcing from mean sea-level pressure and surface wind associated with extreme ocean wave height responses. Extreme ocean waves in the central North Sea arise due to intense extratropical cyclone winds from either the cold conveyor belt (northerly-wind events) or the warm conveyor belt (southerly-wind events). The largest wave heights are associated with northerly-wind events which tend to have stronger wind speeds and occur as the cold conveyor belt wraps rearward round the cyclone to the cold side of the warm front. The northerly-wind events provide a larger fetch to the central North Sea to aid wave growth. Southerly-wind events are associated with the warm conveyor belts of intense extratropical cyclones that develop in the left upper tropospheric jet exit region. Ensemble sensitivity analysis can provide early warning of extreme wave events by demonstrating a relationship between wave height and high pressure to the west of the British Isles for northerly-wind events 48 h prior. Southerly-wind extreme events demonstrate sensitivity to low pressure to the west of the British Isles 36 h prior.

  9. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  10. Satellite Data, Women Defectors and Black Markets in North Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Maximilian; Jurowetzki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This paper investigates the origins of the high numbers of female North Korean defectors arriving in South Korea in the first decade of the 21st century. Design / Methodology/ Approach - This paper uses night-time lights satellite imagery to measure the luminosity emitted by North Koreans...... markets, which serves as a proxy for market activity, and investigates the correlation of this market activity with the number of female North Korean defectors arriving in South Korea. The hypothesis is that increased market activity, including cross border trade with China, will result in more North...... Koreans crossing the border into China, and eventually more North Koreans reaching South Korea. Findings - The findings of this paper are that there is a statistical significant correlation of the number of women that arrive in South Korea and the night-time lights emitted by a black market in Sinuiju...

  11. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  12. Marine debris collects within the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, William G; Churnside, James H; Veenstra, Timothy S; Foley, David G; Friedman, Karen S; Brainard, Russell E; Nicoll, Jeremy B; Zheng, Quanan; Clemente-Colón, Pablo

    2007-08-01

    Floating marine debris, particularly derelict fishing gear, is a hazard to fish, marine mammals, turtles, sea birds, coral reefs, and even human activities. To ameliorate the economic and environmental impact of marine debris, we need to efficiently locate and retrieve dangerous debris at sea. Guided by satellite-derived information, we made four flights north of Hawaii in March and April 2005. During these aerial surveys, we observed over 1800 individual pieces of debris, including 122 derelict fishing nets. The largest debris concentrations were found just north of the North Pacific Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front (TZCF) within the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ). Debris densities were significantly correlated with sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla), and the gradient of Chla. A Debris Estimated Likelihood Index (DELI) was developed to predict where high concentrations of debris would be most likely in the North Pacific during spring and early summer.

  13. Food security experiences of displaced North Korean households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, So-Young

    2014-04-01

    Food shortage situation in North Korea has gained much interest, however food insecurity caused by the food shortage in North Korean households has not been much investigated. This study examined food security experiences and food consumption pattern of displaced North Korean households currently living in South Korea. Food security experience among 51 North Korean households living in South Korea was examined using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) in three time points: immediately before childbirth, immediately before leaving North Korea, and immediately before entering South Korea. Meal/snack consumption frequencies and food diversity were also examined. Food security situation was the worst at the time of immediately before leaving North Korea with the average HFIAS score of 10.05. The households that were food insecure, they tended to be "severely" insecure. Although majority of the subjects reported having three or more meals a day, food diversity in their diet was very low with the average food diversity score of 2.17 immediately before childbirth and 1.74 immediately before leaving North Korea. Their diet appeared to heavily rely on grain and vegetable. This study is one of few that specifically examined food security of North Korean households with a pre-developed scale, and that demonstrated food security situation at different time points in quantified terms. Replicating this study with different groups of North Korean households for different time points would allow more complete understanding of impacts of food shortage. Food diversity score could provide a good way to examine changes of food consumption occurring to North Koreans in the process of adaptation. More attention to the changes occurring during adaption to South Korea should be given to understand the process and impact and to prepare public nutrition policy for the re-unified Korea.

  14. Man in the North Technical Paper. Education in the Canadian North, Report One: Community-Guided Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Doug; And Others

    The specific objective of this applied research project was to evaluate practical formulas for community-guided education in 5 native communities in the Canadian North. The projects, launched at the Man in the North Inuvik Conference (1970), involved the adults of these communities in the educational process as special education committees and…

  15. 78 FR 13139 - Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Designation of the Korean Committee for Space Technology... the Attorney General, has determined that the Korean Committee for Space Technology, as well as two...

  16. GROWTH AND FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ULTRAPLANKTON ON A NORTH SOUTH TRANSECT IN THE EASTERN NORTH-ATLANTIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELDHUIS, MJW; KRAAY, GW; GIESKES, WWC

    1993-01-01

    In the summer of 1989 vertical profiles of chlorophyll a were taken in the North Atlantic. Stations were located along a transect following longitude 20-degrees-W, between 60 and 33-degrees-N. Maximum chlorophyll a levels were located near the surface in the north (2 mugl-1) but became gradually

  17. Surface Wind Observational Database in North Eastern North America: Quality Control Procedure and Climatological Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Hidalgo, Ángela; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. It also presents some insights of the long-term climatological variability over the region. The database consists of 527 sites (487 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions. The records span from 1940 to 2010 and cover an approximate spatial extension of 2.2 × 106 km2. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. Due to the size of the data set, a great effort has been made on the automation of the procedures. A number of problems are associated with data management and data conventions: unification of measurement units and recording times due to the variety of institutional sources; detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; and detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. From the other hand there is a variety of treated instrumental errors: problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; high variability related erroneous records; wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Around 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected. The already quality controlled database allows for subsequent climatological analyses. The intra and inter decadal variability of the monthly surface wind field in such a vast and orographically complex region as the North Eastern North America is explored. Several decades of quality

  18. An Intracratonic Record of North American Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Thomas Rudolph

    Investigating how continents change throughout geologic time provides insight into the underlying plate tectonic process that shapes our world. Researchers aiming to understand plate tectonics typically investigate records exposed at plate margins, as these areas contain direct structural and stratigraphic information relating to tectonic plate interaction. However, these margins are also susceptible to destruction, as orogenic processes tend to punctuate records of plate tectonics. In contrast, intracratonic basins are long-lived depressions located inside cratons, shielded from the destructive forces associated with the plate tectonic process. The ability of cratonic basins to preserve sedimentological records for extended periods of geologic time makes them candidates for recording long term changes in continents driven by tectonics and eustacy. This research utilizes an intracratonic basin to better understand how the North American continent has changed throughout Phanerozoic time. This research resolves geochronologic, thermochronologic, and sedimentologic changes throughout Phanerozoic time (>500 Ma) within the intracratonic Illinois Basin detrital record. Core and outcrop sampling provide the bulk of material upon which detrital zircon geochronologic, detrital apatite thermochronologic, and thin section petrographic analyses were performed. Geochronologic evidence presented in Chapters 2 and 3 reveal the Precambrian - Cretaceous strata of the intracratonic Illinois Basin yield three detrital zircon U-Pb age assemblages. Lower Paleozoic strata yield ages corresponding to predominantly cratonic sources (Archean - Mesoproterozoic). In contrast, Middle - Upper Paleozoic strata have a dominant Appalachian orogen (Neoproterozoic - Paleozoic) signal. Cretaceous strata yield similar ages to underlying Upper Paleozoic strata. We conclude that changes in the provenance of Illinois Basin strata result from eustatic events and tectonic forcings. This evidence

