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Sample records for helium rydberg states

  1. Stark effect in Rydberg states of helium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaije, C.T.W.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis, which deals with the effect of an electric field up to moderate field strengths on atoms with two valence electrons outside closed shells, in casu helium and barium, contains chapter in which the linear Stark effect in the 1 snp 1, 3 p Rydberg states of helium (n around 40) has been studied in a CW laser-atomic beam experiment. The evolution of the angular momentum manifolds into the n-mixing regime was followed and avoided level crossings were observed. Stark manifolds were also calculated by diagonalization of the complete energy matrix in the presence of an electric field. It turned out to be necessary to include up to five n-values in the calculations already at moderate values of the field to reproduce the data within the experimental accuracy (a few MHz), especially in the regime of the avoided crossings. (author). 147 refs.; 30 figs.; 8 tabs

  2. Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouillard, F.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter considers the formation of Rydberg atoms; their radiative decay; their behavior in electric and electromagnetic fields; and their collisions with atoms and ions. Discusses electron capture into high excited states; laser excitation of Rydberg states; Stark shift and Stark mixing; field ionization; ionization in oscillating fields; thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms; fast collisions of Rydberg atoms; n-changing collisions; and charge exchange. Points out that a large amount of experimental work has been done on collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral perturbers at thermal energies, and most of it concerns the destruction of Rydberg alkali atoms in collisions with rare gases

  3. Excitation of helium Rydberg states and doubly excited resonances in strong extreme ultraviolet fields: Full-dimensional quantum dynamics using exponentially tempered Gaussian basis sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Šmydke, Jan; Civiš, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2013), s. 104314 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Gaussian distribution * helium * oscillator strengths * quantum chemistry * rotational states * Rydberg states * two-photon processes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2013

  4. Lithium atoms on helium nanodroplets: Rydberg series and ionization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Günter; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic excitation spectrum of lithium atoms residing on the surface of helium nanodroplets is presented and analyzed employing a Rydberg-Ritz approach. Utilizing resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy, two different Rydberg series have been identified: one assigned to the nS(Σ) series and the other with predominantly nP(Π) character. For high Rydberg states, which have been resolved up to n = 13, the surrounding helium effectively screens the valence electron from the Li ion core, as indicated by the apparent red-shift of Li transitions and lowered quantum defects on the droplet with respect to their free atom counterparts. For low n states, the screening effect is weakened and the prevailing repulsive interaction gives rise to strongly broadened and blue-shifted transitions. The red-shifts originate from the polarization of nearby He atoms by the positive Li ion core. As a consequence of this effect, the ionization threshold is lowered by 116 ± 10 cm-1 for Li on helium droplets with a radius of about 40 Å. Upon single-photon ionization, heavy complexes corresponding to Li ions attached to intact helium droplets are detected. We conclude that ionization close to the on-droplet ionization threshold triggers a dynamic process in which the Li ion core undergoes a transition from a surface site into the droplet.

  5. Two electron Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the study of two-electron Rydberg atoms. With Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), there is a technique for characterizing a spectra in terms of a small number of parameters. A survey of some important effects specific to two-electon Rydberg states, using primarily the alkaline earth atoms for examples, is made. The remainder of the paper deals with a discussion of the electron-electron interaction, including some of the basic points of MQDT. Energy exchange between two electrons is also addressed

  6. Trojan wavepackets in helium - by core-Rydberg interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinski, M.; Eberly, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The authors exhibit the existence of core-induced shape invariant wave packets in helium analogous to the Trojan wave packets predicted for hydrogen. They show that the core dipole moment oscillating with the Rabi frequency in the presence of a laser field will cause both radical and angular confinement of an outer Rydberg electron moving around a nearly circular orbit if the parameters of the orbit are properly chosen. They find the relation between the Rabi frequency of the core electron oscillations, laser field strength and the parameters of the Rydberg orbit of the outer electron

  7. Accurate values of polarizabilities from Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    From the theoretical point of view, there are several properties of Rydberg states which are of interest, interaction of Rydberg atoms with each other, scattering of electrons from Rydberg atoms, interaction of Rydberg atoms with external electromagnetic fields, etc. In this paper the discussion is confined to the particular aspect: the deviations of the energies of Rydberg states from hydrogenic energies, their calculations and their implications from the properties of the core, i.e. the system that remains after Rydberg electron is removed

  8. Investigation by high resolution electron spectroscopy of the helium-like 3lnl' Rydberg series in double capture processes at low collision velocity: auto transfer to Rydberg states and electron stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Benhenni, M. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France)); Bachau, H.; Sanchez, I. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Lab. des Collisions Atomiques)

    1994-09-28

    A high resolution electron spectrometry of the (3lnl') Ryberg series populated in N[sup 7+] + He and Ne[sup 10+] + He collisions at 10 q keV, 10[sup o] allows us to observe, for the first time by this method, two post-collisional effects. First, it is found with nitrogen ions that, when n increases from n = 4 to 9, the L-distribution peaks more and more on the high angular momentum states. This is qualitatively understood as a Stark deformation of the Rydberg orbit by the Coulomb field of the receding ion. Also, in the n range where the double capture process populates symmetrical 4l4l' states (n>9), an enhancement of the intensities of the 3lnl' Rydberg lines is observed for both collisonal systems. This is thought to be a signature of the so-called auto transfer to Rydberg states effect. The transfer of population from the 3l4l' to the 3lnl' states is found to be favoured against a direct autoionization of these 4l4l' states into the n = 2 continuum. These experimental findings together with preliminary spectroscopic calculations concerning the configuration interaction of the Ne[sup 8+] (4l4l') states with the Ne[sup 8+](3lnl') Rydberg series are also discussed within the context of the electron stabilization which follows a double capture. (Author).

  9. Investigation by high resolution electron spectroscopy of the helium-like 3lnl' Rydberg series in double capture processes at low collision velocity: auto transfer to Rydberg states and electron stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Benhenni, M.; Bachau, H.; Sanchez, I.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution electron spectrometry of the (3lnl') Ryberg series populated in N 7+ + He and Ne 10+ + He collisions at 10 q keV, 10 o allows us to observe, for the first time by this method, two post-collisional effects. First, it is found with nitrogen ions that, when n increases from n = 4 to 9, the L-distribution peaks more and more on the high angular momentum states. This is qualitatively understood as a Stark deformation of the Rydberg orbit by the Coulomb field of the receding ion. Also, in the n range where the double capture process populates symmetrical 4l4l' states (n>9), an enhancement of the intensities of the 3lnl' Rydberg lines is observed for both collisonal systems. This is thought to be a signature of the so-called auto transfer to Rydberg states effect. The transfer of population from the 3l4l' to the 3lnl' states is found to be favoured against a direct autoionization of these 4l4l' states into the n = 2 continuum. These experimental findings together with preliminary spectroscopic calculations concerning the configuration interaction of the Ne 8+ (4l4l') states with the Ne 8+ (3lnl') Rydberg series are also discussed within the context of the electron stabilization which follows a double capture. (Author)

  10. Semiclassical calculation of ionisation rate for Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The ionisation of Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field above the classical ionisation threshold has been examined using the semiclassical method, with particular emphasis on discussing the influence of the core scattering on the escape dynamics of electrons. The results show that the Rydberg helium atoms ionise by emitting a train of electron pulses. Unlike the case of the ionisation of Rydberg hydrogen atom in parallel electric and magnetic fields, where the pulses of the electron are caused by the external magnetic field, the pulse trains for Rydberg helium atoms are created through core scattering. Each peak in the ionisation rate corresponds to the contribution of one core-scattered combination trajectory. This fact further illustrates that the ionic core scattering leads to the chaotic property of the Rydberg helium atom in external fields. Our studies provide a simple explanation for the escape dynamics in the ionisation of nonhydrogenic atoms in external fields. (atomic and molecular physics)

  11. Metastability and Rydberg states of triatomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.

    1991-01-01

    The np,nd and nf Rydberg series of H 3 have been studied by one- or two-photon excitation from the lowest metastable state of H 3 :B2p 2 A 2 ''. The lifetime of the metastable state has been measured and the influence of an external electric field on the Rydberg states has been studied under both aspects of dynamics (field-ionization and field-induced predissociation) and structure (Strak effect)

  12. Autoionizing process of double rydberg states in atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X. Y.; Huang, W.; Xu, C. B.; Xue, P.; Chen, D. Y.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the autoionization distribution of penetrating double Rydberg (DR) states NLnl(N< n;L,l<4) experimentally in calcium by using five-laser resonance excitation and sequential ionization with a pulsed and a strong constant electric field, as well as theoretically in helium by using the hyperspherical close-coupling method. We have found the DR states autoionize with the ejected electron having its average kinetic energy nearly independent of n but apparently related to the binding energy of the ionic Rydberg orbit NL. We have also discussed the dynamics in DR states and described two types of autoionizing processes, i.e., 'penetration autoionization' and 'polarization autoionization' in DR states

  13. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  14. Autoionizing np Rydberg states of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, E.Y.; Helm, H.; Kachru, R.

    1989-01-01

    We report a study of the autoionizing np Rydberg states near the lowest ionization threshold of H 2 . Using resonant two-photon excitation, intermediate states in specific rotovibrational levels in the double well, E,F 1 Σ/sub g/ + states are prepared. Then, a second, tunable laser is used to photoionize via excitation of the np Rydberg states. Because of the stepwise laser excitation scheme employed in our experiment the photoionization occurs from states with vibrational wave functions very similar to those of the H 2 + core. As a consequence, the autoionizing states appear as nearly symmetric resonances, rather than the highly asymmetric Beutler-Fano profiles observed from the direct photoexcitation from the ground state of H 2 . Our experiments show that the J = 1 np states are broader than the J = 3 np states converging to the same limit, suggesting that the two states autoionize into the epsilon-cp and epsilon-cf continuum, respectively. We compare our observations with a theoretical analysis using a multichannel quantum defect theory. The J = 1 states reveal the profound effect caused by the perturbation of the autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the lowest vibrational and rotational state of H 2 + by low-n states converging to higher vibrational states of the H 2 -ion core

  15. Quasi-free scattering in the ionization and destruction of hydrogen and helium Rydberg atoms in collision with neutral targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen and helium Rydberg atoms (H** and He**), with principal quantum number n ranging from 10 to 20, have been used in collision experiments from 1 to 40 keV/amu. These were produced by electron capture in a charge-exchange cell and analyzed by ionization in a modulated electric field combined with phase-sensitive detection. Three experiments have been conducted. In the first, spectra of the band of H and He Rydberg states from electron capture were produced by the modulated field technique and compared. Considerable differences were found between the two. Both types of spectra were analyzed with calculations of Stark energies and field ionization rates. Attempts were made to simulate the spectra using this information and some assumptions about the state distribution produced in the electron capture. In the second experiment, destruction cross sections for H** incident on N 2 , Ar, and SF 6 were measured. This was a further test of the independent-particle model for Rydberg atom scattering; in this model, the atom is destroyed by quasi-free scattering of either the ionic core or the outer electron. Already proven valid for n = 20-35, this has been extended to n as low as 10, as measurements with n = 10 showed full compliance with the model. In the third experiment, not only destruction cross sections but also ionization cross sections for H** and He** incident on Xe, AR, and N 2 were measured. The ionization measurement is a more sensitive test of the quasi-free scattering of the Rydberg electron. This was especially important for the Xe and Ar targets, which exhibits a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in their free-electron scattering cross sections. The quasi-free Rydberg electron should reproduce these data. Unmistakable deviations from the quasi-free prediction were seen in Xe and N 2 but not in Ar. This represents the first measurement of a breakdown of the Independent Particle Model for fast Rydberg atom scattering

  16. Theoretical Analysis of Rydberg and Autoionizing State Spectra of Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Fei Lv; Ruohong Li; Feng-Dong Jia; Xiao-Kang Li; Jens Lassen; Zhi-Ping Zhong

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the Rydberg and autoionization Rydberg spectra of antimony (Sb) from first principles by relativistic multichannel theory within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory.Our calculation can be used to classify and assign the atomic states described in recently reported three Rydberg series and four autoionizing states.The perturbation effects on line intensity,variation and line profile are discussed.Assignments of the perturber states and autoionizing states are presented.

  17. Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branden, D B; Juhasz, T; Mahlokozera, T; Vesa, C; Wilson, R O; Zheng, M; Tate, D A; Kortyna, A

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the radiative lifetimes of ns, np and nd Rydberg states of rubidium in the range 28 ≤ n ≤ 45. To enable long-lived states to be measured, our experiment uses slow-moving (∼100 μK) 85 Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Two experimental techniques have been adopted to reduce random and systematic errors. First, a narrow-bandwidth pulsed laser is used to excite the target nl Rydberg state, resulting in minimal shot-to-shot variation in the initial state population. Second, we monitor the target state population as a function of time delay from the laser pulse using a short-duration, millimetre-wave pulse that is resonant with a one- or two-photon transition to a higher energy 'monitor state', n'l'. We then selectively field ionize the monitor state, and detect the resulting electrons with a micro-channel plate. This signal is an accurate mirror of the nl target state population, and is uncontaminated by contributions from other states which are populated by black body radiation. Our results are generally consistent with other recent experimental results obtained using a method which is more prone to systematic error, and are also in excellent agreement with theory.

  18. Rydberg-Stark states of Positronium for atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A M; Cooper, B S; Deller, A; Hogan, S D; Wall, T E; Cassidy, D B

    2015-01-01

    Positronium atoms were produced in Rydberg states by means of a two-step optical excitation process (1s→2p→nd/ns). The n = 11 Rydberg-Stark manifold has been studied using different laser polarizations providing greater control over the electric dipole moment. (paper)

  19. Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauger, S; Millen, J; Jones, M P A

    2007-01-01

    We report on the all-optical detection of Rydberg states in an effusive atomic beam of strontium atoms using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Using narrow-linewidth CW lasers we obtain an EIT linewidth of 5 MHz. To illustrate the high spectroscopic resolution offered by this method, we have measured isotope shifts of the 5s18d 1 D 2 and 5s19s 1 S 0 Rydberg states. This technique could be applied to high-resolution, non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold Rydberg gases and plasmas. (fast track communication)

  20. Microwave multiphoton excitation of helium Rydberg atoms: The analogy with atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Water, W.; van Leeuwen, K.A.H.; Yoakum, S.; Galvez, E.J.; Moorman, L.; Bergeman, T.; Sauer, B.E.; Koch, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    We study multiphoton transitions in helium Rydberg atoms subjected to a microwave electric field of fixed frequency but varying intensity. For each principal quantum number in the range n=25--32, the n 3 S to n 3 (L>2), n=25--32, transition probability exhibits very sharp structures as a function of the field amplitude. Their positions could be reproduced precisely using a Floquet Hamiltonian for the interaction between atom and field. Their shapes are determined by the transients of field turn-on and turn-off in a way that makes a close analogy with the theory of slow atomic collisions

  1. D-state Rydberg electrons interacting with ultracold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, Alexander Thorsten

    2014-10-02

    This thesis was established in the field of ultracold atoms where the interaction of highly excited D-state electrons with rubidium atoms was examined. This work is divided into two main parts: In the first part we study D-state Rydberg molecules resulting from the binding of a D-state Rydberg electron to a ground state rubidium atom. We show that we can address specific rovibrational molecular states by changing our laser detuning and thus create perfectly aligned axial or antialigned toroidal molecules, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Furthermore the influence of the electric field on the Rydberg molecules was investigated, creating novel states which show a different angular dependence and alignment. In the second part of this thesis we excite single D-state Rydberg electrons in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We study the lifetime of these Rydberg electrons, the change of the shape of our condensate and the atom losses in the condensate due to this process. Moreover, we observe quadrupolar shape oscillations of the whole condensate created by the consecutive excitation of Rydberg atoms and compare all results to previous S-state measurements. In the outlook we propose a wide range of further experiments including the proposal of imaging a single electron wavefunction by the imprint of its orbit into the Bose-Einstein condensate.

  2. Entanglement of two ground state neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Browaeys, Antoine; Evellin, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We report on our recent progress in trapping and manipulation of internal states of single neutral rubidium atoms in optical tweezers. We demonstrate the creation of an entangled state between two ground state atoms trapped in separate tweezers using the effect of Rydberg blockade. The quality...... of the entanglement is measured using global rotations of the internal states of both atoms....

  3. Radio-frequency-modulated Rydberg states in a vapor cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. A.; Anderson, D. A.; Raithel, G.

    2016-05-01

    We measure strong radio-frequency (RF) electric fields using rubidium Rydberg atoms prepared in a room-temperature vapor cell as field sensors. Electromagnetically induced transparency is employed as an optical readout. We RF-modulate the 60{{{S}}}1/2 and 58{{{D}}}5/2 Rydberg states with 50 and 100 MHz fields, respectively. For weak to moderate RF fields, the Rydberg levels become Stark-shifted, and sidebands appear at even multiples of the driving frequency. In high fields, the adjacent hydrogenic manifold begins to intersect the shifted levels, providing rich spectroscopic structure suitable for precision field measurements. A quantitative description of strong-field level modulation and mixing of S and D states with hydrogenic states is provided by Floquet theory. Additionally, we estimate the shielding of DC electric fields in the interior of the glass vapor cell.

  4. Correlated Photon Emission from Multiatom Rydberg Dark States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pritchard, J.D.; Adams, C.S.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We consider three-level atoms driven by two resonant light fields in a ladder scheme where the upper level is a highly excited Rydberg state. We show that the dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg excited atoms prevents the formation of single particle dark states and leads to strongly corre...... correlated photon pairs from atoms separated by distances large compared to the emission wavelength. For a pair of atoms, this enables realization of an efficient photon-pair source with on average one pair every 30 μs....

  5. Formation of Rydberg states in fast ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.; Kanter, E.P.; Vager, Z.; Gemmell, D.; Koch, P.; Mariani, D.; Van de Water, W.

    1983-01-01

    Previous results from beam-foil spectroscopy and from experiments using field ionization techniques have shown that a significant fraction of fast ionic projectiles traversing solid targets can be excited to high Rydberg states. We report an experimental investigation of Rydberg states formed in atomic and molecular ion beams (MeV) emerging from thin-carbon foils. Different field arrangements, including μ-wave fields, have been applied to study the effects of field ionization. The yields of electrons produced via field ionization are compared for different projectile atoms and molecules

  6. Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Gaëtan, Alpha; Evellin, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state 58d3/2 using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as are experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between...

  7. Stimulated adiabatic passage in a dissipative ensemble of atoms with strong Rydberg-state interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, David; Molmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg exci...... for deterministic creation and, possibly, extraction of Rydberg atoms or ions one at a time. The sympathetic monitoring via decay of ancilla particles may find wider applications for state preparation and probing of interactions in dissipative many-body systems.......We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg...

  8. Auto transfer to Rydberg states during ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachau, H.; Harel, C.; Barat, M.; Roncin, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.; Benhenni, M.

    1993-01-01

    Electron capture by slow multiply charged ions colliding on rare-gas targets is known to populate highly excited states of the projectile. On the basis of experimental measurement of energy and angle differential cross-sections we have shown that capture to a resonant doubly excited state may lead to Autoionizing Double Capture (ADC) as well as to True Double Capture (TDC). In this model TDC appears as a two step post-collisional process, the state populated by the collision decays to (or delutes into) a dense adjacent Rydberg series, followed by radiative deexcitation of the inner electron of the (3,n) Rydberg states. We report here new experimental observations in electron spectra measured in N 7+ +He. Auto transfer to Rydber states has also important consequences on the determination of the lifetime of the autoionizing states, some discrepancies between theoretical width values for low N 5+ (4,4) resonant states will be discussed and partially resolved

  9. Rydberg energies using excited state density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-L.; Wu Qin; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2008-01-01

    We utilize excited state density functional theory (eDFT) to study Rydberg states in atoms. We show both analytically and numerically that semilocal functionals can give quite reasonable Rydberg energies from eDFT, even in cases where time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) fails catastrophically. We trace these findings to the fact that in eDFT the Kohn-Sham potential for each state is computed using the appropriate excited state density. Unlike the ground state potential, which typically falls off exponentially, the sequence of excited state potentials has a component that falls off polynomially with distance, leading to a Rydberg-type series. We also address the rigorous basis of eDFT for these systems. Perdew and Levy have shown using the constrained search formalism that every stationary density corresponds, in principle, to an exact stationary state of the full many-body Hamiltonian. In the present context, this means that the excited state DFT solutions are rigorous as long as they deliver the minimum noninteracting kinetic energy for the given density. We use optimized effective potential techniques to show that, in some cases, the eDFT Rydberg solutions appear to deliver the minimum kinetic energy because the associated density is not pure state v-representable. We thus find that eDFT plays a complementary role to constrained DFT: The former works only if the excited state density is not the ground state of some potential while the latter applies only when the density is a ground state density.

  10. Systematics in Rydberg state excitations for ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Jensen, K.; Petersen, N.B.; Veje, E.

    1976-01-01

    Rydberg state excitations in the Ne + , Mg + -He collisions have been studied in the projectile energy range 10-75 keV by means of optical spectrometry in a search for systematic trends. The relative excitation cross sections for levels of a Rydberg term series are found to follow a general (nsup(x))sup(P) behaviour with P < approximately -3 varying with collision energy and particles, regardless of whether the excited state population results from direct excitation, single electron transfer, or double electron transfer. At higher collision energies P is approximately -3 as predicted by theory. Polarization of the emitted line radiation indicates that there is no general rule for the relative excitation of the different magnetic substates of the same level. A statistical distribution of excitation is found for levels within the same term when the fine structure splitting is small. (Auth.)

  11. Alkali Rydberg states in electromagnetic fields: computational physics meets experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.

    2001-11-01

    We study highly excited hydrogen and alkali atoms ('Rydberg states') under the influence of a strong microwave field. As the external frequency is comparable to the highly excited electron's classical Kepler frequency, the external field induces a strong coupling of many different quantum mechanical energy levels and finally leads to the ionization of the outer electron. While periodically driven atomic hydrogen can be seen as a paradigm of quantum chaotic motion in an open (decaying) quantum system, the presence of the non-hydrogenic atomic core - which unavoidably has to be treated quantum mechanically - entails some complications. Indeed, laboratory experiments show clear differences in the ionization dynamics of microwave driven hydrogen and non-hydrogenic Rydberg states. In the first part of this thesis, a machinery is developed that allows for numerical experiments on alkali and hydrogen atoms under precisely identical laboratory conditions. Due to the high density of states in the parameter regime typically explored in laboratory experiments, such simulations are only possible with the most advanced parallel computing facilities, in combination with an efficient parallel implementation of the numerical approach. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the results of the numerical experiment. We identify and describe significant differences and surprising similarities in the ionization dynamics of atomic hydrogen as compared to alkali atoms, and give account of the relevant frequency scales that distinguish hydrogenic from non-hydrogenic ionization behavior. Our results necessitate a reinterpretation of the experimental results so far available, and solve the puzzle of a distinct ionization behavior of periodically driven hydrogen and non-hydrogenic Rydberg atoms - an unresolved question for about one decade. Finally, microwave-driven Rydberg states will be considered as prototypes of open, complex quantum systems that exhibit a complicated temporal decay

  12. Asymptotics of Rydberg states for the hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotics of Rydberg states, i.e., highly excited bound states of the hydrogen atom Hamiltonian, and various expectations involving these states are investigated. We show that suitable linear combinations of these states, appropriately rescaled and regarded as functions either in momentum space or configuration space, are highly concentrated on classical momentum space or configuration space Kepler orbits respectively, for large quantum numbers. Expectations of momentum space or configuration space functions with respect to these states are related to time-averages of these functions over Kepler orbits. (orig.)

  13. Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.

  14. Microwave spectroscopy of the 1 s n p P3J fine structure of high Rydberg states in 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, A.; Hogan, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    The 1 s n p P3J fine structure of high Rydberg states in helium has been measured by microwave spectroscopy of single-photon transitions from 1 s n s S31 levels in pulsed supersonic beams. For states with principal quantum numbers in the range from n =34 to 36, the J =0 →2 and J =1 →2 fine structure intervals were both observed. For values of n between 45 and 51 only the larger J =0 →2 interval was resolved. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Detailed characterization of residual uncanceled electric and magnetic fields in the experimental apparatus and calculations of the Stark and Zeeman structures of the Rydberg states in weak fields were used to quantify systematic contributions to the uncertainties in the measurements.

  15. Jahn-Teller effect in Rydberg series: A multi-state vibronic coupling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staib, A.; Domcke, W.; Sobolewski, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two simple limiting cases of Jahn-Teller (JT) coupling in Rydberg states of polyatomic molecules are considered, namely (i) JT coupling in Rydberg orbitals as well as in the ionization continuum (nondegenerate ion core, degenerate Rydberg series) and (ii) JT coupling in the ion core (degenerate ion core, nondegenerate Rydberg series). For both models simple and efficient algorithms for the computation of spectra (dynamical JT effect) are developed. The orbital JT effect is shown to represent a novel type of multi-state vibronic coupling, giving rise to interesting spectroscopic phenomena, among them resonant inter-Rydberg perturbations and JT induced autoionization. Particular attention is paid to the demonstration of the characteristic spectroscopic signatures of the two types of JT coupling in Rydberg states. (orig.)

  16. Rydberg states of chloroform studied by VUV photoabsorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; D’Souza, R.; Jagatap, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    The VUV photoabsorption spectra of CHCl 3 and CDCl 3 in the energy region 6.2–11.8 eV (50,000–95,000 cm −1 ) have been investigated using synchrotron radiation from the Indus-1 source. Rydberg series converging to the first four ionization limits at 11.48, 11.91, 12.01 and 12.85 eV corresponding to excitation from the 1a 2 , 4a 1 , 4e, 3e, orbitals of CHCl 3 respectively are identified and analyzed. Quantum defect values are observed to be consistent with excitation from the chlorine lone pair orbitals. Vibrational progressions observed in the region of 72,500–76,500 cm −1 have been reassigned to ν 3 and combination modes of ν 3 +ν 6 belonging to the 1a 2 →4p transition in contrast to earlier studies where they were assigned to a ν 3 progression superimposed on the 3e→4p Rydberg transition. The assignments are further confirmed based on isotopic substitution studies on CDCl 3 whose VUV photoabsorption spectrum is reported here for the first time. The frequencies of the ν 3 and ν 6 modes in the 4p Rydberg state of CHCl 3 (CDCl 3 ) are proposed to be ∼454 (409) cm −1 and∼130 (129) cm −1 respectively based on the vibronic analysis. DFT calculations of neutral and ionic ground state vibrational frequencies support the vibronic analysis. Experimental spectrum is found to be in good agreement with that predicted by TDDFT calculations. This work presents a consolidated analysis of the VUV photoabsorption spectrum of chloroform. -- Highlights: •VUV photoabsorption spectra of CHCl 3 and CDCl 3 studied using synchrotron radiation. •Quantum defect analysis of Rydberg series converging to first four ionization limits. •Vibronic bands in 72,500–76,500 cm −1 region assigned to 1a 2 →4p Rydberg transition. •Vibrational progressions assigned to ν 3 and ν 3 +ν 6 using ab initio calculations. •Excellent agreement of TDDFT vertical excited energies with experimental spectrum

  17. High-fidelity Rydberg quantum gate via a two-atom dark state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, David; Motzoi, Felix; Saffman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We propose a two-qubit gate for neutral atoms in which one of the logical state components adiabatically follows a two-atom dark state formed by the laser coupling to a Rydberg state and a strong, resonant dipole-dipole exchange interaction between two Rydberg excited atoms. Our gate exhibits...

  18. Auto transfer to Rydberg states during ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachau, H.; Harel, C. (Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques, Unite Propre de Recherche 260 du CNRS, Universite Bordeaux I, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)); Barat, M.; Roncin, P. (Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, Unite associee 281 du CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, Batiment 351, 91405 Orsay (France)); Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.; Benhenni, M. (IRSAMC, Unite associee 770 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France))

    1993-06-05

    Electron capture by slow multiply charged ions colliding on rare-gas targets is known to populate highly excited states of the projectile. On the basis of experimental measurement of energy and angle differential cross-sections we have shown that capture to a resonant doubly excited state may lead to Autoionizing Double Capture (ADC) as well as to True Double Capture (TDC). In this model TDC appears as a two step post-collisional process, the state populated by the collision decays to (or delutes into) a dense adjacent Rydberg series, followed by radiative deexcitation of the inner electron of the (3,n) Rydberg states. We report here new experimental observations in electron spectra measured in [ital N][sup 7+]+[ital He]. Auto transfer to Rydber states has also important consequences on the determination of the lifetime of the autoionizing states, some discrepancies between theoretical width values for low [ital N][sup 5+](4,4) resonant states will be discussed and partially resolved.

  19. Evidence of circular Rydberg states in beam-foil experiments: Role of the surface wake field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puri, Nitin K.; Kumar, Pravin; Nandi, T.

    2017-12-01

    We have employed the concept of the surface wake field to model the formation of the circular Rydberg states in the beam-foil experiments. The experimental studies of atomic excitation processes show the formation of circular Rydberg states either in the bulk of the foil or at the exit surface, and the mechanism is explained by several controversial theories. The present model is based on the interesting fact that the charge state fraction as well as the surface wake field depend on the foil thickness and it resolves a long-standing discrepancy on the mechanism of the formation of circular Rydberg states. The influence of exit layers is twofold. Initially, the high angular momentum Rydberg states are produced in the last layers of the foil by the Stark switching due to the bulk wake field and finally, they are transferred to the circular Rydberg states as a single multiphoton process due to the influence of the surface wake field.

  20. Rydberg states of chloroform studied by VUV photoabsorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; D'Souza, R.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2013-11-01

    The VUV photoabsorption spectra of CHCl3 and CDCl3 in the energy region 6.2-11.8 eV (50,000-95,000 cm-1) have been investigated using synchrotron radiation from the Indus-1 source. Rydberg series converging to the first four ionization limits at 11.48, 11.91, 12.01 and 12.85 eV corresponding to excitation from the 1a2, 4a1, 4e, 3e, orbitals of CHCl3 respectively are identified and analyzed. Quantum defect values are observed to be consistent with excitation from the chlorine lone pair orbitals. Vibrational progressions observed in the region of 72,500-76,500 cm-1 have been reassigned to ν3 and combination modes of ν3+ν6 belonging to the 1a2→4p transition in contrast to earlier studies where they were assigned to a ν3 progression superimposed on the 3e→4p Rydberg transition. The assignments are further confirmed based on isotopic substitution studies on CDCl3 whose VUV photoabsorption spectrum is reported here for the first time. The frequencies of the ν3 and ν6 modes in the 4p Rydberg state of CHCl3 (CDCl3) are proposed to be ~454 (409) cm-1 and~130 (129) cm-1 respectively based on the vibronic analysis. DFT calculations of neutral and ionic ground state vibrational frequencies support the vibronic analysis. Experimental spectrum is found to be in good agreement with that predicted by TDDFT calculations. This work presents a consolidated analysis of the VUV photoabsorption spectrum of chloroform.

  1. Some MCHF results for Rydberg States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.F.; Hansen, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method (MCHF) was applied to a study of the 3s nd, n = 4 to 8, states in the 3 F 0 series of Al II with the well-known 3p 3d perturber. Procedures were devised to stabilize the calculation in the presence of strong interactions with a perturber and facilitate the calculation for a series. Basis states of the type 3s nf, pd, df, and pg were included. Excellent agreement was achieved with the statistically weighted observed energy relative to the ionization limit, except in the vicinity of the perturber. These calculations are compared with MQDT results of other authors

  2. Rabi Oscillations between Ground and Rydberg States with Dipole-Dipole Atomic Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T. A.; Urban, E.; Henage, T.; Isenhower, L.; Yavuz, D. D.; Walker, T. G.; Saffman, M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations of small numbers of 87 Rb atoms between ground and Rydberg states with n≤43. Coherent population oscillations are observed for single atoms, while the presence of two or more atoms decoheres the oscillations. We show that these observations are consistent with van der Waals interactions of Rydberg atoms

  3. Theory of long-range interactions for Rydberg states attached to hyperfine-split cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robicheaux, F.; Booth, D. W.; Saffman, M.

    2018-02-01

    The theory is developed for one- and two-atom interactions when the atom has a Rydberg electron attached to a hyperfine-split core state. This situation is relevant for some of the rare-earth and alkaline-earth atoms that have been proposed for experiments on Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. For the rare-earth atoms, the core electrons can have a very substantial total angular momentum J and a nonzero nuclear spin I . In the alkaline-earth atoms there is a single (s ) core electron whose spin can couple to a nonzero nuclear spin for odd isotopes. The resulting hyperfine splitting of the core state can lead to substantial mixing between the Rydberg series attached to different thresholds. Compared to the unperturbed Rydberg series of the alkali-metal atoms, the series perturbations and near degeneracies from the different parity states could lead to qualitatively different behavior for single-atom Rydberg properties (polarizability, Zeeman mixing and splitting, etc.) as well as Rydberg-Rydberg interactions (C5 and C6 matrices).

  4. Gaussian basis sets for highly excited and resonance states of helium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Šmydke, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 2 (2013), 024105 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : approximation theory * Gaussian processes * ground states * helium neutral atoms * optimisation * resonant states * Rydberg states Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2013

  5. Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, S.; Rost, J.-M.

    2018-02-01

    We review Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of a few Rydberg atoms exhibiting energy transport through collective eigenstates, considering isolated atoms or assemblies embedded within clouds of cold ground-state atoms. We classify Rydberg aggregates, and provide an overview of their possible applications as quantum simulators for phenomena from chemical or biological physics. Our main focus is on flexible Rydberg aggregates, in which atomic motion is an essential feature. In these, simultaneous control over Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, external trapping and electronic energies, allows Born-Oppenheimer surfaces for the motion of the entire aggregate to be tailored as desired. This is illustrated with theory proposals towards the demonstration of joint motion and excitation transport, conical intersections and non-adiabatic effects. Additional flexibility for quantum simulations is enabled by the use of dressed dipole-dipole interactions or the embedding of the aggregate in a cold gas or Bose-Einstein condensate environment. Finally we provide some guidance regarding the parameter regimes that are most suitable for the realization of either static or flexible Rydberg aggregates based on Li or Rb atoms. The current status of experimental progress towards enabling Rydberg aggregates is also reviewed.

  6. Contaminant-State Broadening Mechanism in a Driven Dissipative Rydberg System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, J. V.

