WorldWideScience

Sample records for helje kaarma sde

  1. Kaarma Bold Italic / Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-

    2000-01-01

    Raamatukujundajast Jüri Kaarmast ja tema loomingust. Kommenteerib abikaasa Eve Kask. J. Kaarma sellest, miks temast sai raamatukujundaja, oma parimatest õpetajatest (E. Kärmas, I. Paul), töömeetodist, loomingust, uue kirjatüübi konstrueerimisest jm

  2. Kaarma Bold Italic / Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Raamatukujundajast Jüri Kaarmast ja tema loomingust. Kommenteerib abikaasa Eve Kask. J. Kaarma sellest, miks temast sai raamatukujundaja, oma parimatest õpetajatest (E. Kärmas, I. Paul), töömeetodist, loomingust, uue kirjatüübi konstrueerimisest jm

  3. SDE Plus, SDE and MEP. Annual review 2012; SDE+, SDE en MEP. Jaarbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This annual report describes the applications for SDE subsidy (renewable energy support scheme) in the period 2008-2012, the new SDE Plus which starts in 2013, and the MEP transition scheme (MEP stands for 'Environmental quality of electricity production', predecessor of SDE for the period 2003-2006) and applications from the MEP scheme [Dutch] Het jaarbericht 2012 voor de SDE+, SDE en MEP presenteert de resultaten van de regeling Stimulering Duurzame Energieproductie (SDE+ vanaf 2013 en SDE, 2008-2012) en de voorganger van de SDE, de subsidieregeling Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie.

  4. SDE with a future; SDE met toekomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieperink, M.A.M. [Houthoff Buruma, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In 2020, 14% of gross final energy consumption needs to have been generated from renewable sources. To realize this target, market parties in particular need to realize new production installations for renewable energy. Support from the Dutch government is (still) essential in this endeavour. The renewable energy production is therefore subsidized through the Dutch SDE+ scheme (Support scheme for the production of renewable energy). In 2012, 1.7 billion euro was made available for SDE. The SDE subsidy may be insufficient to realize the 14% target. For this reason options for improving the SDE scheme are explored. Moreover substantiation is provided of the benefits SDE offers compared to a supplier obligation. The examples used in this article are limited to PV panels and offshore and onshore wind turbine farms [Dutch] In 2020 moet 14% van het bruto eindgebruik van energie afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare energiebronnen. Om deze doelstelling te halen, dienen vooral marktpartijen nieuwe productie-installaties voor hernieuwbare energie te realiseren. Overheidsondersteuning is daarbij (nog) essentieel. De hernieuwbare-energieproductie wordt daarom gesubsidieerd op grond van de SDE+-regeling (Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energie. In 2012 is daarvoor EUR 1,7 miljard beschikbaar gesteld. De SDE is mogelijk ontoereikend om de 14%-doelstelling te behalen. Om die reden wordt verkend hoe de SDE kan worden verbeterd. Daarnaast wordt onderbouwd welke voordelen de SDE heeft ten opzichte van een leveranciersverplichting. De voorbeelden in dit artikel zijn beperkt tot fotovoltaische zonnepanelen en offshore en onshore windturbineparken.

  5. Melanie Kaarma moealbum / Juta Kivimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimäe, Juta, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Näitus "Melanie Kaarma - 85. Tagasivaade moeloomingule" Vabaduse galeriis kuni 5. I 2009. Melanie Kaarma lõpetas 1948. a. Tallinna Riikliku Tarbekunsti Instituudi kostüümikunstnikuna, oli aastatel 1952-1957 aastaväljaannetena ilmunud "Moealbumi" kunstnik ja vastutav toimetaja

  6. SDE seisab uute põlevkivikaevanduste vastu / Piret Pert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pert, Piret

    2006-01-01

    SDE tutvustas pressikonverentsil oma keskkonnapoliitilisi seisukohti. Sotsiaaldemokraadid on vastu uute põlevkivikaevanduste avamisele enne olemasolevate ammendumist, SDE eelnõu kohaselt tuleks uute kaevanduste avamiste kava kinnitamisele Riigikogus

  7. SDE võttis vastu valimisprogrammi / Piret Pert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pert, Piret

    2006-01-01

    Peeter Kreitzbergi sõnul on sotsiaaldemokraatidele oluline võitlus korruptsiooni, sundparteistamise ja raha võimuga. SDE esimees Ivari Padar nimetas SDE eesmärgina hooliva ja elamisväärse Eesti. Valdkondadest, millele keskendub SDE valimisprogramm

  8. Maksuameti võimatu missioon / Lemmi Kann ; kommenteerinud Lasse Lehis, Rait Kaarma, Taavi Veskimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Lemmi

    2009-01-01

    Väljavõte artiklist: Maksude optimeerijad tõmmatakse liistule / Lemmi Kann (aripaev.ee, 17.03.2009). Kommenteerivad Eesti Maksumaksjate Liidu juhatuse esimees Lasse Lehis, Alvin, Rödl & Partner Advokaadibüroo OÜ advokaat Rait Kaarma ja Riigikogu liige Taavi Veskimägi

  9. SDE based regression for random PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A simulation based method for the numerical solution of PDE with random coefficients is presented. By the Feynman-Kac formula, the solution can be represented as conditional expectation of a functional of a corresponding stochastic differential equation driven by independent noise. A time discretization of the SDE for a set of points in the domain and a subsequent Monte Carlo regression lead to an approximation of the global solution of the random PDE. We provide an initial error and complexity analysis of the proposed method along with numerical examples illustrating its behaviour.

  10. SDE based regression for random PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian

    2016-01-06

    A simulation based method for the numerical solution of PDE with random coefficients is presented. By the Feynman-Kac formula, the solution can be represented as conditional expectation of a functional of a corresponding stochastic differential equation driven by independent noise. A time discretization of the SDE for a set of points in the domain and a subsequent Monte Carlo regression lead to an approximation of the global solution of the random PDE. We provide an initial error and complexity analysis of the proposed method along with numerical examples illustrating its behaviour.

  11. Supplementary advise for geothermal energy in the SDE+ 2013 (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme); Aanvullend advies geothermie in SDE+ 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lako, P.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-12-11

    This memo answers questions from the Ministry of Economic Affairs to ECN and DNV KEMA on the support for geothermal energy projects in the SDE+ 2013 [Dutch] Deze notitie beantwoordt vragen die het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) aan ECN en DNV KEMA gesteld heeft over de ondersteuning van geothermieprojecten in de SDE+ 2013. De beantwoording van de vragen is in het licht te zien van voorkoming van overstimulering en beperking van overreservering van middelen door de SDE+. Het advies in deze notitie is een aanvulling op het advies op de basisbedragen SDE+ 2013 dat geconsulteerd is met de sector. Na dit advies heeft EZ gevraagd naar de mogelijkheden voor het maximeren van het maximaal subsidiabele productievermogen en de wenselijkheid om de hoogte van de SDE+-subsidie te laten afhangen van het projectvermogen en de potentie van een referentie-installatie voor geothermische warmteopwekking op grote diepte. ECN en DNV KEMA adviseren de SDE+-ondersteuning voor geothermische warmte open te stellen voor grotere projectvermogens dan het vermogen van de referentie-installatie uit het advies voor de basisbedragen 2013.

  12. Effect of a Green Investment Society on the Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme (SDE); Effect Groene Investeringsmaatschappij op SDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M.; Van Stralen, J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-27

    On request of the Holland Financial Centre, ECN has projected the potential benefits of a Green Investment Company for the expenditure of the SDE+ Scheme (Renewable Energy Incentivisation Scheme). To this end, a calculation was made of the effects of an interest rebate for sustainable energy projects [Dutch] Op verzoek van Holland Financial Centre heeft ECN geraamd wat de voordelen kunnen zijn van een Groene Investeringsmaatschappij op de uitgaven voor de SDE+ (Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energie). Hiertoe diende een berekening gemaakt te worden van de effecten van een rentekorting voor duurzame energieprojecten.

  13. Base rates in the SDE Plus Scheme 2013 (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme). Final recommendation; Basisbedragen in de SDE+ 2013. Eindadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M.; Mozaffarian, M.; Luxembourg, S.L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Wassenaar, J.A.; Faasen, C.J. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, ECN and DNV KEMA have studied the cost of renewable energy production. This cost assessment for various categories is part of an advice on the subsidy base for the feed-in support scheme SDE+. This report contains the advice on the cost of projects in the Netherlands targeted for realization in 2013. The advice covers technologies for the production of green gas, biogas, renewable electricity and renewable heat [Dutch] Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) heeft aan ECN en DNV KEMA advies gevraagd over de hoogte van de basisbedragen in het kader van de SDE+-regeling voor 2013. Dit rapport bevat het eindadvies over de basisbedragen. Evenals bij vergelijkbare onderzoeken in voorgaande jaren, hebben ECN en DNV KEMA in overleg met het ministerie gekozen om de markt te consulteren over het voorgenomen advies. ECN en DNV KEMA adviseren het ministerie over de hoogte van de basisbedragen voor door het ministerie voorgeschreven categorieën. De Minister van ELI beslist over de openstelling van de SDE+-regeling in 2013, de open te stellen categorieen en de basisbedragen voor nieuwe SDE+-beschikkingen in 2013. De uitgangspunten van het advies, zoals opdracht en rekenmethodiek, staan genoemd in Hoofdstuk 2. In Hoofdstuk 3 wordt ingegaan op de werkwijze en randvoorwaarden, zoals flankerend beleid en financiële uitgangspunten. De feed-in-premiestructuur van de SDE+ wordt toegelicht in Hoofdstuk 4. De prijsontwikkelingen voor elektriciteit, gas en biomassa worden toelicht in Hoofdstuk 5. Hoofdstuk 6 geeft per categorie een overzicht van de technisch-economische parameters van de hernieuwbare-energieopties. Hoofdstuk 7 besluit met conclusies waarbij de vertaalslag naar basisbedragen gemaakt is.

  14. Identification of ecosystem parameters by SDE-modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for ecosystem modelling have attracted increasing attention during recent years. The modelling has mostly been through simulation experiments in order to analyse how system noise propagates through the ordinary differential equation formulation of ecosystem...... models. Estimation of parameters in SDEs is, however, possible by combining Kalman filter techniques and likelihood estimation. By modelling parameters as random walks it is possible to identify linear as well as non-linear interactions between ecosystem components. By formulating a simple linear SDE...

  15. Base rates in the SDE Plus Scheme 2014 (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme). Final recommendation; Basisbedragen in de SDE+ 2014. Eindadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M. (ed.)

    2013-09-15

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, ECN and DNV KEMA have studied the cost of renewable electricity production. This cost assessment for various categories is part of advice on the subsidy base rates for the feed-in support scheme SDE+. This report contains the advice on the cost of projects in the Netherlands targeted for realization in 2014, covering installation technologies for the production of green gas, biogas, renewable electricity and renewable heat. A draft version of this advice has been discussed with the market in an open consultation round [Dutch] Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) heeft aan ECN en DNV KEMA advies gevraagd over de hoogte van de basisbedragen in het kader van de SDE+-regeling voor 2014. Evenals bij vergelijkbare onderzoeken in voorgaande jaren hebben ECN en DNV KEMA er in overleg met het ministerie voor gekozen om een conceptadvies aan de markt voor te leggen. In de maand juni is de markt geconsulteerd. Dit rapport betreft het eindadvies, waarin de inbreng van de marktpartijen naar inzicht van ECN en DNV KEMA is meegewogen. ECN en DNV KEMA adviseren het ministerie over de hoogte van de basisbedragen voor door het ministerie voorgeschreven categorieen. De Minister van EZ beslist over de openstelling van de SDE+-regeling in 2014, de open te stellen categorieen en de basisbedragen voor nieuwe SDE+-beschikkingen in 2014. Het proces staat beschreven in Hoofdstuk 2. Hoofdstuk 3 behandelt de prijsontwikkelingen voor elektriciteit, gas en biomassa. Hoofdstuk 4 geeft per categorie een overzicht van de technisch-economische parameters van de hernieuwbare-energieopties. Hoofdstuk 5 besluit met conclusies waarbij de vertaalslag naar basisbedragen gemaakt is aan de hand van beknopt beschreven financiele parameters.

  16. The self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE): a menace or an opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianlin; Kitagawa, Osamu; Wzorek, Alicja; Klika, Karel D; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2018-02-21

    Herein we report on the well-documented, yet not widely known, phenomenon of the self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE): the spontaneous fractionation of scalemic material into enantioenriched and -depleted fractions when any physicochemical process is applied. The SDE has implications ranging from the origins of prebiotic homochirality to unconventional enantiopurification methods, though the risks of altering the enantiomeric excess (ee) unintentionally, regrettably, remain greatly unappreciated. While recrystallization is well known as an SDE process, occurrences of the SDE in other processes are much less recognized, e.g. sublimation and even distillation. But the most common process that many workers seem to be completely ignorant of is SDE via chromatography and reports have included all manner of structures, all types of interactions, and all forms of chromatography, including GC. The SDE can be either a blessing - as a means to obtain enantiopure samples from scalemates - or a curse, as unwitting alteration of the ee leads to errors in the reporting of results and/or misinterpretation of the system under study. Thus the ramifications of the SDE are relevant to any area involving chirality - natural products, asymmetric synthesis, etc. Moreover, there is grave concern regarding errors in the literature, in addition to the possible occurrence of valid results which may have been overlooked and thus remain unreported, as well as the potential for the SDE to alter the ee, particularly via chromatography, and the following concepts will be conveyed: (1) the SDE occurs under totally achiral conditions of (a) precipitation, (b) centrifugation, (c) evaporation, (d) distillation, (e) crystallization, (f) sublimation, and (g) achiral chromatography ( e.g. column, flash, MPLC, HPLC, SEC, GC, etc. ). (2) The SDE cannot be controlled simply by experimental accuracy and ignorance of the SDE unavoidably leads to mistakes in the recorded and reported stereochemical

  17. SDE and SPME Analysis of Flavor Compounds in Jin Xuan Oolong Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) are procedures used for the isolation of flavor compounds in foods. The purpose of this study was to optimize SDE conditions (solvent and time) and to compare SDE with SPME for the isolation of flavor compounds in Jin Xuan oolong tea using GC-MS and GC-O. The concentration of volatile compounds isolated with diethyl ether was higher (P < 0.05) than for dichloromethane and concentration was higher at 40 min (P < 0.05) than 20 or 60 min extractions. For SDE, 128 volatiles were identified using GC-MS and 45 aroma active compounds using GC-O. Trans-nerolidol was the most abundant compound in oolong tea. The number of volatiles identified using GC-MS was lower in SPME than SDE. For SPME, 59 volatiles and 41 aroma active compounds were identified. The composition of the volatiles isolated by the 2 methods differed considerably but provided complementary information. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. SDE decomposition and A-type stochastic interpretation in nonequilibrium processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoshi; Tang, Ying; Ao, Ping

    2017-12-01

    An innovative theoretical framework for stochastic dynamics based on the decomposition of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) into a dissipative component, a detailed-balance-breaking component, and a dual-role potential landscape has been developed, which has fruitful applications in physics, engineering, chemistry, and biology. It introduces the A-type stochastic interpretation of the SDE beyond the traditional Ito or Stratonovich interpretation or even the α-type interpretation for multidimensional systems. The potential landscape serves as a Hamiltonian-like function in nonequilibrium processes without detailed balance, which extends this important concept from equilibrium statistical physics to the nonequilibrium region. A question on the uniqueness of the SDE decomposition was recently raised. Our review of both the mathematical and physical aspects shows that uniqueness is guaranteed. The demonstration leads to a better understanding of the robustness of the novel framework. In addition, we discuss related issues including the limitations of an approach to obtaining the potential function from a steady-state distribution.

  19. The Establishment of the SAR images database System Based on Oracle and ArcSDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jijin; Li, Zhen; Chen, Quan; Tian, Bangsen

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar is a kind of microwave imaging system, and has the advantages of multi-band, multi-polarization and multi-angle. At present, there is no SAR images database system based on typical features. For solving problems in interpretation and identification, a new SAR images database system of the typical features is urgent in the current development need. In this article, a SAR images database system based on Oracle and ArcSDE was constructed. The main works involving are as follows: (1) SAR image data was calibrated and corrected geometrically and geometrically. Besides, the fully polarimetric image was processed as the coherency matrix[T] to preserve the polarimetric information. (2) After analyzing multiple space borne SAR images, the metadata table was defined as: IMAGEID; Name of features; Latitude and Longitude; Sensor name; Range and Azimuth resolution etc. (3) Through the comparison between GeoRaster and ArcSDE, result showed ArcSDE is a more appropriate technology to store images in a central database. The System stores and manages multisource SAR image data well, reflects scattering, geometry, polarization, band and angle characteristics, and combines with analysis of the managed objects and service objects of the database as well as focuses on constructing SAR image system in the aspects of data browse and data retrieval. According the analysis of characteristics of SAR images such as scattering, polarization, incident angle and wave band information, different weights can be given to these characteristics. Then an interpreted tool is formed to provide an efficient platform for interpretation

  20. Base rates in the SDE Plus Scheme 2014 (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme). Concept recommendation 'for the market consultation]; Conceptadvies basisbedragen in de SDE+ 2014 [ten behoeve van de marktconsultatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M. (ed.) [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, ECN and DNV KEMA have studied the cost of renewable energy production. This cost assessment for various categories is part of an advice on the subsidy base rates for the feed-in support scheme SDE+. This report contains a draft advice on the cost of projects in the Netherlands targeted for realization in 2014. The options advice covers installation technologies for the production of green gas, biogas, renewable electricity and renewable heat. This draft advice has been written to facilitate the market consultation on the 2014 base rates. The open market consultation is to be held in June 2013 [Dutch] Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) heeft aan ECN en DNV KEMA advies gevraagd over de hoogte van de basisbedragen in het kader van de SDE+-regeling voor 2014. Evenals bij vergelijkbare onderzoeken in voorgaande jaren hebben ECN en DNV KEMA er in overleg met het ministerie voor gekozen om een conceptadvies aan de markt voor te leggen. Dit rapport betreft het conceptadvies. ECN en DNV KEMA adviseren het ministerie over de hoogte van de basisbedragen voor door het ministerie voorgeschreven categorieen. De Minister van EZ beslist over de openstelling van de SDE+-regeling in 2014, de open te stellen categorieen en de basisbedragen voor nieuwe SDE+-beschikkingen in 2014. Het proces staat beschreven in Hoofdstuk 2. Hoofdstuk 3 behandelt de prijsontwikkelingen voor elektriciteit, gas en biomassa. Hoofdstuk 4 geeft per categorie een overzicht van de technisch-economische parameters van de hernieuwbareenergieopties. Hoofdstuk 5 besluit met conclusies waarbij de vertaalslag naar basisbedragen gemaakt is aan de hand van beknopt beschreven financiele parameters.

  1. Vectorización de algoritmos generales de convergencia fuerte para la solución de ecuaciones diferenciales estocásticas (SDE)

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones Botero, Carlos Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    La teoría de las Ecuaciones Diferenciales Estocásticas (SDE) ha sido desarrollada en el último medio siglo, pero no se ha creado una librería para la solución numérica de este tipo de ecuaciones. A pesar de que actualmente existen métodos numéricos de alta eficiencia para la solución de las SDE y de que existen aplicaciones académicas e industriales en donde se utilizan, no se ha desarrollado una librería de fuente abierta que implemente vectorizadamente los mejores algoritmos disponibles act...

  2. A Numerical Study of Forbush Decreases with a 3D Cosmic-Ray Modulation Model Based on an SDE Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xi; Feng, Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Potgieter, Marius S. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Zhang, Ming [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Based on the reduced diffusion mechanism for producing Forbush decreases (Fds) in the heliosphere, we constructed a three-dimensional (3D) diffusion barrier, and by incorporating it into a stochastic differential equation (SDE) based time-dependent, cosmic-ray transport model, a 3D numerical model for simulating Fds is built and applied to a period of relatively quiet solar activity. This SDE model generally corroborates previous Fd simulations concerning the effects of the solar magnetic polarity, the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), and cosmic-ray particle energy. Because the modulation processes in this 3D model are multi-directional, the barrier’s geometrical features affect the intensity profiles of Fds differently. We find that both the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the barrier have relatively fewer effects on these profiles than its radial extent and the level of decreased diffusion inside the disturbance. We find, with the 3D approach, that the HCS rotational motion causes the relative location from the observation point to the HCS to vary, so that a periodic pattern appears in the cosmic-ray intensity at the observing location. Correspondingly, the magnitude and recovery time of an Fd change, and the recovering intensity profile contains oscillation as well. Investigating the Fd magnitude variation with heliocentric radial distance, we find that the magnitude decreases overall and, additionally, that the Fd magnitude exhibits an oscillating pattern as the radial distance increases, which coincides well with the wavy profile of the HCS under quiet solar modulation conditions.

  3. CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO2-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L.; Zahn, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO 2 , followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO 2 to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO 2 -depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE's were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE's cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL's SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A new membrane

  4. Wind energy scenarios up to 2020. Developments in the Netherlands in the framework of the SDE regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoving, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Dutch government relies heavily on wind energy to reach the renewable energy target. Aim for the onshore installed capacity is 4,000 MW in 2020 and the offshore capacity target is 6,000 MW in 2020. In order to reach these targets, the so-called SDE subsidy mechanism exists. The regulation subsidises the financial gap of wind projects. It is unsure whether this SDE regulation, offers enough support to achieve the above targets. The main research question of this study was formulated as follows: Is it possible for the Dutch government to meet the 2020 targets for wind energy, as a part of the renewable energy targets, with the current SDE regulation or should the regulation be altered to create an improved contribution of wind energy? To answer this question, several sub-questions were formulated concerning cost developments, capacity developments, and possible supporting subsidy strategies and the implementation of other policy measures. The research questions were answered with help of a specific spreadsheet model. Cost and capacity developments are the main elements of the model. Cost developments depend on learning effects, material costs and economic aspects. Long term expectations of these aspects are combined to sketch cost developments. Together with the electricity price (APX day-ahead base load index), the costs determine the financial gap of wind energy, that needs to be subsidised. A distinction is made between different capacity categories: new onshore wind turbines, new offshore wind farms and repowering. Repowering is defined as a combination of renewal projects for older onshore turbines which are renovated or replaced at the end of their economic lifetime. The capacity categories differ on the cost aspect and required subsidy payments, but also the capacity potential that can be achieved. The results show that in the most favourable scenario, the targets can be reached with an annual budget equal to that of the 2008 budget (800 million euro). A

  5. CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO2-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Steimke, J. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Zahn, Steffen [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO2, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO2 to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for

  6. Venous or arterial blood components trigger more brain swelling, tissue death after acute subdural hematoma compared to elderly atrophic brain with subdural effusion (SDE) model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Daisuke; Sato, Fumiya; Kawamura, Kenya; Sugiura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a frequent complication of severe head injury, whose secondary ischemic lesions are often responsible for the severity of the disease. We focused on the differences of secondary ischemic lesions caused by the components, 0.4ml venous- or arterial-blood, or saline, infused in the subdural space, evaluating the differences in vivo model, using rats. The saline infused rats are made for elderly atrophic brain with subdural effusion (SDE) model. Our data showed that subdural blood, both venous- and arterial-blood, aggravate brain edema and lesion development more than SDE. This study is the first study, in which different fluids in rats' subdural space, ASDH or SDE are compared with the extension of early and delayed brain damage by measuring brain edema and histological lesion volume. Blood constituents started to affect the degree of ischemia underneath the subdural hemorrhage, leading to more pronounced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and brain damage. This indicates that further strategies to treat blood-dependent effects more efficiently are in view for patients with ASDH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Remarkable magnitude of the self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) via achiral chromatography: application to the practical-scale enantiopurification of β-amino acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Alicja; Sato, Azusa; Drabowicz, Józef; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Klika, Karel D

    2016-02-01

    We report the best performance yet for the self-disproportionation of enantiomers (SDE) via achiral chromatography as typically used in laboratories for the isolated yield of the excess enantiomer using N-acetyl β-amino acid ethyl esters. The results are the most convincing ever demonstration of the capability of the SDE for practical-scale enantiopurification as comparable, or even superior for some systems, to that of recrystallization. For example, from a sample of 94.4 % ee, a yield of 71 % of enantiopure material was isolated in a single chromatographic run. Moreover, the lack of an esoteric structural entity, e.g. strongly polarizing groups, such as, for instance CF3, highlights the fact that the phenomenon is not dependent on the presence of such and thus the process is relevant to any usual-type structure. In contrast to recrystallization, the procedure is predictable, general, and dependable, boding well for its widespread application in routine laboratory settings.

  8. Itô-SDE MCMC method for Bayesian characterization of errors associated with data limitations in stochastic expansion methods for uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnst, M.; Abello Álvarez, B.; Ponthot, J.-P.; Boman, R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the characterization and the propagation of errors associated with data limitations in polynomial-chaos-based stochastic methods for uncertainty quantification. Such an issue can arise in uncertainty quantification when only a limited amount of data is available. When the available information does not suffice to accurately determine the probability distributions that must be assigned to the uncertain variables, the Bayesian method for assigning these probability distributions becomes attractive because it allows the stochastic model to account explicitly for insufficiency of the available information. In previous work, such applications of the Bayesian method had already been implemented by using the Metropolis-Hastings and Gibbs Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. In this paper, we present an alternative implementation, which uses an alternative MCMC method built around an Itô stochastic differential equation (SDE) that is ergodic for the Bayesian posterior. We draw together from the mathematics literature a number of formal properties of this Itô SDE that lend support to its use in the implementation of the Bayesian method, and we describe its discretization, including the choice of the free parameters, by using the implicit Euler method. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on a problem of uncertainty quantification in a complex nonlinear engineering application relevant to metal forming.

  9. Helje Kaskel - eesti elu kosultant / Helje Kaskel ; interv. Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaskel, Helje

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Urmas Alenderi endine abikaasa, kes tegi filmi juures kaasa tõlgi, kosultandi ja näitlejana, räägib filmist ja selle koseptsioonist

  10. Autoassociação de misturas dos Surfactantes Dodecanoato de Sódio (SDoD e Decanoato de Sódio (SDeC com o Polímero Hidrofobicamente Modificado Etil(HidroxietilCelulose (EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre G. Dal-Bó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the interactions between the non-ionic polymer of ethyl(hydroxyethylcellulose (EHEC and mixed anionic surfactant sodium dodecanoate (SDoD-sodium decanoate (SDeC in aqueous media, at pH 9.2 (20 mM borate/NaOH buffer were investigated by electric conductivity and light transmittance measurements at 25 ºC. The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration and saturation of the polymer by surfactants were determined from plots of specific conductivity vs total surfactant concentration, [surfactant]tot = [SDoD] + [SDeC]. Through the results was not observed a specific link of polymer with the surfactant, implying therefore a phenomenon only cooperative association.

  11. Síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (Saos e sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE: influência sobre os riscos e eventos de queda em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Afonso Burgos

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos países vêm experimentando o processo de envelhecimento populacional e a consequente elevação das doenças associadas a ele, como dificuldade de manter o equilíbrio, perdas na qualidade do sono e síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (Saos. OBJETIVOS:Investigar a correlação entre a Saos e sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE com os riscos e eventos de quedas em indivíduos idosos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS:Estudo descritivo, comparativo, de corte transversal com amostra de 75 indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, gêneros masculino e feminino. Foram utilizados o mini-exame do estado mental; escalas de depressão geriátrica simplificada; de sonolência de epworth; de avaliação do equilíbrio de tinneti; índice de massa corporal (IMC; registros estabilométricos das oscilações posturais ântero-posterior (AP e médio-lateral (ML. RESULTADOS: Maior prevalência de Saos no gênero masculino. Não foi encontrada correlação com significância estatística (Pearson, p ≤ 0,01 entre as variáveis IMC e estabilometria. Não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa (ANOVA, p ≤ 0,05 entre IMC (subgrupos normal, sobrepeso, graus I, II, III, e IV e estabilometria; entre os graus de severidade de Saos e estabilometria; entre dados estabilométricos de subgrupos de IMC e mesmo grau de severidade de Saos; entre dados estabilométricos de subgrupos de IMC e diferentes graus de Saos; entre os diferentes graus de Saos (GC, G1, (GC e G2, subgrupos de IMC e registros estabilométricos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados resultados que corroborassem a hipótese de proporcionalidade entre graus de severidade de Saos, IMC e registro estabilométrico.

  12. Regularities of Transition : Top CEE Countries Compared / Helje Kaldaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldaru, Helje, 1950-

    2000-01-01

    Analüüsitakse Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide majandusnäitajate muutusi ja arenguid. Tabelid: SKP; majandusnäitajate kasv, arengutase, restruktureerimine ja ümberjaotus; üleminekunäitajad Baltimaades; prognooside ja tegelikkuse erinevus majandusnäitajates

  13. About Multi-Heston SDE Discretization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: in this paper we show how can estimate a financial derivative based on a support if assume for the support a Multi-Heston model.Keywords: Euler Maruyama discretization method, Monte Carlo simulation, Heston model, Double-Heston model, Multi-Heston model.

  14. Contextual factors and motivators of the accounting developments in Estonian local goverments / Toomas Haldma, Helje Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haldma, Toomas, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Siirdeperioodil on Eesti kohalike omavalitsuste (KOV) süsteem läbi teinud nii finants- kui administratiivreformi, mis mõjutavad majandusarvestuse kontseptuaalseid aspekte. Etapilise lähenemise teoreetilistest seisukohtadest lähtudes analüüsitakse KOV-de arevestussüsteemi arengut läbi Eesti majandusarvestuse kolme arenguetapi

  15. Sotsiaalne kapital ja jätkusuutlik majandusareng / Helje Kaldaru, Katrin Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldaru, Helje, 1950-

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade sotsiaalse kapitali mõistest ja peamistest suundumustest selle käsitlemisel, sotsiaalse kapitali mõõtmise võimalustest. Sotsiaalse kapitali analüüs Eestis võrrelduna Euroopa Liidu liikmesmaade, teiste kanditaat- ja siirderiikidega, sotsiaalse kapitali kujunemine maakondade lõikes. Tabelid

  16. "Baltica und Seltene Drucke" in der Akademischen Bibliothek der Universität Tallinn / Helje Kannik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kannik, Helje-Laine

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilise Raamatukogu Baltika ja haruldaste raamatute osakonna kogust, eesti retrospektiivse rahvusbibliograafia koostamisest, eesti vanaraamatu kohta ilmunud bibliograafiatest ja kajastumisest andmebaasides

  17. Korruptsioonikonverents valitsuse ja kolmanda sektori koostöö heaks / Rait Kaarma, Kersti Kurre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaarma, Rait

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Maksumaksjate Liidu korraldatud rahvusvahelisest konverentsist "Korruptsioonivastane võitlus Eestis". Väljavõtted Avo Üpruse, Pille Kustovi, Bogdan Senschuki, Anne Schmidti ja Norman Aasa sõnavõttudest

  18. Eesti patrioot, kes nägi oma silmaga Dresdeni tulepommitamist ja Nürnbergi protsessi / Chistopher Bollyn, Helje Kaskel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bollyn, Chistopher

    2006-01-01

    August Kuklane, Võrumaal sündinud eestlane, kelle elusaatusest on kirjutanud ajakirjanikud ajakirjas The Barnes Review. Läbi August Kuklase silmade ja tema poolt läbielatu kaudu saame osa Teise maailmasõja lahingutest, tema teenistusest SS väeüksustes, s.h. Nürnbergi vahipataljonis, elust pagulasena Ameerika Ühendriikides

  19. Ülevaade tolli ja käibemaksu teabepäevast / Rait Kaarma, Mariliis Kannukene, Hiie Õunpuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaarma, Rait

    2004-01-01

    30. märtsil toimunud teabepäevast tolli ja käibemaksu teemal. Ülevaade Heli Tariku, Ruth Paade, Lembar Kivistiku, Martin Hubergi ja Kaia Loobi sõnavõttudest. Lisad: kirjalik tollideklaratsioon (SAD) esitatakse, kui ; tollimaksumäärade, keeldude ja piirangutega saab tutvuda

  20. Pro-demokraatlik interventsioon : [bakalaureusetöö] / Rait Kaarma ; Tartu Ülikooli Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: René Värk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaarma, Rait

    2003-01-01

    Demokraatia ja rahvusvaheline õigus, õiguse demokraatiale areng, sõjalise jõu kasutamine klassikalises sõjalises õiguses, pro-demokraatliku interventsiooni doktriin, unilateraalne ja kollektiivne pro-demokraatlik interventsioon

  1. Confined gluon from Minkowski space continuation of the PT-BFM SDE solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2012), 035003/1-035003/16 ISSN 0954-3899 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Minkowski pace * effective QCD * gluon mass generation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.326, year: 2012

  2. Stochastic differential equation (SDE) model of opening gold share price of bursa saham malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, F. N.; Rahman, H. A.; Bahar, A.

    2017-09-01

    Black and Scholes option pricing model is one of the most recognized stochastic differential equation model in mathematical finance. Two parameter estimation methods have been utilized for the Geometric Brownian model (GBM); historical and discrete method. The historical method is a statistical method which uses the property of independence and normality logarithmic return, giving out the simplest parameter estimation. Meanwhile, discrete method considers the function of density of transition from the process of diffusion normal log which has been derived from maximum likelihood method. These two methods are used to find the parameter estimates samples of Malaysians Gold Share Price data such as: Financial Times and Stock Exchange (FTSE) Bursa Malaysia Emas, and Financial Times and Stock Exchange (FTSE) Bursa Malaysia Emas Shariah. Modelling of gold share price is essential since fluctuation of gold affects worldwide economy nowadays, including Malaysia. It is found that discrete method gives the best parameter estimates than historical method due to the smallest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value.

  3. Wind energy scenarios up to 2020, Developments in the Netherlands in the frameworkof the SDE regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The European Union has set targets and obliged its member states to generate twenty percent of the energy consumption in 2020 by renewable energy resources. The contribution of the Netherlands is limited to a share of fourteen percent in 2020, but the Dut

  4. Advanced Numerical Integration Techniques for HighFidelity SDE Spacecraft Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Classic numerical integration techniques, such as the ones at the heart of several NASA GSFC analysis tools, are known to work well for deterministic differential...

  5. When Policy Is Practice: SDE Effort to Help/Transform/Label Low-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, April J.

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers have long been infatuated with education reform (Berliner & Biddle, 1995; Stein, 2004), including at the state level (Lusi, 1997). Consistent with this longer tradition, the Nebraska State Legislature (a.k.a. the "Unicameral') passed Legislative Bill 438 (LB 438) in 2014, providing a statutory outline for a new education…

  6. The ArcSDE GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool for Savannah River Site Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCLANE, TRACY; JONES, DWIGHT

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile Department of Energy site located near Aiken, South Carolina. With a workforce of over 10,000 employees and subcontractors, SRS emergency personnel must be able to respond to an emergency event in a timely and effective manner, in order to ensure the safety and security of the Site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides the technology needed to give managers and emergency personnel the information they need to make quick and effective decisions. In the event of a site evacuation, knowing the number of on-site personnel to evacuate from a given area is an essential piece of information for emergency staff. SRS has developed a GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool to quickly communicate real-time information that summarizes employee populations by facility area and building and then generates dynamic maps that illustrate output statistics

  7. Market consultation for the subsidy base of the SDE (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme) 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensink, S.M.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Faasen, C.J.

    2011-05-01

    ECN and KEMA have advised the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation on the costs of renewable electricity production and green gas. Stakeholders have been consulted about the findings. This document summarizes the main comments received by ECN and KEMA and their responses. [nl

  8. ODE, RDE and SDE models of cell cycle dynamics and clustering in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczko, Erik M; Gedeon, Tomas; Stowers, Chris C; Young, Todd R

    2010-07-01

    Biologists have long observed periodic-like oxygen consumption oscillations in yeast populations under certain conditions, and several unsatisfactory explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. These ‘autonomous oscillations’ have often appeared with periods that are nearly integer divisors of the calculated doubling time of the culture. We hypothesize that these oscillations could be caused by a form of cell cycle synchronization that we call clustering. We develop some novel ordinary differential equation models of the cell cycle. For these models, and for random and stochastic perturbations, we give both rigorous proofs and simulations showing that both positive and negative growth rate feedback within the cell cycle are possible agents that can cause clustering of populations within the cell cycle. It occurs for a variety of models and for a broad selection of parameter values. These results suggest that the clustering phenomenon is robust and is likely to be observed in nature. Since there are necessarily an integer number of clusters, clustering would lead to periodic-like behaviour with periods that are nearly integer divisors of the period of the cell cycle. Related experiments have shown conclusively that cell cycle clustering occurs in some oscillating yeast cultures.

  9. Eurosotside juht: usun, et SDE kuulub järgmisse valitsusse / Martin Schulz ; intervjueerinud Inga Höglund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schulz, Martin, 1955-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Parlamendi sotsiaaldemokraatliku fraktsiooni juhiga sotsiaaldemokraatide võimalustest parempoolsete parteide kõrval, Eesti Sotsiaaldemokraatliku Erakonna võimalustest parlamendivalimistel, tööst Euroopa Parlamendis

  10. Minor Civil Divisions from Teleatlas, NA for Regions 1, 2 and 3 in EPA Region 2 Oracle/Spatial/SDE Database [TANA.MCD

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Dynamap(R)/2000 MCD Boundary layer represents all MCD boundaries that are included in the U.S. Census Bureau's 2002 TIGER/Line(R) files. These boundaries have...

  11. HySDeP: a computational platform for on-board hydrogen storage systems – hybrid high-pressure solid-state and gaseous storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the DymolaTM environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...

  12. County Boundaries clipped to shoreline from Teleatlas, NA for Regions 1, 2 and 3 in EPA Region 2 Oracle/Spatial/SDE Database [TANA.COUNTY

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — R2GIS Combined county boundary data from TANA, Navteq and Census: TANA county boundaries.(static.R2GIS.TANA_BOUNDARY_COUNTY) for all of Region 2 except the Virgin...

  13. Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor esineb Eestimaa külades

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Reigi ja Emmaste kirikus 6. juunil, Kihelkonna ja Kaarma kirikus 7. juunil, Valjala ja Muhu kirikus 8. juunil, Viimsi Püha Jaakobi kirikus 10. juunil ja Harju-Madise Mattiase kirikus 11. juunil toimuvatest kontsertidest

  14. Klubi "Spirit" = Club Spirit / Hanno Soans ; tõlk. Liisi Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Eesti klubikultuurist 1990-ndatel. Klubi "Spirit" kujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tarmo Piirmets, Martti Siimann. Arhitekt Jüri Irik Arhitektuuribüroost Ehala & Irik. Projekt ja klubi valmis 2000. Flaierid kujundas Aadam Kaarma. 10 ill. Vaated, korruste plaanid

  15. Kadri Mälk ja Just Must / Mirjam Peil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peil, Mirjam, 1939-

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline ehtekunstinäitus "Just Must" Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoones, kuraator Kadri Mälk ja kujundaja Taso Mähar. Osalesid 59 kunstnikku 18 riigist. Näitusega kaasneb Aadam Kaarma kujundatud kataloog. 10 fotot ehetest

  16. Estonia huku filmi eesmärk : alustada tuleb uut uurimist / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa toimuvad poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtted. Film mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Filmivõtetest räägib assistent Helje Kaskel

  17. Midigraafika Linnagaleriis / Piret Pert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pert, Piret

    2001-01-01

    Pärnu Linnagaleriis 28. juulini avatud rahvusvahelise väikegraafika näitusest "Midigrafik II". Leedu kunstniku Mikolajus Vilutise, Anu Kalmu, Helje Eelma-Saare, Sirje Eelma, Ülle Marksi ja Jüri Kassi tööde valjapanekust

  18. Causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2014-01-01

    We give a causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by defining the postintervention SDE resulting from an intervention in an SDE. We show that under Lipschitz conditions, the solution to the postintervention SDE is equal to a uniform limit in probability of postintervention...... structural equation models based on the Euler scheme of the original SDE, thus relating our definition to mainstream causal concepts. We prove that when the driving noise in the SDE is a Lévy process, the postintervention distribution is identifiable from the generator of the SDE....