  19. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  20. Wildlife values of North American ricelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, J.M.; Elphick, C.S.; Reinecke, K.J.; Miller, M.R.; Manley, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    Ricelands have become an indispensable component of waterbird habitat and a leading example of integrating agricultural and natural resource management in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Gulf Coast, and Central California. Residual rice, weed seeds, and invertebrates provide food for many avian species during fall and winter. In North America, considerable information exists on the use of ricefields by wintering waterbirds, the value of ricelands as breeding habitat for birds, and the effects of organic chemicals on birds that- feed in ricefields. Recent research has also examined the influence of field management practices, such as winter flooding and post-harvest straw manipulation, on the suitability of ricefields for wildlife. Whereas early studies focused on detrimental effects of wildlife on rice production (e.g., crop depredation), it has become apparent that waterbirds may benefit producers by enhancing straw decomposition, reducing weed and pest pressure, and providing additional income through hunting and wildlife viewing opportunities. A comprehensive evaluation of agronomic and environmental issues is needed to meet the challenges of producing food and sustaining wildlife in twenty-first-century rice lands. Changes in agricultural markets, pressures of increased urban development, conflicting needs for limited resources such as water, endangered species constraints, and concerns over water quality must be addressed in developing a sustainable, mutually beneficial partnership among the rice industry, wildlife, and environmental interests. Research is also needed to evaluate potential reductions in the wildlife carrying capacity of ricelands resulting from new harvest and field management techniques, crop conversion, or loss of rice acreage. Key uncertainties include: (1) changes in waste grain abundance and availability due to various harvest and post-harvest management practices; (2) evaluating food depletion by birds feeding in rice6elds and

  1. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  2. Unification strategy for North and South Korea the most prudent U.S. policy option to solve the North Korean nuclear crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyon K. David

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The North Korean nuclear issue reached a dangerous impasse in the recent months as North Korea continues to resist international pressure to halt its nuclear weapons and missile programs. North Korea watchers and nuclear experts estimate that North Korea could have up to six or seven plutonium-based nuclear bombs by now. Indeed, North Korea announced to the world in October 2003 that they now have the capability of "nuclear deterrence....

  3. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  5. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  6. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  7. North American approach to smoke management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klote, J H

    1999-03-01

    The term smoke is used to mean the airborne products of combustion and air that is mixed with those products. A smoke control system is used to mean a system intended to manage smoke by pressurisation, and smoke management system is a broader term that includes systems that use any combination of compartmentation, dilution, air flow, pressurization or buoyancy. Smoke control systems include zoned smoke control, pressurized stairwells, and elevator smoke control. Over the past few decades there have been a number of full scale fire tests that demonstrate that pressure differences can prevent smoke migration from the low pressure side to the high pressure side of a barrier. While there are equations that can be used for smoke control design, network computer models can account for the effects of complex building leakage paths. For simplicity the term atrium was used in this paper in a generic sense to mean almost any large space (such as arcades, sports arenas, and exhibition halls). In North America most atria rely on sprinkler protection for spaces connected to the atrium and fan powered exhaust at or near the top of the atrium. Because the ability of sprinklers to suppress fires in spaces with ceilings higher than about 11m is limited, smoke exhaust is especially important for fires that start in the atrium. Equations and computer zone models can be used for the design of atrium exhaust systems. When these approaches are inappropriate, CFD modelling or physical modelling can be used.

  8. Dynamics of North American breeding bird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitt, Timothy H.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-05-01

    Population biologists have long been interested in the variability of natural populations. One approach to dealing with ecological complexity is to reduce the system to one or a few species, for which meaningful equations can be solved. Here we explore an alternative approach, by studying the statistical properties of a data set containing over 600 species, namely the North American breeding bird survey. The survey has recorded annual species abundances over a 31-year period along more than 3,000 observation routes. We now analyse the dynamics of population variability using this data set, and find scaling features in common with inanimate systems composed of strongly interacting subunits. Specifically, we find that the distribution of changes in population abundance over a one-year interval is remarkably symmetrical, with long tails extending over six orders of magnitude. The variance of the population over a time series increases as a power-law with increasing time lag, indicating long-range correlation in population size fluctuations. We also find that the distribution of species lifetimes (the time between colonization and local extinction) within local patches is a power-law with an exponential cutoff imposed by the finite length of the time series. Our results provide a quantitative basis for modelling the dynamics of large species assemblages.

  9. The Polaris Project / NorthStar implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, L. A.; Bennett, D. H.; Engelhaupt, T.

    2001-12-01

    The advent of the World Wide Web opens new opportunities for education; it also changes the environment within which we teach. As Marshall McLuhan said many years ago: "The medium is the message". What kind of medium is the Web, and how is it best harnessed for use in astronomy education? We are developing a sequence of one-credit web-based courses covering basic astronomical topics as a means of exploring what the web can and cannot do. Our first course, NorthStar, deals with coordinates, sky motions, and navigation by the stars. It has been through "beta testing" and is being offered as an experimental course for spring. Our second course, EveningStar, is under development. The course materials are open and may be used as a supplement to any course, or for independent study; the homework, discussion group, and other human-intervention features require a student to register for the course. We invite people to make use of our open materials and, in exchange, to provide us with feedback about how well it works. We acknowledge support for this project from NASA (NAG 58465) and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University.

  10. Circum-North Pacific tectonostratigraphic terrane map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Baranov, Boris B.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W.; Plafker, George; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.; Wakita, Koji

    1994-01-01

    The companion tectonostratigraphic terrane and overlap assemblage of map the Circum-North Pacific presents a modern description of the major geologic and tectonic units of the region. The map illustrates both the onshore terranes and overlap volcanic assemblages of the region, and the major offshore geologic features. The map is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists of the Russian Far East, Japanese, Alaskan, Canadian, and U.S.A. Pacific Northwest. The map is designed to be a source of geologic information for all scientists interested in the region, and is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analyses (Nokleberg and others, 1993, 1994a), petroleum analyses, neotectonic analyses, and analyses of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. This text contains an introduction, tectonic definitions, acknowledgments, descriptions of postaccretion stratified rock units, descriptions and stratigraphic columns for tectonostratigraphic terranes in onshore areas, and references for the companion map (Sheets 1 to 5). This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in the Russian Far East, Hokkaido Island of Japan, Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, and the U.S.A. Pacific Northwest in the last few decades. Geologic mapping suggests that most of this region can be interpreted as a collage of fault-bounded tectonostratigraphic terranes that were accreted onto continental margins around the Circum-

  11. Ecology and community health in the north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, P G; Yakovleva, N P; Zakharova, F A

    2001-04-01

    Health of a nation is a sensitive barometer of the environmental situation, especially in the North, where vulnerable nature cannot resist intensive industrial development. The geographical location and severe climatic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) significantly sharpen any negative impact of industrial activity on the state of the environment. The impact of ecological factors on the health of population has been studied in the case of a diamond province (Vilyuy region), where a complex of chemical pollutants from diamond mining, products of wood decay in places of flooding of the water reservoir for the Vilyuisk power station, highly mineralised underground waters and consequences of underground explosions have caused a substantial negative effect on the environment and people. Studies on the health of the population in the Vilyuy region has shown that sickness and morbidity rates of viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, pathologies during pregnancy and other diseases are higher in comparison to rates in the Republic as a whole, a feature which has been attributed to environmental degradation in the area.