    2017-04-01

    The strong interactions in Rydberg atoms make them an ideal system for the study of correlated many-body physics, both in the presence and absence of dissipation. Using such highly excited atomic states requires addressing challenges posed by the dense spectrum of Rydberg levels, the detrimental effects of spontaneous emission, and strong interactions. A full understanding of the scope and limitations of many Rydberg-based proposals requires simultaneously including these effects, which typically cannot be described by a mean-field treatment due to correlations in the quantum coherent and dissipative processes. We study a driven, dissipative system of Rydberg atoms in a 3D optical lattice, and observe substantial deviation from single-particle excitation rates, both on and off resonance. The observed broadened spectra cannot be explained by van der Waals interactions or a mean-field treatment of the system. Based on the magnitude of the broadening and the scaling with density and two-photon Rabi frequency, we attribute these effects to unavoidable blackbody-induced transitions to nearby Rydberg states of opposite parity, which have large, resonant dipole-dipole interactions with the state of interest. Even at low densities of Rydberg atoms, uncontrolled production of atoms in other states significantly modifies the energy levels of the remaining atoms. These off-diagonal exchange interactions result in complex many-body states of the system and have implications for off-resonant Rydberg dressing proposals. This work was partially supported by the ARL-CDQI program.

  7. Microwave spectroscopy of high-L Rydberg states of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Mark D.; Keele, Julie A.; Woods, Shannon L.; Lundeen, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    High-L non-penetrating Rydberg levels of nickel display a fine structure pattern consisting of six levels for each value of L. This pattern was studied recently with the optical RESIS technique, determining initial values of the quadrupole moment and polarizabilities of the ^2D5/2 ground state of Ni^+ [1]. Measurements are now in progress using the microwave RESIS technique [2], which promises much more precise measurements of the fine structure and of the related core properties, including the permanent hexadecapole moment.[4pt] [1] Julie A. Keele, et. al., to be published, Phys. Rev. A[0pt] [2] M.E. Hanni, et. al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 062510 (2008)

  8. Role of ion-pair states in the predissociation dynamics of Rydberg states of molecular iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Vangerow, J; Bogomolov, A S; Dozmorov, N V; Schomas, D; Stienkemeier, F; Baklanov, A V; Mudrich, M

    2016-07-28

    Using femtosecond pump-probe ion imaging spectroscopy, we establish the key role of I(+) + I(-) ion-pair (IP) states in the predissociation dynamics of molecular iodine I2 excited to Rydberg states. Two-photon excitation of Rydberg states lying above the lowest IP state dissociation threshold (1st tier) is found to be followed by direct parallel transitions into IP states of the 1st tier asymptotically correlating to a pair of I ions in their lowest states I(+)((3)P2) + I(-)((1)S0), of the 2nd tier correlating to I(+)((3)P0) + I(-)((1)S0), and of the 3rd tier correlating to I(+)((1)D2) + I(-)((1)S0). Predissociation via the 1st tier proceeds presumably with a delay of 1.6-1.7 ps which is close to the vibrational period in the 3rd tier state (3rd tier-mediated process). The 2nd tier IP state is concluded to be the main precursor for predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states proceeding with a characteristic time of 7-8 ps and giving rise to Rydberg atoms I(5s(2)5p(4)6s(1)). The channel generating I((2)P3/2) + I((2)P1/2) atoms with total kinetic energy corresponding to one-photon excitation is found to proceed via a pump - dump mechanism with dramatic change of angular anisotropy of this channel as compared with earlier nanosecond experiments.

  9. Proposal for the determination of nuclear masses by high-precision spectroscopy of Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wundt, B J; Jentschura, U D

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical treatment of Rydberg states in one-electron ions is facilitated by the virtual absence of the nuclear-size correction, and fundamental constants like the Rydberg constant may be in the reach of planned high-precision spectroscopic experiments. The dominant nuclear effect that shifts transition energies among Rydberg states therefore is due to the nuclear mass. As a consequence, spectroscopic measurements of Rydberg transitions can be used in order to precisely deduce nuclear masses. A possible application of this approach to hydrogen and deuterium, and hydrogen-like lithium and carbon is explored in detail. In order to complete the analysis, numerical and analytic calculations of the quantum electrodynamic self-energy remainder function for states with principal quantum number n = 5, ..., 8 and with angular momentum l = n - 1 and l = n - 2 are described (j = l +- 1/2).

  10. Proposal for the determination of nuclear masses by high-precision spectroscopy of Rydberg states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wundt, B J; Jentschura, U D [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0640 (United States)

    2010-06-14

    The theoretical treatment of Rydberg states in one-electron ions is facilitated by the virtual absence of the nuclear-size correction, and fundamental constants like the Rydberg constant may be in the reach of planned high-precision spectroscopic experiments. The dominant nuclear effect that shifts transition energies among Rydberg states therefore is due to the nuclear mass. As a consequence, spectroscopic measurements of Rydberg transitions can be used in order to precisely deduce nuclear masses. A possible application of this approach to hydrogen and deuterium, and hydrogen-like lithium and carbon is explored in detail. In order to complete the analysis, numerical and analytic calculations of the quantum electrodynamic self-energy remainder function for states with principal quantum number n = 5, ..., 8 and with angular momentum l = n - 1 and l = n - 2 are described (j = l {+-} 1/2).

  11. Rydberg states in a microwave field: regularity and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchleitner, A.

    1993-12-01

    We develop a theoretical formalism which provides a powerful tool for the detailed numerical analysis of the interaction of three-dimensional hydrogen atoms with an intense radiation field. The application of this approach to the microwave ionization of Rydberg states of hydrogen provides the most realistic numerical experiments ever made in this area. A thorough analysis of ionization signals and thresholds, of level dynamics and of the phase space projections of associated wave functions is provided for a one-dimensional model of the atom. The comparison to the ionization of three-dimensional atoms confirms the validity of the one-dimensional model for extended initial states and, hence, dynamical localization theory, as far as the ionization threshold is concerned. Three classes of three-dimensional initial states with distinct symmetries are identified and they appear to be more or less adapted to the symmetries of the eigenstates of the microwave problem. 'Scarred' wavefunctions of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom exposed to microwave field are shown. Finally, the dynamics of a circular state in a microwave and in an intense laser field are compared. (author)

  12. Self-interaction corrected density functional calculations of molecular Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur; Zhang, Yao; Weber, Peter M.; Jónsson, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the wave function and energy of Rydberg excited states of molecules. A good estimate of the Rydberg state orbital is obtained using ground state density functional theory including Perdew-Zunger self-interaction correction and an optimized effective potential. The total energy of the excited molecule is obtained using the Delta Self-Consistent Field method where an electron is removed from the highest occupied orbital and placed in the Rydberg orbital. Results are presented for the first few Rydberg states of NH 3 , H 2 O, H 2 CO, C 2 H 4 , and N(CH 3 ) 3 . The mean absolute error in the energy of the 33 molecular Rydberg states presented here is 0.18 eV. The orbitals are represented on a real space grid, avoiding the dependence on diffuse atomic basis sets. As in standard density functional theory calculations, the computational effort scales as NM 2 where N is the number of orbitals and M is the number of grid points included in the calculation. Due to the slow scaling of the computational effort with system size and the high level of parallelism in the real space grid approach, the method presented here makes it possible to estimate Rydberg electron binding energy in large molecules

  13. Analysis of imperfections in the coherent optical excitation of single atoms to Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Barredo, Daniel; Lienhard, Vincent; Browaeys, Antoine; Lahaye, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    We study experimentally various physical limitations and technical imperfections that lead to damping and finite contrast of optically driven Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states of a single atom. Finite contrast is due to preparation and detection errors, and we show how to model and measure them accurately. Part of these errors originates from the finite lifetime of Rydberg states, and we observe its n3 scaling with the principal quantum number n . To explain the damping of Rabi oscillations, we use simple numerical models taking into account independently measured experimental imperfections and show that the observed damping actually results from the accumulation of several small effects, each at the level of a few percent. We discuss prospects for improving the coherence of ground-Rydberg Rabi oscillations in view of applications in quantum simulation and quantum information processing with arrays of single Rydberg atoms.

  14. The l-mixing cross section of Rydberg states of atomic Rb and the scaling LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong; Chen Aiqiu; Li Baiwen

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of impulse approximate method, a kind of analytical wavefunctions based on a potential model was used to calculate the l mixing cross section of thermal collision of Rydberg states of atomic Rb with rare gas (He, Ne). The results were compared with the experimental results and other theoretical values. These results show that there exists a kind of scaling law for the l mixing cross section of Rydberg alkali atoms

  15. Fundamental constants and tests of theory in Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschura, Ulrich D; Mohr, Peter J; Tan, Joseph N; Wundt, Benedikt J

    2008-04-25

    A comparison of precision frequency measurements to quantum electrodynamics (QED) predictions for Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions can yield information on values of fundamental constants and test theory. With the results of a calculation of a key QED contribution reported here, the uncertainty in the theory of the energy levels is reduced to a level where such a comparison can yield an improved value of the Rydberg constant.

  16. Fundamental Constants and Tests of Theory in Rydberg States of Hydrogenlike Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentschura, Ulrich D.; Mohr, Peter J.; Tan, Joseph N.; Wundt, Benedikt J.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of precision frequency measurements to quantum electrodynamics (QED) predictions for Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions can yield information on values of fundamental constants and test theory. With the results of a calculation of a key QED contribution reported here, the uncertainty in the theory of the energy levels is reduced to a level where such a comparison can yield an improved value of the Rydberg constant

  17. Predissociation of high-lying Rydberg states of molecular iodine via ion-pair states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogomolov, Alexandr S. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institutskaya Str. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Grüner, Barbara; Mudrich, Marcel [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kochubei, Sergei A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, ac. Lavrent' yev ave., 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Baklanov, Alexey V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institutskaya Str. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    Velocity map imaging of the photofragments arising from two-photon photoexcitation of molecular iodine in the energy range 73 500–74 500 cm{sup −1} covering the bands of high-lying gerade Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g} has been applied. The ion signal was dominated by the atomic fragment ion I{sup +}. Up to 5 dissociation channels yielding I{sup +} ions with different kinetic energies were observed when the I{sub 2} molecule was excited within discrete peaks of Rydberg states and their satellites in this region. One of these channels gives rise to images of I{sup +} and I{sup −} ions with equal kinetic energy indicating predissociation of I{sub 2} via ion-pair states. The contribution of this channel was up to about 50% of the total I{sup +} signal. The four other channels correspond to predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states giving rise to excited iodine atoms providing I{sup +} ions by subsequent one-photon ionization by the same laser pulse. The ratio of these channels varied from peak to peak in the spectrum but their total ionic signal was always much higher than the signal of (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization of I{sub 2}, which was previously considered to be the origin of ionic signal in this spectral range. The first-tier E0{sub g}{sup +} and D{sup ′}2{sub g} ion-pair states are concluded to be responsible for predissociation of Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g}, respectively. Further predissociation of these ion-pair states via lower lying Rydberg states gives rise to excited I(5s{sup 2}5p{sup 4}6s{sup 1}) atoms responsible for major part of ion signal. The isotropic angular distribution of the photofragment recoil directions observed for all channels indicates that the studied Rydberg states are long-lived compared with the rotational period of the I{sub 2} molecule.

  18. Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookless, W.

    1980-12-01

    A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm -1 with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm -1 . The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy

  19. Cold Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. These include research on novel types of Rydberg molecules. Three types of molecules will be reviewed. Long-range, homonuclear Rydberg molecules, first predicted in [1] and observed in [2], are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a ground-state atom within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S- and P-wave triplet scattering. We use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom (in rubidium [3]). The hyperfine structure gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials for both low-L and high-L Rydberg molecules [3]. A classification into Hund's cases [3, 4, 5] will be discussed. The talk further includes results on adiabatic potentials and adiabatic states of Rydberg-Rydberg molecules in Rb and Cs. These molecules, which have even larger bonding length than Rydberg-ground molecules, are formed via electrostatic multipole interactions. The leading interaction term of neutral Rydberg-Rydberg molecules is between two dipoles, while for ionic Rydberg molecules it is between a dipole and a monopole. NSF (PHY-1506093), NNSF of China (61475123).

  20. Electronic structure of molecular Rydberg states of some small molecules and molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Biao; Li Jiaming

    1993-01-01

    Based on an independent-particle-approximation (i.e. the multiple scattering self-consistent-field theory), the electronic structures of Rydberg states of the small diatomic molecules H 2 , He 2 and the He 2 + molecular ion were studied. The principal quantum number of the first state of the Rydberg series is determined from a convention of the limit of the molecular electronic configuration. The dynamics of the excited molecules and molecular ion has been elucidated. The theoretical results are in fair agreement with the existing experimental measurements, thus they can serve as a reliable basis for future refined treatment such as the configuration interaction calculation

  1. GHz Rabi Flopping to Rydberg States in Hot Atomic Vapor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.; Baluktsian, T.; Schlagmueller, M.; Koelle, A.; Kuebler, H.; Loew, R.; Pfau, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the observation of Rabi oscillations to a Rydberg state on a time scale below 1 ns in thermal rubidium vapor. We use a bandwidth-limited pulsed excitation and observe up to 6 full Rabi cycles within a pulse duration of ∼4 ns. We find good agreement between the experiment and numerical simulations based on a surprisingly simple model. This result shows that fully coherent dynamics with Rydberg states can be achieved even in thermal atomic vapor, thus suggesting small vapor cells as a platform for room-temperature quantum devices. Furthermore, the result implies that previous coherent dynamics in single-atom Rydberg gates can be accelerated by 3 orders of magnitude.

  2. A new method for detecting the contribution of high Rydberg states to electron-ion recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orban, I; Boehm, S; Fogle, M; Paal, A; Schuch, R

    2007-01-01

    A position sensitive detector for measuring field ionized electrons in the fringe field of a dipole magnet is presented. The detector provides a means to study, in a state selective fashion, recombination into high Rydberg states and offers a new method to investigate recombination enhancement effects. Several experimental considerations and possibilities are discussed in the text

  3. Rydberg-state reionization of multiply charged ions escaping from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedeljkovic, Lj.D.; Nedeljkovic, N.N.

    2003-01-01

    Reionization rates of Rydberg states (n>>1 and l=0, 1, and 2) of multiply charged ionic projectiles escaping solid surfaces are calculated. These rates are obtained in an analytic form as a function of the ion-surface distance R. A phenomenological model of the reionization process, based on two-state quantum dynamics, is adopted for the vicinity of the potential barrier top. The results of calculations show that ionization rates for different Rydberg states are strictly localized and relatively separated. Universality of the reionization rate as a function of the scaling parameter α, describing the turning point configurations, is demonstrated. The reionization is discussed within the framework of a nonresonant population-reionization process at intermediate ionic velocities (v∼1 a.u.). The influence of reionization on the population of ionic Rydberg states is expressed in terms of a renormalized neutralization rate. It is demonstrated that the reionization effect significantly changes the population curves for all Rydberg states. The population curves obtained correlate with beam-foil experimental data concerning the S VI, Cl VII, and Ar VIII ions

  4. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and photoemission measurement of O2: Direct evidence for dependence of Rydberg-valence mixing on vibrational states in O 1s → Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejo, T.; Oura, M.; Tokushima, T.; Horikawa, Y.; Arai, H.; Shin, S.; Kimberg, V.; Kosugi, N.

    2017-07-01

    High-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and low-energy photoemission spectra of oxygen molecules have been measured for investigating the electronic structure of Rydberg states in the O 1s → σ* energy region. The electronic characteristics of each Rydberg state have been successfully observed, and new assignments are made for several states. The RIXS spectra clearly show that vibrational excitation is very sensitive to the electronic characteristics because of Rydberg-valence mixing and vibronic coupling in O2. This observation constitutes direct experimental evidence that the Rydberg-valence mixing characteristic depends on the vibrational excitation near the avoided crossing of potential surfaces. We also measured the photoemission spectra of metastable oxygen atoms (O*) from O2 excited to 1s → Rydberg states. The broadening of the 4p Rydberg states of O* has been found with isotropic behavior, implying that excited oxygen molecules undergo dissociation with a lifetime of the order of 10 fs in 1s → Rydberg states.

  5. Observation of electric quadrupole transitions to Rydberg nd states of ultracold rubidium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.; Farooqi, S.M.; Kempen, van E.G.M.; Pavlovic, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Coté, R.; Eyler, E.E.; Gould, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the observation of dipole-forbidden, but quadrupole-allowed, one-photon transitions to high-Rydberg states in Rb. Using pulsed uv excitation of ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we excite 5s¿nd transitions over a range of principal quantum numbers n=27–59. Compared to

  6. Rydberg states in a microwave field: regularity and chaos; Atomes de rydberg en champ micro-onde: regularite et chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchleitner, A

    1993-12-15

    We develop a theoretical formalism which provides a powerful tool for the detailed numerical analysis of the interaction of three-dimensional hydrogen atoms with an intense radiation field. The application of this approach to the microwave ionization of Rydberg states of hydrogen provides the most realistic numerical experiments ever made in this area. A thorough analysis of ionization signals and thresholds, of level dynamics and of the phase space projections of associated wave functions is provided for a one-dimensional model of the atom. The comparison to the ionization of three-dimensional atoms confirms the validity of the one-dimensional model for extended initial states and, hence, dynamical localization theory, as far as the ionization threshold is concerned. Three classes of three-dimensional initial states with distinct symmetries are identified and they appear to be more or less adapted to the symmetries of the eigenstates of the microwave problem. 'Scarred' wavefunctions of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom exposed to microwave field are shown. Finally, the dynamics of a circular state in a microwave and in an intense laser field are compared. (author)

  7. Rydberg states in a microwave field: regularity and chaos; Atomes de rydberg en champ micro-onde: regularite et chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchleitner, A

    1993-12-15

    We develop a theoretical formalism which provides a powerful tool for the detailed numerical analysis of the interaction of three-dimensional hydrogen atoms with an intense radiation field. The application of this approach to the microwave ionization of Rydberg states of hydrogen provides the most realistic numerical experiments ever made in this area. A thorough analysis of ionization signals and thresholds, of level dynamics and of the phase space projections of associated wave functions is provided for a one-dimensional model of the atom. The comparison to the ionization of three-dimensional atoms confirms the validity of the one-dimensional model for extended initial states and, hence, dynamical localization theory, as far as the ionization threshold is concerned. Three classes of three-dimensional initial states with distinct symmetries are identified and they appear to be more or less adapted to the symmetries of the eigenstates of the microwave problem. 'Scarred' wavefunctions of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom exposed to microwave field are shown. Finally, the dynamics of a circular state in a microwave and in an intense laser field are compared. (author)

  8. Optical spectroscopy of high-L Rydberg states of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L. E.; Snow, E. L.; Lundeen, S. R.; Sturrus, W. G.

    2007-01-01

    High-L fine structure patterns in n=9 and n=17 Rydberg levels of argon have been studied using a Doppler-tuned CO 2 laser and a fast beam of argon atoms. Analysis of the measured pattern using the polarization model yields the scalar dipole polarizability and quadrupole moment of the 2 P 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 Ar + ion. The results are α S =6.83(8)a 0 3 and Q=-0.5177(15)ea 0 2 . Within the precision of this study, no vector component of the structure was observed

  9. Observation of the Stark effect in υ+ = 0 Rydberg states of NO: a comparison between predissociating and bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N J A; Minns, R S; Patel, R; Fielding, H H

    2008-01-01

    The Stark spectra of Rydberg states of NO below the υ + = 0 ionization limit, with principal quantum numbers n = 25-30, have been investigated in the presence of dc electric fields in the range 0-150 V cm -1 . The Stark states were accessed by two-colour, double-resonance excitation via the υ' = 0, N' = 0 rovibrational state of the A 2 Σ + state. The N( 2 D) atoms produced by predissociation were measured by (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, and compared with pulsed-field ionization spectra of the bound Rydberg state population (Patel et al 2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1369)

  10. Energy redistribution in the dissociation of low Rydberg states of HeH and 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zande, W.J.A. van der.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the dissocation process is studied of the diatomic molecules, heliumhydride and molecular oxygen. In ch.'s 2-4 results on the spectroscopy and dissociative decay of the excited states of heliumhydride (HeH) are explained. The positions and dissociation pathways of the A 2 Σ + and B 2 Π states are determined and a theoretical description of the decay of these states are given. An isotope dependent dissociation behaviour of the C 2 /σ + Rydberg state is reported which explained with this theory. In ch.'s 5-7 observations are presented regarding the first Rydberg states of molecular oxygen. The spectroscopy of the (3sσ)d 1 Π g and C 3 Π g states is treated, and the stability and decay of these Rydberg states is discussed qualitatively. An experimental study is described of the (3sσ)d 1 Π g , v=4-8 states. By isotope studies and resolving rotational lines and the measurements of natural linewidths quantitative estimates have been acquired on coupling strengths, positions of repulsive valence states and perturbations reported in literature from REMPI experiments. The electronic coupling strengths between the C 3 Π g state and the 3 Π g valence state has been established. Observed spin-orbit interactions have been quantified and the dissociation of the multiplet states (C 3 Π g , ω=0-2 has been correlated with the multiplet states of the fragment O 3 P J=0-2 . The spectroscopy of the (3sσ3) Rydberg states which con- verge to and are formed in collisions with the O + 2 , a 4 Π μ ion state, is treated. The (3sσ) 5 /π μ state competition between auto-ionizations and (pre-)dissociation has been observed. 207 refs.; 36 figs.; 18 tabs

  11. Spin--orbit configuration-interaction study of valence and Rydberg states of LiBe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, M.M.; Ermler, W.C.; Kern, C.W.; Bondybey, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Ab initio spin--orbit full configuration-interaction calculations in the context of relativistic effective core potentials are reported for the weakly bound metal dimer LiBe, a three-valence-electron system. The effects of basis set on the energies of valence and Rydberg states of the cluster are discussed, as are the effects of configuration space selection on the energy of the latter states. Results at the dissociative limit are compared to the experimental atomic spectra. Potential-energy curves and spectroscopic constants are presented for the ground state and fourteen excited states, which includes the Li and Be 2p valence states, the Li 3s, 3p, 3d, and 4s Rydberg states, as well as three low-lying states of the molecular cation

  12. Experimental efforts at NIST towards one-electron ions in circular Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; Brewer, Samuel M

    2011-01-01

    Experimental effort is underway at NIST to enable tests of theory with one-electron ions synthesized in circular Rydberg states from captured bare nuclei. Problematic effects that limit the accuracy of predicted energy levels for low-lying states are vanishingly small for high-angular-momentum (high-L) states; in particular, the nuclear size correction for high-L states is completely negligible for any foreseeable improvement of measurement precision. As an initial step towards realizing such states, highly charged ions are extracted from the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) and steered through the electrodes of a Penning trap. The goal is to capture bare nuclei in the Penning trap for experiments to make one-electron atoms in circular Rydberg states with dipole (E1) transitions in the optical domain accessible to a frequency comb.

  13. Dynamic polarizabilities and Rydberg states of the argon isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.; Das, A.K.; Castro, M.; Canuto, S.; Mukherjee, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic dipole polarizabilities α d (ω) have been calculated within and beyond the normal-dispersion region for the isoelectronic members of argon up to Mn 7+ using time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock theory. Excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and quantum-defect values have been estimated for the dipole-allowed transitions 3p 6 1 Se→3p 5 ( 2 P)ns 1 Po (n=4,...,7) and 3p 6 1 Se→3p 5 ( 2 P)nd 1 Po (n=3,...,7). Analytic representations of the singly excited Rydberg orbitals have been obtained. The results compare favorably with the existing theoretical and experimental data. The oscillator strengths show an interesting trend of variation along the isoelectronic sequence

  14. Auto transfer to Rydberg states and indirect stabilization following double capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncin, P.; Gaboriaud, M.N.; Barat, M. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)); Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France)); Bachau, H.; Harel, C. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France))

    1993-11-28

    Two-electron capture by slow multiply charged ions colliding on rare-gas target at keV energies is known to populate doubly excited states of the projectile with large cross sections. Though these states are dominantly autoionizing, important radiative decay following double capture have been reported, among which the direct observation of the fluorescence from Rydberg states. A mechanism based on post-collisional effects was proposed, in which Rydberg states are fed from the quasi-symmetrical doubly excited states initially populated. In this paper, a quantitative analysis of this effect is developed leading to a simple model which is applied to N[sup 7+] on He and Ar collisions. (author).

  15. Auto transfer to Rydberg states and indirect stabilization following double capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncin, P.; Gaboriaud, M.N.; Barat, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bachau, H.; Harel, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two-electron capture by slow multiply charged ions colliding on rare-gas target at keV energies is known to populate doubly excited states of the projectile with large cross sections. Though these states are dominantly autoionizing, important radiative decay following double capture have been reported, among which the direct observation of the fluorescence from Rydberg states. A mechanism based on post-collisional effects was proposed, in which Rydberg states are fed from the quasi-symmetrical doubly excited states initially populated. In this paper, a quantitative analysis of this effect is developed leading to a simple model which is applied to N 7+ on He and Ar collisions. (author)

  16. Ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of methyl substituted ethylenes: The π3s Rydberg state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Schalk, Oliver; Schuurman, Michael S.; Stolow, Albert

    2011-10-01

    Excited state unimolecular reactions of some polyenes exhibit localization of their dynamics at a single ethylenic double bond. Here we present studies of the fundamental photophysical processes in the ethylene unit itself. Combined femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) and ab initio quantum chemical calculations was applied to the study of excited state dynamics in cis-butene, trans-butene, trimethylethylene, and tetramethylethylene, following initial excitation to their respective π3s Rydberg states. The wavelength dependence of the π3s Rydberg state dynamics of tetramethylethylene was investigated in more detail. The π3s Rydberg to ππ* valence state decay rate varies greatly with substituent: the 1,2-di- and tri-methyl substituted ethylenes (cis-butene, trans-butene, and trimethylethylene) show an ultrafast decay (˜20 fs), whereas the fully methylated tetramethylethylene shows a decay rate of 2 to 4 orders of magnitude slower. These observations are rationalized in terms of topographical trends in the relevant potential energy surfaces, as found from ab initio calculations: (1) the barrier between the π3s state and the ππ* state increases with increasing methylation, and (2) the π3s/ππ* minimum energy conical intersection displaces monotonically away from the π3s Franck-Condon region with increasing methylation. The use of systematic methylation in combination with TRPES and ab initio computation is emerging as an important tool in discerning the excited state dynamics of unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  17. The population transfer of high excited states of Rydberg lithium atoms in a microwave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lijuan; Zhang Xianzhou; Ma Huanqiang; Jia Guangrui; Zhang Yonghui; Xia Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Using the time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA), the properties of high excited Rydberg lithium atom have been obtained in the microwave field. The population transfer of lithium atom are studied on numerical calculation, quantum states are controlled and manipulated by microwave field. It shows that the population can be completely transferred to the target state by changing the chirped rate and field amplitude. (authors)

  18. Decay, excitation, and ionization of lithium Rydberg states by blackbody radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Glukhov, I. L.

    2010-09-01

    Details of interaction between the blackbody radiation and neutral lithium atoms were studied in the temperature ranges T = 100-2000 K. The rates of thermally induced decays, excitations and ionization were calculated for S-, P- and D-series of Rydberg states in the Fues' model potential approach. The quantitative regularities for the states of the maximal rates of blackbody-radiation-induced processes were determined. Approximation formulas were proposed for analytical representation of the depopulation rates.

  19. Fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n Rydberg states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Mueller-Dethlefs, K.; Baranov, L.Y.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n (n approx-gt 250) molecular Rydberg states is observed. An open-quote open-quote offset close-quote close-quote electric pulse selectively ionizes the more fragile open-quote open-quote red close-quote close-quote (down shifted in energy) Stark states. The more resilient open-quote open-quote bluer close-quote close-quote, or up-shifted, ones survive and are shifted down in energy upon application of a second (open-quote open-quote probe close-quote close-quote) pulse of opposite direction (diabatic Stark states close-quote inversion). Hence, even for smaller probe than offset fields ionization is observed. The offset/probe ratio allows one to control spectral peak shapes in zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  20. Radio-over-fiber using an optical antenna based on Rydberg states of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration of a direct fiber-optic link for RF transmission ("radio-over-fiber") using a sensitive optical antenna based on a rubidium vapor cell. The scheme relies on measuring the transmission of laser light at an electromagnetically induced transparency resonance that involves highly excited Rydberg states. By dressing pairs of Rydberg states using microwave fields that act as local oscillators, we encoded RF signals in the optical frequency domain. The light carrying the information is linked via a virtually lossless optical fiber to a photodetector where the signal is retrieved. We demonstrate a signal bandwidth in excess of 1 MHz limited by the available coupling laser power and atomic optical density. Our sensitive, non-metallic and readily scalable optical antenna for microwaves allows extremely low-levels of optical power (˜1 μW) throughput in the fiber-optic link. It offers a promising future platform for emerging wireless network infrastructures.

  1. Heavy Rydberg behaviour in high vibrational levels of some ion-pair states of the halogens and inter-halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Robert J.; Lawley, Kenneth P.; Ridley, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I 2 , Cl 2 , ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect δ(E b ) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of δ(E b ), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ∼18 000-20 000 cm −1 below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of δ(E b ) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions

  2. Dissipative preparation of steady Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states for Rydberg atoms with quantum Zeno dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X. Q.; Wu, J. H.; Yi, X. X.; Long, Gui-Lu

    2017-12-01

    Inspired by a recent work [F. Reiter, D. Reeb, and A. S. Sørensen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 040501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.040501], we present a simplified proposal for dissipatively preparing a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of three Rydberg atoms in a cavity. The Z pumping is implemented under the action of the spontaneous emission of Λ -type atoms and the quantum Zeno dynamics induced by strong continuous coupling. In the meantime, a dissipative Rydberg pumping breaks up the stability of the state | GHZ+〉 in the process of Z pumping, making | GHZ-〉 the unique steady state of the system. Compared with the former scheme, the number of driving fields acting on atoms is greatly reduced and only a single-mode cavity is required. The numerical simulation of the full master equation reveals that a high fidelity ˜98 % can be obtained with the currently achievable parameters in the Rydberg-atom-cavity system.

  3. Population of Rydberg states by electron capture in fast-ion--atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgdoerfer, J.; Dube, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The l,m-substate distribution in low-lying Rydberg manifolds (nroughly-equal10) following electron capture H + +H(1s)→H(n)+H + is calculated at high velocities (v>1 a.u.) in the continuum-distorted-wave (CDW) approximation. The standard CDW approximation is modified to account for final-state Stark mixing of the Rydberg manifold in the exit channel using the post-collision-interaction model. The influence of multiple-scattering contributions is analyzed and comparison is made with sigma/sub l/m predicted by the Born approximation. We find that the double-scattering contribution, closely connected with the classical Thomas process, becomes visible in the CDW approximation at surprisingly low nonasymptotic velocities

  4. Mean-field energy-level shifts and dielectric properties of strongly polarized Rydberg gases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelyazkova, V.; Jirschik, R.; Hogan, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Mean-field energy-level shifts arising as a result of strong electrostatic dipole interactions within dilute gases of polarized helium Rydberg atoms have been probed by microwave spectroscopy. The Rydberg states studied had principal quantum numbers n=70 and 72, and electric dipole moments of up to 14 050 D, and were prepared in pulsed supersonic beams at particle number densities on the order of 108 cm−3. Comparisons of the experimental data with the results of Monte Carlo calculations highl...

  5. Radiative transitions from Rydberg states of lithium atoms in a blackbody radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2012-05-01

    The radiative widths induced by blackbody radiation (BBR) were investigated for Rydberg states with principal quantum number up to n = 1000 in S-, P- and D-series of the neutral lithium atom at temperatures T = 100-3000 K. The rates of BBR-induced decays and excitations were compared with the rates of spontaneous decays. Simple analytical approximations are proposed for accurate estimations of the ratio of thermally induced decay (excitation) rates to spontaneous decay rates in wide ranges of states and temperatures.

  6. Strongly perturbed Rydberg series originating from Kr II 4p45s ionic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I.D.; Demekhin, P.V.; Lagutin, B.M.; Sukhorukov, V.L.; Kammer, S.; Mickat, S.; Schartner, K.-H.; Ehresmann, A.; Klumpp, S.; Werner, L.; Schmoranzer, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:Dispersed fluorescence excitation spectra for KrII fluorescence transitions to the 4p 4 5s 4 P 3/2 , 5/2 states were observed after excitation out of the KrI ground state with photons of energies between 28.4 eV and 28.7 eV and very narrow exciting-photon bandwidth of 1.7 meV. With this energy resolution it was possible to observe Rydberg series of doubly excited atomic states. The observed series were assigned to the states 4p 4 5s( 4 P 1/2 )np and 4p 4 5s( 2 P 3/2 )np ,based on calculations performed within theory taking into account interaction between many resonances and many continua. Calculated and measured cross sections are compared for the 4p - level (upper panel, ion yield) and for the 4p 4 5s 4 P 5/2 level (lower panel). An analysis of the computed photoionization (PI) cross sections shows that high - n members of Rydberg series are strongly perturbed by interaction with low - n ones of other series. In particular, the series shown are well pronounced because they borrow intensity from the low - n 4p 4 5s( 2 D 5/2 )6p 3/2 doublyexcited state. The above Rydberg series are predicted to be observable in photoelectron experiments, too. FIG. 1 shows, e.g., that members of the 4p 4 5s( 2 P 3/2 )np series starting from n 14 could also be observed in the 4p 4 5s 4P 1/2 observer channel at low photoelectron energies

  7. Excited states of ethylene interpreted in terms of perturbed Rydberg series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi; Tatewaki, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the excited states of the ethylene molecule by the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. In particular, the nature of the V state (1 1 B 1u π→π*) was interpreted in terms of perturbed Rydberg series. To clarify the role of the perturbers, we use pseudo-restricted Hartree-Fock natural orbitals (PRHFNO), which would be the most suitable molecular orbital set to describe Rydberg series. It is well known that the expectation value of x 2 for the V state is reduced from 44a 0 2 (RHF) to around 17a 0 2 by considering electron correlation effects, where x is the direction out of the molecular plane. In the present study, a reasonable 2 > value was obtained from small multireference configuration interaction with single excitations (MRCIS), where the π→π* configurations and a few perturbers were assigned as the reference configurations. The major perturbers were found to be five configurations represented by 3a g → 3b 1u , 1b 3g → 3b 2u , 2b 1u → 4a g , 2a g → 3b 1u , and 1b 2u → 2b 3g with respect to the ground state configuration. The V state can therefore be described as a scattering process of the π→π* state by these perturbers. Other low-lying excited states are also investigated by the MRCI method

  8. Creating high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, PeiPei; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, ShanShan; Wang, HanMu; Xu, ZiShan; Liu, HongPing

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses. The first positive-polarity optical half-cycle pulse is used to prepare an excited-state wave packet while the second one is less intense, but with opposite polarity and time delayed, and is employed to drag back the escaping free electron and clip the shape of the bound Rydberg wave packet, selectively increasing or decreasing a fraction of the angular-momentum components. An intelligent choice of laser parameters such as phase and amplitude helps us to control the orbital-angular-momentum composition of an electron wave packet with more facility; thus, a specified angular-momentum state with high purity can be achieved. This scheme of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms has significant application in quantum-information processing.

  9. Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...