  19. Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad ja palve seoses USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Estonia protsessiühingu esimehe Helje Kaskeli ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu esimehe Ülo Veide pöördumises president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poole tuuakse esile katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad. Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 29. nov. 2006, lk. 4-5, pealk.: Ilves, avita! Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste palvekiri Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele; Vaba Eesti Sõna 30. nov. 2006, lk. 3, 10, pealk.: Avalik kiri Eesti Vabariigi presidendile Toomas H. Ilvesele

  20. Kohtumisel Bushiga tuleks tõstatada ka Estonia huku teema / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2006-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute omaste ühendused avaldasid oma pöördumises Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele soovi, et president arutaks kohtumisel USA presidendi George W. Bushiga USA julgeolekuagentuuri NSA käsutuses olevate laevahukku puudutavate salastatud dokumentide üleandmist Eestile. Pöördumisele on alla kirjutanud Estonia Litigation Associationi esimees Helje Kaskel ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu (EHVM) juht Ülo Veide

  1. Res Publica presidendikandidaatide nimed selguvad neljapäevaks / Rauno Veri, Urmo Kübar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veri, Rauno, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Res Publica, Isamaaliit, Reformierakond, SDE ja Keskerakond otsivad ühist presidendikandidaati, ainsa parlamendierakonnana ei osale läbirääkimistel Rahvaliit. Reformierakonna, SDE presidendikandidaatidest; Res Publica naiskogu ja Väärikate Kogu ühisavaldusest

  2. Täna kell 18.30 avatakse Okupatsioonide muuseumis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Linnakultuuriaineline näitus "Paraad". Keskne idee on seotud rula kui eluhoiakuga. Osalevad Tuukka & Kätlin Kaila ning Vaughan Baker (London), Jani Tolin ja Freeman (Helsingi), Aadam Kaarma, Anu Samarüütel, Tarrvi Laamann, Marko Mäetamm & Kaido Ole, Lazer, Väike J, Veronika Valk, DJ Critical

  3. Vabadus võtta vabalt / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Tänavakunstinäitus "Paraad" Eesti Lähimineviku Okupatsioonide Muuseumis. Osalevad Tuukka & Kätlin Kaila ning Vaughan Baker (London), Jani Tolin ja Freeman (Helsingi), Aadam Kaarma, Anu Samarüütel, Tarrvi Laamann, Marko Mäetamm & Kaido Ole, Lazer, Väike J, Veronika Valk, Kaarel Kulbin, DJ Critical

  4. "Ekspeditsioon Wunderlich" = "Expedition Wunderlich" / Carl-Dag Lige, Hannes Praks ; kommenteerinud Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lige, Carl-Dag, 1982-

    2016-01-01

    Näitus "Ekspeditsioon Wunderlich" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Autorid Katrin Talvik, Merilin Tee, Sabine Suuster, Martin Saar, Karl Taul, Alden Jõgisuu, Tõnu Lensment, Aadam Kaarma, Cael-Dag Lige, Hannes Praks. Näitus on Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumi ühisprojekt

  5. Münchenis esitletakse Eesti juveelikunsti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Münchenis toimuval üritusel Schmuckzene esitletakse raamatut "Just Must", mis ilmus 2008. aastal Tallinnas samanimelise ehtekunstinäituse raames. Koostaja Kadri Mälk, kujundaja Aadam Kaarma, fotod Tanel Veenre. Kirjastus Arnoldsche Art Publishers arvas raamatu aasta viie parema ehtekunstiraamatu hulka

  6. Tallinna Kunstihoone, Bajozi Veinikelder ja AS Kiil & Co kuulutasid käesoleva aasta sügisel välja multiplitseeritava kunstiteose

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Žürii (liikmed loetletud) valis välja Merike Estna, Maksim Surini, Andres Lõo, Evelin Kuusiku, Kärt Ojavee ja Aadam Kaarma teosed. Auhinnasaajate järjekord ja preemiad tehakse teatavaks konkursitööde näituse "Mitmik" avamisel Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 8. XII

  7. Nõukogude mood 1940. ja 50. aastatel / I. Andrejeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Andrejeva, I.

    1985-01-01

    Sõjaaja riietusest, moejoonest. Moskva Moemajast (1949. aastast üleliiduline), moekunstnikke. Ajakirja "Zhurnal Mod" loomisest. 1940. aastate lõpuks kinnistunud moesuunast. Tegutsenud moemajad. Ajakirjas "Zhurnal Mod" (1954, nr. 2) väljakuulutatud kleidimudelite konkursi võitja - Melanie Kaarma, üks III preemia - Astrid Bulkina. S. Razumovskajalt artikkel "Eesti moekunstnikud" (Zhurnal Mod, 1954, nr. 3)

  8. Dosimetric reevaluation of exposure at working stations of the Mafelec Society. Presence on the production site of elevators push-buttons containing cobalt 60 between the 21. august and the 7. october 2008. Amendment to the report DRPH/SDE 2008-648; Reevaluation dosimetrique des expositions aux postes de travail de la Societe Mafelec. Presence sur le site de production de poussoirs de boutons d'ascenseur contenant du cobalt 60 entre le 21 aout et le 7 octobre 2008. Avenant au rapport DRPH/SDE 2008-64

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    On the 7. october 2008, the public authorities were alerted by the Mafelec society of the detection by their customs services of unusual levels of radioactivity during controls on packages containing elevators push-buttons sent by this society. The first measures made on that very day on the site of the Mafelec society at Chimilin (38) by the mobile cell of radiological intervention of Isere department firemen enlightened the presence of radioactivity in elevators the push-buttons in stainless steel and in complete push-buttons delivered to Mafelec by one or several Indian suppliers. After having made an inspection on the site on the 8. october, the nuclear safety authority requested the help of I.R.S.N. to evaluate the doses received by the facility personnel exposed to these radioactive pieces. The Asn also asked I.R.S.N. to evaluate the public exposure if someone used an elevator equipped with such buttons. The first evaluations showed that 22 persons had received a maximal dose between 1.4 and 2.7 mSv. A second report (on the 27 october 2008) gave a revaluation of the dosimetry. The conclusions were: with the information known at the date of 22 october 2008, it can estimated that only one person received between the 21. august and the 7. october a maximal efficient dose superior to 1 mSv that is the annual limit regulatory value for the public. The details of the revaluation are given and the results are as follow: 1 person received at the most an efficient dose of 1.4 mSv, 8 persons received at the most an efficient dose of 0.9 mSv, 11 persons received at the most an efficient dose between 0.2 and 0.7 mSv, 15 persons received at the most an efficient dose between 0.1 and 0.2 mSv included. (N.C.)

  9. Estonia hukk jõuab kinolinale / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastub 2. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teevad kaasa Rein Oja ja väikeses rollis Urmas Alenderi lesk Helje Kaskel. Kõlab ka U. Alenderi laul

  10. Country policy profile - The Netherlands. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Main support scheme for renewable energy in the Netherlands is the SDE+, opened in 2011. It is a technology-neutral scheme, promoting the cheapest technologies and allocating the available budget on the basis of competition between renewable electricity, renewable heat and green gas projects. Other measures described in the Dutch Progress Report are: SDE, MEP, EIA (as of 2014 not anymore combined with SDE+), Green Projects Scheme, the Investment subsidy renewable energy (ISDE), Energy Top Sector and Green Deals

  11. Country policy profile - The Netherlands. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Main support scheme for renewable energy in the Netherlands is the SDE+, opened in 2011. It is a technology-neutral scheme, promoting the cheapest technologies and allocating the available budget on the basis of competition between renewable electricity, renewable heat and green gas projects. Other measures described in the Dutch Progress Report are: SDE, MEP, EIA (as of 2014 not anymore combined with SDE+), Green Projects Scheme, Solar Panels Subsidy Scheme, Energy Top Sector and Green Deals

  12. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS TO STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH RANDOM COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with a stochastic differential equation (SDE) with random coefficients. Sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the equation are given.

  13. Püha Jüri võitlus kapitalistliku hüdraga / Priit Hõbemägi, Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    SDE uus esimees Jüri Pihl teatas, et sotsiaaldemokraatidel on alternatiiv seni valitsenud neoliberaalsele ideoloogiale. Autorite hinnangul hakkab J. Pihli vastasseis Reformierakonnaga olema hoopis teistsugune kui Keskerakonnaga

  14. Битва с гигантами

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    SDE uus esimees Jüri Pihl teatas, et sotsiaaldemokraatidel on alternatiiv seni valitsenud neoliberaalsele ideoloogiale, Pihli vastasseis hakkab Reformierakonnaga olema hoopis teistsugune kui Keskerakonnaga

  15. Medium Scale Central Valley Riparian Vegetation and Land Use with Aggregated Delta Veg, 2011 [ds724

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Geodatabase (SDE) feature class containing map of vegetation along mainstem rivers and major tributaries (including ancillary natural and semi-natural vegetation)...

  16. Tarandil ei ole täna šansse / Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Toomas Hendrik Ilves on presidendikandidaadiks esitatud 75 toetusallkirjaga. SDE fraktsiooni aseesimees Eiki Nestor ja Reformierakonna fraktsiooni aseesimees Valdo Randpere kommenteerivad täna Riigikogus toimuvaid presidendivalimisi

  17. Ehtekunsti kõrgmäestik Münchenis / Kadri Mälk, Piret Hirv, Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Ehtekunsti suurüritusest "Schmuckszene" ("Ehtepaik"). Arnoldsche Art Publishers esitles viit aasta paremaks ehtekunstiraamatuks tituleeritut, nende seas Eestis trükikojas Pakett trükitud raamatut "Just must" (kujundaja Aadam Kaarma, fotod: Tanel Veenre). Darling Publications'i poolt esitletud raamatust "The Compendium Finale of Contemporary Jewellery Makes", kus tutvustatakse kümmet eesti ehtekunstnikku, tekstide autorid on Kadri Mälk, Harry Liivrand ja Tamara Luuk

  18. Kunstiakadeemia - 85 / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    1999-01-01

    28. XI tähistas Eesti Kunstiakadeemia oma 85. aastapäeva. Kunstihariduse tulevikule pühendatud paneeldiskussioonist Sakala keskuse väikeses saalis, pressikonverentsist, pidulikust aktusest. Kunstiakadeemia esimesteks audoktoriteks promoveeriti Boris Bernshtein, Kaljo Põllu, Enno Hallek, Ilja Kabakov. Auliikmeteks nimetati Mari Adamson, Leo Gens, Leili Kuldkepp, Helene Kuma, Paul Luhtein, Arseni Mölder, Evald Okas, Helmut Oruvee, Bruno Tomberg, Jaan Vares. Juubelialbumi kujundas Jüri Kaarma, ajaloolise ülevaate kirjutas Leo Gens

  19. GÉnero Y GeStiÓn de rieSGoS: Una ProPUeSta deSde la EXPERIENCIA CLÍNICA EN LA COADYUVANCIA DE LA ACCIÓN PoPUlar de la MiCroCUenCa la PiCaCHa de MedellÍn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Vásquez Santamaría

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la acción popular instaurada por los acontecimientos generados por la microcuenca La Picacha, en Medellín, la Clínica Jurídica de Interés Público de la Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana (UNAULA expone la experiencia clínica, específicamente desde la coadyuvancia con perspectiva de género, presentada en el proceso judicial. Inicialmente, el artículo hace referencia a la enseñanza clínica del Derecho como marco pedagógico y metodológico que aco- ge la experiencia. Hace también una contextualización del fenómeno judicializado, aborda el género como categoría de análisis para materializar el Estado Social de Derecho, la prevención y atención de desastres con perspectiva de género y los riesgos y daños que enfrenta una mujer en un desastre natural, para culminar con la aplicación de la perspectiva de género dentro de la intervención del caso La Picacha y algunas conclusiones.

  20. Development of a restricted state space stochastic differential equation model for bacterial growth in rich media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states...

  1. Lotmani kõne ajas erakonnad tülli / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    SDE ja Res Publica konfliktist seoses Mihhail Lotmani kõnega vanemahüvitise seaduseelnõu arutelul Riigikogus. Res Publica esimehe Juhan Partsi kirjast SDE esimehele Ivari Padarile, I. Padari vastusest. Lisa: Nestor: kõige tavalisem fašism

  2. Efficient Numerical Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations in Computational Finance

    KAUST Repository

    Happola, Juho

    2017-09-19

    Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) offer a rich framework to model the probabilistic evolution of the state of a system. Numerical approximation methods are typically needed in evaluating relevant Quantities of Interest arising from such models. In this dissertation, we present novel effective methods for evaluating Quantities of Interest relevant to computational finance when the state of the system is described by an SDE.

  3. Financial gap calculations for existing cogeneration 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hers, S.J.; Wetzels, W.; Seebregts, A.J.; Van der Welle, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    The Dutch SDE (abbreviation for the renewable energy incentive) subsidy scheme promotes the reduction of CO2 emissions which results from the use of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants. This report calculates the profitability of operation of existing CHP plants. This information can be used for decision making on the SDE subsidy for existing CHP plants in 2008 [nl

  4. Efficient Numerical Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations in Computational Finance

    KAUST Repository

    Happola, Juho

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) offer a rich framework to model the probabilistic evolution of the state of a system. Numerical approximation methods are typically needed in evaluating relevant Quantities of Interest arising from such models. In this dissertation, we present novel effective methods for evaluating Quantities of Interest relevant to computational finance when the state of the system is described by an SDE.

  5. Kas 5. märtsi hommikul koidab sotside kauaoodatud tähetund? / Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalamees, Kai

    2006-01-01

    SDE-st on saamas tulevase koalitsiooni kaalukeel, temas näevad oma partnerit paljud Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu ning Reformierakonna poliitikud. Samas pole SDE-l lihtne valikut teha. Eiki Nestori, Kadri Musta seisukohti. Lisad: Valimised: Erakondade sihid; Vasaktiival jääb ühinemine ära

  6. Estimation of Parameters in Mean-Reverting Stochastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhai Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic differential equation (SDE is a very important mathematical tool to describe complex systems in which noise plays an important role. SDE models have been widely used to study the dynamic properties of various nonlinear systems in biology, engineering, finance, and economics, as well as physical sciences. Since a SDE can generate unlimited numbers of trajectories, it is difficult to estimate model parameters based on experimental observations which may represent only one trajectory of the stochastic model. Although substantial research efforts have been made to develop effective methods, it is still a challenge to infer unknown parameters in SDE models from observations that may have large variations. Using an interest rate model as a test problem, in this work we use the Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate unknown parameters in SDE models.

  7. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  8. Impression management ("lie") scales are associated with interpersonally oriented self-control, not other-deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Liad

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the status of impression management (IM) scales ("lie scales," notably, BIDR-IM) as measures of response bias, offers theory-driven substantive meaning to them, and compares them with self-deception enhancement (SDE). Study 1 (N = 99) compared self-descriptions of actual self and ideal self given in a non-anonymous setting. High similarity indicates self-enhancement. Study 2 (70 dyads) analyzed self-other agreement about IM and SDE. Agreement indicates substantive basis to the scales' scores. Study 3 (N = 182) explored the centrality of self-control in the self-perception of individuals varying in IM and SDE. Study 4 (95 dyads) corroborated self-reports about self-control using informants' reports. In Study 1, IM was associated with relative humility, whereas SDE was associated with self-enhancement. In Study 2, strong self-other agreement was found only for IM, indicating that high IM (but not SDE) is grounded in real-life behavior. In Study 3, self-control was central in the self-perception of high IM and high SDE individuals. In Study 4, strong relations with self-control were corroborated by informants only for IM. IM scales measure substantive content associated with self-control aimed at social adaptation, whereas the SDE scale depicts individuals with a grandiose self-perception, who fail to impress knowledgeable others. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. V. Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH* method. In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells.

  10. Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPH and chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M R V; Azzolini, A E C S; Martinez, M L L; Souza, C R F; Lucisano-Valim, Y M; Oliveira, W P

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β -cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH(•) method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  12. Fluoride Varnishes against Dental Erosion Caused by Soft Drink Combined with Pediatric Liquid Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of NaF and CPP-ACP/NaF varnishes to reduce erosion produced by soft drink (SD) combined or not with pediatric liquid medicine. Enamel specimens were pre-treated with fluoride varnish, according to the following groups: NaF varnish (Duraphat®) or CPP-ACP/NaF varnish (MI varnishTM). Two types of erosive cycles were made: by soft drink erosion (SDE) or by pediatric liquid medicine plus soft drink erosion (PLM/SDE). Bovine enamel specimens were randomly assigned in six groups (n=10): G1=NaF + SDE; G2=CPP-ACP/NaF + SDE; G3=Distilled and deionized (DD) water + SDE; G4=NaF + PLM/SDE; G5=CPP-ACP/NaF + PLM/SDE and G6=DD water + PLM/SDE. Before treatments, the sample surface was divided in two areas (unexposed area-UA and exposed area-EA). The specimens were evaluated by 3D non-contact profilometry technique to determinate tooth structure loss (TSL) and surface roughness (Sa). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed. After SDE, G2 presented the lowest TSL values compared to G3 (p=0.008). G1 and G2 did not differ between them (p=0.203) and no groups differed among them despite Sa. Regarding TSL and Sa, G4 and G5 differed from G6 (p=0.0001), but not between them (p=1.00). Examining 3D and SEM images, the greatest differences between UA and EA were observed for G3 and G6. CPP-ACP/NaF varnish seems to be a promising treatment to reduce enamel loss from the erosion produced by a soft drink. Both varnishes also showed capacity to reduce TSL and Sa after erosion by soft drink combined to pediatric liquid medicine.

  13. Solution Methods for Structures with Random Properties Subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the lower order statistical moments of the response of structures with random stiffness and random damping properties subject to random excitation. The arising stochastic differential equations (SDE) with random coefficients are solved by two methods, a second order...... the SDE with random coefficients with deterministic initial conditions to an equivalent nonlinear SDE with deterministic coefficient and random initial conditions. In both methods, the statistical moment equations are used. Hierarchy of statistical moments in the markovian approach is closed...... by the cumulant neglect closure method applied at the fourth order level....

  14. Country policy profile - The Netherlands. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    Main support scheme for renewable energy in the Netherlands is the SDE+, opened in 2011. It is a technology-neutral scheme, promoting the cheapest technologies and allocating the available budget on the basis of competition between renewable electricity, renewable heat and green gas projects. Other measures described in the Dutch Progress Report are: SDE, MEP, EIA (as of 2014 not anymore combined with SDE+), Green Projects Scheme, Solar Panels Subsidy Scheme, Energy Top Sector and Green Deals. Most important change reported here from 2014 onwards regards the EIA scheme

  15. Schwinger Dyson equations: Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    A representative but not exhaustive review of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) approach to the nonperturbative study of QCD is presented. The main focus is the SDE for the quark self energy but studies of the gluon propagator and quark-gluon vertex are also discussed insofar as they are important to the quark SDE. The scope of this article is the application of these equations to the study of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, quark confinement and the phenomenology of the spectrum and dynamics of QCD

  16. Linnalood / Andri Ksenofontov ; kommenteerinud R[eet] V[arblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Erki Kasemetsa näitus "Kohad/Cities Revealed" ja Liina Siibi näitus "Gimme Danger" sarjast "Cityscape" Tallinna Linnagaleriis. Näitus "Jüri Kaarma lugemistuba" Vabaduse Galeriis. Rühmituse Johnson&Johnson näitus "Nothing Left to Save" Draakoni galeriis. Karel Koplimetsa, Sigrid Viiri ja Taaniel Raudsepa kunstiprojekt "OÜ Visible Solutions" Hobusepea galeriis. Inglise kunstniku Pamela June Crooki isikunäitus galeriis Vaal. Peeter Lauritsa fotonäitus "Trickster's Office" ArtDepoo galeriis

  17. Eesti oma kunstisuveniirid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. XII avati Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis mitmikute näitus. Tallinna Kunstihoone, Bajozi veinikeldri ja AS Kiil & Co poolt 2005. a. sügisel väljakuulutatud mitmiku, käsitöönduslikult multiplitseeritava mahulise kunstiteose konkursi tulemused: I preemia (5000 kr.) - Merike Estna ja Maksim Shurini teos "Sound Picture", II (3000 kr.) - Andres Lõo "Jüri Arrak I" ja "J.A. I", III (2000 kr.) - Evelin Kuusiku "Pudel", eripreemia - Kärt Ojavee ja Aadam Kaarma "Albino"

  18. Kirikusisustus / Krista Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Krista, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Luteri kirikus Eestis 16.-18. sajandil. Kantsel, arhitektoonika ja teoloogiline sõnum. Eesti vanimad kantslid (Rannu, Jämaja). Tallinna Püha Vaimu kiriku kantsel. Evangelisti-ja apostliprogrammid. Pildiseeriatega programmid -Tallinna Niguliste kiriku kantsel (T. Heintze, 1624), Kaarma kiriku kantsel (J. Jakobson, 1645), Kolga-Jaani kiriku kantsel (u. 1680.-90. aastad). Teksti osa kantsli kujunduses. Töökojad ja stiilide muutumine. Ristimisnõu, triumfikrutsifiks, pihitool, pingid, väärid, orelirõdud, lühtrid. Bilbiograafia lk. 457-458

  19. Parameter estimation in a simple stochastic differential equation for phytoplankton modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik; Carstensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for simulation of aquatic ecosystems has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The SDE setting also provides the opportunity for statistical estimation of ecosystem parameters. We present an estimation procedure, based on Kalman...

  20. Paper versus computer: Feasibility of an electronic medical record in general pediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Roukema (Jolt); R.K. Los (Renske); S.E. Bleeker (Sacha); A.M. van Ginneken (Astrid); J. van der Lei (Johan); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Implementation of electronic medical record systems promises significant advances in patient care, because such systems enhance readability, availability, and data quality. Structured data entry (SDE) applications can prompt for completeness, provide greater accuracy and

  1. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    KAUST Repository

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Martinez, Josue G.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Sorensen, Danny C.

    2010-01-01

    in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between

  2. Model Identification Using Stochastic Differential Equation Grey-Box Models in Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe; Røge, Rikke Meldgaard

    2013-01-01

    are uncorrelated and provides the possibility to pinpoint model deficiencies. METHODS: An identifiable model of the glucoregulatory system in a type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patient is used as the basis for development of a stochastic-differential-equation-based grey-box model (SDE-GB). The parameters...... in a significant improvement in the prediction and uncorrelated errors. Tracking of the "peak time of meal absorption" parameter showed that the absorption rate varied according to meal type. CONCLUSION: This study shows the potential of using SDE-GBs in diabetes modeling. Improved model predictions were obtained...... are estimated on clinical data from four T1DM patients. The optimal SDE-GB is determined from likelihood-ratio tests. Finally, parameter tracking is used to track the variation in the "time to peak of meal response" parameter. RESULTS: We found that the transformation of the ODE model into an SDE-GB resulted...

  3. Phase structure of hot and/or dense QCD with the Schwinger-Dyson equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Satoshi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the phase structure of the hot and/or dense QCD using the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) with the improved ladder approximation in the Landau gauge. We solve the coupled SDE for the Majorana masses of the quark and antiquark (separately from the SDE for the Dirac mass) in the finite temperature and/or chemical potential region. The resultant phase structure is rather different from those by other analyses. In addition to this analysis we investigate the phase structure with the different two types of the SDE, in one of which the Majorana mass gap of the antiquark is neglected, while in the other of which the Majorana mass gap of the quark and that of the antiquark are set to be equal. The effect of the Debye mass of the gluon on the phase structure is also investigated. (author)

  4. Politiki speshno dvinuliss na vostok / Jekaterina Petra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petra, Jekaterina

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu SDE fraktsiooni juhi Ivari Padari ja parlamendiliikme Peeter Kreitzbergi juhtimisel külastasid sotsiaaldemokraadid Ida-Virumaad, kohtuti õpetajate, meditsiinitöötajate, kohalike ametiühingute liidritega ning ühiskonnategelastega

  5. Automaks teeks suurperedele tõsist tuska / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Säästva arengu instituudi uuringu kohaselt aitaks Eesti autostumise vastu CO₂-põhine automaks. Automaksu kehtestamisest on juttu SDE valimisprogrammis. Tallinna lasterikaste perede liidu juhi Katerina Puusepa arvamus

  6. Tallinna-Tartu maantee ehitamine jälle kännu taga kinni / Piret Pert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pert, Piret

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu lükkas tagasi SDE fraktsiooni esitatud otsuse eelnõu, milles nähti ette Tallinna-Tartu maantee ehitamine neljarealise eraldatud sõidusuundadega maanteena. Jarno Laur, Ivari Padar maantee väljaehitamise vajalikkusest

  7. Ida-Viru maavanema koht läheb ilmselt sotsidele / Maria-Elisa Rannajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rannajõe, Maria-Elisa

    2007-01-01

    SDE peasekretäri Randel Läntsi sõnul peab maavanema kandidaat olema vastuvõetav nii omavalitsuste juhtidele kui ka valitsusliidule. Põlva maavanema kandidaadiks on nimetatud IRL-i kuuluv Priit Sibul

  8. Subdural Empyema: Clinical Presentations and Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [craniotomy vs. burr hole, aspiration, and drainage. (BAAD)] depends on the ... the dura and the subarachnoid mater within the brain ambient ... presentations. Posterior fossa right-sided SDE was seen ... the left side of the brain, 15 (83.3%).

  9. Symmetries of stochastic differential equations: A geometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vecchi, Francesco C., E-mail: francesco.devecchi@unimi.it; Ugolini, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.ugolini@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Saldini 50, Milano (Italy); Morando, Paola, E-mail: paola.morando@unimi.it [DISAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 2, Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    A new notion of stochastic transformation is proposed and applied to the study of both weak and strong symmetries of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The correspondence between an algebra of weak symmetries for a given SDE and an algebra of strong symmetries for a modified SDE is proved under suitable regularity assumptions. This general approach is applied to a stochastic version of a two dimensional symmetric ordinary differential equation and to the case of two dimensional Brownian motion.

  10. Enhanced Agarose and Xylan Degradation for Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Co-Culture of Marine Bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans and Its Contaminant, Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh S. Sawant

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over reliance on energy or petroleum products has raised concerns both in regards to the depletion of their associated natural resources as well as their increasing costs. Bioplastics derived from microbes are emerging as promising alternatives to fossil fuel derived petroleum plastics. The development of a simple and eco-friendly strategy for bioplastic production with high productivity and yield, which is produced in a cost effective manner utilising abundantly available renewable carbon sources, would have the potential to result in an inexhaustible global energy source. Here we report the biosynthesis of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs in pure cultures of marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 (Sde 2-40, its contaminant, Bacillus cereus, and a co-culture of these bacteria (Sde 2-40 and B. cereus degrading plant and algae derived complex polysaccharides. Sde 2-40 degraded the complex polysaccharides agarose and xylan as sole carbon sources for biosynthesis of PHAs. The ability of Sde 2-40 to degrade agarose increased after co-culturing with B. cereus. The association of Sde 2-40 with B. cereus resulted in increased cell growth and higher PHA production (34.5% of dry cell weight from xylan as a carbon source in comparison to Sde 2-40 alone (22.7% of dry cell weight. The present study offers an innovative prototype for production of PHA through consolidated bioprocessing of complex carbon sources by pure and co-culture of microorganisms.

  11. Delayed intracranial subdural empyema following burr hole drainage: Case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Sub; Joo, Sung-Pil; Song, Dong-Jun; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Sun

    2018-05-01

    A subdural empyema (SDE) following burr hole drainage of a chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) can be difficult to distinguish from a recurrence of the CSDH, especially when imaging data is limited to a computed tomography (CT) scan. All patients underwent burr hole drainage of the CSDH at first, and the appearance of the SDE occurred within one month. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), revealed both the SDE and diffuse meningitis in all patients. In Case 1, because the patient was very young, burr hole drainage of the SDE, rather than craniotomy, was performed. However, subsequent craniotomy was required due to recurrence of the SDE. In Cases 2 and 3, an initial craniotomy was performed without burr hole drainage. Symptoms improved for all patients, and each was discharged without any neurologic deficits or subsequent recurrence. Neurosurgeons should consider the possibility of infection if recurrence of CSDH occurs within 1 month following drainage of a subdural hematoma. A contrast-enhanced MRI with DWI should be performed to differentiate SDE from CSDH. In addition, surgical evacuation of the empyema via wide craniotomy is preferred to burr hole drainage.

  12. Screen for Disordered Eating: Improving the accuracy of eating disorder screening in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Hebenstreit, Claire; Li, Yongmei; Dinh, Julie V; Donalson, Rosemary; Dalton, Sarah; Rubin, Emma; Masheb, Robin

    To develop a primary care eating disorder screen with greater accuracy and greater potential for generalizability, compared to existing screens. Cross-sectional survey to assess discriminative accuracy of a new screen, Screen for Disordered Eating (SDE), compared to Eating Disorders Screen for Primary Care (EDS-PC) and SCOFF screener, using prevalence rates of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and Any Eating Disorder (AED), as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The SDE correctly classified 87.2% (CI: 74.3%-95.2%) of BED cases, all cases of BN and AN, and 90.5% (CI: 80.4%-96.4%) of AED cases. Sensitivity estimates were higher than the SCOFF, which correctly identified 69.6% (CI: 54.2%-82.3%) of BED, 77.8% (CI: 40.0%-97.2%) of BN, 37.5% (CI: 8.52%-75.5%) of AN, and 66.1% (CI: 53%-77.7%) of AED. While the EDS-PC had slightly higher sensitivity than the SDE, the SDE had better specificity. The SDE outperformed the SCOFF in classifying true cases, the EDS-PC in classifying true non-cases, and the EDS-PC in distinguishing cases from non-cases. The SDE is the first screen, inclusive of BED, valid for detecting eating disorders in primary care. Findings have broad implications to address eating disorder screening in primary care settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Method for the Separation of Polysaccharides and Essential Oil from the Leaves of Taxus chinensis Var. mairei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (MA-SDE method has been developed for the separation of polysaccharides and essential oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei. The key operating parameters for MA-SDE were optimized by single factor and central composite design experiments, and the optimal conditions were found to include a particle size of 60–80 mesh, liquid/solid ratio of 22.5 mL/g, extraction time of 17.5 min, microwave power of 547 W, and dichloromethane was used as the extraction solvent of the essential oil. The yields obtained for polysaccharides and essential oil under the optimized conditions were 6.39% ± 0.12% and 0.27% ± 0.03%, respectively. The MA-SDE method was also compared with conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE and hydrodistillation extraction (HDE. The MA-SDE method not only allowed for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil, but also completed the task with a much shorter extraction time of 17.5 min (HRE and HDE required 3 and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, the MA-SDE method gave increased extraction yields for polysaccharides (1.14-fold higher than HRE and essential oil (1.23-fold higher than HDE. Based on these results, this MA-SDE method represents a rapid and efficient technique for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil.

  14. Ab initio calculation of molecular energies including parity violating interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakasov, A.; Ha Taekyu; Quack, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach, RHF-CIS, based on the perturbation of the ground state RHF wave function by the CIS excitations, has been implemented for evaluation of energy of parity violating interaction in molecules, E pv . The earlier approach, RHF-SDE, was based on the perturbation of the RHF ground states by the single-determinant ''excitations'' (SDE). The results obtained show the dramatic difference between E pv values in the RHF-CIS framework and those in the RHF-SDE framework: the E pv values of the RHF-CIS formalism are more than one order of magnitude greater compared to the RHF-SDE formalism as well as the corresponding tensor components. The maximal total value obtained for hydrogen peroxide in the RHF-CIS framework is 3.661 X 10 -19 E H (DZ ** basis set) while the maximal E pv value for the RHF-SDE formalism is just 3.635 X 10 -20 E H (TZ basis set). It is remarkable that both in the RFH-CIS and in the RHF-SDE approaches the diagonal tensor components of E pv strictly follow the geometry of a molecule and are always different from zero at chiral conformations. The zeros of the total E pv at chiral geometries are now found to be the results of the interplay between the diagonal tensor components values. We have carried out exhaustive analysis of the RHF-SDE formalism and found that it is not sufficiently accurate for studies of E pv . To this end, we have completely reproduced the previous work, which has been done in the RHF-SDE frame-work, and developed it further, studying how the RHF-SDE results vary when changing size and quality of basis sets. This last resource does not save the RHF-SDE formalism for evaluations of E pv from the general failure. Packages of FORTRAN routines called ENWEAK/RHFSDE-93 and ENWEAK/RHFCIS-94 have been developed which run on top of an ab initio MO package. We used 6-31G and 6-31G**, DZ and DZ**, TZ and TZ**, and (10s, 6p,**) basis sets. We will discuss the importance of the present results for possible measurement of the parity

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study intended to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract from Scoparia dulcis (SDE) and betulinic acid on λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of SDE and betulinic acid was examined by detecting the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edema paw tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. The betulinic acid content in SDE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the anti-inflammatory model, the results showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and betulinic acid (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, SDE and betulinic acid affected the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws. The activities of SOD, GPx and GRd in the liver tissue were increased and the MDA levels in the edema paws were decreased. It is suggested that SDE and betulinic acid possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms appear to be related to the reduction of the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in inflamed tissues, as well as the inhibition of MDA level via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRd. The analytical result showed that the content of betulinic acid in SDE was 6.25 mg/g extract.

  16. Skin Dose Equivalent Measurement from Neutron-Deficient Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Costigan, Steve A.; Romero, Leonard L.; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    1997-12-01

    Neutron-deficient-isotopes decay via positron emission and/or electron capture often followed by x-ray, gamma-ray, and 0.511 MeV photons from positron annihilation. For cases of significant area and/or personnel contamination with these isotopes, determination of skin dose equivalent (SDE) is required by 10CFR835. For assessment of SDE, we evaluated the MICROSPEC-2(TM) system manufactured by Bubble Technology Industries of Canada which uses three different probes for dose measurement. We used two probes: (1) the X-probe which measures lower energy (4 - 120 keV) photon energy distributions and determines deep dose equivalent, SDE and dose equivalent to eyes, and (2) the B-probe which measures electron (positron) energy distributions, and determines skin dose equivalent. Also, the measured photon and beta spectra can be used to identify radioactive isotopes in the contaminated area. Measurements with several neutron-deficient sources showed that this system provided reasonably accurate SDE rate measurements when compared with calculated benchmark SDE rates with an average percent difference of 40%. Variations were expected because of differences between the assumed geometries used by MlCROSPEC-2 and the calculations when compared to the measurement conditions

  17. Psychometric evaluation and short form development of The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this research were to evaluate the Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS translation of the BIDR-6 scale, develop its short form, and to present its initial convergent/discriminative validation. The sample included 827 participants. MIRT CFA analysis revealed that fourfactor model (containing 32/40 items fits the data best, with Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE and Impression Management (IM both splitting into the denial (SD-D and IM-D and enhancement (SD-E and IM-E factors. Fit and item properties were generally mediocre. SD-D and IM-E subscales were the strongest sources of misfit, thus SD-E and IM-D subscales were retained in the short form, which had good fit and replicated almost all main patterns of associations with other variables of interest (e.g., HEXACO personality traits typically reported for the full SDE and IM scales in other research. Thus, 17-item BIDR-6 short form, containing only SD-E and IM-D subscales, is recommended for use in the BCS speaking area.

  18. Software Defined Electronics: A Revolutionary Change in Design and Teaching Paradigm of RF Radio Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Kolumbán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Band-pass signals are used everywhere in radio communications. The band-pass property makes the substitution of each RF/microwave/ optical analog signal processing possible with a low-frequency digital one in Software Defined Electronics (SDE. In SDE, the high frequency band-pass signals are transformed into the BaseBand (BB by a universal HW device and every application is implemented in BB, entirely in software. SDE concept uses (i the lowest sampling rate attainable theoretically and (ii the same universal HW device in every application. The huge level of flexibility offered by the SW implementation is essential in many applications from cognitive radio to adaptive reconfigurable systems. This tutorial, written for interested readers who have no solid background in software defined radio, virtual instrumentation and SoC technology, surveys the SDE theory, uses a step-by-step approach for the derivation of BB equivalents and demonstrates the application of SDE concept in scientific research, prototyping and education.

  19. Weak-noise limit of a piecewise-smooth stochastic differential equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaming; Baule, Adrian; Touchette, Hugo; Just, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the validity and accuracy of weak-noise (saddle-point or instanton) approximations for piecewise-smooth stochastic differential equations (SDEs), taking as an illustrative example a piecewise-constant SDE, which serves as a simple model of Brownian motion with solid friction. For this model, we show that the weak-noise approximation of the path integral correctly reproduces the known propagator of the SDE at lowest order in the noise power, as well as the main features of the exact propagator with higher-order corrections, provided the singularity of the path integral associated with the nonsmooth SDE is treated with some heuristics. We also show that, as in the case of smooth SDEs, the deterministic paths of the noiseless system correctly describe the behavior of the nonsmooth SDE in the low-noise limit. Finally, we consider a smooth regularization of the piecewise-constant SDE and study to what extent this regularization can rectify some of the problems encountered when dealing with discontinuous drifts and singularities in SDEs.

  20. Study on in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of anodic reaction in SO_2 depolarized electrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Lulu; Zhang Ping; Chen Songzhe; Wang Laijun

    2014-01-01

    SO_2 depolarized electrolysis (SDE) is the pivotal reaction in hybrid sulfur process, one of the most promising approaches for mass hydrogen production without CO_2 emission. The net result of hybrid sulfur process is to split water into hydrogen and oxygen at a relatively low voltage, which will dramatically decrease the energy consumption for the production of hydrogen. The potential loss of SDE process could be separated into four components, i.e. reversible cell potential, anode overpotential, cathode overpotential and ohmic loss. So far, it has been identified that the total cell potential for the SO_2 depolarized electrolyzer is dominantly controlled by sulfuric acid concentration of the anolyte and electrolysis temperature of the electrolysis process. In this work, an in-situ Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement of the anodic SDE reaction was conducted. Results show that anodic overpotential is mainly resulted from the SO_2 oxidation reaction other than ohmic resistance or mass transfer limitation. This study extends the understanding to SDE process and gives suggestions for the further improvement of the SDE performance. (author)

  1. Construction of a Mean Square Error Adaptive Euler–Maruyama Method With Applications in Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-13

    A formal mean square error expansion (MSE) is derived for Euler-Maruyama numerical solutions of stochastic differential equations (SDE). The error expansion is used to construct a pathwise, a posteriori, adaptive time-stepping Euler-Maruyama algorithm for numerical solutions of SDE, and the resulting algorithm is incorporated into a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) algorithm for weak approximations of SDE. This gives an efficient MSE adaptive MLMC algorithm for handling a number of low-regularity approximation problems. In low-regularity numerical example problems, the developed adaptive MLMC algorithm is shown to outperform the uniform time-stepping MLMC algorithm by orders of magnitude, producing output whose error with high probability is bounded by TOL > 0 at the near-optimal MLMC cost rate б(TOL log(TOL)) that is achieved when the cost of sample generation is б(1).

  2. A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Daniel, E-mail: danieand@math.kth.se; Djehiche, Boualem, E-mail: boualem@math.kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  3. A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Daniel; Djehiche, Boualem

    2011-01-01

    We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  4. Advanced 65 nm CMOS devices fabricated using ultra-low energy plasma doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, S.; Lenoble, D.; Lallement, F.; Grouillet, A.; Erokhin, Y.; Singh, V.; Testoni, A.

    2005-01-01

    For leading edge CMOS and DRAM technologies, plasma doping (PLAD) offers several unique advantages over conventional beamline implantation. For ultra-low energy source and drain extensions (SDE), source drain contact and high dose poly doping implants PLAD delivers 2-5x higher throughput compared to beamline implanters. In this work we demonstrate process performance and process integration benefits enabled by plasma doping for advanced 65 nm CMOS devices. Specifically, p + /n ultra-shallow junctions formed with BF 3 plasma doping have superior X j /R s characteristics to beamline implants and yield up to 30% lower R s for 20 nm X j while using standard spike anneal with ramp-up rate of 75 deg. C/s. These results indicate that PLAD could extend applicability of standard spike anneal by at least one technology node past 65 nm. A CMOS split lot has been run to investigate process integration advantages unique to plasma doping and to determine CMOS device characteristics. Device data measured on 65 nm transistors fabricated with offset spacers indicate that devices with SDE formed by plasma doping have superior V t roll-off characteristics arguably due to improved lateral gate-overlap of PLAD SDE junctions. Furthermore, offset spacers could be eliminated in 65 nm devices with PLAD SDE implants while still achieving V t roll-off and I on -I off performance at least equivalent to control devices with offset spacers and SDE formed by beamline implantation. Thus, another advantage of PLAD is simplified 65 nm CMOS manufacturing process flow due to elimination of offset spacers. Finally, we present process transfer from beamline implants to PLAD for several applications, including SDE and gate poly doping with very high productivity

  5. Model identification using stochastic differential equation grey-box models in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe; Røge, Rikke Meldgaard; Møller, Jonas Bech; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    The acceptance of virtual preclinical testing of control algorithms is growing and thus also the need for robust and reliable models. Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can rarely be validated with standard statistical tools. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) offer the possibility of building models that can be validated statistically and that are capable of predicting not only a realistic trajectory, but also the uncertainty of the prediction. In an SDE, the prediction error is split into two noise terms. This separation ensures that the errors are uncorrelated and provides the possibility to pinpoint model deficiencies. An identifiable model of the glucoregulatory system in a type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patient is used as the basis for development of a stochastic-differential-equation-based grey-box model (SDE-GB). The parameters are estimated on clinical data from four T1DM patients. The optimal SDE-GB is determined from likelihood-ratio tests. Finally, parameter tracking is used to track the variation in the "time to peak of meal response" parameter. We found that the transformation of the ODE model into an SDE-GB resulted in a significant improvement in the prediction and uncorrelated errors. Tracking of the "peak time of meal absorption" parameter showed that the absorption rate varied according to meal type. This study shows the potential of using SDE-GBs in diabetes modeling. Improved model predictions were obtained due to the separation of the prediction error. SDE-GBs offer a solid framework for using statistical tools for model validation and model development. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Memoriaalkunst / Krista Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Krista, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Eestis uusajal. Surnu kujutisega hauaplaadid. Ballivi hauaplaat (1520) Tallinna Niguliste kirikus. O. Ryningi hauamonument (H. von Aken, 1594) ning P. De la Gardie ja S. Gyllenhielmi hauamonument (A. Passer, 1589-95) Tallinna toomkirikus. Passeri töökoja hauaplastika. 17. sajandi figuraalsed hauaplaadid. Heraldilised hauaplaadid ja tekstitahvlid. Raidkivist epitaafid (A. Passer, J. Winter, J. Hansson, B. Raschky). B. von Roseni kabeli ehissein (F. Hoppenstätt, 1655) Tallinna Niguliste kirikus. C. J Eckesparre perekonna epitaaf-uks (G. Böhme, 18. saj. keskpaik) Kaarma kirikus. J. Hastferi epitaaf (N. Millich?, A. Heroldt?, 1676) Tallinna toomkirikus. 17. sajandi lõpu ja 18. sajandi hauamonumendid (J. G. Stockenberg, J. G. Heroldt). Bilbiograafia lk. 458-460

  7. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupšys, P.

    2015-01-01

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE

  8. Polymicrobial subdural empyema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas; Clemmensen, Dorte; Ridderberg, Winnie

    2011-01-01

    were consistent with classical SDE symptoms and progressed rapidly with finally somnolence before the first neurosurgical procedure despite relevant antibiotic treatment. Primary MRI showed an interhemispheric SDE and a postoperative control CT scan showed progression of the empyema infratentorially....... The empyema was evacuated twice, day 8 and 18, with good results. Primary samples showed growth of S. intermedius only. The severity of the clinical picture elicited supplementary samples, which were additionally positive for S. pneumoniae by an in-house specific lytA PCR and/or a commercial antigen test....

  9. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  10. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupšys, P. [Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studenų g. 11, Akademija, Kaunas district, LT – 53361 Lithuania (Lithuania)

    2015-10-28

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.

  11. PROBLEM OF SUPPORTING THE VERSIONS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEM MOODLE IN THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii V. Semenets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moodle is one of the open-source software learning management system using to support an educational process. The problem of updating the outdated Moodle versions is studied in the article. It is shown a successful implementation of a modified version on the basis of I. Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University. The step-by-step manual of the updating and a new server migration process are described. Examples of the application of the virtualization techniques and version control system to the SDE Moodle system administration tasks solving are presented. The SDE Moodle server optimization and customization recommendations are also given.

  12. Modelling ventricular fibrillation coarseness during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by mixed effects stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kenneth; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Eftestøl, Trygve; Kramer-Johansen, Jo

    2015-10-15

    For patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and being in a shockable rhythm, the coarseness of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an indicator of the state of the patient. In the current work, we show how mixed effects stochastic differential equations (SDE) models, commonly used in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling, can be used to model the relationship between CPR quality measurements and ECG coarseness. This is a novel application of mixed effects SDE models to a setting quite different from previous applications of such models and where using such models nicely solves many of the challenges involved in analysing the available data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  14. Biologically-Inspired Spike-Based Automatic Speech Recognition of Isolated Digits Over a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel real-time dynamic framework for quantifying time-series structure in spoken words using spikes. Audio signals are converted into multi-channel spike trains using a biologically-inspired leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF spike generator. These spike trains are mapped into a function space of infinite dimension, i.e., a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS using point-process kernels, where a state-space model learns the dynamics of the multidimensional spike input using gradient descent learning. This kernelized recurrent system is very parsimonious and achieves the necessary memory depth via feedback of its internal states when trained discriminatively, utilizing the full context of the phoneme sequence. A main advantage of modeling nonlinear dynamics using state-space trajectories in the RKHS is that it imposes no restriction on the relationship between the exogenous input and its internal state. We are free to choose the input representation with an appropriate kernel, and changing the kernel does not impact the system nor the learning algorithm. Moreover, we show that this novel framework can outperform both traditional hidden Markov model (HMM speech processing as well as neuromorphic implementations based on spiking neural network (SNN, yielding accurate and ultra-low power word spotters. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its capabilities using the benchmark TI-46 digit corpus for isolated-word automatic speech recognition (ASR or keyword spotting. Compared to HMM using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC front-end without time-derivatives, our MFCC-KAARMA offered improved performance. For spike-train front-end, spike-KAARMA also outperformed state-of-the-art SNN solutions. Furthermore, compared to MFCCs, spike trains provided enhanced noise robustness in certain low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR regime.