  12. Childhood urolithiasis in North-Western Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ben Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews causes of urolithiasis and its manifestations in North-West (NW Libya. Libyan childhood urolithiasis accounted for 3.6% of nephrology out-patient work load. There were 59 children with urolithiasis, including 34 boys and 25 girls with a mean age of 2.8 ± 2.42 years. Urolithiasis was more common among younger age groups (P = 0.001 and in boys with primary oxaluria and infective etiology. The causes of urolithiasis included metabolic stones in 64%, infective in 26%, and it was idiopathic in 10%. Overall, family history of renal stone disease was elicited in 59%; it was 92% in patients with primary oxaluria. The main presenting features were abdominal pain (27%, gross hematuria (22%, associated urinary tract infection (UTI; 24%, and stone release in 19%. Stone location was bilateral in 64%, multiple in 68%, and in the upper tract in 93% (P = 0.05. Important complications encountered included chronic renal failure (13%, hydronephrosis (34%, systemic hypertension (8%, and rickets in 17%. Calcium oxalate was the most prominent constituent, seen in 41% of the calculi, followed by struvite (21%, uric acid (10%, carbapatite (7%, and cystine (3.5%. Diagnostically helpful findings were family history, age at presentation, UTI by urease producing organisms, rickets, imaging and chemical analysis of calculi. Early detection and prompt treatment helps in preventing long-term sequelae in patients with urolithiasis.

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. © K. Aoun & A. Bouratbine, published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  14. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  15. Coexistence, North American style: regulation and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Globally, biotech crops have left a legacy of success and some notable failures due to regulatory and litigious barriers to entry, with a pipeline of potentially beneficial biotech agricultural products lined up and awaiting approval. Compared with traditional agriculture, these crops provide significant health benefits to environmental and human health benefits, including organic systems. While the rest of the world has increased acreage of biotech crops at a steady annual rate of 10%, North America-the birthplace of most biotech crops-has reached a critical turning point in its regulatory evolution. Biotech crops can play a major role in creating a more sustainable agricultural landscape, which is increasingly well-documented, but future commercial use may be hampered by regulation and litigation that place organic and non-GMO agriculture on a pedestal, which could force many biotech crops into containment. If producers of biotech crops are required to prevent their crops from contaminating these other, high premium specialty crops through migration, innovation in agricultural biotechnology will suffer (as the European experience with agricultural biotechnology clearly demonstrates).

  16. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  17. Density dependence in North American ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson, L. E.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence or otherwise of density dependence within a population can have important implications for the management of that population. Here, we use estimates of abundance obtained from annual aerial counts on the major breeding grounds of a variety of North American duck species and use a state space model to separate the observation and ecological system processes. This state space approach allows us to impose a density dependence structure upon the true underlying population rather than on the estimates and we demonstrate the improved robustness of this procedure for detecting density dependence in the population. We adopt a Bayesian approach to model fitting, using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods and use a reversible jump MCMC scheme to calculate posterior model probabilities which assign probabilities to the presence of density dependence within the population, for example. We show how these probabilities can be used either to discriminate between models or to provide model-averaged predictions which fully account for both parameter and model uncertainty.

  18. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. The North Celestial Pole Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M.; Phillips, J.

    2005-05-01

    In the past ten years a renaissance has occurred in the study of transient phenomena using small, dedicated optical telescopes. This has largely been driven by the successful detection of planetary transits with small telescopes (Henry et al. 2000) and the successful recovery of optical afterglows of gamma ray bursts (e.g. Halpern et al. 1997). The telescopes involved are designed to slew at rapid rates accurately across the sky when a burst alert occurs, or to study a single patch of sky to detect transits. We have constructed a dedicated robotic instrument to monitor the region within 4 degrees of the north celestial pole continuously every clear night. Using a sequence of short and long exposures the telescope collects data to conduct searches for transient and variable objects and monitor the Cepheid variable Polaris. Previous authors (Kamper et al. 1984; Evans et al. 1998) have observed Polaris to nearly cease its pulsation, a unique behavior for a Cepheid variable. Monitoring Polaris with high secular coverage should help explain this behavior. We describe here the design of the observatory, its operation and control systems and give preliminary examples of the data products from this unique project.

  20. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  1. Development of Countermeasures against North Korean Cyberterrorism through Research Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong Joon Lee; ; Hyuk Jin Kwon; Jae Il Lee; Dong Kyoo Shin

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to propose countermeasures against increasingly sophisticated North Korean cyberterrorism through analysis of the cyber attack carried out by North Korea on March 20, 2013, which...

  2. North Korea and Support to Terrorism: An Evolving History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DPRK's (Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea support for terrorism began as an ideologically-based policy financed by the Soviet Union that eventually led to a policy designed to put money into the coffers of the elite in Pyongyang—in short, a "proliferation for hire" policy. This article articulates a brief history of the North Korean regime, the rise to power of Kim Il-sung and his son, Kim Jong-il, and North Korea's persistent support to terrorist groups around the globe.

  3. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Ki, Moran; Sung, Nackmoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes.

  4. Height and weight differences between North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates height and weight differences between the two Koreas by comparing national anthropometric data published by the South Korean Research Institute of Standard and Science with United Nations survey data collected inside North Korea in 2002. For socioeconomic reasons, pre-school children raised in the developing country of North Korea are up to 13 cm shorter and up to 7 kg lighter than children who were brought up in South Korea--an OECD member. North Korean women were also found to weigh up to 9 kg less than their Southern counterparts.

  5. Socially Engaged Buddhist Nuns: Activism in Taiwan and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Lekshe Tsomo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the twentieth century have been a time of new visibility and social activism for Buddhists in Taiwan and around the world. This paper compares the social engagement of nuns in the Chinese Buddhist tradition in Taiwan and North America. I would like to argue that whereas nuns in Taiwan have developed a variety of approaches to social involvement, their counterparts in the Chinese diaspora in North America have had to face a set of challenges specific to overseas Chinese communities in addition to Chinese Buddhist tradition. The article concludes with reflections on the prospects for nuns' social activism in Taiwan and North America in future years.

  6. North-South financial integration and business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Kouparitsas

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the business cycle implications of increased North-South trade in financial assets. We build a quantitative general equilibrium model of North-South trade and compare the model's predictions under two asset market assumptions: a restricted setting in which asset trade is limited to a non-contingent one-period bond market; and a highly integrated setting in which agents have access to a complete contingent-claims market. Simulations of the North-South model suggest that inc...