  10. Theory of collisional excitation transition between Rydberg states of atoms. Non-inertial mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulakys, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    The transitions between highly states of an atom due to the collision of its core with another atom are considered. The cross sections of the change of highly excited electron angular momentum, in the case of the transitions when the main quantum number is constant, are expressed in terms of transport cross sections of the perturbing atom scattering on the ion of Rydberg atom. It is shown that the cross sections of the momentum mixing at thermal rapidities are lower than the cross sections of the atom-ion elastic scattering

  11. Coherent states of the driven Rydberg atom: Quantum-classical correspondence of periodically driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela-Arevalo, Luz V.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology to calculate generalized coherent states for a periodically driven system is presented. We study wave packets constructed as a linear combination of suitable Floquet states of the three-dimensional Rydberg atom in a microwave field. The driven coherent states show classical space localization, spreading, and revivals and remain localized along the classical trajectory. The microwave strength and frequency have a great effect in the localization of Floquet states, since quasienergy avoided crossings produce delocalization of the Floquet states, showing that tuning of the parameters is very important. Using wavelet-based time-frequency analysis, the classical phase-space structure is determined, which allows us to show that the driven coherent state is located in a large regular region in which the z coordinate is in resonance with the external field. The expectation values of the wave packet show that the driven coherent state evolves along the classical trajectory

  12. Molecular detection using Rydberg, autoionizing, and cluster states. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, J.

    1989-08-17

    Continuing investigations of multiphoton ionization processes in naphthalene have established the geometry and spectroscopy of trimer and tetramer cluster states. A new, highly efficient ionization mechanism has been identified in the trimer. It is closely related to autoionization of 2-electron atoms by resonant 2-photon excitation and to exciton fusion in larger clusters.

  13. Experimental determination of EEDF and He{sub 2}{sup *} Rydberg-state density by Thomson scattering in a ns-pulsed atmospheric micro-discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schregel, Christian-Georg; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe [Institute for Plasma and Atomic Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    An open question of major importance for the investigation of atmospheric micro plasmas is the shape of the EEDF. This has been addressed by using incoherent Thomson scattering as a non-invasive diagnostic. The technique has been applied to measure the temporal evolution (Δt=20 ns) of the EVDF for a pure Helium plasma between two plane molybdenum electrodes, 0.95 mm apart. The plasma is pulsed with a repetition rate of 5 kHz at 0.7 bar. Measurements were done by a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser and a triple grating spectrometer with a gated ICCD for detection. The setup allows for detection of electron energies between 0.5 eV and 12 eV with up to three orders of magnitude in the dynamic range. Additionally, time resolved optical emission spectra where recorded and the Helium metastable was density probed by laser absorption. With the different diagnostic data combined, variation of laser energy used in Thomson scattering could additionally be utilized as a probe for the absolute Helium Excimer Rydberg-state density, allowing a unique determination of absolute density values in the early stages of the afterglow. Peak electron densities of 2 . 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} with a peak electron temperature of 2 eV have been observed.

  14. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy of even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states of atomic sulphur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, S.; de Milan, J.B.; de Lange, C.A.; Buma, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Several previously unobserved Rydberg states of the sulphur atom above the lowest ionization threshold are identified and assigned using (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionization photoelectron spectroscopy. All states were accessed by two-photon transitions from either the 3P ground or the

  15. Combined theoretical and experimental study of the valence, Rydberg and ionic states of fluorobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Michael H., E-mail: m.h.palmer@ed.ac.uk; Ridley, Trevor [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black Building, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh, Scotland EH9 3FJ (United Kingdom); Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: Teng.Zhang@physics.uu.se, E-mail: biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu; Jones, Nykola C., E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: Teng.Zhang@physics.uu.se, E-mail: biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Coreno, Marcello, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: Teng.Zhang@physics.uu.se, E-mail: biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [CNR-ISM, Basovizza Area Science Park, 1-34149 Trieste (Italy); De Simone, Monica, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: Teng.Zhang@physics.uu.se, E-mail: biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Grazioli, Cesare [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Zhang, Teng, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: Teng.Zhang@physics.uu.se, E-mail: biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); and others

    2016-05-28

    New photoelectron spectra (PES) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) absorption spectra of fluorobenzene recorded at higher resolution than previously, have been combined with mass-resolved (2 + 1) and (3 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra; this has led to the identification of numerous Rydberg states. The PES have been compared with earlier mass-analyzed threshold ionization and photoinduced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) spectra to give an overall picture of the ionic state sequence. The analysis of these spectra using both equations of motion with coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been combined with vibrational analysis of both the hot and cold bands of the spectra, in considerable detail. The results extend several earlier studies on the vibronic coupling leading to conical intersections between the X{sup 2}B{sub 1} and A{sup 2}A{sub 2} states, and a further trio (B, C, and D) of states. The conical intersection of the X and A states has been explicitly identified, and its structure and energetics evaluated. The energy sequence of the last group is only acceptable to the present study if given as B{sup 2}B{sub 2}states forces reconsideration of the nature of the PIRI spectrum. The coupling between these two states is induced by the a{sub 2} modes, ν{sub 12} and ν{sub 14} and we propose that the 14{sup 1} band is observed in the B{sup 2}B{sub 2} band in the PES for the first time, because of the improved resolution. This same assignment is given to the lowest energy band in the PIRI spectrum which was previously assigned as the origin band and further conclude that the entire PIRI spectrum is induced by ν{sub 12} and ν{sub 14}. The relative intensities of

  16. Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)

    1993-06-01

    Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns[sup 3]S[sub 1] with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd[sup 3]D[sub 3] with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the [sup 3]S[sub 1]-series show the expected n*[sup 3] dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the [sup 3]D[sub 3]-series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.).

  17. Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K.

    1993-01-01

    Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns 3 S 1 with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd 3 D 3 with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the 3 S 1 -series show the expected n* 3 dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the 3 D 3 -series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.)

  18. Strongly perturbed Rydberg series originating from KrII 4p45s ionic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I.D.; Demekhin, Ph.V.; Lagutin, B.M.; Sukhorukov, V.L.; Kammer, S.; Mickat, S.; Schartner, K.-H.; Ehresmann, A.; Klumpp, S.; Werner, L.; Schmoranzer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Photoionization cross-sections for the 4p 4 ( 3 P) 5s 4 P 5/2,3/2,1/2 satellites and 4s, 4p main levels of Kr II in the exciting-photon energy range between 28.48 and 28.70-bar eV with extremely narrow bandwidth (1.7-bar meV at 28.55-bar eV) of the monochromatized synchrotron radiation were measured utilizing the photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The observed resonances were assigned to the 4p 4 5s( 4 P 1/2 )n p and 4p 4 5s( 2 P 3/2 )n p Rydberg series on the basis of calculations performed with taking into account core relaxation and interaction between many resonances and many continua. The calculation shows that the resonance structure in the photoionization channels exists due to 4p 4 ( 1 D) 5s 2 D 5/2 6p 3/2 promoter state which also strongly perturbs the above Rydberg series.

  19. A theoretical investigation of valence and Rydberg electronic states of acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilante, Francesco; Barone, Vincenzo; Roos, Bjoern O.

    2003-01-01

    The main features of the ultraviolet spectrum of acrolein have been studied by a multireference perturbative treatment and by a time dependent density functional approach. The valence and Rydberg transition energies have been calculated and the assignment of the experimental bands has been clarified. The different relaxation trends of the three lowest singlet and triplet excited states have been analyzed by unconstrained geometry optimizations. This has allowed, in particular, the characterization of a twisted 3 (ππ*) state, which is crucial for the interesting photophysics and photochemistry of the acrolein molecule and, more generally, of the α,β-enones. Solvatochromic shifts in aqueous solution have been investigated using a combined discrete/continuum approach based on the so called polarizable continuum model. The experimental trends are well reproduced by this approach and a closer degeneracy in the triplet manifold has been detected in solution with respect to gas phase

  20. Stark mapping of H2 Rydberg states in the strong-field regime with dynamical resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glab, W.L.; Qin, K.

    1993-01-01

    We have acquired spectra of high Rydberg states of molecular hydrogen in a static external field, in the energy region from below the energy at which field ionization becomes classically possible (E c ) to well above this energy. Simultaneous spectra of ionization and dissociation were acquired, thereby allowing direct information on the excited-state decay dynamics to be obtained. We have found that states with energies below E c undergo field-induced predissociation, while states with energies well above E c decay predominantly by field ionization. Field ionization and dissociation compete effectively as decay channels for states with energies in a restricted region just above E c . Comparison of our ionization spectra to the results of a single-channel quantum-defect theory Stark calculation shows quantitative agreement except near curve crossings, indicating that inclusion of different core rotational state channels will be required to properly account for coupling between the Stark states. Several states in the spectra undergo pronounced changes in their dynamical properties over a narrow range of field values, which we interpret as being due to interference cancellation of the ionization rates for these states

  1. Combined theoretical and experimental study of the valence, Rydberg, and ionic states of chlorobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Michael H., E-mail: m.h.palmer@ed.ac.uk; Ridley, Trevor, E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black Building, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren, E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu; Jones, Nykola C., E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Coreno, Marcello, E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [CNR-ISM, Basovizza Area Science Park, 1-34149 Trieste (Italy); De Simone, Monica, E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@shu.edu.cn, E-mail: alberto.baiardi@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Grazioli, Cesare [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Zhang, Teng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); and others

    2016-03-28

    New photoelectron (PE) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for chlorobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work and are subjected to detailed analysis. In addition, we report on the mass-resolved (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of a jet-cooled sample. Both the VUV and REMPI spectra have enabled identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The use of ab initio calculations, which include both multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles configuration interaction (MRD-CI) and time dependent density functional theoretical (TDDFT) methods, has led to major advances in interpretation of the vibrational structure of the ionic and electronically excited states. Franck-Condon (FC) analyses of the PE spectra, including both hot and cold bands, indicate much more complex envelopes than previously thought. The sequence of ionic states can be best interpreted by our multi-configuration self-consistent field computations and also by comparison of the calculated vibrational structure of the B and C ionic states with experiment; these conclusions suggest that the leading sequence is the same as that of iodobenzene and bromobenzene, namely: X{sup 2}B{sub 1}(3b{sub 1}{sup −1}) < A{sup 2}A{sub 2}(1a{sub 2}{sup −1}) < B{sup 2}B{sub 2}(6b{sub 2}{sup −1}) < C{sup 2}B{sub 1}(2b{sub 1}{sup −1}). The absorption onset near 4.6 eV has been investigated using MRD-CI and TDDFT calculations; the principal component of this band is {sup 1}B{sub 2} and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. The other low-lying absorption band near 5.8 eV is dominated by a {sup 1}A{sub 1} state, but an underlying weak {sup 1}B{sub 1} state (πσ{sup ∗}) is also found. The strongest band in the VUV spectrum near 6.7 eV is poorly resolved and is analyzed in terms of two ππ{sup ∗} states of

  2. Van-der-Waals interaction of atoms in dipolar Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenski, Aleksandr A.; Mokhnenko, Sergey N.; Ovsiannikov, Vitaly D.

    2018-02-01

    An asymptotic expression for the van-der-Waals constant C 6( n) ≈ -0.03 n 12 K p ( x) is derived for the long-range interaction between two highly excited hydrogen atoms A and B in their extreme Stark states of equal principal quantum numbers n A = n B = n ≫ 1 and parabolic quantum numbers n 1(2) = n - 1, n 2(1) = m = 0 in the case of collinear orientation of the Stark-state dipolar electric moments and the interatomic axis. The cubic polynomial K 3( x) in powers of reciprocal values of the principal quantum number x = 1/ n and quadratic polynomial K 2( y) in powers of reciprocal values of the principal quantum number squared y = 1/ n 2 were determined on the basis of the standard curve fitting polynomial procedure from the calculated data for C 6( n). The transformation of attractive van-der-Waals force ( C 6 > 0) for low-energy states n < 23 into repulsive force ( C 6 < 0) for all higher-energy states of n ≥ 23, is observed from the results of numerical calculations based on the second-order perturbation theory for the operator of the long-range interaction between neutral atoms. This transformation is taken into account in the asymptotic formulas (in both cases of p = 2, 3) by polynomials K p tending to unity at n → ∞ ( K p (0) = 1). The transformation from low- n attractive van-der-Waals force into high- n repulsive force demonstrates the gradual increase of the negative contribution to C 6( n) from the lower-energy two-atomic states, of the A(B)-atom principal quantum numbers n'A(B) = n-Δ n (where Δ n = 1, 2, … is significantly smaller than n for the terms providing major contribution to the second-order series), which together with the states of n″B(A) = n+Δ n make the joint contribution proportional to n 12. So, the hydrogen-like manifold structure of the energy spectrum is responsible for the transformation of the power-11 asymptotic dependence C 6( n) ∝ n 11of the low-angular-momenta Rydberg states in many-electron atoms into the power

  3. Periodically Driven Array of Single Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Sagarika; Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish

    2018-03-01

    An array of single Rydberg atoms driven by a temporally modulated atom-field detuning is studied. The periodic modulation effectively modifies the Rabi coupling, leading to unprecedented dynamics in the presence of Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, in particular, blockade enhancement, antiblockades, and state-dependent population trapping. Interestingly, the Schrieffer-Wolf transformation reveals a fundamental process in Rydberg gases, correlated Rabi coupling, which stems from the extended nature of the Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. Also, the correlated coupling provides an alternative depiction for the Rydberg blockade, exhibiting a nontrivial behavior in the presence of periodic modulation. The dynamical localization of a many-body configuration in a driven Rydberg lattice is discussed.

  4. The role of high Rydberg states in the generation of negative ions in negative-ion discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of substantial yields of H - ions in a laser excited H 2 gas has been reported by Pinnaduwage and Christoforu. These H - yields have been attributed to (2 + 1) REMP photoexcitation processes leading to dissociative attachment of doubly-excited or superexcited states (SES), or dissociative attachment of high Rydberg product states. The new feature of these experiments is the implied large dissociative attachment rates, of order 10 -6 cm 3 sec -1 , values that are orders-of-magnitude larger than the dissociative attachment of the vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state. While these laser excitations are not directly applicable to a hydrogen negative-ion discharge, the implication of large dissociative attachment rates to the high Rydberg states may affect both the total negative-ion density and the interpretation of discharge performance. Within the discharge energetic electrons will collisionally excite the higher Rydberg states, and the relative contribution of the dissociative attachment of these states when compared with the dissociative attachment to the ground state vibrational levels, is the topic of this paper

  5. Magnetic trapping of Rydberg atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niestadt, D.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic trapping is a well-established technique for ground state atoms. We seek to extend this concept to Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms are important for current visions of quantum simulators that will be used in the near future to simulate and analyse quantum problems. Current efforts in Amsterdam

  6. Oscillatory behaviour of Rydberg state total cross sections in the collisions Ne+-He and He+-Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Jensen, K.; Veje, E.

    1976-01-01

    The Ne + -He and He + -Ne collisions have been studied by means of optical spectrometry in the projectile energy range 10-150 keV. Very similar and regular oscillations in the Rydberg state total cross sections are found for HeI in both collisions and for singlet as well as triplet excitation. These oscillations are well described by the Rosenthal model. The HeI 4d sup(1,3)D states display two superimposed oscillations for center-of-mass collision energies above 6.4 keV. This is interpreted as the opening of a third exit channel, believed to be the HeI 4f sup(1,3)F. No, or very little structure is found in the Rydberg state total cross sections for HeII, NeI, NeII and NeIII levels. (Auth.)

  7. Investigation of the Impact of Different Terms in the Second Order Hamiltonian on Excitation Energies of Valence and Rydberg States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajti, Attila; Szalay, Péter G

    2016-11-08

    Describing electronically excited states of molecules accurately poses a challenging problem for theoretical methods. Popular second order techniques like Linear Response CC2 (CC2-LR), Partitioned Equation-of-Motion MBPT(2) (P-EOM-MBPT(2)), or Equation-of-Motion CCSD(2) (EOM-CCSD(2)) often produce results that are controversial and are ill-balanced with their accuracy on valence and Rydberg type states. In this study, we connect the theory of these methods and, to investigate the origin of their different behavior, establish a series of intermediate variants. The accuracy of these on excitation energies of singlet valence and Rydberg electronic states is benchmarked on a large sample against high-accuracy Linear Response CC3 references. The results reveal the role of individual terms of the second order similarity transformed Hamiltonian, and the reason for the bad performance of CC2-LR in the description of Rydberg states. We also clarify the importance of the T̂ 1 transformation employed in the CC2 procedure, which is found to be very small for vertical excitation energies.

  8. On calculation of collisional angular-momentum mixing of Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Strauss, M.; Hazak, G.

    1983-09-01

    Exact solutions of the coupled differential equations for collisional mixing probabilities are presented for a sodium-helium system. The results show that complete mixing is not reached in this model. The main contribution to the collisional mixing cross-section of the sodium ''nd'' state comes from impact parameters b within the range n 2 2 . The total cross-sections obtained are in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  9. Properties of Fr-like Th^3+ from microwave spectroscopy of high-L Rydberg states of Th^2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Julie; Smith, Chris; Woods, Shannon; Lundeen, Stephen; Fehrenbach, Charles

    2012-06-01

    Spectroscopy of high-L n= 28 Rydberg levels of Th^2+ was recently reported using the optical RESIS method [1]. Because the ground state of Fr-like Th^3+ is a ^2F5/2 level, each (n,L) Rydberg level of Th^2+ is split into six eigenstates whose relative positions are determined by long-range e-Th^3+ interactions. Measurements of those positions can be used to determine the Th^3+ properties that control those interactions, such as polarizabilities and permanent moments. We report a much improved study of n=28 levels with 9 Hanni, Shannon L. Woods, S.R. Lundeen, and C.W. Fehrenbach, Phys. Rev. A 83, 062501 (2011)[0pt] [2] U.I. Safronova, W.R. Johnson, and M.S. Safronova, Phys. Rev. A 74, 042511 (2006)

  10. An investigation of electronic states of some molecules and molecular cations using mass analyzed threshold ionization and photoinduced Rydberg ionization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstein, Jason David

    1999-11-01

    Mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) experiments have enabled mapping of the n-dependent Rydberg state survival probability for a series of molecules. Utilizing vacuum and extreme ultraviolet (VUV/XUV) photons, one photon Rydberg manifold spectra of argon, hydrogen chloride, nitrogen, benzene, and oxygen were produced, and the prospects of photoinduced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) experiments examined. It was found that the widths of Rydberg manifolds for the molecules studied are quite different. Hydrogen chloride and nitrogen have the narrowest manifold width, followed by benzene, and then oxygen. These varying widths are most strongly correlated with the angular momentum (i.e., quantum defect) of the initially prepared Rydberg orbital. PIRI experiments required the use of a static cell, rather than a molecular jet assembly, for the more efficient production of higher amounts of VUV/XUV radiation, and hence more Rydberg signal needed to observe PIRI. Armed with the ability to produce tunable VUV/XUV radiation, and to determine the feasibility of a PIRI experiment, the MATI and fragment PIRI spectra of trans-1,3-butadiene (BD) were recorded. The MATI spectrum is vibrationally resolved and was analyzed with the help of ab initio calculations and other published results. The fragment PIRI spectrum of the Aproduction of C3H3+ dominates, but at higher photon energies, C2H4 + is also produced. The production of each fragment showed a definite PIRI wavelength dependence.

  11. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state helium-4

    CERN Document Server

    de Reuck, K M; McCarty, R D

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Helium-4 presents the IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables for the thermodynamic properties of helium. The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project has therefore encouraged the critical analysis of the available thermodynamic measurements for helium and their synthesis into tables. This book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the experimental results and compares with the equations used to generate the tables. These equations are supplemented by a vapor pressure equation, which represents the 1958 He-4 scale of temperature that is

  12. Laser diagnostics of the energy spectrum of Rydberg states of the lithium-7 atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelener, B. B., E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The spectra of excited lithium-7 atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap are studied using a UV laser. The laser diagnostics of the energy of Rydberg atoms is developed based on measurements of the change in resonance fluorescence intensity of ultracold atoms as the exciting UV radiation frequency passes through the Rydberg transition frequency. The energies of various nS configurations are obtained in a broad range of the principal quantum number n from 38 to 165. The values of the quantum defect and ionization energy obtained in experiments and predicted theoretically are discussed.

  13. Charge-state-distributions of foil-excited heavy Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Kanter, E.P.; Koenig, W.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of foil-excited fast (MeV/amu) heavy ions have demonstrated large yields of high Rydberg atoms formed in such beams. Further experiments have suggested a strong target-thickness dependence of the yields of such atoms. These results have been puzzling in view of the supposed short mean free paths of such atoms in solids. In an effort to better understand these results, the authors have measured the yields of Rydberg atoms (napprox.100-200) in foil-excited 32 S ions at an incident energy of 125 MeV

  14. Symmetric structures of coherent states in superfluid helium-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    1981-02-01

    Coherent States in superfluid helium-4 are discussed and symmetric structures are assigned to these states. Discrete and continuous series functions are exhibited for such states. Coherent State structure has been assigned to oscillating condensed bosons and their inter-relations and their effects on the superfluid system are analysed. (author)

  15. Dissociative electron attachment to vibrationally excited H2 molecules involving the 2Σg+ resonant Rydberg electronic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celiberto, R.; Janev, R.K.; Wadehra, J.M.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections as a function of the incident electron energy and for the initial vibration levels v i = 0–5, 10 of the H 2 molecule. Highlights: ► We calculated electron–hydrogen dissociative attachment cross sections and rates coefficients. ► Collision processes occurring through a resonant Rydberg state are considered. ► Cross sections and rates were obtained for vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules. ► The cross sections exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. ► A comparison with the process involving the electron–hydrogen resonant ground state is discussed. - Abstract: Dissociative electron attachment cross sections (DEA) on vibrationally excited H 2 molecule taking place via the 2 Σ g + Rydberg-excited resonant state are studied using the local complex potential (LCP) model for resonant collisions. The cross sections are calculated for all initial vibrational levels (v i = 0–14) of the neutral molecule. In contrast to the previously noted dramatic increase in the DEA cross sections with increasing v i , when the process proceeds via the X 2 Σ u + shape resonance of H 2 , for the 2 Σ g + Rydberg resonance the cross sections increase only gradually up to v i = 3 and then decrease. Moreover, the cross sections for v i ⩾ 6 exhibit pronounced oscillatory structures. A discussion of the origin of the observed behavior of calculated cross sections is given. The DEA rate coefficients for all v i levels are also calculated in the 0.5–1000 eV temperature range.

  16. Evidence of the 2s2p(1P) doubly excited state in the harmonic generation spectrum of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J. M.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    By solving the two-active-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation in an intense, ultrashort laser field, we investigate evidence of electron correlations in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum of helium. As the frequency of the driving laser pulse varies from 4.6 to 6.6 eV, the 13th, 11th, and 9th harmonics sequentially become resonant with the transition between the ground state and the isolated 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state of helium, which dramatically enhances these harmonics and changes their profiles. When each of the 9th and 13th harmonics are in resonance with this autoionizing state, there is also a low-order multiphoton resonance with a Rydberg state, resulting in a particularly large enhancement of these harmonics relative to neighboring harmonics. When the 11th harmonic is in resonance with the 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state, the 13th harmonic is simultaneously in resonance with numerous higher-energy autoionizing states, resulting in a competition between these two harmonics for intensity. These results demonstrate that even electron correlations occurring over a narrow energy interval can have a significant effect on strong-field processes such as harmonic generation.

  17. revivals of Rydberg wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, R.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Tudose, B.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets. The effects of quantum defects on wave packets in alkali-metal atoms and a squeezed-state description of the initial wave packets are also described. We then examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets in the presence of an external electric field, i.e., the revival structure of Stark wave packets. These wave packets have energies that depend on two quantum numbers and exhibit new types of interference behaviour

  18. Direct Electron Impact Excitation of Rydberg-Valence States of Molecular Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, C. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Liu, X.; Ajdari, B.; Muleady, S.; Kanik, I.; Khakoo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Collisions between electrons and neutral N2 molecules result in emissions that provide an important diagnostic probe for understanding the ionospheric energy balance and the effects of space weather in upper atmospheres. Also, transitions to singlet ungerade states cause N2 to be a strong absorber of solar radiation in the EUV spectral range where many ro-vibrational levels of these Rydberg-valence (RV) states are predissociative. Thus, their respective excitation and emission cross sections are important parameters for understanding the [N]/[N2] ratio in the thermosphere of nitrogen dominated atmospheres. The following work provides improved constraints on absolute and relative excitation cross sections of numerous RV states of N2, enabling more physically accurate atmospheric modeling. Here, we present recent integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of RV states of N2 [6], which were based on the differential cross sections (DCSs) derived from electron energy-loss (EEL) spectra of [5]. This work resulted in electronic excitation cross sections over the following measured vibrational levels: b 1Πu (v‧=0-14), c3 1Πu (v‧=0-3), o3 1Πu (v‧=0-3), b‧ 1Σu+ (v‧=0-10), c‧4 1Σu+ (v‧=0-3), G 3Πu (v‧=0-3), and F 3Πu (v‧=0-3). We further adjusted the cross sections of the RV states by extending the vibronic contributions to unmeasured v‧-levels via the relative excitation probabilities (REPs) as discussed in [6]. This resulted in REP-scaled ICSs over the following vibrational levels for the singlet ungerade states: b(0-19), c3(0-4), o3(0-4), b‧(0-16), and c‧4(0-8). Comparison of the ICSs of [6] with available EEL based measurements, theoretical calculations, and emission based work generally shows good agreement within error estimations, except with the recent reevaluation provided by [1]. Further, we have extended these results, using the recent EEL data of [3], to include the unfolding of better resolved features above ~13

  19. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  20. Rydberg phases of Hydrogen and low energy nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Sveinn; Holmlid, Leif

    2016-03-01

    For over the last 26 years the science of cold fusion/LENR has been researched around the world with slow pace of progress. Modest quantity of excess heat and signatures of nuclear transmutation and helium production have been confirmed in experiments and theoretical work has only resulted in a large flora of inadequate theoretical scenarios. Here we review current state of research in Rydberg matter of Hydrogen that is showing strong signature of nuclear processes. In the presentation experimental behavior of Rydberg matter of hydrogen is described. An extensive collaboration effort of surface physics, catalysis, atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum information is need to tackle the surprising experimental results that have so far been obtained. Rydberg matter of Hydrogen is the only known state of matter that is able to bring huge collection of protons to so short distances and for so long time that tunneling becomes a reasonable process for making low energy nuclear reactions. Nuclear quantum entanglement can also become realistic process at theses conditions.

  1. Interaction of Rydberg atoms in circular states with the alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironchuk, E. S.; Narits, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S., E-mail: vlebedev@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular (l = vertical bar m vertical bar = n–1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ∼ n–1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau–Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li(nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n–1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l (l ≪ n)

  2. Selective-field-ionization dynamics of a lithium m=2 Rydberg state: Landau-Zener model versus quantal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerre, M.; Hansen, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The selective-field-ionization (SFI) dynamics of a Rydberg state of lithium with magnetic quantum number m=2 is studied in detail based on two different theoretical models: (1) a close coupling integration of the Schroedinger equation and (2) the multichannel (incoherent) Landau-Zener (MLZ) model. The m=2 states are particularly interesting, since they define a border zone between fully adiabatic (m=0,1) and fully diabatic (m>2) ionization dynamics. Both sets of calculations are performed up to, and above, the classical ionization limit. It is found that the MLZ model is excellent in the description of the fully diabatic dynamics while certain discrepancies between the time dependent quantal amplitudes appear when the dynamics become involved. Thus, in this region, the analysis of experimental SFI spectra should be performed with care

  3. CrossRef Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, R; Kolthammer, WS; Richerme, P; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Grzonka, D; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, MC; Hessels, EA; Storry, CH; Weel, M

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  4. Radiative stabilization of double-Rydberg states formed in slow Xeq+-Xe (15 ≤ q ≤ 35) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.; Cederquist, H.; Astner, G.; Hvelplund, P.; Pedersen, J.O.P.

    1990-01-01

    Electron capture processes, in which the projectile charge (q) is lowered by one unit, have been recorded by means of high-resolution energy-gain spectroscopy for 4q keV Xe q+ -Xe (15 ≤ q ≤ 35) collisions. The ratios, R, between the cross sections for the transfer ionisation and single-electron capture were extracted from the measured spectra. The quantity R increases slowly for charges up to q = 25 and decreases rapidly for higher q. Relying on the extended classical over-barrier model we relate R to the branching ratio for autoionisation, F, through R = k.F, and estimate the variation in k as a function of q. On the basis of the extended classical over-barrier model we ascribe the decrease in R at high q to an increase in radiative stabilization of double-Rydberg states formed in slow Xe q+ -Xe, q > 25, collisions. (orig.)

  5. Theory of the l-state population of Rydberg states formed in ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, J.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C.O.

    1991-01-01

    The experimentally observed high-l-state population of ions excited in ion-solid interactions differs sharply from l-state populations produced in ion-atom collisions. We have studied the population dynamics of electronic excitation and transport within the framework of a classical transport theory for O 2+ (2-MeV/u) ions traversing C foils. The resulting delayed-photon-emission intensities are found to be in very good agreement with experiment. Initial phase-space conditions have been obtained from both classical-trajectory Monte Carlo calculations and random initial distributions. We find evidence that the very-high-l-state populations produced in ion-solid collisions are the result of a diffusion to high-l states under the influence of multiple scattering in the bulk of the solid

  6. Valence and lowest Rydberg electronic states of phenol investigated by synchrotron radiation and theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Duflot, D. [Univ. Lille, UMR 8523–Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille (France); CNRS, UMR 8523, F-59000 Lille (France); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Śmiałek, M. A. [Department of Control and Power Engineering, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-07-21

    We present the experimental high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoabsorption spectra of phenol covering for the first time the full 4.3–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross sections determined. Theoretical calculations on the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths were performed using time-dependent density functional theory and the equation-of-motion coupled cluster method restricted to single and double excitations level. These have been used in the assignment of valence and Rydberg transitions of the phenol molecule. The VUV spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature, with particular reference to the 6.401 eV transition, which is here assigned to the 3sσ/σ{sup ∗}(OH)←3π(3a″) transition. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of phenol in the earth’s atmosphere (0–50 km).

  7. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  8. Efficient Multiparticle Entanglement via Asymmetric Rydberg Blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, Mark; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We present an efficient method for producing N particle entangled states using Rydberg blockade interactions. Optical excitation of Rydberg states that interact weakly, yet have a strong coupling to a second control state is used to achieve state dependent qubit rotations in small ensembles. On t....... On the basis of quantitative calculations, we predict that an entangled quantum superposition state of eight atoms can be produced with a fidelity of 84% in cold Rb atoms.......We present an efficient method for producing N particle entangled states using Rydberg blockade interactions. Optical excitation of Rydberg states that interact weakly, yet have a strong coupling to a second control state is used to achieve state dependent qubit rotations in small ensembles...

  9. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Büchler, Hans Peter; Tresp, Christoph; Urvoy, Alban; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Menke, Henri; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole–dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source. (tutorial)

  10. Revivals of Rydberg wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, R.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Tudose, B.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets. These wave packets exhibit initial classical periodic motion followed by a sequence of collapse, fractional (or full) revivals, and fractional (or full) superrevivals. The effects of quantum defects on wave packets in alkali-metal atoms and a squeezed-state description of the initial wave packets are also considered. We then examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets in the presence of an external electric field - that is, the revival structure of Stark wave packets. These wave packets have energies that depend on two quantum numbers and exhibit new types of interference behavior

  11. Fast-responding property of electromagnetically induced transparency in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the transient optical response property of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a cold Rydberg atomic gas. We show that both the transient behavior and the steady-state EIT spectrum of the system depend strongly on Rydberg interaction. Especially, the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT can be five times faster (and even higher) than the conventional EIT without the Rydberg interaction. For comparison, two different theoretical approaches (i.e., two-atom model and many-atom model) are considered, revealing that Rydberg blockade effect plays a significant role for increasing the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT. The fast-responding Rydberg-EIT by using the strong, tunable Rydberg interaction uncovered here is not only helpful for enhancing the understanding of the many-body dynamics of Rydberg atoms but also useful for practical applications in quantum information processing by using Rydberg atoms.

  12. A laser system for the spectroscopy on highly charged ions, tellurium molecules, and Rydberg states of rubidium atoms; Ein Lasersystem zur Spektroskopie von hochgeladenen Ionen, Tellurmolekuelen und Rubidium-Rydberg-Zustaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Sebastian

    2014-08-15

    Optical measuring methods allow the detection and identification of the atomic structure with extraordinary precision. Deviations to theoretical predictions can indicate unknown physical effects. Therefore, precise measurements on the atomic structure continue to be of large relevance. In this work, a laser system for precision spectroscopy on Bismuth ({sup 209}Bi{sup 82+}), Tellurium ({sup 130}Te{sub 2}) and Rydberg states of Rubidium ({sup 85}Rb) has been built and characterized. Spectroscopic measurements on Tellurium and Rubidium have been achieved with this setup. The system consists of a two-stage frequency doubled diode laser, stabilized via a cavity and an RF-offsetlock to arbitrary wavelengths with absolute high stability. The setup of the laser system will be presented and the systematic error caused by the refractive index of air inside the transfer cavity will be discussed. A stability of better then 6.14 MHz at 244 nm is obtained for planned experiments on the ground state hyperfine splitting of {sup 209}Bi{sup 82+}. This will allow an increase in precision of more then four orders of magnitude for this measurement. Further increase in precision can be achieved by using an evacuated cavity. The obtained stability is measured by comparison of the laser frequency to absorption lines of Tellurium ({sup 130}Te{sub 2}). Eight reference lines, known from literature, spanning the region from 613720.717 GHz to 616803.545 GHz have been measured. The frequency measurements of three lines, coinciding with the emission spectrum of an argon-ion-laser, show deviations with respect to the published frequencies. Further inconsistencies in literature are cleared. Part of this work is also the precise measurement of 843 Doppler-free {sup 130}Te{sub 2} reference lines spanning the frequency range from 613881.150 GHz to 616614.258 GHz at a precision of better then 4 MHz for most lines. Additionally, measurements on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using

  13. Antiprotonic helium atomcules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauge Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available About 3% of antiprotons ( stopped in helium are long-lived with microsecond lifetimes, against picoseconds in all other materials. This unusual longevity has been ascribed to the trapping of on metastable bound states in He+ helium atom-molecules thus named atomcules. Apart from their unique dual structure investigated by laser spectroscopy – a near-circular quasi-classical Rydberg atom with l ~ n – 1 ~ 37 or a special diatomic molecule with a negatively charged nucleus in high rotational state with J = l – the chemical physics aspects of their interaction with other atoms or molecules constitute an interesting topic for molecular physics. While atomcules may resist to million collisions in helium, molecular contaminants such as H2 are likely to destroy them in a single one, down to very low temperatures. In the Born-Oppenheimer framework, we interpret the molecular interaction obtained by ab initio quantum chemical calculations in terms of classical reactive channels, with activation barriers accounting for the experiments carried out in He and H2. From classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the thermalization stage strongly quenches initial populations, thus reduced to a recovered 3 % trapping fraction. This work illustrates the pertinence of chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter. New insights into the physico-chemistry of cold interstellar radicals are anticipated.