  15. Biologically-Inspired Spike-Based Automatic Speech Recognition of Isolated Digits Over a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kan; Príncipe, José C

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel real-time dynamic framework for quantifying time-series structure in spoken words using spikes. Audio signals are converted into multi-channel spike trains using a biologically-inspired leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) spike generator. These spike trains are mapped into a function space of infinite dimension, i.e., a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) using point-process kernels, where a state-space model learns the dynamics of the multidimensional spike input using gradient descent learning. This kernelized recurrent system is very parsimonious and achieves the necessary memory depth via feedback of its internal states when trained discriminatively, utilizing the full context of the phoneme sequence. A main advantage of modeling nonlinear dynamics using state-space trajectories in the RKHS is that it imposes no restriction on the relationship between the exogenous input and its internal state. We are free to choose the input representation with an appropriate kernel, and changing the kernel does not impact the system nor the learning algorithm. Moreover, we show that this novel framework can outperform both traditional hidden Markov model (HMM) speech processing as well as neuromorphic implementations based on spiking neural network (SNN), yielding accurate and ultra-low power word spotters. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its capabilities using the benchmark TI-46 digit corpus for isolated-word automatic speech recognition (ASR) or keyword spotting. Compared to HMM using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) front-end without time-derivatives, our MFCC-KAARMA offered improved performance. For spike-train front-end, spike-KAARMA also outperformed state-of-the-art SNN solutions. Furthermore, compared to MFCCs, spike trains provided enhanced noise robustness in certain low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime.

  16. Hybrid Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Algorithm for Non-Smooth Observables of Itô Stochastic Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo forward Euler method with uniform time stepping is the standard technique to compute an approximation of the expected payoff of a solution of an Itô SDE. For a given accuracy requirement TOL, the complexity of this technique for well

  17. A Convergence Result for the Euler-Maruyama Method for a Simple Stochastic Differential Equation with Discontinuous Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria; Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef

    2014-01-01

    The Euler-Maruyama method is applied to a simple stochastic differential equation (SDE) with discontinuous drift. Convergence aspects are investigated in the case, where the Euler-Maruyama method is simulated in dyadic points. A strong rate of convergence is presented for the numerical simulations...

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on distribution of starch granules in different regions of wheat endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study provided visual evidence of a nitrogen effect on starch granules (SGs in wheat endosperm. Winter wheat (Titicum aestivum L. cultivar Xumai 30 was cultured under no nitrogen (control and 240 kg ha− 1 of nitrogen applied at the booting stage. The number, morphology, and size of A- and B-type SGs in subaleurone of dorsal endosperm (SDE, center of dorsal endosperm (CDE, modified aleurone (MA, subaleurone of ventral endosperm (SVE, and center of ventral endosperm (CVE were observed under light and electron microscopes. (1 The distribution of SGs in SDE was similar to that in SVE, the distributions of SGs in CDE and CVE were similar, but the distribution of SGs in MA was different from those in the other four endosperm regions. The number of SGs in the five endosperm regions was in the order SDE > CDE > SVE > CVE > MA. (2 Nitrogen increased the number of A- and B-type SGs in SDE and SVE. Nitrogen also increased the number of B-type SGs but decreased the number of A-type SGs in CDE and CVE. Nitrogen decreased the numbers of A-type and B-type SGs in MA. The results suggest that increased N fertilizer application mainly increased the numbers of small SGs and decreased the numbers of large SGs, but that the results varied in different regions of the wheat endosperm.

  19. Riigipea valimise hooajale anti läbinähtav start / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    IRL-i, Reformierakonna, SDE ja roheliste fraktsioon algatasid Vabariigi Presidendi valimise seaduse muutmise, mille vastuvõtmise korral lõpeks olukord, kus suurtes omavalitsustes valib valijamehed välja vaid enamuses olev poliitiline jõud. Autori hinnangul on tegemist selgelt Tallinnale suunatud muudatusega. Edgar Savisaare võimalikust kandideerimisest 2011. a. presidendivalimistel. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Presidendivalimiste esimesed noodid

  20. A stochastic differential equation analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kalyan

    2011-01-18

    Clinical measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP) over time show fluctuations around the deterministic time path predicted by a classic mathematical model in hydrocephalus research. Thus an important issue in mathematical research on hydrocephalus remains unaddressed--modeling the effect of noise on CSF dynamics. Our objective is to mathematically model the noise in the data. The classic model relating the temporal evolution of ICP in pressure-volume studies to infusions is a nonlinear differential equation based on natural physical analogies between CSF dynamics and an electrical circuit. Brownian motion was incorporated into the differential equation describing CSF dynamics to obtain a nonlinear stochastic differential equation (SDE) that accommodates the fluctuations in ICP. The SDE is explicitly solved and the dynamic probabilities of exceeding critical levels of ICP under different clinical conditions are computed. A key finding is that the probabilities display strong threshold effects with respect to noise. Above the noise threshold, the probabilities are significantly influenced by the resistance to CSF outflow and the intensity of the noise. Fluctuations in the CSF formation rate increase fluctuations in the ICP and they should be minimized to lower the patient's risk. The nonlinear SDE provides a scientific methodology for dynamic risk management of patients. The dynamic output of the SDE matches the noisy ICP data generated by the actual intracranial dynamics of patients better than the classic model used in prior research.

  1. A stochastic differential equation analysis of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kalyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP over time show fluctuations around the deterministic time path predicted by a classic mathematical model in hydrocephalus research. Thus an important issue in mathematical research on hydrocephalus remains unaddressed--modeling the effect of noise on CSF dynamics. Our objective is to mathematically model the noise in the data. Methods The classic model relating the temporal evolution of ICP in pressure-volume studies to infusions is a nonlinear differential equation based on natural physical analogies between CSF dynamics and an electrical circuit. Brownian motion was incorporated into the differential equation describing CSF dynamics to obtain a nonlinear stochastic differential equation (SDE that accommodates the fluctuations in ICP. Results The SDE is explicitly solved and the dynamic probabilities of exceeding critical levels of ICP under different clinical conditions are computed. A key finding is that the probabilities display strong threshold effects with respect to noise. Above the noise threshold, the probabilities are significantly influenced by the resistance to CSF outflow and the intensity of the noise. Conclusions Fluctuations in the CSF formation rate increase fluctuations in the ICP and they should be minimized to lower the patient's risk. The nonlinear SDE provides a scientific methodology for dynamic risk management of patients. The dynamic output of the SDE matches the noisy ICP data generated by the actual intracranial dynamics of patients better than the classic model used in prior research.

  2. An irregular grid approach for pricing high-dimensional American options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berridge, S.J.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and test a new method for pricing American options in a high-dimensional setting. The method is centered around the approximation of the associated complementarity problem on an irregular grid. We approximate the partial differential operator on this grid by appealing to the SDE

  3. Arnold Rüütel : kui lapsi ei sünni, kes siis Eesti ühiskonnas väärtusi loob? / Arnold Rüütel ; intervjueerinud Kärt Karpa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Arnold, 1928-

    2007-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema praegust tegevust, Eestis taasiseseisvumise järel tehtud vigu, maapiirkondade kõrvalejäämist, Eesti poliitika ideoloogia muutumist taasiseseisvumisest alates, suhtumist ülemnõukogu saadikuisse, pronksööd, Rahvaliitu, suhtumist Rahvaliidu ja SDE võimalikku ühinemisse

  4. Modeling animal movements using stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

    2004-01-01

    We describe the use of bivariate stochastic differential equations (SDE) for modeling movements of 216 radiocollared female Rocky Mountain elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeastern Oregon. Spatially and temporally explicit vector fields were estimated using approximating difference equations and nonparametric regression techniques. Estimated...

  5. Rahvaliidu kants Palamusel käärib / Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Rein, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvaliidu Jõgeva maakonna juhi Riina Kulli väitel pole ükski sotsiaaldemokraat ega Rahvaliidu liider käinud kohapeal kahe erakonna võimalikku liitumist selgitamas. Palamuse elanike arvamusi Rahvaliidu ja SDE võimaliku ühinemise kohta

  6. Improving Deterrence of Hard-Core Cartels

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Tavares de Araujo

    2010-01-01

    Holding perpetrators accountable and tailoring the optimal mix of sanctions through a combination of administrative and criminal penalties are two core elements of Brazil’s anti-cartel enforcement. Mariana Tavares de Araujo (SDE, Brazil)

  7. Pärnu linnavalitsuse hinnang esimesele valitsemisaastale / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Ajaleht esitas Pärnu linnajuhtidele kolm küsimust. Vastasid linnapea Mart Viisitamm, abilinnapea majanduse valdkonnas Raul Sarandi, abilinnapea arengu ja planeerimise valdkonnas Mart Alliku, abilinnapea kultuuri, spordi ja sotsiaalvaldkonnas Margus Tammekivi ja linnavalitsuse liige turvalisuse valdkonnas Simmo Saar. Arvamust avaldavad Reformierakonna Pärnu piirkonna esimees Väino Hallik ja SDE esindaja Pärnu linnavolikogus Valter Parve

  8. Cheap arbitrary high order methods for single integrand SDEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne

    2017-01-01

    For a particular class of Stratonovich SDE problems, here denoted as single integrand SDEs, we prove that by applying a deterministic Runge-Kutta method of order $p_d$ we obtain methods converging in the mean-square and weak sense with order $\\lfloor p_d/2\\rfloor$. The reason is that the B-series...

  9. Land Evaluation of an Agricultural Landscape in Dingyadi District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2013), 21(2): 148-156 ... In land fertility capability classification (FCC) soil units TLL 1, TUP 2 and. TUP3 were classified as LSg, Lde and Sde ..... Systems (EOLSS). Vomocil, J.A (1965) ...

  10. Which Aspects of the English Language Do Distance Learners Find Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, George Boon Sai; Lin, Agnes Liau Wei; Belaja, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a research carried out on distance learners at the School of Distance Education (SDE), University Sains Malaysia (USM). The study was explorative in nature with the purpose identifying the aspects of the English language which distance learners found difficult to learn. A quantitative survey questionnaire design…

  11. Energy Simulation of a Holographic PVT Concentrating System for Building Integration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marín-Sáez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A building integrated holographic concentrating photovoltaic-thermal system has been optically and energetically simulated. The system has been designed to be superimposed into a solar shading louvre; in this way the concentrating unit takes profit of the solar altitude tracking, which the shading blinds already have, to increase system performance. A dynamic energy simulation has been conducted in two different locations—Sde Boker (Israel and Avignon (France—both with adequate annual irradiances for solar applications, but with different weather and energy demand characteristics. The simulation engine utilized has been TRNSYS, coupled with MATLAB (where the ray-tracing algorithm to simulate the holographic optical performance has been implemented. The concentrator achieves annual mean optical efficiencies of 30.3% for Sde Boker and 43.0% for the case of Avignon. Regarding the energy production, in both locations the thermal energy produced meets almost 100% of the domestic hot water demand as this has been considered a priority in the system control. On the other hand, the space heating demands are covered by a percentage ranging from 15% (Avignon to 20% (Sde Boker. Finally, the electricity produced in both places covers 7.4% of the electrical demand profile for Sde Boker and 9.1% for Avignon.

  12. Stochastic differential equations used to model conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are used to model horizontal transfer of antibiotic resis- tance by conjugation. The model describes the concentration of donor, recipient, transconjugants and substrate. The strength of the SDE model over the traditional ODE models is that the noise can...

  13. Prêt-à-Loger : Zero-energy home with maximum living quality increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    At the Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 (SDE2014) competition (Versailles, France), the team from the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) took a stance by not constructing a new-built house but demonstrating the energy renovation of a typical Dutch terraced house. Around a quarter of Dutch housing

  14. Kodanikud liistude juurde / Jarno Laur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Jarno, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu liikme väitel on kolmanda sektori kaasamine praegu näiline, valitsuskoalitsiooni kuuluvad erakonnad lähtuvad põhimõttest, et poliitikutel on õigus juhtida kõike. SDE valimisprogramm näeb sotsiaalpartnerlust ja kodanike osalust võimu teostamisel ainsa viisina saavutada riik, mis kaitseb rahva ühishuve

  15. A Holistic Approach to Delivering Sustainable Design Education in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemury, Chandra Mouli; Heidrich, Oliver; Thorpe, Neil; Crosbie, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present pedagogical approaches developed and implemented to deliver sustainable design education (SDE) to second-year undergraduate students on civil engineering programmes in the (then) School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at Newcastle University. In doing so, the work presented offers an example of…

  16. An Irregular Grid Approach for Pricing High-Dimensional American Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berridge, S.J.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We propose and test a new method for pricing American options in a high-dimensional setting.The method is centred around the approximation of the associated complementarity problem on an irregular grid.We approximate the partial differential operator on this grid by appealing to the SDE

  17. Madalaid palku tõstaks palgalepe / Piret Pert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pert, Piret

    2006-01-01

    SDE aseesimehe Eiki Nestori sõnul peaks valitsus sõlmima konkreetsed palgalepped politseinike, päästetöötajate ja kõigi riigiametnike palkade kohta, see tõstaks tegelikult töötajate sissetulekuid. Riigikogu liikme Kadi Pärnitsa arvamus

  18. CARCINOME vERRUqUEUx dU LARYNx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 mai 2013 ... InT. j. raDIaTIOn OnCOLOGY BIOL. PHYS.,. 2009; Vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1110–1115. 18 Demian SDe, Bushkin FL, echevarria ra. Perineural invasion and anaplas- tic transformation of verrucous carcinoma. CanCer, 1973; 32: 395-401. 19 Barr GS, Osborne j, Simpson jrm. Late response of verrucous carcinoma.

  19. A Synchronous Distance Education Course for Non-Scientists Coordinated among Three Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamara Floyd; Baah, David; Bradley, James; Sidler, Michelle; Hall, Rosine; Daughtrey, Terrell; Curtis, Christine

    2010-01-01

    A Synchronous Distance Education (SDE) course, jointly offered by Auburn University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University at Montgomery, introduced non-science majors to the concepts of nanoscience. Lectures originated from each of the three campuses during the semester, and video conferencing equipment allowed students at all three campuses…

  20. Reabilitatsija poka ne udalass / Aleksandr Shegedin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shegedin, Aleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu lükkas tagasi Isamaaliidu ja SDE fraktsioonide poolt esitatud eelnõu, mis oleks andnud isikutele, kes olid võitluses Eesti Vabariigi iseseisvuse eest nõukogude kohtute poolt süüdimõistetud, täiendava võimaluse rehabiliteerimistaotluste esitamiseks

  1. Pricing and hedging high-dimensional American options : an irregular grid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berridge, S.; Schumacher, H.

    2002-01-01

    We propose and test a new method for pricing American options in a high dimensional setting. The method is centred around the approximation of the associated variational inequality on an irregular grid. We approximate the partial differential operator on this grid by appealing to the SDE

  2. SoftAR: visually manipulating haptic softness perception in spatial augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punpongsanon, Parinya; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2015-11-01

    We present SoftAR, a novel spatial augmented reality (AR) technique based on a pseudo-haptics mechanism that visually manipulates the sense of softness perceived by a user pushing a soft physical object. Considering the limitations of projection-based approaches that change only the surface appearance of a physical object, we propose two projection visual effects, i.e., surface deformation effect (SDE) and body appearance effect (BAE), on the basis of the observations of humans pushing physical objects. The SDE visualizes a two-dimensional deformation of the object surface with a controlled softness parameter, and BAE changes the color of the pushing hand. Through psychophysical experiments, we confirm that the SDE can manipulate softness perception such that the participant perceives significantly greater softness than the actual softness. Furthermore, fBAE, in which BAE is applied only for the finger area, significantly enhances manipulation of the perception of softness. We create a computational model that estimates perceived softness when SDE+fBAE is applied. We construct a prototype SoftAR system in which two application frameworks are implemented. The softness adjustment allows a user to adjust the softness parameter of a physical object, and the softness transfer allows the user to replace the softness with that of another object.

  3. Mechanism of subdural effusion evolves into chronic subdural hematoma: IL-8 inducing neutrophil oxidative burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiqiang; Lin, Yingying; Hu, Maotong; Ding, Shenghong; Li, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is still a mysterious disease. Though great success has been has achieved by neuro-surgery treatment, the origin and development of CSDH remains unknown. Tremendous clinical observations have found the correlation of subdural effusion (SDE) and CSDH. However, systematic elucidation of CSDH's origin and progression is lacking while almost all the current hypothesis only explained partial phenomenon. This hypothesis proposes Interleukin (IL)-8 inducing neutrophil respiratory burst is the crucial impact when SDE evolves into CSDH. IL-8 initially secreted by dural border layer cells, accumulates and the concentration of IL-8 rises in the SDE cavity. Accompanied by the formation of neo-membrane under the dura meninges, IL-8 firstly prompts to establish the neo-vasculature in it, and then attracts lymphocytes aggregation in the neo-membrane. Both the newly recruited lymphocytes and endothelial cells assist the further elevation of local IL-8 concentration. When the IL-8 concentration elevated to a particular level, it attracts neutrophils to the inner wall of neo-vessels and primes them to oxidative burst. Lysosomes and superoxide released by these neutrophils make the fragile neo-capillary became leaky, and subsequently the plasma and blood cells run into SDE. However, as long as the erythrocytes come into the cavity, they shall bind large quantity of IL-8 and decrease IL-8 concentration to a lower level relatively that reduce the neutrophils recruit. When this negative feedback is stagnancy, for example, the SDE space is so large in elder man who is experiencing brain atrophy, the neo-vessels have to release more erythrocytes to bind IL-8, the liquid cavity will expand and the high intracranial pressure symptoms appeared. Our hypothesis holds potential for the proper therapeutic intervention of CSDH. IL-8 antagonist and other anti-inflammation drugs like macrolides antibiotics, glucocorticoid and atorvastatin might be optional to resist

  4. Clinical outcomes in traumatic pseudophacocele: A rare clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic pseudophacocele. In this retrospective, interventional case series, scleral wound repair with pars plana vitrectomy and glued intrascleral fixation of an intraocular lens (glued IOL) was performed in 5 eyes of 5 patients. Pupilloplasty was performed in 3 cases whereas aniridia glued IOL fixation was done in 1 case that had total avulsion and loss of iris tissue. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraoperative and postoperative complications during the entire follow-up period. The preoperative vision ranged from hand movement to perception of light in all the patients. The mean postoperative BCVA was 0.42 ± 0.21 Snellen's decimal equivalent (SDE) at final follow-up. Postoperatively, all the cases retained good visual acuity with case 1 and case 2 reporting 0.5 SDE, case 3 had 0.33 SDE, case 5 had 0.67 SDE whereas case 4 had a final visual acuity limited to 0.1 SDE due to associated corneal opacity. The mean follow-up period was 20.2 ± 11.7 months (range from 9 months to 36 months). The IOL was well centered, all the wounds were well apposed and the mean postoperative intraocular pressure was 14.6 ± 1.95 mm Hg. No complications were reported in the entire follow-up period. The clinical outcomes of management of pseudophacocele were encouraging with retention of reasonably good visual potential in all cases.

  5. Education for sustainable development and game theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Corridoni

    2014-01-01

    Un gioco di ruolo ottenuto da uno studio di caso di Educazione allo Sviluppo Sostenibile (ESS (Kyburz-Graber et al., 2006; Kyburz-Graber et al., 2010; Wilhelm, 2006 è stato adattato e sperimentato per stabilire in termini di Teoria dei Giochi (TdG (Von Neumann and Morgenstern, 1953; Osborne and Rubinstein, 1994 se portasse i giocatori a scegliere strategie basate su processi cognitivi, sociali e valoriali tipici dell׳ESS (Kyburz-Graber, 2006. Sperimentazioni su docenti in formazione di scuola primaria e secondaria hanno mostrato che: 1 i giocatori imparano a selezionare strategie di equilibrio (SdE pure e miste, identificando in particolare l׳equilibrio di Nash come SdE di minimo rischio; 2 la scelta delle SdE si basa su una valutazione etica e scientifica del problema, per la quale i giocatori utilizzano competenze proprie dell׳ESS: se privilegiano quelle di mobilitazione, orientate da valori, tendono a una visione valoriale del gioco, identificato con il problema di ESS; se privilegiano quelle di analisi, legate a saperi tecnico-scientifici, tendono a una visione strategica, nella quale il gioco è un processo in sé; 3 nel gioco le due visioni evolvono o si radicalizzano, nei giocatori e nel gruppo, correlate retroattivamente da particolari dinamiche sociali innescate dalla stessa scelta delle SdE. Una sostenibilità stabile e consapevole si ottiene qualora le due visioni si integrino, condizione essenziale affinché “vincere la partita” significhi anche raggiungere obiettivi di ESS; 4 la struttura e le regole del gioco, in particolare il rapporto fra il numero dei giocatori e quello delle SdE pure, influenzano i processi osservati.

  6. Análisis de compuestos volátiles en cilantro ( L. Análisis de compuestos volátiles en cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábata Rosales-Reyes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, volatile compounds were recovered from the fresh leaves and stems ofcilantro (Coriandrum sativum L. by two methods: Liquid-Solid Extraction (LSE and SimultaneousDistillation-Extraction (SDE. The identification and quantification was done byGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Fourteen compounds were characterizedby LSE and GC-MS; whereas by SDE and GC-MS, they were twenty three compounds.The statistical analysis revealed significant quantitative differences (p ≤ 0,05 between theanalyzed techniques (LSE and SDE. In this work, the Simultaneous Distillation-Extractionshowed the greater identification and total concentration of volatile compounds. Aldehydes,monoterpenes, and alcohols comprised 78% of the volatile found for two methods, the restwere hydrocarbons. (E-2-decenal was the most abundant compound in cilantro in bothextraction techniques. En el presente estudio se recuperaron los compuestos volátiles de las hojas y los tallos frescos de cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L. mediante dos métodos: Extracción Sólido Líquido (LSE y Extracción-Destilación Simultánea (SDE. La identificación y cuantificación fue por Cromatografía de Gases-Espectrometría de Masas (GC-MS. Se caracterizaron catorce compuestos por LSE y GC-MS; mientras que por SDE y GC-MS, fueron veintitrés compuestos. El análisis estadístico reveló significativas diferencias cuantitativas (p ≤ 0,05 entre las técnicas analizadas (LSE y SDE. En este trabajo, la Extracción-Destilación Simultánea arrojó la mayor identificación y concentración total de compuestos volátiles. Los aldehídos, monoterpenos y alcoholes comprendieron el 78% de los volátiles encontrados por los dos métodos, el resto fueron hidrocarburos. En ambas técnicas de extracción el (E-2-decenal fue el compuesto más abundante en el cilantro.

  7. Accelerated Genetic Algorithm Solutions Of Some Parametric Families Of Stochastic Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ali Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Absract In this project A new method for solving Stochastic Differential Equations SDEs deriving by Wiener process numerically will be construct and implement using Accelerated Genetic Algorithm AGA. An SDE is a differential equation in which one or more of the terms and hence the solutions itself is a stochastic process. Solving stochastic differential equations requires going away from the recognizable deterministic setting of ordinary and partial differential equations into a world where the evolution of a quantity has an inherent random component and where the expected behavior of this quantity can be described in terms of probability distributions. We applied our method on the Ito formula which is equivalent to the SDE to find approximation solution of the SDEs. Numerical experiments illustrate the behavior of the proposed method.

  8. Impression management and achievement motivation: Investigating substantive links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Aldhobaiban, Nawal; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Khyat, Aber

    2018-02-01

    In this research, we investigate impression management (IM) as a substantive personality variable by linking it to differentiated achievement motivation constructs, namely achievement motives (workmastery, competitiveness, fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance). Study 1 revealed that IM was a positive predictor of workmastery and a negative predictor of competitiveness (with and without self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) controlled). Studies 2a and 2b revealed that IM was a positive predictor of mastery-approach goals and mastery-avoidance goals (without and, in Study 2b, with SDE controlled). These findings highlight the value of conceptualising and utilising IM as a personality variable in its own right and shed light on the nature of the achievement motive and achievement goal constructs. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Treatment of a subdural empyema complicated by intracerebral abscess due to Brucella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old male presented with fever, stupor, aphasia, and left hemiparesis. A history of head trauma 3 months before was also reported. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed slight contrast enhancement of lesions under the right frontal skull plate and right frontal lobe. Because of deterioration in nutritional status and intracranial hypertension, the patient was prepared for burr hole surgery. A subdural empyema (SDE recurred after simple drainage. After detection of Brucella species in SDE, craniotomy combined with antibiotic treatment was undertaken. The patient received antibiotic therapy for 6 months (two doses of 2 g ceftriaxone, two doses of 100 mg doxycycline, and 700 mg rifapentine for 6 months that resulted in complete cure of the infection. Thus, it was speculated that the preexisting subdural hematoma was formed after head trauma, which was followed by a hematogenous infection caused by Brucella species.

  10. Stochastic calculus for fractional Brownian motion and related processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mishura, Yuliya S

    2008-01-01

    The theory of fractional Brownian motion and other long-memory processes are addressed in this volume. Interesting topics for PhD students and specialists in probability theory, stochastic analysis and financial mathematics demonstrate the modern level of this field. Among these are results about Levy characterization of fractional Brownian motion, maximal moment inequalities for Wiener integrals including the values 0SDE involving additive Wiener integrals, and of solutions of the mixed Brownian—fractional Brownian SDE. The author develops optimal filtering of mixed models including linear case, and studies financial applications and statistical inference with hypotheses testing and parameter estimation. She proves that the market with stock guided by the mixed model is arbitrage-free without any restriction on the dependence of the components and deduces different forms of the Black-Scholes equation for fractional mark...

  11. Stochastic models for the Trojan Y-Chromosome eradication strategy of an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Walton, Jay R; Parshad, Rana D

    2016-01-01

    The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we develop a Markov jump process model for this strategy, and we verify that there is a positive probability for wild-type females going extinct within a finite time. Moreover, when sex-reversed Trojan females are introduced at a constant population size, we formulate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model as an approximation to the proposed Markov jump process model. Using the SDE model, we investigate the probability distribution and expectation of the extinction time of wild-type females by solving Kolmogorov equations associated with these statistics. The results indicate how the probability distribution and expectation of the extinction time are shaped by the initial conditions and the model parameters.

  12. A stochastic SIRS epidemic model with infectious force under intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongli; Kang, Yun; Banerjee, Malay; Wang, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we extend a classical SIRS epidemic model with the infectious forces under intervention strategies from a deterministic framework to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) one through introducing random fluctuations. The value of our study lies in two aspects. Mathematically, by using the Markov semigroups theory, we prove that the reproduction number R0S can be used to govern the stochastic dynamics of SDE model. If R0S 1, under mild extra conditions, it has an endemic stationary distribution which leads to the stochastical persistence of the disease. Epidemiologically, we find that random fluctuations can suppress disease outbreak, which can provide us some useful control strategies to regulate disease dynamics.

  13. Using random walk in models specified by stochastic differential equations to determine the best expression for the bacterial growth rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    method allows us to develop a new expression for the growth rate. The method is based on the stochastic continuous-discrete time state-space model, with a continuous-time state equation (a stochastic differential equation, SDE) combined with a discrete-time measurement equation. In our study the SDE...... described by Kristensen et. al [2]. The resulting time series allows us graphically to inspect the functional dependence of the growth rate on the substrate content. From the method described above we find three new plausible expressions for μ(S). Therefore we apply the likelihood-ratio test to compare...... for the Monod expression. Thus, the method was applied to successfully determine a significant better expression for the substrate dependent growth expression, and we find the method generally applicable for model development. References [1] Kristensen NR, Madsen H, Jørgensen, SB (2004) A method for systematic...

  14. Individualism in plant populations: using stochastic differential equations to model individual neighbourhood-dependent plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiming; Schneider, Manuel K; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2008-08-01

    We study individual plant growth and size hierarchy formation in an experimental population of Arabidopsis thaliana, within an integrated analysis that explicitly accounts for size-dependent growth, size- and space-dependent competition, and environmental stochasticity. It is shown that a Gompertz-type stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, involving asymmetric competition kernels and a stochastic term which decreases with the logarithm of plant weight, efficiently describes individual plant growth, competition, and variability in the studied population. The model is evaluated within a Bayesian framework and compared to its deterministic counterpart, and to several simplified stochastic models, using distributional validation. We show that stochasticity is an important determinant of size hierarchy and that SDE models outperform the deterministic model if and only if structural components of competition (asymmetry; size- and space-dependence) are accounted for. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of plant ecology and in more general modelling situations.

  15. MENENTUKAN PORTOFOLIO OPTIMAL PADA PASAR SAHAM YANG BERGERAK DENGAN MODEL GERAK BROWN GEOMETRI MULTIDIMENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RISKA YUNITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Model of stock price movements that follow stochastic process can be formulated in Stochastic Diferential Equation (SDE. The exact solution of SDE model is called Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM model. Determination the optimal portfolio of three asset that follows Multidimensional GBM model is to be carried out in this research.Multidimensional GBM model represents stock price in the future is affected by three parameter, there are expectation of stock return, risk stock, and correlation between stock return. Therefore, theory of portfolio Markowitz is used on formation of optimal portfolio. Portfolio Markowitz formulates three of same parameter that is calculated on Multidimensional GBM model. The result of this research are optimal portfolio reaches with the proportion of fund are 39,38% for stock BBCA, 59,82% for stock ICBP, and 0,80% for stock INTP. This proportion of fund represents value of parameters that is calculated on modelling stock price.

  16. Modeling of long-range memory processes with inverse cubic distributions by the nonlinear stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulakys, B.; Alaburda, M.; Ruseckas, J.

    2016-05-01

    A well-known fact in the financial markets is the so-called ‘inverse cubic law’ of the cumulative distributions of the long-range memory fluctuations of market indicators such as a number of events of trades, trading volume and the logarithmic price change. We propose the nonlinear stochastic differential equation (SDE) giving both the power-law behavior of the power spectral density and the long-range dependent inverse cubic law of the cumulative distribution. This is achieved using the suggestion that when the market evolves from calm to violent behavior there is a decrease of the delay time of multiplicative feedback of the system in comparison to the driving noise correlation time. This results in a transition from the Itô to the Stratonovich sense of the SDE and yields a long-range memory process.

  17. Probabilistic Forecasts of Wind Power Generation by Stochastic Differential Equation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Zugno, Marco; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind power has resulted in larger shares of volatile sources of supply in power systems worldwide. In order to operate such systems efficiently, methods for reliable probabilistic forecasts of future wind power production are essential. It is well known...... that the conditional density of wind power production is highly dependent on the level of predicted wind power and prediction horizon. This paper describes a new approach for wind power forecasting based on logistic-type stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The SDE formulation allows us to calculate both state......-dependent conditional uncertainties as well as correlation structures. Model estimation is performed by maximizing the likelihood of a multidimensional random vector while accounting for the correlation structure defined by the SDE formulation. We use non-parametric modelling to explore conditional correlation...

  18. A unique deubiquitinase that deconjugates phosphoribosyl-linked protein ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Yu, Kaiwen; Fei, Xiaowen; Liu, Yao; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Shaw, Jared B.; Puvar, Kedar; Das, Chittaranjan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2017-05-12

    Ubiquitination regulates many aspects of host immunity and thus is a common target for infectious agents. Recent studies revealed that members of the SidE effector family of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila attacked several small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum by a novel ubiquitination mechanism that does not require the E1 and E2 enzymes of the host ubiquitination machinery. Following ubiquitin activation by ADP- ribosylation via a mono-ADP-ribosylation motif, ADP-ribosylated ubiquitin is cleaved by a phosphodiesterasedomainwithinSdeA,whichisconcomitantwiththelinkof phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to serine residues in the substrate. Here we demonstrate that the activity of SidEs is regulated by SidJ, another effector encoded by a gene situated in the locus coding for three members of the SidE family (SdeC, SdeB and SdeA). SidJ functions to remove ubiquitin from SidEs-modified substrates by cleaving the phosphodiester bond that links phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to protein substrates. Further, the deubiquitinase activity of SidJ is essential for its role in L. pneumophila infection. Finally, the activity of SidJ is required for efficiently reducing the abundance of ubiquitinated Rab33b in infected cells within a few hours after bacterial uptake. Our results establish SidJ as a deubiquitinase that functions to impose temporal regulation of the activity of the SidE effectors. The identification of SidJ may shed light on future study of signaling cascades mediated by this unique ubiquitination that also potentially regulates cellular processes in eukaryotic cells.

  19. Toimetulekutoetusteks mõeldud raha jääb ligi 200 miljonit üle / Kadri Ibrus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ibrus, Kadri

    2007-01-01

    Toimetulekutoetuse saajate arv on vähenenud, seetõttu on kahe aastaga jäänud üle ligi 200 miljonit krooni. Riigikogu SDE fraktsioon on teinud ettepaneku suurendada toimetulekutoetust 100 krooni võrra. Kuidas on ülejäänud raha kasutanud Tallinn. Diagramm: Ligi pool toetusteks mõeldud summast jääb välja maksmata

  20. Sintomatología depresiva y problemas relacionados al consumo de alcohol durante la formación académica de estudiantes de medicina Depressive symptomatology and alcohol-related problems during the academic training of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Valle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la frecuencia de sintomatología depresiva (SDe y problemas relacionados al consumo de alcohol (PRCA durante la formación académica de estudiantes de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, se realizó un estudio transversal en estos estudiantes, del primero a sexto año. Usando la escala de depresión de Zung, para evaluar SDe, y el cuestionario CAGE, para evaluar PRCA, se encontró que el 23,3% de los encuestados presentó SDe y el 7,3%, PRCA. Se encontró, así mismo que la frecuencia de SDe y PRCA fue mayor en los estudiantes de los primeros años de estudios. Se recomienda que hay necesidad de actuar en la prevención y detección de estas entidades desde los primeros años de formación académica de estudiantes de MedicinaIn order to evaluate the frequency of depressive symptomatology (DS and alcohol-related problems (ARP during the academic training of medical students from Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from first to sixth year of career. The Zung Self-Rating depression scale was used to evaluate DS and the CAGE questionnaire to evaluate ARP. 23.3% of participants had DS, and 7.3% had ARP. We found that the frequency of DS and ARP was higher among students in the first years of career. We recommend it is necessary to take action in the prevention and detection of these disorders from the first years of training of medical students

  1. Final Report for project titled "New fluoroionomer electrolytes with high conductivity and low SO2 crossover for use in electrolyzers being developed for hydrogen production from nuclear power plants"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis W. Smith; Stephen Creager

    2012-09-13

    Thermochemical water splitting cycles, using the heat of nuclear power plants, offer an alternate highly efficient route for the production of hydrogen. Among the many possible thermochemical cycles for the hydrogen production, the sulfur-based cycles lead the competition in overall energy efficiency. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce hydrogen. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) selected the fuel cell MEA design concept for the SDE in the HyS process since the MEA concept provides a much smaller cell footprint than conventional parallel plate technology. The electrolyzer oxidizes sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid at the anode and reduces protons to form hydrogen at the cathode. The overall electrochemical cell reaction consists of the production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. There is a significant need to provide the membrane materials that exhibit reduced sulfur dioxide transport characteristics without sacrificing other important properties such as high ionic conductivity and excellent chemical stability in highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions saturated with sulfur dioxide. As an alternative membrane, sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether polymer (sPFCB) were expected to posses low SO2 permeability due to their stiff backbones as well as high proton conductivity, improved mechanical properties. The major accomplishments of this project were the synthesis, characterizations, and optimizations of suitable electrolyzers for good SDE performance and higher chemical stability against sulfuric acid. SDE performance results of developed sPFCB polyelectrolytes have shown that these membranes exhibit good chemical stability against H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  2. Institutional services and altmetrics as drivers for a cultural transition to open scholarship

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, David

    2015-01-01

    Delivered at the 2:AM altmetrics conference (7th Oct 2015)http://www.altmetricsconference.com/schedule/details.html#open-science Video available:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZxcSmSdeMY The causal effect to the impact of scholarly outputs disseminated under an open model may be mirrored in the statistical analysis provided by Altmetrics. In the wake of technological developments and funder expectations, we at Brunel University London have a longstanding commitment for open access to ...

  3. Real time programming environment for Windows, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-05

    This appendix contains all source code for the RTProE system. The following file contents are included: pdb.h; hgen.l; hgen.y; igen.l; igen.y; pdm.l; pdm.y; rtdata.l; rtdata.y; framegen.c; librt.c; librt.h; rtsched.c; build.tsh; sde.tcl; rtsched.def.

  4. Riigiettevõtete börsile viimine aitaks majandust turgutada / Helga Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helga, 1945-

    2008-01-01

    Riigiettevõtete börsile viimist toetab IRL esimees Mart Laar ja ka Reformierakond. SDE fraktsiooni esimees Eiki Nestor on arvamusel, et riigile kuuluvate ettevõtete börsile viimisega ei tohiks tegelda kampaania korras ja kiirustades. Keskfraktsiooni aseesimees Ain Seppiku arvamus on, et riigile olulisi ettevõtteid ei tohiks börsi kaudu maha müüa

  5. Ensemble mean climatology of snow darkening effect due to deposition of dust, black carbon, and organic carbon as simulated with the NASA GEOS-5 Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, W. K.; Mahanama, S. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Koster, R. D.; Kim, K.; da Silva, A.

    2013-12-01

    The importance of the snow darkening effect (SDE) caused by solar absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) on climate has been discussed in previous studies. We have developed a snow darkening package for the catchment land surface model coupled to the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), Earth System Model. Our snow darkening package includes the schemes for snow albedo and mass concentration calculations in polluted snow by dust, BC, and organic carbon (OC) depositions. The snow darkening package is currently available for seasonal snowpack over the model-defined land areas, excluding sea ice and inland of the ice sheets. The depositions of the solar absorbing aerosols are obtained from the GOCART aerosol module in the GEOS-5. Here we show the preliminary results of ensemble mean climatology (EMC) of the full SDE (i.e., dust+BC+OC). Ensemble simulations covering 10-year of 2002-2011 were carried out with the GEOS-5 including and excluding the full SDE for which each has 10 ensemble members. Shortwave radiative forcing (RF) at the top of atmosphere under all-sky condition for the 10-member EMC of the full SDE was relatively larger over Europe, Central Asia (CA), the Himalayas, the Tibetan Plateau (TP), East Asia (EA), Eastern Siberia (ES), the US, and Canadian Arctic. The RF was the strongest over the Himalayas and the TP in the northern hemisphere. The increases of surface air temperature also well correspond to the RF pattern. Larger reductions of snow water equivalent in seasonal snowpack were seen over the Himalayas, the TP, Alaska, Western Canada, and Arctic regions. We will discuss more on the day of the presentation.

  6. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granita; Bahar, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found

  7. Secondary encephalocele in infant following subdural empyema repaired endoscopically-A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Roshan K; Kaur, Navjot

    2017-09-01

    Subdural empyema (SDE) is an uncommon entity, mostly associated with meningitis and can be life threatening in infants. Rarely, a subdural empyema can lead to nasal encephalocele which can be challenging situation to manage especially in infant. We present a case of 7 month old infant who presented with subdural empyema that led to formation of nasal encaphalocele after 4 months which was managed endoscopic route. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. Mathematical Education, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 28293 Indonesia and Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, A. [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor Malaysia and UTM Center for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)

    2015-03-09

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  9. Penentuan Portofolio Investasi Optimal Dengan Menggunakan Persamaan Diferensial Stokastik

    OpenAIRE

    Saragi, Desi Natalia

    2016-01-01

    In investing, the investors choose to invest their wealth in various financial assets both on the risky assets either on the risk-free assets. Generally, those financial assets are formed into a portfolio. Portfolio theory discuss how to establish an optimal portfolio. In determining the optimal investment, at first the investation which had Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) will be modeled. The model is solved by Ito‟s lemma then by using optimal control theory with utility function ap...

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: sliding feed-in premium scheme which is used to promote RES based electricity, renewable gas and heating purposes is the SDE+ which is structured as feed-in premiums and financed through a levy on the energy bill of end consumers

  11. A Unified Framework for Systematic Model Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A unified framework for improving the quality of continuous time models of dynamic systems based on experimental data is presented. The framework is based on an interplay between stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling, statistical tests and multivariate nonparametric regression. This co......-batch bioreactor, where it is illustrated how an incorrectly modelled biomass growth rate can be pinpointed and an estimate provided of the functional relation needed to properly describe it....

  12. Rethinking trait conceptions of social desirability scales: impression management as an expression of honesty-humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2014-06-01

    Numerous researchers have noted that, instead of response sets or styles, most social desirability scales seem to measure personality traits instead. In two studies, we investigated the substantive interpretation of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding in terms of the HEXACO model of personality. Because of its focus on honesty and integrity, the Impression Management (IM) scale was hypothesized to be mainly related to HEXACO Honesty-Humility. In the main study among 1,106 students and well-acquainted others (friends, family, or partners), positive self-other agreement correlations were found for both IM (r = .45) and Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE; r = .34), supporting a trait conception of IM and SDE. In both self- and other ratings, the most important predictors of SDE were (low) Emotionality, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. IM was associated with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, but Honesty-Humility was by far its most important predictor. In a subsample (n = 465), Honesty-Humility and IM were unrelated to GPA. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Rao, J.; Venkaiah, K.; Mohan Rao, N.