  7. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  8. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  9. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  10. The North American yoga therapy workforce survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Marlysa; Leach, Matthew; Snow, James; Moonaz, Steffany

    2017-04-01

    To describe the personal, professional, practice, service and consumer characteristics of the North American yoga therapy workforce. Cross-sectional, descriptive survey developed and informed by the contemporary workforce literature. A link to the e-survey was distributed to members of the International Association of Yoga Therapists. 367 members responded (∼20% of eligible participants). Most were aged 40-69 years (88%) and female (91%). Almost half (42%) identified as a "seasoned yoga therapist" and few (9%) graduated from an accredited 800-h yoga therapy program. An average of 8h/week was spent in clinical practice with many (41%) earning an annual income of yoga therapy. Practice was informed by twenty different styles of yoga. Urban (39%) and suburban (38.1%) regions were the most common locations of practice. Most therapists conducted therapeutic yoga classes (91%) and 1:1 sessions (94%), with more than half delivering 1-10 therapeutic classes/month (53%) and 1-10 1:1 sessions/month (52%). Conditions seen most frequently were anxiety (77%), back/neck pain (77%) and joint pain/stiffness (67%). While yoga therapists shared demographic characteristics with other complementary and integrative health (CIH) providers, they tended to work less and earn less than their CIH counterparts. Yoga therapists were less likely to work in rural settings, possibly contributing to the underutilization of yoga in underserved populations. Improving access to yoga therapy services, identifying common core components across the various styles of yoga, and building a stronger evidence-base for key health indications may increase acceptance of, and demand for, yoga therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  12. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  13. Cardiovascular Health of North Carolina Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiao L; Ward, Rachel; Bolin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern North Carolina (ENC). In this study, we investigated cardiometabolic risk in young adults of ENC by sampling entrant undergraduates at East Carolina University (ECU). From June to October of 2010, 525 undergraduates were screened for elevated body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, inactivity, smoking, history of diabetes or hypertension, and family history of coronary disease. Participants were classified as high-risk if they had 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors or as "MetS" if they satisfied the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Forty-four percent of those screened had 2 or more risk factors, 12.5% had 3 or more risk factors, and 1.3% met criteria for MetS. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (27.6%), overweight status (27.2%), and inactivity (27.1%) were leading risks. Females had an increased risk of inactivity compared to males (relative risk [RR] = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.3-2.52). Blacks had a 4-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (RR = 4.21; 95% Cl, 1.0-18.4), and black females had a high risk for obesity (RR = 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-13) and systolic blood pressure elevation (RR = 4.8; 95% Cl, 1.5-15). Students recognized cardiovascular disease as a valid risk to their well-being. ECU undergraduates have a high prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors. High-risk and MetS students recognize cardiovascular disease as a significant health risk, but they mistakenly maintain the self-perception that they are healthy. Efforts to understand risk perception and personal strategies of risk application are needed for this population of young adults.

  14. Report on ICDP workshop CONOSC (COring the NOrth Sea Cenozoic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhoff, Wim; Donders, T.H.; Luthi, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    ICDP workshop COring the NOrth Sea Cenozoic focused on the scientific objectives and the technical aspects of drilling and sampling. Some 55 participants attended the meeting, ranging from climate scientists, drilling engineers, and geophysicists to stratigraphers and public outreach experts.

  15. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  16. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  17. [1981 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 5-9, 1981 across North Dakota.

  18. Environmental Assessment : Hunting Plan : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of opening the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge to limited hunting on previously...

  19. Dealing with North Korea: Maintenance of Diplomacy and Military Credibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    North Korea presents a unique problem for America in a number of ways. The regime is extremely hostile to the Untied States and has ignored the obligations signed onto in a number of international treaties...

  20. Studies on evaporation from the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Lakshmana G.R.; VeenaDevi, Y.; Reddy, Gopala K.; Prasad, A.L.N.

    Evaporation from the surface of the North Indian Ocean is estimated following the aerodynamic approach The influence of the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon is significant giving rise to maximum evaporation from the sea surface due...

  1. Misguided U.S. Food Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bubia, Donald

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the United Nations' World Food Program published an urgent plea for nations to donate food and medicines to relieve a complex food emergency in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea...

  2. Grayscale North America Shaded Relief ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale North America shaded relief data were derived from the GTOPO30 elevation data. GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid...

  3. One of the Helium Liquifiers in the North Area

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Several Helium Liquifiers were installed in the North Area to cool superconducting magnets used in the experiments. At center top is M.Dykes, at bottom right J.Dozio. See CERN Annual Report 1979 p.82.

  4. Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  5. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  6. Norwegian North Polar Expedition 1893-1896: Oceanographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains water depth, temperature, specific gravity, salinity, and density measurements from the North Polar Basin and the Barents Sea, gathered by...

  7. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  8. Stock status update of Browns Bank North Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, David; Broome, Jeremy; Reeves, Alan; Drew, Tricia Pearo; Themelis, Daphne; Stone, Heath; Bennett, Lottie; Docherty, Verna

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this report is to update the status of Browns Bank North Scallop with data from the 2016 Scallop survey and fishery to provide science advice for the management of the 2017 fishery...

  9. On North Pacific circulation and associated marine debris concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Evan A; Bograd, Steven J; Morishige, Carey; Seki, Michael P; Polovina, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris in the oceanic realm is an ecological concern, and many forms of marine debris negatively affect marine life. Previous observations and modeling results suggest that marine debris occurs in greater concentrations within specific regions in the North Pacific Ocean, such as the Subtropical Convergence Zone and eastern and western "Garbage Patches". Here we review the major circulation patterns and oceanographic convergence zones in the North Pacific, and discuss logical mechanisms for regional marine debris concentration, transport, and retention. We also present examples of meso- and large-scale spatial variability in the North Pacific, and discuss their relationship to marine debris concentration. These include mesoscale features such as eddy fields in the Subtropical Frontal Zone and the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre, and interannual to decadal climate events such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Passive Acoustic Studies of North Atlantic Right Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Passive acoustic monitoring buoys have been deployed in shallow waters between North Carolina and Northern Florida since 2003. These units are bottom mounted...

  11. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  12. Chemical oceanography of the Indian Ocean, North of the equator

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Chemical oceanographic studies in the North Indian Ocean have revealed several interesting and unique features. Dissolved oxygen northern boundary, prevents quick renewal of subsurface reducing conditions prevail at intermediate depths (ca. 150...

  13. Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria: prevalence and ... fasting blood sugar, lipid profiles, insulin resistance and blood pressure was ... Most of the women had low HDL (62.2%) and central obesity elevated (49.8%).

  14. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  15. North Mississippi National Wildlife Refuges Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Mississippi NWRs Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  16. Peat Resources Of North Carolina A Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project is part of DOE Caroliina’s inventory of the peat resources of the United States. With support from DOE and the North Carolina Energy Institute we are...

  17. 75 FR 23244 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Hotel Captain Cook, 939 W 5th Avenue, Anchorage, AK 99501. Council address: North Pacific Fishery... budget and other budget issues, 2010 National SSC workshop, National Standard 2 Guidelines; Council/ NMFS...

  18. Boundaries - 1997 Red River of the North Flood

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital outline of the 1997 flood event. 1997 flooded outline extends from Emerson, Manitoba to Wahpeton, North Dakota. Delineations exist for the entire main stem...

  19. South Korea-North Korea Relations: From Snakes to Ladders?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aidan Foster-Carter

    2015-01-01

    .... While angrily dismissing as always charges of human rights violations, ever since the plan for this office was announced last year North Korea had relentlessly denounced it as "a heinous anti-DPRK...

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Daily Pacific North American Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific-North American pattern (PNA) is one of the leading teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as a Rotated...

  1. 77 FR 52315 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management... recommendations on deployment plan; Electronic monitoring; Update on national white papers on electronic...

  2. Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  3. North Dakota Wildlife Management Area [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at North Dakota Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  4. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Daily North Arctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the leading teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as a Rotated Principal...