  14. State of the Art Report for a Bearing for VHTR Helium Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Yong Wan; Lee, Won Jae

    2008-10-01

    A helium circulator in a VHTR(Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) plays a core role which translates thermal energy at high temperature from a nuclear core to a steam generator. Helium as a operating coolant circulates a primary circuit in high temperature and high pressure state, and controls thermal output of a nuclear core by controlling flow rate. A helium circulator is the only rotating machinery in a VHTR, and its reliability should be guaranteed for reliable operation of a reactor and stable production of hydrogen. Generally a main helium circulator is installed on the top of a steam generator vessel, and helium is circulated only by a main helium circulator in a normal operation state. An auxiliary or shutdown circulator is installed at the bottom of a reactor vessel, and it is an auxiliary circulator for shutting down a reactor in case of refueling or accelerating cooling down in case of fast cooling. Since a rotating shaft of a helium circulator is supported by bearings, bearings are the important machine elements which determines reliability of a helium circulator and a nuclear reactor. Various types of support bearings have been developed and applied for circulator bearings since 1960s, and it is still developing for developing VHTRs. So it is necessary to review and analyze the current technical state of helium circulator support bearings to develop bearings for Koran developing VHTR helium circulator

  15. H-, He-like recombination spectra - II. l-changing collisions for He Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, F.; Badnell, N. R.; Williams, R. J. R.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Chatzikos, M.; Ferland, G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological models can be constrained by determining primordial abundances. Accurate predictions of the He I spectrum are needed to determine the primordial helium abundance to a precision of big bang nucleosynthesis models. Theoretical line emissivities at least this accurate are needed if this precision is to be achieved. In the first paper of this series, which focused on H I, we showed that differences in l-changing collisional rate coefficients predicted by three different theories can translate into 10 per cent changes in predictions for H I spectra. Here, we consider the more complicated case of He atoms, where low-l subshells are not energy degenerate. A criterion for deciding when the energy separation between l subshells is small enough to apply energy-degenerate collisional theories is given. Moreover, for certain conditions, the Bethe approximation originally proposed by Pengelly & Seaton is not sufficiently accurate. We introduce a simple modification of this theory which leads to rate coefficients which agree well with those obtained from pure quantal calculations using the approach of Vrinceanu et al. We show that the l-changing rate coefficients from the different theoretical approaches lead to differences of ˜10 per cent in He I emissivities in simulations of H II regions using spectral code CLOUDY.

  16. Rydberg atoms ionization by microwave field and electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulakys, B.; Vilutis, G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple theory of the Rydberg atoms ionization by electromagnetic pulses and microwave field is presented. The analysis is based on the scale transformation which reduces the number of parameters and reveals the functional dependencies of the processes. It is shown that the observed ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond electromagnetic pulses scale classically. The threshold electric field required to ionise a Rydberg state may be simply evaluated in the photonic basis approach for the quantum dynamics or from the multiphoton ionization theory

  17. Ionization of Rydberg atoms by the kicks of half-cycle pulses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rydberg atom; half-cycle pulses; ionization; quantum mechanical model. ... packet which represents a non-stationary quantum state formed by coherent ...... Wetzels, Impulsive interactions of half cycle pulse radiation with Rydberg atoms, Ph.D.

  18. Scaling laws of Rydberg excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Rydberg atoms have attracted considerable interest due to their huge interaction among each other and with external fields. They demonstrate characteristic scaling laws in dependence on the principal quantum number n for features such as the magnetic field for level crossing or the electric field of dissociation. Recently, the observation of excitons in highly excited states has allowed studying Rydberg physics in cuprous oxide crystals. Fundamentally different insights may be expected for Rydberg excitons, as the crystal environment and associated symmetry reduction compared to vacuum give not only optical access to many more states within an exciton multiplet but also extend the Hamiltonian for describing the exciton beyond the hydrogen model. Here we study experimentally and theoretically the scaling of several parameters of Rydberg excitons with n , for some of which we indeed find laws different from those of atoms. For others we find identical scaling laws with n , even though their origin may be distinctly different from the atomic case. At zero field the energy splitting of a particular multiplet n scales as n-3 due to crystal-specific terms in the Hamiltonian, e.g., from the valence band structure. From absorption spectra in magnetic field we find for the first crossing of levels with adjacent principal quantum numbers a Br∝n-4 dependence of the resonance field strength, Br, due to the dominant paramagnetic term unlike for atoms for which the diamagnetic contribution is decisive, resulting in a Br∝n-6 dependence. By contrast, the resonance electric field strength shows a scaling as Er∝n-5 as for Rydberg atoms. Also similar to atoms with the exception of hydrogen we observe anticrossings between states belonging to multiplets with different principal quantum numbers at these resonances. The energy splittings at the avoided crossings scale roughly as n-4, again due to crystal specific features in the exciton Hamiltonian. The data also allow us to

  19. One-Dimensional Rydberg Gas in a Magnetoelectric Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, Michael; Hezel, Bernd; Lesanovsky, Igor; Schmelcher, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum properties of Rydberg atoms in a magnetic Ioffe-Pritchard trap which is superimposed by a homogeneous electric field. Trapped Rydberg atoms can be created in long-lived electronic states exhibiting a permanent electric dipole moment of several hundred Debye. The resulting dipole-dipole interaction in conjunction with the radial confinement is demonstrated to give rise to an effectively one-dimensional ultracold Rydberg gas with a macroscopic interparticle distance. We derive analytical expressions for the electric dipole moment and the required linear density of Rydberg atoms

  20. Negative pion trapping by metastable state in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.N.; Iwasaki, M.; Outa, H.

    1991-11-01

    We found long-lived metastable states of stopped π - 's in liquid helium by measuring time spectra of two different delayed products: 1) protons emitted after π - absorption by 4 He nuclei and 2) 70-MeV electrons originating from free π - → e - (ν e )-bar decay. The lifetime and fraction of delayed π - absorption obtained by emitted protons are 7.26±0.12 nsec and 1.66±0.05%, respectively. The free-decay fraction was calculated to be 0.64±0.03% from this result, which is consistent with the observed free-decay fraction of π e2 decay. These results imply that 2.30±0.07% of stopped π - are trapped in metastable states which have an overall lifetime of 10.1±0.2 nsec. The same experiment and analysis were performed for stopped π - in liquid neon. No evidence for trapping was found in liquid neon. (author)

  1. Theory and computation of the matrix elements of the full interaction of the electromagnetic field with an atomic state: Application to the Rydberg and the continuous spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komninos, Yannis; Mercouris, Theodoros; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2002-01-01

    We develop practical formulas for the calculation of the matrix elements of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with an atomic state, beyond the long-wavelength approximation. The atom-plus-field Hamiltonian is chosen to have the multipolar form, containing the electric, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic operators. The final workable expressions include the interactions to all orders and are derived by first expanding the fields in partial waves. The electric-field operator reaches a constant value as the radial variable becomes large, contrary to the result of the electric-dipole approximation (EDA) where the value of the corresponding operator increases indefinitely. Applications are given for Rydberg states of hydrogen up to n=50 and for free-free transitions in a Coulomb potential. Such matrix elements are relevant to a number of real and virtual processes occurring during laser-atom interactions. The computation is done numerically, using a combination of analytic with numerical techniques. By comparing the results of the EDA with those of the exact treatment, it is shown that the former is inadequate in such cases. This finding has repercussions on the theory and understanding of the physics of quantum systems in high-lying Rydberg levels and wave packets or in scattering states

  2. Expansion of an ultracold Rydberg plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Gabriel T.; Li, Yin; Ward, Edwin D.; Goodsell, Anne L.; Tate, Duncan A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a systematic experimental and numerical study of the expansion of ultracold Rydberg plasmas. Specifically, we have measured the asymptotic expansion velocities, v0, of ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) which evolve from cold, dense samples of Rydberg rubidium atoms using ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. From this, we have obtained values for the effective initial plasma electron temperature, Te ,0=mionv02/kB (where mion is the Rb+ ion mass), as a function of the original Rydberg atom density and binding energy, Eb ,i. We have also simulated numerically the interaction of UNPs with a large reservoir of Rydberg atoms to obtain data to compare with our experimental results. We find that for Rydberg atom densities in the range 107-109 cm-3, for states with principal quantum number n >40 , Te ,0 is insensitive to the initial ionization mechanism which seeds the plasma. In addition, the quantity kBTe ,0 is strongly correlated with the fraction of atoms which ionize, and is in the range 0.6 ×| Eb ,i|≲ kBTe ,0≲2.5 ×|Eb ,i| . On the other hand, plasmas from Rydberg samples with n ≲40 evolve with no significant additional ionization of the remaining atoms once a threshold number of ions has been established. The dominant interaction between the plasma electrons and the Rydberg atoms is one in which the atoms are deexcited, a heating process for electrons that competes with adiabatic cooling to establish an equilibrium where Te ,0 is determined by their Coulomb coupling parameter, Γe˜0.01 .

  3. Simulation of coherent interactions between Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robicheaux, F.; Hernandez, J.V.; Topcu, T.; Noordam, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the coherent interaction between many Rydberg atoms are reported. The atoms are assumed to move very little during the time range we investigate. We describe the basic interaction between atoms and show that (contrary to previous theoretical studies) the interaction between the atoms can be coherent. The band structure for a perfect lattice of atoms and the density of states for an amorphous distribution of atoms are presented. We also give results for when the atoms are roughly positioned in a lattice. Finally, we performed detailed calculations to understand when the Rydberg interactions are too strong for an essential states type of approximation. The relevance of our results to previous measurements in a Rydberg gas and to possible future experiments is discussed

  4. Formation of excited states in high-Z helium-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Fricke, B.; Brinzanescu, O.

    1999-12-01

    High-Z helium-like ions represent the simplest multi-electron systems for studying the interplay between electron-electron correlations, relativistic as well as quantum electrodynamical effects in strong fields. In contrast to the adjacent lithium-like ions, however, almost no experimental information is available about the excited states in the high-Z domain of the helium sequence. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the X-ray production and decay dynamics of the excited states in helium-like uranium. Emphasize has been paid particularly to the formation of the 3 P 0 and 3 P 2 levels by using electron capture into hydrogen-like U 91+ . Both states are of interest for precise measurements on high-Z helium-like ions in the future. (orig.)

  5. On the ground state of a model for compressed helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    In the problem of the “compressed helium atom”, the boundary condition that the wave function ψ must vanish at infinity (r = ∞), is replaced by: ψ = 0 at a finite r = r0. This problem is solved by a variational method, which for the limiting case of the free atom (r0 → ∞) coincides with one of

  6. Study of equation-of-state of dense helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Lingcang; Zhang Lin; Xiang Shikai; Jing Fuqian

    2001-01-01

    Hugoniot EOS, shock temperature of gas helium plasma (the initial pressure is 1.2 MPa and the initial temperature is 293 K) are measured with the help of shock compression technique and transient radiation pyrometer. The experimental Hugoniot data are good agreement with the theoretical prediction by Saha equation pus Debye-Huckel correction

  7. Excitation of the n=2 states of He+ in the ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, A.J.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-03-01

    The cross section ratio for the symmetric (e,2e) reaction on helium leading to the n = 2 and ground states of the helium ion has been calculated as a function of the ion recoil momentum q, using a correlated helium wave function, and compared with the results of a 1200eV noncoplanar experiment and some previous results at 800eV. The calculation agrees well with the measured (e,2e) cross section ratios and at high q with ratios measured in photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. (author)

  8. Ionization yield and absorption spectra reveal superexcited Rydberg state relaxation processes in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion, J-H [LERMA, CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place J Janssen, F-92195, Meudon (France); Dulieu, F [LERMA, CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place J Janssen, F-92195, Meudon (France); Baouche, S [LERMA, CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place J Janssen, F-92195, Meudon (France); Lemaire, J-L [LERMA, CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place J Janssen, F-92195, Meudon (France); Jochims, H W [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Freien Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D-14195 Berlin 33 (Germany); Leach, S [LERMA, CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place J Janssen, F-92195, Meudon (France)

    2003-07-14

    The absorption cross section and the ionization quantum yield of H{sub 2}O have been measured using a synchrotron radiation source between 9 and 22 eV. Comparison between the two curves highlights competition between relaxation processes for Rydberg states converging to the first A-tilde {sup 2}A{sub 1} and to the second B-tilde {sup 2}B{sub 2} excited states of H{sub 2}O{sup +}. Comparison with D{sub 2}O absorption and ionization yields, derived from Katayama et al (1973 J. Chem. Phys. 59 4309), reveals specific energy-dependent deuteration effects on competitive predissociation and autoionization relaxation channels. Direct ionization was found to be only slightly affected by deuteration.

  9. Ageing of palladium tritide: mechanical characterization, helium state and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segard, M.

    2010-01-01

    Palladium is commonly used for the storage of tritium (the hydrogen radioactive isotope), since it forms a low-equilibrium-pressure and reversible tritide. Tritium decay into helium-3 is responsible for the ageing of the tritide, leading to the apparition of helium-3 bubbles for instance. Both experimental and theoretical aspects of this phenomenon are studied here.Previous works on ageing modelling led to two main models, dealing with:- Helium-3 bubbles nucleation (using a cellular automaton), - Bubbles growth (using continuum mechanics).These models were quite efficient, but their use was limited by the lack of input data and fitting experimental parameters.To get through these limitations, this work has consisted in studying the most relevant experimental data to improve the modelling of the palladium tritide ageing.The first part of this work was focused on the assessment of the mechanical properties of the palladium tritide (yield strength, ultimate strength, mechanical behaviour). They were deduced from the in situ tensile tests performed on palladium hydride and deuteride. In the second part, ageing characterization was undertaken, mainly focusing on: - Bubbles observations in palladium tritide using transmission electron microscopy, - Internal bubble pressure measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance, - Macroscopic swelling measurements using pycno-metry.The present work has led to significant progress in ageing understanding and has brought very valuable improvements to the modelling of such a phenomenon. (author) [fr

  10. Correlations between interacting Rydberg atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Braun, Christoph; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a short introduction to Rydberg physics and quantum nonlinear optics using Rydberg atoms. It has been prepared as a compliment to a series of lectures delivered during the Latin American School of Physics "Marcos Moshinsky" 2017. We provide a short introduction to the properties...... of individual Rydberg atoms and discuss in detail how the interaction potential between Rydberg atom pairs is calculated. We then discuss how this interaction gives rise to the Rydberg blockade mechanism. With the aid of hallmark experiments in the field applications of the blockade for creating correlated...

  11. Comparison of the target-thickness dependence of the convoy electron yield and the Rydberg electron yield measured in coincidence with exit charge states in fast ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaither, C.C. III; Breinig, M.; Freyou, J.; Underwood, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured the yield of convoy electrons and the yield of electrons in high Rydberg states of the projectile (n /approx gt/ 70), produced by 2MeV/u C projectiles passing through C foils, whose thicknesses range from 4--10 ug/cm 2 , for incident charge states q/sub i/ = 4--6 and exit charge states q/sub e/ = 4--6. We have found that these yields exhibit similar trends as a function of foil thickness, but that, nevertheless, the ratio of the number of convoy electrons detected in coincidence with ions of exit charge state q/sub e/ to the number of electrons detected in high Rydberg states of ions with the same exit charge state is a function of foil thickness. This may be due to a broadening of the convoy electron energy spectrum with increasing foil thickness. 6 refs., 3 figs

  12. Ab initio study of small He cluster ions Hen+, n=2, 3, 4, 5, and low-lying Rydberg states of He4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staemmler, V.

    1990-01-01

    SCF and CEPA calculations are applied to study the structure of small He cluster ions, He n 3 , n=2, 3, 4, 5 and some low-lying Rydberg states of He 4 . The effect of electron correlation upon the equilibrium structures and binding energies is discussed. He 3 + has a linear symmetric equilibrium geometry with a bond length of 2.35 a 0 and a binding energy D e =0.165 eV with respect to He 2 + +He (experimentally: D 0 =0.17 eV which corresponds to D e ≅0.20 eV). He 4 + is a very floppy molecular ion with several energetically very similar geometrical configurations. Our CEPA calculations yield a T-shaped form with a He 3 + centre (R e =2.35 a 0 ) and one inductively bound He atom (4.39 a 0 from the central He atom of He 3 + ) as equilibrium structure. Its binding energy with respect to He 3 + +He is 0.031 eV. A linear symmetric configuration consisting of a He 2 + centre with a bond length of 2.10 a 0 and two inductively bound He atoms (4.20 a 0 from the centre of He 2 + ) is only 0.02-0.03 eV higher in energy. We expect that in larger He cluster ions structures with He 2 + and He 3 + centres and n-2 or n-3 inductively bound He atoms have nearly the same energies. In He 4 a low-lying metastable Rydberg state ( 3 π symmetry for linear He 4 * , 3 B 1 for the T-shaped form) exists which is slightly stronger bound with respect to He 3 * +He than the corresponding ion. (orig.)

  13. Active vs. spectator modes in nonadiabatic photodissociation dynamics of the hydroxymethyl radical via the 22A(3s) Rydberg state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The choice of the active degrees of freedom (DOFs) is a pivotal issue in a reduced-dimensional model of quantum dynamics when a full-dimensional one is not feasible. Here, several five-dimensional (5D) models are used to investigate the nonadiabatic photodissociation dynamics of the hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) radical, which possesses nine internal DOFs, in its lowest absorption band. A normal-mode based scheme is used to identify the active and spectator modes, and its predictions are confirmed by 5D quantum dynamical calculations. Our results underscore the important role of the CO stretching mode in the photodissociation dynamics of CH2OH, originating from the photo-induced promotion of an electron from the half-occupied π*CO antibonding orbital to a carbon Rydberg orbital.

  14. Metastable states in antiprotonic helium atoms an island stability in a sea of continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Korobov, V I

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution we consider a phenomenon of metastable states in antiprotonic helium atoms, precise spectroscopy of these states and a present-day study of the electromagnetic properties of antiprotons. Calculation of nonrelativistic energies, relativistic and QED corrections as well as the fine and hyperfine structure and the magnetic moment of an antiproton are the main parts of this study. Refs. 22 (nevyjel)

  15. Many-body physics with alkaline-earth Rydberg lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R; Nath, R; Pohl, T [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Millen, J; Jones, M P A, E-mail: rick@pks.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-28

    We explore the prospects for confining alkaline-earth Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice via optical dressing of the secondary core-valence electron. Focussing on the particular case of strontium, we identify experimentally accessible magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of ground and Rydberg states. A detailed analysis of relevant loss mechanisms shows that the overall lifetime of such a system is limited only by the spontaneous decay of the Rydberg state, and is not significantly affected by photoionization or autoionization. The van der Waals C{sub 6} coefficients for the Sr(5sns {sup 1}S{sub 0}) Rydberg series are calculated, and we find that the interactions are attractive. Finally we show that the combination of magic-wavelength lattices and attractive interactions could be exploited to generate many-body Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  16. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nez, F.

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  17. High-density equation of state for helium and its application to bubbles in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1980-06-01

    Helium, produced by transmutations or injected, causes bubble formation in solids at elevated temperatures. For small bubbles, the gas pressure required to balance the surface tension reaches values which far exceed those obtainable in experiments to measure the equation of state for helium gas. Therefore, empirical gas laws cannot be considered applicable to the fluid-like densities existing in small bubbles. In order to remedy this situation, an equation of state for helium was developed from the theory of the liquid state. At very low densities, this theoretically derived equation of state agrees with experimental results. For high densities, however, gas pressures are predicted which are significantly higher than those derived from the ideal gas law, but also significantly lower than pressures obtained with the van der Waals law. When applied to equilibrium bubbles in solids, it is found that the high-density equation of state leads to less bubble swelling than the van der Waals law, but more than the ideal gas law. Furthermore, the number of helium atoms in equilibrium bubbles is nearly independent of temperature

  18. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology; De la constante de Rydberg a la metrologie des constantes fondamentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez, F

    2005-06-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  19. The valence and Rydberg states of difluoromethane: A combined experimental vacuum ultraviolet spectrum absorption and theoretical study by ab initio configuration interaction and density functional computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C.; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare

    2018-06-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum for CH2F2 from a new synchrotron study has been combined with earlier data and subjected to detailed scrutiny. The onset of absorption, band I and also band IV, is resolved into broad vibrational peaks, which contrast with the continuous absorption previously claimed. A new theoretical analysis, using a combination of time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations and complete active space self-consistent field, leads to a major new interpretation. Adiabatic excitation energies (AEEs) and vertical excitation energies, evaluated by these methods, are used to interpret the spectra in unprecedented detail using theoretical vibronic analysis. This includes both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects on cold and hot bands. These results lead to the re-assignment of several known excited states and the identification of new ones. The lowest calculated AEE sequence for singlet states is 11B1 ˜ 11A2 expected; the onset of the 15.5 eV band shows a set of vibrational peaks, but the vibration frequency does not correspond to any of the photoelectron spectral (PES) structure and is clearly valence in nature. The routine use of PES footprints to detect Rydberg states in VUV spectra is shown to be inadequate. The combined effects of FC and HT in the VUV spectral bands lead to additional vibrations when compared with the PES.

  20. Equation of state and transport properties of warm dense helium via quantum molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-Guo [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Cheng, Yan [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Qi-Feng, E-mail: chenqf01@gmail.com, E-mail: xrchen@scu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Xiang-Rong, E-mail: chenqf01@gmail.com, E-mail: xrchen@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The equation of state, self-diffusion, and viscosity coefficients of helium have been investigated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the warm dense matter regime. Our simulations are validated through the comparison with the reliable experimental data. The calculated principal and reshock Hugoniots of liquid helium are in good agreement with the gas-gun data. On this basis, we revisit the issue for helium, i.e., the possibility of the instabilities predicted by chemical models at around 2000 GPa and 10 g/cm{sup 3} along the pressure isotherms of 6309, 15 849, and 31 623 K. Our calculations show no indications of instability in this pressure-temperature region, which reconfirm the predictions of previous QMD simulations. The self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients of warm dense helium have been systematically investigated by the QMD simulations. We carefully test the finite-size effects and convergences of statistics, and obtain numerically converged self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients by using the Kubo-Green formulas. The present results have been used to evaluate the existing one component plasma models. Finally, the validation of the Stokes-Einstein relationship for helium in the warm dense regime is discussed.

  1. Excited-state relaxation of Ag8 clusters embedded in helium droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radcliffe, Paul; Przystawik, Andreas; Diederich, Thomas; Doeppner, Tilo; Tiggesbaeumker, Josef; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Neutral silver clusters Ag N are grown in ultracold helium nanodroplets. By exploiting a strong absorption resonance recently found for Ag 8 , first photoelectron spectra of this neutral species are recorded. Variation of the laser photon energy reveals that direct vertical two-photon ionization is hindered by rapid relaxation into the lower edge of a long-living excited state manifold. The analysis of the dynamics gives a precise value of (6.89±0.09) eV for the vertical ionization potential of Ag 8 . The influence of the helium matrix on photoemission is discussed

  2. Trapping of negative kaons by metastable states during the atomic cascade in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Aoki, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Outa, H.; Takada, E.; Tamura, H.; Sakaguchi, A.

    1989-06-01

    We observed two distinct peaks, 205 MeV/cπ - and 235 MeV/cμ - , associated with K π2 - and K μ2 - decays at rest, respectively, from negative kaons stopped in liquid helium. These peaks were found to be delayed with respect to the stopping K - , showing that stopped K - mesons of about 2% fraction are trapped in metastable states with an overall lifetime of about 40 nsec. This observation provides a direct evidence for Condo's trapping hypothesis for the at-rest decay components of K - and π - in liquid helium. (author)

  3. A nonlinear programming approach to lower bounds for the ground-state energy of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, I.; Feldmann, D.M.; King, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Lower-bound estimates for the ground-state energy of the helium atom are determined using nonlinear programming techniques. Optimized lower bounds are determined for single-particle, radially correlated, and general correlated wave functions. The local nature of the method employed makes it a very severe test of the accuracy of the wave function

  4. The influence of autoionizing states on the excitation of helium by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittersum, T. van

    1976-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with resonance effects in the scattering of electrons by helium at energies near the threshold of the autoionizing states (50-70 eV). The investigation is performed by studying light emission following the excitation of singly excited states. In some cases, the polarization of the radiation was also investigated. The purpose of the research was (i) to enlarge our knowledge of triply excited negative ion states, i.e. resonance states which are formed by temporary binding of the incident electron to a doubly excited (autoionizing) state of neutral helium, and (ii) to clear up the nature of some resonance structures which could not be explained in terms of negative ion resonances

  5. Coopetition and manipulation of quantum correlations in Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chu-Hui; Yan, Dong; Liu, Yi-Mou; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2017-01-01

    We study the steady-state quantum correlations arising from the atom–field and interatomic interplays in two-level Rydberg atoms coherently driven by an external laser field. Three kinds of quantum correlations, i.e., atom–atom correlation, atom–field entanglement and photon–photon correlation, are simultaneously examined by considering dipole–dipole interactions (DDI) for pairwise Rydberg atoms. They are shown to be closely linked with single and double Rydberg excitations, which can be modulated to work in the blockade or antiblockade regime depending on the driving field frequency, the DDI strength and the Rydberg decay rate. As a result, we obtain strongly correlated atoms and highly antibunching photons (indispensable resources in applications of quantum information processing) intermediated with robust atom–field entanglement. (paper)

  6. Density effects on high-n molecular Rydberg states: CH3I and C6H6 in H2 and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf, U.; Felps, W.S.; Rupnik, K.; McGlynn, S.P.; Ascarelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The absorption spectra of high-n Rydberg states of methyl iodide and benzene perturbed by varying number densities of hydrogen or argon, range 0.9x10 20 --10.5x10 20 cm -3 for H 2 and 0.6x10 20 --7.5x10 20 cm -3 for Ar, have been investigated. The high-n molecular states of both absorbers were found to shift linearly with the number density of atomic Ar and molecular H 2 scatterers. The Fermi formula modified by the Alekseev--Sobel'man polarization term provides an excellent fit of the shift data. The electron scattering lengths obtained are: 0.93 a 0 for H 2 and -1.63 a 0 for Ar using the CH 3 I absorber; and 0.99 a 0 for H 2 and -1.57 a 0 for Ar using the C 6 H 6 absorber. The electron scattering lengths for H 2 and Ar agree with the results of an empirical model that correlates scattering lengths and the polarizabilities α(spherical) for inert atoms and α 2 (nonspherical) for H 2 molecule

  7. Bohmian picture of Rydberg atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Unlike the previous theoretical results based on standard quantum mechanics that established the nearly elliptical shapes for the centre-of-mass motion in Rydberg atoms using numerical simulations, we show analytically that the Bohmian trajectories in Rydberg atoms are nearly elliptical.

  8. Correlations between interacting Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Braun, Christoph; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    This paper is a short introduction to Rydberg physics and quantum nonlinear optics using Rydberg atoms. It has been prepared as a compliment to a series of lectures delivered during the Latin American School of Physics "Marcos Moshinsky" 2017. We provide a short introduction to the properties of individual Rydberg atoms and discuss in detail how the interaction potential between Rydberg atom pairs is calculated. We then discuss how this interaction gives rise to the Rydberg blockade mechanism. With the aid of hallmark experiments in the field applications of the blockade for creating correlated quantum systems are discussed. Our aim is to give an overview of this exciting and rapidly evolving field. The interested reader is referred to original work and more comprehensive reviews and tutorials for further details on these subjects.

  9. Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederprüm, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.; Ott, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Engineering molecules with a tunable bond length and defined quantum states lies at the heart of quantum chemistry. The unconventional binding mechanism of Rydberg molecules makes them a promising candidate to implement such tunable molecules. A very peculiar type of Rydberg molecules are the so-called butterfly molecules, which are bound by a shape resonance in the electron–perturber scattering. Here we report the observation of these exotic molecules and employ their exceptional properties to engineer their bond length, vibrational state, angular momentum and orientation in a small electric field. Combining the variable bond length with their giant dipole moment of several hundred Debye, we observe counter-intuitive molecules which locate the average electron position beyond the internuclear distance. PMID:27703143

  10. Theoretical research of helium pulsating heat pipe under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, D; Liu, H M; Li, L F; Huang, R J; Wang, W

    2015-01-01

    As a new-type heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has several outstanding features, such as great heat transport ability, strong adjustability, small size and simple construction. PHP is a complex two-phase flow system associated with many physical subjects and parameters, which utilizes the pressure and temperature changes in volume expansion and contraction during phase changes to excite the pulsation motion of liquid plugs and vapor bubbles in the capillary tube between the evaporator and the condenser. At present time, some experimental investigation of helium PHP have been done. However, theoretical research of helium PHP is rare. In this paper, the physical and mathematical models of operating mechanism for helium PHP under steady state are established based on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Several important parameters are correlated and solved, including the liquid filling ratio, flow velocity, heat power, temperature, etc. Based on the results, the operational driving force and flow resistances of helium PHP are analysed, and the flow and heat transfer is further studied. (paper)

  11. Theoretical research of helium pulsating heat pipe under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Liu, H. M.; Li, L. F.; Huang, R. J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    As a new-type heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has several outstanding features, such as great heat transport ability, strong adjustability, small size and simple construction. PHP is a complex two-phase flow system associated with many physical subjects and parameters, which utilizes the pressure and temperature changes in volume expansion and contraction during phase changes to excite the pulsation motion of liquid plugs and vapor bubbles in the capillary tube between the evaporator and the condenser. At present time, some experimental investigation of helium PHP have been done. However, theoretical research of helium PHP is rare. In this paper, the physical and mathematical models of operating mechanism for helium PHP under steady state are established based on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Several important parameters are correlated and solved, including the liquid filling ratio, flow velocity, heat power, temperature, etc. Based on the results, the operational driving force and flow resistances of helium PHP are analysed, and the flow and heat transfer is further studied.

  12. Optimal control of Rydberg lattice gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; van Bijnen, Rick; Pohl, Thomas; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso

    2017-09-01

    We present optimal control protocols to prepare different many-body quantum states of Rydberg atoms in optical lattices. Specifically, we show how to prepare highly ordered many-body ground states, GHZ states as well as some superposition of symmetric excitation number Fock states, that inherit the translational symmetry from the Hamiltonian, within sufficiently short excitation times minimising detrimental decoherence effects. For the GHZ states, we propose a two-step detection protocol to experimentally verify the optimised preparation of the target state based only on standard measurement techniques. Realistic experimental constraints and imperfections are taken into account by our optimisation procedure making it applicable to ongoing experiments.

  13. Optimal control of Rydberg lattice gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jian; Bijnen, Rick van; Pohl, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    the translational symmetry from the Hamiltonian, within sufficiently short excitation times minimising detrimental decoherence effects. For the GHZ states, we propose a two-step detection protocol to experimentally verify the optimised preparation of the target state based only on standard measurement techniques....... Realistic experimental constraints and imperfections are taken into account by our optimisation procedure making it applicable to ongoing experiments.......We present optimal control protocols to prepare different many-body quantum states of Rydberg atoms in optical lattices. Specifically, we show how to prepare highly ordered many-body ground states, GHZ states as well as some superposition of symmetric excitation number Fock states, that inherit...

  14. Molecular Rydberg transitions in carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fock, J.H.; Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.

    1979-10-01

    The linear correlation between the term value and ionization energy for molecular Rydberg transitions is tested for the sequence of isoelectronic molecules BF, CO and N 2 based on a new measurement of the absorption spectrum of CO and data for BF and N 2 . For the npsigma series and npπ series converging on the first ionization potential, we find an excellent linear behavior (within 10 meV) corroborating (I) the correlation and (II) the individual assignments. For Rydberg series leading to the A 2 DELTA and B 2 EPSILON + states, where no data for BF are available, a comparison of term values for CO and N 2 is presented. (orig.)

  15. Steady state heat transfer of helium cooled cable bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the present study nucleate and film boiling heat transfer characteristics of horizontal conductor bundles are investigated at steady state conditions. The effect of gaps between wires, number of wires, wire position, wire size and bundle orientation on the departure from nucleate boiling and transition to film boiling is studied. For gaps close to the bubble departure diameter, the critical heat flux can approach up to 90% of the single wire value. Consequently, the maximum stable current for a given bundle can be significantly increased above the single conductor value for the same cross-sectional area. (author)

  16. Microscopic Characterization of Scalable Coherent Rydberg Superatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Zeiher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Strong interactions can amplify quantum effects such that they become important on macroscopic scales. Controlling these coherently on a single-particle level is essential for the tailored preparation of strongly correlated quantum systems and opens up new prospects for quantum technologies. Rydberg atoms offer such strong interactions, which lead to extreme nonlinearities in laser-coupled atomic ensembles. As a result, multiple excitation of a micrometer-sized cloud can be blocked while the light-matter coupling becomes collectively enhanced. The resulting two-level system, often called a “superatom,” is a valuable resource for quantum information, providing a collective qubit. Here, we report on the preparation of 2 orders of magnitude scalable superatoms utilizing the large interaction strength provided by Rydberg atoms combined with precise control of an ensemble of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The latter is achieved with sub-shot-noise precision by local manipulation of a two-dimensional Mott insulator. We microscopically confirm the superatom picture by in situ detection of the Rydberg excitations and observe the characteristic square-root scaling of the optical coupling with the number of atoms. Enabled by the full control over the atomic sample, including the motional degrees of freedom, we infer the overlap of the produced many-body state with a W state from the observed Rabi oscillations and deduce the presence of entanglement. Finally, we investigate the breakdown of the superatom picture when two Rydberg excitations are present in the system, which leads to dephasing and a loss of coherence.

  17. Topological matter with collective encoding and Rydberg blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We propose to use a permutation symmetric sample of multilevel atoms to simulate the properties of topologically ordered states. The Rydberg blockade interaction is used to prepare states of the sample which are equivalent to resonating valence bond states, Laughlin states, and string-net condens......-net condensates and to create and study the properties of their quasi-particle-like fundamental excitations....

  18. Wave-packet approach to Rydberg resonances in dissociative recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisset, Sabine; Pichl, Lukas; Orel, Ann E.; Schneider, Ioan F.