    2010-01-01

    At Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), employees are exposed to ammonia, hydrofluoric acid, acetone, etc., which are respiratory toxicants and inhalation of these pollutants may produce irritation and obstruction in airways. Due to nature of their occupation, tradesman working in plants are having longer duration of exposure (LDE) and others, such as supervisors, scientific officers, helpers, etc., that occasionally visit plants are having shorter duration of exposure (SDE) to these pollutants. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is an index to diagnose obstruction in larger airways and this is metered with mini peak flow meter among 835 NFC employees. Using ANOVA test, PEFR value was compared according to age and smoking. The value was compared between LDE and SDE employees according to smoking and duration of employment. The multiple regression equation for prediction of PEFR was developed. Age, smokers and higher duration of LDE employees demonstrated significantly lower PEFR value. In comparison to 10 year duration, 30 and above year duration of employment, LDE employees showed a higher decline in PEFR, that is 95 L (17.6%) and in SDE employees, that is 41L (7.8%). This may be due to longer duration of employment of LD employees smoking prevention and follow up study is suggested. (author)

  14. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xungang Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  15. Effectiveness of indirect evaporative cooling and thermal mass in a hot arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Eduardo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia/Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Civil, Departamento de Construcao Civil, Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165. Curitiba PR, CEP. 80230-901 (Brazil); Gonzalez Cruz, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno (IFAD), Universidad del Zulia, Nucleo Tecnico de LUZ, Av. Goajira (16) con Calle 67, Maracaibo, CP 4011-A-526 (Venezuela); Givoni, Baruch [Department of Architecture, School of Arts and Architecture, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA, and Ben Gurion University (Israel)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we compare results of a long-term temperature monitoring in a building with high thermal mass to indoor temperature predictions of a second building that uses an indirect evaporative cooling system as a means of passive cooling (Vivienda Bioclimatica Prototipo -VBP-1), for the climatic conditions of Sde Boqer, Negev region of Israel (local latitude 30 52'N, longitude 34 46'E, approximately 480 m above sea level). The high-mass building was monitored from January through September 2006 and belongs to a student dormitory complex located at the Sde Boqer Campus of Ben-Gurion University. VBP-1 was designed and built in Maracaibo, Venezuela (latitude 10 34'N, longitude 71 44'W, elevation 66 m above sea level) and had its indoor air temperatures, below and above a shaded roof pond, as well as the pond temperature monitored from February to September 2006. Formulas were developed for the VBP-1, based on part of the whole monitoring period, which represent the measured daily indoor maximum, average and minimum temperatures. The formulas were then validated against measurements taken independently in different time periods. The developed formulas were here used for estimating the building's thermal and energy performance at the climate of Sde Boqer, allowing a comparison of two different strategies: indirect evaporative cooling and the use of thermal mass. (author)

  16. Parameter estimation and change-point detection from Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI data using stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenod, Charles-André; Favetto, Benjamin; Genon-Catalot, Valentine; Rozenholc, Yves; Samson, Adeline

    2011-09-01

    Dynamic Contrast Enhanced imaging (DCE-imaging) following a contrast agent bolus allows the extraction of information on tissue micro-vascularization. The dynamic signals obtained from DCE-imaging are modeled by pharmacokinetic compartmental models which integrate the Arterial Input Function. These models use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe the exchanges between the arterial and capillary plasma and the extravascular-extracellular space. Their least squares fitting takes into account measurement noises but fails to deal with unpredictable fluctuations due to external/internal sources of variations (patients' anxiety, time-varying parameters, measurement errors in the input function, etc.). Adding Brownian components to the ODEs leads to stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In DCE-imaging, SDEs are discretely observed with an additional measurement noise. We propose to estimate the parameters of these noisy SDEs by maximum likelihood, using the Kalman filter. In DCE-imaging, the contrast agent injected in vein arrives in plasma with an unknown time delay. The delay parameter induces a change-point in the drift of the SDE and ODE models, which is estimated also. Estimations based on the SDE and ODE pharmacokinetic models are compared to real DCE-MRI data. They show that the use of SDE provides robustness in the estimation results. A simulation study confirms these results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The ISI distribution of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Peter F; Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of ion-channel noise has an important role in computational neuroscience. In recent years several approximate methods of carrying out this simulation have been published, based on stochastic differential equations, and all giving slightly different results. The obvious, and essential, question is: which method is the most accurate and which is most computationally efficient? Here we make a contribution to the answer. We compare interspike interval histograms from simulated data using four different approximate stochastic differential equation (SDE) models of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron, as well as the exact Markov chain model simulated by the Gillespie algorithm. One of the recent SDE models is the same as the Kurtz approximation first published in 1978. All the models considered give similar ISI histograms over a wide range of deterministic and stochastic input. Three features of these histograms are an initial peak, followed by one or more bumps, and then an exponential tail. We explore how these features depend on deterministic input and on level of channel noise, and explain the results using the stochastic dynamics of the model. We conclude with a rough ranking of the four SDE models with respect to the similarity of their ISI histograms to the histogram of the exact Markov chain model.

  18. Cumulant expansions for measuring water exchange using diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lipeng; Nilsson, Markus; Lasič, Samo; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh

    2018-02-01

    The rate of water exchange across cell membranes is a parameter of biological interest and can be measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). In this work, we investigate a stochastic model for the diffusion-and-exchange of water molecules. This model provides a general solution for the temporal evolution of dMRI signal using any type of gradient waveform, thereby generalizing the signal expressions for the Kärger model. Moreover, we also derive a general nth order cumulant expansion of the dMRI signal accounting for water exchange, which has not been explored in earlier studies. Based on this analytical expression, we compute the cumulant expansion for dMRI signals for the special case of single diffusion encoding (SDE) and double diffusion encoding (DDE) sequences. Our results provide a theoretical guideline on optimizing experimental parameters for SDE and DDE sequences, respectively. Moreover, we show that DDE signals are more sensitive to water exchange at short-time scale but provide less attenuation at long-time scale than SDE signals. Our theoretical analysis is also validated using Monte Carlo simulations on synthetic structures.

  19. Exploring why young people with Type 1 diabetes decline structured education with a view to overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, V E; Horigan, G; Davies, M; Davies, M T

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors that influence lack of engagement of young adults with Type 1 diabetes (aged 13-21 years) with structured diabetes education (SDE) to inform and broaden the reach of future SDE. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 227 young people with Type 1 diabetes drawn from 11 health trusts across Northern Ireland and England, deemed to be representative of the wider population. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire exploring non-attendance, along with the Diabetes Care Profile, the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (Short Form), the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Demographic, health and diabetes-specific variables including HbA 1c were also collected. The five most commonly cited reasons for non-attendance were 'Had other things to do' (68.3%), 'No time' (62.2%), 'Could not get time off school/college or work' (60.8%), 'Learnt about diabetes from other sources' (55.5%) and 'Feel able to cope on own' (52.9%). Greater emphasis is required on communication with young people about the benefits of SDE. In addition, efforts need to be directed to making diabetes education more accessible without losing the quality of structured programmes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  20. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE DES, FSC Y SPME/CG-MS PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN Y DETERMINACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS RESPONSABLES DEL AROMA DE CAFÉ TOSTADO DE VILCABAMBA - ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Figueroa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of three extraction methods: solid-phase microextraction (SPME with four different coating (PDMS, PDMS/DVB, DVB/CAR/PDMS and PA, supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SCF and simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE for isolation of flavor compounds from roasted ground coffee (Coffea arabica L. var. Typica of Vilcabamba (Ecuador. Identification and characterization of volatile compounds were achieved using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Analysis of variance and principal components analysis was done. For the SPME method the coating material affect the amount and concentration of compounds extracted, the DVB/CAR/PDMS coating provided the most representative aroma extract (44 compounds were identified. The SCF method allowed extracting a higher amount of compounds and also their identification by GC-MS (72 that SDE (64 and SPME (57, in addition provide higher extractions. The acetic acid, caffeine, furfuryl alcohol, furfural, 5-methylfurfural, butylated hydroxytoluene and maltol were the compounds with higher concentrations found with SPME and SDE, with SCF were found higher concentration to compounds with high molecular weights (> 194 g mol-1. Preferably SPME-DVB/CAR/PDMS method should be used for a characterization of coffee aroma compounds.

  2. Selecting better attributes in third-party hotel reservation Web sites: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Huertas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet has been viewed by many travel organizations as an innovative and competitive marketing tool in offering travel-related information and online transaction opportunities (Doolin et al., 2002. But, Internet also has proportionate opportunities to appear new intermediaries in the new hotel value chain (Connolly et al., 1998. A substantial portion of online room reservations continues to be accounted by the third-party Web sites (Law and Cheung, 2006. Hotels have been actively involved in multi-channel distribution in order to sell products and services more efficiently using a combination of traditional and electronic channels. It is important for organizations to rely on the channels that best match the organizational goals (O’Connor and Frew, 2004.The methodology for the experiment follows Statistical Design of Experiments (SDE. SDE is a statistical technique useful for developing, improving and optimizing processes and also has important applications in research into customer psychology and behaviour (Rosenbaum 1999. However, SDE is not a new tool in marketing; pioneering works such as those by Holland and Cravens (1973, Chevalier (1975 and more recently those of Starkey, Aughton and Brewin (1997, Almquist y Wyner (2001 have used full factorials and fractional factorial designs. In this work we use a fractional factorial design in four four-size blocks design and we have not find any reference that use this kind of design in Marketing.

  3. Spectroscopy of pseudoscalar and vector mesons and their electroweak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablakulov, Kh.

    1997-01-01

    Proceeding from the effective action of QCD for bilocal meson fields the formula for the action describing the spectroscopy of mesons and their electroweak decays is obtained. The numerical solutions of the Salpeter equation (SE) for the qq-bound state and the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) for the quark phase function are obtained with potential as sum of the oscillator and Coulomb terms. It is shown that for the oscillator potential and current quark mass m 0 0 → γγ) are 3-4 times smaller than their experimentations. This discrepancy was not removed even choosing other shapes of the potential. In order to resolve this problem the modification of the SDE, which consists in introducing the additional terms that do not change asymptotical properties of solutions of this equation is proposed. Using such modification both constant fπ and Γ(π 0 → γγ) are reproduced on a good quantitative level. The new SE for vector mesons is proposed and its solution with potential mentioned above gives the mass spectra of these mesons. Considering the τ → ρν decay the representation for leptonic decay constant of ρ meson f π , which expresses via solutions of the SDE and the proposed SE with a given potential is obtained. It is shown that the proposed SE allows to describe both the spectroscopy of vector mesons and their leptonic decay constants on a satisfactory level in comparison with the experimental values. (author)

  4. Effective mechanical means of uterine cervix accelerating maturity in pregnant women of first mature age period of different somatotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovleva О.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of stimulation of delivery in first mature age period of pregnant women mechanically in different somatotypes. Materials and Methods: 658 patients at 38-41 weeks of gestation of the first period of mature age (22-35 years have been considered. Differentiation by somatotypes has been performed by the method of HT Kaarma (1991. All patients of each somatotype have been divided into primiparous (n = 402 and multiparous (n = 256. Preparation for delivery by mechanical means: on the 1 st day it was introduced into the cervical canal for 16 hours, on the 2nd day — Foley catheter for 8-16 hours (before the birth. Results: In multiparous women the application of mechanical preparation of the birth canal has been effective regardless of somatotype. The percentage of operative delivery in mechanical induction has been lower in multiparous women and also not related to somatotype. In nulliparous women of asthenic and normosthenic type greater efficiency of mechanical induction in preparation for delivery has been revealed. In asthenic and pyknictype mechanical induction has been inefficient and therefore has not been recommended for the use. Conclusion: Application of mechanical means of stimulation of delivery in nulliparous pregnant women should be performed according to their somatotype.

  5. Modal Analysis and Model Correlation of the Mir Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung M.; Kaouk, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    This paper will discuss on-orbit dynamic tests, modal analysis, and model refinement studies performed as part of the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE). Mir is the Russian permanently manned Space Station whose construction first started in 1986. The MiSDE was sponsored by the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 Office and was part of the Shuttle-Mir Risk Mitigation Experiment (RME). One of the main objectives for MiSDE is to demonstrate the feasibility of performing on-orbit modal testing on large space structures to extract modal parameters that will be used to correlate mathematical models. The experiment was performed over a one-year span on the Mir-alone and Mir with a Shuttle docked. A total of 45 test sessions were performed including: Shuttle and Mir thruster firings, Shuttle-Mir and Progress-Mir dockings, crew exercise and pushoffs, and ambient noise during night-to-day and day-to-night orbital transitions. Test data were recorded with a variety of existing and new instrumentation systems that included: the MiSDE Mir Auxiliary Sensor Unit (MASU), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Russian Mir Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), the Mir and Shuttle Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), and the Shuttle payload bay video cameras. Modal analysis was performed on the collected test data to extract modal parameters, i.e. frequencies, damping factors, and mode shapes. A special time-domain modal identification procedure was used on free-decay structural responses. The results from this study show that modal testing and analysis of large space structures is feasible within operational constraints. Model refinements were performed on both the Mir alone and the Shuttle-Mir mated configurations. The design sensitivity approach was used for refinement, which adjusts structural properties in order to match analytical and test modal parameters. To verify the refinement results, the analytical responses calculated using

  6. An efficient hybrid sulfur process using PEM electrolysis with a bayonet decomposition reactor - HTR2008-58207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorensek, M. B.; Summers, W. A.; Lahoda, E. J.; Bolthrunis, C. O.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is being developed to produce hydrogen by water-splitting using heat from advanced nuclear reactors. It has the potential for high efficiency and competitive hydrogen production cost, and has been demonstrated at a laboratory scale. As a two-step process, the HyS is one of the simplest thermochemical cycles. The sulfuric acid decomposition reaction is common to all sulfur cycles, including the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle. What distinguishes the HyS Process from the other sulfur cycles is the use of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) to depolarize the anode of a water electrolyzer. The two critical HyS Process components are the SO 2 - depolarized electrolyzer (SDE), and the high-temperature decomposition reactor. A proton exchange membrane (PEM)- type SDE and a silicon carbide bayonet-type high-temperature decomposition reactor are being developed for DOE's Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), respectively. The ultimate goal of the NHI-sponsored work is to couple the SDE and the reactor in an integrated laboratory scale experiment to prove the technical readiness of the HyS cycle for the NGNP demonstration. This paper describes the flowsheet that is being prepared to combine these two components into a viable process and presents the latest performance projections and economics for a HyS Process coupled to a PBMR heat source. The basic flowsheet for this process has been described elsewhere [4]. It requires an acid concentration section because the SDE product, which is limited to no more than 50% H 2 SO 4 by cell voltage considerations, is too dilute to be fed directly to the bayonet, which needs at least 65% H 2 SO 4 in the feed for acceptable performance. Optimization involved trade-offs between decomposition reaction and acid concentration heat requirements. The PBMR heat source can split its heat output between the decomposition reaction and either steam

  7. Development of once-through hybrid sulfur process for nuclear hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Hun

    2010-02-01

    Humanity has been facing major energy challenges such as the severe climate change, threat of energy security and global energy shortage especially for the developing world. Particularly, growing awareness of the global warming has led to efforts to develop the sustainable energy technologies for the harmony of the economy, social welfare and environment. Water-splitting nuclear hydrogen production is expected to help to resolve those challenges, when high energy efficiency and low cost for hydrogen production become possible. Once-through Hybrid Sulfur process (Ot-HyS), proposed in this work, produces hydrogen using the same SO 2 Depolarized water Electrolysis (SDE) process found in the original Hybrid Sulfur cycle (HyS) proposed by Westinghouse, which has the sulfuric acid decomposition (SAD) process using high temperature heat source in order to recover sulfur dioxide for the SDE process. But Ot-HyS eliminated this technical hurdle by replacing it with well-established sulfur combustion process to feed sulfur dioxide to the SDE process. Because Ot-HyS has less technical challenges, Ot-HyS is expected to advance the realization of the large-scale nuclear hydrogen production by feeding an initial nuclear hydrogen stock. Most of the elemental sulfur, at present, is supplied by desulfurization process for environmental reasons during the processing of natural gas and petroleum refining and expected to increase significantly. This recovered sulfur will be burned with oxygen in the sulfur combustion process so that produced sulfur dioxide could be supplied to the SDE process to produce hydrogen. Because the sulfur combustion is a highly exothermic reaction releasing 297 kJ/mol of combustion heat resulting in a large temperature rise, efficiency of the Ot-HyS is expected to be high by recovering this great amount of high grade excess heat with nuclear energy. Sulfuric acid, which is a byproduct of the SDE process, could be sent to the neighboring consumers with or even

  8. Sonolência diurna excessiva em pré-vestibulandos Excessive daytime sleepiness in senior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O sono é um fenômeno que interfere nos aspectos cognitivos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE em pré-vestibulandos de Campo Grande, MS. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 378 alunos com a escala de sonolência Epworth (ESE. As variáveis foram: sexo, uso esporádico de bebidas alcoólicas e fumo, relato de sinais e sintomas depressivos, renda familiar total dos membros do lar e idade. Foram empregados os testes qui-quadrado e de análise de variância. RESULTADOS: Em relação ao gênero, 50,3% eram homens e 49,7% mulheres; 39,2% ingeriam álcool; 6,6% fumavam e 33% já tinham tido depressão na vida. Entre os alunos, 55,8% tinham SDE, 5,3% eram indicativos de ter distúrbio respiratório ou síndrome da apnéia do sono. Foram detectadas associações entre as variáveis consumo de álcool e tabagismo, em relação à ESE. CONCLUSÕES: Foi alta a prevalência de SDE, sendo detectadas associações entre as variáveis uso esporádico de álcool e fumo, em relação à ESE. Novos estudos devem ser realizados a fim de prevenir as alterações cognitivas entre os pré-vestibulandos que apresentam SDE ou outro distúrbio do sono.OBJETIVE: Sleep is a phenomenon that has influence on cognitive aspects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS prevalence. METHODS: 378 senior high school students from a school of Campo Grande-MS, Brazil, were interview with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The variables that were crosSDE with the scale were: sex, alcohol use, smoking, symptoms of depression, family income and age. For the analysis it was uSDE the chi2 test and the variance analysis test. RESULTS: Our sample consisted of 50,3% boys and 49,7% girls, 39,2% were alcohol drinkers, 6,6% were smokers and 33% had already had depression. The overall prevalence of EDS was 55,8% and of respiratory disturbance or sleep apnea was 5,3%. We found relationships

  9. Força muscular respiratória e capacidade funcional em idosas hipertensas com sonolência diurna excessiva Respiratory muscle strength and physical fitness in hypertensive elderly women with excessive daytime sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Pedrosa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar se a sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE afeta a capacidade funcional (CF e força muscular respiratória entre idosas hipertensas. O estudo avaliou 32 idosas hipertensas, divididas em dois grupos (com SDE, n=17, 64,9±5,3 anos; e sem SDE, n=15, 65,9±5,5 anos, quanto a: força muscular respiratória, por manovacuometria; CF, pelo Questionário para avaliação de limitação das atividades e por testes de aptidão funcional; nível de atividade física, pelo questionário internacional de atividade física IPAQ; grau de SDE, pela escala de sonolência de Epworth; qualidade do sono, pelo índice de qualidade do sono de Pittsburgh; e intensidade do ronco, pela escala de ronco de Stanford. Os dois grupos, homogêneos quanto a características antropométricas e da hipertensão, foram comparados estatisticamente quanto a parâmetros de sono, pressões respiratórias máximas, nível de atividade física e CF. Foi encontrada diferença significativa na qualidade do sono (p=0,03, tendo as hipertensas com SDE qualidade de sono muito ruim; porém não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos nas pressões inspiratória e expiratória máximas, nem quanto aos testes de CF. Conclui-se que a força dos músculos respiratórios não sofre alteração em decorrência da presença de SDE em idosas hipertensas e que essa sonolência não interfere na capacidade funcional.The purpose of the study was to inquire whether excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS affects functional capacity (FC and respiratory muscle strength in elderly hypertensive patients. Thirty-two elderly hypertensive female patients were divided into two groups (with EDS, n=17, mean age 64.9±5.3; without EDS, n=15, mean age 65.9±5.5 and were assessed as to respiratory muscle strength by spirometry; FC, by the Questionnaire on limitations in physical activities and by functional fitness tests; physical activity level, by the International

  10. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  11. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L., E-mail: rlsur@ucsd.edu [Department of Surgery and Division of Urology, U C San Diego Health Science System, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  12. Prediction of flow and drawdown for the site characterization and validation site in the Stripa Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Mauldon, A.D.; Nelson, K.; Martel, S.; Fuller, P.; and Karasaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical and hydrologic data from a location in the Stripa Mine in Sweden, called the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) block, has been used to create a series of models for flow through the fracture network. The models can be characterized as ''equivalent discontinuum'' models. Equivalent discontinuum models are derived starting from a specified lattice or 6 ''template''. An inverse analysis called ''Simulated Annealing'' is used to make a random search through the elements of the lattice to find a configuration that can reproduce the measured responses. Evidence at Stripa points to hydrology which is dominated by fracture zones. These have been identified and located through extensive characterization efforts. Lattice templates were arranged to lie on the fracture zones identified by Black and Olsson. The fundamental goal of this project was to build a fracture flow model based an initial data set, and use this model to make predictions of the flow behavior during a new test. Then given data from the new test, predict a second test, etc. The first data set was an interference test called C1-2. Both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional model were annealed to the C1-2 data and use this model to predict the behavior of the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). The SDE measured the flow into, and drawdown due to reducing the pressure in a group of 6 parallel boreholes. Then both the C1-2 and SDE data were used to predict the flow into and drawdown due to an excavation, the Validation Drift (VD), made through the boreholes. Finally, all the data was used to predict the hydrologic response to opening another hole, T1

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Thallium-201 Myocardial Tomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Nam, Gi Byung; Choi, Chang Woon

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of quantitative Tl-201 tomography to identify and localize coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 41 patients (31 males, 10 females; mean age 55 ± 7 yr) including 14 with prior myocardial infarction who underwent both exercise Tl-201 myocardium SPECT and coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. From the short axis and vertical long axis tomograms, stress extent polar maps were generated by Cedars-Sinai Medical Center program, and the 9 stress defect extent (SDE) was quantified for each coronary artery territory. For the purpose of this study, the coronary circulation was divided into 6 arterial segments, and the myocardial ischemic score (MIS) was calculated from the coronary angiogram. Sensitivity for the detection of CAD (>50% coronary stenosis by angiography) by stress extent polar map was 95% in single vessel disease, and 100% in double and triple vessel diseases. Overall sensitivity was 97%<. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of individual diseased vessels were, respectively, 87% and 90% for the left anterior descending artery (LAD), 36% and 93% for the left circumflex artery (LCX), and 71% and 70%, for the right coronary artery (RCA). Concordance for the detection of individual diseased vessels between the coronary angiography and stress polar map was fair for the LAD (kappa=0.70), and RCA (kappa=0.41) lesions, whereas it was poor for the LCK lesions (kappa =0.32) There were significant correlations between the MIS and SDE in LAD (rs=0. 56, p=0.0027), and RCA territory (rs=0.60, p=0.0094). No significant correlation was found in LCX territory. When total vascular territories were combined, there was a significant correlation between the MIS and SDE (rs=0.42, p=0,0116). In conclusion, the quantitative analysis of Tl-201 tomograms appears to be accurate for determining the presence and location of CAD.

  14. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Volatile Flavor Compounds from Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, K.M.; Seo, H.Y.; Gyawali, Rajendra; Shim, S.L.; Yang, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on volatile components of Korean dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was studied and compared with non-irradiated sample. Volatile compounds from non- and irradiated samples were extracted using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A total of 83 and 71 compounds were identified and quantified from non-and irradiated dried ginger at dose of 10 kGy. Identified components were hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and miscellaneous compounds

  15. Servicios de desarrollo empresarial: Un esquema de análisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Goldmark

    1996-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio es el de proporcionar una visión general de las prácticas actuales en el suministro de Servicios de Desarrollo Empresarial (SDE) a pequeños y micro empresarios en los países en vías de desarrollo. Por servicios de desarrollo empresarial nos referimos a servicios tales como capacitación, transferencia de tecnología, apoyo en mercadeo, asesoramiento empresarial, tutorías e información destinados a ayudar a los pequeños y microempresarios a mejorar el desempeño de su...

  16. On the Existence and the Applications of Modified Equations for Stochastic Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general framework for deriving modified equations for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with respect to weak convergence. Modified equations are derived for a variety of numerical methods, such as the Euler or the Milstein method. Existence of higher order modified equations is also discussed. In the case of linear SDEs, using the Gaussianity of the underlying solutions, we derive an SDE which the numerical method solves exactly in the weak sense. Applications of modified equations in the numerical study of Langevin equations is also discussed. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel

    2005-01-01

    model mis-specification feasible by quantifying the model uncertainty, which subsequently provides the basis for systematic population PK/PD model development. To support the model building process, the SDE approach was applied to clinical PK/PD data and used as a tool for tracking unexplained...... was stimulated and inhibited by the plasma triptorelin and degarelix concentrations, respec-tively. Circulating LH stimulated the testosterone secretion while the delayed testosterone feedback on the non-basal LH synthesis and release was modelled through a receptor compartment where testosterone stimulates...

  18. Indirect Inference for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Moment Expansions

    KAUST Repository

    Ballesio, Marco

    2016-01-06

    We provide an indirect inference method to estimate the parameters of timehomogeneous scalar diffusion and jump diffusion processes. We obtain a system of ODEs that approximate the time evolution of the first two moments of the process by the approximation of the stochastic model applying a second order Taylor expansion of the SDE s infinitesimal generator in the Dynkin s formula. This method allows a simple and efficient procedure to infer the parameters of such stochastic processes given the data by the maximization of the likelihood of an approximating Gaussian process described by the two moments equations. Finally, we perform numerical experiments for two datasets arising from organic and inorganic fouling deposition phenomena.

  19. Model Identification using Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Hagdrup, Morten; Mahmoudi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses model identification of continuous-discrete nonlinear models for people with type 1 diabetes using sampled data from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). We compare five identification techniques: least squares, weighted least squares, Huber regression, maximum likelihood...... with extended Kalman filter and maximum likelihood with unscented Kalman filter. We perform the identification on a 24-hour simulation of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) version of the Medtronic Virtual Patient (MVP) model including process and output noise. We compare the fits with the actual CGM......, such as parameter tracking, population modeling and handling of outliers....

  20. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets) for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM), and that these can be used with gene set analysis (GSA) methods for chemical treatment identification, for pharmacological mechanism elucidation, and for comparing compound toxicity profiles. Methods We created 30,211 chemical response-specific gene sets for human and mouse by next-gen TM, and derived 1,189 (human) and 588 (mouse) gene sets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). We tested for significant differential expression (SDE) (false discovery rate -corrected p-values sets and the CTD-derived gene sets in gene expression (GE) data sets of five chemicals (from experimental models). We tested for SDE of gene sets for six fibrates in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) knock-out GE dataset and compared to results from the Connectivity Map. We tested for SDE of 319 next-gen TM-derived gene sets for environmental toxicants in three GE data sets of triazoles, and tested for SDE of 442 gene sets associated with embryonic structures. We compared the gene sets to triazole effects seen in the Whole Embryo Culture (WEC), and used principal component analysis (PCA) to discriminate triazoles from other chemicals. Results Next-gen TM-derived gene sets matching the chemical treatment were significantly altered in three GE data sets, and the corresponding CTD-derived gene sets were significantly altered in five GE data sets. Six next-gen TM-derived and four CTD-derived fibrate gene sets were significantly altered in the PPARA knock-out GE dataset. None of the fibrate signatures in cMap scored significant against the PPARA GE signature. 33 environmental toxicant gene sets were significantly altered in the triazole GE data sets. 21 of these toxicants had a similar toxicity pattern as the

  1. Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J J

    2016-01-01

    A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented. (paper)

  2. La producción de enfermedad en el paradigma de la salud del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Zoya, Paula G.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo pone en relación el imperativo de cuidado del cuerpo y la salud paraalcanzar una salud perfecta y el fenómeno de expansión de la medicalización a travésde la invención de enfermedades. La tesis central sostiene que la imbricación de ambosfenómenos constituye los fundamentos del paradigma sanitario que se arraiga en lassociedades occidentales del siglo XXI. La investigación problematiza la articulaciónde dichos fenómenos a partir de la circulación social de significaciones en torn...

  3. A Simple Stochastic Differential Equation with Discontinuous Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria; Leth, John-Josef; Schiøler, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study solutions to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with discontinuous drift. We apply two approaches: The Euler-Maruyama method and the Fokker-Planck equation and show that a candidate density function based on the Euler-Maruyama method approximates a candidate density...... function based on the stationary Fokker-Planck equation. Furthermore, we introduce a smooth function which approximates the discontinuous drift and apply the Euler-Maruyama method and the Fokker-Planck equation with this input. The point of departure for this work is a particular SDE with discontinuous...

  4. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  5. Research on database realization technology of seismic information system in CTBT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xuefeng; Shen Junyi; Zhang Huimin; Jing Ping; Sun Peng; Zheng Jiangling

    2005-01-01

    Developing CTBT verification technology has become the most important method that makes sure CTBT to be fulfilled conscientiously. The seismic analysis based on seismic information system (SIS) is playing an important rule in this field. Based on GIS, the SIS will be very sufficient and powerful in spatial analysis, topologic analysis and visualization. However, the critical issue to implement the whole system function depends on the performance of SIS DB. Based on the ArcSDE Geodatabase data model, not only have the spatial data and attribute data seamless integrated management been realized with RDBMS ORACLE really, but also the most functions of ORACLE have been reserved. (authors)

  6. Geophysical Tests for Intermediate-Range Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    34Feeble intermediate-range Gravitation, 1989, 154. Topics: AG,T, A forces from higher dimensions", Physical Review 60. Bell J. S., Perring J. K., ൝r...M., 134 Bell J. S., 60, 61 Coleman R., 389 Beltran-Lopez V., 359 Cabibbo N., 64 Coleman R. A ., 135 Bender P. L., 540 Calafiura P., 106 Cook A . H...of Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., Selen M. A ., Shoemaker F. C., Smith A . J. S., 1985,88, 1946-1949.] Topics: SD,E,+ Blackmore E. W., Bryman D. A ., Felawka L

  7. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jonas B; Overgaard, Rune V; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Ingwersen, Steen H

    2010-02-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of the OGTT is a difficult problem in need of further investigation. The present work aimed at investigating the power of SDEs to predict the first phase insulin secretion (AIR (0-8)) in the IVGTT based on parameters obtained from the minimal model of the OGTT, published by Breda et al. (Diabetes 50(1):150-158, 2001). In total 174 subjects underwent both an OGTT and a tolbutamide modified IVGTT. Estimation of parameters in the oral minimal model (OMM) was performed using the FOCE-method in NONMEM VI on insulin and C-peptide measurements. The suggested SDE models were based on a continuous AR(1) process, i.e. the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and the extended Kalman filter was implemented in order to estimate the parameters of the models. Inclusion of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process caused improved description of the variation in the data as measured by the autocorrelation function (ACF) of one-step prediction errors. A main result was that application of SDE models improved the correlation between the individual first phase indexes obtained from OGTT and AIR (0-8) (r = 0.36 to r = 0.49 and r = 0.32 to r = 0.47 with C-peptide and insulin measurements, respectively). In addition to the increased correlation also the properties of the indexes obtained using the SDE models more correctly assessed the properties of the first phase indexes obtained from the IVGTT. In general it is concluded that the presented SDE approach not only caused autocorrelation of errors to decrease but also improved estimation of clinical measures obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method

  8. Una propuesta para el aprendizaje de ELE: tiempo libre e interculturalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Francos Maldonado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En la propuesta que aquí describimos nos centramos en el tiempo de ocio comoelemento esencial de socialización y desarrollo personal, y pretendemos que elalumnado participe en las actividades de ocio de la ciudad, a través de las que, ademásde favorecer la igualdad de oportunidades, la autonomía y las potencialidadesindividuales, se aprende la lengua y se trabaja la interculturalidad conociendo formas deuso del tiempo libre en la sociedad en la que estamos, informándonos de aspectoslúdicos de diferentes culturas, y también de algunos aspectos curriculares.

  9. Numerical Solution of Heun Equation Via Linear Stochastic Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rezazadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we intend to solve special kind of ordinary differential equations which is called Heun equations, by converting to a corresponding stochastic differential equation(S.D.E.. So, we construct a stochastic linear equation system from this equation which its solution is based on computing fundamental matrix of this system and then, this S.D.E. is solved by numerically methods. Moreover, its asymptotic stability and statistical concepts like expectation and variance of solutions are discussed. Finally, the attained solutions of these S.D.E.s compared with exact solution of corresponding differential equations.

  10. A walk by the river: three-dimensional reconstruction of surface sedimentology and topography using wearable laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.; Lamy, M. L.; Stott, E.; Maniatis, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the last two decades, quantification of fluvial topography has been transformed by a number of geomatics technologies that have enabled the acquisition of data with unprecedented spatial resolution. Hyperscale surveys with spatial extents of <1 km2 have been widely demonstrated, by means of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Recent advances in the development and integration of GNSS, IMU, lightweight laser scanning and SLAM technologies are now resulting in the emergence of wearable, mobile laser scanning systems that have the potential to increase data acquisition and processing rates by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to TLS/SfM, and thus challenge the recent dominance of these two geomatics technologies. In this study we describe the methods and results of a comparison between a wearable laser scanning survey, using a Leica Pegasus Backpack, and a multi-station static TLS survey, using a Riegl VZ-1000 scanner. The evaluation is undertaken on a 600 m long reach of the braided River Feshie, Scotland, using data acquired in June 2017. Comparison between the DEMs produced from static and mobile laser scanning, across non-vegetated areas, revealed a Mean Error (ME) of -0.002 m and a Standard Deviation Error (SDE) of 0.109 m. Comparison to 100 independent check point resulted in a similar ME and SDE for static (ME = 0.061m; SDE = 0.030 m) and mobile (ME = 0.044 m; SDE = 0.029 m) laser scanning. Empirical relationships between sub-metre topographic variability and median sediment grain size (10-100 mm), across 14 grid-by-number samples, were similar and demonstrate that surface roughness from wearable laser scanning can be used to derive reach-scale maps of median grain size. These results demonstrate that wearable laser scanning generates hyperscale topographic models that are comparable in quality to more time-consuming multi-station TLS setups. Wearable laser scanning is likely to be commonly adopted for fluvial

  11. El sistema de cohesión social y sus efectos en la tasa de delincuencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bacilio Guerrero Escamilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el comportamiento dela tasa de delincuencia a partir de la cohesiónsocial. Se toma como referencia la teoría generalde sistemas y tiene como elemento base elcálculo con geometría analítica, pues a travésde esta herramienta matemática pudo predecirseteóricamente que el nivel de cohesión esun factor detonante del dinamismo de la tasade delincuencia, es decir, “a mayor cohesiónsocial, menor tasa de delincuencia”.

  12. Modelos de tiempo continuo para commodities agrícolas En Colombia*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arbeláez López

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos llamados “expertos” hacen recomendaciones para aplicar modelos devaloración de derivados sobre acciones a derivados sobre commodities. Esta prácticadebería considerarse sólo como un primer paso, exploratorio en la búsqueda delvalor realmente “justo” del derivado.En general, los precios de las commodities se comportan de una manera bastantediferente de los precios de las acciones. Esto se muestra, con este artículo, a travésde ejemplos del mercado agropecuario colombiano. 

  13. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  14. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  15. Characterization of odor-active compounds in cooked meat of farmed obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ping Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and odor-active compounds in cooked meat of farmed obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (GC–MS–O. The volatile compounds were extracted by the simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE method, then separated and identified by GC–MS. Odor-active compounds in the SDE extract were characterized by GC–MS–O. A total of 68 volatile compounds were found, including 23 aldehydes, 10 alcohols, nine ketones, 17 N- or S-containing compounds and aromatics, three acids, three alkanes, and three esters. Of these, 31 odor-active compounds were detected and identified. Trimethylamine (fishy, octanal (grassy, leafy, green, (E-2-octenal (roast, fatty, 1-octen-3-ol (fishy, fatty, mushroom, grassy, 2-ethyl-1-hexanethiol (cooked fish, (E,E-2,4-octadienal (cooked meat, sweet, 2-acetylthiazole (meaty, roast, nutty, sulfur, 2-acetylpyrrole (nutty, walnut, bread were identified as the key odorants in the cooked meat of farmed obscure puffer based on posterior intensity and time-intensity methods.

  16. A Stochastic Differential Equation Model for the Spread of HIV amongst People Who Inject Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce stochasticity into the deterministic differential equation model for the spread of HIV amongst people who inject drugs (PWIDs studied by Greenhalgh and Hay (1997. This was based on the original model constructed by Kaplan (1989 which analyses the behaviour of HIV/AIDS amongst a population of PWIDs. We derive a stochastic differential equation (SDE for the fraction of PWIDs who are infected with HIV at time. The stochasticity is introduced using the well-known standard technique of parameter perturbation. We first prove that the resulting SDE for the fraction of infected PWIDs has a unique solution in (0, 1 provided that some infected PWIDs are initially present and next construct the conditions required for extinction and persistence. Furthermore, we show that there exists a stationary distribution for the persistence case. Simulations using realistic parameter values are then constructed to illustrate and support our theoretical results. Our results provide new insight into the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs. The results show that the introduction of stochastic noise into a model for the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs can cause the disease to die out in scenarios where deterministic models predict disease persistence.

  17. An integrated GIS application system for soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Shen, Runping; Huang, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunxiang

    2014-11-01

    The gaps in knowledge and existing challenges in precisely describing the land surface process make it critical to represent the massive soil moisture data visually and mine the data for further research.This article introduces a comprehensive soil moisture assimilation data analysis system, which is instructed by tools of C#, IDL, ArcSDE, Visual Studio 2008 and SQL Server 2005. The system provides integrated service, management of efficient graphics visualization and analysis of land surface data assimilation. The system is not only able to improve the efficiency of data assimilation management, but also comprehensively integrate the data processing and analysis tools into GIS development environment. So analyzing the soil moisture assimilation data and accomplishing GIS spatial analysis can be realized in the same system. This system provides basic GIS map functions, massive data process and soil moisture products analysis etc. Besides,it takes full advantage of a spatial data engine called ArcSDE to effeciently manage, retrieve and store all kinds of data. In the system, characteristics of temporal and spatial pattern of soil moiture will be plotted. By analyzing the soil moisture impact factors, it is possible to acquire the correlation coefficients between soil moisture value and its every single impact factor. Daily and monthly comparative analysis of soil moisture products among observations, simulation results and assimilations can be made in this system to display the different trends of these products. Furthermore, soil moisture map production function is realized for business application.

  18. Importance of the efficiency of double-stranded DNA formation in cDNA synthesis for the imprecision of microarray expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Hans G; Gudmundsson, Bjarki; Eiriksdottir, Freyja; Kil, Siyoen; Gunnarsson, Gudmundur H; Magnusson, Magnus Karl; Hsu, Jason C; Jonsson, Jon J

    2013-04-01

    The causes of imprecision in microarray expression analysis are poorly understood, limiting the use of this technology in molecular diagnostics. Two-dimensional strandness-dependent electrophoresis (2D-SDE) separates nucleic acid molecules on the basis of length and strandness, i.e., double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and RNA·DNA hybrids. We used 2D-SDE to measure the efficiency of cDNA synthesis and its importance for the imprecision of an in vitro transcription-based microarray expression analysis. The relative amount of double-stranded cDNA formed in replicate experiments that used the same RNA sample template was highly variable, ranging between 0% and 72% of the total DNA. Microarray experiments showed an inverse relationship between the difference between sample pairs in probe variance and the relative amount of dsDNA. Approximately 15% of probes showed between-sample variation (P cDNA synthesized can be an important component of the imprecision in T7 RNA polymerase-based microarray expression analysis. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  19. A Stochastic Differential Equation Model for the Spread of HIV amongst People Who Inject Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanfeng; Greenhalgh, David; Mao, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    We introduce stochasticity into the deterministic differential equation model for the spread of HIV amongst people who inject drugs (PWIDs) studied by Greenhalgh and Hay (1997). This was based on the original model constructed by Kaplan (1989) which analyses the behaviour of HIV/AIDS amongst a population of PWIDs. We derive a stochastic differential equation (SDE) for the fraction of PWIDs who are infected with HIV at time. The stochasticity is introduced using the well-known standard technique of parameter perturbation. We first prove that the resulting SDE for the fraction of infected PWIDs has a unique solution in (0, 1) provided that some infected PWIDs are initially present and next construct the conditions required for extinction and persistence. Furthermore, we show that there exists a stationary distribution for the persistence case. Simulations using realistic parameter values are then constructed to illustrate and support our theoretical results. Our results provide new insight into the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs. The results show that the introduction of stochastic noise into a model for the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs can cause the disease to die out in scenarios where deterministic models predict disease persistence.

  20. Weak second-order splitting schemes for Lagrangian Monte Carlo particle methods for the composition PDF/FDF transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng; Popov, Pavel P.; Pope, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    We study a class of methods for the numerical solution of the system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) that arises in the modeling of turbulent combustion, specifically in the Monte Carlo particle method for the solution of the model equations for the composition probability density function (PDF) and the filtered density function (FDF). This system consists of an SDE for particle position and a random differential equation for particle composition. The numerical methods considered advance the solution in time with (weak) second-order accuracy with respect to the time step size. The four primary contributions of the paper are: (i) establishing that the coefficients in the particle equations can be frozen at the mid-time (while preserving second-order accuracy), (ii) examining the performance of three existing schemes for integrating the SDEs, (iii) developing and evaluating different splitting schemes (which treat particle motion, reaction and mixing on different sub-steps), and (iv) developing the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) to assess the convergence of Monte Carlo particle methods. Tests using MMS confirm the second-order accuracy of the schemes. In general, the use of frozen coefficients reduces the numerical errors. Otherwise no significant differences are observed in the performance of the different SDE schemes and splitting schemes.

  1. The moderating role of socially desirable responding in implicit-explicit attitudes toward asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel R

    2017-07-04

    Implicit and explicit attitudes correlate under certain conditions and researchers are interested in the moderating factors of this relationship. This paper explored the role of socially desirable responding in this relationship by testing the hypothesis that impression management (IM; i.e., deliberate response modification) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE; i.e., positive self-bias) play moderating roles in the relationship of implicit-explicit attitudes toward asylum seekers in Australia. Seventy-four students responded to a battery of measures and the results revealed that IM (but not SDE) moderated this relationship to the extent that higher IM scores weakened the correspondence between implicit and explicit attitude scores. This suggests that attitudes toward asylum seekers might be susceptible to socially desirable response tendencies and in combination with the finding that IM was negatively related to explicit attitudes, it is argued that self-presentation concerns result in the deliberate attenuation of reported negative explicit attitudes. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  3. Simulation of Higher-Order Electrical Circuits with Stochastic Parameters via SDEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANCIK, L.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a technique for the simulation of higher-order electrical circuits with parameters varying randomly. The principle consists in the utilization of the theory of stochastic differential equations (SDE, namely the vector form of the ordinary SDEs. Random changes of both excitation voltage and some parameters of passive circuit elements are considered, and circuit responses are analyzed. The voltage and/or current responses are computed and represented in the form of the sample means accompanied by their confidence intervals to provide reliable estimates. The method is applied to analyze responses of the circuit models of optional orders, specially those consisting of a cascade connection of the RLGC networks. To develop the model equations the state-variable method is used, afterwards a corresponding vector SDE is formulated and a stochastic Euler numerical method applied. To verify the results the deterministic responses are also computed by the help of the PSpice simulator or the numerical inverse Laplace transforms (NILT procedure in MATLAB, while removing random terms from the circuit model.