  5. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Skip to Navigation NASPGHAN Annual Meeting and Postgraduate ... transition well. Moreover, Doc4me provides information about medications, nutrition and living with IBD. Please help us promote ...

  6. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  7. Morehead City, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Morehead City, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  8. North Slope, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the North...

  9. North Dakota wheat transportation knowledge for market enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    North Dakota wheat producers are located long distances from major consumer and export markets. Understanding the competitive position of their products is important to focusing efforts for market development and transportation investments. Research ...

  10. The Christmas tree industry in western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Sidebottom

    2009-01-01

    Christmas tree production has grown in the last 50 years to one of the major farming enterprises in western North Carolina. The history, importance, and challenges to the Christmas tree industry are reviewed.

  11. [1980 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 2-8, 1980 across North Dakota.

  12. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    , time and amplitude (where possible) of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic (65-0 Ma). Our compilation is based on published results from reflection seismic studies, AFT (apatite fission track) studies, VR (vitrinite reflectance) trends, maximum burial, sediment supply...... studies, mass balance calculations and extrapolation of seismic profiles to onshore geomorphological features. The integration of about 200 published results reveal a clear pattern of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic: (1) The first major phase of Cenozoic regional...... uplift occurred in the late Palaeocene-early Eocene (ca 60-50 Ma), probably related to the break-up of the North Atlantic between Europe and Greenland, as indicated by the northward propagation of uplift. It was preceded by middle Palaeocene uplift and over-deepening of some basins of the North Sea...

  13. Gillnet selectivity for North Sea Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgård, Holger; Lassen, H.; Madsen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Gillnet selectivity curves for North Sea Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fitted to catch data obtained with six different mesh sizes. The selectivity curves investigated included frequently used selectivity models following the normal, lognormal, and gamma distributions. Another group...

  14. Classification of Forest Fragmentation in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of North America including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The map layer is an excerpt from a global assessment of forest...

  15. US-Korea Relations: North Korea's Rocket Launch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor Cha

    2012-01-01

    .... [...]according to the late Christopher Joyner, an expert on law and space, North Korea has not participated actively in international conferences and organizations like the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses...

  16. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  17. North Atlantic Right Whale Sighting Advisory System (NARWSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1995, PSB has been conducting line-transect aerial abundance surveys over waters ranging from North Carolina to the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Nova Scotia,...

  18. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  19. North American Land Cover Characteristics ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an Arc/INFO grid map of land cover characteristics for North America, excluding Hawaii, and including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The nominal...

  20. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  1. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; DeSousa, S.N.

    laboratory that can unravel the mechanisms controlling these gases with implications for the global aquatic bodies. The anthropogenically impinged global budgets for these gases, largely collected under the Global Change Programme from the North Indian Ocean...

  2. Foreign Assistance: North Korea Restricts Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Specifically, the North Korean government, which controls food distribution, has denied the World Food Program full access to the food distribution chain and has not provided required reports on food use...

  3. Coverage of Unification Issue in North and South Korean Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won H.

    1981-01-01

    Concludes that while the North Korean press gives more space to stories concerning the unification of the two Koreas than does the South, it is also more hostile and less varied in its coverage of the issue. (FL)

  4. North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District: PSD Delegation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreements for Partial Delegation of the Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Program Set Forth in 40 CPR 52.21 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 to the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District.

  5. North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to construct quality-controlled, and spatially and temporally consistent, land-surface model...

  6. Sport hunting decision document package : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes limited hunting opportunities at North Platte NWR. Hunting activities will be permitted, but administratively limited to...

  7. Evaluation of North Water spring ice cover from satellite photographs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aber, P.G; Vowinckel, E

    1971-01-01

    Satellite photographs for two years (March-September) have been used to study ice cover in the polynya called "North Water", and to determine whether reliable ice maps can be made from satellite data without computer analysis...

  8. A synthesis of Cenozoic sedimentation in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Rasmussen, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The North Sea Basin contains an almost complete record of Cenozoic sedimentation, separated by clear regional unconformities. The changes in sediment characteristics, rate and source, and expression of the unconformities reflect the tectonic, eustatic and climatic changes that the North Sea and its...... changed from early Cenozoic influx from the southwestern margin, to almost exclusively from the southern margin in the Oligocene and from all of southern Norway in the latest Cenozoic. Thick Eocene deposits in the Central Graben are sourced mainly from a western and a likely southern source, indicating...... margins have undergone. While the North Sea has been mapped locally, we present the first regional mapping of the Cenozoic sedimentary strata. Our study provides a new regional sub-division of the main seismic units in the North Sea together with maps of depocentres, influx direction and source areas. Our...

  9. Role of Households in Rabbit Production in Enugu-North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. It determined rabbit management and breeding practices of respondents, roles of households in rabbit production and constraints associated with rabbit production in the area. Multistage sampling technique ...

  10. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  11. North Carolina School Performance Data 2016-2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — 2016-17 State, District, and School Level Drilldown Performance DataPercentages greater than 95 are displayed as >95 and percentages less than 5 are displayed as...

  12. North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A

    2007-01-01

    ... so. The Administration will ask the 110th Congress to fund a National Missile Defense (NMD) site in Europe, which some analysts argue is needed because of the threat of North Korean ballistic missiles to Europe...

  13. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael F; Nanto, Dick K

    2006-01-01

    .... Although Pyongyang denies complicity in any counterfeiting operation, at least $45 million in such supernotes of North Korean origin have been detected in circulation, and estimates are that the country earns from $15...

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of late HIV diagnosis in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and associated factors of late HIV diagnosis in north-western rural Tanzania: a cross sectional study. Daniel W. Gunda, Rashid A. Kaganda, Fatma A. Bakshi, Semvua B. Kilonzo, Bonaventura C. Mpondo ...

  15. Observing and modelling phytoplankton community structure in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, D.A.; van der Molen, J.; Hyder, K.; Bacon, J.; Barciela, R.; Creach, V.; McEwan, R.; Ruardij, P.; Forster, R.

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of the marine foodchain, and knowledge of phytoplankton community structureis fundamental when assessing marine biodiversity. Policymakers and other users require information on marinebiodiversity and other aspects of the marine environmentfor the North Sea, a highly

  16. Marine Turtles Surveys in Nosy Iranja Kely, North-Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtles from August 2000 to December 2004 at Nosy Iranja Kely (North West Madagascar), one of the two islands of the Iranja Archipelago. Monitoring of marine turtles on this island was ...

  17. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  18. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  19. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  20. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  1. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), for 1979 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Project is a reanalysis of historical observations using a 32-km version of the National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal prediction of winter haze days in the north central North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the winter (December–February haze pollution over the north central North China Plain (NCP has become severe. By treating the year-to-year increment as the predictand, two new statistical schemes were established using the multiple linear regression (MLR and the generalized additive model (GAM. By analyzing the associated increment of atmospheric circulation, seven leading predictors were selected to predict the upcoming winter haze days over the NCP (WHDNCP. After cross validation, the root mean square error and explained variance of the MLR (GAM prediction model was 3.39 (3.38 and 53 % (54 %, respectively. For the final predicted WHDNCP, both of these models could capture the interannual and interdecadal trends and the extremums successfully. Independent prediction tests for 2014 and 2015 also confirmed the good predictive skill of the new schemes. The predicted bias of the MLR (GAM prediction model in 2014 and 2015 was 0.09 (−0.07 and −3.33 (−1.01, respectively. Compared to the MLR model, the GAM model had a higher predictive skill in reproducing the rapid and continuous increase of WHDNCP after 2010.