    2007-01-01

    We report the time-dependent approach to resonant electron capture into Rydberg states in collisions with molecular cations at low impact energy, as an alternative to the method based on multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT), and present the results for the HD + ion. The propagation of the initial wave function on 13 Rydberg states (besides one valence state) correctly describes the indirect dissociative recombination mechanism in the time domain. Notably, the nonlocal coupling operator between the ionization and dissociation channels is accounted for in the indirect process, extending previous work on the case of direct coupling. The present approach compares to the MQDT framework with remarkable precision: resonant structures in the cross section correctly emerge from the wave-packet propagation; the time-dependent result also forms a cross section envelope for the dense series of ultrafine MQDT resonances corresponding to the quasicontinuous part of the Rydberg state manifold

  19. Interactions of solid and liquid lithium with steady state hydrogen and helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Ohgaki, H.; Ohtsuka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of innovative Plasma-Facing Component (PFC) concepts, employing moving solid or liquid surfaces, have recently been proposed in order to resolve technical issues, associated with the applications of currently used PFCs in future steady state fusion devices. As the first step to evaluate the concept using flowing-liquids for PFCs, steady state hydrogen and helium plasma interactions with solid and standing liquid lithium have been investigated in the present work, using the H α and He-I spectroscopy at the ion bombarding energies up to 150eV and at the lithium temperatures between room temperature and 480 deg C. Data indicate that hydrogen recycling over liquid lithium is clearly reduced, relative to that over solid lithium, whereas helium recycling does not show the same trend. From the kinetic analysis of these recycling time constant data, the activation energies for the overall recycling processes have been evaluated to be 0.02±0.01eV, both for hydrogen and helium plasmas. Also, it has been found that the activation energy is nearly independent of ion bombarding energy. (author)

  20. Sound velocity and equation-of-state measurements in high pressure fluid and solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A piston--cylinder apparatus was used to obtain P, V, T, and simultaneous values of longitudinal sound velocity in helium fluid throughout the ranges 75 to 300 0 K and 3 to 20 kbar. Some 670 data sets were obtained for the fluid and used in a double-process least-squares fit to an equation of state of the Benedict type. Additional measurements extended across the melting line into the solid phase at pressures up to 18 kbar. Measurements of the compressibility are compared with those obtained by Stewart along the 4 0 K isotherm up to 20 kbar. We discuss the use of helium as a pressure medium in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. Essentially no data are given

  1. Hydrogen and helium recycling from stirred liquid lithium under steady state plasma bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Yoshi, E-mail: hirooka.yoshihiko@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); The Graduate School for Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Zhou, Haishan [The Graduate School for Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ono, Masa [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    For improved core performance via edge plasma-wall boundary control, solid and liquid lithium has been used as a plasma-facing material in a number of confinement experiments over the past several decades. Unfortunately, it is unavoidable that lithium is saturated in the surface region with implanted hydrogenic species as well as oxygen-containing impurities. For steady state operation, a flowing liquid lithium divertor with forced convection would probably be required. In the present work, the effects of liquid stirring to simulate forced convection have been investigated on the behavior of hydrogen and helium recycling from molten lithium at temperatures up to ∼350 °C. Data indicate that liquid stirring reactivates hydrogen pumping via surface de-saturation and/or uncovering impurity films, but can also induce helium release via surface temperature change.

  2. The dipole moment and magnetic hyperfine properties of the excited A 2Σ+(3sσ) Rydberg state of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendening, E.D.; Feller, D.; Peterson, K.A.; McCullough, E.A. Jr.; Miller, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The dipole moment and magnetic hyperfine properties of the A 2 Σ + Rydberg state of nitric oxide have been evaluated at a variety of levels of theory with extended correlation consistent basis sets. Using the finite field approach to compute the dipole moment, restricted coupled cluster RCCSD(T) and complete active space-configuration interaction CAS-CI+Q methods yield values (1.09--1.12 D) that are essentially identical to experiment. In contrast, dipole moments computed as an expectation value of the dipole moment operator typically differ from experiment by 0.1--0.6 D. The rather unfavorable comparisons with experiment reported in previous theoretical studies may stem, in part, from the method chosen to evaluate the dipole moment. Magnetic hyperfine properties were evaluated using a variety of unrestricted and restricted open-shell Hartree--Fock-based methods. We estimated the full CI limiting properties by exploiting the convergence behavior of a sequence of MRCI wave functions. The isotropic component A iso ( 14 N) of 39±1 MHz evaluated in this fashion is in excellent accord with the experimental value of 41.4±1.7 MHz. Highly correlated UHF-based methods [e.g., CCSD(T) and QCISD(T)] yield comparable values of 40--41 MHz that are in good agreement with both experiment and the apparent full CI limit. However, for A iso ( 17 O), the full CI limit (-97±2 MHz) and the UHF-based results (ca.-118 MHz) differ by roughly 20 MHz. It remains unclear how to reconcile this large discrepancy. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. Wavepacket dynamics of a Rydberg atom monitored by a pair of time-delayed laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, PeiPei; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, ShanShan; Wang, HanMu; Liu, HongPing

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the Rydberg state population of an argon atom by an intense laser pulse and its wavepacket dynamics monitored by another successive laser pulse in the tunneling regime. A wavepacket comprising a superposition of close high-lying Rydberg states is irradiated by a multicycle laser pulse, where the sub-wave components in the wavepacket have fixed relative phases. A time-delayed second laser pulse is employed to apply on the excited Rydberg atom. If the time is properly chosen, one of the sub-wave components will be guided towards the ionization area while the rest remains intact. By means of this pump-probe technique, we could control and monitor the Rydberg wavepacket dynamics and reveal some interesting phenomenon such as the survival rate of individual Rydberg states related to the classical orbital period of electron.

  4. Janne Rydberg - his life and work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, I.; Curtis, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Rydberg formula is emblematic of atomic spectroscopy. We review here the personal background, research accomplishments, and academic career of its discoverer, Janne Rydberg. Although his formula is often introduced as a generalization of the hydrogenic Balmer formula, Rydberg's work was independent of Balmer's, and displayed great ingenuity and a rare ability to recognize hidden patterns in complex numerical data. Although his discoveries attracted wide attention, experimental physics was then considered inseparable from measurement, and the fact that Rydberg's insightful formulations used the data of others impeded his academic career. Although Rydberg did not live to see the full theoretical implications of his discoveries, the vigorous study of Rydberg atoms continues today

  5. Rydberg dressing of atoms in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrı, T.; Pohl, T.

    2014-01-01

    We study atoms in optical lattices whose electronic ground state is off-resonantly coupled to a highly excited state with strong binary interactions. We present a time-dependent treatment of the resulting quantum dynamics, which—contrary to recent predictions [36 Li, Ates, and Lesanovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 213005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.213005]—proves that the strong repulsion between the weakly admixed Rydberg states does not lead to atomic trap loss. This finding provides an important basis for creating and manipulating coherent long-range interactions in optical lattice experiments.

  6. Laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2005-01-01

    When antiprotons (i.e. the antimatter counterpart of protons) are stopped in helium gas, 97% of them annihilate within picoseconds by reacting with the helium nuclei; a 3% fraction, however, survive with an anomalously long lifetime of several microseconds. This longevity is due to the formation of antiprotonic helium, which is a three-body Rydberg atom composed of an antiproton, electron, and helium nucleus. The ASACUSA experimental collaboration has recently synthesized large numbers of these atoms using CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility, and measured the atom's transition frequencies to 60 parts per billion by laser spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental results with recent three-body QED calculations and the known antiproton cyclotron frequency, we were able to show that the antiproton mass and charge are the same as the corresponding proton values to a precision of 10 parts per billion. Ongoing and future series of experiments will further improve the experimental precision by using chirp-compe...

  7. Interactions of circular Rydberg atoms with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in experimental cross-field techniques has made it possible to produce oriented Rydberg atoms of any angular momentum l within a given n manifold. The largest angular momentum state l max = n - 1 of a given n manifold is of particular interest because of its semiclassical properties for n much-gt 1. The corresponding classical Kepler orbit is circular with highly localized phase space distribution. The circular Rydberg atoms afford the opportunity to study various interactions in the semiclassical regime. The authors report electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms by protons and positrons at speeds comparable to the electron orbital speed. They find orientation dependent, novel peak structures for both protons and positrons in the angular scattering of the particles. The structures may be understood in terms of quasi Thomas double scattering mechanism for capture. Other related aspects including final state population and orientation indulged scattering asymmetry will also be discussed

  8. Quantum-dynamical Modeling of the Rydberg to Valence Excited-State Internal Conversion in Cyclobutanone and Cyclopentanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller K. B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s to (n,π* internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer.

  9. Quantum-dynamical Modeling of the Rydberg to Valence Excited-State Internal Conversion in Cyclobutanone and Cyclopentanone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, T. S.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Solling, T. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s) to (n,π*) internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two st...... states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer....

  10. Steady-state exhaust of helium ash in the W-shaped divertor of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, A.; Takenaga, H.; Hosogane, N.

    2001-01-01

    By injecting a neutral beam of 60 keV helium (He) atoms as central fueling of helium into the ELMy H-mode plasmas, helium exhaust has been studied in the W-shaped pumped divertor on JT-60U. Efficient He exhaust was realized by He pumping using argon frosted cryopumps in the JT-60U new divertor. In steady state, good He exhaust capability (τ He */τ E =4 and high enrichment factor, where τ He * is a global particle confinement time of helium and τ E is the energy confinement time) was successfully demonstrated in attached ELMy H-mode plasmas. Good He exhaust capability was also obtained in detached ELMy H-mode plasmas, which was comparable to one in attached plasmas. This result of the helium exhaust is sufficient to support a detached divertor operation on ITER. After the divertor modification, helium exhaust in reversed shear plasmas has been investigated using He gas puff. Helium removal inside the internal transport barrier (ITB) is about two times as difficult as that outside the ITB in reversed shear discharges. (author)

  11. Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function.The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.

  12. Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, Yu.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n≤4 are treated individually, while the states with n≥5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n≥5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form

  13. Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.

    1997-01-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the excitation of the autoionizing (2s 2 ) 1 S, (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P states of helium by 100 keV proton impact is presented for the first time. The role of the three-body Coulomb interaction in the final state between the ejected electron, the scattered proton and the recoil helium ion is emphasized. Calculations have been carried out with inclusion of the three-body Coulomb interaction and within an expansion of a two-electron excitation amplitude in powers of projectile-target interaction up to the second order. A new parametrization is proposed to describe resonance profiles distorted by the Coulomb interaction in the final state (CIFS). New high-resolution (up to 68 meV) measurements of electron emission spectra made it possible to resolve the near-lying (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P resonances and reveal an evident distortion of the resonance profiles by CIFS for forward electron ejection angles below 40 o . (author)

  14. Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godunov, A.L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire Collisions, Agregats, Reactivite; Schipakov, V.A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-14

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the excitation of the autoionizing (2s{sup 2}){sup 1}S, (2p{sup 2}){sup 1}D and (2s2p){sup 1}P states of helium by 100 keV proton impact is presented for the first time. The role of the three-body Coulomb interaction in the final state between the ejected electron, the scattered proton and the recoil helium ion is emphasized. Calculations have been carried out with inclusion of the three-body Coulomb interaction and within an expansion of a two-electron excitation amplitude in powers of projectile-target interaction up to the second order. A new parametrization is proposed to describe resonance profiles distorted by the Coulomb interaction in the final state (CIFS). New high-resolution (up to 68 meV) measurements of electron emission spectra made it possible to resolve the near-lying (2p{sup 2}){sup 1}D and (2s2p){sup 1}P resonances and reveal an evident distortion of the resonance profiles by CIFS for forward electron ejection angles below 40{sup o}. (author).

  15. Many-body quantum simulation with Rydberg atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents my work that is located at the interface between the fields of atomic physics, quantum optics and quantum information. The work was performed at the Institute of Theoretical Physics of the University of Innsbruck and the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences under the supervision of Prof. Peter Zoller. The main topic of this thesis is the investigation of new schemes for quantum simulation of interacting many-body systems. The thesis is divided into three parts, which cover my work on i) chains of trapped Rydberg ions ii) quantum information processing and simulation with Rydberg atoms and iii) quantum simulation with ground state ions. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of Rydberg ions trapped in a linear Paul trap. The properties of ionic Rydberg states in the presence of the static and time-dependent electric trapping fields are investigated. First it is analyzed under which conditions laser-excited Rydberg ions can be trapped in a stable configuration. Furthermore, it is shown that strong dipole-dipole interactions among the ions can be achieved by microwave dressing fields. These interactions can give rise to dynamics of Rydberg excitations through the ion crystal, which take place on a nanosecond timescale and can be described by effective spin-models. In addition, it is discussed how to achieve fast two-qubit entangling gates between pairs of Rydberg ions. In the second part of this thesis, novel possibilities of using neutral Rydberg atoms for quantum-information processing and quantum simulation are investigated. A new scheme for a multi-atom quantum gate is proposed and theoretically analyzed. This parallelized gate allows one to entangle a mesoscopic ensemble of atoms with a single control atom in a single step, with high fidelity and on a microsecond time scale. The operation relies on strong and long-ranged interactions between Rydberg atoms triggering a

  16. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  17. Formation of Antihydrogen Rydberg atoms in strong magnetic field traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, T.; Sadeghpour, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that several features of antihydrogen production in nested Penning traps can be described with accurate and efficient Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that cold deeply-bound Rydberg states of antihydrogen (H-bar) are produced in three-body capture in the ATRAP experiments and an additional formation mechanism -Rydberg charge transfer-, particular to the nested Penning trap geometry, is responsible for the observed fast (hot) H-bar atoms. Detailed description of the numerical propagation technique for following extreme close encounters is given. An analytic derivation of the power law behavior of the field ionization spectrum is provided

  18. Quantifying Ab Initio Equation of State Errors for Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Raymond; Morales, Miguel

    2017-06-01

    In order to produce predictive models of Jovian planets, an accurate equation of state for hydrogen-helium mixtures is needed over pressure and temperature ranges spanning multiple orders of magnitude. While extensive theoretical work has been done in this area, previous controversies regarding the equation of state of pure hydrogen have demonstrated exceptional sensitivity to approximations commonly employed in ab initio calculations. To this end, we present the results of our quantum Monte Carlo based benchmarking studies for several major classes of density functionals. Additionally, we expand upon our published results by considering the impact that ionic finite size effects and density functional errors translate to errors in the equation of state. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Simulations of the dissociation of small helium clusters with ab initio molecular dynamics in electronically excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closser, Kristina D.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Gessner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics resulting from electronic excitations of helium clusters were explored using ab initio molecular dynamics. The simulations were performed with configuration interaction singles and adiabatic classical dynamics coupled to a state-following algorithm. 100 different configurations of He 7 were excited into the 2s and 2p manifold for a total of 2800 trajectories. While the most common outcome (90%) was complete fragmentation to 6 ground state atoms and 1 excited state atom, 3% of trajectories yielded bound, He 2 * , and <0.5% yielded an excited helium trimer. The nature of the dynamics, kinetic energy release, and connections to experiments are discussed

  20. Precise determination of the magnetic moment of helium in its 23S1 metastable state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zundell, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The electronic magnetic moment of helium was measured by the atomic beam magnetic resonance method using separated oscillating fields. Actually, the magnetic moment of helium relative to that of rubidium was measured. The result was combined with the ratio g/sub J/(Rb)/g/sub J/(H) to get R = g/sub J/(He, 2 3 S 1 )/g/sub J/(H, 2 S/sub 1/2/) = 1 - (23.19 +- 0.1) x 10 -6 . The motivation for this Zeeman measurement was to provide as sensitive a test of the theory of atomic magnetism for a multielectron atom as possible. In particular, the experiment provides a test of the relativistic corrections to the Zeeman effect. The experiment also tests the additivity of the radiative corrections to the magnetic moments of the two electrons. Another motivation concerns the determination of the fine structure constant α from measurements of the 2 3 P fine structure intervals of 4 He; namely, the understanding of the 2 3 S states contributes to the knowledge of the theoretical expressions for the 2 3 P intervals. For the chosen magnetic field of 9.5 kG, the helium resonance frequency was 26.8 GHz, the rubidium frequency, 26.4 GHz. The linewidth associated with the microwave double loop was 25 KHz. Thus it was necessary to pick the resonance line centers to only 1 part in 10 to achieve a 0.1 ppM accuracy. This result is in excellent agreement with the latest theoretical value, R = 1 - 23.21 x 10 -6 ; and with earlier, less precise atomic beam measurements; and with the latest, comparably accurate optical pumping value. Many possible sources of error were investigated. The quoted error is based on analysis of residual systematic effects

  1. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence...... for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up...

  2. Quantum information with Rydberg atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing....

  3. Collisional destruction of fast hydrogen Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new modulated electric field technique was developed to study Rydberg atom destruction processes in a fast beam. The process of destruction of a band of Rydberg atom destruction of a band of Rydberg atoms through the combined processes of ionization, excitation, and deexcitation was studied for collisions with gas targets. Rydberg atoms of hydrogen were formed by electron capture, and detected by field ionization. The modulated field technique described proved to be an effective technique for producing a large signal for accurate cross section measurements. The independent particle model for Rydberg atom destruction processes was found to hold well for collisions with molecular nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide. The resonances in the cross sections for the free electron scattering with these targets were found to also occur in Rydberg destruction. Suggestions for future investigations of Rydberg atom collision processes in the fast beam regime are given

  4. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman

    2010-01-01

    The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly cou...

  5. Measurement of the hyperfine structure of the ground state of muonic helium(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, K.P.

    1984-01-01

    Polarization measurements by the muon spin rotation method yielded the detection that in the formation of 3 Heμ - e - the hfs states are occupied differently. In pure helium(3) a residual polarization of 2.6(4)% of the ( 3 Heμ - ) + ion was found. At an admixture of 2% xenon the neutral 3 Heμ - e - atom is formed with a polarization of 1.8(4)%. The hfs measurements were performed by means of the high-frequency spectroscopy. By inducing of Δmsub(F)=+-1 transitions the muon polarization is changed. This effects a change of the asymmetric electron distribution which arises by the parity-violating muon decay and can be detected by plastic scintillators. The measurements were performed at a highly pure gas target of 19.90 bar helium(3) to which 1.6% Xe were admixed, at 20 0 C and in a magnetic zero field. The pressure shift for the hfs measurements of 3 Heμ - e - , extrapolated to the buffer gas pressure zero, is: Δνsub(hfs)=4166.41(5) MHz. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Magnetic-Field Induced Enhancement in the Fluorescence Yield Spectrum of Doubly Excited States in Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, Magnus; Saathe, Conny; Agaaker, Marcus; Soederstroem, Johan; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Stranges, Stefano; Richter, Robert; Alagia, Michele; Gorczyca, T. W.; Robicheaux, F.

    2006-01-01

    An influence of static magnetic fields on the fluorescence yield spectrum of He in the vicinity of the N=2 thresholds has been observed. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with predictions based on multichannel quantum defect theory, and it is demonstrated that the Rydberg electron l mixing due to the diamagnetic interaction is essential for the description of the observed fluorescence yield intensity enhancement

  7. Average equilibrium charge state of 278113 ions moving in a helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, D.; Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    Difficulty to identify a new heavy element comes from the small production cross section. For example, the production cross section was about 0.5 pb in the case of searching for the 112th element produced by the cold fusion reaction of 208 Pb( 70 Zn,n) 277 ll2. In order to identify heavier elements than element 112, the experimental apparatus with a sensitivity of sub-pico barn level is essentially needed. A gas-filled recoil separator, in general, has a large collection efficiency compared with other recoil separators as seen from the operation principle of a gas-filled recoil separator. One of the most important parameters for a gas-filled recoil separator is the average equilibrium charge state q ave of ions moving in a used gas. This is because the recoil ion can not be properly transported to the focal plane of the separator, if the q ave of an element of interest in a gas is unknown. We have systematically measured equilibrium charge state distributions of heavy ions ( 169 Tm, 208 Pb, 193,209 Bi, 196 Po, 200 At, 203,204 Fr, 212 Ac, 234 Bk, 245 Fm, 254 No, 255 Lr, and 265 Hs) moving in a helium gas by using the gas-filled recoil separator GARIS at RIKEN. Ana then, the empirical formula on q ave of heavy ions in a helium gas was derived as a function of the velocity and the atomic number of an ion on the basis of the Tomas-Fermi model of the atom. The formula was found to be applicable to search for transactinide nuclides of 271 Ds, 272 Rg, and 277 112 produced by cold fusion reactions. Using the formula on q ave , we searched for a new isotope of element 113 produced by the cold fusion reaction of 209 Bi( 70 Zn,n) 278 113. As a result, a decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113 was observed. Recently, we have successfully observed the 2nd decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113. In this report, we will present experimental results in detail, and will also discuss the average equilibrium charge sate of 278 113 in a helium gas by

  8. Electron-photon angular correlation measurements for the 2 1P state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slevin, J.; Porter, H.Q.; Eminyan, M.; Defrance, A.; Vassilev, G.

    1980-01-01

    Electron-photon angular correlations have been measured by detecting in delayed coincidence, electrons inelastically scattered from helium and photons emitted in decays from the 2 1 P state at incident electron energies of 60 and 80 eV. Analysis of the data yields values for the ratio lambda of the differential cross sections for magnetic sublevel excitations and the phase difference X between the corresponding probability amplitudes. The measurements extend over the angular range 10-120 0 of electron scattering angles. The present data are in good agreement with the experimental results of Hollywood et al, (J. Phys. B.; 12: 819 (1979)), and show a marked discrepancy at large scattering angles with the recent data of Steph and Golde. (Phys. Rev.; A in press (1980)). The experimental results are compared with some recent theories. (author)

  9. Determination of first ionization potential of samarium atom using Rydberg series convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekharan, T.; Razvi, M.A.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    The study of Rydberg states has recently received more attention partially because an efficient isotope selective ionization is possible via these states. In addition, their investigation provides useful information on the atomic structure. An electron in a shell with a high principal quantum number is a sensitive probe for the interaction with the ionic core of the atom. Measurements of these Rydberg levels give valuable data on quantum defects, anomalies in fine structure splitting, polarizabilities, configuration interactions, ionization potentials etc

  10. Excitation of helium Rydberg states and doubly excited resonances in strong extreme ultraviolet fields: Full-dimensional quantum dynamics using exponentially tempered Gaussian basis sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Šmydke, Jan; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2013), s. 104314 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/0571; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : HARMONIC-GENERATION SPECTRA * DEPENDENT SCHRODINGER-EQUATION * MOLECULAR MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2013

  11. Convergence patterns of the configuration-interaction expansion for excited 21S and 31S states of the helium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, K.; Malinowski, P.; Polasik, M.

    1977-01-01

    The convergence patterns of the l expansion of the wavefunction for the excited 2 1 S and 3 1 S states of the helium atom are studied by means of the variational method. Particular attention is devoted to the radial energy limits. (author)

  12. High Angular Momentum Rydberg Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyker, Brendan

    2011-12-01

    High angular momentum Rydberg wave packets are studied. Application of carefully tailored electric fields to low angular momentum, high- n (n ˜ 300) Rydberg atoms creates coherent superpositions of Stark states with near extreme values of angular momentum, ℓ. Wave packet components orbit the parent nucleus at rates that depend on their energy, leading to periods of localization and delocalization as the components come into and go out of phase with each other. Monitoring survival probability signals in the presence of position dependent probing leads to observation of characteristic oscillations based on the composition of the wave packet. The discrete nature of electron energy levels is observed through the measurement of quantum revivals in the wave packet localization signal. Time-domain spectroscopy of these signals allows determination of both the population and phase of individual superposition components. Precise manipulation of wave packets is achieved through further application of pulsed electric fields. Decoherence effects due to background gas collisions and electrical noise are also detailed. Quantized classical trajectory Monte-Carlo simulations are introduced and agree remarkably well with experimental results.

  13. Infrared laser spectroscopy of H2 and D2 Rydberg states. II. Diode laser spectra and assignment of 5g--4f, 6h--5g, and 8i--6h systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Guest, M.A.; Stickland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared diode laser absorption spectra of portions of the 5g--4f, 6h--5g, and 8i--6h Rydberg bands of H 2 and D 2 have been measured at Doppler limited resolution in low pressure A. C. discharges. The spectra, arising from L uncoupled states of H 2 and D 2 , are assigned using an ab initio polarization model supported by intensity calculations. Details of the different implementations of this polarization model are given in the preceding paper. The most useful was the single channel vibrationally extended (1)/(2) V 6 model which became progressively better at higher n (and L). Results of multichannel calculations for a selected set of transitions are also reported

  14. Rydberg atoms in weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.P.; Pokrovsky, V.L.; Bergou, J.

    1983-01-01

    The quadratic Zeeman effect of Rydberg atoms in the framework of perturbation theory is dealt with and a special quasiclassical approximation scheme is applied. The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition is given in terms of complete elliptic integrals. It is shown that part of the spectrum is doubly degenerate, the corresponding states are asymmetric with respect to the Coulomb centre and have a non-zero dipole moment; the rest of the spectrum is nondegenerate, the states are symmetric and their dipole-moment vanishes. The transition from the symmetric to the asymmetric region is similar to a phase transition and it gives an experimental possibility to distinguish between the two types of states. (author)

  15. Cooperative Excitation and Many-Body Interactions in a Cold Rydberg Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viteau, Matthieu; Huillery, Paul; Bason, Mark George

    2012-01-01

    of the dipole blockade is the suppression of fluctuations in the counting statistics of Rydberg excitations, of which some evidence has been found in previous experiments. Here we present experimental results on the dynamics and the counting statistics of Rydberg excitations of ultracold rubidium atoms both...... on and off resonance, which exhibit sub- and super-Poissonian counting statistics, respectively. We compare our results with numerical simulations using a novel theoretical model based on Dicke states of Rydberg atoms including dipole-dipole interactions, finding good agreement between experiment and theory.......The dipole blockade of Rydberg excitations is a hallmark of the strong interactions between atoms in these high-lying quantum states [ M. Saffman, T. G. Walker and K. Mølmer Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 2313 (2010); D. Comparat and P. Pillet J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27 A208 (2010)]. One of the consequences...

  16. MgH Rydberg series: Transition energies from electron propagator theory and oscillator strengths from the molecular quantum defect orbital method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, H. H.; Velasco, A. M.; Lavín, C.; Ortiz, J. V.

    2018-02-01

    Vertical excitation energies belonging to several Rydberg series of MgH have been inferred from 3+ electron-propagator calculations of the electron affinities of MgH+ and are in close agreement with experiment. Many electronically excited states with n > 3 are reported for the first time and new insight is given on the assignment of several Rydberg series. Valence and Rydberg excited states of MgH are distinguished respectively by high and low pole strengths corresponding to Dyson orbitals of electron attachment to the cation. By applying the Molecular Quantum Defect Orbital method, oscillator strengths for electronic transitions involving Rydberg states also have been determined.

  17. Fermionic Collective Excitations in a Lattice Gas of Rydberg Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, B.; Gonzalez-Ferez, R.; Lesanovsky, I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the many-body quantum states of a laser-driven gas of Rydberg atoms confined to a large spacing ring lattice. If the laser driving is much stronger than the van der Waals interaction among the Rydberg atoms, these many-body states are collective fermionic excitations. The first excited state is a spin wave that extends over the entire lattice. We demonstrate that our system permits us to study fermions in the presence of disorder although no external atomic motion takes place. We analyze how this disorder influences the excitation properties of the fermionic states. Our work shows a route towards the creation of complex many-particle states with atoms in lattices.

  18. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency In Rydberg Atomic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2018-03-01

    Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium.

  19. Many-body dynamics of holes in a driven, dissipative spin chain of Rydberg superatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Fabian; Petrosyan, David; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Strong, long-range interactions between atoms in high-lying Rydberg states can suppress multiple Rydberg excitations within a micron-sized trapping volume and yield sizable Rydberg level shifts at larger distances. Ensembles of atoms in optical microtraps then form Rydberg superatoms with collectively enhanced transition rates to the singly excited state. These superatoms can represent mesoscopic, strongly interacting spins. We study a regular array of such effective spins driven by a laser field tuned to compensate the interaction-induced level shifts between neighboring superatoms. During the initial transient, a few excited superatoms seed a cascade of resonantly facilitated excitation of large clusters of superatoms. Due to spontaneous decay, the system then relaxes to the steady state having nearly universal Rydberg excitation density {ρ }{{R}}=2/3. This state is characterized by highly non-trivial equilibrium dynamics of quasi-particles—excitation holes in the lattice of Rydberg excited superatoms. We derive an effective many-body model that accounts for hole mobility as well as continuous creation and annihilation of holes upon collisions with each other. We find that holes exhibit a nearly incompressible liquid phase with highly sub-Poissonian number statistics and finite-range density-density correlations.

  20. Multibit CkNOT quantum gates via Rydberg blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isenhower, L.; Saffman, Mark; Mølmer, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Long range Rydberg blockade interactions have the potential for efficient implementation of quantum gates between multiple atoms. Here we present and analyze a protocol for implementation of a k-atom controlled NOT (CkNOT) neutral atom gate. This gate can be implemented using sequential or simult......Long range Rydberg blockade interactions have the potential for efficient implementation of quantum gates between multiple atoms. Here we present and analyze a protocol for implementation of a k-atom controlled NOT (CkNOT) neutral atom gate. This gate can be implemented using sequential...... or simultaneous addressing of the control atoms which requires only 2k + 3 or 5 Rydberg π pulses respectively. A detailed error analysis relevant for implementations based on alkali atom Rydberg states is provided which shows that gate errors less than 10% are possible for k = 35....

  1. Rydberg excitation of neutral nitric oxide molecules in strong UV and near-IR laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Hang; Zhang Jun-Feng; Zuo Wan-Long; Xu Hai-Feng; Jin Ming-Xing; Ding Da-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rydberg state excitations of neutral nitric oxide molecules are studied in strong ultraviolet (UV) and near-infra-red (IR) laser fields using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer with the pulsed electronic field ionization method. The yield of Rydberg molecules is measured as a function of laser intensity and ellipticity, and the results in UV laser fields are compared with those in near-IR laser fields. The present study provides the first experimental evidence of neutral Rydberg molecules surviving in a strong laser field. The results indicate that a rescattering-after-tunneling process is the main contribution to the formation of Rydberg molecules in strong near-IR laser fields, while multi-photon excitation may play an important role in the strong UV laser fields. (paper)

  2. Equation of state of fluid helium at high temperatures and densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lingcang; Chen, Qifeng; Gu, Yunjun; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Xianming; Jing, Fuqian

    2005-03-01

    Hugoniot curves and shock temperatures of gas helium with initial temperature 293 K and three initial pressures 0.6, 1.2, and 5.0 MPa were measured up to 15000 K using a two-stage light-gas gun and transient radiation pyrometer. It was found that the calculated Hugoniot EOS of gas helium at the same initial pressure using Saha equation with Debye-Hückel correction was in good agreement with the experimental data. The curve of the calculated shock wave velocity with the particle velocity of gas helium which is shocked from the initial pressure 5 MPa and temperature 293 K, i.e., the D ≈ u relation, D= C 0+λ u ( uionization degree of the shocked gas helium reaches 10-3.

  3. The high pressure equation of state of the isotopes of solid hydrogen and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, A.

    1982-01-01

    The initial aim of this thesis was to provide the high pressure equipment and the knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) necessary for a research program in a laboratory dealing with spectroscopy of solid hydrogen under high pressure. Once this first goal was reached, a logical step was to extend the work on the EOS to all three hydrogen isotopes and later also to the helium isotpes. During the experiments on the EOS of hydrogen, the effects of the concentration C 1 of the rotationally excited molecules provoked interest, resulting in an extensive experimental and theoretical study. Chapter I describes the results and experience with high pressure equipment for hydrogen up to 7 kbar and chapter II gives a short general introduction to the calculation of the EOS by introducing the Mie-Grueneisen picture and the Silvera-Goldman (SG) potential for hydrogen. Chapter III gives the results of the first EOS of H 2 and D 2 and chapter IV gives a prediction of the EOS of solid T 2 with aid of the SG potential and the experimental results of H 2 and D 2 . Chapter V presents calculations on the thermal expansion of the hydrogen isotopes, which are compared with direct experiments and chapter VI deals in detail with the influence of C 1 on the EOS of H 2 . Ortho-para conversion in hydrogen is considered in chapter VII, and chapter VIII describes experiments on 4 He. (Auth.)

  4. Quantum localization in the three-dimensional kicked Rydberg atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Emil; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdoerfer, Joachim; Tong, X.-M.; Reinhold, Carlos O.

    2003-01-01

    We study the three-dimensional (3D) unidirectionally kicked Rydberg atom. For parabolic initial states elongated in the direction of the kicks we show that the ionization of the quantum system is suppressed as compared to the classical counterpart and that the quantum wave function is localized along all degrees of freedom, whereas the classical system is globally diffusive. We discuss the connection to the previously studied one-dimensional (1D) model of the kicked Rydberg atom and verify that the 1D model is a good approximation to the 3D quantum case in the limiting case of the most elongated initial states. We further study the quantum phase-space distribution (Husimi distribution) of the eigenstates of the period-one time-evolution (Floquet) operator and show that the eigenstates are localized in phase space. For the most elongated parabolic initial state, we are able to identify the unstable periodic orbits around which Floquet states localize. We discuss the possibility of observing quantum localization in high Rydberg states in n>100

  5. Vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction with pseudo-cubic equation of state for binary mixtures containing hydrogen, helium, or neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, H. (Nihon Univ.,Fukushima, (Japan). Faculty of Enineering)

    1990-03-01

    As an equation of state of vapor-liquid equilibrium, an original pseudo-cubic equation of state was previously proposed by the authors of this report and its study is continued. In the present study, new effective critical values of hydrogen, helium and neon were determined empirically from vapor-liquid equilibrium data of literature values against their critical temperatures, critical pressures and critical volumes. The vapor-liquid equilibrium relations of binary system quantum gas mixtures were predicted combining the conventinal pseudo-cubic equation of state and the new effective critical values, and without using binary heteromolecular interaction parameter. The predicted values of hydrogen-ethylene, helium-propane and neon-oxygen systems were compared with literature values. As a result, it was indicated that the vapor-liquid relations of binary system mixtures containing hydrogen, helium and neon can be predicted with favorable accuracy combining the effective critical values and the three parameter pseudo-cubic equation of state. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Entropy and complexity analysis of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rosa, S. [Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012-Sevilla (Spain); Toranzo, I. V.; Dehesa, J. S. [Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P. [Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    The internal disorder of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms as contained in their position and momentum probability densities is examined by means of the following information-theoretic spreading quantities: the radial and logarithmic expectation values, the Shannon entropy, and the Fisher information. As well, the complexity measures of Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez Ruiz-Mancini-Calvet types are investigated in both reciprocal spaces. The leading term of these quantities is rigorously calculated by use of the asymptotic properties of the concomitant entropic functionals of the Laguerre and Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials which control the wavefunctions of the Rydberg states in both position and momentum spaces. The associated generalized Heisenberg-like, logarithmic and entropic uncertainty relations are also given. Finally, application to linear (l= 0), circular (l=n- 1), and quasicircular (l=n- 2) states is explicitly done.

  7. Entropy and complexity analysis of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Rosa, S.; Toranzo, I. V.; Dehesa, J. S.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.