  4. Osteogenesis imperfecta: Level of independence and of social, recreational and sports participation among adolescents and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Celin, Mercedes; Fano, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of hereditary connective tissue disorders that cause bone fragility, with a wide clinical variability resulting in varying degrees of motor disability. To describe the level of independence and of social, recreational and sports participation among adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta. Descriptive, analytical and crosssectional study conducted in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta older than 15 years old attending the Skeletal Dysplasia Office of Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" (May 2013 through December 2014). Self-administered survey. Short stature was an outcome measure that indicated severity. There were 18 patients; age: 19.17 (±3.4 sDE); 83% had moderate-severe forms of OI; median height: -7.9 sDE; 50% used a wheelchair. Average education years: 12.2; 56% participated in sporting activities; and 78% were involved in recreational and social activities. A high level of independence was observed. We found a correlation between short stature and use of wheelchair (r: -0.77) and between short stature and participation in sporting activities (r: 0.66). No correlation was observed with years of education (r: -0.15), participation in social activities (r: -0.22) or recreational activities (r: 0.35). Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. Oscillometric blood pressure estimation by combining nonparametric bootstrap with Gaussian mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojeong; Rajan, Sreeraman; Jeon, Gwanggil; Chang, Joon-Hyuk; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z

    2017-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important vital indicators and plays a key role in determining the cardiovascular activity of patients. This paper proposes a hybrid approach consisting of nonparametric bootstrap (NPB) and machine learning techniques to obtain the characteristic ratios (CR) used in the blood pressure estimation algorithm to improve the accuracy of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) estimates and obtain confidence intervals (CI). The NPB technique is used to circumvent the requirement for large sample set for obtaining the CI. A mixture of Gaussian densities is assumed for the CRs and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is chosen to estimate the SBP and DBP ratios. The K-means clustering technique is used to obtain the mixture order of the Gaussian densities. The proposed approach achieves grade "A" under British Society of Hypertension testing protocol and is superior to the conventional approach based on maximum amplitude algorithm (MAA) that uses fixed CR ratios. The proposed approach also yields a lower mean error (ME) and the standard deviation of the error (SDE) in the estimates when compared to the conventional MAA method. In addition, CIs obtained through the proposed hybrid approach are also narrower with a lower SDE. The proposed approach combining the NPB technique with the GMM provides a methodology to derive individualized characteristic ratio. The results exhibit that the proposed approach enhances the accuracy of SBP and DBP estimation and provides narrower confidence intervals for the estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Lagrangian stochastic model to demonstrate multi-scale interactions between convection and land surface heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsakhoo, Zahra; Shao, Yaping

    2017-04-01

    Near-surface turbulent mixing has considerable effect on surface fluxes, cloud formation and convection in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Its quantifications is however a modeling and computational challenge since the small eddies are not fully resolved in Eulerian models directly. We have developed a Lagrangian stochastic model to demonstrate multi-scale interactions between convection and land surface heterogeneity in the atmospheric boundary layer based on the Ito Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) for air parcels (particles). Due to the complexity of the mixing in the ABL, we find that linear Ito SDE cannot represent convections properly. Three strategies have been tested to solve the problem: 1) to make the deterministic term in the Ito equation non-linear; 2) to change the random term in the Ito equation fractional, and 3) to modify the Ito equation by including Levy flights. We focus on the third strategy and interpret mixing as interaction between at least two stochastic processes with different Lagrangian time scales. The model is in progress to include the collisions among the particles with different characteristic and to apply the 3D model for real cases. One application of the model is emphasized: some land surface patterns are generated and then coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).

  7. Laboratory studies of groundwater degassing in replicas of natural fractured rock for linear flow geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, J.T.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory experiments to simulate two-phase (gas and water) flow in fractured rock evolving from groundwater degassing were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rock fractures. These experiments extend the work by Geller et al. (1995) and Jarsjo and Geller (1996) that tests the hypothesis that groundwater degassing caused observed flow reductions in the Stripa Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). Understanding degassing effects over a range of gas contents is needed due to the uncertainty in the gas contents of the water at the SDE. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) measure the effect of groundwater degassing on liquid flow rates for lower gas contents than the values used in Geller for linear flow geometry in the same fracture replicas of Geller; (2) provide a data set to develop a predictive model of two-phase flow in fractures for conditions of groundwater degassing; and (3) improve the certainty of experimental gas contents (this effort included modifications to the experimental system used by Geller et al. and separate gas-water equilibration tests). The Stripa site is being considered for a high-level radioactive waste repository

  8. Optimizing Filter-Probe Diffusion Weighting in the Rat Spinal Cord for Human Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Budde

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a promising biomarker of spinal cord injury (SCI. In the acute aftermath, DTI in SCI animal models consistently demonstrates high sensitivity and prognostic performance, yet translation of DTI to acute human SCI has been limited. In addition to technical challenges, interpretation of the resulting metrics is ambiguous, with contributions in the acute setting from both axonal injury and edema. Novel diffusion MRI acquisition strategies such as double diffusion encoding (DDE have recently enabled detection of features not available with DTI or similar methods. In this work, we perform a systematic optimization of DDE using simulations and an in vivo rat model of SCI and subsequently implement the protocol to the healthy human spinal cord. First, two complementary DDE approaches were evaluated using an orientationally invariant or a filter-probe diffusion encoding approach. While the two methods were similar in their ability to detect acute SCI, the filter-probe DDE approach had greater predictive power for functional outcomes. Next, the filter-probe DDE was compared to an analogous single diffusion encoding (SDE approach, with the results indicating that in the spinal cord, SDE provides similar contrast with improved signal to noise. In the SCI rat model, the filter-probe SDE scheme was coupled with a reduced field of view (rFOV excitation, and the results demonstrate high quality maps of the spinal cord without contamination from edema and cerebrospinal fluid, thereby providing high sensitivity to injury severity. The optimized protocol was demonstrated in the healthy human spinal cord using the commercially-available diffusion MRI sequence with modifications only to the diffusion encoding directions. Maps of axial diffusivity devoid of CSF partial volume effects were obtained in a clinically feasible imaging time with a straightforward analysis and variability comparable to axial diffusivity derived from DTI

  9. H2 production through electro-oxidation of SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, Roelof J.; Rossmeisl, Jan; Siahrostami, Samira

    2014-01-01

    one volt lower than that of a regular water electrolyser. In taking this technology forward the greatest improvement to be made is in developing a suitable electrocatalyst, which is also the 'lowest hanging fruit' in that very limited research and development has been conducted on the electrocatalyst....... The electrolysis of aqueous solutions of dissolved SO2 holds huge environmental potential in that SO2 is converted to sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and at the same time hydrogen gas is produced. A further benefit or incentive is that a sulphur depolarised electrolyser (SDE) operates at an applied potential that is about...... are found to scale with the surface reactivity (measured as the adsorption of OH). Irrespective of the pathway water needs to be activated and reduction of SO2 to elemental sulphur must be avoided. This requirement alone calls for an electrode potential of at least 0.7-0.8 V for all the investigated...

  10. Quantificação da resistência tênsil e da friabilidade de um latossolo vermelho distroférrico sob plantio direto Quantification of tensile strength and friability of an oxisol (Acrudox under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Antonio Tormena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade estrutural do solo é importante para a emergência das plântulas, bem como para o crescimento, desenvolvimento e produtividade das culturas. Uma ampla distribuição de valores de resistência tênsil do solo indica condições estruturais do solo para atender a estes pressupostos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência tênsil e a friabilidade de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob plantio direto com sucessão e rotação de culturas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: plantio direto com sucessão das culturas de trigo e soja (SDS; plantio direto com rotação de culturas, utilizando em seqüência milho-aveia-soja-aveia-soja-trigo (SDR, e SDR associado à escarificação periódica do solo (SDE. Em duas épocas distintas (outubro de 2003 e abril de 2004, foram coletados dez blocos de solo (0,15 x 0,20 x 0,10 m em cada tratamento na camada de 0-0,20 m de profundidade. Quatrocentos e cinqüenta agregados de cada tratamento e época de coleta foram utilizados para determinar a resistência tênsil e a friabilidade do solo, determinando-se, também, o conteúdo de C orgânico. Não foi verificada influência do C orgânico do solo na resistência tênsil e na friabilidade do solo. Verificou-se menor resistência tênsil em SDE para o ano de 2003. A sucessão de culturas (SDS alternou temporariamente a friabilidade do solo entre a classe friável e a muito friável. A rotação de culturas (SDR manteve temporalmente estável a estrutura do solo na classe de friabilidade do solo muito friável, assegurando melhor estrutura e qualidade física do solo. A resistência tênsil dos agregados e a friabilidade foram sensíveis na avaliação da qualidade estrutural do solo para os sistemas de manejo de solo e culturas estudados.The soil structural quality is important for plant emergence as well as for crop growth, development and yield. A wide range of soil tensile strength values indicates that soil structure conditions

  11. Nonintrusive Polynomial Chaos Expansions for Sensitivity Analysis in Stochastic Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez, M. Navarro; Le Maî tre, O. P.; Knio, Omar

    2017-01-01

    A Galerkin polynomial chaos (PC) method was recently proposed to perform variance decomposition and sensitivity analysis in stochastic differential equations (SDEs), driven by Wiener noise and involving uncertain parameters. The present paper extends the PC method to nonintrusive approaches enabling its application to more complex systems hardly amenable to stochastic Galerkin projection methods. We also discuss parallel implementations and the variance decomposition of the derived quantity of interest within the framework of nonintrusive approaches. In particular, a novel hybrid PC-sampling-based strategy is proposed in the case of nonsmooth quantities of interest (QoIs) but smooth SDE solution. Numerical examples are provided that illustrate the decomposition of the variance of QoIs into contributions arising from the uncertain parameters, the inherent stochastic forcing, and joint effects. The simulations are also used to support a brief analysis of the computational complexity of the method, providing insight on the types of problems that would benefit from the present developments.

  12. Energy-Based Yield Criteria for Orthotropic Materials, Exhibiting Strength-Differential Effect. Specification for Sheets under Plane Stress State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeptyński P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A general proposition of an energy-based limit condition for anisotropic materials exhibiting strength-differential effect (SDE based on spectral decomposition of elasticity tensors and the use of scaling pressure-dependent functions is specified for the case of orthotropic materials. A detailed algorithm (based on classical solutions of cubic equations for the determination of elastic eigenstates and eigenvalues of the orthotropic stiffness tensor is presented. A yield condition is formulated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. Explicit formulas based on simple strength tests are derived for parameters of criterion in the plane case. The application of both criteria for the description of yielding and plastic deformation of metal sheets is discussed in detail. The plane case criterion is verified with experimental results from the literature.

  13. Introduction to stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Karandikar, Rajeeva L

    2018-01-01

    This book sheds new light on stochastic calculus, the branch of mathematics that is most widely applied in financial engineering and mathematical finance. The first book to introduce pathwise formulae for the stochastic integral, it provides a simple but rigorous treatment of the subject, including a range of advanced topics. The book discusses in-depth topics such as quadratic variation, Ito formula, and Emery topology. The authors briefly address continuous semi-martingales to obtain growth estimates and study solution of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) by using the technique of random time change. Later, by using Metivier–Pellumail inequality, the solutions to SDEs driven by general semi-martingales are discussed. The connection of the theory with mathematical finance is briefly discussed and the book has extensive treatment on the representation of martingales as stochastic integrals and a second fundamental theorem of asset pricing. Intended for undergraduate- and beginning graduate-level stud...

  14. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Malaysia (Malaysia); UTM Center for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.

  15. Research on sudden environmental pollution public service platform construction based on WebGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, T. P.; Gao, D. Y.; Zhong, X. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to actualize the social sharing and service of the emergency-response information for sudden pollution accidents, the public can share the risk source information service, dangerous goods control technology service and so on, The SQL Server and ArcSDE software are used to establish a spatial database to restore all kinds of information including risk sources, hazardous chemicals and handling methods in case of accidents. Combined with Chinese atmospheric environmental assessment standards, the SCREEN3 atmospheric dispersion model and one-dimensional liquid diffusion model are established to realize the query of related information and the display of the diffusion effect under B/S structure. Based on the WebGIS technology, C#.Net language is used to develop the sudden environmental pollution public service platform. As a result, the public service platform can make risk assessments and provide the best emergency processing services.

  16. Nonintrusive Polynomial Chaos Expansions for Sensitivity Analysis in Stochastic Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez, M. Navarro

    2017-04-18

    A Galerkin polynomial chaos (PC) method was recently proposed to perform variance decomposition and sensitivity analysis in stochastic differential equations (SDEs), driven by Wiener noise and involving uncertain parameters. The present paper extends the PC method to nonintrusive approaches enabling its application to more complex systems hardly amenable to stochastic Galerkin projection methods. We also discuss parallel implementations and the variance decomposition of the derived quantity of interest within the framework of nonintrusive approaches. In particular, a novel hybrid PC-sampling-based strategy is proposed in the case of nonsmooth quantities of interest (QoIs) but smooth SDE solution. Numerical examples are provided that illustrate the decomposition of the variance of QoIs into contributions arising from the uncertain parameters, the inherent stochastic forcing, and joint effects. The simulations are also used to support a brief analysis of the computational complexity of the method, providing insight on the types of problems that would benefit from the present developments.

  17. Keskerakondlik hävitustöö / Jaak Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Jaak, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 7. märts 2007, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 8. märts 2007, lk. 2; Nädaline, 8. märts 2007, lk. 4; Sakala, 8. märts 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 8. märts 2007, lk. 11; SL Õhtuleht, 8. märts 2007, lk. 12; Harjumaa, 9. märts 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 9. märts 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 10. märts 2007, lk. 2. Tallinna linnavolikogu SDE juhi sõnul jäävad Sakala keskuse varemed sümboliseerima keskerakondlikku kultuuripoliitikat

  18. AHP 12: Silence in the Valley of Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zla ba sgrol ma ཟླ་བ་སྒྲོལ་མ།

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The text and more than one hundred full-page color plates document Tibetan folk music (particularly work songs, and local life in the Sman shod Valley, Sde dge County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Bo nyed, a local elder, describes the situation that motivated this timely documentation, "In the past we sang constantly, but now people don't sing no matter where they are or what they are doing. Now everyone is silent." The text includes richly contextualized and annotated transcriptions of the songs' Tibetan lyrics with English translations. Audio materials related to this publication can be found at: http://www.oralliterature.org/collections/zlaba001.html

  19. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J.; Bryman, D.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Cousins, T.; Didsbury, R.; Erhardt, L.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Jason, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Liu, Z.; McCall, M.; Noel, S.; Oakham, F.G.; Ong, D.; Stocki, T.; Thompson, M.; Waller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  20. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations. [nl

  1. Identification of fractional-order systems via a switching differential evolution subject to noise perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wu; Fang, Jian-an; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Yulong

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, a differential evolution variant, called switching DE (SDE), has been employed to estimate the orders and parameters in incommensurate fractional-order chaotic systems. The proposed algorithm includes a switching population utilization strategy, where the population size is adjusted dynamically based on the solution-searching status. Thus, this adaptive control method realizes the identification of fractional-order Lorenz, Lü and Chen systems in both deterministic and stochastic environments, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided, where comparisons are made with five other State-of-the-Art evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. -- Highlights: ► Switching population utilization strategy is applied for differential evolution. ► The parameters are estimated in both deterministic and stochastic environments. ► Comparisons with five other EAs verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A General Stochastic Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-field Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckdahn, Rainer; Djehiche, Boualem; Li Juan

    2011-01-01

    We study the optimal control for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of mean-field type, in which the coefficients depend on the state of the solution process as well as of its expected value. Moreover, the cost functional is also of mean-field type. This makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. For a general action space a Peng’s-type stochastic maximum principle (Peng, S.: SIAM J. Control Optim. 2(4), 966–979, 1990) is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. This maximum principle differs from the classical one in the sense that here the first order adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE, while the second order adjoint equation remains the same as in Peng’s stochastic maximum principle.

  3. Perturbations of linear delay differential equations at the verge of instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, N; Namachchivaya, N Sri

    2016-06-01

    The characteristic equation for a linear delay differential equation (DDE) has countably infinite roots on the complex plane. This paper considers linear DDEs that are on the verge of instability, i.e., a pair of roots of the characteristic equation lies on the imaginary axis of the complex plane and all other roots have negative real parts. It is shown that when small noise perturbations are present, the probability distribution of the dynamics can be approximated by the probability distribution of a certain one-dimensional stochastic differential equation (SDE) without delay. This is advantageous because equations without delay are easier to simulate and one-dimensional SDEs are analytically tractable. When the perturbations are also linear, it is shown that the stability depends on a specific complex number. The theory is applied to study oscillators with delayed feedback. Some errors in other articles that use multiscale approach are pointed out.

  4. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (palcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE

  6. Los centros de incubación de negocios y la gestión de redes: exploración empírica aplicando el análisis de redes sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel M. Muñiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Las incubadoras de negocios consideran la gestión de redes como un elementocrítico para generar capacidades competitivas; el modelo más evolucionadoactualmente es conocido como «incubación en red». Sin embargo, diversos investigadoresaducen la necesidad de relacionar estos dos constructos positivamente. El estudioexplora la aplicación de la «teoría de redes» al campo del emprendimiento a travésde las interconexiones, entre incubados y grupos de interés, y las magnitudes propiasde dicha teoría. La muestra comprende 18 empresas asistidas bajo la modalidad de«acompañamiento externo». Su originalidad radica en explorar las claves del éxito dela gestión de incubación desde la perspectiva del análisis de redes. Por último, se aportauna serie de recomendaciones para futuros estudios.

  7. "La escuadra, el compás y la lira. Poemas publicados en la prensa masónica puertorriqueña, 1883-1887"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Pereira Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analizó los poemas publicados en varios periódicos masónicos puertorriqueños publicados durante losaños 1883-1887, para evaluar como éstos pudieron promover una “lectura dominante” de los principiosasociados a la modernidad en el Puerto Rico del Siglo XIX. Se presenta información sobre los periódicos,incluyendo su historial y datos biográficos de sus editores.Para este esfuerzo investigativo se utilizaron, ademásde los periódicos de la época citada, fuentes documentales primarias de laGran Logia Soberana de Libres yAceptados Masones de Puerto Rico.

  8. Identification of fractional-order systems via a switching differential evolution subject to noise perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wu, E-mail: dtzhuwu@gmail.com [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang, Jian-an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tang, Yang, E-mail: yang.tang@pik-potsdam.de [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam 14415 (Germany); Research Institute for Intelligent Control and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150006 (China); Zhang, Wenbing [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Yulong [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, a differential evolution variant, called switching DE (SDE), has been employed to estimate the orders and parameters in incommensurate fractional-order chaotic systems. The proposed algorithm includes a switching population utilization strategy, where the population size is adjusted dynamically based on the solution-searching status. Thus, this adaptive control method realizes the identification of fractional-order Lorenz, Lü and Chen systems in both deterministic and stochastic environments, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided, where comparisons are made with five other State-of-the-Art evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. -- Highlights: ► Switching population utilization strategy is applied for differential evolution. ► The parameters are estimated in both deterministic and stochastic environments. ► Comparisons with five other EAs verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Complete genome sequence of the complex carbohydrate-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Weiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40 is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catalytic and substrate-binding modules. We hypothesize that many of these features are adaptations that facilitate depolymerization of complex polysaccharides in the marine environment. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well-characterized in the marine environment.

  10. Noncausal stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, Shigeyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an elementary introduction to the theory of noncausal stochastic calculus that arises as a natural alternative to the standard theory of stochastic calculus founded in 1944 by Professor Kiyoshi Itô. As is generally known, Itô Calculus is essentially based on the "hypothesis of causality", asking random functions to be adapted to a natural filtration generated by Brownian motion or more generally by square integrable martingale. The intention in this book is to establish a stochastic calculus that is free from this "hypothesis of causality". To be more precise, a noncausal theory of stochastic calculus is developed in this book, based on the noncausal integral introduced by the author in 1979. After studying basic properties of the noncausal stochastic integral, various concrete problems of noncausal nature are considered, mostly concerning stochastic functional equations such as SDE, SIE, SPDE, and others, to show not only the necessity of such theory of noncausal stochastic calculus but ...

  11. A stochastic SIS epidemic model with vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Boqiang; Shan, Meijing; Zhang, Qimin; Wang, Weiming

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the basic features of an SIS type infectious disease model with varying population size and vaccinations in presence of environment noise. By applying the Markov semigroup theory, we propose a stochastic reproduction number R0s which can be seen as a threshold parameter to utilize in identifying the stochastic extinction and persistence: If R0s disease-free absorbing set for the stochastic epidemic model, which implies that disease dies out with probability one; while if R0s > 1, under some mild extra conditions, the SDE model has an endemic stationary distribution which results in the stochastic persistence of the infectious disease. The most interesting finding is that large environmental noise can suppress the outbreak of the disease.

  12. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granita; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-01-01

    The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution

  13. Status Review of Renewable and Energy Efficiency Support Schemes in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This document forms the latest update to the regular CEER Status Review of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Support Schemes in Europe and builds on the previous CEER report C10-SDE-19-04a. The purpose of Status Review publications is to collect comparable data on RES support in Europe in order to provide policy-makers, regulators and industry participants with information on support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources, by technology and type of instrument (e.g. Feed-in tariffs and Green Certificates). To collect this data, a questionnaire was circulated to CEER members in July 2012, to explore the renewable electricity support schemes currently in place in Member States across Europe.

  14. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  15. Integrated Storage and Management of Vector and Raster Data Based on Oracle Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are many problems in the storage and management of multi-source heterogeneous spatial data, such as the difficulty of transferring, the lack of unified storage and the low efficiency. By combining relational database and spatial data engine technology, an approach for integrated storage and management of vector and raster data is proposed on the basis of Oracle in this paper. This approach establishes an integrated storage model on vector and raster data and optimizes the retrieval mechanism at first, then designs a framework for the seamless data transfer, finally realizes the unified storage and efficient management of multi-source heterogeneous data. By comparing experimental results with the international leading similar software ArcSDE, it is proved that the proposed approach has higher data transfer performance and better query retrieval efficiency.

  16. Estimating the Doppler centroid of SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1989-01-01

    attractive properties. An evaluation based on an existing SEASAT processor is reported. The time-domain algorithms are shown to be extremely efficient with respect to requirements on calculations and memory, and hence they are well suited to real-time systems where the Doppler estimation is based on raw SAR......After reviewing frequency-domain techniques for estimating the Doppler centroid of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data, the author describes a time-domain method and highlights its advantages. In particular, a nonlinear time-domain algorithm called the sign-Doppler estimator (SDE) is shown to have...... data. For offline processors where the Doppler estimation is performed on processed data, which removes the problem of partial coverage of bright targets, the ΔE estimator and the CDE (correlation Doppler estimator) algorithm give similar performance. However, for nonhomogeneous scenes it is found...

  17. Stochastic dynamics modeling solute transport in porous media modeling solute transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Kulasiri, Don

    2002-01-01

    Most of the natural and biological phenomena such as solute transport in porous media exhibit variability which can not be modeled by using deterministic approaches. There is evidence in natural phenomena to suggest that some of the observations can not be explained by using the models which give deterministic solutions. Stochastic processes have a rich repository of objects which can be used to express the randomness inherent in the system and the evolution of the system over time. The attractiveness of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE) come from the fact that we can integrate the variability of the system along with the scientific knowledge pertaining to the system. One of the aims of this book is to explaim some useufl concepts in stochastic dynamics so that the scientists and engineers with a background in undergraduate differential calculus could appreciate the applicability and appropriateness of these developments in mathematics. The ideas ...

  18. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bryman, D. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bueno, J. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Charles, E. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cousins, T. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Didsbury, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Erhardt, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Erlandson, A. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Gallant, G. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jason, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States); Jonkmans, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Liu, Z. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McCall, M.; Noel, S. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Oakham, F.G. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada); Ong, D.; Stocki, T. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Waller, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  19. Modeling real-time balancing power demands in wind power systems using stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Magnus; Perninge, Magnus; Soeder, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of wind power into power systems has a significant impact on the demand for real-time balancing power due to the stochastic nature of wind power production. The overall aim of this paper is to present probabilistic models of the impact of large-scale integration of wind power on the continuous demand in MW for real-time balancing power. This is important not only for system operators, but also for producers and consumers since they in most systems through various market solutions provide balancing power. Since there can occur situations where the wind power variations cancel out other types of deviations in the system, models on an hourly basis are not sufficient. Therefore the developed model is in continuous time and is based on stochastic differential equations (SDE). The model can be used within an analytical framework or in Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  20. La democracia: convergencias y divergencias de su praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Márquez-Fernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un breve análisis de la correlación normativa entre democracia y política, donde se utilizan como principales autores a Habermas (1999, 2000 y 2008 y De Sousa (2007, 2009 y 2014. El Estado moderno es sinónimo de democracia en su sentido formal donde la igualdad y equidad son derechos políticos para los ciudadanos; sin embargo, en la práctica el cumplimiento de la norma pasa por unas valoraciones intersubjetivas que regularmente generan la crisis del sistema y coloca en riesgo su legitimidad. Por consiguiente, se trata se entender que la democracia con respecto al Estado,depende mucho másde la participación de los ciudadanos en la construcción-representación del poder y menos de la centralidad del Estado.

  1. Innovation and learning curves. Report on knowledge questions of the Working Group Energy and Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.

    2010-05-01

    This report has been written on account of knowledge questions formulated by the Working Group Energy and Climate. This Working Group has been established in the framework of the Broad Reconsideration of Dutch government policy caused by the economic crisis of 2008-2009. Its task is to investigate the possibilities for a structural reduction of government spending by 20% on sustainable energy, energy saving and fiscal advantages carrying non-sustainable incentives. Apart from that, spending on policies aimed at mitigating climate change are scrutinized. In connection with this task, the working group has formulated knowledge questions which refer to cost effectiveness and possibilities for target achievement, possibilities within the European Renewables Directive and learning curves and innovation. This report addresses the latter two themes: learning curves and innovation. The selection of technologies assessed is not all-embracing, but based on the technologies within the SDE regulation (Dutch regulation on support for sustainable energy) supplemented by some promising innovations. [nl

  2. Chemical composition of free tropospheric aerosol for PM1 and coarse mode at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cozic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of submicron (fine mode and supermicron (coarse mode aerosol particles has been investigated at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland as part of the GAW aerosol monitoring program since 1999. A clear seasonality was observed for all major components throughout the period with low concentrations in winter (predominantly free tropospheric aerosol and higher concentrations in summer (enhanced vertical transport of boundary layer pollutants. In addition, mass closure was attempted during intensive campaigns in March 2004, February–March 2005 and August 2005. Ionic, carbonaceous and non-refractory components of the aerosol were quantified as well as the PM1 and coarse mode total aerosol mass concentrations. A relatively low conversion factor of 1.8 for organic carbon (OC to particulate organic matter (OM was found in winter (February–March 2005. Organics, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate were the major components of the fine aerosol fraction that were identified, while calcium and nitrate were the only two measured components contributing to the coarse mode. The aerosol mass concentrations for fine and coarse mode aerosol measured during the intensive campaigns were not typical of the long-term seasonality due largely to dynamical differences. Average fine and coarse mode concentrations during the intensive field campaigns were 1.7 μg m−3 and 2.4 μg m−3 in winter and 2.5 μg m−3 and 2.0 μg m−3 in summer, respectively. The mass balance of aerosols showed higher contributions of calcium and nitrate in the coarse mode during Saharan dust events (SDE than without SDE.

  3. Study of the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light-scattering in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Titos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation focuses on the characterisation of the aerosol particle hygroscopicity. Aerosol particle optical properties were measured at Granada, Spain, during winter and spring seasons in 2013. Measured optical properties included particle light-absorption coefficient (σap and particle light-scattering coefficient (σsp at dry conditions and at relative humidity (RH of 85±10%. The scattering enhancement factor, f(RH=85%, had a mean value of 1.5±0.2 and 1.6±0.3 for winter and spring campaigns, respectively. Cases of high scattering enhancement were more frequent during the spring campaign with 27% of the f(RH=85% values above 1.8, while during the winter campaign only 8% of the data were above 1.8. A Saharan dust event (SDE, which occurred during the spring campaign, was characterised by a predominance of large particles with low hygroscopicity. For the day when the SDE was more intense, a mean daily value of f(RH=85%=1.3±0.2 was calculated. f(RH=85% diurnal cycle showed two minima during the morning and afternoon traffic rush hours due to the increase in non-hygroscopic particles such as black carbon and road dust. This was confirmed by small values of the single-scattering albedo and the scattering Ångstrom exponent. A significant correlation between f(RH=85% and the fraction of particulate organic matter and sulphate was obtained. Finally, the impact of ambient RH in the aerosol radiative forcing was found to be very small due to the low ambient RH. For high RH values, the hygroscopic effect should be taken into account since the aerosol forcing efficiency changed from −13 W/m2 at dry conditions to −17 W/m2 at RH=85%.

  4. A quick scan of economic value of offshore wind versus biomass co-combustion; Quick scan economische waarde van wind op zee versus biomassabijstook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijers, F.J.; Bennink, D.; Blom, M.J.

    2013-05-15

    Co-combustion of biomass in conventional power stations is currently cheaper than offshore wind power. By the year 2025, though, both forms of renewable energy are expected to be similarly priced. Because offshore wind yields more added value for the Dutch economy and employment than biomass cocombustion, it would seem more logical to earmark more of the funds under the SDE (Dutch renewable energy subsidy scheme) for the former. At the request of the Netherlands Society for Nature and Environment (Natuur en Milieu) CE Delft compared the two generating options to assess how the Netherlands can boost use of renewable energy in the economically wisest manner in the years ahead. This issue is also to be discussed in upcoming consultations under the umbrella of the Netherlands Social and Economic Council (SER), where a new national energy agreement is to be hammered out [Dutch] Biomassabijstook is op dit moment goedkoper dan wind op zee. De verwachting is echter dat tegen 2025 de prijs van beide vormen van hernieuwbare energie vergelijkbaar kunnen zijn. Doordat de toegevoegde waarde voor de Nederlandse economie en werkgelegenheid van wind op zee groter is dan van biomassabijstook, lijkt het logischer dat uit de SDE-gelden meer wind op zee dan biomassa bijstook wordt betaald. Voor Natuur en Milieu heeft CE Delft een vergelijking gemaakt tussen deze twee technieken om de vraag te beantwoorden op welke economisch verstandige manier Nederland de komende jaren het gebruik van hernieuwbare energie kan realiseren. Die vraag is ook aan de orde in het SER-overleg dat de komende maand moet leiden tot een Energieakkoord.

  5. Patio 2.12: Vivienda prefabricada, sostenible, autosuficiente y energéticamente eficiente. Participación en la competición Solar Decathlon Europe 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrados-Cepeda, F. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The prototype “Patio 2.12” was Andalucía Team’s proposal for the 2012 Solar Decathlon Competition (SDE 2012, that was held in Madrid during September 2012, where it was awarded several prizes like the first one in Energy Efficiency. The team comprised a group of teachers and students from four Andalusian Universities. It worked for two years in the design and construction of a housing prototype that could be an example of several concepts at the same time: energy efficiency, architectural integration of solar systems, intermediate scale of prefabrication and a today´s interpretation of traditional Mediterranean way of living and building. Patio 2.12 was intended to be a compendium of energy, sustainability and passive conditioning devices.El prototipo Patio 2.12 fue la propuesta del equipo Andalucía Team para la competición Solar Decathlon Europe 2012 (SDE 2012, celebrada en Madrid en septiembre de 2012, en la que recibió hasta 9 premios, entre los que figura el de Eficiencia Energética. El equipo, integrado por profesores y alumnos de cuatro universidades andaluzas, trabajó durante dos años en el diseño y construcción de un prototipo de vivienda basada en la eficiencia energética, en la integración arquitectónica de los sistemas solares, en la prefabricación de escala intermedia y en una reinterpretación de la forma de vivir y construir de la tradición mediterránea. Patio 2.12 pretende ser un compendio de energía, sostenibilidad y mecanismos de acondicionamiento pasivo.

  6. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha -1 for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha -1 in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha -1 , respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha -1 , respectively). NO 3 - contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO 3 - loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg -1 silage) was significantly (Pleaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sono, qualidade de vida e acidentes em caminhoneiros brasileiros e portugueses Sueño, la calidad de vida y accidentes en brasileños y portugueses conductores de camiones Sleep, quality of life and accidents in the lives of Brazilian and Portuguese truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os distúrbios do sono, trabalho em turnos, sonolência excessiva diurna (SDE e qualidade de vida (QV de 206 caminhoneiros brasileiros e 200 portugueses. Aplicaram-se a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth, o SF-36 e o PSQI. Os portugueses dormem mais nos dias de trabalho (pSe evaluaron disturbios del sueño, trabajo en turnos, somnolencia diurna excesiva (SDE y calidad de vida (CV, de 206 camioneros brasileños y 200 portugueses. Se aplicaron la Escala de Somnolencia de Epworth, SF-36 y PSQI. Los portugueses duermen más los días de trabajo (pSleep disorders, shift work, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and quality of life (QL were evaluated by Epworth sleepiness scale, SF-36 and PSQI in 206 Brazilian and 200 Portuguese truck drivers. Portuguese drivers sleep more on working days (p<0.0001 and on non-working days (p=0.0720 and do more shift work (37.50%, whereas Brazilian drivers wake up earlier on working days (p<0.0001 and on non-working days (p<0.0001. Sleep disorders affected 35.40% of Brazilian drivers and 21.50% of Portuguese drivers (p=0.0019, whereas 32.00% and 21.00% had respectively EDS (p=0.0015. Brazilian truck drivers drive over 16 hours a day (43.20% and use more amphetamines (11.10% (p<0.0001, while Portuguese drivers consume more alcohol (73.50% (p<0.0001. QL scores were better for Portuguese drivers regarding mental health (p<0.0001 and pain (p<0.0001 and better for Brazilian drivers regarding physical function (p<0.0001, vitality (p=0.0002 and social function (p<0.0001. Sleep disorders are highly prevalent in both countries.

  8. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington's epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang's potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  9. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington’s epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang’s potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  10. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peijie, E-mail: cliffzhou@pku.edu.cn; Li, Tiejun, E-mail: tieli@pku.edu.cn [LMAM and School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-03-07

    Motivated by the famous Waddington’s epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang’s potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  11. Neural network based pattern matching and spike detection tools and services--in the CARMEN neuroinformatics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Martyn; Liang, Bojian; Smith, Leslie; Knowles, Alastair; Jackson, Tom; Jessop, Mark; Austin, Jim

    2008-10-01

    In the study of information flow in the nervous system, component processes can be investigated using a range of electrophysiological and imaging techniques. Although data is difficult and expensive to produce, it is rarely shared and collaboratively exploited. The Code Analysis, Repository and Modelling for e-Neuroscience (CARMEN) project addresses this challenge through the provision of a virtual neuroscience laboratory: an infrastructure for sharing data, tools and services. Central to the CARMEN concept are federated CARMEN nodes, which provide: data and metadata storage, new, thirdparty and legacy services, and tools. In this paper, we describe the CARMEN project as well as the node infrastructure and an associated thick client tool for pattern visualisation and searching, the Signal Data Explorer (SDE). We also discuss new spike detection methods, which are central to the services provided by CARMEN. The SDE is a client application which can be used to explore data in the CARMEN repository, providing data visualization, signal processing and a pattern matching capability. It performs extremely fast pattern matching and can be used to search for complex conditions composed of many different patterns across the large datasets that are typical in neuroinformatics. Searches can also be constrained by specifying text based metadata filters. Spike detection services which use wavelet and morphology techniques are discussed, and have been shown to outperform traditional thresholding and template based systems. A number of different spike detection and sorting techniques will be deployed as services within the CARMEN infrastructure, to allow users to benchmark their performance against a wide range of reference datasets.

  12. Seamless Digital Environment – Data Analytics Use Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Multiple research efforts in the U.S Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program studies the need and design of an underlying architecture to support the increased amount and use of data in the nuclear power plant. More specifically the three LWRS research efforts; Digital Architecture for an Automated Plant, Automated Work Packages, Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers, and the Online Monitoring efforts all have identified the need for a digital architecture and more importantly the need for a Seamless Digital Environment (SDE). A SDE provides a mean to access multiple applications, gather the data points needed, conduct the analysis requested, and present the result to the user with minimal or no effort by the user. During the 2016 annual Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) group meeting the nuclear utilities identified the need for research focused on data analytics. The effort was to develop and evaluate use cases for data mining and analytics for employing information from plant sensors and database for use in developing improved business analytics. The goal of the study is to research potential approaches to building an analytics solution for equipment reliability, on a small scale, focusing on either a single piece of equipment or a single system. The analytics solution will likely consist of a data integration layer, predictive and machine learning layer and the user interface layer that will display the output of the analysis in a straight forward, easy to consume manner. This report describes the use case study initiated by NITSL and conducted in a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory, Arizona Public Service – Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, and NextAxiom Inc.

  13. Previsões climáticas sazonais sobre o Brasil: avaliação do RegCM3 aninhado no modelo global CPTEC/COLA Seasonal climatic forecast over Brazil: evaluation of the RegCM3 model nested to the CPTEC/COLA global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinei Dorneles Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia o desempenho de previsões sazonais do modelo climático regional RegCM3, aninhado ao modelo global CPTEC/COLA. As previsões com o RegCM3 utilizaram 60 km de resolução horizontal num domínio que inclui grande parte da América do Sul. As previsões do RegCM3 e CPTEC/COLA foram avaliadas utilizando as análises de chuva e temperatura do ar do Climate Prediction Center (CPC e National Centers for Enviromental Prediction (NCEP, respectivamente. Entre maio de 2005 e julho de 2007, 27 previsões sazonais de chuva e temperatura do ar (exceto a temperatura do CPTEC/COLA, que possui 26 previsões foram avaliadas em três regiões do Brasil: Nordeste (NDE, Sudeste (SDE e Sul (SUL. As previsões do RegCM3 também foram comparadas com as climatologias das análises. De acordo com os índices estatísticos (bias, coeficiente de correlação, raiz quadrada do erro médio quadrático e coeficiente de eficiência, nas três regiões (NDE, SDE e SUL a chuva sazonal prevista pelo RegCM3 é mais próxima da observada do que a prevista pelo CPTEC/COLA. Além disto, o RegCM3 também é melhor previsor da chuva sazonal do que da média das observações nas três regiões. Para temperatura, as previsões do RegCM3 são superiores às do CPTEC/COLA nas áreas NDE e SUL, enquanto o CPTEC/COLA é superior no SDE. Finalmente, as previsões de chuva e temperatura do RegCM3 são mais próximas das observações do que a climatologia observada. Estes resultados indicam o potencial de utilização do RegCM3 para previsão sazonal, que futuramente deverá ser explorado através de previsão por conjunto.This study presents an assessment of seasonal forecasts from the regional climate model RegCM3 nested to the CPTEC/COLA global model. The used RegCM3 version is 60 km horizontal resolution over an area that includes large part of South America. RegCM3 and CPTEC/COLA forecasts were evaluated using the rainfall and air temperature analyses from Climate

  14. Avaliação das estruturas secretoras de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae após extração dos constituintes voláteis Evaluation of secretory structures of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae after extraction of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    60 to 80µm in diameter and consisted of a multicellular apical portion of radial arrangement formed by two concentric circles with 9 to 16 cells. In the central region of the peltate trichome apex, there were 4 cells in the form of a vertex arranged on the peduncle, and this was the most external region formed by a variable number of cells. The volatile compounds of the mature leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation (HD, simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and solvent (SO. The obtained data evidenced that the major impact on the secretory structures occurred after extraction by hydrodistillation, compared to the other used methods. The percentage of the major chemical constituents, thymol and γ-terpinene, changed according the extraction method: (HD = 25.4%, SO = 18.2%, SDE = 54.8% and γ-terpinene (HD = 38.2%, SO = absent, SDE = 13.7%.

  15. Effect of Ion Flux (Dose Rate) in Source-Drain Extension Ion Implantation for 10-nm Node FinFET and Beyond on 300/450mm Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming-Yi

    The improvement of wafer equipment productivity has been a continuous effort of the semiconductor industry. Higher productivity implies lower product price, which economically drives more demand from the market. This is desired by the semiconductor manufacturing industry. By raising the ion beam current of the ion implanter for 300/450mm platforms, it is possible to increase the throughput of the ion implanter. The resulting dose rate can be comparable to the performance of conventional ion implanters or higher, depending on beam current and beam size. Thus, effects caused by higher dose rate must be investigated further. One of the major applications of ion implantation (I/I) is source-drain extension (SDE) I/I for the silicon FinFET device. This study investigated the dose rate effects on the material properties and device performance of the 10-nm node silicon FinFET. In order to gain better understanding of the dose rate effects, the dose rate study is based on Synopsys Technology CAD (TCAD) process and device simulations that are calibrated and validated using available structural silicon fin samples. We have successfully shown that the kinetic monte carlo (KMC) I/I simulation can precisely model both the silicon amorphization and the arsenic distribution in the fin by comparing the KMC simulation results with TEM images. The results of the KMC I/I simulation show that at high dose rate more activated arsenic dopants were in the source-drain extension (SDE) region. This finding matches with the increased silicon amorphization caused by the high dose-rate I/I, given that the arsenic atoms could be more easily activated by the solid phase epitaxial regrowth process. This increased silicon amorphization led to not only higher arsenic activation near the spacer edge, but also less arsenic atoms straggling into the channel. Hence, it is possible to improve the throughput of the ion implanter when the dopants are implanted at high dose rate if the same doping level

  16. Neurite density imaging versus imaging of microscopic anisotropy in diffusion MRI: A model comparison using spherical tensor encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Björn; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Mårtensson, Johan; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C; Nilsson, Markus

    2017-02-15

    In diffusion MRI (dMRI), microscopic diffusion anisotropy can be obscured by orientation dispersion. Separation of these properties is of high importance, since it could allow dMRI to non-invasively probe elongated structures such as neurites (axons and dendrites). However, conventional dMRI, based on single diffusion encoding (SDE), entangles microscopic anisotropy and orientation dispersion with intra-voxel variance in isotropic diffusivity. SDE-based methods for estimating microscopic anisotropy, such as the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) method, must thus rely on model assumptions to disentangle these features. An alternative approach is to directly quantify microscopic anisotropy by the use of variable shape of the b-tensor. Along those lines, we here present the 'constrained diffusional variance decomposition' (CODIVIDE) method, which jointly analyzes data acquired with diffusion encoding applied in a single direction at a time (linear tensor encoding, LTE) and in all directions (spherical tensor encoding, STE). We then contrast the two approaches by comparing neurite density estimated using NODDI with microscopic anisotropy estimated using CODIVIDE. Data were acquired in healthy volunteers and in glioma patients. NODDI and CODIVIDE differed the most in gray matter and in gliomas, where NODDI detected a neurite fraction higher than expected from the level of microscopic diffusion anisotropy found with CODIVIDE. The discrepancies could be explained by the NODDI tortuosity assumption, which enforces a connection between the neurite density and the mean diffusivity of tissue. Our results suggest that this assumption is invalid, which leads to a NODDI neurite density that is inconsistent between LTE and STE data. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the NODDI assumptions result in parameter bias that precludes the use of NODDI to map neurite density. With CODIVIDE, we found high levels of microscopic anisotropy in white matter

  17. SCBA (social cost-benefit analysis) Wind energy Flevoland, Netherlands; MKBA Windenergie Flevoland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; Blom, M.J.; Bles, M.