  4. Unusual subpolar North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom in 2010: Volcanic fertilization or North Atlantic Oscillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.; Painter, Stuart C.; Penny Holliday, N.; Stinchcombe, Mark C.; Giering, Sarah L. C.

    2013-10-01

    In summer and autumn 2010, a highly anomalous phytoplankton bloom, with chlorophyll concentration more than double that of previous years, was observed in the Irminger Basin, southwest of Iceland. Two unusual events occurred during 2010 which had the potential to promote the unusual bloom. First, in spring 2010, the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland erupted, depositing large quantities of tephra into the subpolar North Atlantic. Second, during the winter of 2009/2010 the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) became extremely negative, developing into the second strongest negative NAO on record. Hydrographic conditions were highly anomalous in the region, with an influx of freshwater spreading through the basin, and unusual nutrient and mixed layer depth conditions. Here we use a combination of satellite, modeled and in situ data to investigate whether the input of iron from the volcanic eruption or change in hydrographic conditions due to the extreme negative NAO were responsible for the anomalous phytoplankton bloom. We conclude that changes in physical forcing driven by the NAO, and not the volcanic eruption, stimulated the unusual bloom.

  5. The concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eiras-Barca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive cyclogenesis of extratropical cyclones and the occurrence of atmospheric rivers are characteristic features of a baroclinic atmosphere, and are both closely related to extreme hydrometeorological events in the mid-latitudes, particularly on coastal areas on the western side of the continents. The potential role of atmospheric rivers in the explosive cyclone deepening has been previously analysed for selected case studies, but a general assessment from the climatological perspective is still missing. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis data for 1979–2011, we analyse the concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins for the extended winter months (ONDJFM. Atmospheric rivers are identified for almost 80 % of explosive deepening cyclones. For non-explosive cyclones, atmospheric rivers are found only in roughly 40 % of the cases. The analysis of the time evolution of the high values of water vapour flux associated with the atmospheric river during the cyclone development phase leads us to hypothesize that the identified relationship is the fingerprint of a mechanism that raises the odds of an explosive cyclogenesis occurrence and not merely a statistical relationship. These new insights on the relationship between explosive cyclones and atmospheric rivers may be helpful to a better understanding of the associated high-impact weather events.

  6. Enhanced warming of the subtropical mode water in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shusaku; Hanawa, Kimio; Watanabe, Tomowo; Suga, Toshio; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Over the past six decades, the subtropical surface ocean has warmed at rates close to those of global mean surface ocean temperature except in western boundary current regions where the surface warming is locally enhanced by a factor of two. Changes in the subsurface ocean, however, remain unclear because of lack of data. Compiling historical temperature measurements--some available for the first time--here we show that the subtropical mode water has warmed over the past six decades in both the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The rate of the warming is twice as large in the mode waters than at the surface. Subtropical mode waters are important water masses of vertically uniform temperature that are a few hundred metres thick and distributed widely in the main thermocline of the subtropical oceans. The enhanced warming of subtropical mode waters can be traced back to the surface warming in the formation regions along the western boundary current extensions. Furthermore, we detect increased temperature stratification and decreased dissolved oxygen in the subtropical mode waters. The latter change has clear implications for predicting biogeochemical responses to climate warming.

  7. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  8. Attempts to utilize and integrate traditional medicine in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungmook; Park, Jongbae; Han, Changyon

    2009-03-01

    To summarize the way North Korea attempted to modernize its system of traditional medicine and integrate it with Western biomedicine. We reviewed clinical textbooks and periodicals of traditional Korean medicine published in North Korea, research reports on North Korean health and medicine published elsewhere, and conducted interviews of defectors from North Korea who were students or clinicians of traditional medicine. Key findings of this study are: (1) North Korea has attempted several ways of integrating traditional medicine into education and clinical practices; (2) North Korea's communist government provided the main driving force for an integration policy; (3) school curricula of both Western and traditional Korean medicine incorporated knowledge of both disciplines, yet more weight was placed on traditional Korean medicine; (4) a combination of Western diagnosis and Korean therapeutics was the most frequent example of integration, while the dual system approach with reciprocal practice was also explored; (5) several forms of integrative therapeutic mixture were practiced including concurrent medication, injection on acupuncture points, and intramuscular or intravenous injection of extracts from medicinal plants; and (6) limited resources for research and the underdeveloped level of clinical research failed to secure rigorous scientific advancement. Despite the government-driven attempt to create an ideal integrative system of medicine, according to our findings, the actual introduction of an integrative system into practice was far from the North Korean government's anticipated outcome in regards to clinical practice. We hypothesize this was due to famine, economic crisis, and political isolation from the international realm. Traditional Korean medicine seems to have served the population, which is in desperate need of treatment amid difficulties in health, while North Korea's Western biomedicine-based health delivery system has been badly affected.

  9. Introduction to the Population Ecology of North American Caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bergerud has discussed how major differences in caribou density across North America appear to be related to the impact of wolf (Canis lupus predation, and the strategies used by caribou to avoid wolves. Caribou living in areas without wolves usually occur at high densities and are regulated by competition for food. In this session, we asked the presenters to discuss the population ecology of different caribou herds in North America and to evaluate if they fit the general model.

  10. Seeds of Doubt: North American farmers' experiences of GM crops

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick, Hugh; Meziani, Gundula

    2002-01-01

    The picture the biotechnology industry has painted of GM crops in North America is one of unqualified success, after six years of commercial growing. The objective of this report was to assess whether this image is accurate and if not what problems have occurred. We present interviews with North American farmers about their experiences of GM soya, maize and oilseed rape, and review of some of the independent research. The evidence we have gathered demonstrates that GM food crops are far f...

  11. SPIDERS (ARANEI OF NORTH CASPIAN COAST AND ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponomare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Araneofauna of Peri-Caspian is fragmentary studied. A literature contains faunistic data for the North-West Caspian and Volga River delta. Several faunistic records and new species were earlier described from the North Caspian. Spiders of Mangyshlak are insufficiently studied. The aim of this wark is summation of available data on araneofauna of coast and islands of North Peri-Caspian with more detailed analisys of spiders of North Caspian islands. Location. Russia: Astrakhan Region, Dagestan, Kalmykia; Kazakhstan: Atyrau and Mangystau Regions.Methods. Investigations include Caspian coastal zone with width about 20 km from Makhachkala (western coast to Tyub Kurgan (eastern coast and islands of the Caspian Sea: Nordovyi, Tyuleniy, Chechen, Kulaly. Pitfall traps and manual collection were used during 1975–1985 and 2009–2013.Results and main conclusions. Annotated check-list of 325 species of spiders from 31 families is made for North Caspian coast and islands. Species of the families Gnaphosidae (67 species, Salticidae (46 species и Lycosidae (37 species are dominated. Three hundred four species are known from coastal (width 20 km zone (from Makhachkala to Tyub Kurgan and 132 species were found on islands. North-Eastern Peri-Caspian coast contents 198 species, Volga River delta – 134 species, coast of North and North Eastern Caspian – 98 species. Number of species on Caspian islands: Nordovyi – 30, Tuleniy – 83, Chechen – 66, Kulaly – 43. Each island has its special araneofauna. There are significant differences in fauna composition of different parts of coastal zone.