    2013-01-01

    The internal disorder of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms as contained in their position and momentum probability densities is examined by means of the following information-theoretic spreading quantities: the radial and logarithmic expectation values, the Shannon entropy, and the Fisher information. As well, the complexity measures of Crámer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and López Ruiz-Mancini-Calvet types are investigated in both reciprocal spaces. The leading term of these quantities is rigorously calculated by use of the asymptotic properties of the concomitant entropic functionals of the Laguerre and Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials which control the wavefunctions of the Rydberg states in both position and momentum spaces. The associated generalized Heisenberg-like, logarithmic and entropic uncertainty relations are also given. Finally, application to linear (l= 0), circular (l=n− 1), and quasicircular (l=n− 2) states is explicitly done.

  8. Spectroscopic features of the low-lying electronic states of some sodium-helium and potassium-helium van der Waals systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Anjan

    2011-08-01

    Configuration interaction studies on MHe and MHe2 (where M = Na, K) systems have revealed several interesting characteristics in the properties of their low-lying electronic states. Binding energy values of the 12Π1/2, 3/2 states in MHe systems are found to be lower than the values of 12Πu (1/2, 3/2) states in the He-M-He systems by a margin of more than 200 cm-1, indicating better exciplex stabilities of the latter systems. Excited states of the other variety of the linear MHe2 (M-He-He) systems are almost repulsive. The characteristic energy barrier of the first excited spin-orbit state of alkali metal-helium systems is found to be only 15 cm-1 in KHe and 19 cm-1 in He-K-He. For the Na*He and K*He exciplexes, predicted radiative lifetime values of 18.5 ns and 29.8 ns, respectively, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The red-tail portions of their emission bands are contributed by M*He2 exciplexes with relatively high radiative lifetimes. The repulsive excited state of 2Σ+1/2 (or 2Σ+g,1/2) symmetry in these van der Waals systems is likely to play an important role in the pumping of the blue side of the ns2S1/2 → np2P3/2 transition, which eventually may give rise to the np2P1/2 → ns2S1/2 lasing transition.

  9. Spectroscopic features of the low-lying electronic states of some sodium-helium and potassium-helium van der Waals systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Anjan, E-mail: anjan@bits-goa.ac.in, E-mail: anjan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani -K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Goa, 403 726 (India)

    2011-08-28

    Configuration interaction studies on MHe and MHe{sub 2} (where M = Na, K) systems have revealed several interesting characteristics in the properties of their low-lying electronic states. Binding energy values of the 1{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2} states in MHe systems are found to be lower than the values of 1{sup 2}{Pi}{sub u(1/2,3/2)} states in the He-M-He systems by a margin of more than 200 cm{sup -1}, indicating better exciplex stabilities of the latter systems. Excited states of the other variety of the linear MHe{sub 2} (M-He-He) systems are almost repulsive. The characteristic energy barrier of the first excited spin-orbit state of alkali metal-helium systems is found to be only 15 cm{sup -1} in KHe and 19 cm{sup -1} in He-K-He. For the Na*He and K*He exciplexes, predicted radiative lifetime values of 18.5 ns and 29.8 ns, respectively, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The red-tail portions of their emission bands are contributed by M*He{sub 2} exciplexes with relatively high radiative lifetimes. The repulsive excited state of {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub 1/2} (or {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g,1/2}) symmetry in these van der Waals systems is likely to play an important role in the pumping of the blue side of the ns{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {yields} np{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition, which eventually may give rise to the np{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} ns{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} lasing transition.

  10. Spectroscopic features of the low-lying electronic states of some sodium-helium and potassium-helium van der Waals systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Configuration interaction studies on MHe and MHe 2 (where M = Na, K) systems have revealed several interesting characteristics in the properties of their low-lying electronic states. Binding energy values of the 1 2 Π 1/2,3/2 states in MHe systems are found to be lower than the values of 1 2 Π u(1/2,3/2) states in the He-M-He systems by a margin of more than 200 cm -1 , indicating better exciplex stabilities of the latter systems. Excited states of the other variety of the linear MHe 2 (M-He-He) systems are almost repulsive. The characteristic energy barrier of the first excited spin-orbit state of alkali metal-helium systems is found to be only 15 cm -1 in KHe and 19 cm -1 in He-K-He. For the Na*He and K*He exciplexes, predicted radiative lifetime values of 18.5 ns and 29.8 ns, respectively, are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The red-tail portions of their emission bands are contributed by M*He 2 exciplexes with relatively high radiative lifetimes. The repulsive excited state of 2 Σ + 1/2 (or 2 Σ + g,1/2 ) symmetry in these van der Waals systems is likely to play an important role in the pumping of the blue side of the ns 2 S 1/2 → np 2 P 3/2 transition, which eventually may give rise to the np 2 P 1/2 → ns 2 S 1/2 lasing transition.

  11. Total and single differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of the ground state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.S.C.; Choudhury, K.B.; Singh, M.B.; Deb, N.C.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Total cross sections (TCS) and single differential cross sections (SDCS) have been computed for the single ionization of the ground state of helium by electron impact in a distorted wave formalism which takes into account the effects of the initial and final channel distortions. The present TCS and SDCS results are in fair agreement with the measured values and other theoretical predictions for the incident electron energy E i > 150 eV. (orig.)

  12. Photo-excited states in germanium at liquid-helium temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbertson, J.C.

    1982-12-01

    A wide variety of experimental work dealing with the basic properties of photoexcited states in Ge at liquid helium temperatures is presented. The primary emphasis is on the electron-hole liquid (EHL) and the free exciton (FE). The EHL is composed of two interpenetrating Fermi liquids, one of electrons and one of holes, each with its own Fermi level. The FE dealt with here is a mobile, loosely bound state of an electron and a hole. We report the first absolute measurement of the density dependence of the enhancement factor g/sub eh/(0) for the EHL in Ge. This factor g/sub eh/(0) is a measure of the electron-hole spatial correlation function, and provides a valuable and sensitive test for the predictions of various many-body-theory approximations. An EHL droplet - FE gas system confined to a strain induced potential well was used. The measurement approach relied on only a few simple and verifiable assumptions. A byproduct of this work was the measurement as a function of stress of: the electron and hole Fermi levels E/sub F//sup e/ and E/sub F//sup h/, the EHL density n/sub l/, the condensation energy phi of a FE relative to the EHL, and the binding energy of a FE (E/sub x/) relative to free carriers (FC). The decay of a FE-FC system confined to a strain induced potential well is studied. The first direct measurement of the FE diffusivity D/sub x/ is reported. The evolution in time of spatial profiles of FE luminescence were measured. From these FE density profiles, D/sub x/(4.2K) approx. = to 300 cm 2 s - 1 , the surface recombination velocity S approx. = 3000 cm s - 1 , and the FE lifetime tau/sub x/ = 27 μs with surface effects excluded were determined

  13. Effects of confinement on the Rydberg molecule NeH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, J M H; Klobukowski, M; Bielinska-Waz, D; Diercksen, G H F; Schreiner, E W S

    2005-01-01

    Ab initio potential energy curves of the Rydberg NeH molecule in the presence of cylindrical spatial confinement were computed by the method of multi-reference configuration interaction with extended basis sets. The influence of the applied potential to the structures and spectra of the ground and excited states of NeH was analysed in terms of perturbation theory. In addition, the phenomenon of field-induced ionization was discussed

  14. A universal representation of Rydberg spectral line shapes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, C.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.; Bureyeva, L.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2001-01-01

    A universal representation of Rydberg atom line shapes in plasmas is obtained. It bases on analytical formulas for intensity distribution in radiation transitions n→n' between highly excited atomic states with large values of principle quantum numbers n, n'>>1, Δn=n-n'<< n and the frequency fluctuation model (FFM) for account of ion thermal motion effects. The line shapes are presented in a universal manner as functions of plasma temperatures and densities

  15. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri

    2017-01-01

    for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up...... to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source....

  16. Spin-interaction effects for ultralong-range Rydberg molecules in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Frederic; Fey, Christian; Schmelcher, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the fine and spin structure of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field. Each molecule consists of a 87Rb Rydberg atom the outer electron of which interacts via spin-dependent s - and p -wave scattering with a polarizable 87Rb ground-state atom. Our model includes also the hyperfine structure of the ground-state atom as well as spin-orbit couplings of the Rydberg and ground-state atom. We focus on d -Rydberg states and principal quantum numbers n in the vicinity of 40. The electronic structure and vibrational states are determined in the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for varying field strengths ranging from a few up to hundred Gauss. The results show that the interplay between the scattering interactions and the spin couplings gives rise to a large variety of molecular states in different spin configurations as well as in different spatial arrangements that can be tuned by the magnetic field. This includes relatively regularly shaped energy surfaces in a regime where the Zeeman splitting is large compared to the scattering interaction but small compared to the Rydberg fine structure, as well as more complex structures for both weaker and stronger fields. We quantify the impact of spin couplings by comparing the extended theory to a spin-independent model.

  17. Orbital alignment effects in near-resonant Rydberg atoms-rare gas collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, W.A.; Morrison, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies of near-resonant energy transfer collisions involving rare-gas atoms and alkali or alkaline earth atoms which have been initially excited to an aligned state via one or more linearly polarized rasters have yielded a wealth of insight into orbital alignment and related effects. We have extended this inquiry to initially aligned Rydberg states, examining state-to-state and alignment-selected cross sections using quantum collision theory augmented by approximations appropriate to the special characteristics of the Rydberg state (e.g., the quasi-free-electron model and the impulse approximation)

  18. New Theoretical Developments in Exploring Electronically Excited States: Including Localized Configuration Interaction Singles and Application to Large Helium Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closser, Kristina Danielle

    This thesis presents new developments in excited state electronic structure theory. Contrasted with the ground state, the electronically excited states of atoms and molecules often are unstable and have short lifetimes, exhibit a greater diversity of character and are generally less well understood. The very unusual excited states of helium clusters motivated much of this work. These clusters consist of large numbers of atoms (experimentally 103--109 atoms) and bands of nearly degenerate excited states. For an isolated atom the lowest energy excitation energies are from 1s → 2s and 1s → 2 p transitions, and in clusters describing the lowest energy band minimally requires four states per atom. In the ground state the clusters are weakly bound by van der Waals interactions, however in the excited state they can form well-defined covalent bonds. The computational cost of quantum chemical calculations rapidly becomes prohibitive as the size of the systems increase. Standard excited-state methods such as configuration interaction singles (CIS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) can be used with ≈100 atoms, and are optimized to treat only a few states. Thus, one of our primary aims is to develop a method which can treat these large systems with large numbers of nearly degenerate excited states. Additionally, excited states are generally formed far from their equilibrium structures. Vertical excitations from the ground state induce dynamics in the excited states. Thus, another focus of this work is to explore the results of these forces and the fate of the excited states. Very little was known about helium cluster excited states when this work began, thus we first investigated the excitations in small helium clusters consisting of 7 or 25 atoms using CIS. The character of these excited states was determined using attachment/detachment density analysis and we found that in the n = 2 manifold the excitations could generally be interpreted as

  19. Alignment and orientation parameters for excitation of the ground state of helium to the 21P state by 81 eV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fon, W.C.; Berrington, K.A.; Kingston, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    Five-state R-matrix calculations are used to calculate the differential cross sections, lambda, chi, Asub(2+)sup(col), Asub(1+)sup(col), Asub(2+)sup(col), /0sub(1-)sup(col)/ and theta sub(min) for electron excitation of the 1 1 S to 2 1 P state of helium at 81 eV. The results are compared with recent experimental results of Hollywood, Crowe and Williams (J. Phys. B.; 12: 819 (1979)). (author)

  20. Polyatomic Trilobite Rydberg Molecules in a Dense Random Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, Perttu J J; Rost, Jan-Michael

    2017-11-17

    Trilobites are exotic giant dimers with enormous dipole moments. They consist of a Rydberg atom and a distant ground-state atom bound together by short-range electron-neutral attraction. We show that highly polar, polyatomic trilobite states unexpectedly persist and thrive in a dense ultracold gas of randomly positioned atoms. This is caused by perturbation-induced quantum scarring and the localization of electron density on randomly occurring atom clusters. At certain densities these states also mix with an s state, overcoming selection rules that hinder the photoassociation of ordinary trilobites.

  1. Study on Off-Design Steady State Performances of Helium Gas Turbo-compressor for HTGR-GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qisen Ren; Xiaoyong Yang; Zhiyong Huang; Jie Wang

    2006-01-01

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with direct gas turbine cycle is a promising concept in the future of nuclear power development. Both helium gas turbine and compressor are key components in the cycle. Under normal conditions, the mode of power adjustment is to control total helium mass in the primary loop using gas storage vessels. Meanwhile, thermal power of reactor core is regulated. This article analyzes off-design performances of helium gas turbine and compressors for high temperature gas-cooled reactor with gas turbine cycle (HTGR-GT) at steady state level of electric power adjustment. Moreover, performances of the cycle were simply discussed. Results show that the expansion ratio of turbine decreases as electric power reduces but the compression ratios of compressors increase, efficiencies of both turbine and compressors decrease to some extent. Thermal power does not vary consistently with electric power, the difference between these two powers increases as electric power reduces. As a result of much thermal energy dissipated in the temperature modulator set at core inlet, thermal efficiency of the cycle has a widely reduction under partial load conditions. (authors)

  2. Quantum simulation of transverse Ising models with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Quantum Ising models are canonical models for the study of quantum phase transitions (Sachdev 1999 Quantum Phase Transitions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)) and are the underlying concept for many analogue quantum computing and quantum annealing ideas (Tanaka et al Quantum Spin Glasses, Annealing and Computation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). Here we focus on the implementation of finite-range interacting Ising spin models, which are barely tractable numerically. Recent experiments with cold atoms have reached the interaction-dominated regime in quantum Ising magnets via optical coupling of trapped neutral atoms to Rydberg states. This approach allows for the tunability of all relevant terms in an Ising spin Hamiltonian with 1/{r}6 interactions in transverse and longitudinal fields. This review summarizes the recent progress of these implementations in Rydberg lattices with site-resolved detection. Strong correlations in quantum Ising models have been observed in several experiments, starting from a single excitation in the superatom regime up to the point of crystallization. The rapid progress in this field makes spin systems based on Rydberg atoms a promising platform for quantum simulation because of the unmatched flexibility and strength of interactions combined with high control and good isolation from the environment.

  3. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  4. Single-photon cesium Rydberg excitation spectroscopy using 318.6-nm UV laser and room-temperature vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieying; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-09-18

    We demonstrate a single-photon Rydberg excitation spectroscopy of cesium (Cs) atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. Cs atoms are excited directly from 6S 1/2 ground state to nP 3/2 (n = 70 - 100) Rydberg states with a 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, and Rydberg excitation spectra are obtained by transmission enhancement of a probe beam resonant to Cs 6S 1/2 , F = 4 - 6P 3/2 , F' = 5 transition as partial population on F = 4 ground state are transferred to Rydberg state. Analysis reveals that the observed spectra are velocity-selective spectroscopy of Rydberg state, from which the amplitude and linewidth influenced by lasers' Rabi frequency have been investigated. Fitting to energies of Cs nP 3/2 (n = 70 -100) states, the determined quantum defect is 3.56671(42). The demodulated spectra can also be employed as frequency references to stabilize the UV laser frequency to specific Cs Rydberg transition.

  5. Transient localization in the kicked Rydberg atom

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, E.; Fürthauer, S.; Wimberger, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the long-time limit of quantum localization of the kicked Rydberg atom. The kicked Rydberg atom is shown to possess in addition to the quantum localization time $\\tau_L$ a second cross-over time $t_D$ where quantum dynamics diverges from classical dynamics towards increased instability. The quantum localization is shown to vanish as either the strength of the kicks at fixed principal quantum number or the quantum number at fixed kick strength increases. The survival probability...

  6. Excitation and ionization of hydrogen and helium atoms by femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical approach by Coulomb-Volkov states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, R.

    2007-12-01

    We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when ℎω > I p : it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with ℎω p : new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)

  7. On the mechanism of formation of the Efimov states in the helium 4He trimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolganova, E.A.; Motovilov, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    A mechanism of disappearance and formation of the Efimov levels of the helium 4 He 3 trimer is studied when the force of interatomic interaction is changed. It is shown that these levels arise from virtual levels which are in turn formed from (quasi)resonances settled on the real axis. The resonances including virtual levels are calculated by the method based on the solution of the boundary value problem, at complex energies, for the Faddeev differential equations describing the scattering processes (2 + 1 → 2 + 1; 1 + 1 + 1). All the calculations are performed with the known interatomic Aziz He-He-potential HFD-B. A very strong repulsive component of this potential at short distances between helium atoms is approximated by a hard core. A special attention is paid to the substantiation of the method used for computing resonances and to the investigation of its applicability range

  8. Mesoscopic Rydberg Gate Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.; Lesanovsky, I.; Zoller, P.; Weimer, H.; Buechler, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically a parallelized C-NOT gate which allows us to entangle a mesoscopic ensemble of atoms with a single control atom in a single step, with high fidelity and on a microsecond time scale. Our scheme relies on the strong and long-ranged interaction between Rydberg atoms triggering electromagnetically induced transparency. By this we can robustly implement a conditional transfer of all ensemble atoms between two logical states, depending on the state of the control atom. We outline a many-body interferometer which allows a comparison of two many-body quantum states by performing a measurement of the control atom.

  9. EVOLUTION OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HELIUM ABUNDANCE, MINOR ION CHARGE STATE, AND SOLAR WIND SPEED OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J. C.; Stevens, M. L.; Korreck, K. E.; Maruca, B. A.; Kiefer, K. K.; Schwadron, N. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2012-01-01

    The changing relationships between solar wind speed, helium abundance, and minor ion charge state are examined over solar cycle 23. Observations of the abundance of helium relative to hydrogen (A He ≡ 100 × n He /n H ) by the Wind spacecraft are used to examine the dependence of A He on solar wind speed and solar activity between 1994 and 2010. This work updates an earlier study of A He from 1994 to 2004 to include the recent extreme solar minimum and broadly confirms our previous result that A He in slow wind is strongly correlated with sunspot number, reaching its lowest values in each solar minima. During the last minimum, as sunspot numbers reached their lowest levels in recent history, A He continued to decrease, falling to half the levels observed in slow wind during the previous minimum and, for the first time observed, decreasing even in the fastest solar wind. We have also extended our previous analysis by adding measurements of the mean carbon and oxygen charge states observed with the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft since 1998. We find that as solar activity decreased, the mean charge states of oxygen and carbon for solar wind of a given speed also fell, implying that the wind was formed in cooler regions in the corona during the recent solar minimum. The physical processes in the coronal responsible for establishing the mean charge state and speed of the solar wind have evolved with solar activity and time.

  10. Attosecond Two-Photon Interferometry for Doubly Excited States of Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feist, J.; Nagele, S.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Ticknor, C.; Collins, L. A.; Schneider, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the correlation dynamics in coherently excited doubly excited resonances of helium can be followed in real time by two-photon interferometry. This approach promises to map the evolution of the two-electron wave packet onto experimentally easily accessible noncoincident single-electron spectra. We analyze the interferometric signal in terms of a semianalytical model which is validated by a numerical solution of the time-dependent two-electron Schroedinger equation in its full dimensionality.

  11. Measurements of lambda and chi parameters for excitation of the 21P state of helium at 80 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slevin, J.; Porter, H.Q.; Eminyan, M.; Defrance, A.; Vassilev, G.

    1980-01-01

    Electron-photon angular correlations have been measured for excitation of the 2 1 P state of helium at an incident energy of 80 eV over the range 10-115 0 of electron scattering angles. analysis of the data yields values for the alignment and orientation parameters lambda and |chi| which are in excellent agreement with data of Hollywood et al (J. Phys. B.; 12: 819 (1979)) but the data for lambda are in marked disagreement with the results of Steph and Golden (preprint. Univ. of Oklahoma (1979)) at electron scattering angles thetasub(c)> 70 0 . (author)

  12. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  13. Ionization photophysics and Rydberg spectroscopy of diacetylene

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin; Bé nilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie Claire; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Gaie-Levrel, Franç ois; Champion, Norbert; Leach, Sydney Sydney

    2012-01-01

    Photoionization of diacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the range 8-24 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) and threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) techniques. Mass spectra, ion yields, total and partial ionization cross-sections were measured. The adiabatic ionization energy of diacetylene was determined as IE ad=(10.17±0.01) eV, and the appearance energy of the principal fragment ion C4H+ as AE=(16.15±0.03) eV. Calculated appearance energies of other fragment ions were used to infer aspects of dissociation pathways forming the weaker fragment ions C+ 4, C3H+, C+3 and C 4H+. Structured autoionization features observed in the PEPICO spectrum of diacetylene in the 11-13 eV region were assigned to vibrational components of three new Rydberg series, R1(nsσg, n=4-11), R2(ndσg, n=4-7) and R3(ndδg, n=4-6) converging to the A2Πu state of the cation, and to a new series R01(nsσg, n=3) converging to the B' 2Σ+u state of the cation. The autoionization mechanisms and their consistence with specific selection rules are discussed. © 2012 Taylor and Francis.

  14. Ionization photophysics and Rydberg spectroscopy of diacetylene

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Photoionization of diacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the range 8-24 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) and threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) techniques. Mass spectra, ion yields, total and partial ionization cross-sections were measured. The adiabatic ionization energy of diacetylene was determined as IE ad=(10.17±0.01) eV, and the appearance energy of the principal fragment ion C4H+ as AE=(16.15±0.03) eV. Calculated appearance energies of other fragment ions were used to infer aspects of dissociation pathways forming the weaker fragment ions C+ 4, C3H+, C+3 and C 4H+. Structured autoionization features observed in the PEPICO spectrum of diacetylene in the 11-13 eV region were assigned to vibrational components of three new Rydberg series, R1(nsσg, n=4-11), R2(ndσg, n=4-7) and R3(ndδg, n=4-6) converging to the A2Πu state of the cation, and to a new series R01(nsσg, n=3) converging to the B\\' 2Σ+u state of the cation. The autoionization mechanisms and their consistence with specific selection rules are discussed. © 2012 Taylor and Francis.

  15. Two-photon laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium and the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Masaki; Barna, Daniel; Andreas Dax,; Hayano, Ryugo; Friedreich, Susanne; Juhász, Bertalan; Pask, Thomas; Widmann, Eberhard; Horváth, Dezső; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola; 10.1038/nature10260

    2013-01-01

    Physical laws are believed to be invariant under the combined transformations of charge, parity and time reversal (CPT symmetry). This implies that an antimatter particle has exactly the same mass and absolute value of charge as its particle counterpart. Metastable antiprotonic helium ($\\bar{p}He^+$) is a three-body atom2 consisting of a normal helium nucleus, an electron in its ground state and an antiproton ($\\bar{p}$) occupying a Rydberg state with high principal and angular momentum quantum numbers, respectively n and l, such that n ≈ l + 1 ≈ 38. These atoms are amenable to precision laser spectroscopy, the results of which can in principle be used to determine the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio and to constrain the equality between the antiproton and proton charges and masses. Here we report two-photon spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium, in which $\\bar{p}^{3}He^{+}$ and $\\bar{p}^{4}He^{+}$ isotopes are irradiated by two counter-propagating laser beams. This excites nonlinear, two-phot...

  16. Nonlinear spectroscopy of the Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delone, N.B.; Krajnov, V.P.; Shepelyanskij, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of investigation into perturbation of Rydberg states (RS) of atoms in an outer alternating field (OAF) are discussed. Both highly excited states of hydrogen atom at the energy Esub(n)=-1/2n -2 (n>>1 - basic quantum number) and excited states of compound atoms with energy Esub(nl)=-1/2(n*) -2 where n*=n-delta sub(e)-effective basic quantum number, delta sub(e)-quantum defect, are implied by RS. Perturbation of atomic state in the OAF is determined not only by field strength E, but by its frequency ω as well. During OAF inclusion the initial state Esub(lambda) transits to quasienergetic at the energy Esub(lambda)(E)+-kω, where K=0, +-1, +-2, .... Solutions of the problem of quasienergetic level population is obtained only for some simple particular cases. A simple case, when a real multilevel atom is replaced by a model system comprising one bound electron state with the basic quantum number n-model of the insulated level (MIL) is considered. Conditions of MIL applicability are discussed. Estimation of critical OAF strength at which MIL approximation becomes faulty are discussed. It is stated that any consideration of RS perturbation in OAF claiming to exceeding MIL frames should comprise consideration of ionization processes. If one keeps to the frames of OAF; the strength of which is lower than the determined critical values then MIL is true and use of this model permits to correctly describe the main features of RS perturbation in an alternating field

  17. Shape resonances and the excitation of helium autoionising states by electrons in the 57-66 eV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgt, P.J.M. van der; Eck, J. van; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Optical excitation functions of singly excited helium states are presented, measured by detecting the yield of emitted photons as a function of the incident electron energy from 56 to 66 eV. Many structures are observed, which are caused by negative-ion resonances and by the decay of autoionising states followed by post-collision interaction. Some of the structures are interpreted as being caused by hitherto unknown shape resonances lying very close to the thresholds of a particular class of autoionising states. As these shape resonances almost exclusively decay to their respective parent (autoionising) states, thereby considerably enhancing the threshold excitation cross sections of these states, they can only be observed via the PCI effect on the excitation functions of (higher lying) singly excited states. Using the recently introduced supermultiplet classification for doubly excited states a selection rule for the near-threshold excitation of doubly excited states by electron impact is deduced from the measurements. Only states with large probabilities in the Wannier region of configuration space (where the two electrons are at nearly equal distances and on opposite sides of the nucleus) are strongly excited. It is pointed out that these states are precisely the states that can support the above mentioned shape resonances at their thresholds. (author)

  18. Doubly excited 2s2p 1,3Po resonance states of helium in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Sabyasachi; Ho, Y.K.

    2005-01-01

    We have made an investigation on the 2s2p 1,3 P o resonance states of helium embedded in dense plasma environments. A screened Coulomb potential obtained from the Debye model is used to represent the interaction between the charge particles. A correlated wave function consisting of a generalized exponential expansion has been used to represent the correlation effect. Resonance energies and widths for the doubly excited He embedded in plasmas with various Debye lengths are determined using the stabilization method by calculating the density of resonance states. The resonance energies and widths for various Debye parameters ranging from infinity to a small value for the lowest 1,3 P o resonance states are reported

  19. Helium cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sciver, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Twenty five years have elapsed since the original publication of Helium Cryogenics. During this time, a considerable amount of research and development involving helium fluids has been carried out culminating in several large-scale projects. Furthermore, the field has matured through these efforts so that there is now a broad engineering base to assist the development of future projects. Helium Cryogenics, 2nd edition brings these advances in helium cryogenics together in an updated form. As in the original edition, the author's approach is to survey the field of cryogenics with emphasis on helium fluids. This approach is more specialized and fundamental than that contained in other cryogenics books, which treat the associated range of cryogenic fluids. As a result, the level of treatment is more advanced and assumes a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles, including some quantum mechanics. The goal throughout the work is to bridge the gap between the physics and engineering aspe...

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency of ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskiy, Ivan; Christaller, Florian; Braun, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of Rydberg molecule formation on the storage and retrieval of Rydberg polaritons in an ultracold atomic medium. We observe coherent revivals appearing in the storage and retrieval efficiency of stored photons that originate from simultaneous excitation of Rydberg atoms and Ryd...

  1. Trapping of Rydberg atoms in tight magnetic microtraps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetes, A.Q.G.; Skannrup, R.V.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the possibility to trap Rydberg atoms in tightly confining magnetic microtraps. The trapping frequencies for Rydberg atoms are expected to be influenced strongly by magnetic-field gradients. We show that there are regimes where Rydberg atoms can be trapped. Moreover, we show that

  2. Surface electrons of helium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studart, N.; Hipolito, O.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of some properties of two-dimensional electrons on a liquid helium film adsorbed on a solid substrate are reviewed. We describe the spectrum of electron bound states on bulk helium as well on helium films. The correlational properties, such as the structure factor and correlation energy, are determined as functions of the film thickness for different types of substrates in the framework of a Generalized Random-Phase Approximation. The collective excitations of this system are also described. The results for electrons on the surface of thin films and bulk helium are easily obtained. we examine the electron interaction with the excitations of the liquid helium surface resulting in a new polaron state, which was observed very recently. The ground state energy and the effective mass of this polaron are determined by using the path-integral formalism and unitary-transformation method. Recent speculations about the phase diagram of electrons on the helium film are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. Correlated Photon Dynamics in Dissipative Rydberg Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Emil; Gullans, Michael J.; Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2017-07-01

    Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of a large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of nonperturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is able to capture the many-body dynamics of bright, coherent pulses through these strongly interacting media. We compare our model with available experimental data in this regime and find good agreement. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.

  4. Ionization of H Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillermier, C.F.; Bluemental, R.; Smilansky, U.

    1991-07-01

    Concepts from the theory of transient chaos are applied to study the classical ionization process of one dimensional model of kicked hydrogen Rydberg atoms. The phase-space dynamics is represented by a mapping T which is proved to be hyperbolic. The fraction of atoms not ionized after time t, P B (t), decays asymptotically according to P B (t)∼t -α with α ∼ 1.65. The observed algebraic decay, which seems to contradict the hyperbolicity of T, is explained by (i) the symbolic dynamics of T consists of a countably infinite number of symbols and (ii) the invariant manifold of phase-space points which never ionize is an anomalously scaling fractal. Therefore, the one-dimensional kicked hydrogen atom provides a counterexample to the hypothesis that algebraic decay marks regular dynamics, whereas hyperbolic systems decay exponentially. The algebraic decay is reproduced by an analytically solvable diffusion model which predicts α = 3/2. Replacing zero-width δ-kicks by smooth finite-width pulses, the mapping T is no longer completely hyperbolic, and a subset of phase-space is regular. For this case we observe that P B (t) shows a transition between two power-law decays with α ∼ 1.65 for short times and α ∼ 2.1 for long times where the effect of the regular domain is felt. (author)

  5. Wave packet fractional revivals in a one-dimensional Rydberg atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilande, Rita; Bersons, Imants

    2007-01-01

    We investigate many characteristic features of revival and fractional revival phenomena via derived analytic expressions for an autocorrelation function of a one-dimensional Rydberg atom with weighting probabilities modelled by a Gaussian or a Lorentzian distribution. The fractional revival phenomenon in the ionization probabilities of a one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by two short half-cycle pulses is also studied. When many states are involved in the formation of the wave packet, the revival is lower and broader than the initial wave packet and the fractional revivals overlap and disappear with time

  6. The kicked Rydberg atom: Regular and stochastic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgdoerfer, J.

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of a three-dimensional classical Rydberg atom driven by a sequence of pulses. Both the deterministic system with periodic pulses and the closely related ''noisy'' system with random pulses have been studied in parallel. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of pulse height and the angular momentum of the initial state. We find differences between noisy and deterministic perturbations to be most pronounced for small pulse heights. Low angular momentum orbits show enhanced diffusion in agreement with recent experimental data for ion-solid interaction. 22 refs., 6 figs

  7. Dynamics of Rydberg atom lattices in the presence of noise and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdussalam, Wildan

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation concerns dynamics of Rydberg atom lattices in the presence of noise and dissipation. Rydberg atoms possess a number of exaggerated properties, such as a strong van der Waals interaction. The interplay of that interaction, coherent driving and decoherence leads to intriguing non-equilibrium phenomena. Here, we study the non-equilibrium physics of driven atom lattices in the presence of decoherence caused by either laser phase noise or strong decay. In the first case, we compare between global and local noise and explore their effect on the number of excitations and the full counting statistics. We find that both types of noise give rise to a characteristic distribution of the Rydberg excitation number. The main method employed is the Langevin equation but for the sake of efficiency in certain regimes, we use a Markovian master equation and Monte Carlo rate equations, respectively. In the second case, we consider dissipative systems with more general power-law interactions. We determine the phase diagram in the steady state and analyse its generation dynamics using Monte Carlo rate equations. In contrast to nearest-neighbour models, there is no transition to long-range-ordered phases for realistic interactions and resonant driving. Yet, for finite laser detunings, we show that Rydberg atom lattices can undergo a dissipative phase transition to a long-range-ordered antiferromagnetic phase. We identify the advantages of Monte Carlo rate equations over mean field predictions. Having studied the dynamics of Rydberg atom lattices, we study an application of the strong interactions in such systems for quantum information processing. We investigate the coherent exchange of a single photon between a superconducting microwave cavity and a lattice of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms in the presence of local electric field fluctuations plaguing the cavity surface. We show that despite the increased sensitivity of Rydberg states to

  8. Dynamics of Rydberg atom lattices in the presence of noise and dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdussalam, Wildan

    2017-08-07

    The work presented in this dissertation concerns dynamics of Rydberg atom lattices in the presence of noise and dissipation. Rydberg atoms possess a number of exaggerated properties, such as a strong van der Waals interaction. The interplay of that interaction, coherent driving and decoherence leads to intriguing non-equilibrium phenomena. Here, we study the non-equilibrium physics of driven atom lattices in the presence of decoherence caused by either laser phase noise or strong decay. In the first case, we compare between global and local noise and explore their effect on the number of excitations and the full counting statistics. We find that both types of noise give rise to a characteristic distribution of the Rydberg excitation number. The main method employed is the Langevin equation but for the sake of efficiency in certain regimes, we use a Markovian master equation and Monte Carlo rate equations, respectively. In the second case, we consider dissipative systems with more general power-law interactions. We determine the phase diagram in the steady state and analyse its generation dynamics using Monte Carlo rate equations. In contrast to nearest-neighbour models, there is no transition to long-range-ordered phases for realistic interactions and resonant driving. Yet, for finite laser detunings, we show that Rydberg atom lattices can undergo a dissipative phase transition to a long-range-ordered antiferromagnetic phase. We identify the advantages of Monte Carlo rate equations over mean field predictions. Having studied the dynamics of Rydberg atom lattices, we study an application of the strong interactions in such systems for quantum information processing. We investigate the coherent exchange of a single photon between a superconducting microwave cavity and a lattice of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms in the presence of local electric field fluctuations plaguing the cavity surface. We show that despite the increased sensitivity of Rydberg states to

  9. Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation using Rydberg blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for realizing nonadiabatic holonomic computation assisted by two atoms and the shortcuts to adiabaticity (STA). The blockade effect induced by strong Rydberg-mediated interaction between two Rydberg atoms provides us the possibility to simplify the dynamics of the system, and the STA helps us design pulses for implementing the holonomic computation with high fidelity. Numerical simulations show the scheme is noise immune and decoherence resistant. Therefore, the current scheme may provide some useful perspectives for realizing nonadiabatic holonomic computation.