    2012-02-15

    The Dutch province of Flevoland aims to recover its open landscape by reducing the number of wind turbines , while also generating more wind energy. To this end, an integrated spatial and social exploration was carried out and different policy scenarios were developed. These scenarios have different financial but also social effects, such as stimulating the regional economy, impact on the landscape, etc. It is not clear in advance which of the scenarios scores most favorably from a social perspective. To obtain more insight in the social impact, a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) was conducted. The main conclusion is that the net welfare effect can be both positive and negative, depending on the scenario. As with any financial calculation and SCBA, the results depend on the assumptions. Factors such as the price of electricity, the investment, the amount of SDE subsidy (subsidy for production of renewable energy), the time of reorganizing, the discount rate applied, etc., all affect the results and may change over time. Therefore, in parallel with this report, a calculation model was developed which makes it easy to adjust these variables. This way results can easily be adjusted based on modified starting points [Dutch] De provincie Flevoland heeft als oorspronkelijke doelstelling haar open landschap te herstellen door het aantal windmolens te verminderen, en tegelijkertijd meer windenergie op te wekken. Hiertoe is een integrale ruimtelijke en maatschappelijke verkenning uitgevoerd en zijn verschillende beleidsscenario's ontwikkeld. Deze scenario's hebben verschillende financiële maar ook maatschappelijke effecten tot gevolg, zoals stimulering van de regionale economie, effect op het landschap, etc. Het is vooraf niet duidelijk welk van de scenario's vanuit maatschappelijk perspectief het meest gunstig scoort. Om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in het maatschappelijke effect, is daarom een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA) uitgevoerd

  18. Seamless Digital Environment – Plan for Data Analytics Use Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program initiated research in to what is needed in order to provide a roadmap or model for Nuclear Power Plants to reference when building an architecture that can support the growing data supply and demand flowing through their networks. The Digital Architecture project published report Digital Architecture Planning Model (Oxstrand et. al, 2016) discusses things to consider when building an architecture to support the increasing needs and demands of data throughout the plant. Once the plant is able to support the data demands it still needs to be able to provide the data in an easy, quick and reliable method. A common method is to create a “one stop shop” application that a user can go to get all the data they need. The creation of this leads to the need of creating a Seamless Digital Environment (SDE) to integrate all the “siloed” data. An SDE is the desired perception that should be presented to users by gathering the data from any data source (e.g., legacy applications and work management systems) without effort by the user. The goal for FY16 was to complete a feasibility study for data mining and analytics for employing information from computer-based procedures enabled technologies for use in developing improved business analytics. The research team collaborated with multiple organizations to identify use cases or scenarios, which could be beneficial to investigate in a feasibility study. Many interesting potential use cases were identified throughout the FY16 activity. Unfortunately, due to factors out of the research team’s control, none of the studies were initiated this year. However, the insights gained and the relationships built with both PVNGS and NextAxiom will be valuable when moving forward with future research. During the 2016 annual Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) group meeting it was identified would be very beneficial to the industry to

  19. Hygroscopicity of the submicrometer aerosol at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sjogren

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from measurements of hygroscopic growth of submicrometer aerosol with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA during four campaigns at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The campaigns took place during the years 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2005, each lasting approximately one month. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF, i.e. the relative change in particle diameter from dry diameter, D0, to diameter measured at higher relative humidity, RH are presented for three distinct air mass types, namely for: 1 free tropospheric winter conditions, 2 planetary boundary layer influenced air masses (during a summer period and 3 Saharan dust events (SDE. The GF values at 85% RH (D0=100 nm were 1.40±0.11 and 1.29±0.08 for the first two situations while for SDE a bimodal GF distribution was often found. No phase changes were observed when the RH was varied between 10–90%, and the continuous water uptake could be well described with a single-parameter empirical model. The frequency distributions of the average hygroscopic growth factors and the width of the retrieved growth factor distributions (indicating whether the aerosol is internally or externally mixed are presented, which can be used for modeling purposes.

    Measurements of size resolved chemical composition were performed with an aerosol mass spectrometer in parallel to the GF measurements. This made it possible to estimate the apparent ensemble mean GF of the organics (GForg using inverse ZSR (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson modeling. GForg was found to be ~1.20 at aw=0.85, which is at the upper end of previous laboratory and field data though still in agreement with the highly aged and oxidized nature of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  20. Optimal hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy for large brain metastases in patients with high risk factors: a single-institutional prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K; Sato, Hiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Noda, Shin-ei; Seto, Ken-ichi; Torikai, Kota; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    A single-institutional prospective study of optimal hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy for large brain metastases with high risk factors was performed based on the risk prediction of radiation-related complications. Eighty-eight patients with large brain metastases ≥10 cm 3 in critical areas treated from January 2010 to February 2014 using the CyberKnife were evaluated. The optimal dose and number of fractions were determined based on the surrounding brain volume circumscribed with a single dose equivalent (SDE) of 14 Gy (V14) to be less than 7 cm 3 for individual lesions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. As a result of optimal treatment, 92 tumors ranging from 10 to 74.6 cm 3 (median, 16.2 cm 3 ) in volume were treated with a median prescribed isodose of 57% and a median fraction number of five. In order to compare the results according to the tumor volume, the tumors were divided into the following three groups: 1) 10–19.9 cm 3 , 2) 20–29.9 cm 3 and 3) ≥30 cm 3 . The lesions were treated with a median prescribed isodose of 57%, 56% and 55%, respectively, and the median fraction number was five in all three groups. However, all tumors ≥20 cm 3 were treated with ≥ five fractions. The median SDE of the maximum dose in the three groups was 47.2 Gy, 48.5 Gy and 46.5 Gy, respectively. Local tumor control was obtained in 90.2% of the patients, and the median survival was nine months, with a median follow-up period of seven months (range, 3-41 months). There were no significant differences in the survival rates among the three groups. Six tumors exhibited marginal recurrence 7-36 months after treatment. Ten patients developed symptomatic brain edema or recurrence of pre-existing edema, seven of whom required osmo-steroid therapy. No patients developed radiation necrosis requiring surgical resection. Our findings demonstrate that the administration of optimal hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy based on the dose-volume prediction

  1. Commercial green electricity products; Zakelijke groenestroomproducten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielders, L.M.L.; Afman, M.R.

    2012-12-15

    The Dutch 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT campaign initiated by Hivos targets data centres, appealing to these companies to consider the environmental footprint of the electricity they use. Hivos is keen for a debate on greener alternatives and wanted a review of the sustainability of the various options available for buying 'green power' on the commercial market in the Netherlands, with a reasoned discussion of each. That review, laid down in this report, examines and discusses the various 'green power products' for the commercial market, providing a springboard for data centres to switch to a 'greener' product. To that end 'green power products' were categorized to highlight the differences between them. The highest score was given to renewable energy produced without any operating subsidy (the so-called SDE+ scheme), or with the higher price being paid for entirely by customers. Supply in these two categories is still fairly negligible, as this essentially represents an energy market in which renewables are cost-competitive with 'grey' electricity, or one in which customers are willing to pay (far) more for their electricity. The lowest scores were assigned to renewable power sourced in other countries and to 'grey' electricity [Dutch] De Hivos-bedrijvencampagne 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT richt zich op de datacenterbedrijven. De datacenterbedrijven worden aangesproken op de duurzaamheid van hun keuze voor de ingekochte elektriciteit. Hivos wil het gesprek aangaan over meer duurzame alternatieven. Hiervoor heeft Hivos behoefte aan een overzicht van de duurzaamheid van de verschillende opties voor de afname van duurzame elektriciteit (groene stroom) zoals die op de zakelijke markt in Nederland worden aangeboden, inclusief een onderbouwing. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht en inzicht in de verschillende groenestroomproducten voor de zakelijke markt zodat de datacenters kunnen overstappen op een

  2. Global radiative effects of solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxian; Unger, Nadine; Storelvmo, Trude; Harper, Kandice; Zheng, Yiqi; Heyes, Chris

    2018-04-01

    We apply the NCAR CAM5-Chem global aerosol-climate model to quantify the net global radiative effects of black and organic carbon aerosols from global and Indian solid fuel cookstove emissions for the year 2010. Our assessment accounts for the direct radiative effects, changes to cloud albedo and lifetime (aerosol indirect effect, AIE), impacts on clouds via the vertical temperature profile (semi-direct effect, SDE) and changes in the surface albedo of snow and ice (surface albedo effect). In addition, we provide the first estimate of household solid fuel black carbon emission effects on ice clouds. Anthropogenic emissions are from the IIASA GAINS ECLIPSE V5a inventory. A global dataset of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA) measurements from surface sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET is used to evaluate the model skill. Compared with observations, the model successfully reproduces the spatial patterns of atmospheric BC and OA concentrations, and agrees with measurements to within a factor of 2. Globally, the simulated AOD agrees well with observations, with a normalized mean bias close to zero. However, the model tends to underestimate AOD over India and China by ˜ 19 ± 4 % but overestimate it over Africa by ˜ 25 ± 11 % (± represents modeled temporal standard deviations for n = 5 run years). Without BC serving as ice nuclei (IN), global and Indian solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions have net global cooling radiative effects of -141 ± 4 mW m-2 and -12 ± 4 mW m-2, respectively (± represents modeled temporal standard deviations for n = 5 run years). The net radiative impacts are dominated by the AIE and SDE mechanisms, which originate from enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations for the formation of liquid and mixed-phase clouds, and a suppression of convective transport of water vapor from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere that in turn leads to reduced ice cloud formation. When BC is allowed

  3. Modelling vertical error in LiDAR-derived digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fernando J.; Mills, Jon P.; Delgado, Jorge; Aguilar, Manuel A.; Negreiros, J. G.; Pérez, José L.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid theoretical-empirical model has been developed for modelling the error in LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) of non-open terrain. The theoretical component seeks to model the propagation of the sample data error (SDE), i.e. the error from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data capture of ground sampled points in open terrain, towards interpolated points. The interpolation methods used for infilling gaps may produce a non-negligible error that is referred to as gridding error. In this case, interpolation is performed using an inverse distance weighting (IDW) method with the local support of the five closest neighbours, although it would be possible to utilize other interpolation methods. The empirical component refers to what is known as "information loss". This is the error purely due to modelling the continuous terrain surface from only a discrete number of points plus the error arising from the interpolation process. The SDE must be previously calculated from a suitable number of check points located in open terrain and assumes that the LiDAR point density was sufficiently high to neglect the gridding error. For model calibration, data for 29 study sites, 200×200 m in size, belonging to different areas around Almeria province, south-east Spain, were acquired by means of stereo photogrammetric methods. The developed methodology was validated against two different LiDAR datasets. The first dataset used was an Ordnance Survey (OS) LiDAR survey carried out over a region of Bristol in the UK. The second dataset was an area located at Gador mountain range, south of Almería province, Spain. Both terrain slope and sampling density were incorporated in the empirical component through the calibration phase, resulting in a very good agreement between predicted and observed data (R2 = 0.9856 ; p reasonably good fit to the predicted errors. Even better results were achieved in the more rugged morphology of the Gador mountain range dataset. The findings

  4. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Chai, X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  5. Seamless Digital Environment - Plan for Data Analytics Use Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Bly, Aaron Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program initiated research in to what is needed in order to provide a roadmap or model for Nuclear Power Plants to reference when building an architecture that can support the growing data supply and demand flowing through their networks. The Digital Architecture project published report Digital Architecture Planning Model (Oxstrand et. al, 2016) discusses things to consider when building an architecture to support the increasing needs and demands of data throughout the plant. Once the plant is able to support the data demands it still needs to be able to provide the data in an easy, quick and reliable method. A common method is to create a ''one stop shop'' application that a user can go to get all the data they need. The creation of this leads to the need of creating a Seamless Digital Environment (SDE) to integrate all the ''siloed'' data. An SDE is the desired perception that should be presented to users by gathering the data from any data source (e.g., legacy applications and work management systems) without effort by the user. The goal for FY16 was to complete a feasibility study for data mining and analytics for employing information from computer-based procedures enabled technologies for use in developing improved business analytics. The research team collaborated with multiple organizations to identify use cases or scenarios, which could be beneficial to investigate in a feasibility study. Many interesting potential use cases were identified throughout the FY16 activity. Unfortunately, due to factors out of the research team's control, none of the studies were initiated this year. However, the insights gained and the relationships built with both PVNGS and NextAxiom will be valuable when moving forward with future research. During the 2016 annual Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) group meeting it was identified would be very beneficial to the industry to

  6. UNDERSTANDING OLDER ADULT LEARNERS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: The Case of Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailul Morad MOHD NOR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available World population ageing is unprecedented and pervasive which will affect all countries in the world. According to a United Nation report (2010: “By 2045, the number of older persons in the world will exceed the number of young for the first time in history.” The number of the older adult learners in distance education programs is also expected to increase in tandem with the growth of ageing population throughout the world. As such distance education institutions and instructors should be vigilant to this new emerging group of learners. The objectives of this study were to identify factors related to older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs and their characteristics. Data were collected by using interviews and questionnaires. Respondents for the study were older adult learners age 50 and over who enrolled in degree programs at the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Malaysia. Five older adult learners were interviewed and 72 out of 123 respondents completed the questionnaires. The findings indicated that older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs is mainly due to career advancement and to seek knowledge. The older adult learners’ distinct characteristics are high motivation, eager to learn, health conscious, effective time management, good social skills, no financial difficulties and have strong family support.

  7. Effective spatial database support for acquiring spatial information from remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peiquan; Wan, Shouhong; Yue, Lihua

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a new approach to maintain spatial information acquiring from remote-sensing images is presented, which is based on Object-Relational DBMS. According to this approach, the detected and recognized results of targets are stored and able to be further accessed in an ORDBMS-based spatial database system, and users can access the spatial information using the standard SQL interface. This approach is different from the traditional ArcSDE-based method, because the spatial information management module is totally integrated into the DBMS and becomes one of the core modules in the DBMS. We focus on three issues, namely the general framework for the ORDBMS-based spatial database system, the definitions of the add-in spatial data types and operators, and the process to develop a spatial Datablade on Informix. The results show that the ORDBMS-based spatial database support for image-based target detecting and recognition is easy and practical to be implemented.

  8. Thyroid dosimetry in the western trace of the Chernobyl accident plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedveckaite, T.; Filistovic, V.; Mastauskas, A.; Thiessen, K.

    2004-01-01

    According to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO/SDE/PHE/99.6), the reference level for consideration in stable iodine prophylaxis is based on the inhalation exposure pathway. In the western trace of the Chernobyl accident, the measurement of airborne 131 I fractions (aerosol-associated, gaseous reactive and gaseous organic) indicates that airborne gaseous reactive and, especially, organic 131 I fractions were the major contributors to thyroid exposure due to inhalation. The contribution of inhaled short-lived radio-iodines was negligible. To attain more precise thyroid exposure evaluation, 131 I dose factors were determined as a function of age and prevalence of stable iodine deficiency. The results demonstrate that children with a stable iodine deficiency experienced at least two times higher thyroid doses than did children with a dietary iodine sufficiency. The results of these investigations demonstrate that in thyroid dosimetry it is important to know the stable iodine status as well as to have a standardised method for airborne radioiodine measurements, especially for consideration of stable iodine prophylaxis based on the inhalation exposure pathway. (authors)

  9. Un modelo pedagógico universal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Gonzalez Garcia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente ensayo tiene como propósitofundamental presentar lo que, desde laperspectiva y la experiencia de su autor,podría constituirse en una alternativa de modelopedagógico, que posteriormente conlleve aldesarrollo de un modelo curricular, pertinente yapropiado para la formación de los profesionalesque se requieren en el siglo XXI.Diversas investigaciones destacan que en Colombiala educación superior, en sus diferentescontextos, está en crisis, fundamentalmente porque no fomenta el desarrollo cognitivo ni el interésde los estudiantes por el aprendizaje. Uno delos planteamientos que apoya esta afirmaciónfue presentado por la Presidencia de la Repúblicaen el año 1994, al manifestar que “gran partedel sistema educativo vigente se caracteriza poruna enseñanza fragmentada, acrítica, desactualizadae inadecuada, que no permite la integraciónconceptual, lo cual desmotiva la curiosidad delos estudiantes y desarrolla estructuras cognitivasy de comportamiento inapropiadas” [1].

  10. Spatial analysis of falls in an urban community of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Wing C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are an issue of great public health concern. This study focuses on outdoor falls within an urban community in Hong Kong. Urban environmental hazards are often place-specific and dependent upon the built features, landscape characteristics, and habitual activities. Therefore, falls must be examined with respect to local situations. Results This paper uses spatial analysis methods to map fall occurrences and examine possible environmental attributes of falls in an urban community of Hong Kong. The Nearest neighbour hierarchical (Nnh and Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE techniques can offer additional insights about the circumstances and environmental factors that contribute to falls. The results affirm the multi-factorial nature of falls at specific locations and for selected groups of the population. Conclusion The techniques to detect hot spots of falls yield meaningful results that enable the identification of high risk locations. The combined use of descriptive and spatial analyses can be beneficial to policy makers because different preventive measures can be devised based on the types of environmental risk factors identified. The analyses are also important preludes to establishing research hypotheses for more focused studies.

  11. Spatial analysis of falls in an urban community of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh C; Low, Chien T; Wong, Martin; Wong, Wing C; Chan, Ming H

    2009-01-01

    Background Falls are an issue of great public health concern. This study focuses on outdoor falls within an urban community in Hong Kong. Urban environmental hazards are often place-specific and dependent upon the built features, landscape characteristics, and habitual activities. Therefore, falls must be examined with respect to local situations. Results This paper uses spatial analysis methods to map fall occurrences and examine possible environmental attributes of falls in an urban community of Hong Kong. The Nearest neighbour hierarchical (Nnh) and Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) techniques can offer additional insights about the circumstances and environmental factors that contribute to falls. The results affirm the multi-factorial nature of falls at specific locations and for selected groups of the population. Conclusion The techniques to detect hot spots of falls yield meaningful results that enable the identification of high risk locations. The combined use of descriptive and spatial analyses can be beneficial to policy makers because different preventive measures can be devised based on the types of environmental risk factors identified. The analyses are also important preludes to establishing research hypotheses for more focused studies. PMID:19291326

  12. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  13. La perspectiva de género en las Relaciones Públicas empresariales: estudio comparativo de la presencia de mujeres empresarias en prensa/ Gender perspective on corporate Public Relations: a comparative study of the presence of women entrepreneurs in press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Romero Quintero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muchas investigaciones corroboran la diferencia entre la presencia de los hombres ymujeres en los medios de comunicación. Este estudio comparativo quiere reflejar ladiferencia cuantitativa y cualitativa de las menciones en los medios de comunicación de loshombres y mujeres del ámbito de la empresa y el sector privado. El aumento de la presenciade mujeres en el ámbito empresarial no se refleja en los medios de comunicación. Intentarestudiar las razones y diferencias entre las estrategias empresariales de Relaciones Públicas,es una de las claves para aprovechar las circunstancias y trabajar mejor en la inclusión de laperspectiva de género en el ámbito desde donde se reparte gran parte de la riqueza a travésde la sociedad./Many studies show and confirm the difference between women and men in the media. Thiscomparative study looks for reflecting the quantitative and qualitative present anddifference between women and men in the business/private sector. The increased presenceof women in business is not reflected in the media. Try studying the reasons and differencesin the business strategies of Public Relations, is one of the keys to take advantage ofcircumstances and work better in the inclusion of gender perspective in the area from whichdistributes much of the wealth through the society.

  14. Backward-stochastic-differential-equation approach to modeling of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamarova, Evelina; Chertovskih, Roman; Ramos, Alexandre F; Aguiar, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we introduce a backward method to model stochastic gene expression and protein-level dynamics. The protein amount is regarded as a diffusion process and is described by a backward stochastic differential equation (BSDE). Unlike many other SDE techniques proposed in the literature, the BSDE method is backward in time; that is, instead of initial conditions it requires the specification of end-point ("final") conditions, in addition to the model parametrization. To validate our approach we employ Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) to generate (forward) benchmark data, according to predefined gene network models. Numerical simulations show that the BSDE method is able to correctly infer the protein-level distributions that preceded a known final condition, obtained originally from the forward SSA. This makes the BSDE method a powerful systems biology tool for time-reversed simulations, allowing, for example, the assessment of the biological conditions (e.g., protein concentrations) that preceded an experimentally measured event of interest (e.g., mitosis, apoptosis, etc.).

  15. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, F.; Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la

    2007-01-01

    The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations

  16. Vibro-Acoustic Numerical Analysis for the Chain Cover of a Car Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Armentani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a vibro-acoustic numerical and experimental analysis was carried out for the chain cover of a low powered four-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine, belonging to the FPT (FCA Power Train family called SDE (Small Diesel Engine. By applying a methodology used in the acoustic optimization of new FPT engine components, firstly a finite element model (FEM of the engine was defined, then a vibration analysis was performed for the whole engine (modal analysis, and finally a forced response analysis was developed for the only chain cover (separated from the overall engine. The boundary conditions applied to the chain cover were the accelerations experimentally measured by accelerometers located at the points of connection among chain cover, head cover, and crankcase. Subsequently, a boundary element (BE model of the only chain cover was realized to determine the chain cover noise emission, starting from the previously calculated structural vibrations. The numerical vibro-acoustic outcomes were compared with those experimentally observed, obtaining a good correlation. All the information thus obtained allowed the identification of those critical areas, in terms of noise generation, in which to undertake necessary improvements.

  17. La teoría de los lazos inductivos y las fallas de los transformadores de distribución en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Román Campos

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objeto presentar la Teoría de los Lazos Inductivos - TU - como una metodología de trabajo coherente para analizar las fallas de los transformadores de distribución en Colombia. Como variables fundamentales en la formulación de la teoría se considera la relación entre las fallas y las tormentas eléctricas; el área dejada en el montaje entre el pararrayos y el transformador y los cambios de impedancia al operar el pararrayo. Paracomprobar la teoría se analiza la relación de las fallas de los transformadores con las tormentas eléctricas en varias redes de distribución en Colombia. Igualmente se establece una primera relación entre rayos medidos y clasificados por polaridad y las fallas de unidades en el mismo período. Los resultados de los análisis estadísticos de másde 3.000 unidades falladas contribuyen a inferir la aplicabilidad de la teoria, por cuanto se encontraron más de un 70% de fallas involucrando tres fases. Se presentan finalmente las primeras simulaciones digitales mediante el EMPT,de las que se concluye la necesidad de adoptar medidas remediables adecuadas a la realidad colombiana.

  18. Uncovering activity cliff generators using distribution of SALI values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Los acantilados de actividad se definen como compuestos con alta similitud estructural, pero también con altadiferencia en potencia. Estos compuestos tienen un impacto significativo en la optimización de líderes en químicamedicinal y en aplicaciones computacionales, como el desarrollo de modelos predictivos y en la selección demoléculas de referencia en búsquedas basadas en similitud molecular. Por lo tanto, es de gran relevancia laidentificación de compuestos altamente asociados con los acantilados como por ejemplo los “generadores deacantilados de actividad”. En este trabajo se reportan la identificación de acantilados de actividad y las relacionesestructura-actividad de un grupo de 289 compuestos obtenidos por síntesis química que han sido evaluados a travésde una proteína quinasa reguladora de receptores acoplados a proteínas-G. Para considerar la información demúltiples representaciones estructurales, se empleó el promedio del índice SALI (Structure-Activity Landscape Indexy se discuten también fragmentos estructurales responsables de la actividad biológica.

  19. Incorporating prior knowledge induced from stochastic differential equations in the classification of stochastic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin; Dougherty, Edward R

    2016-12-01

    In classification, prior knowledge is incorporated in a Bayesian framework by assuming that the feature-label distribution belongs to an uncertainty class of feature-label distributions governed by a prior distribution. A posterior distribution is then derived from the prior and the sample data. An optimal Bayesian classifier (OBC) minimizes the expected misclassification error relative to the posterior distribution. From an application perspective, prior construction is critical. The prior distribution is formed by mapping a set of mathematical relations among the features and labels, the prior knowledge, into a distribution governing the probability mass across the uncertainty class. In this paper, we consider prior knowledge in the form of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). We consider a vector SDE in integral form involving a drift vector and dispersion matrix. Having constructed the prior, we develop the optimal Bayesian classifier between two models and examine, via synthetic experiments, the effects of uncertainty in the drift vector and dispersion matrix. We apply the theory to a set of SDEs for the purpose of differentiating the evolutionary history between two species.

  20. Stochastic processes, slaves and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, I T; Horgan, R R

    2012-01-01

    We extend the work of Tănase-Nicola and Kurchan on the structure of diffusion processes and the associated supersymmetry algebra by examining the responses of a simple statistical system to external disturbances of various kinds. We consider both the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the process and the associated diffusion equation. The influence of the disturbances can be understood by augmenting the original SDE with an equation for slave variables. The evolution of the slave variables describes the behaviour of line elements carried along in the stochastic flow. These line elements, together with the associated surface and volume elements constructed from them, provide the basis of the supersymmetry properties of the theory. For ease of visualization, and in order to emphasize a helpful electromagnetic analogy, we work in three dimensions. The results are all generalizable to higher dimensions and can be specialized to one and two dimensions. The electromagnetic analogy is a useful starting point for calculating asymptotic results at low temperature that can be compared with direct numerical evaluations. We also examine the problems that arise in a direct numerical simulation of the stochastic equation together with the slave equations. We pay special attention to the dependence of the slave variable statistics on temperature. We identify in specific models the critical temperature below which the slave variable distribution ceases to have a variance and consider the effect on estimates of susceptibilities. (paper)

  1. Stochastic Differential Equation-Based Flexible Software Reliability Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Kapur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several software reliability growth models (SRGMs have been developed by software developers in tracking and measuring the growth of reliability. As the size of software system is large and the number of faults detected during the testing phase becomes large, so the change of the number of faults that are detected and removed through each debugging becomes sufficiently small compared with the initial fault content at the beginning of the testing phase. In such a situation, we can model the software fault detection process as a stochastic process with continuous state space. In this paper, we propose a new software reliability growth model based on Itô type of stochastic differential equation. We consider an SDE-based generalized Erlang model with logistic error detection function. The model is estimated and validated on real-life data sets cited in literature to show its flexibility. The proposed model integrated with the concept of stochastic differential equation performs comparatively better than the existing NHPP-based models.

  2. Stochastic Mixed-Effects Parameters Bertalanffy Process, with Applications to Tree Crown Width Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Rupšys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic modeling approach based on the Bertalanffy law gained interest due to its ability to produce more accurate results than the deterministic approaches. We examine tree crown width dynamic with the Bertalanffy type stochastic differential equation (SDE and mixed-effects parameters. In this study, we demonstrate how this simple model can be used to calculate predictions of crown width. We propose a parameter estimation method and computational guidelines. The primary goal of the study was to estimate the parameters by considering discrete sampling of the diameter at breast height and crown width and by using maximum likelihood procedure. Performance statistics for the crown width equation include statistical indexes and analysis of residuals. We use data provided by the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory from Scots pine trees to illustrate issues of our modeling technique. Comparison of the predicted crown width values of mixed-effects parameters model with those obtained using fixed-effects parameters model demonstrates the predictive power of the stochastic differential equations model with mixed-effects parameters. All results were implemented in a symbolic algebra system MAPLE.

  3. Multilevel and Multi-index Monte Carlo methods for the McKean–Vlasov equation

    KAUST Repository

    Haji-Ali, Abdul-Lateef

    2017-09-12

    We address the approximation of functionals depending on a system of particles, described by stochastic differential equations (SDEs), in the mean-field limit when the number of particles approaches infinity. This problem is equivalent to estimating the weak solution of the limiting McKean–Vlasov SDE. To that end, our approach uses systems with finite numbers of particles and a time-stepping scheme. In this case, there are two discretization parameters: the number of time steps and the number of particles. Based on these two parameters, we consider different variants of the Monte Carlo and Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods and show that, in the best case, the optimal work complexity of MLMC, to estimate the functional in one typical setting with an error tolerance of $$\\\\mathrm {TOL}$$TOL, is when using the partitioning estimator and the Milstein time-stepping scheme. We also consider a method that uses the recent Multi-index Monte Carlo method and show an improved work complexity in the same typical setting of . Our numerical experiments are carried out on the so-called Kuramoto model, a system of coupled oscillators.

  4. Modeling the dynamics of a storm-time acceleration event: combining MHD effects with wave-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, S. R.; Alam, S. S.; Chan, A. A.; Albert, J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Global simulations of radiation belt dynamics are often undertaken using either a transport formalism (e.g. Fokker-Plank), or via test particle simulations in model electric and magnetic fields. While transport formalisms offer computational efficiency and the ability to deal with a wide range of wave-particle interactions, they typically rely on simplified background fields, and often are limited to empirically-specified stochastic (diffusive) wave-particle interactions. On the other hand, test particle simulations may be carried out in global MHD simulations that include realistic physical effects such as magnetopause shadowing, convection, and substorm injections, but lack the ability to handle physics outside the MHD approximation in the realm of higher frequency (kHz) wave populations.In this work we introduce a comprehensive simulation framework combining global MHD/test particle techniques to provide realistic background fields and radial transport processes, with a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) method for addressing high frequency wave-particle interactions. We examine the March 17, 2013 storm-time acceleration period, an NSF-GEM focus challenge event, and use the framework to examine the relative importance of physical effects such as magnetopause shadowing, diffusive and advective transport processes, and wave-particle interactions through the various phases of the storm.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joog-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, {alpha}-pinene, camphene, {alpha}-limonene, {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  6. Stochastic Differential Equation Models for the Price of European CO2 Emissions Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wugan Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the stochastic nature of emissions allowances is crucial for risk management in emissions trading markets. In this study, we discuss the emissions allowances spot price within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Powernext and European Climate Exchange. To compare the fitness of five stochastic differential equations (SDEs to the European Union allowances spot price, we apply regression theory to obtain the point and interval estimations for the parameters of the SDEs. An empirical evaluation demonstrates that the mean reverting square root process (MRSRP has the best fitness of five SDEs to forecast the spot price. To reduce the degree of smog, we develop a new trading scheme in which firms have to hand many more allowances to the government when they emit one unit of air pollution on heavy pollution days, versus one allowance on clean days. Thus, we set up the SDE MRSRP model with Markovian switching to analyse the evolution of the spot price in such a scheme. The analysis shows that the allowances spot price will not jump too much in the new scheme. The findings of this study could contribute to developing a new type of emissions trading.

  7. Parameters influencing the yield and composition of the essential oil from Cretan Vitex agnus-castus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J M; Katsiotis, S T

    2000-04-01

    Mature and immature fruits of a Cretan Vitex agnus-castus L. population were chosen to investigate different parameters such as comminution, maturity, distillation period and extraction method influencing the essential oil yield and composition. The effect of the comminution and the maturity of the plant material showed highly significant differences in yield and composition of the essential oils obtained, as well as the distillation duration from one to five hours and the method applied (hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction). The variation of 36 essential oil components due to the parameters applied was studied. The results showed that many different essential oil qualities can be obtained from the same plant material according to the parameters employed in its extraction. Entire fruits hydrodistilled for one hour yielded an oil much richer in monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds whereas the best combination to obtain an oil rich in less volatile compounds is by SDE of comminuted fruits for five hours. For mature fruits the main components varied as follows due to the parameters studied: sabinene 16.4-44.1%, 1,8-cineole 8.4-15.2%, beta-caryophyllene 2.1-5.0%, and trans-beta-farnesene 5.0-11.7%.

  8. Jóvenes y política: de la participación formal a la movilización informal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Arias-Cardona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión de tema está estructurado en dos secciones:en la primera exponemos diversas perspectivas desde las que realizamos el acercamiento teórico alconcepto “juventud”, agrupándolas en tres: bio-psicoevolutiva, sociohistórica y cultural- política.En la segunda sintetizamos el estado del arte consolidado a partir de las categorías “jóvenes” y“política”; para ello retomamos investigaciones relacionadas con jóvenes y política formal a travésde sus expresiones convencionales (participación, afiliación a partidos, conducta de voto, etc., yestudios sobre jóvenes y política informal en los que se analizan acciones alternativas (movimientossociales, acción colectiva, etc.Finalmente proponemos comprender a los sujetos jóvenes desde la transdisciplinariedad, ladiversidad y el contexto, trascendiendo miradas adultocéntricas que los señalan de “apáticos ydesinteresados”.

  9. Robust and Automated Internal Quality Grading of a Chinese Green Tea (Longjing by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Shu Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometric methods were applied to internal quality control of a Chinese green tea, Longjing, with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. A total of 2745 authentic Longjing tea samples of three different grades were analyzed by NIR spectroscopy. To remove the influence of abnormal samples, The Stahel-Donoho estimate (SDE of outlyingness was used for outlier analysis. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was then used to classify the grades of tea based on NIR spectra. Different data preprocessing methods, including smoothing, taking second-order derivative (D2 spectra, and standard normal variate (SNV transformation, were performed to reduce unwanted spectral variations in samples of the same grade before classification models were developed. The results demonstrate that smoothing, taking D2 spectra, and SNV can improve the performance of PLSDA models. With SNV spectra, the model sensitivity was 1.000, 0.955, and 0.924, and the model specificity was 0.979, 0.952, and 0.996 for samples of three grades, respectively. FT-NIR spectrometry and chemometrics can provide a robust and effective tool for rapid internal quality control of Longjing green tea.

  10. Effect of γ-irradiation on volatile compounds of dried Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2006-01-01

    The volatile compounds of γ-irradiated dried Welsh onion were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) technique and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) along with their non-irradiated counterparts. A total of 35 volatile compounds were identified in non-irradiated and 1 kGy irradiated samples and 36 volatile compounds were identified in 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy irradiated samples so far belong to chemical classes of acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ester, furan, ketone and S-containing compound. S-containing compounds were detected as major volatile compounds of all experimental samples. Though the content of several compounds was increased after irradiation, content of major S-containing compounds was found to decreased in the process. Application of high-dose irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of dried Welsh onion is feasible as it enhanced the total concentration of volatile compounds by 31.60% and 24.85% at 10 and 20 kGy, respectively

  11. Optimization of transport suppression barriers generated by externally driven Alfven waves in D-shaped, low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C; Cuperman, S; Komoshvili, K

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to optimize the internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated by externally launched mode-converted fast waves (FWs) in pre-heated spherical tokamaks (STs), we have carried out a systematic parametric investigation with respect to the rf waves and antenna characteristics; as a study case, a START-like device has been considered. Within the framework of a plasma model including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped and passing electrons and ions, and starting with the solution of the full wave equation for a ST-plasma, we show that optimized ITBs, suitable for the stabilization of plasma turbulence (e.g. overpassing the maximum growth rate of the ITG-instability, γ ITG ) in STs can be generated by the aid of externally launched FW and mode-converted to kinetic Alfven waves. This result holds in spite of the limiting trapped-particles associated squeezing factor S present in the non-linear equation for E r (via the viscosity coefficient μ θi ∝|S| 3/2 , S = S(dE r /dr))

  12. Finite element formulation of fluctuating hydrodynamics for fluids filled with rigid particles using boundary fitted meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corato, M., E-mail: marco.decorato@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Slot, J.J.M., E-mail: j.j.m.slot@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hütter, M., E-mail: m.huetter@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); D' Avino, G., E-mail: gadavino@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maffettone, P.L., E-mail: pierluca.maffettone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Hulsen, M.A., E-mail: m.a.hulsen@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation–dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.

  13. PAUTAS, PRÁCTICAS Y CREENCIAS ACERCA DE CRIANZA... AYER Y HOY/NORMS, PRACTICES AND BELIEFS ABOUT CHILD REARING...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pachajoa Londoño **

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En un primer momento se plantea la relación entre las múltiples concepciones de la infancia y las pautas de crianza a travésde diversos períodos de la historia de la humanidad. Luego se hace énfasis en lo que acontece durante los primeros años devida del niño a nivel social y familiar para comprender cómo se percibe la niñez, qué se entiende por crianza y cuáles son loscomponentes de la misma en la actualidad. Finalmente se recomienda reflexionar acerca de la necesidad de proponerestudios que desde la psicología den cuenta de las condiciones político-legislativas nacionales que determinan gran parte dela crianza de los niños.Abstract:At first we explain the connection between the multiple conceptions of childhood and some child rearing norms in severalperiods of human history. Then we emphasize what happens during the child first years of life, in a social and family way, tounderstand how childhood is perceived, what child rearing means and which its components are nowadays. Finally werecommend to think about the need to propose psychological studies about national political and legislative conditions thatestablish most of the child rearing.

  14. Development of the updated system of city underground pipelines based on Visual Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-10-01

    Our city has owned the integrated pipeline network management system with ArcGIS Engine 9.1 as the bottom development platform and with Oracle9i as basic database for storaging data. In this system, ArcGIS SDE9.1 is applied as the spatial data engine, and the system was a synthetic management software developed with Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools. As the pipeline update function of the system has the phenomenon of slower update and even sometimes the data lost, to ensure the underground pipeline data can real-time be updated conveniently and frequently, and the actuality and integrity of the underground pipeline data, we have increased a new update module in the system developed and researched by ourselves. The module has the powerful data update function, and can realize the function of inputting and outputting and rapid update volume of data. The new developed module adopts Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools, and uses access as the basic database to storage data. We can edit the graphics in AutoCAD software, and realize the database update using link between the graphics and the system. Practice shows that the update module has good compatibility with the original system, reliable and high update efficient of the database.

  15. PEVC-FMDF for Large Eddy Simulation of Compressible Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Gheimassi, Arash; Nik, Mehdi; Givi, Peyman; Livescu, Daniel; Pope, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    The filtered density function (FDF) closure is extended to a ``self-contained'' format to include the subgrid scale (SGS) statistics of all of the hydro-thermo-chemical variables in turbulent flows. These are the thermodynamic pressure, the specific internal energy, the velocity vector, and the composition field. In this format, the model is comprehensive and facilitates large eddy simulation (LES) of flows at both low and high compressibility levels. A transport equation is developed for the joint ``pressure-energy-velocity-composition filtered mass density function (PEVC-FMDF).'' In this equation, the effect of convection appears in closed form. The coupling of the hydrodynamics and thermochemistry is modeled via a set of stochastic differential equation (SDE) for each of the transport variables. This yields a self-contained SGS closure. For demonstration, LES is conducted of a turbulent shear flow with transport of a passive scalar. The consistency of the PEVC-FMDF formulation is established, and its overall predictive capability is appraised via comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation

  17. A WEB-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR VISUALIZING INDUSTRIAL SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION USING STANDARD DEVIATIONAL ELLIPSE AND SHIFTING ROUTES OF GRAVITY CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  18. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mukund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE. Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PVSE was evident since treated mice had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with VSE. Photooxidized VSE of V. orientalis revealed enhancement on learning and memory by shortening the time to reach food (TRF in T-maze. In a 28-day study with rats, we observed that PVSE significantly decreased transfer latency (TL in elevated plus maze (EPM, significantly increased step down latency (SDL, diminished step down errors (SDE and time spent in shock zone (TSS in step down avoidance test. Thus, we concluded that although there is a possibility of employing PVSE in the treatment of Alzheimer, dementia or neurodegenerative illness as a non-herbal and non-synthetic alternative for patients who do not respond to available therapy, further investigation is still required.

  19. a Web-Based Framework for Visualizing Industrial Spatiotemporal Distribution Using Standard Deviational Ellipse and Shifting Routes of Gravity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gui, Z.; Wu, H.; Wei, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE) and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise) to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  20. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    KAUST Repository

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Time series associated with single-molecule experiments and/or simulations contain a wealth of multiscale information about complex biomolecular systems. We demonstrate how a collection of Penalized-splines (P-splines) can be useful in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between curves associated with different SDEs partially reflects noise induced by motion evolving on a slower time scale. P-splines assist in "semiparametrically" estimating nonlinear SDEs in situations where a time-dependent external force is applied to a single-molecule system. The P-splines introduced simultaneously use function and derivative scatterplot information to refine curve estimates. We refer to the approach as the PuDI (P-splines using Derivative Information) method. It is shown how generalized least squares ideas fit seamlessly into the PuDI method. Applications demonstrating how utilizing uncertainty information/approximations along with generalized least squares techniques improve PuDI fits are presented. Although the primary application here is in estimating nonlinear SDEs, the PuDI method is applicable to situations where both unbiased function and derivative estimates are available.

  1. Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornøe, Christoffer W; Overgaard, Rune V; Agersø, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik A; Madsen, Henrik; Jonsson, E Niclas

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the present analysis was to explore the use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling. The intra-individual variability in nonlinear mixed-effects models based on SDEs is decomposed into two types of noise: a measurement and a system noise term. The measurement noise represents uncorrelated error due to, for example, assay error while the system noise accounts for structural misspecifications, approximations of the dynamical model, and true random physiological fluctuations. Since the system noise accounts for model misspecifications, the SDEs provide a diagnostic tool for model appropriateness. The focus of the article is on the implementation of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) in NONMEM for parameter estimation in SDE models. Various applications of SDEs in population PK/PD modeling are illustrated through a systematic model development example using clinical PK data of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist degarelix. The dynamic noise estimates were used to track variations in model parameters and systematically build an absorption model for subcutaneously administered degarelix. The EKF-based algorithm was successfully implemented in NONMEM for parameter estimation in population PK/PD models described by systems of SDEs. The example indicated that it was possible to pinpoint structural model deficiencies, and that valuable information may be obtained by tracking unexplained variations in parameters.

  2. Effect of gamma - irradiation on the volatile flavor profile of fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamila, N.; JI YEON Choi, J. Y.; Nho, E. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Hussain, I.

    2015-01-01

    The volatile flavor compounds of non-irradiated and 1, 5, 10 and 20 kGy gamma-irradiated seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Pakistan were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds were identified in the non irradiated fennel, with EAnethole (36.74 percentage), Estragole (26.31 percentage), and β-Limonene (15.99 percentage) as the major compounds. The irradiation doses caused slight variations in the number and contents of the volatile components. Though several volatile compounds showed increase after Υ-irradiation, the contents of major compounds such as beta-Limonene and estrgole were decreased. The overall number of the volatile compounds showed increase up to the recommended irradiation doses of 10 kGy but their contents decreased. In general no major change was noted in the overall major flavor compounds of the subject spice. Therefore the application of Υ--irradiation is feasible without any significant qualitative or quantitative loss of volatile flavor compounds when exposed to 10 kGy Υ--irradiation. (author)

  3. A artesania de um fazer a prática do trabalho de educadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINORA TEREZA ZUCCHETTI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta resultados de investigación de prácticas de educación no escolar. Inicialmente, delinea una breve revisión sobre prácticas socioeducativas, en relación a concepto e intervención. Mediante entrevistas individuales y la formación de grupos de discusión con los educadores que trabajan en proyectos socioeducativos, se buscó una reflexión sobre sus prácticas considerando las siguientes categorías de análisis: formación, trabajo y su naturaleza, concepto de socioeducativo, estrategias pedagógicas. El trabajo revela algunos resultados previos a la investigación “Práticas de educação não escolar de sujeitos que atuam em projetos socioeducativos”, entre los cuales, un rasgo del perfil del educador y las principales categorías que advienen de los análisis de las entrevistas. Dichos análisis, aunque parciales, evidencian quiénes son estos sujetos y cómo ellos se forman, ademásde originar un conjunto de reflexiones sobre prácticas de educación, que son contextualizadas en una determinada realidad y productoras de nuevas sensibilidades.