  12. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    suffering from several major ailments since 2000, including heart, liver, and kidney problems , and possibly diabetes .38 South Korean and Japanese media...Development and Diplomacy Congressional Research Service 5 North Korea. They emphasized to Chinese, Malaysian , and Russian officials the need to restrict...2008. 24 “North Korea tells China 30.8 kg of plutonium extracted,” Agence France Presse, October 24, 2008. 25 Glenn Kessler, “U.S. increases

  13. Criminal Sovereignty: Understanding North Korea’s Illicit International Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    apparatus . The authors of this monograph focus on North Korea’s Office #39 as the state apparatus that directs illicit activities to include the...numerous other nations. Criminal sovereignty means that rather than the Weberian notion of the state maintaining the mon- opoly on the legitimate use of...officers of the armed forces); they support Kim Jong-il’s personal life style; and are invested in its military apparatus . North Korea is, as

  14. North Koreans in China in need of international protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cohen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of continuing persecution of North Koreans who are forcibly returned to their country of origin by China, the international community needs to reconsider how it might better work towards securing protection for North Koreans. Some may be political refugees, others ‘refugees sur place’: they may not have been refugees when they left their country but become refugees because they have a valid fear of persecution upon return.

  15. Notes on the Holocene marine fauna of eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Ole; Funder, Svend Visby; Hjorth, Christian

    1986-01-01

    A list of invertebrates, notably molluscs, from the raised Holocene marine sedimets in eastern North Greenland is given. The faunas have low diversity, and contain an element of Arctic sublittoral and bathyal species indicative of cold surface water.......A list of invertebrates, notably molluscs, from the raised Holocene marine sedimets in eastern North Greenland is given. The faunas have low diversity, and contain an element of Arctic sublittoral and bathyal species indicative of cold surface water....

  16. Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jacqueline Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This is the English version of Jacqueline D. Chang's June 2009 Masters Thesis, Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implication. A Hangul translation version may be found here: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43808 The North Korean refugee issue is a challenge to regional stability. In addition to humanitarian concerns, a mass flow of refugees would have enormous impact on operations of the Republic of Korea's military and the U.S. forces stationed in Korea and Japan. Reg...

  17. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North Ameri...

  18. Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the legal services revolution in the North West of England. Originally presented as a paper at a conference on Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape" hosted by Lancaster University's Centre for Law and Society on September 27, 2007. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Societ...

  19. Area Handbook Series: North Korea, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    North Korean written materials: an assumption that Korea is the center of the world, radiating outward the rays of chuch’e, especially to Third World...Changgun (General Kim II Sung: The Sun of Our Nation), 3. P’y6ngyang: Inmin Kwa- haksa, 1971. Bradbury , John. "Sino-Soviet Competition in North Korea...Korea: A Country Study Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1970. Suh, Dae-Sook. Kim I1 Sung. A Biography . Honolulu: University of

  20. Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    series of mixed layers separated by sharp interfaces. The discovery of these ‘ thermohaline staircases’ by Tait and Howe (1968) further stimulated...EVOLUTION OF THERMOHALINE STAIRCASES IN TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC by Steven Wall December 2007 Thesis Advisor: Timour Radko Second Reader...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic 6. AUTHOR(S

  1. North Atlantic circulation in a 1000 year climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joanne; Hughes, Christopher; Bingham, Rory

    2009-01-01

    The North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is important for ocean heat transport in the Atlantic, so it is widely monitored and modelled. Previous work based on a few decades of model simulations has shown that the overturning north of about 40N is quite different from that further south, and that changes in the circulation can be accuratelymonitored using pressuremeasurements at the western boundary, and reasonably well using tide gauge data. Here, we extend these analyses t...

  2. The Future of North Korean Nuclear Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    nuclear program, where basic designs and production infrastructure are already largely in place. Indeed, while Pyongyang’s current inventory of...sufficient in missile production , the level of foreign assistance could NORTH KOREA’S NUCLEAR FUTURES | 9 THE FUTURE OF NORTH KOREAN NUCLEAR... Diversification of different basing modes—the underlying principle of the US strategic triad of air, land and sea-based weapons—would complicate any

  3. The north gate of medieval Belgrade's suburb on the Sava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the recent archaeological investigation of the 14th-century north wall of medieval Belgrade's Suburb on the Sava. Based on the analysis of the discovered remains, it discusses the entrance tower with the gate and the adjacent portion of the curtain wall, offering a conjectural reconstruction of the original appearance of the north entrance to the Suburb and an analysis of its fortification system.

  4. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Recent Decadal Trend in the North Atlantic Wind Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the climatic trend of the North Atlantic wind energy using cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP wind data for the period 1988–2011. Results show the following. (1 The North Atlantic WPD exhibited a significant increasing trend of 4.45  (W/m2/yr over the past 24 years. (2 The variation in the North Atlantic Ocean WPD shows a noticeable regional difference. More than half of the North Atlantic Ocean has a significantly increasing trend in WPD. The increasing trend in the mid-high latitudes is stronger than that in the low latitudes, and the trend is stronger in the west than in the east. The area with the strongest increasing trend is located along the southern coast of Greenland of 35 (W/m2/yr. (3 There is a noticeable seasonal difference in the variation of WPD. The strongest increasing trend occurs in December-January-February (DJF, followed by September-October-November (SON and March-April-May (MAM, and the weakest occurs in June-July-August (JJA. The increasing trend in different areas is dominated by different seasons. (4 There is no leading or lagging correlation between WPD and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. However, there is a noticeable negative correlation between the Niño3 index and WPD in most of the North Atlantic.

  6. Why the spring North Pacific Oscillation is a predictor of typhoon activity over the Western North Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Huijun; Liu, Jiping; Li, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    ... ) during the period 1968–2010, with a correlation coefficient of 0.62 (above the 99% significance level). When the Northern Low and Southern High pattern over the north Pacific weakens, the TNWNP tends to increase...

  7. North East Race Equality Forum Information Briefing No. 4: The North East: A warm and friendly welcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This is a research briefing for the North East Race Equality Forum. It briefly details the hate crime findings of a project undertaken in collaboration with Rafał Smoczyński of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  8. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.

    2006-11-15

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU

  9. Burden of chronic kidney disease: North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Rashad S

    2013-05-01

    North Africa (NAF) is composed of six countries located in the African Sahara, namely the Western Sahara, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Common features between these countries include similar climate, ecology, population genetics, and the socioeconomic environment. This commonality reflects on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) profile in these countries. While there are some estimates on the epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease, that of earlier stages is unknown. Several national screening programs are currently addressing this issue, such as the EGIPT-CKD project in Egypt and the MAREMAR study in Morocco. Preliminary results from the former suggest a prevalence of proteinuria in 10.6% of the relatives of patients on regular dialysis treatment. Despite the lack of reliable registries, it was possible to gather information on the etiology of CKD by direct contact with leading nephrologists in those countries. It turns out that glomerulonephritis (GN) accounts for 9-20%, diabetes 11-18%, hypertensive nephrosclerosis 10-35%, chronic interstitial nephritis 7-17%, and polycystic disease 2-3%. Compared to two decades earlier, diabetes has become more common at the expense of GN, proliferative GN, and amyloidosis regressed in favor of IgA and membranous nephropathies in Tunisian adults. Conventional schistosomal nephropathies are regressing in favor of hepatitis C viral (HCV) nephropathy in Egyptians. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is increasing at the expense of proliferative GNs in the region at large. Access to regular dialysis has been optimized during the past decade, with favorable outcomes despite the high incidence of HCV infection, tuberculosis, and protein-calorie malnutrition. Kidney transplantation is available in all NAF countries except the Western Sahara. About 650 transplants are performed annually from live donors, the majority in Egypt, where data from the largest center in Mansoura display a 10-year graft survival of 62%. Many

  10. 31 CFR 500.602 - Reporting of claims of U.S. nationals against North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... against North Korea. 500.602 Section 500.602 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Reports § 500.602 Reporting of claims of U.S. nationals against North Korea. (a) Requirement for... North Korea or any North Korean government entity. (b) Who must report. A report must be submitted by...