  10. Transient localization in the kicked Rydberg atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Emil; Fuerthauer, S.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Wimberger, S.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the long-time limit of quantum localization of the kicked Rydberg atom. The kicked Rydberg atom is shown to possess in addition to the quantum localization time τ L a second crossover time t D where quantum dynamics diverges from classical dynamics towards increased instability. The quantum localization is shown to vanish as either the strength of the kicks at fixed principal quantum number or the quantum number at fixed kick strength increases. The survival probability as a function of frequency in the transient localization regime τ L D is characterized by highly irregular, fractal-like fluctuations

  11. STARK-EFFECT IN BARIUM 6SND 1D2 RYDBERG STATES - EVIDENCE OF STRONG PERTURBATIONS IN THE 1F3 SERIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, K.A.H.; Hogervorst, W.; Post, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the barium 6snd D21 states with principal quantum number n ranging from 14 to 30, as well as those of the 5d 7d D21 perturber state near n=26, have been measured with high-resolution laser-atomic-beam spectroscopy. The data are analyzed by calculating the

  12. Towards Quantum Simulation with Circular Rydberg Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of quantum simulation is an in-depth understanding of many-body physics, which is important for fundamental issues (quantum phase transitions, transport, … and for the development of innovative materials. Analytic approaches to many-body systems are limited, and the huge size of their Hilbert space makes numerical simulations on classical computers intractable. A quantum simulator avoids these limitations by transcribing the system of interest into another, with the same dynamics but with interaction parameters under control and with experimental access to all relevant observables. Quantum simulation of spin systems is being explored with trapped ions, neutral atoms, and superconducting devices. We propose here a new paradigm for quantum simulation of spin-1/2 arrays, providing unprecedented flexibility and allowing one to explore domains beyond the reach of other platforms. It is based on laser-trapped circular Rydberg atoms. Their long intrinsic lifetimes, combined with the inhibition of their microwave spontaneous emission and their low sensitivity to collisions and photoionization, make trapping lifetimes in the minute range realistic with state-of-the-art techniques. Ultracold defect-free circular atom chains can be prepared by a variant of the evaporative cooling method. This method also leads to the detection of arbitrary spin observables with single-site resolution. The proposed simulator realizes an XXZ spin-1/2 Hamiltonian with nearest-neighbor couplings ranging from a few to tens of kilohertz. All the model parameters can be dynamically tuned at will, making a large range of simulations accessible. The system evolution can be followed over times in the range of seconds, long enough to be relevant for ground-state adiabatic preparation and for the study of thermalization, disorder, or Floquet time crystals. The proposed platform already presents unrivaled features for quantum simulation of regular spin chains. We

  13. Towards Quantum Simulation with Circular Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. L.; Raimond, J. M.; Sayrin, C.; Cortiñas, R.; Cantat-Moltrecht, T.; Assemat, F.; Dotsenko, I.; Gleyzes, S.; Haroche, S.; Roux, G.; Jolicoeur, Th.; Brune, M.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of quantum simulation is an in-depth understanding of many-body physics, which is important for fundamental issues (quantum phase transitions, transport, …) and for the development of innovative materials. Analytic approaches to many-body systems are limited, and the huge size of their Hilbert space makes numerical simulations on classical computers intractable. A quantum simulator avoids these limitations by transcribing the system of interest into another, with the same dynamics but with interaction parameters under control and with experimental access to all relevant observables. Quantum simulation of spin systems is being explored with trapped ions, neutral atoms, and superconducting devices. We propose here a new paradigm for quantum simulation of spin-1 /2 arrays, providing unprecedented flexibility and allowing one to explore domains beyond the reach of other platforms. It is based on laser-trapped circular Rydberg atoms. Their long intrinsic lifetimes, combined with the inhibition of their microwave spontaneous emission and their low sensitivity to collisions and photoionization, make trapping lifetimes in the minute range realistic with state-of-the-art techniques. Ultracold defect-free circular atom chains can be prepared by a variant of the evaporative cooling method. This method also leads to the detection of arbitrary spin observables with single-site resolution. The proposed simulator realizes an X X Z spin-1 /2 Hamiltonian with nearest-neighbor couplings ranging from a few to tens of kilohertz. All the model parameters can be dynamically tuned at will, making a large range of simulations accessible. The system evolution can be followed over times in the range of seconds, long enough to be relevant for ground-state adiabatic preparation and for the study of thermalization, disorder, or Floquet time crystals. The proposed platform already presents unrivaled features for quantum simulation of regular spin chains. We discuss

  14. Evolution from Rydberg gas to ultracold plasma in a supersonic atomic beam of Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J; Sadeghi, H; Schulz-Weiling, M; Grant, E R

    2014-01-01

    A Rydberg gas of xenon, entrained in a supersonic atomic beam, evolves slowly to form an ultracold plasma. In the early stages of this evolution, when the free-electron density is low, Rydberg atoms undergo long-range ℓ-mixing collisions, yielding states of high orbital angular momentum. The development of high-ℓ states promotes dipole–dipole interactions that help to drive Penning ionization. The electron density increases until it reaches the threshold for avalanche. Ninety μs after the production of a Rydberg gas with the initial state, n 0 ℓ 0 =42d, a 432 V cm −1 electrostatic pulse fails to separate charge in the excited volume, an effect which is ascribed to screening by free electrons. Photoexcitation cross sections, observed rates of ℓ-mixing, and a coupled-rate-equation model simulating the onset of the electron-impact avalanche point consistently to an initial Rydberg gas density of 5×10 8 cm −3 . (paper)

  15. Evolution from Rydberg gas to ultracold plasma in a supersonic atomic beam of Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, J.; Sadeghi, H.; Schulz-Weiling, M.; Grant, E. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Rydberg gas of xenon, entrained in a supersonic atomic beam, evolves slowly to form an ultracold plasma. In the early stages of this evolution, when the free-electron density is low, Rydberg atoms undergo long-range \\ell -mixing collisions, yielding states of high orbital angular momentum. The development of high-\\ell states promotes dipole-dipole interactions that help to drive Penning ionization. The electron density increases until it reaches the threshold for avalanche. Ninety μs after the production of a Rydberg gas with the initial state, {{n}_{0}}{{\\ell }_{0}}=42d, a 432 V cm-1 electrostatic pulse fails to separate charge in the excited volume, an effect which is ascribed to screening by free electrons. Photoexcitation cross sections, observed rates of \\ell -mixing, and a coupled-rate-equation model simulating the onset of the electron-impact avalanche point consistently to an initial Rydberg gas density of 5\\times {{10}^{8}}\\;c{{m}^{-3}}.

  16. Ultraviolet transitions from the 2 3P states of helium-like argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.A.

    1976-09-01

    This thesis describes the observation of two allowed electric dipole transitions in helium-like argon. The transitions are 2 3 P 2 --2 3 S 1 and 2 3 P 0 --2 3 S 1 . These transitions were observed by using a vacuum ultraviolet monochromator to collect photons from decays-in-flight of a beam-foil excited argon ion beam. The ion beam was generated by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) and had a beam energy of 138 MeV with a charge current of roughly 500 nanoamperes. After initial observation, the lifetimes and absolute wavelengths of these transitions were measured. The results are tau(2 3 P 2 ) = 1.62 +- 0.08 X 10 -9 sec, tau(2 3 P 0 ) = 4.87 +- 0.44 X 10 -9 sec, lambda(2 3 P 2 --2 3 S 1 ) = 560.2 +- 0.9A, and lambda(2 3 P 0 --2 3 S 1 ) = 660.7 +- 1.1A. This work has demonstrated the observability of these transitions in high-Z ions using beam-foil excitation. Employing a new grazing-incidence spectrometer this work will be pursued in ions of higher Z. Accuracies of at least one part in a thousand should be attainable and will probe the radiative contributions to these transitions to better than 10 percent in a previously unstudied region

  17. Anisotropic Interactions between Cold Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0002 Anisotropic interactions between cold Rydberg atoms Luis Marcassa INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 09/28...problem with the report +551633739806 Organization / Institution name Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos Grant/Contract Title The full title of the

  18. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering

  19. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungen, Ch. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-01-22

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering.

  20. Differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic n=2 excitation of ground-state helium at 29.6 and 40.1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunger, M.J.

    1989-11-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons by ground-state helium at 29.6 and 40.1eV. The normalisation of the cross sections is discussed. Theoretical cross sections have been obtained using a 10-state coupled-channels-optical calculation. In general, there is good agreement between theory and experiment for singlet states but not for triplet. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Population coherent control of Rydberg potassium atom via adiabatic passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Li-Juan; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Jia Guang-Rui; Zhang Yong-Hui; Xia Li-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA) and B-spline expansion technique are used to study the coherent population transfer between the quantum states of a potassium atom by a single frequency-chirped microwave pulse. The Rydberg potassium atom energy levels of n = 6–15, l = 0–5 states in zero field are calculated and the results are in good agreement with other theoretical values. The time evolutions of the population transfer of the six states from n = 70 to n = 75 in different microwave fields are obtained. The results show that the coherent control of the population transfer from the lower states to the higher ones can be accomplished by optimizing the microwave pulse parameters. (atomic and molecular physics)

  2. Dissipation-induced dipole blockade and antiblockade in driven Rydberg systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeremy T.; Boulier, Thomas; Magnan, Eric; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Ryan M.; Rolston, Steven L.; Porto, James V.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2018-02-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the competing blockade and antiblockade effects induced by spontaneously generated contaminant Rydberg atoms in driven Rydberg systems. These contaminant atoms provide a source of strong dipole-dipole interactions and play a crucial role in the system's behavior. We study this problem theoretically using two different approaches. The first is a cumulant expansion approximation, in which we ignore third-order and higher connected correlations. Using this approach for the case of resonant drive, a many-body blockade radius picture arises, and we find qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. We further predict that as the atomic density is increased, the Rydberg population's dependence on Rabi frequency will transition from quadratic to linear dependence at lower Rabi frequencies. We study this behavior experimentally by observing this crossover at two different atomic densities. We confirm that the larger density system has a smaller crossover Rabi frequency than the smaller density system. The second theoretical approach is a set of phenomenological inhomogeneous rate equations. We compare the results of our rate-equation model to the experimental observations [E. A. Goldschmidt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 113001 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.113001] and find that these rate equations provide quantitatively good scaling behavior of the steady-state Rydberg population for both resonant and off-resonant drives.

  3. Helium behaviour in aluminium under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurskij, Yu.N.; Tebus, V.N.; Zudilin, V.A.; Tumanova, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic compression on equilibrium helium bubbles in low aluminium-lithium alloy irradiated in reactor at 570 K is investigated. Measurements of hydrostatic density and electron-microscopic investigations have shown, that application of up to 2 GPa pressure reduces equilibrium size of helium bubbles and reduces helium swelling. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the process are considered with application of 'rigid sphere' equation which describes helium state in bubbles

  4. Electromagnetically induced grating with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Sobia; Ziauddin, Qamar, Shahid; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    We present a scheme to realize electromagnetically induced grating in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as superatoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. The ensemble of three-level cold Rydberg-dressed (87Rb) atoms follows a cascade configuration where a strong standing-wave control field and a weak probe pulse are employed. The diffraction intensity is influenced by the strength of the probe intensity, the control field strength, and the van der Waals (vdW) interaction. It is noticed that relatively large first-order diffraction can be obtained for low-input intensity with a small vdW shift and a strong control field. The scheme can be considered as an amicable solution to realize the atomic grating at the microscopic level, which can provide background- and dark-current-free diffraction.

  5. Accurate Mapping of Multilevel Rydberg Atoms on Interacting Spin-1 /2 Particles for the Quantum Simulation of Ising Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Weber, Sebastian; Lienhard, Vincent; Barredo, Daniel; Büchler, Hans Peter; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2018-03-01

    We study a system of atoms that are laser driven to n D3 /2 Rydberg states and assess how accurately they can be mapped onto spin-1 /2 particles for the quantum simulation of anisotropic Ising magnets. Using nonperturbative calculations of the pair potentials between two atoms in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, we emphasize the importance of a careful selection of experimental parameters in order to maintain the Rydberg blockade and avoid excitation of unwanted Rydberg states. We benchmark these theoretical observations against experiments using two atoms. Finally, we show that in these conditions, the experimental dynamics observed after a quench is in good agreement with numerical simulations of spin-1 /2 Ising models in systems with up to 49 spins, for which numerical simulations become intractable.

  6. Quantum localization of the kicked rydberg atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida; Reinhold; Burgdorfer

    2000-03-20

    We investigate the quantum localization of the one-dimensional Rydberg atom subject to a unidirectional periodic train of impulses. For high frequencies of the train the classical system becomes chaotic and leads to fast ionization. By contrast, the quantum system is found to be remarkably stable. We find this quantum localization to be directly related to the existence of "scars" of the unstable periodic orbits of the system. The localization length is given by the energy excursion along the periodic orbits.

  7. Electric Dipole Echoes in Rydberg Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Reinhold, C. O.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Zhao, W.; Mestayer, J. J.; Lancaster, J. C.; Dunning, F. B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first observation of echoes in the electric dipole moment of an ensemble of Rydberg atoms precessing in an external electric field F. Rapid reversal of the field direction is shown to play a role similar to that of a π pulse in NMR in rephasing a dephased ensemble of electric dipoles resulting in the buildup of an echo. The mechanisms responsible for this are discussed with the aid of classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations

  8. Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar Ali, Abu; Ziauddin

    2018-02-01

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is revisited via the input probe field intensity. A strongly interacting Rydberg atomic medium ensemble is considered in a cavity, where atoms behave as superatoms (SAs) under the dipole blockade mechanism. Each atom in the strongly interacting Rydberg atomic medium (87 Rb) follows a three-level cascade atomic configuration. A strong control and weak probe field are employed in the cavity with the ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The features of the reflected and transmitted probe light are studied under the influence of the input probe field intensity. A transparency peak (cavity EIT) is revealed at a resonance condition for small values of input probe field intensity. The manipulation of the cavity EIT is reported by tuning the strength of the input probe field intensity. Further, the phase and group delay of the transmitted and reflected probe light are studied. It is found that group delay and phase in the reflected light are negative, while for the transmitted light they are positive. The magnitude control of group delay in the transmitted and reflected light is investigated via the input probe field intensity.

  9. Effect of initial-state target polarization on the single ionization of helium by 1-keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shi-Yan; Ma Xiao-Yan; Li Xia; Miao Xiang-Yang; Jia Xiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We report new results of triple differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by 1-KeV electron impact at the ejection energy of 10 eV. Investigations have been made for both the perpendicular plane and the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer geometries. The present calculation is based on the three-Coulomb wave function. Here we have also incorporated the effect of target polarization in the initial state. A comparison is made between the present calculation with the results of other theoretical methods and a recent experiment [Dürr M, Dimopoulou C, Najjari B, Dorn A, Bartschat K, Bray I, Fursa D V, Chen Z, Madison D H and Ullrich J 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032717]. At an impact energy of 1 KeV, the target polarization is found to induce a substantial change of the cross section for the ionization process. We observe that the effect of target polarization plays a dominant role in deciding the shape of triple differential cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. Steady-state heat transfer to boiling liquid helium in simulated coil windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    The present data show that the worst case steady-state stability in the GE/LCT magnet windings is at a horizontal conductor orientation. The heat transfer improves with inclination of the conductor from horizontal. Calculations show that for these small regions normal zones will recover by cold-end conduction from the inclined conductor on either end

  11. Branching ratios in the radiative decay of helium doubly excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coreno, M.; Prince, K. C.; Richter, R.; De Simone, M.; Bucar, K.; Zitnik, M.

    2005-01-01

    The doubly excited singlet states of He below the N=2 threshold may decay by autoionization or fluorescence. In the fluorescence decay channel, most decay cascades consist of emission of three photons, of which the first is a VUV photon, the second is in or near the visible range, and the last is another VUV photon. We have studied the fluorescence channel decay dynamics of the (2,0 n ) (2,1 n ) and (2,-1 n ) 1 P, n=3-7, states by wavelength dispersed photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. We have detected the photons in the second step of the cascade and determined the branching ratios for the strongest lines in this step. From these data we are able to calculate the branching ratios of the first step in the cascade. The results are in good agreement with calculations of the main decay channels of the higher resonances, but about 20-30 % lower, and so we are able to describe quantitatively the whole fluorescence cascade of the above-mentioned doubly excited states

  12. One- and two-photon single ionization of 1D helium: resolving the role of individual decay channels and resonance states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neimanns, Vera; Zimmermann, Klaus; Joerder, Felix; Buchleitner, Andreas [Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Quantum Optics and Statistics; Lugan, Pierre [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Nanosystems, Institute of Theoretical Physics, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    We combine the method of complex rotation and Floquet theory to analyze the multiphoton ionization of helium atoms in strong laser fields. We focus on 1D Z{sup 2+}e{sup -}e{sup -} helium to highlight the methods that allow us to extract the partial decay rates associated with various decay channels. In the regime of one-photon single ionization, we study the dependence of the partial rates associated with the singly ionized He{sup +}(N) states on the field frequency. We show that the electron-electron interaction provides couplings to higher single-ionization continua. Finally, we examine two-photon single-ionization processes, and analyze the role of the internal electronic structure of the atom, specifically the signature of resonant coupling to intermediate bound states on the decay rates.

  13. Motion of Rydberg atoms with strong permanent-electric-dipole interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Luís Felipe; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Using classical trajectories simulations, we investigate the dynamics of a cold sample of Rydberg atoms with high permanent electric dipole moments. The dipolar state can be created using an adiabatic passage through an avoided crossing between an S-like state and a linear Stark state. The simulations yield the pair-correlation functions (PCF) of the atom samples, which allow us to extract the motion of Rydberg-atom pairs in the many-body system. The results reveal the strength and the anisotropic character of the underlying interaction. The simulation is employed to test the suitability of experimental methods designed to derive interaction parameters from PCF. Insight is obtained about the stability of the method against variation of experimentally relevant parameters. Transient correlations due to interaction-induced heating are observed. (paper)

  14. Microscopic equation of state calculations: 1. Nuclear matter. 2. Liquid helium 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for calculating the equation of state of extended Fermi systems is proposed and applied to nuclear matter and liquid 3 He. New techniques are developed for summing up the particle-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) ring diagrams to all orders in the calculation of the ground state shift ΔE 0 for many-body systems. Analytic expressions for ΔE pp P 0 , the contribution from all of the pp ring diagrams to ΔE 0 , and ΔE ph 0 , the corresponding contribution from all of the ph ring diagrams, have been obtained. It has been shown that the pp ring diagram sum may be written as an integral over frequency, involving the particle-particle Green's function. A similar integral expression is derived for the ph ring diagram sum. Two methods are developed for carrying out the frequency integrations, namely the multipole and transition amplitude methods. These methods have been tested on an exactly-solvable many-fermion model, a modified Lipkin model, and compared. The author has studied the instability of nuclear matter at both zero and finite temperature within the pp ring diagram framework. He has found using the Gogny D1 effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, complex eigenvalues of an RPA-type secular equation are obtained in a well-defined temperature-density region. When complex eigenvalues occur, the thermodynamic potential becomes complex. The possible connection between the occurrence of complex eigenvalues and liquid-gas phase separation is discussed. The pp ring diagrams are also found to lower the compression modulus of nuclear matter. Lastly, the pp ring diagram method is applied to the calculation of the ground state energy of normal and spin-polarized liquid 3 He. We have found a binding energy per particle (BE/A) of 1.45 degree K and 1.79 degree K for the normal and spin-polarized systems, respectively

  15. Overview of helium-like structure measurements: A focus on the N = 2 triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of existing measurements of the 1s2s 3 S 1 - 1s2p 3 P 0,1,2 transition energies in heliumlike ions for nuclear charges Z=2 to Z=92. We find agreement with the standard unified calculations of |Drake except for the transitions from the 1s2p 3 P o state. We find a deviation equal to 2.3x(Z/10) 4 cm -1 for the most precise existing measurements

  16. Nuclear spin transitions in the kHz range in Rydberg matter clusters give precise values of the internal magnetic field from orbiting Rydberg electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clusters of the electronically excited condensed matter Rydberg matter (RM) are planar and sixfold symmetric with specific magic numbers N as shown by rotational spectroscopy of potassium K N clusters [L. Holmlid, Mol. Phys. 105 (2007) 933; L. Holmlid, J. Mol. Struct. 885 (2008) 122]. In radio frequency emission spectra from such clusters, features are observed that are due to the hyperfine interaction between the atomic nucleus 39 K and two Rydberg electrons. These electrons exist in a doubly excited K atom at n'' = 5 or 6 in a 'sleeping-top' type rotating cluster. Such low excited electrons were observed recently in optical intra-cavity experiments in K(RM), where the electrons in the conduction band are involved in the angular momentum conservation in the stimulated emission. Here we show that the agreement with the theoretical description of circular Rydberg states is excellent within ±0.2% in the magnetic field, invoking angular momentum conservation by electrons in the condensed phase. Sleeping-top clusters may form stacks of clusters, and it is likely that such stacks are the emitting entities involved in the two nuclear spin series observed.

  17. Strong enhancement of Penning ionization for asymmetric atom pairs in cold Rydberg gases: the Tom and Jerry effect

    KAUST Repository

    Efimov, D K

    2016-05-18

    We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d, n i, of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive - for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them \\'Tom\\' and \\'Jerry\\' for \\'big\\' and \\'small\\') pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Microwave-to-optical frequency conversion with a Rydberg atom coupled to a coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Bryan; Jacobs, Kurt; McDermott, Robert; Saffman, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A primary candidate for converting quantum information from microwave to optical frequencies is the use of Rydberg states of a single atom trapped near a surface. The fact that the Rydberg states possess both large electric dipole moments and microwave transition frequencies allows them to interact with superconducting mesoscopic circuits. By considering a concrete example, that of a Cesium atom, and using numerical search methods to optimize the control protocols, we determine the fidelities and transmission rates that could be achievable with such a device. We show that while protocols that exploit the adiabatic STIRAP mechanism provide the best raw transfer fidelities, the fastest communication speeds can be obtained by using heralding, which allows one to remove the adiabatic constraint. Support from Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  19. n l -> n' l' transition rates in electron and proton - Rydberg atom collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinceanu, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Electrons and protons drive the recombination dynamics of highly excited Rydberg atoms in cold rarefied plasmas found in astrophysical conditions such as primordial recombination or star formation in H-II clouds. It has been recognized that collisions induce both energy and angular momentum transitions in Rydberg atoms, although in different proportions, depending on the initial state, temperature and the given species considered in the collision (electron or proton). Most studies focused on one collision type at a time, under the assumption that collision types are independent or their effects are not competing. The classical Monte-Carlo trajectory simulations presented in this work calculate the rates for both energy and angular momentum transfers and show their interdependence. For example, energy transfer with small angular momentum change are more efficient for target states with initial large angular momentum. The author acknowledges support received from the National Science Foundation through a Grant for the Center for Research on Complex Networks (HRD-1137732).

  20. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  1. Nonspreading Wave Packets for Rydberg Electrons in Rotating Molecules with Electric Dipole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Bialynicka-Birula, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Nonspreading wave packets for Rydberg electrons are predicted in rotating molecules with electric dipole moments. We have named them the Trojan wave packets since their stability is due to the same mechanism that governs the motion of the Trojan asteroids in the Sun-Jupiter system. Unlike all previously predicted Trojan wave packets in atoms, molecular Trojan states do not require external fields for their existence

  2. Ionization of xenon Rydberg atoms at Si(1 0 0) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, H.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University MS-61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States); Wethekam, S. [Institut fuer Physik der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstra. 15, D-12489, Berlin (Germany); Lancaster, J.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University MS-61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States); Dunning, F.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University MS-61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)]. E-mail: fbd@rice.edu

    2007-03-15

    The ionization of xenon Rydberg atoms excited to the lowest states in the n = 17 and n = 20 Stark manifolds at Si(1 0 0) surfaces is investigated. It is shown that, under appropriate conditions, a sizable fraction of the incident atoms can be detected as ions. Although the onset in the ion signal is perturbed by stray fields present at the surface, the data are consistent with ionization rates similar to those measured earlier at metal surfaces.

  3. Strong enhancement of Penning ionization for asymmetric atom pairs in cold Rydberg gases: the Tom and Jerry effect

    KAUST Repository

    Efimov, D K; Miculis, K; Bezuglov, N N; Ekers, Aigars

    2016-01-01

    with which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate

  4. A study of the valence shell electronic states of s-triazine by photoabsorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, D.M.P., E-mail: david.holland@stfc.ac.uk [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Shaw, D.A. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Stener, M.; Decleva, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienze e Tecnologia dei Materiali, INSTM, Unità di Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM, Trieste (Italy); Coriani, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienze e Tecnologia dei Materiali, INSTM, Unità di Trieste (Italy); Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • The valence shell photoabsorption spectrum of s-triazine has been measured. • Electronic structure calculated with TDDFT and coupled cluster approaches. • Assignments proposed for Rydberg and valence states. • Mixing between Rydberg and valence states important. - Abstract: The absolute photoabsorption cross section of s-triazine has been measured between 4 and 40 eV, and is dominated by bands associated with valence states. Structure due to Rydberg excitations is both weak and irregular. Jahn-Teller interactions affect the vibronic structure observed in the Rydberg absorption bands due to excitation from the 1e″ or 6e′ orbitals. The interpretation of the experimental spectrum has been guided by transition energies and oscillator strengths, for Rydberg and valence states, calculated with the time-dependent version of density functional theory and with the coupled cluster linear response approach. The theoretical studies indicate that Rydberg/Rydberg and Rydberg/valence mixing is important.

  5. Optical Measurements of Strong Radio-Frequency Fields Using Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie Anne

    There has recently been an initiative toward establishing atomic measurement standards for field quantities, including radio-frequency, millimeter-wave, and micro-wave electric fields. Current measurement standards are obtained using dipole antennas, which are fundamentally limited in frequency bandwidth (set by the physical size of the antenna) and accuracy (due to the metal perturbing the field during the measurement). Establishing an atomic standard rectifies these problems. My thesis work contributes to an ongoing effort towards establishing the viability of using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to perform atom-based measurements of radio-frequency (RF) fields over a wide range of frequencies and field strengths, focusing on strong-field measurements. Rydberg atoms are atoms with an electron excited to a high principal quantum number, resulting in a high sensitivity to an applied field. A model based on Floquet theory is implemented to accurately describe the observed atomic energy level shifts from which information about the field is extracted. Additionally, the effects due to the different electric field domains within the measurement volume are accurately modeled. Absolute atomic measurements of fields up to 296 V/m within a +/-0.35% relative uncertainty are demonstrated. This is the strongest field measured at the time of data publication. Moreover, the uncertainty is over an order of magnitude better than that of current standards. A vacuum chamber setup that I implemented during my graduate studies is presented and its unique components are detailed. In this chamber, cold-atom samples are generated and Rydberg atoms are optically excited within the ground-state sample. The Rydberg ion detection and imaging procedure are discussed, particularly the high magnification that the system provides. By analyzing the position of the ions, the spatial correlation g(2) (r) of Rydberg-atom distributions can be extracted. Aside from ion

  6. Many-body dynamics of driven-dissipative Rydberg cavity polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, Tim; Fan, Jingtao; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    The usage of photons as long-range information carriers has greatly increased the interest in systems with nonlinear optical properties in recent years. The nonlinearity is easily achievable in Rydberg mediums through the strong van der Waals interaction which makes them one of the best candidates for such a system. Here, we propose a way to analyze the steady state solutions of a Rydberg medium in a cavity through the combination of the variational principle for open quantum systems and the P-distribution of the density matrix. To get a better understanding of the many-body-dynamics a transformation into the polariton picture is performed and investigated. Volkswagen Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  7. Systematic observation of tunneling field-ionization in highly excited Rb Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Tada, M.; Kominato, K.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S.; Haseyama, T.; Ogawa, I.; Funahashi, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed field ionization of high-n (90≤n≤150) manifold states in Rb Rydberg atoms has been investigated in high slew-rate regime. Two peaks in the field ionization spectra were systematically observed for the investigated n region, where the field values at the lower peak do not almost depend on the excitation energy in the manifold, while those at the higher peak increase with increasing excitation energy. The fraction of the higher peak component to the total ionization signals increases with increasing n, exceeding 80% at n=147. Characteristic behavior of the peak component and the comparison with theoretical predictions indicate that the higher peak component is due to the tunneling process. The obtained results show that the tunneling process plays increasingly the dominant role at such highly excited nonhydrogenic Rydberg atoms

  8. Molecular physics. Production of trilobite Rydberg molecule dimers with kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D; Rittenhouse, S T; Yang, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P

    2015-04-03

    Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of "trilobite" molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Properties of Ni^+ from microwave spectroscopy of n=9 Rydberg levels of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Shannon; Keele, Julie; Smith, Chris; Lundeen, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    The microwave/RESIS method was used to determine the relative positions of 15 of the n=9 Rydberg levels of Nickel with L >= 6. Because the ground state of the Ni^+ ion is a ^2D5/2 level, each Rydberg level (n,L) splits into six eigenstates whose relative positions are determined by long-range e-Ni^+ interactions present in addition to the dominant Coulomb interaction. A previous study with the optical RESIS method determined these positions with precision of +/- 30 MHz [1]. Using the microwave/RESIS method improves that precision by a factor of 300, and leads to much improved determinations of the Ni+ properties that control the long-range interactions. [4pt] [1] Julie A. Keele, Shannon L. Woods, M.E. Hanni, and S.R. Lundeen Phys. Rev. 81, 022506 (2010)

  10. Ionization Spectroscopic Measurement of nP Rydberg Levels of 87Rb Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufan; Zaheeruddin, Syed; Zhao, Dongmei; Ma, Xinwen; Yang, Jie

    2018-05-01

    We created an ultracold plasma via the spontaneous ionization of cold dense Rydberg atoms of 87Rb in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and measured the nS1/2 (n = 50-80), nP1/2 (n = 16-23), nP3/2 (n = 16-98), and nD5/2 (n = 49-96) Rydberg levels by detecting the electrons in the ultracold plasma. By fitting the energy levels of Rydberg states, the first ionization potential of 33690.950(11) cm-1 and the quantum defects of S, P, and D orbitals were obtained. The absolute transition energies of nS1/2 (n = 66-80), nP1/2 (n = 16-23), nP3/2 (n = 16-98), and nD5/2 (n = 58-96) states of 87Rb, as well as the quantum defects for p1/2 and p3/2 series, are given for the first time.

  11. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  12. Atomic and Molecular Data for State-Resolved Modelling of Hydrogen and Helium and Their Isotopes in Fusion Plasma. Summary Report of the First Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    The First Research Coordination Meeting of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Atomic and Molecular Data for State-Resolved Modelling of Hydrogen and Helium and Their Isotopes in Fusion Plasma' was held 10-12 August 2011 at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Participants reviewed the status of the database on molecular processes of H and He, identified data needs and made plans for development of new data in connection with the CRP. The proceedings of the meeting are summarized here. Participants' summaries and work plans are also provided. (author)

  13. Relaxation of helium levels excited by heavy ion impact: III.- Orientation by anisotropic relaxation of excited atoms in previously aligned states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoun, E.; Lombardi, M.; Carre, M.; Gaillard, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    In the last paper of this series devoted to relaxation phenomena in a low pressure cell of helium excited by an accelerated ion beam, experimental evidence is given for a new mechanism of transfer between alignment and orientation through anisotropic relaxation of initially aligned excited states. The theory predicting this effect is briefly outlined and then description is given of the exact experimental conditions to detect the circularly polarized component of the light emitted by the target excited in the 4 1 D level of He I by Na + impact [fr

  14. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  15. Charge state distribution of ^{86}Kr in hydrogen and helium gas charge strippers at 2.7  MeV/nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The charge state distributions of krypton (^{86}Kr with an energy of 2.7  MeV/nucleon were measured using hydrogen (H_{2} and helium (He gas charge strippers. A differential pumping system was constructed to confine H_{2} and He gases to a thickness sufficient for the charge state distributions to attain equilibrium. The mean charge states of ^{86}Kr in H_{2} and He gases attained equilibrium at 25.1 and 23.2, respectively, whereas the mean charge state in N_{2} gas at equilibrium was estimated to be less than 20. The charge distributions are successfully reproduced by the cross sections of ionization and electron capture processes optimized by a fitting procedure.

  16. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of He{_2}^+ Using Rydberg-Series Extrapolation and Zeeman-Decelerated Supersonic Beams of Metastable He_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Paul; Semeria, Luca; Merkt, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    Having only three electrons, He{_2}^+ represents a system for which highly accurate ab initio calculations are possible. The latest calculations of rovibrational energies in He{_2}^+ do not include relativistic or QED corrections but claim an accuracy of 120 MHz We have performed high-resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of metastable He_2 molecules and employed multichannel-quantum-defect-theory extrapolation techniques to determine the rotational energy-level structure in the He{_2}^+ ion. To this end, we have produced samples of metastable helium molecules in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The metastable He_2 molecules are excited to np Rydberg states using the frequency-doubled output of a pulse-amplified ring dye laser. Although the bandwidth of the laser system is too large to observe the reduction of the Doppler width resulting from deceleration, the deceleration greatly simplifies the spectral assignments because of its spin-rotational state selectivity. Our approach enabled us to determine the rotational structure of He_2 with an unprecedented accuracy of 18 MHz, to quantify the size of the relativistic and QED corrections by comparison with the results of Tung et al. and to precisely measure the rotational structure of the metastable state for comparison with the results of Focsa et al. Here, we present an extension of these measurements in which we have measured higher rotational intervals of He{_2}^+. In addition, we have replaced the pulsed UV laser by a cw UV laser and improved the resolution of the spectra by a factor of more than five. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello and L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J.A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M

  17. Newton's Cradle and Entanglement Transport in a Flexible Rydberg Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuester, S.; Ates, C.; Eisfeld, A.; Rost, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In a regular, flexible chain of Rydberg atoms, a single electronic excitation localizes on two atoms that are in closer mutual proximity than all others. We show how the interplay between excitonic and atomic motion causes electronic excitation and diatomic proximity to propagate through the Rydberg chain as a combined pulse. In this manner entanglement is transferred adiabatically along the chain, reminiscent of momentum transfer in Newton's cradle.