  4. Un acercamiento a los servicios de información y colecciones de las bibliotecas digitales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cabral Vargas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Realiza un acercamiento a los servicios y colecciones de las bibliotecas digitales en México. A travésde una investigación bibliográfica y de campo, se brinda un panorama sobre la trayectoria que siguióla sociedad de la información con el surgimiento y desarrollo de la electrónica en los servicios deinformación. Se hace un recorrido por los sitios Web de servicios digitales, a través de la recopilaciónde información en cuestionarios y encuestas a los encargados de dichos sitios. El trabajo está estructuradoen tres apartados: en el primero se lleva a cabo la conceptualización teórica sobre la bibliotecadigital (BD; en el segundo se muestran las diferencias del trabajo virtual, tanto para los usuarios comopara sus bibliotecarios, y las interacciones entre ambos y los recursos; y en el tercero se exhibe lasituación de algunos servicios digitales en México, con especial énfasis en el servicio de referencia, asícomo el impacto de éstos en la profesión.

  5. . Effects of extended shutdown on the control rod drive mechanism of nigeria research reactor-1(NIRR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I; Mati, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The control rod drive mechanism of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 is being driven by a servo motor, type SDE-45 through a mechanical gear system. The servo motor ensures the position control of the control rod, and hence the stability of the neutron-flux of the nuclear research reactor. The control rod drive mechanism assembly is mounted on top of the reactor vessel, about 0.6m above 30m 3 volume of reactor pool water. The top of the pool is covered with a Perspex material to protect the water in the pool from environmental contamination and to reduce evaporation. Although most of the materials in the control rod drive mechanism assembly are made of stainless steel, the servo motor however contains corrodible materials. The paper reveals a practical experience of failure of the control rod drive mechanism as a result of corrosion growth between the rotor of the servo motor and its stator windings, due to an extended shutdown of the facility.

  6. Market performance and distributional effects on renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.; Bijlsma, M.; Zwart, G.; Van Tilburg, X.; Ozdemir, O.

    2009-08-01

    A renewable obligation (RO) combined with tradable renewable energy certificates is a market-based instrument used to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. A renewable obligation is an alternative for subsidies. A renewable obligation will only be an efficient instrument if certificate markets are efficient. This requires that there is no market power and no anti-competitive behaviour on the certificate market. If the current developments in Dutch renewable energy production continue, market power on a future renewable certificate market in the Netherlands will probably not be an issue, even if the RO should only rest on the retail market instead of on the whole electricity market. A renewable obligation will raise the retail price for consumers, thereby reducing consumer surplus. Simulations show that the retail electricity price increases with 30 euro per MWh to a level of 104 euro per MWh in case of a 30% renewable target. Consumer surplus is reduced with 19% compared to the baseline scenario. In contrast, a subsidy such as the Dutch SDE (Promoting Renewable Energy scheme or 'Stimulering Duurzame Energie') which is financed from the state budget has the effect to (slightly) lower the retail electricity price, thereby increasing consumer surplus. It should however be realised that the costs of the subsidy will indirectly affect electricity consumers through their tax payments.

  7. Forecast of power generation and heat production from renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pydych Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of renewable energy sources (RES in the end use of energy in the UE will increase from the present level of about 25% to 50 % in 2030 according to the assumptions of the European Commission. In Poland the RES Act was passed in 2015. The act defines mechanisms and instruments for supporting the production of electricity and heat from renewable energy sources. Statistics (2003–2014 of electricity generation and heat production from RES in Poland were used in the research. Because of amendments to regulations connected with promoting RES and the emissions trading system (ETS as well as the uncertainty associated with further directions of the energy and environmental policy, generation of electricity and heat based on the use of RES must be modelled while taking risk into account. A number of dynamic processes incorporating random events may be modelled by stochastic equations using Ito calculus. By applying Euler’s method to solve stochastic differential equations (SDE, it is possible to simulate the development of the use of renewable energy carriers in electricity generation and heat production in the future.

  8. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  9. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  10. Implicit and explicit schemes for mass consistency preservation in hybrid particle/finite-volume algorithms for turbulent reactive flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Pavel P.; Pope, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of particle mass consistency in Large Eddy Simulation/Probability Density Function (LES/PDF) methods for turbulent reactive flows. Numerical schemes for the implicit and explicit enforcement of particle mass consistency (PMC) are introduced, and their performance is examined in a representative LES/PDF application, namely the Sandia–Sydney Bluff-Body flame HM1. A new combination of interpolation schemes for velocity and scalar fields is found to better satisfy PMC than multilinear and fourth-order Lagrangian interpolation. A second-order accurate time-stepping scheme for stochastic differential equations (SDE) is found to improve PMC relative to Euler time stepping, which is the first time that a second-order scheme is found to be beneficial, when compared to a first-order scheme, in an LES/PDF application. An explicit corrective velocity scheme for PMC enforcement is introduced, and its parameters optimized to enforce a specified PMC criterion with minimal corrective velocity magnitudes

  11. Implicit particle filtering for equations with partial noise and application to geomagnetic data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzfeld, M.; Atkins, E.; Chorin, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    The task in data assimilation is to identify the state of a system from an uncertain model supplemented by a stream of incomplete and noisy data. The model is typically given in form of a discretization of an Ito stochastic differential equation (SDE), x(n+1) = R(x(n))+ G W(n), where x is an m-dimensional vector and n=0,1,2,.... The m-dimensional vector function R and the m x m matrix G depend on the SDE as well as on the discretization scheme, and W is an m-dimensional vector whose elements are independent standard normal variates. The data are y(n) = h(x(n))+QV(n) where h is a k-dimensional vector function, Q is a k x k matrix and V is a vector whose components are independent standard normal variates. One can use statistics of the conditional probability density (pdf) of the state given the observations, p(n+1)=p(x(n+1)|y(1), ... , y(n+1)), to identify the state x(n+1). Particle filters approximate p(n+1) by sequential Monte Carlo and rely on the recursive formulation of the target pdf, p(n+1)∝p(x(n+1)|x(n)) p(y(n+1)|x(n+1)). The pdf p(x(n+1)|x(n)) can be read off of the model equations to be a Gaussian with mean R(x(n)) and covariance matrix Σ = GG^T, where the T denotes a transposed; the pdf p(y(n+1)|x(n+1)) is a Gaussian with mean h(x(n+1)) and covariance QQ^T. In a sampling-importance-resampling (SIR) filter one samples new values for the particles from a prior pdf and then one weighs these samples with weights determined by the observations, to yield an approximation to p(n+1). Such weighting schemes often yield small weights for many of the particles. Implicit particle filtering overcomes this problem by using the observations to generate the particles, thus focusing attention on regions of large probability. A suitable algebraic equation that depends on the model and the observations is constructed for each particle, and its solution yields high probability samples of p(n+1). In the current formulation of the implicit particle filter, the state

  12. A WebGIS system on the base of satellite data processing system for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Huang, Haiqing; Chen, Jianyu

    2007-10-01

    From 2002 to 2004, a satellite data processing system for marine application had been built up in State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics (Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration). The system received satellite data from TERRA, AQUA, NOAA-12/15/16/17/18, FY-1D and automatically generated Level3 products and Level4 products(products of single orbit and merged multi-orbits products) deriving from Level0 data, which is controlled by an operational control sub-system. Currently, the products created by this system play an important role in the marine environment monitoring, disaster monitoring and researches. Now a distribution platform has been developed on this foundation, namely WebGIS system for querying and browsing of oceanic remote sensing data. This system is based upon large database system-Oracle. We made use of the space database engine of ArcSDE and other middleware to perform database operation in addition. J2EE frame was adopted as development model, and Oracle 9.2 DBMS as database background and server. Simply using standard browsers(such as IE6.0), users can visit and browse the public service information that provided by system, including browsing for oceanic remote sensing data, and enlarge, contract, move, renew, traveling, further data inquiry, attribution search and data download etc. The system is still under test now. Founding of such a system will become an important distribution platform of Chinese satellite oceanic environment products of special topic and category (including Sea surface temperature, Concentration of chlorophyll, and so on), for the exaltation of satellite products' utilization and promoting the data share and the research of the oceanic remote sensing platform.

  13. Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.

    1997-09-01

    A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.

  14. Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, A M; Menon, S; Menon, R; Couto, A G; Bürger, C; Biavatti, M W

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of the pantropical genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae) are known popularly as cow's foot, due to their unique characteristic bilobed aspect. The species Bauhinia forficata (Brazilian Orchid-tree) is widely used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic. The present work investigates the hypoglycemic activity of the dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata leaves in vivo, as well as the influence of the drying and granulation processes on this activity. The fluid extract was dried to generate oven-dried (ODE), spray-dried (SDE) and wet granulation (WGE) extracts, with the aid of colloidal silicon dioxide and/or cellulose:lactose mixture. The dried extracts were characterized by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and photo microscopy image analysis. 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o. of each dried product were administered orally to male Wistar rats over 7 days old, for biomonitoring of the hypoglycemic activity profile. The effect of the extracts was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 7 days of treatment, fasting glucose was determined, and the livers were removed, dried on tissue paper, weighed, and stored at -20 degrees C to estimate hepatic glycogen. Our results show that spray-drying or oven-drying processes applied to B. forficata extracts did not significantly alter its flavonoid profile or its hypoglycemic activity. Indeed, the dried extracts of B. forficata act differently from glibenclamide. Despite the lower active content in WGE, because of the higher concentration of adjuvants, the use of the granulation process improved the manufacturing properties of the ODE, making this material more appropriate for use in tablets or capsules.

  15. ANALISIS KLASIFIKASI PERSEDIAAN SUKU CADANG MENGGUNAKAN MUSIC-3D VIEW OF SPARES (Studi Kasus Perusahaan Farmasi di PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Dwi Astanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PT. XYZ is a pharmaceutical company that manufactures both pharmaceuticals and herbal medicinal chemistry. The drug is a vital necessity to society, therefore, the drug production process must be maintained so that its performance can be met drug availability. One way to maintain smooth production process is to maintain engine performance. An engine production facility that is vital and requires periodic maintenance or at any time in case of damage. Each performed maintenance or repairs due to damage, an engine needs replacement parts for the machine to run as before. To support the maintenance activities, PT. XYZ has a warehouse used to store spare parts. During this time, parts storage system in PT. XYZ is not based on consideration of the appropriate classification of its characteristics, but each part has different characteristics, both in terms of price, suppliers, materials, usage, and so on. Due to the large number of stocks and the importance of spare parts, the supply system must be considered in order not to cause any harm to the company. The present study will attempt to analyze the system parts inventory in the warehouse by using MUSIC-3D View of Spares. MUSIC-3D View of spares in the analysis using a 3-dimensional approach that values consumption, availability and critically. The third dimension is represented by the three approaches, namely System ABC, VED, and SDE. Based on the results of the analysis of MUSIC-3D Views of Spares in mind that parts each having a different classification, so it requires a different treatment according to their classification.   Keywords : spare parts, supplies, MUSIC-3D View of Spares

  16. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  17. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  18. Novel determination of radon-222 velocity in deep subsurface rocks, and the feasibility to using radon as an earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, Hovav; Benhorin, Yochy; Malik, Uri; Chemo, Chaim

    2016-04-01

    An enhanced radon monitoring system was designed in order to study shallow versus deep subsurface processes affecting the appearance of radon anomalies. The method is based on the assumption that the climatic influence is limited since its energy decreases with the decrease in thickness of the geological cover whereby its effect is reduced to a negligible value at depth. Hence, lowering gamma and alpha detectors into deep boreholes and monitoring their temporal variations relative to a reference couple at shallow depths of 10-40 m eliminates the ambient thermal and pressure-induced contribution from the total radon time series. It allows highlighting the residual portion of the radon signals that might be associated with the geodynamic processes. The primary technological key is the higher sensitivity of the gamma detectors - in comparison to the solid-state alpha detectors, which are also suitable for threading into narrow boreholes in parallel to the narrow gamma detector (Zafrir et al., 2013*). The unique achievements of the novel system that was installed at the Sde Eliezer site close to the Hula Valley western border fault (HWBF) in northern Israel are: a) Determination, for the first time, of the radon movement velocity within rock layers at depths of several tens of meters, namely, 25 m per hour on average; b) Distinguishing between the diurnal periodical effect of the ambient temperature and the semi-diurnal effect of the ambient pressure on the radon temporal spectrum; c) Identification of a radon random pre-seismic anomaly preceding the Nuweiba, M 5.5 earthquake of 27 June 2015 that occurred within Dead Sea Fault Zone. * Zafrir, H., Barbosa, S.M. and Malik, U., 2013. Differentiation between the effect of temperature and pressure on radon within the subsurface geological media, Radiat. Meas., 49, 39-56. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2012.11.019.

  19. Preliminary prediction of inflow into the D-holes at the Stripa Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Karasaki, K.; Davey, A.; Peterson, J.; Landsfeld, M.; Kemeny, J.; Martel, S.

    1990-02-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is contracted by the US Department of Energy to provide an auxiliary modeling effort for the Stripa Project. Within this effort, we are making calculations of inflow to the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE), i.e. inflow to six parallel, closely spaced D-holes, using a preliminary set of data collected in five other holes, the N- and W-holes during Stages 1 and 2 of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project. Our approach has been to focus on the fracture zones rather than the general set of ubiquitous fractures. Approximately 90% of all the water flowing in the rock is flowing in fracture zones which are neither uniformly conductive nor are they infinitely extensive. Our approach has been to adopt the fracture zone locations as they have been identified with geophysics. We use geologic sense and the original geophysical data to add one zone where significant water inflow has been observed that can not be explained with the other geophysical zones. This report covers LBL's preliminary prediction of flow into the D-holes. Care should be taken in interpreting the results given in this report. As explained below, the approach that LBL has designed for developing a fracture hydrology model requires cross-hole hydrologic data. Cross-hole tests are planned for Stage 3 but were unavailable in Stage 1. As such, we have inferred from available data what a cross-hole test might show and used this synthetic data to make a preliminary calculation of the inflow into the D-holes. Then using all the Stage 3 data we will calculate flow into the Validation Drift itself. The report mainly demonstrates the use of our methodology and the simulated results should be considered preliminary

  20. Acuacultura rural en la Costa Sur de Jalisco: caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Ulloa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La acuicultura ha contribuido desde siempre a la mitigación de la pobreza en áreas rurales cuya subsistencia depende parcial o totalmente de actividades acuícolas, ya sea de extracción o producción. En base a dicho fundamento, se realizó un ciclo de cultivo de tilapia en jaulas en el embalse concesionado a la comunidad de Las Guásimas, Jalisco, para evaluar su potencial de producción y para establecer una alternativa laboral afín a la pesca tradicional que ahí se practica, bajo la supervisión in situ, del personal de un centro de investigación. Bajo condiciones de baja salinidad en el agua, se observó un adecuado crecimiento promedio de los animales (1.2 g/d sin presentar enfermedades. Los peces alcanzaron la talla mínima de venta (> 150 g en 81 días de cultivo, logrando un 90% de supervivencia final. Despuésde la cosecha y venta de todos los peces cultivados, se discuten aspectos de producción (densidad, costos, uso de organismos monosexo, etcétera, sociales (generación de empleos, inclusión de adolescentes y mujeres en el proceso de producción, entre otros y se identifican problemáticas operativas de diversa índole (limitantes del lugar, formalización en la participación de los miembros de la cooperativa, etcétera, ubicando el cultivo de tilapia en jaulas como una alternativa real y patente con necesidad de apoyo inmediato por parte de programas privados o gubernamentales integrales para mejorar la calidad de vida de comunidades rurales.

  1. The GEOSS Clearinghouse based on the GeoNetwork opensource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Yang, C.; Wu, H.; Huang, Q.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is established to support the study of the Earth system in a global community. It provides services for social management, quick response, academic research, and education. The purpose of GEOSS is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behavior of the Earth system. In 2009, GEO called for a competition for an official GEOSS clearinghouse to be selected as a source to consolidating catalogs for Earth observations. The Joint Center for Intelligent Spatial Computing at George Mason University worked with USGS to submit a solution based on the open-source platform - GeoNetwork. In the spring of 2010, the solution is selected as the product for GEOSS clearinghouse. The GEOSS Clearinghouse is a common search facility for the Intergovernmental Group on Ea rth Observation (GEO). By providing a list of harvesting functions in Business Logic, GEOSS clearinghouse can collect metadata from distributed catalogs including other GeoNetwork native nodes, webDAV/sitemap/WAF, catalog services for the web (CSW)2.0, GEOSS Component and Service Registry (http://geossregistries.info/), OGC Web Services (WCS, WFS, WMS and WPS), OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting 2.0, ArcSDE Server and Local File System. Metadata in GEOSS clearinghouse are managed in a database (MySQL, Postgresql, Oracle, or MckoiDB) and an index of the metadata is maintained through Lucene engine. Thus, EO data, services, and related resources can be discovered and accessed. It supports a variety of geospatial standards including CSW and SRU for search, FGDC and ISO metadata, and WMS related OGC standards for data access and visualization, as linked from the metadata.

  2. Site characterization and validation - Inflow to the validation drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, W.G.C.; Black, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogeological experiments have had an essential role in the characterization of the drift site on the Stripa project. This report focuses on the methods employed and the results obtained from inflow experiments performed on the excavated drift in stage 5 of the SCV programme. Inflows were collected in sumps on the floor, in plastic sheeting on the upper walls and ceiling, and measured by means of differential humidity of ventilated air at the bulkhead. Detailed evaporation experiments were also undertaken on uncovered areas of the excavated drift. The inflow distribution was determined on the basis of a system of roughly equal sized grid rectangles. The results have highlighted the overriding importance of fractures in the supply of water to the drift site. The validation drift experiment has revealed that in excess of 99% of inflow comes from a 5 m section corresponding to the 'H' zone, and that as much as 57% was observed coming from a single grid square (267). There was considerable heterogeneity even within the 'H' zone, with 38% of such samples areas yielding no flow at all. Model predictions in stage 4 underestimated the very substantial declines in inflow observed in the validation drift when compared to the SDE; this was especially so in the 'good' rock areas. Increased drawdowns in the drift have generated less flow and reduced head responses in nearby boreholes by a similar proportion. This behaviour has been the focus for considerable study in the latter part of the SCV project, and a number of potential processes have been proposed. These include 'transience', stress redistribution resulting from the creation of the drift, chemical precipitation, blast-induced dynamic unloading and related gas intrusion, and degassing. (au)

  3. Implementation and analysis of an adaptive multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Von Schwerin, Erik; Szepessy, Anders; Tempone, Raul

    2014-01-01

    We present an adaptive multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for weak approximations of solutions to Itô stochastic dierential equations (SDE). The work [11] proposed and analyzed an MLMC method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a single level Euler-Maruyama Monte Carlo method from O(TOL-3) to O(TOL-2 log(TOL-1)2) for a mean square error of O(TOL2). Later, the work [17] presented an MLMC method using a hierarchy of adaptively re ned, non-uniform time discretizations, and, as such, it may be considered a generalization of the uniform time discretizationMLMC method. This work improves the adaptiveMLMC algorithms presented in [17] and it also provides mathematical analysis of the improved algorithms. In particular, we show that under some assumptions our adaptive MLMC algorithms are asymptotically accurate and essentially have the correct complexity but with improved control of the complexity constant factor in the asymptotic analysis. Numerical tests include one case with singular drift and one with stopped diusion, where the complexity of a uniform single level method is O(TOL-4). For both these cases the results con rm the theory, exhibiting savings in the computational cost for achieving the accuracy O(TOL) from O(TOL-3) for the adaptive single level algorithm to essentially O(TOL-2 log(TOL-1)2) for the adaptive MLMC algorithm. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston 2014.

  4. Diffusion Forecasting Model with Basis Functions from QR-Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlim, John; Yang, Haizhao

    2017-12-01

    The diffusion forecasting is a nonparametric approach that provably solves the Fokker-Planck PDE corresponding to Itô diffusion without knowing the underlying equation. The key idea of this method is to approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a discrete representation of the shift (Koopman) operator on a set of basis functions generated via the diffusion maps algorithm. While the choice of these basis functions is provably optimal under appropriate conditions, computing these basis functions is quite expensive since it requires the eigendecomposition of an N× N diffusion matrix, where N denotes the data size and could be very large. For large-scale forecasting problems, only a few leading eigenvectors are computationally achievable. To overcome this computational bottleneck, a new set of basis functions constructed by orthonormalizing selected columns of the diffusion matrix and its leading eigenvectors is proposed. This computation can be carried out efficiently via the unpivoted Householder QR factorization. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm will be shown in both deterministically chaotic and stochastic dynamical systems; in the former case, the superiority of the proposed basis functions over purely eigenvectors is significant, while in the latter case forecasting accuracy is improved relative to using a purely small number of eigenvectors. Supporting arguments will be provided on three- and six-dimensional chaotic ODEs, a three-dimensional SDE that mimics turbulent systems, and also on the two spatial modes associated with the boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation obtained from applying the Nonlinear Laplacian Spectral Analysis on the measured Outgoing Longwave Radiation.

  5. Remodelación del probador de aceites WPOT 0.25/75; Remodelig of the WPOT0.25/75 oil tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Pérez Almirall

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es el rediseño del probador de aceites WPOT 0.25/75. Para estofue necesario rediseñar completamente todo su sistema de control y de protección pues el original ademásde estar constituido sobre la base de válvulas de vacío, no funcionaba ya que presentaba fallas en lossoportes aislantes de las mismas, fallas de dichas válvulas y fallas en la placa aislante que sirve desoporte a los componentes de los mecanismos de protección y control. Para solucionar estos problemasse diseñó un sistema de control con tiristores para la protección del equipo sustituyéndose por completoel obsoleto sistema de control a válvulas, lográndose un sistema de control seguro, confiable y de fáciloperación como para ser operado por personal con pocas habilidades.  The main objective of this paper is to remodel the WPOT 0.25/75 oil tester equipment. The originalequipment was made with vacuum valves, coupled on an insulated support. This equipment presentedseveral electrical failures on the insulated support and in the vacuum valves. In order to solve this problem,a new control and protecting system, using tiristor,  was designed . With this new design it was possibleto use this oil tester again. Moreover, the design offers better and new operating options useful for somespecial interesting tests.

  6. Recent advances in nuclear power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, H.; Plisson, P.; Friant, J.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The field of industrial simulation has experienced very significant progress in recent years, and power plant simulation in particular has been an extremely active area. Improvements may be recorded in practically all simulator subsystems. In Europe, the construction of new full- or optimized-scope nuclear power plant simulators during the middle 1990's has been remarkable intense. In fact, it is possible to identify a distinct simulator generation, which constitutes a new de facto simulation standard. Thomson Training and Simulation has taken part in these developments by designing, building, and validation several of these new simulators for Dutch, German and French nuclear power plants. Their characteristics are discussed in this paper. The following main trends may be identified: Process modeling is clearly evolving towards obtaining engineering-grade performance, even under the added constraints of real-time operation and a very wide range of operating conditions to be covered; Massive use of modern graphic user interfaces (GUI) ensures an unprecedented flexibility and user-friendliness for the Instructor Station; The massive use of GUIs also allows the development of Trainee Stations (TS), which significantly enhance the in-depth training value of the simulators; The development of powerful Software Development Environments (SDE) enables the simulator maintenance teams to keep abreast of modifications carried out in the reference plants; Finally, simulator maintenance and its compliance with simulator fidelity requirements are greatly enhanced by integrated Configuration Management Systems (CMS). In conclusion, the power plant simulation field has attained a strong level of maturity, which benefits its approximately forty years of service to the power generation industry. (author)

  7. Next-generation text-mining mediated generation of chemical response-specific gene sets for interpretation of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettne Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of chemical response-specific lists of genes (gene sets for pharmacological and/or toxic effect prediction for compounds is limited. We hypothesize that more gene sets can be created by next-generation text mining (next-gen TM, and that these can be used with gene set analysis (GSA methods for chemical treatment identification, for pharmacological mechanism elucidation, and for comparing compound toxicity profiles. Methods We created 30,211 chemical response-specific gene sets for human and mouse by next-gen TM, and derived 1,189 (human and 588 (mouse gene sets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD. We tested for significant differential expression (SDE (false discovery rate -corrected p-values Results Next-gen TM-derived gene sets matching the chemical treatment were significantly altered in three GE data sets, and the corresponding CTD-derived gene sets were significantly altered in five GE data sets. Six next-gen TM-derived and four CTD-derived fibrate gene sets were significantly altered in the PPARA knock-out GE dataset. None of the fibrate signatures in cMap scored significant against the PPARA GE signature. 33 environmental toxicant gene sets were significantly altered in the triazole GE data sets. 21 of these toxicants had a similar toxicity pattern as the triazoles. We confirmed embryotoxic effects, and discriminated triazoles from other chemicals. Conclusions Gene set analysis with next-gen TM-derived chemical response-specific gene sets is a scalable method for identifying similarities in gene responses to other chemicals, from which one may infer potential mode of action and/or toxic effect.

  8. Hybrid colored noise process with space-dependent switching rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental issue in the theory of continuous stochastic process is the interpretation of multiplicative white noise, which is often referred to as the Itô-Stratonovich dilemma. From a physical perspective, this reflects the need to introduce additional constraints in order to specify the nature of the noise, whereas from a mathematical perspective it reflects an ambiguity in the formulation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Recently, we have identified a mechanism for obtaining an Itô SDE based on a form of temporal disorder. Motivated by switching processes in molecular biology, we considered a Brownian particle that randomly switches between two distinct conformational states with different diffusivities. In each state, the particle undergoes normal diffusion (additive noise) so there is no ambiguity in the interpretation of the noise. However, if the switching rates depend on position, then in the fast switching limit one obtains Brownian motion with a space-dependent diffusivity of the Itô form. In this paper, we extend our theory to include colored additive noise. We show that the nature of the effective multiplicative noise process obtained by taking both the white-noise limit (κ →0 ) and fast switching limit (ɛ →0 ) depends on the order the two limits are taken. If the white-noise limit is taken first, then we obtain Itô, and if the fast switching limit is taken first, then we obtain Stratonovich. Moreover, the form of the effective diffusion coefficient differs in the two cases. The latter result holds even in the case of space-independent transition rates, where one obtains additive noise processes with different diffusion coefficients. Finally, we show that yet another form of multiplicative noise is obtained in the simultaneous limit ɛ ,κ →0 with ɛ /κ2 fixed.

  9. The Effects of Filter Ventilation on Flavor Constituents in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The deliveries of 20 added flavor constituents, total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in cigarette mainstream smoke were studied when filter ventilation was 0, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The flavor substance test was done by addition of standard samples. The flavor constituents in cigarette smoke condensate were separated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and capillary gas chromatography (GC. The flavor constituents were identified and determined quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC. The flavors studied were methylpyrazine, furaldehyde, 5-methylfuraldehyde, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, trimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyridine, phenylacetaldehyde, acetophenone, linalool, b-phenylethyl alcohol, isophorone, oxoisophorone, benzyl acetate, menthol, ethyl octanoate, b-damascenone, b-damascone, geranylacetone and b-ionone. The deliveries of TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in mainstream smoke were determined according to International Standard methods. It was found that the flavor constituents and routine components in mainstream smoke decreased in different proportions as the filter ventilation increased. Carbon monoxide and ‘tar’ decreased more than nicotine. The flavor constituents with lower boiling points and lower molecular weights decreased more than those with higher boiling points and higher molecular weights. With the increase of filter ventilation, not only is the amount of smoke components reduced and the smoke taste weakened, but also the composition of smoke is modified and the quality of aroma changed slightly. These findings should be considered when developing low-‘tar’ cigarettes through the use of filter ventilation technology.

  10. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yongguo; Abedi, Vida; Carbo, Adria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Lu, Pinyi; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Liles, Nathan; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut inflammation. Our modeling predictions dissect the mechanisms by which effector CD4+ T cell responses contribute to tissue damage in the gut mucosa following immune dysregulation.Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T

  11. Estuardo Núñez: un siglo fructífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Bedoya Maguiña

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Estuardo Núñez Hague, con sus cien años cumplidos de vida fructíferaes no sólo el decano y verdadero patriarca de las letras peruanas,es también nuestro común maestro. Aunque no hayamos tenidola fortuna de ser alumnos de Estuardo Núñez en las aulas, en el áreade literatura todos somos en el fondo sus discípulos, ya sea a travésde la lectura de sus libros, ya sea por el impacto indirecto de sumagisterio. En las aulas sanmarquinas de la Facultad de Letras, esemagisterio sigue siendo fecundo, pues la acción de Estuardo Núñezmarcó nuevos rumbos en el estudio de la literatura en el Perú: fueel iniciador de los cursos de Teoría Literaria, a los que enrumbó enbase a los aportes entonces novedosos de la estilística, de la cienciade la literatura alemana y de la nueva crítica anglosajona. EstuardoNúñez fue profesor de muchos de mis propios maestros, como porejemplo Tomás Escajadillo, Marco Martos, Carlos Eduardo Zavaletao el recordado Paco Carrillo, e igualmente de importantes escritorescomo Bryce, Scorza, Wáshington Delgado o Antonio Cisneros.A través de esos y otros canales nos llegó el mensaje docente deEstuardo Núñez y no dudo de que continúa y continuará ejerciendosu benéfica influencia en el claustro sanmarquino, y también en losestudios literarios peruanos.

  12. LA PROMOCIÓN DE UNA ECONOMÍA NO-CAPITALISTA: EL GRUPO MONDRAGÓN THE PROMOTION OF A NON-CAPITALIST ECONOMY: THE MONDRAGÓN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Santa Cruz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mondragón es hoy el séptimo grupo empresarial de España según la variablecifra de “ventas”, y el tercero de acuerdo con la variable “empleo”. Se trata de una cooperativaque ofrece una alternativa no capitalista cuyo éxito demuestra la posibilidadde transformación social, dejando obsoletas las Teorías de la Reproducción que defiendenque la educación no puede contribuir a superar las desigualdades sociales. Este artículoanaliza la relevancia que Mondragón ha otorgado a la educación a lo largo de másde 50 años, convirtiéndola en un elemento clave para su éxito y para la mejora de lascondiciones de vida de las personas que participan en esta experiencia.Mondragón is at present the seventh entrepreneurial group in Spain accordingto sales volume and the third according to employment. As a cooperative, it offers anon-capitalist alternative of success, demonstrating that social transformation is possibleand invalidating the theories of reproduction, which defend that education can not contributeto the overcoming of social inequalities. The present article analyses the importancegiven to education by Mondragón throughout its 50 years of history, making outof it a key factor both for the corporation’s success as well as for the improvement ofthe life condition of those who participate in this experience.

  13. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells in different physiological stages under Cordyceps sinensis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yang Li

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis (CS has been commonly used as herbal medicine and a health supplement in China for over two thousand years. Although previous studies have demonstrated that CS has benefits in immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, the precise mechanism by which CS affects immunomodulation is still unclear. In this study, we exploited duplicate sets of loop-design microarray experiments to examine two different batches of CS and analyze the effects of CS on dendritic cells (DCs, in different physiology stages: naïve stage and inflammatory stage. Immature DCs were treated with CS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or LPS plus CS (LPS/CS for two days, and the gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays. The results of two loop-design microarray experiments showed good intersection rates. The expression level of common genes found in both loop-design microarray experiments was consistent, and the correlation coefficients (Rs, were higher than 0.96. Through intersection analysis of microarray results, we identified 295 intersecting significantly differentially expressed (SDE genes of the three different treatments (CS, LPS, and LPS/CS, which participated mainly in the adjustment of immune response and the regulation of cell proliferation and death. Genes regulated uniquely by CS treatment were significantly involved in the regulation of focal adhesion pathway, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, and hematopoietic cell lineage pathway. Unique LPS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus pathway, and complement and coagulation cascades pathway. Unique LPS/CS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These results could provide useful information in further study of the pharmacological mechanisms of CS. This study also demonstrates that with a rigorous experimental design, the biological effects

  14. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells in different physiological stages under Cordyceps sinensis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Yang; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Wang, Shu-Chi; Cheng, Hung-Tsu; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Shu, Wun-Yi; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ying; Fang, Shih-Hua; Hsu, Ian C

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS) has been commonly used as herbal medicine and a health supplement in China for over two thousand years. Although previous studies have demonstrated that CS has benefits in immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, the precise mechanism by which CS affects immunomodulation is still unclear. In this study, we exploited duplicate sets of loop-design microarray experiments to examine two different batches of CS and analyze the effects of CS on dendritic cells (DCs), in different physiology stages: naïve stage and inflammatory stage. Immature DCs were treated with CS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or LPS plus CS (LPS/CS) for two days, and the gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays. The results of two loop-design microarray experiments showed good intersection rates. The expression level of common genes found in both loop-design microarray experiments was consistent, and the correlation coefficients (Rs), were higher than 0.96. Through intersection analysis of microarray results, we identified 295 intersecting significantly differentially expressed (SDE) genes of the three different treatments (CS, LPS, and LPS/CS), which participated mainly in the adjustment of immune response and the regulation of cell proliferation and death. Genes regulated uniquely by CS treatment were significantly involved in the regulation of focal adhesion pathway, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, and hematopoietic cell lineage pathway. Unique LPS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus pathway, and complement and coagulation cascades pathway. Unique LPS/CS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These results could provide useful information in further study of the pharmacological mechanisms of CS. This study also demonstrates that with a rigorous experimental design, the biological effects of a complex

  15. Bioensayo General de Letalidad en Artemia Salina, a Las Fracciones del Extracto Etanólico De Psidium Guajava. L y Psidium Guineense. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Sánchez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se centró en la evaluación y verificación de la letalidad de las fracciones acetato de etilo, obtenida de los extractos etanólicos de los frutos en estado de madurez, verde y pintón, utilizando la cáscara y pulpa de las especies guayaba (Psidium guajava L y Choba (Psidium guineense Sw. La valoración se llevó a cabo mediante el bioensayo en Artemia salina, a través del cual, se evidencia el siguiente proceso: determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 utilizando el medio artificial a Ph 7-8, burbujear con el fin de saturar de oxígeno la solución, controlar la eclosión de los huevos a 25 °C despuésde 48 horas, preparar la solución madre y las de trabajo a concentraciones de 1500, 1000, 500,100, 10 g/ml, control positivo estricnina a 80, 70, 60, 50 g/ml, blanco solvente etanol a 80 g/ml. El ensayo biológico se realizó siguiendo las metodologías propuestas por Gualdrón, R (1994; Cyted (1995;Martínez, C (1999 y McLaughlin, J (1997. Comprobada la letalidad de las fracciones acetato del extracto etanólico de Psidium guajava. L y Psidium guineense. Sw mostró CL50 de 181.4 y 221.30g/ml respectivamente, los resultados se evaluaron según Gautret (2000.

  16. The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhan M IDRUS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at their individual pace, seek skills for individual development and at the same time, enables them to fulfill family responsibilities. An important element of distance education is the provision of the learner support system that provides students the access to learning resources and means of communication that would facilitate the array of educational activities and exposure to various other guidance and advisories. This paper reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centres. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners.

  17. GIS for the needs of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mikšová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA is a state organisation responsible for the management of activities related to the disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel classed as a waste in Czech Republic. Worldwide, a deep geological repository is considered the highest degree of safety for a nuclear waste disposal. Such a repository has to be built in a stable geological environment ensuring the isolation of the stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment for a long period of time. The selection of suitable site for the deep geological repository construction is a complicated and long term process. Considering this fact and also in respect to an assumed volume of varied datasets the GIS RAWRA was established to ensure convenient management and availability of data containing spatial information.The system is based on ESRI (ArcInfo including extensions, ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Leica Geosystems (Image Analysis and Microsoft software (MS SQL Server. Resulting datasets from six recommended potentially suitable sites for the location of a geological repository have been incorporated into the geodatabase to date. The necessary analysis was made using ESRI software tools and, in addition, custom applications were developed including the metadata editor, etc. This analysis was carried out with respect to existing geological and non-geological criteria defined for a nuclear waste repository. Finally, all six investigated sites with a total area of 240 km2 were reduced in area, each of them resulting in an area of approximately 10km2 for further detailed characterisation.

  18. Young entrepreneurs motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Boggio Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, tanto el emprendimiento como su gran impacto en el desarrollo de lasociedad son el foco de atención de un creciente campo de investigación, en particular dedisciplinas como la economía, la psicología y la sociología. Desde que este tema es motivo deinvestigación, muchos estudios se han centrado principalmente en las características individualesde los emprendedores y en sus rasgos de personalidad. Sin embargo, en los últimos años lainvestigación sobre el emprendimiento ha cambiado de manera significativa. La orientaciónde los estudios fuerza una ampliación del campo y un aumento de su heterogeneidad a travésde la aparición de nuevos temas cada vez más fascinantes y retadores. El objetivo de esteestudio es describir las motivaciones o factores que inciden en el desarrollo de actividades deemprendimiento así como las percepciones de los emprendedores respecto de su idea y de lashabilidades personales que detentaban para llevar a cabo su emprendimiento. En general,factores como la existencia de una oportunidad en el mercado, un mercado con atractivocomercial, un razonable conocimiento del mercado y la creencia de contar con una ideainnovadora, son los factores más influyentes en la puesta en marcha de un emprendimiento.Los datos corresponden a una muestra de 165 egresados entre los años 1970 y 1995 de laUniversidad del Pacífico.

  19. CHP biomass gasifier for the Zwarts Gerbera Nursery. Technical and economic feasibility; Biomassavergasser-WKK voor Gerberakwekerij Zwarts. Technische inpassing en economische haalbaarheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, S.; Hart, A. [Energy Matters, Driebergen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    when we factor in the renewable energy subsidy (SDE+) and investment subsidies such as MEI and EIA. Assuming the cheaper 800 kWe installations, the SDE+ subsidy of euro 90/MWh, current wood chipping prices and co-burning of cheaper residual waste such as reed, the payback time is 3 to 4 years. If the biomass can be contracted for 4 to 5 years at a fixed price, then an investment in a CHP gasifier is definitely an interesting alternative to the current gas CHP installations within the horticulture sector. This feasibility study assumes that the horticulturer's biomass costs are euro 35/tonne for a wood and reed mixture (87.5% and 12.5% respectively) and euro 40/tonne for 100% wood chippings, including transport. This assumes euro 25/tonne reed removal costs for the supplier, the province of Utrecht, Natuurmonumenten and/or the Forestry Commission (Staatsbosbeheer). In this case these parties do not pay euro 35/tonne for the processing of the waste by a green waste collector. The horticulturer receives euro 10/tonne for buying the reed, which offsets part of his investment risk. The cheap reed thus makes a significant contribution to the profitability of the installation. However, there is insufficient reed in the province of Utrecht to meet the total energy requirement of the Zwarts nursery, let alone for more energy projects. Moreover, the placement of the installation is subject to an Area Exploitation (WABO) Permit and the implementation of several measures. The installation is feasible in the current situation, both in terms of placement, technical compatibility and logistics, the supply of biomass and the removal of combustion ash [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de haalbaarheid van een vergasser-WKK-installatie bij Gerberakwekerij Zwarts. Met behulp van de inzichten van dit onderzoek is een beeld geschetst voor energieproductie middels vergassing in de tuinbouwsector. Let wel, elk gewas kent zijn specifieke groeibehoeften, nutriënten, warmte/koude, licht, maar

  20. Motivaciones de los jóvenes emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Boggio Salazar,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, tanto el emprendimiento como su gran impacto en el desarrollo de lasociedad son el foco de atención de un creciente campo de investigación, en particular dedisciplinas como la economía, la psicología y la sociología. Desde que este tema es motivo deinvestigación, muchos estudios se han centrado principalmente en las características individualesde los emprendedores y en sus rasgos de personalidad. Sin embargo, en los últimos años lainvestigación sobre el emprendimiento ha cambiado de manera significativa. La orientaciónde los estudios fuerza una ampliación del campo y un aumento de su heterogeneidad a travésde la aparición de nuevos temas cada vez más fascinantes y retadores. El objetivo de esteestudio es describir las motivaciones o factores que inciden en el desarrollo de actividades deemprendimiento así como las percepciones de los emprendedores respecto de su idea y de lashabilidades personales que detentaban para llevar a cabo su emprendimiento. En general,factores como la existencia de una oportunidad en el mercado, un mercado con atractivocomercial, un razonable conocimiento del mercado y la creencia de contar con una ideainnovadora, son los factores más influyentes en la puesta en marcha de un emprendimiento.Los datos corresponden a una muestra de 165 egresados entre los años 1970 y 1995 de laUniversidad del Pacífico.

  1. Sedimentation dynamics and equilibrium profiles in multicomponent mixtures of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruijt, E; Biesheuvel, P M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a general theoretical framework that describes the sedimentation of multicomponent mixtures of particles with sizes ranging from molecules to macroscopic bodies. Both equilibrium sedimentation profiles and the dynamic process of settling, or its converse, creaming, are modeled. Equilibrium profiles are found to be in perfect agreement with experiments. Our model reconciles two apparently contradicting points of view about buoyancy, thereby resolving a long-lived paradox about the correct choice of the buoyant density. On the one hand, the buoyancy force follows necessarily from the suspension density, as it relates to the hydrostatic pressure gradient. On the other hand, sedimentation profiles of colloidal suspensions can be calculated directly using the fluid density as apparent buoyant density in colloidal systems in sedimentation–diffusion equilibrium (SDE) as a result of balancing gravitational and thermodynamic forces. Surprisingly, this balance also holds in multicomponent mixtures. This analysis resolves the ongoing debate of the correct choice of buoyant density (fluid or suspension): both approaches can be used in their own domain. We present calculations of equilibrium sedimentation profiles and dynamic sedimentation that show the consequences of these insights. In bidisperse mixtures of colloids, particles with a lower mass density than the homogeneous suspension will first cream and then settle, whereas particles with a suspension-matched mass density form transient, bimodal particle distributions during sedimentation, which disappear when equilibrium is reached. In all these cases, the centers of the distributions of the particles with the lowest mass density of the two, regardless of their actual mass, will be located in equilibrium above the so-called isopycnic point, a natural consequence of their hard-sphere interactions. We include these interactions using the Boublik–Mansoori–Carnahan–Starling–Leland (BMCSL

  2. A transformed path integral approach for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Gnana M.; Vedula, Prakash

    2017-10-01

    A novel path integral (PI) based method for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is presented. The proposed method, termed the transformed path integral (TPI) method, utilizes a new formulation for the underlying short-time propagator to perform the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) in a transformed computational domain where a more accurate representation of the PDF can be ensured. The new formulation, based on a dynamic transformation of the original state space with the statistics of the PDF as parameters, preserves the non-negativity of the PDF and incorporates short-time properties of the underlying stochastic process. New update equations for the state PDF in a transformed space and the parameters of the transformation (including mean and covariance) that better accommodate nonlinearities in drift and non-Gaussian behavior in distributions are proposed (based on properties of the SDE). Owing to the choice of transformation considered, the proposed method maps a fixed grid in transformed space to a dynamically adaptive grid in the original state space. The TPI method, in contrast to conventional methods such as Monte Carlo simulations and fixed grid approaches, is able to better represent the distributions (especially the tail information) and better address challenges in processes with large diffusion, large drift and large concentration of PDF. Additionally, in the proposed TPI method, error bounds on the probability in the computational domain can be obtained using the Chebyshev's inequality. The benefits of the TPI method over conventional methods are illustrated through simulations of linear and nonlinear drift processes in one-dimensional and multidimensional state spaces. The effects of spatial and temporal grid resolutions as well as that of the diffusion coefficient on the error in the PDF are also characterized.