  11. The Analysis on the Length and Content Changes on Secondary Mathematics Textbooks in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoyun

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is one of the most closed nations in the world. It is difficult to access information about their education system. North Korea's economic system was reorganized on July 1, 2002, as well as the education system. This change has impacted North Korea's mathematics education. With limited information on North Korean mathematics textbooks,…

  12. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine Land...

  13. 31 CFR 500.586 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning certain North Korean property. 500.586 Section 500.586 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property. (a) Subject to the limitations in... interest in the property of North Korea or a North Korean national arises on or after June 19, 2000. (b)(1...

  14. [Formation of medical education in North Korea: 1945-1948].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yun-Jung; Cho, Young-Soo

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the formation of medical education in North Korea from 1945 to 1948 in terms of the centralization of medical education, and on the process and significance of the systemization of medical education. Doctors of the past trained under the Japanese colonial system lived and worked as liberalists. More than half of these doctors who were in North Korea defected to South Korea after the country was liberated. Thus the North Korean regime faced the urgent task of cultivating new doctors who would 'serve the state and people.' Since the autumn of 1945, right after national liberation, Local People's Committees organized and implemented medical education autonomously. Following the establishment of the Provisional People's Committee of North Korea, democratic reform was launched, leading to the centralized administration of education. Consequently, medical educational institutions were realigned, with some elevated to medical colleges and others shut down. The North Korean state criticised the liberalistic attitude of doctors and the bureaucratic style of health administration, and tried to reform their political consciousness through political inculcation programs. The state also grant doctors living and housing privileges, which show its endeavor to build 'state medicine'. By 1947, a medical education system was established in which the education administration was put in charge of training new doctors while the health administration was put in charge of nurturing and retraining health workers. In this way, the state was the principal agent that actively established a centralized administrative system in the process of the formation of medical education in North Korea following national liberation. Another agent was deeply involved in this process - the faculty that was directly in charge of educating the new doctors. Studying the medical faculty remains another research task for the future. By exploring how the knowledge, generational experience

  15. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-07-01

    The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking.

  16. North Pacific decadal variability: insights from a biennial ENSO environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Vikhliaev, Yury V.

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the mechanisms of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) in the NASA GEOS-5 general circulation model (GCM). Similar to several other state-of-the-art GCMs, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated by the GEOS-5 has a strong biennial periodicity. Since this is a model bias that precludes a strong role of ENSO, it provides a unique environment to assess the other leading mechanisms of North Pacific decadal variability. Despite the biennial ENSO periodicity, the model simulates a realistic PDO pattern in the North Pacific that is resolved as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of winter mean sea surface temperature (SST). The spectrum of the PDO indicates no preferred periodicity. The SST anomalies associated with the PDO, particularly its basin wide structure, are primarily forced by the Aleutian low through Ekman transport. The slow geostrophic transport in association with the meridional adjustment of the subtropical gyre is limited to a narrow region in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension, north of 40°N. The atmosphere's response to the PDO, while weak, projects onto the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), a meridional dipole in sea level pressure. Both the lack of preferred periodicity and the weak atmospheric response indicate an air-sea coupled oscillation is an unlikely mechanism in this model. In agreement with recent studies, the NPO is correlated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, which is another leading EOF of North Pacific SST variability. The results emphasize the role of atmospheric variability in the North Pacific SST modes, thereby bringing into question the potential for their predictability.

  17. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  18. Constructing a climatology of precipitation system organization in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, T. M.; Nieto-Ferreira, R.; Hall, L.; Nelson, B. R.; Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since no major rivers flow into the State of North Carolina, precipitation falling within the state is the primary natural source of water to replenish that region's rivers, soils, and groundwater reservoirs. As climate and population pressures change, water management and sustainability policies in North Carolina will be increasingly dependent on an improved understanding of precipitation variability in that region. The premise of this NSF-funded study is that a novel climatology of precipitation system mode of delivery in North Carolina, developed with newly available high resolution precipitation and three-dimensional radar reflectivity data sets, will lead to improved regional climate and hydrological forecasts. Mode of delivery refers to the spatial, temporal and water phase characteristics of a precipitation system. Examples of mode of delivery that occur in North Carolina within various synoptic regimes include short duration and spatially heterogeneous convective cells, large mesoscale convective systems, widespread long-lasting frontal precipitation, tropical cyclones, and winter precipitation. Each mode of delivery may produce similar time-averaged precipitation totals, but have very different climate and hydrological impacts. A mode of delivery climatology will provide a unique tool for process-based downscaling of climate simulations. This paper reports on the preliminary steps in constructing the mode of delivery climatology. We present highlights of several case studies of different types of precipitation system morphology in North Carolina, in order to illustrate the methodology that will be used to build a multi-year climatology. The project is collaborating with the NOAA Satellite and Information Service at NCDC to harness a multi-sensor precipitation dataset based on the portion of the NMQ Q2 national radar reflectivity mosaic centered on North Carolina to identify and analyze each precipitation system. The NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis

  19. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  20. The climate space of fire regimes in north-western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Ellen; Batllori, Enric; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Coop, Jonathan D.; Krawchuk, Meg A; Chong, Geneva W.; Haire, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Studies of fire activity along environmental gradients have been undertaken, but the results of such studies have yet to be integrated with fire-regime analysis. We characterize fire-regime components along climate gradients and a gradient of human influence. Location. We focus on a climatically diverse region of north-western North America extending from northern British Columbia, Canada, to northern Utah and Colorado, USA.Methods. We used a multivariate framework to collapse 12 climatic variables into two major climate gradients and binned them into 73 discrete climate domains. We examined variation in fire-regime components (frequency, size, severity, seasonality and cause) across climate domains. Fire-regime attributes were compiled from existing databases and Landsat imagery for 1897 large fires. Relationships among the fire-regime components, climate gradients and human influence were examined through bivariate regressions. The unique contribution of human influence was also assessed.Results. A primary climate gradient of temperature and summer precipitation and a secondary gradient of continentality and winter precipitation in the study area were identified. Fire occupied a distinct central region of such climate space, within which fire-regime components varied considerably. We identified significant interrelations between fire-regime components of fire size, frequency, burn severity and cause. The influence of humans was apparent in patterns of burn severity and ignition cause.Main conclusions. Wildfire activity is highest where thermal and moisture gradients converge to promote fuel production, flammability and ignitions. Having linked fire-regime components to large-scale climate gradients, we show that fire regimes – like the climate that controls them – are a part of a continuum, expanding on models of varying constraints on fire activity. The observed relationships between fire-regime components, together with the distinct role of climatic