  3. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  4. Secretory cavities and volatiles of Myrrhinium atropurpureum Schott var. atropurpureum (Myrtaceae): an endemic species collected in the restingas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victório, Cristiane Pimentel; Moreira, Claudio B; Souza, Marcelo da Costa; Sato, Alice; Arruda, Rosani do Carmo de Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the leaf anatomy and the composition of volatiles in Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. atropurpureum endemic to Rio de Janeiro restingas. Particularly, leaf secretory structures were described using light microscopy, and histochemical tests were performed from fresh leaves to localize the secondary metabolites. To observe secretory cavities, fixed leaf samples were free-hand sectioned. To evaluate lipophilic compounds and terpenoids the following reagents were employed: Sudans III and IV, Red oil O and Nile blue. Leaf volatiles were characterized by gas chromatography after hydrodistillation (HD) or simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). Leaf analysis showed several cavities in mesophyll that are the main sites of lipophilic and terpenoid production. Monoterpenes, which represented more than 80% of the major volatiles, were characterized mainly by alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole. In order to provide tools for M. atropurpureum identification, the following distinguishing characteristics were revealed by the following data: 1) adaxial face clear and densely punctuated by the presence of round or ellipsoidal secretory cavities randomly distributed in the mesophyll; 2) the presence of cells overlying the upper neck cells of secretory cavities; 3) the presence of numerous paracytic stomata distributed on the abaxial leaf surface, but absent in vein regions and leaf margin; and 4) non-glandular trichomes on both leaf surfaces. Our study of the compounds produced by the secretory cavities of M. atropurpureum led us to conclude that volatile terpenoid class are the main secretory compounds and that they consist of a high concentration of monoterpenes, which may indicate the phytotherapeutic importance of this plant.

  5. REVIEW: Going beyond the LIBOR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Alireza

    2004-06-01

    Having a mostly equity derivatives background, I was concerned that I would find this book too complex. I therefore started reading it with misgiving. However, the first thing Rebonato does is to give a concise yet thorough history of the evolution of interest-rate derivatives. Starting with the famous Black model, one assumes that either the forward rate or the swap rate (fixed rate) is log-normal. Using the forward rate would allow us to deal with the `pull to par' phenomenon: the fact that the price of a bond must be par at its maturity. Note that, as Rebonato points out, some were even ignoring this phenomenon and using the Black - Scholes pricing formula. The justification was that in their cases, the bond maturity was far beyond the option maturity. This model has been, and still is, popular due to its simplicity and the fact that it allows us to price many vanilla instruments (caps and swaptions) exactly. However, as Rebonato keeps telling us, this exact replication is deceiving. Indeed they take place under different probability measures and, therefore, the replications are inconsistent with one another. This means that if you were to price an exotic derivative with multiple call dates or exercise dates, you would not have one internally plausible framework to do so. Then came the short-rate models such as the Vasicek model or the Cox, Ingersoll and Ross (CIR) model. They treated the instantaneous short interest rate as the driving force of the term structure. This short rate therefore followed a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of its own which was mean reverting. However, these models did not guarantee matching of the market. An extension to these models, mainly by Hull and White on the one hand and Jamshidian on the other hand, was the following: make the drift term a time-dependent deterministic function that we would resolve in order to match various vanilla prices. But once again, the same issue raises its ugly head. If we are pricing non

  6. Hybrid Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Algorithm for Non-Smooth Observables of Itô Stochastic Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Carlo forward Euler method with uniform time stepping is the standard technique to compute an approximation of the expected payoff of a solution of an Itô SDE. For a given accuracy requirement TOL, the complexity of this technique for well behaved problems, that is the amount of computational work to solve the problem, is O(TOL-3). A new hybrid adaptive Monte Carlo forward Euler algorithm for SDEs with non-smooth coefficients and low regular observables is developed in this thesis. This adaptive method is based on the derivation of a new error expansion with computable leading-order terms. The basic idea of the new expansion is the use of a mixture of prior information to determine the weight functions and posterior information to compute the local error. In a number of numerical examples the superior efficiency of the hybrid adaptive algorithm over the standard uniform time stepping technique is verified. When a non-smooth binary payoff with either GBM or drift singularity type of SDEs is considered, the new adaptive method achieves the same complexity as the uniform discretization with smooth problems. Moreover, the new developed algorithm is extended to the MLMC forward Euler setting which reduces the complexity from O(TOL-3) to O(TOL-2(log(TOL))2). For the binary option case with the same type of Itô SDEs, the hybrid adaptive MLMC forward Euler recovers the standard multilevel computational cost O(TOL-2(log(TOL))2). When considering a higher order Milstein scheme, a similar complexity result was obtained by Giles using the uniform time stepping for one dimensional SDEs. The difficulty to extend Giles\\' Milstein MLMC method to the multidimensional case is an argument for the flexibility of our new constructed adaptive MLMC forward Euler method which can be easily adapted to this setting. Similarly, the expected complexity O(TOL-2(log(TOL))2) is reached for the multidimensional case and verified numerically.

  7. The Use of Geographic Information Technologies in Environmental Decision-Making in the State of Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Silva García José; Gustavo, Cruz Cárdenas; Salvador, Ochoa Estrada; Franciso, Estrada Godoy; Fabian, Villalpando Barragán

    2008-05-01

    One of the most urgent issues facing the human environment, a result of current human evolution is the increase in the production of Urban Solid Waste (USW). The State of Michoacán is no exception; the presence of waste facilities in the area is a very big problem and one with a strong geographical content (Mena et al., 2006). SIGs are one tool for addressing this kind of need. A model which has been commonly used for selecting areas for the final deposit of USW, and which has obtained good results, is so-called multicriterion decision-making. It has been applied in the context of integral USW management, and has generated both a methodology for the determination of safe places for final waste deposit and an Environmental Risk Index (ERI), which fulfills the requirements indicated by the Official Mexican Norm (NOM-083-SEMARNAT-2003). The methodology consists of a quadrant analysis of 25 ha of five factors. A rank was assigned to each of the factors, and this rank was standardized according to a scale from 0 to 10 and subsequently multiplied by a weight (W) which numerically represents the degree of importance and influence of each factor in the environment. Five represented the largest impact, and two represented the smallest impact. The ERI is the sum of the five factors considered and it is represented by means of the following equation: ERI = VVw+UsUsw+FrFrw+ln lnw+Zi Ziw, where ERI is the Environmental Risk Index, V Vw is the aquifer vulnerability, Us Usw represents the use of the soil, Fr Frw refers to the fracturing density, ln lnw represents the domain of the urban and industrial infrastructure, and Zi Ziw refers to flood zones. This was shown to be successful in different regions of Michoacán State, such as the Bajío area, the Paísde la Mariposa Monarca and Tierra Caliente. Another example is its application in the hydrogeologic context, which generated the Aquifer Veda index (a restriction diagram for the opening of new exploitations), and which is

  8. Impact of stochasticity in immigration and reintroduction on colonizing and extirpating populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakaruna, Harshana; Potapov, Alexei; Lewis, Mark

    2013-05-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of populations at the edge of extinction is needed to manage both invasive and extirpating populations. Immigration can govern the population dynamics when the population levels are low. It increases the probability of a population establishing (or reestablishing) before going extinct (EBE). However, the rate of immigration can be highly fluctuating. Here, we investigate how the stochasticity in immigration impacts the EBE probability for small populations in variable environments. We use a population model with an Allee effect described by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) and employ the Fokker-Planck diffusion approximation to quantify the EBE probability. We find that, the effect of the stochasticity in immigration on the EBE probability depends on both the intrinsic growth rate (r) and the mean rate of immigration (p). In general, if r is large and positive (e.g. invasive species introduced to favorable habitats), or if p is greater than the rate of population decline due to the demographic Allee effect (e.g., effective stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration decreases the EBE probability. If r is large and negative (e.g. endangered populations in unfavorable habitats), or if the rate of decline due to the demographic Allee effect is much greater than p (e.g., weak stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration increases the EBE probability. However, the mean time for EBE decreases with the increasing stochasticity in immigration with both positive and negative large r. Thus, results suggest that ecological management of populations involves a tradeoff as to whether to increase or decrease the stochasticity in immigration in order to optimize the desired outcome. Moreover, the control of invasive species spread through stochastic means, for example, by stochastic monitoring and treatment of vectors such as ship-ballast water, may be suitable strategies

  9. Deep learning ensemble with asymptotic techniques for oscillometric blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojeong; Chang, Joon-Hyuk

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a deep learning based ensemble regression estimator with asymptotic techniques, and offers a method that can decrease uncertainty for oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurements using the bootstrap and Monte-Carlo approach. While the former is used to estimate SBP and DBP, the latter attempts to determine confidence intervals (CIs) for SBP and DBP based on oscillometric BP measurements. This work originally employs deep belief networks (DBN)-deep neural networks (DNN) to effectively estimate BPs based on oscillometric measurements. However, there are some inherent problems with these methods. First, it is not easy to determine the best DBN-DNN estimator, and worthy information might be omitted when selecting one DBN-DNN estimator and discarding the others. Additionally, our input feature vectors, obtained from only five measurements per subject, represent a very small sample size; this is a critical weakness when using the DBN-DNN technique and can cause overfitting or underfitting, depending on the structure of the algorithm. To address these problems, an ensemble with an asymptotic approach (based on combining the bootstrap with the DBN-DNN technique) is utilized to generate the pseudo features needed to estimate the SBP and DBP. In the first stage, the bootstrap-aggregation technique is used to create ensemble parameters. Afterward, the AdaBoost approach is employed for the second-stage SBP and DBP estimation. We then use the bootstrap and Monte-Carlo techniques in order to determine the CIs based on the target BP estimated using the DBN-DNN ensemble regression estimator with the asymptotic technique in the third stage. The proposed method can mitigate the estimation uncertainty such as large the standard deviation of error (SDE) on comparing the proposed DBN-DNN ensemble regression estimator with the DBN-DNN single regression estimator, we identify that the SDEs of the SBP and DBP are reduced by 0.58 and 0.57  mmHg, respectively. These

  10. La vigilancia de la salud de los trabajadores expuestos al amianto: ejemplo de colaboración entre el Sistema de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales y el Sistema Nacional de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M García Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo y las Comunidades Autó-nomas han diseñado y consensuado con los profesionales sanitariosy las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales representativas unPlan Integral de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores que hanestado expuestos a Amianto, con el objetivo de garantizar una inter-vención adecuada, uniforme y armonizada de estos trabajadores entodo el territorio nacional. La elaboración del Programa partió delGrupo de Trabajo de Salud Laboral del Consejo Interterritorial, seenriqueció con las aportaciones del Grupo de Trabajo Amianto de laComisión Nacional de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, fue consen-suado con los profesionales de la medicina y enfermería del trabajo,y fue aprobado por las autoridades sanitarias y laborales. El Progra-ma consta de siete grandes bloques de actividades. Dos años despuésde aprobado el Programa, el estado de implantación en las Comuni-dades Autónomas es desigual. Las principales dificultades para supuesta en marcha se encuentran en la elaboración del Registro deexpuestos. Un total de 5.778 trabajadores están incluidos en el Regis-tro. 208 trabajadores tienen EPOC, 198 alteraciones pleurales benig-nas, 8 cáncer de pulmón, 10 mesotelioma y 7 presentan otros cánce-res con posible relación con el amianto (gástrico, de laringe y colon. El consenso y la participación alcanzados alrededor de este Progra-ma están permitiendo lograr coberturas de las políticas de preven-ción de riesgos laborales muy superiores a las que se consiguen conla mera actuación institucional y elaboración de normativa, ya que ensólo los dos primeros años de implantación del Programa se ha dupli-cado el número de trabajadores atendidos.

  11. INTERACCIÓN DE LA GLUTAMINA SINTETASA (GS Y EL PÉPTIDO β -AMILOIDE COMO UNA ESTRATEGIA DE PURIFICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Luz Albarracín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA esla forma de demencia más común en laedad adulta. Se manifiesta con la pérdidaprogresiva de la memoria a medida quelas neuronas en la corteza cerebral y elhipocampo mueren. En todas las formasde EA se evidencia aumento de la expresiónde diferentes proteínas, así comola presencia de agregados insolubles depéptido-β-amiloide (PBA. La glutaminasintetasa (GS es una enzima clave en elmetabolismo del glutamato y en la detoxificaciónde amonio (NH4+. Previamentese ha reportado una posible interacciónGS-PBA que puede estar asociada conEA. En este trabajo se realizó la purificaciónde la enzima cerebral de rata a partirde un extracto sometido a precipitaciónfraccionada con (NH42SO4 del 20-60 %de saturación y posteriormente a travésde cromatografías sucesivas de filtraciónen gel, intercambio iónico y afinidad. Elpeso molecular del complejo fue calculadoen 137 kDa por el orden de eluciónen la columna de filtración. Se identificóinteracción de la enzima con PBA1-40, lográndose la purificación de unasola banda de 45 kDa, correspondiente ala forma monomérica de la GS. En estetrabajo se presenta un nuevo método depurificación de la enzima y se demuestrala interacción de GS con el PBA. Se proponeque esta interacción GS-PBA puedeser uno de los procesos que se presentanen la enfermedad al explicar la reducciónde la actividad de la enzima en pacientes con EA, ya que podría alterar el cicloglutamato-glutamina y generar cambiosen el entorno celular que favorecen excitotoxicidadpor glutamato típica de losprocesos de neurodegeneración.

  12. Impact of stochasticity in immigration and reintroduction on colonizing and extirpating populations

    KAUST Repository

    Rajakaruna, Harshana

    2013-05-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of populations at the edge of extinction is needed to manage both invasive and extirpating populations. Immigration can govern the population dynamics when the population levels are low. It increases the probability of a population establishing (or reestablishing) before going extinct (EBE). However, the rate of immigration can be highly fluctuating. Here, we investigate how the stochasticity in immigration impacts the EBE probability for small populations in variable environments. We use a population model with an Allee effect described by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) and employ the Fokker-Planck diffusion approximation to quantify the EBE probability.Wefind that, the effect of the stochasticity in immigration on the EBE probability depends on both the intrinsic growth rate (r) and the mean rate of immigration (p). In general, if r is large and positive (e.g. invasive species introduced to favorable habitats), or if p is greater than the rate of population decline due to the demographic Allee effect (e.g., effective stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration decreases the EBE probability. If r is large and negative (e.g. endangered populations in unfavorable habitats), or if the rate of decline due to the demographic Allee effect is much greater than p (e.g., weak stocking of declining populations), then the stochasticity in immigration increases the EBE probability. However, the mean time for EBE decreases with the increasing stochasticity in immigration with both positive and negative large r. Thus, results suggest that ecological management of populations involves a tradeoff as to whether to increase or decrease the stochasticity in immigration in order to optimize the desired outcome. Moreover, the control of invasive species spread through stochastic means, for example, by stochastic monitoring and treatment of vectors such as ship-ballast water, may be suitable strategies given

  13. Cardiopatía valvular en fase dilatada en paciente con Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis J. Menoni-Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos (SED es una alteración hereditaria del tejido conjuntivo, presentada en 1 de 5000 nacidos. Las principales alteraciones cardiovasculares descritas son insuficiencia de la válvula mitral y debilidad de vasos sanguíneos de gran calibre. En este reporte se presenta paciente de 25 años de edad, con diagnósticos de SED e insuficiencia mitral desde 2007, asociado con patrón de disnea a moderados esfuerzos (Clase funcional II. En mayo de 2009 consulta por presentar cambio en el patrón de disnea por lo que es ingresada al Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas con los diagnósticos de SDE y cardiopatía dilatada con insuficiencia mitral severa e insuficiencia tricuspídea moderada en insuficiencia cardíaca clase funcional IV. En el examen físico se evidencia pulso venoso yugular con onda v sistólica a +5cm, pulso carotídeo parvus y céler, latido sistólico, ápex hiperquinético, ruidos rítmicos y regulares, soplo holosistólico mitral 2/4 y soplo holosistólico tricuspídeo 2/4, modificable con la inspiración. El tratamiento planteado es reemplazo valvular mitral para mejorar la sintomatología. La complicación valvular en este síndrome es poco frecuente, siendo resaltante en el caso, la alteración de dos válvulas cardíacas y además, la presencia de un evento tromboembólico de origen cardiogénico hacia sistema nervioso central como antecedente. La valoración de esta paciente permite la identificación de elementos particulares de su patología, que pueden ser descritos como factores de riesgo en la evolución hacia una cardiopatía avanzada.

  14. An electrified dust storm over the Negev desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Katz, Shai; Yaniv, Roy; Ziv, Baruch; Price, Colin

    2016-11-01

    We report on atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35‧N, 34°45‧E) during a large dust storm that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on 10-11 February 2015. The dust was transported from the Sahara, Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula ahead of an approaching Cyprus low. Satellite images show the dust plume covering the Negev desert and Southern Israel and moving north. The concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 450 μg m- 3 and the AOT from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker was 1.5 on February 10th. The gradual intensification of the event reached peak concentrations on February 11th of over 1200 μg m- 3 and an AOT of 1.8. Continuous measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and vertical current density (Jz) were conducted at the Wise Observatory with 1 minute temporal resolution. Meteorological data was also recorded at the site. As the dust was advected over the observatory, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were registered. From the onset of the dust storm, the Ez values changed between + 1000 and + 8000 V m- 1 while the current density fluctuated between - 10 pA m2 and + 20 pA m2, both on time-scales of a few minutes. These values are significant departures from the average fair-weather values measured at the site, which are ~- 200 V m- 1 and ~ 2 pA m2. The disturbed episodes lasted for several hours on February 10th and the 11th and coincided with local meteorological conditions related to the wind speed and direction, which carried large amounts of dust particles over our observation station. We interpret the rapid changes as caused by the transport of electrically charged dust, carrying an excess of negative charge at lower altitudes.

  15. Interrelación de la cultura, flexibilidad laboral, alineación estratégica, innovación y rendimiento empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Madero Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de esta investigación son conocer la relación existente entre la alineación estratégica (AE,la cultura organizacional (CO, los procesos de innovación (INN y las prácticas de flexibilidad laboral(PFL con la percepción del desempe˜no empresarial desde la perspectiva del trabajador. Para estos efectosutilizamos un análisis d tipo cuantitativo con una muestra de 98 personas que trabajan en empresas con másde 500 trabajadores. Para este estudio definimos desempe˜no empresarial en 5 formas alternativas: iniciativa ycreatividad (IC, objetivos alcanzados (OA, satisfacción del trabajador (ST, evolución rápida del trabajador(EO y aprovechamiento de los recursos (AR. Los resultados preliminares indican que la CO y la AE tienenun efecto inequívoco en promover el desempe˜no de la empresa, independientemente de la definición que seutilice. Sin embargo, la INN y las PFL tienen efectos no simétricos en el desempe˜no de la empresa; estosresultados dependen de la definición de desempe˜no que sea utilizada, es decir, las empresas enfrentan unadisyuntiva en la definición de los objetivos de desempe˜no y los procesos de flexibilidad organizacional a seguir. En resumen, los procesos de INN y las PFL trabajan de manera opuesta en el alcance de los objetivosde desempe˜no, y no dan unidireccionalmente una ventaja competitiva y sostenible.Derechos Reservados © 2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Admi-nistración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia CreativeCommons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Partial α2 -Adrenoceptor Agonist and Pure α2 -Adrenoceptor Antagonist on the Behavioural Symptoms of Withdrawal after Chronic Alcohol Administration in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shivani; Vohora, Divya

    2016-08-01

    As an addictive drug, alcohol produces withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after chronic use. Clonidine (CLN), a partial α2 -adrenergic agonist, and mirtazapine (MRT), an antagonist of α2 -adrenoceptor, both clinically aid alcohol withdrawal. Considering different mechanisms of action of the two drugs, this study was designed to see how far these two mechanistically different drugs differ in their ability to decrease the severity of ethanol withdrawal syndrome. The effect of CLN and MRT on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression and memory impairment was analysed using EPM, FST and PAR tests, respectively. Animals received distilled water, ethanol and/or either of the drugs (CLN and MRT) in different doses. Relapse to alcohol use was analysed by CPP test. Animals received ethanol as a conditioning drug and distilled water, CLN or MRT as test drug. CLN and MRT both alleviated anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. MRT (4 mg/kg) was more effective than CLN (0.1 mg/kg) in ameliorating the anxiogenic effect of alcohol withdrawal. However, CLN treatment increased depression. It significantly decreased swimming time and increased immobility time, whereas MRT treatment decreased immobility time and increased climbing and swimming time during abstinence. The effect was dose dependent for both drugs. The results of PAR test show that CLN treatment worsens working memory. Significant increase in SDE and TSZ and decrease in SDL were observed in CLN-treated animals. MRT treatment, on the other hand, improved working memory at both doses. Further, both CLN and MRT alleviated craving. A significant decrease in time spent in the ethanol-paired chamber was seen. MRT treatment at both doses showed better effect than CLN in preventing the development of preference in CPP test. These findings indicate a potential therapeutic use and better profile of mirtazapine over clonidine in improving memory, as well as in alleviating depression, anxiety and craving associated

  17. PROVIDING PLANT DATA ANALYTICS THROUGH A SEAMLESS DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    As technology continues to evolve and become more integrated into a worker’s daily routine in the Nuclear Power industry the need for easy access to data becomes a priority. Not only does the need for data increase but the amount of data collected increases. In most cases the data is collected and stored in various software applications, many of which are legacy systems, which do not offer any other option to access the data except through the application’s user interface. Furthermore the data gets grouped in “silos” according to work function and not necessarily by subject. Hence, in order to access all the information needed for a particular task or analysis one may have to access multiple applications to gather all the data needed. The industry and the research community have identified the need for a digital architecture and more importantly the need for a Seamless Digital Environment. An SDE provides a means to access multiple applications, gather the data points needed, conduct the analysis requested, and present the result to the user with minimal or no effort by the user. In addition, the nuclear utilities have identified the need for research focused on data analytics. The effort should develop and evaluate use cases for data mining and analytics for employing information from plant sensors and database for use in developing improved business analytics. Idaho National Laboratory is leading such effort, which is conducted in close collaboration with vendors, nuclear utilities, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and Electric Power Research Institute. The goal of the study is to research potential approaches to building an analytics solution for equipment reliability, on a small scale, focusing on either a single piece of equipment or a single system. The analytics solution will likely consist of a data integration layer, predictive and machine learning layer and the user interface layer that will display the output of the analysis in a straight

  18. Neuromarteking: Conocer al Cliente por sus Percepciones (Neuromarketing: know customers through their perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Baptista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La evolución de la ciencia, en cualquiera de sus vertientes,ha dado lugar a diferentes campos del saber en losque se conjugan múltiples disciplinas. En el área del neuromarketingconvergen la neurociencia y el marketing paraexplicar el comportamiento del consumidor. Por su parte, laneurociencia se centra en el estudio de los procesos mentalespara comprender la conducta en términos de actividadesdel encéfalo y cómo el medio ambiente influye en ésta,mientras que el marketing busca entender la manera en queel consumidor percibe los diferentes estímulos cuando entraen contacto con productos, servicios, publicidad, entre otros.La investigación documental aquí presentada pretende describirel neuromarketing a través de su concepto, así comodel estudio del sistema nervioso y de la percepción, la cualse entiende como un proceso sensorial desarrollado a travésde los sentidos. Asimismo, durante el desarrollo del estudio,se presta especial atención a la importancia y utilidad que representa,para el marketing y las organizaciones, esta nuevaforma de estudiar la conducta del consumidor.   ABSTRACT The evolution of natural sciences has led to the creationof new knowledge fields into which several of thesesciences combine. In the neuromarketing field, neuroscienceand marketing converge to study consumer habits using bothof these sciences. This new science is centered in studyingmental processes to explain consumer behavior in termsof encephalic activity, and how the environment affects it.It is important to understand how the consumer reacts todifferent stimuli when placed in contact with products, services,advertising and other marketing elements. This bibliographicalinformation study presented herewith, attemptsto describe neuromarketing concepts, as well as the study ofthe nervous system and consumer perception as a sensoryprocess developed through senses. Likewise, special attentionwas paid throughout the study to the importance and

  19. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  20. From dust to varnish: Geochemical constraints on rock varnish formation in the Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Stein, Mordechai; Enzel, Yehouda

    2014-02-01

    its varnish formation, Mn2+ is oxidized by one of the mechanisms presented by Morgan (2005). Morgan's data pertains to the rate in which Mn2+ is removed from the solution, and not to the rate of precipitation of Mn-oxides; the assumption used here is that the formation rate of Mn oxides is equal or faster than the removal rate of Mn2+, and therefore it is governed by the removal rate of Mn2+ from the solution. The efficiency of dissolution and deposition of Mn in varnish is unknown. Therefore, our calculations are based on full utilization (i.e., all Mn in the dust is transformed into Mn oxides in the varnish). Dust is abundant and its supply does not limit the process: this assumption is probably valid for deserts in general and more so to the central and southern Negev. Oxidation can occur only when moisture is available. The main moisture contributor to the Negev varnish is most likely dew (Goldsmith et al., 2012). To quantify the annual dew amounts, we used Zangvil (1996) data of an average of ˜1400 h/yr, which was measured over a six year period (at Sde Boker located between Divshon I and Nahal Boker in Fig. 1). For the following calculations, we used sites located in the central Negev, where it can be assumed that these sites experienced a similar moister regime as in Sde Boker. Morgan (2005) calculated the half-life for oxidation of Mn2+ in an aqueous environment. As stated above, these conditions prevail during ˜1400 h yr-1. With a Mn concentration in the dust of ˜500 ppm, the maximum amounts of Mn that would accumulate a year is: 35,000, 490, and 36 ppmMn yr-1 via bacterial oxidation, metal oxide catalysts, and homogenous solution oxidation, respectively.To estimate accumulation rates of Mn in the varnish, we calculated the total amount of Mn (MnTOT) in the measured profiles of the varnish by using an integral of the area under the graphs of [Mn]/depth (% atom/μm) (see appendix in Goldsmith, 2011). The MnTOT was divided by 9000 yr (the time interval since

  1. A wastewater game-changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a biotechnology that could slash energy use, chemical inputs and greenhouse emissions in wastewater treatment. The Australian water sector is slowly tuning in to one of the world's most promising wastewater and trade waste treatment technologies, anammox. SA Water, Queensland United Utilities and Veolia Water are each at different stages of trials of ''anaerobic ammonium oxidation'' to replace activated sludge in removing nitrogen. It relies on special anammox bacteria, which were first identified in 1999 and have been heavily researched ever since. The bacteria short circuit the normal nitrification/denitrification process and oxidise ammonia (NH_3) to nitrogen (N_2) under anaerobic conditions, promising deep cuts in energy demand, chemical use, fugitive greenhouse emissions and waterway impacts. Most local utilities have taken a look at it, but WME is aware of only three that have proceeded to trial stage. Veolia Water is keeping the trial it is supporting with its ANITA Mox technology under wraps for now, but municipal client manager Voon Chin said the technology has been proven for numerous applications overseas, including sludge dewatering effluent (SDE). QUU is in now stepping up from bench-scale tests to a full pilot at its Luggage Point sewage treatment plant (STP). It is currently enriching anammox cultures in 200-litre drums onsite to speed up the painstaking conditioning process when the plant gets up and running shortly in a 40-foot shipping container. But the most advanced are SA Water and Degremont through their Allwater joint venture, which runs Adelaide's water and sewerage network. It has wrapped up Australia's first pilot project, a 4m"3 plant treating SDE at the Bolivar STP. An Allwater spokesperson told WME in a statement that the pilot was a success and they are now assessing full- scale options. A paper to Enviro 2012anticipated a full-scale plant at Bolivar would create operational savings of $650

  2. Recursive grid partitioning on a cortical surface model: an optimized technique for the localization of implanted subdural electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Thomas A; Conner, Christopher R; Tandon, Nitin

    2013-05-01

    Precise localization of subdural electrodes (SDEs) is essential for the interpretation of data from intracranial electrocorticography recordings. Blood and fluid accumulation underneath the craniotomy flap leads to a nonlinear deformation of the brain surface and of the SDE array on postoperative CT scans and adversely impacts the accurate localization of electrodes located underneath the craniotomy. Older methods that localize electrodes based on their identification on a postimplantation CT scan with coregistration to a preimplantation MR image can result in significant problems with accuracy of the electrode localization. The authors report 3 novel methods that rely on the creation of a set of 3D mesh models to depict the pial surface and a smoothed pial envelope. Two of these new methods are designed to localize electrodes, and they are compared with 6 methods currently in use to determine their relative accuracy and reliability. The first method involves manually localizing each electrode using digital photographs obtained at surgery. This is highly accurate, but requires time intensive, operator-dependent input. The second uses 4 electrodes localized manually in conjunction with an automated, recursive partitioning technique to localize the entire electrode array. The authors evaluated the accuracy of previously published methods by applying the methods to their data and comparing them against the photograph-based localization. Finally, the authors further enhanced the usability of these methods by using automatic parcellation techniques to assign anatomical labels to individual electrodes as well as by generating an inflated cortical surface model while still preserving electrode locations relative to the cortical anatomy. The recursive grid partitioning had the least error compared with older methods (672 electrodes, 6.4-mm maximum electrode error, 2.0-mm mean error, p < 10(-18)). The maximum errors derived using prior methods of localization ranged from 8

  3. New Apigenin Glycoside, Polyphenolic Constituents, Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Activities of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella Aerial Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, Fatma A; El Dib, Rabab Abd El Moneim; Marzouk, Mohamed S; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Ibrahim, Haitham A

    2017-07-01

    to the isolation of twelve compoundsThe new compound 8-hydroxyapigenin 6- O -β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1''''→6'')- C -β-D-4C1-glucopyranoside was isolated from G. grandiflora for the first time in natureSchaftoside, luteolin 6- C -β-D-4C1-glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, apigenin 6- C -β-D-4C1-glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, isoorientin, isovitexin, 6-methoxyluteolin and hispidulin were isolated from G. grandiflora Vicenin-2, vitexin, luteolin, apigenin and 6-methoxyluteolin were isolated from G. pulchella The extracts of both species were nontoxic to mice up to 5 g/kg body weightBoth extracts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities in dose dependent manner Abbreviations used: ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; AME: The 80% aqueous methanol extract of G. grandiflora or G. pulchella aerial parts; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; br d: Broad doublet; Comp-PC: Comparative paper chromatography; d: Doublet; 2D-PC: Two-dimensional paper chromatography; DMSO-d6: Deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide; G.: Gaillardia ; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GRd: Glutathione reductase; GSH: glutathione; GST: Glutathione-S-transferase; J : Nuclear spin-spin coupling constant; m: Multiplet; [M-H]-: Molecular ion peak; MDA: Malondialdehyde; m / z : Mass/charge ratio; NO: Nitric oxide; p: Probability; PC: Paper chromatography; Rf: Retention flow; rpm: Rotation per minute; s: Singlet; SDE: The ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis ; SE: Standard error; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; TMS: Tetramethylsilane; λmax: Maximum fluorescence emission wavelength.

  4. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel

    2003-04-01

    methodology should also be compliant to the toolbox of software used by SKB. Munier and Hermanson have earlier described a methodology for geometrically presenting and administering interpreted deformation zones, and the rock masses between, in a site descriptive model to be used in site investigations. That work, written in Swedish, has for practical purposes been partly incorporated into the present report. However, slight departures from the methodology proposed there have been necessary, partly due to experiences gained in the Laxemar project, in which the methodology was applied, and partly due to advances in the development of the CAD-based RVS tool. The present report is structured to take account of the different levels of interpretation, outlined above. After a short clarification of the main terms which will be used in the report, the first of the three main chapters outlines the data requirements for 3D geological modelling, together with the main investigation methods and the degree of method-specific interpretation in each. This chapter concerns the production of the primary data sets which are stored in SICADA or SDE, which will be later used in the modelling process. The second of the main chapters concerns the combination of some of the primary data sets to provide a usable input into the 3D model, with the main emphasis on the process of integrative interpretation. There are two aspects which are particularly important in this context, the analysis and synthesis of geo-scientific cartographic data and single borehole data. The third main chapter presents the central theme of the report, 3D geological modelling and the process of interdisciplinary interpretation which this involves. In a final chapter, the treatment of uncertainty and confidence will be discussed in relation to the proposed modelling procedures

  5. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    * Effect of Thickness * Impact of Order Parameter * Impact of the Host * Impact of Polarizer * Colour Applications * Multiplexing * QUARTER WAVE PLATE DICHROIC DISPLAYS * Operational Principle and Display Configuration11-13 * Electro-Optical Performance * DYE-DOPED TN DISPLAYS * Threshold Characteristic, Contrast Ratio and Switching Speed * PHASE CHANGE EFFECT DICHROIC LCDs * Theoretical Background * Threshold Characteristic and Molecular Orientation * MOLECULAR ORIENTATION DURING FIELD-INDUCED PHASE TRANSITION WITH HOMOGENEOUS WALL ALIGNMENT * MOLECULAR ORIENTATION DURING FIELD-INDUCED PHASE TRANSITION WITH HOMEOTROPIC WALL ALIGNMENT * Contrast Ratio, Transmission, Brightness and Switching Speed3,7,10,198-214 * Memory or Reminiscent Contrast * Electro-optical Performance vs. Temperature * Multiplexing Phase Change Dichroic LCDs * DOUBLE CELL DICHROIC LCDs3,9,14-17,232-234 * Double Cell Nematic Dichroic LCD3,8,9,14,15,233 * Double Cell One Pitch Cholesteric LCD16,17 * Double Cell Phase Change Dichroic LCD214,232 * POSITIVE MODE DICHROIC LCDS3,8,9 * Positive Mode Heilmeier Cells3,8,9,43,77,78,235-238 * USING PLEOCHROIC DYES3,8,9,43,235-238 * USING NEGATIVE DICHROIC DYES3,8,9,63,77,78156 * DUAL FREQUENCY ADDRESSED DICHROIC DISPLAYS75,238 * Positive Mode Dichroic LCDs Using λ/4 Plate * Positive Mode Double Cell Dichroic LCD * Positive Mode Dichroic LCDs Using Special Electrode patterns7,8,239-241 * Positive Mode Phase Change Dichroic LCDs3,8,9,230,243-248 * Dichroic LCDs Using an Admixture of Pleochroic and Negative Dichroic Dyes78,118 * SUPERTWIST DICHROIC EFFECT (SDE) DISPLAYS21-23 * FERROELECTRIC DICHROIC LCDs24-27 * Devices Using A Single Polarizer * Devices Using No Polarizer24-27 * POLYMER DISPERSED DICHROIC LCDs28-30,252-259 * DICHROIC POLYMER LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS * Heilmeier Type Displays * Guest-Host Cell Using an Admixture Of L.C. Polymer and Low Molecular Weight Liquid Crysta As Host * Polymeric Ferroelectric Dichroic LCDs * SMECTIC A DICHROIC LCDs * Laser

  6. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    promoted. The methodology should also be compliant to the toolbox of software used by SKB. Munier and Hermanson have earlier described a methodology for geometrically presenting and administering interpreted deformation zones, and the rock masses between, in a site descriptive model to be used in site investigations. That work, written in Swedish, has for practical purposes been partly incorporated into the present report. However, slight departures from the methodology proposed there have been necessary, partly due to experiences gained in the Laxemar project, in which the methodology was applied, and partly due to advances in the development of the CAD-based RVS tool. The present report is structured to take account of the different levels of interpretation, outlined above. After a short clarification of the main terms which will be used in the report, the first of the three main chapters outlines the data requirements for 3D geological modelling, together with the main investigation methods and the degree of method-specific interpretation in each. This chapter concerns the production of the primary data sets which are stored in SICADA or SDE, which will be later used in the modelling process. The second of the main chapters concerns the combination of some of the primary data sets to provide a usable input into the 3D model, with the main emphasis on the process of integrative interpretation. There are two aspects which are particularly important in this context, the analysis and synthesis of geo-scientific cartographic data and single borehole data. The third main chapter presents the central theme of the report, 3D geological modelling and the process of interdisciplinary interpretation which this involves. In a final chapter, the treatment of uncertainty and confidence will be discussed in relation to the proposed modelling procedures.

  7. Atmospheric Electricity Effects of Eastern Mediterranean Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shai; Yair, Yoav; Yaniv, Roy; Price, Colin

    2016-04-01

    We present atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) and Mt. Hermon (30024'N, 35051'E), Israel, during two massive and unique dust storms that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on February 10-11 and September 08-12, 2015. The first event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of a warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. In the second event, dust particles were transported from the Syrian desert, which dominates the north-east border with Iraq, through flow associated with a shallow Persian trough system. In both events the concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 2200 μg m-3. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) obtained from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker reached values up to 4.0. The gradual intensification of the first event reached peak values on the February 11th > 1200 μg m-3 and an AOT ~ 1.8, while the second dust storm commenced on September 8th with a sharp increase reaching peak values of 2225 μg m-3 and AOT of 4.0. Measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and of the vertical current density (Jz) were conducted continuously with a 1 minute temporal resolution. During the February event, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were measured at the WO. The Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 and +20 pA m-2 (this is an order of magnitude larger compared to the fair weather current density of ~2 pA m-2. In contrast, during the September event, Ez values registered at WO were between -430 and +10 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -6 and +3 pA m2. For the September event the Hermon site showed Ez and Jz values fluctuating between -460 and +570 V m-1 and -14.5 and +18 pA m-2 respectively. The electric field and current variability, amplitude and the

  8. Estudios preliminares para la propagación clonal "in vitro" de mora (Rubus glaucus L. Preliminary studies on In Vitro clonal propagation of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez del Castillo Amparo

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de obtener in vitro plántulas de mora (Rubus glaucus L. que permitan adelantar la micropropagación de la especie, se obtuvieron yemas axilares activas de plantas de mora cultivadas en invernadero. Dichos explantes fueron llevados a" tubo de ensayo, despuésde eliminar primordios
    foliares más'externos. Se encontró que una inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5% por cinco minutos dio el mejor resultado para desinfección: concentraciones y tiempos mayores no promueven supervivencia del explante. En segundotérmino sedefinió el uso del mejor antioxidante, ya que se detectó un proceso de oxidación generalizado desde el inicio del cultivo in vitro. Al probar varios antioxidantes y clases de sustratos se determinó como el mejor antioxidante el ácido ascórbico (100 ppm adicionado a la solución nutritiva y como mejor sustrato el líquido sobre papel. Se realizaron ensayos con el objeto de obtener un balance hormonal óptimo. Se probó el efecto de Kinetina y la BAP en diferentes concentraciones adicionadas a un medio básico MS suplementado con ANA (0,1 ppm; calificando desarrollo de ptántula, número de follolos y presenciade callo; se determinó la BAP (2ppm como responsable del mejor resultado. En el siguiente ensayo se probó interacción citoqulninagiberelina; los mejores resultados se obtuvieron
    con AG3 (1ppm y BAP (2ppm. Posteriormente se planteó un ensayo con el objeto de obtener tallos verdaderos y brotes múltiples, para lo cual se quiso probar AlA en interacción con las hormonas anteriormente probadas, con concentraciones de AlA de 0.1 ppm, BAP (2ppm y AG3 (1ppm obteniendo como resultado de esta interacción plántulas óptimas para micropropagación. Los datos de la valoración de desarrollo de las plántulas, brotes múltiples, tallo verdadero, número de folíolos, presencia o no de callos, presencia o ausencia de raíces, fueron analizados estadísticamente con base en un diseño completamente al

  9. Duurzame Ontwikkeling door Collectief Bewonersinitiatief. Leidraad voor professionals om bewonersgroepen aan de duurzaamheidsopgave te verbinden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Sanders

    2014-08-01

    Promoting Renewable Energy’ ( SDE emerged during this period and the subsequent ‘National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth’ (hereinafter called the ‘Energy Agreement’ (Ministry EZ, 2013 which are focusing on the achievement of the national goals for renewable energy emphasizing on citizen participation and initiative. However, in practice there is no breakthrough in this field: the inventory of ‘joint residents initiative’ for ‘renewable energy’ conducted in 2012 showed that only 0.2 % of Dutch households are involved. This result is consistent with the conceptual model of the ‘Transition Theory‘ ( Rotmans, 2003 (Rogers 2003. According to this model- based approach for the introduction of renewable energy innovations only 2 to 3% of the population of the ‘innovation type’ would like to participate in new developments. This could increase to 15% if the group described as ‘early adopters ‘ would participate as well. As such it will be necessary to further research the possibilities of stimulating sustainable development through ‘joint residents initiatives’. Sustainable development according to the approach of the UN Brundtland Commission (1987, includes both a physical as well a social and sustainable developments places in a durable context: ‘the developments that meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations.’ This would require a perfect and sustainable balance of ecological, economic and social interests. Within an urban environment, the restructuring activities (technical quality, the quality of living and quality of life in neighbourhoods and districts, social problem solving (how people interact in social cohesion and sustainability challenges (environmental, energy -related as well as the sustainability challenge (now and in the future are to be the most timely and urgent. The relationships, described by Brundtland between physical, social and sustainable, laid the groundwork to involve the knowledge

  10. From the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2005-09-01

    philosophy. They indicate in their paper that “reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centers. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners”. The twelfth article is given a place from Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. Authors are discuses in their article for “students’ perceptions and attitudes towards distance education based on their gender, school types attended, age and access to educational technology such as computer and internet. This paper also describes the specific program used by the faculty of Law at Akdeniz University, Turkey”. And, the last article which is thirteenth one about is “Communication Barriers: A Study of Eastern Mediterranean University Students’ and Teachers’ of Online Program and Courses" from Nor then Cyprus and Turkey. The authors are Dr. Isman and Res. Ass. Fahriye. They points out for the subject that “Therefore; multiple qualitative and quantitative research approaches under mixed approach are used to be aware of communication barriers in online context and make participants to revamp the system by eliminating the weaknesses of the existing system and adapting to new trends that teachers and students have experienced”. Two book reviews were on “Case Studies in Knowledge Management”, edited by Murray Jennex Hersley, published by Idea Group, in April