  18. Autoionizing Rydberg series in alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulov, M.A.; Ivanov, V.K.; Cherepkov, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The results of many-body calculations of autoionizing resonance structure in neutral potassium, rubidium and cesium associated with the ns 2 np 6 (n+1)s → nsnp 6 (n+1)smp Rydberg excitations are presented. The numerical method based on the Many-Body Perturbation Theory takes into account the dynamic polarization and screening of electron-electron interaction by collective motion of the whole electronic system. The many-electron effects are shown to determine the resonance shapes. The numerically obtained cross section for photoionization of 3p electrons in neutral K in the vicinity of the 3s threshold is presented. The structure has the complex shape of 3s → mp resonances due to different behavior of electrons with the opposite spin projections

  19. Interaction of Rydberg atoms with two contrapropagating ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugovskoy, A. V.; Bray, I.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how Rydberg atoms respond to perturbation by two contrapropagating ultrashort laser pulses. We consider the case where the durations of both pulses τ 1 and τ 2 are shorter than the inverse of the initial-state energy ε i -1 . When acting alone such a pulse passes through the atom without noticeable alteration in the atomic state. The situation is different if two such pulses interfere in the region of atom localization. In this case the atomic response is significantly enhanced. This is due to the nonzero momentum transferred to the electron by the interplay of the electric field of one pulse and the magnetic field of the other. The sudden perturbation approximation is used to evaluate the transition probabilities. They are shown to depend on the atom position with respect to the pulse interference region. This dependence is determined by the relationship between the atomic diameter d i and the interference-region size l=c(τ 1 +τ 2 ) (c is the speed of light). If d i i >>l the transition probabilities are sensitive to the electron density distribution along the propagation direction. The probabilities of the initial-state destruction and atom ionization drop as l/d i irrespective of the characteristics of the pulses

  20. Dynamical localization in the 3-D kicked Rydberg atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Yoshida, S.; Tong, X.-M.; Reinhold, C.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The dynamical localization for the 3D periodically kicked Rydberg atom is analyzed. For the 1D kicked atom, earlier work shows dynamical localization as the quantum suppression of classically fast ionization associated with unbounded chaotic trajectories. The corresponding wave functions localize around unstable periodic orbits. For the experimental observation, the crucial question is the dependence of the dynamical localization on the dimension. As the first step, we simulate the full 3D evolution of an extreme parabolic initial state elongated in the direction of the unidirectional kicks. We compare this simulation with the 1D model and find signatures of localization also in 3D. We further examine the dependence of quantum localization on the parabolic quantum number of the initial state. In the limit of high kick frequencies, the origin of the localization can be understood in terms of Stark states in the average field. We discuss conditions for where an experimental observation of the localization is most likely. (author)

  1. A study of the valence shell electronic states of s-triazine by photoabsorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, D.M.P.; Shaw, D.A.; Stener, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    absorption bands due to excitation from the 1e00 or 6e0 orbitals. The interpretation of the experimental spectrum has been guided by transition energies and oscillator strengths, for Rydberg and valence states, calculated with the time-dependent version of density functional theory and with the coupled...... cluster linear response approach. The theoretical studies indicate that Rydberg/Rydberg and Rydberg/valence mixing is important....

  2. Improving Rydberg Excitations within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory with Generalized Gradient Approximations: The Exchange-Enhancement-for-Large-Gradient Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaohong L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-07-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with conventional local and hybrid functionals such as the local and hybrid generalized gradient approximations (GGA) seriously underestimates the excitation energies of Rydberg states, which limits its usefulness for applications such as spectroscopy and photochemistry. We present here a scheme that modifies the exchange-enhancement factor to improve GGA functionals for Rydberg excitations within the TDDFT framework while retaining their accuracy for valence excitations and for the thermochemical energetics calculated by ground-state density functional theory. The scheme is applied to a popular hybrid GGA functional and tested on data sets of valence and Rydberg excitations and atomization energies, and the results are encouraging. The scheme is simple and flexible. It can be used to correct existing functionals, and it can also be used as a strategy for the development of new functionals.

  3. Helium clusters as cold, liquid matrix for the laser spectroscopy of silver atoms, silver clusters and C60 fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, K.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in the study of gas phase metal clusters is their high temperature. Even cooling in a seeded beam is only of limited used, since the condensation continuously releases energy into the system. As a consequence, spectroscopic studies of free metal clusters typically yield broad structures, which are interpreted as plasma resonances of a free electron gas. An experiment on ionic sodium clusters has shown that low temperatures lead to a narrowing of the absorption bands and the appearance of additional structure, that can not be explained within the free electron model. Thus the need for cold clusters is evident. In principle the deposition of metal clusters into inert matrices eliminates the temperature problem but it can also inflict strong changes on the electronic spectra. Droplets of liquid helium serve as a much more gentle matrix that avoids many of the above problems. In this thesis the new technique of helium droplet spectroscopy is presented as a tool for the study of extremely cold metal clusters. Clusters of silver up to a mass greater than 7000 amu have been produced by pickup of single atoms by a beam of helium droplets. The droplets are formed in a supersonic expansion. The cluster's binding energy is removed by evaporative cooling and the system remains at 0.4 K. The doped droplets are probed by laser spectroscopy with a depletion technique or resonant two photon ionization. We were able to measure the first UV absorption spectrum of metal atoms (silver) inside helium droplets. Another experiment shows that a small fraction of the captured silver atoms resides on the surface of the droplet like alkali atoms. In a two photon process previously unobserved s- and d-Rydberg states of the free silver atom (20 left angle n left angle 80) were excited. The silver atoms, initially embedded in the helium droplets, are found to move to the surface and desorb when excited to the broadened 5p level. This is the first result showing laser

  4. Optical spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg atoms with a 297 nm frequency doubled dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Th.; Germann, Th.; Thoumany, P.; Stania, G.; Urbonas, L.; Haensch, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Rydberg atoms have played an important role in atomic physics and optical spectroscopy since many years. Due to their long lifetime and the big dipole matrix element between neighbouring Rydberg levels they are an essential tool in microwave cavity-qed experiments. Ultracold Rydberg gases are a promising candidate for realizing controlled quantum gates in atomic ensembles. In most experiments Rydberg atoms are detected destructively, where the optically excited atoms are first ionized followed by an electronic detection of the ionization products. A Doppler-free purely optical detection was reported in a room temperature cell and in an atomic beam apparatus using the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency. In all these experiments the Rydberg atoms are excited with two lasers in a two-step ladder configuration. Here we show that Doppler-free purely optical spectroscopy is also possible with a one step excitation scheme involving a UV laser at 297 nm. We excite the 85 Rb isotope from the 5S 1/2 ground state to the 63P 3/2 state with a frequency doubled dye laser in a room temperature gas cell without buffer gas. Rydberg transitions are detected by monitoring the absorption of 780 nm laser light which is superimposed on the UV light and resonant with one hyperfine component of the Rubidium D2 line. With these two lasers we realize a V-scheme and utilize the quantum amplification effect due to the different natural lifetimes of the upper levels of the two transitions: an excitation into the 63P level hinders many absorption-emission cycles of the D2 transition and leads to a reduced absorption on that line. We discuss the shape of the observed spectra in the context of electron shelving and EIT experiments. By applying a frequency modulation to the UV laser, we can obtain dispersive signals which can be used to stabilize the laser to a specific Rydberg transition. By shifting the frequency of the 780 nm laser to crossover resonances in the

  5. Steady state heat transfer experimental studies of LHC superconducting cables operating in cryogenic environment of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo

    The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...

  6. State of the Art of helium heat exchanger development for future HTR-projects - HTR2008-58146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, M.; Juergens, B.; Hurtado, A.; Knoche, D.; Tietsch, W.

    2008-01-01

    decision, at the beginning of the 90's, to phase out nuclear power completely, research and funding of further development of HTR reactor design was also cut down. Today's HTR reactor designs, such as the PBMR in South Africa, use a direct cycle with a gas turbine, This technology is also based on the THTR technology and PBMR is a licensed party. For the HTR-PM in China and the future oil sand projects powered by HTR's in Canada and Siberia however the use of steam generators is required. Westinghouse and Dresden Univ. cooperate in the field of steam generator technology for HTR reactors. The existing know-how for HTR is based on a huge pool of knowledge gained by the past German HTR projects mentioned above and consists especially of the design methodology, the mechanical layout and material issues for helium heated steam generators. The project team consists of experienced specialists who have worked on HTR projects in the past and of young graduate engineers. Main goal of the project is to analyze the existing know-how and to adjust it to the state of the art. As a first step, the existing design and its methodology is being analyzed and the different points of improvement are identified. The final step of the program is the description of a new methodology which fulfills the severe requirements of the customer and all of the actual licensing conditions. One of the reasons why this project has been launched is that the requirements of life expectancy for HTR components increase and the material limits will be reached, especially at high temperatures. This implies that the design of helix heat exchangers has to allow in-service inspections; this was not a requirement for the previous THTR design. Methodologies for in-service inspections already had been developed, but they are not sufficient for today's tube lengths and have to be adapted. Another example, based on operating experience, is using reheaters to increase the efficiency is not recommended today. Using

  7. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  8. Observation of visible emission from the molecular helium ion in the afterglow of a dense helium Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, J.E.; Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present the results of axial and radial time resolved visible emission spectroscopy from the afterglow of a dense helium Z-pinch. These results show that the visible emissions in the pinch afterglow are dominated by line emissions from molecular helium and He II. Axial spectroscopy measurements show the occurrence of several absorption bands which cannot be identified as molecular or atomic helium nor impurities from the discharge chamber materials. The authors believe that these absorption bands are attributable to the molecular helium ion which is present in the discharge. The molecular ion has been observed by others in low pressure and temperature helium discharges directly by means of mass spectrometry and indirectly by the presence of helium atoms in the 2/sup 3/S state, (the He 2/sup 3/S state is believed to result from molecular helium ion recombination). However, the molecular helium ion has not previously been observed spectroscopically

  9. Probability of collective excited state decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manykin, Eh.A.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Poluehktov, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    Decay mechanisms of condensed excited state formed of highly excited (Rydberg) atoms are considered, i.e. stability of so-called Rydberg substance is analyzed. It is shown that Auger recombination and radiation transitions are the basic processes. The corresponding probabilities are calculated and compared. It is ascertained that the ''Rydberg substance'' possesses macroscopic lifetime (several seconds) and in a sense it is metastable

  10. Electron Excitation Rate Coefficients for Transitions from the IS21S Ground State to the 1S2S1,3S and 1S2P1,3P0 Excited States of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Kingston, A. E.; McDowell, M. R. C.

    1984-03-01

    The available experimental and theoretical electron impact excitation cross section data for the transitions from the 1s2 1S ground state to the 1s2s 1,3S and 1s2p 1,3P0 excited states of helium are assessed. Based on this assessed data, excitation rate coefficients are calculated over a wide electron temperature range below 3.0×106K. A comparison with other published results suggests that the rates used should be lower by a factor of 2 or more.

  11. High-energy double photoeffect and photoionization with excitation from 2 {sup 1}S and 2 {sup 3}S states of helium-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194921 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, A.I.; Mikhailov, I.A. [St Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188350 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1999-10-28

    Double ionization and ionization with excitation of helium-like ions with Z>>1 from 2 {sup 1}S and 2 {sup 3}S states on the absorption of a high-frequency photon have been considered. The analytical calculation is performed in the non-relativistic photon energy range in the lowest order of perturbation theory in the inter-electron interaction. Coulomb wavefunctions and the Coulomb Green function are used as a zeroth-order approximation. Differential and total cross sections of the processes are expressed via the corresponding values for the single photoionization. The photoelectron energy spectrum is obtained in the marginal energy range (i.e. for p{sub 1}>>p{sub 2}, p{sub 1} and p{sub 2} momenta of photoelectrons) for the double-ionization process. Simple relations between the cross sections of double ionization and ionization with excitation are derived. (author)

  12. Fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p 4P state of the helium negative ion He-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Li, Chun; Yan, Zong-Chao; Drake, G W F

    2014-12-31

    The fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p (4)P state of the helium negative ion He(-) are calculated in Hylleraas coordinates, including relativistic and QED corrections up to O(α(4)mc(2)), O((μ/M)α(4)mc(2)), O(α(5)mc(2)), and O((μ/M)α(5)mc(2)). Higher order corrections are estimated for the ionization energy. A comparison is made with other calculations and experiments. We find that the present results for the fine structure splittings agree with experiment very well. However, the calculated ionization energy deviates from the experimental result by about 1 standard deviation. The estimated theoretical uncertainty in the ionization energy is much less than the experimental accuracy.

  13. Energy-level repulsion by spin-orbit coupling in two-dimensional Rydberg excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanovich, V. A.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Zinner, N. T.; Marchukov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on two-dimensional Rydberg exciton systems. Using analytical and numerical arguments we demonstrate that this coupling considerably modifies the wave functions and leads to a level repulsion that results in a deviation from the Poissonian statistics of the adjacent level distance distribution. This signifies the crossover to nonintegrability of the system and hints at the possibility of quantum chaos emerging. Such behavior strongly differs from the classical realization, where spin-orbit coupling produces highly entangled, chaotic electron trajectories in an exciton. We also calculate the oscillator strengths and show that randomization appears in the transitions between states with different total momenta.

  14. Two-electron excitation to Rydberg levels in fast I6+ on hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.; Hagmann, S.; Zouros, T.J.M.; Montenegro, E.C.; Toth, G.; Richard, P.; Grabbe, S.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The emission of electrons in the forward direction in collisions of 0.3 MeV/u I 6+ with H 2 has been studied, and strong autoionization peaks are observed on the shoulder of the cusp peak. The energies of these autoionization lines in the projectile rest frame are determined by high-resolution electron spectroscopy. Using the electron projectile final charge state coincidence technique, we probe different collision mechanisms, which create continuum electrons that are slow in the projectile rest frame. We conclude that the observed autoionization lines are due to two electron excitation to projectile Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  15. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Christopher L., E-mail: holloway@boulder.nist.gov; Gordon, Joshua A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  16. Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Giese, Christian; Hofmann, Christoph S.; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of the antiblockade in an ultracold Rydberg gas recently proposed by Ates et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023002 (2007)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.023002]. Our approach allows the control of the pair distribution in the gas and is based on a strong coupling of one transition in an atomic three-level system, while introducing specific detunings of the other transition. When the coupling energy matches the interaction energy of the Rydberg long-range interactions, the otherwise blocked excitation of close pairs becomes possible. A time-resolved spectroscopic measurement of the Penning ionization signal is used to identify slight variations in the Rydberg pair distribution of a random arrangement of atoms. A model based on a pair interaction Hamiltonian is presented which well reproduces our experimental observations and allows one to deduce the distribution of nearest-neighbor distances.

  17. Asymptotically exact expression for the energies of the 3Se Rydberg series in a two-electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.A.; Bromley, M.W.J.; Mitroy, J.

    2002-01-01

    The 1sns 3 S e Rydberg series in a two-electron system with the charge of the nucleus, Z≅1, is treated by means of the quantum-defect theory. Comparison with configuration interaction calculations suggests that the quantum-defect expression for the energy levels becomes asymptotically exact as Z→1. This provides an analytic description of the disappearance of the 1sns 3 S e bound states when Z approaches the critical value of 1

  18. Electrons on the surface of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.K.

    1979-05-01

    Spectroscopic techniques were used to study transitions of electrons between bound states in the potential well near a helium surface. The charge density distribution of electrons on the surface was independently obtained from electrical measurements. From the measurements, information was obtained both about the interaction of the bound state electrons with the surface of liquid helium and about local disorder in the positions of electrons on the surface

  19. Exotic helium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portier, M.

    2007-12-01

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 P 0 ) molecule, or a 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 ± 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime τ = (1.4 ± 0.3) μs is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  20. Excitation of the helium autoionizing states in He++He collisions, between 3 and 140 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Gleizes, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.

    1982-01-01

    The autoionization of the helium atom has been experimentally studied in He + +He collisions between 3 and 140 keV by electron spectrometry. The excitation of the two collision partners has been considered. Above 10 keV, the shapes and excitation cross sections of the 2s 2 1 S, 2s2p 3 P, 2p 2 1 D, and 2s2p 1 P are determined by a numerical fitting procedure which is reported in detail; below 10 keV the ( 1 D+ 1 P), and 2p 2 1 S line intensities are obtained by planimetry since important post-collision effects are observed. From the angular distributions measured below 15 keV, the relative sublevel populations are deduced for the 2p 2 1 D and 2s2p 1 P levels and are compared with those obtained by other authors in a coincidence experiment; the excitation processes are then discussed within the quasimolecular-excitation model. For the highest collision energies, the asymmetry of the angular distributions with respect to 90 0 as well as the line shapes above 100 keV are interpreted by the occurrence of sudden electronic transitions to the continuum. A comparison of the differential cross sections for emission of electrons by autoionization of the fast and slow particles permits us to show that the quasimolecule model cannot explain what is observed above a collision velocity of about 0.5 a.u. The dependence of the total cross sections against the collision energy is also discussed in terms of an evolution of the excitation mechanism from a quasimolecular to an atomic one; the specific variation of the 2s2p 3 P cross section strengthens this interpretation. These total cross sections are compared with those estimated from earlier H + +He data published by us; similar autoionization cross-section values are expected for the two systems at high collision velocity

  1. Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: II. Excitation cross sections and mechanisms of excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godunov, A.L. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118-5698 (United States); Ivanov, P.B.; Schipakov, V.A. [Troitsk Institute of Innovation and Fusion Research Troitsk, Moscow region, 142092 (Russian Federation); Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Laboratoire Collisions, Agregats, Reactivite, IRSAMC, UMR 5589, CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2000-03-14

    Mechanisms of two-electron excitation of the (2s{sup 2}){sup 1} S, (2p{sup 2} ){sup 1} D and (2s2p){sup 1} P autoionizing states of helium are studied both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that an explicit introduction of a kinematic factor, with a process-specific phase leads to a productive parametrization of experimental cross sections of ionization, allowing one to extract cross sections of excitation of autoionizing states. Using a new fitting procedure together with the proposed parametrization made it possible to obtain the excitation cross sections and magnetic sublevel population from electron spectra as well as, for the first time, to resolve the contribution of resonance and interference components to resonance profiles. Interference with direct ionization is shown to contribute significantly into resonance formation even for backward ejection angles. We demonstrate theoretically that the excitation cross sections thus extracted from experimental electron spectra hold information about the interaction of autoionizing states with an adjacent continuum. (author)

  2. Ionization of nS, nP, and nD lithium, potassium, and cesium Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beterov, I. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ékers, A.

    2008-07-01

    The results of theoretical calculations of the blackbody ionization rates of lithium, potassium, and cesium atoms residing in Rydberg states are presented. The calculations are performed for nS, nP, and nD states in a wide range of principal quantum numbers, n = 8-65, for blackbody radiation temperatures T = 77, 300, and 600 K. The calculations are performed using the known quasi-classical formulas for the photoionization cross sections and for the radial matrix elements of transitions in the discrete spectrum. The effect of the blackbody-radiation-induced population redistribution between Rydberg states on the blackbody ionization rates measured under laboratory conditions is quantitatively analyzed. Simple analytical formulas that approximate the numerical results and that can be used to estimate the blackbody ionization rates of Rydberg atoms are presented. For the S series of lithium, the rate of population of high-lying Rydberg levels by blackbody radiation is found to anomalously behave as a function of n. This anomaly is similar to the occurrence of the Cooper minimum in the discrete spectrum.

  3. Atomic approaches in metastable antiprotonic helium atoms. REPLY to 'analysis of the lifetimes and fractions of antiprotons trapped in metastable antiprotonic-helium states' by I. Shimamura and M. Kimura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu; Ohtsuki, Kazumasa.

    1994-08-01

    In the present note the authors clarify the purpose of YO and complement its essential points, thus showing that the criticisms of SK are inappropriate. The paper YO [1] was aimed at discussing some new aspects related to the metastability of hadronic helium atoms which had been discovered when negative kaons [2], negative pions [3] and antiprotons [4] were stopped in liquid helium. The delayed fraction, time spectrum shape and lifetimes were the observables. Further experimental studies are in progress [5], and as of today there is no successful explanation for these interesting phenomena. So, YO tried to give brief and rather qualitative estimates for the observations in an intuitive way, considering only the leading terms. The following problems are discussed in as simple a manner as possible, starting from the exotic-atom viewpoints of Condo [6] and Russell [7]: i)the atomic core polarization effect, ii)the structure and radiative lifetimes, iii)the non-statistical distribution of the angular momentum and an estimate of the delayed fraction, and iv)the isotope effect, though the title represents only i). To respond to the comments of SK, it is important to consider the correspondence between the atomic approach and the molecular approach for the metastable antiprotonic helium atom of Condo-Russell. We therefore begin this note with a discussion of this aspect. (author)

  4. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  5. New innershell phenomena from Rydberg series of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dielectronic satellite spectra near the He-like resonance line W are investigated experimentally and theoretically. We propose that under certain plasma conditions the resonance line structure plays a minor role and can be mixed with the accumulation of Rydberg satellites. (orig.)

  6. New innershell phenomena from Rydberg series of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Faenov, A.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Dielectronic satellite spectra near the He-like resonance line W are investigated experimentally and theoretically. We propose that under certain plasma conditions the resonance line structure plays a minor role and can be mixed with the accumulation of Rydberg satellites. (orig.). 7 refs.

  7. Excitation of the helium autoionizing states in He/sup +/+He collisions, between 3 and 140 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Gleizes, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.

    1982-01-01

    The autoionization of the helium atom has been experimentally studied in He/sup +/+He collisions between 3 and 140 keV by electron spectrometry. The excitation of the two collision partners has been considered. Above 10 keV, the shapes and excitation cross sections of the 2s/sup 2/ /sup 1/S, 2s2p /sup 3/P, 2p/sup 2/ /sup 1/D, and 2s2p /sup 1/P are determined by a numerical fitting procedure which is reported in detail; below 10 keV the (/sup 1/D+/sup 1/P), and 2p/sup 2/ /sup 1/S line intensities are obtained by planimetry since important post-collision effects are observed. From the angular distributions measured below 15 keV, the relative sublevel populations are deduced for the 2p/sup 2/ /sup 1/D and 2s2p/sup 1/ P levels and are compared with those obtained by other authors in a coincidence experiment; the excitation processes are then discussed within the quasimolecular-excitation model. For the highest collision energies, the asymmetry of the angular distributions with respect to 90 /sup 0/ as well as the line shapes above 100 keV are interpreted by the occurrence of sudden electronic transitions to the continuum. A comparison of the differential cross sections for emission of electrons by autoionization of the fast and slow particles permits us to show that the quasimolecule model cannot explain what is observed above a collision velocity of about 0.5 a.u. The dependence of the total cross sections against the collision energy is also discussed in terms of an evolution of the excitation mechanism from a quasimolecular to an atomic one; the specific variation of the 2s2p /sup 3/P cross section strengthens this interpretation. These total cross sections are compared with those estimated from earlier H/sup +/+He data published by us; similar autoionization cross-section values are expected for the two systems at high collision velocity.

  8. The importance of Rydberg orbitals in dissociative ionization of small hydrocarbon molecules in intense laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochim, Bethany; Siemering, R; Zohrabi, M; Voznyuk, O; Mahowald, J B; Schmitz, D G; Betsch, K J; Berry, Ben; Severt, T; Kling, Nora G; Burwitz, T G; Carnes, K D; Kling, M F; Ben-Itzhak, I; Wells, E; de Vivie-Riedle, R

    2017-06-30

    Much of our intuition about strong-field processes is built upon studies of diatomic molecules, which typically have electronic states that are relatively well separated in energy. In polyatomic molecules, however, the electronic states are closer together, leading to more complex interactions. A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of strong-field ionization followed by hydrogen elimination in the hydrocarbon series C 2 D 2 , C 2 D 4 and C 2 D 6 reveals that the photofragment angular distributions can only be understood when the field-dressed orbitals rather than the field-free orbitals are considered. Our measured angular distributions and intensity dependence show that these field-dressed orbitals can have strong Rydberg character for certain orientations of the molecule relative to the laser polarization and that they may contribute significantly to the hydrogen elimination dissociative ionization yield. These findings suggest that Rydberg contributions to field-dressed orbitals should be routinely considered when studying polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields.

  9. Helium localization around the microscopic impurities embedded to liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, E.B.; Shestakov, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and properties of the environment round the impurity atoms (Im) embedded in liquid helium are considered. It is shown that there are two qualitatively different types of structure of the He atom layer next to Im - attraction and repulsion structures. For the center attraction structure (strong Im-He interaction) the Im-He separation is longer than the equilibrium one for the pair Im-He potential, and the density and localization of He atoms are higher than in the bulk. It this case the He atom content in the layer, n, is almost independent of applied pressure. In the repulsion structure realized for alkaline metal atoms the Im-He separation is shorter than the equilibrium one and the density is lower than in the helium bulk. At T approx 1 K occupied are several states with different n and their energies differ only by approx 0.1 K, an increase in pressure resulting in a considerable reduction of n. The optical and EPR spectra of the atoms embedded to liquid and solid helium are interpreted on the basis of the analysis carried out. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the helium surroundings characteristics from the experimental pressure dependences of atomic line shifts in the absorption and emission spectra. The attraction structures in 3 He - 4 He mixtures are suggested to be highly enriched by 4 He atoms which the repulsion structures - by 3 He atoms. a possibility for existence of phase transitions in helium shells surrounding impurity atoms is considered

  10. Post-prior discrepancies in the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation for ion-helium ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2003-09-28

    We have explored post-prior discrepancies within continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory for ion-atom ionization. Although there are no post-prior discrepancies when electron-target initial and final states are exact solutions of the respective Hamiltonians, discrepancies do arise for multielectronic targets, when a hydrogenic continuum with effective charge is used for the final electron-residual target wavefunction. We have found that the prior version calculations give better results than the post version, particularly for highly charged projectiles. We have explored the reasons for this behaviour and found that the prior version shows less sensitivity to the choice of the final state. The fact that the perturbation potentials operate upon the initial state suggests that the selection of the initial bound state is relatively more important than the final continuum state for the prior version.

  11. Design, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning of the Helium Refrigeration system Supporting Superconducting Radio Frequency Testing at Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, F.; Fila, A.; Nguyen, C.; Tatsumoto, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a scientific user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC). The FRIB linear accelerator (LINAC) will be comprised of cryomodules each with multiple Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities operating at 2 K. A helium refrigeration system was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned in the SRF high bay building to test and certify these cavities and cryomodules before installation in the FRIB LINAC tunnel. The helium refrigeration system includes a helium refrigerator which has nominal capacity of 900 W at 4 K, 5000 L liquid helium storage Dewar, helium gas storage, two room temperature vacuum pumps capable of 2.5 g/s each for 2 K testing, purifier, purifier recovery compressor, and the distribution system for liquid nitrogen and helium. The helium refrigeration system is now operational supporting three below grade cavity testing Dewars and one cryomodule testing bunker meeting the required throughput of 1 cavity per day.

  12. Excitation of the (2p2)1D and (2s2p)1P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; McGuire, J.H.; Schipakov, V.S.; Crowe, A.

    2002-01-01

    We report full second Born calculations with inclusion of post-collision interactions for excitation of the (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact. The calculations are compared to (e, 2e) measurements of McDonald and Crowe (McDonald D G and Crowe A 1993 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26 2887-97) and Lower and Weigold (Lower J and Weigold E 1990 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 23 2819-45). It is shown that post-collision interactions or Coulomb interactions in the final state between the scattered particle, the ejected electron and the recoil ion have a strong influence on both the direct ionization and resonance profiles around the binary lobe. The second-order terms in the amplitude of double electron excitation also play an observable role under these kinematic conditions. Reasonable agreement is found between the full-scale calculations and the experimental data. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  13. Electron impact excitation of helium: A ploarization correlation study of the 31P state at 40 eV incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, C.L.; Dorio, L.A.; Neill, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently the Convergent Close-Coupling calculations, (CCC), of Fursa and Bray have been very successful predicting the behavior of the electron impact coherence parameters (EICP) for electron impact excitation of helium. In the present experimental study the linear Stokes parameters P 1 and P 2 have been measured for He(3 1 P) excitation using the polarization correlation technique. Data will be presented for electron impact energies of 40eV and 50eV. At present no other experimental data is available at 40eV. At 50eV angular correlation data measured using the VUV 3 1 P-1 1 S photons are available only out to a maximum electron scattering angle of 85 degrees. Due to the disadvantageous differential cross section and 40:1 branching ratio in favor of the VUV decay, the uncertainties in the present data are large. However, at selected electron scattering angles they are sufficient to distinguish the lack of convergence of the CCC predictions for the 69 state calculations (CCC69) in comparison with the 75 state model (CCC75). In particular at 50 eV incident electron energy and 120 degrees scattering angle the charge cloud alignment angles predicted by the two calculations differ by 90 degrees

  14. Charged condensate and helium dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A, E-mail: gg32@nyu.edu, E-mail: rar339@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen and heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat-the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  15. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  16. Helium localisation in tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, J.L.; Lozes, G.

    1982-06-01

    Study of titanium and LaNi 5 type alloys tritides lattice parameters evolution revealed that helium created by tritium decay remains in interstitial sites up to a limit material dependant concentration. Beyond this one exceeding helium precipites in voids [fr

  17. Impulse approximation in solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The incoherent dynamic form factor S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated in solid helium for comparison with the impulse approximation (IA). The purpose is to determine the Q values for which the IA is valid for systems such a helium where the atoms interact via a potential having a steeply repulsive but not infinite hard core. For 3 He, S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated from first principles, beginning with the pair potential. The density of states g(ω) is evaluated using the self-consistent phonon theory and S/sub i/(Q,ω) is expressed in terms of g(ω). For solid 4 He resonable models of g(ω) using observed input parameters are used to evaluate S/sub i/(Q,ω). In both cases S/sub i/(Q, ω) is found to approach the impulse approximation S/sub IA/(Q, ω) closely for wave vector transfers Q> or approx. =20 A -1 . The difference between S/sub i/ and S/sub IA/, which is due to final state interactions of the scattering atom with the remainder of the atoms in the solid, is also predominantly antisymmetric in (ω-ω/sub R/), where ω/sub R/ is the recoil frequency. This suggests that the symmetrization procedure proposed by Sears to eliminate final state contributions should work well in solid helium

  18. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Scholes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources.

  19. AB INITIO EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN (H-REOS.3) AND HELIUM (He-REOS.3) AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INTERIOR OF BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Schöttler, Manuel; Redmer, Ronald; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    We present new equations of state (EOSs) for hydrogen and helium covering a wide range of temperatures from 60 K to 10 7 K and densities from 10 –10 g cm –3 to 10 3 g cm –3 . They include an extended set of ab initio EOS data for the strongly correlated quantum regime with an accurate connection to data derived from other approaches for the neighboring regions. We compare linear mixing isotherms based on our EOS tables with available real mixture data. A first important astrophysical application of this new EOS data is the calculation of interior models for Jupiter and comparison with recent results. Second, mass-radius relations are calculated for Brown Dwarfs (BDs) which we compare with predictions derived from the widely used EOS of Saumon, Chabrier, and van Horn. Furthermore, we calculate interior models for typical BDs with different masses, namely, Corot-3b, Gliese-229b, and Corot-15b, and the giant planet KOI-889b. The predictions for the central pressures and densities differ by up to 10% dependent on the EOS used. Our EOS tables are made available in the supplemental material of this paper

  20. Steady-state temperature distribution within a Brayton rotating unit operating in a power conversion system using helium-xenon gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, R. L.; Namkoong, D.; Edkin, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The Brayton rotating unit (BRU), consisting of a turbine, an alternator, and a compressor, was tested as part of a Brayton cycle power conversion system over a side range of steady state operating conditions. The working fluid in the system was a mixture of helium-xenon gases. Turbine inlet temperature was varied from 1200 to 1600 F, compressor inlet temperature from 60 to 120 F, compressor discharge pressure from 20 to 45 psia, rotative speed from 32 400 to 39 600 rpm, and alternator liquid-coolant flow rate from 0.01 to 0.27 pound per second. Test results indicated that the BRU internal temperatures were highly sensitive to alternator coolant flow below the design value of 0.12 pound per second but much less so at higher values. The armature winding temperature was not influenced significantly by turbine inlet temperature, but was sensitive, up to 20 F per kVA alternator output, to varying alternator output. When only the rotational speed was changed (+ or - 10% of rated value), the BRU internal temperatures varied directly with the speed.

  1. Alignment and orientation of the 21P state of helium by electron impact at 29.6 and 51.2 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, R.; Hollywood, M.T.; Crowe, A.; Williams, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The electron-photon coincidence technique has been used to deduce the lambda and chi parameters for excitation of the 2 1 P state of helium by electron impact at 29.6 and 51.2 eV incident energies and for electron scattering angles in the range 15 to 130 0 . The lambda parameter shows a minimum at small and large scattering angles. When combined with the data of Hollywood et al (J. Phys. B.; 12:819 (1979)) at 81.2 eV, it can be seen that as the incident energy decreases, the depth of the low-angle minimum decreases and its position moves to larger scattering angles. In contrast, the depth of the second minimum increases with decreasing incident electron energy. The experimental values of lambda and chi are compared with values predicted from the first Born approximation, a distorted-wave polarised-orbital approximation, a first-order many-body theory and an R-matrix theory. None of the theoretical values is in agreement with the measured data although the R-matrix calculation gives a reasonable indication of the features of both lambda and chi at 29.6 eV. (author)

  2. Ionization of Rb Rydberg atoms in the attractive nsnp dipole-dipole potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunwook; Shuman, E. S.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2011-01-01

    We have observed the ionization of a cold gas of Rb Rydberg atoms which occurs when nsns van der Waals pairs of ns atoms of n≅ 40 on a weakly repulsive potential are transferred to an attractive dipole-dipole nsnp potential by a microwave transition. Comparing the measurements to a simple model shows that the initial 300-μK thermal velocity of the atoms plays an important role. Excitation to a repulsive dipole-dipole potential does not lead to more ionization on a 15-μs time scale than leaving the atoms in the weakly repulsive nsns state. This observation is slightly surprising since a radiative transition must occur to allow ionization in the latter case. Finally, by power broadening of the microwave transition, to allow transitions from the initial nsns state to the nsnp state over a broad range of internuclear spacings, it is possible to accelerate markedly the evolution to a plasma.

  3. A liquid helium saver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenel, O.; Der Nigohossian, G.; Roubeau, P.

    1976-01-01

    A cryostat equipped with a 'liquid helium saver' is described. A mass flow rate M of helium gas at high pressure is injected in a counter-flow heat exchanger extending from room to liquid helium temperature. After isenthalpic expansion through a calibrated flow impedance this helium gas returns via the low pressure side of the heat exchanger. The helium boil-off of the cryostat represents a mass flow rate m, which provides additional precooling of the incoming helium gas. Two operating regimes appear possible giving nearly the same efficiency: (1) high pressure (20 to 25 atm) and minimum flow (M . L/W approximately = 1.5) which would be used in an open circuit with helium taken from a high pressure cylinder; and (2) low pressure (approximately = 3 atm), high flow (M . L/W > 10) which would be used in a closed circuit with a rubber diaphragm pumping-compressing unit; both provide a minimum theoretical boil-off factor of about 8%. Experimental results are reported. (U.K.)

  4. Controlling stray electric fields on an atom chip for experiments on Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, D.; Machluf, S.; Soudijn, M. L.; Naber, J. B.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces must necessarily deal with the high sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to (stray) electric fields that typically emanate from adsorbates on the surface. We demonstrate a method to modify and reduce the stray electric field by changing the adsorbate distribution. We use one of the Rydberg excitation lasers to locally affect the adsorbed dipole distribution. By adjusting the averaged exposure time we change the strength (with the minimal value less than 0.2 V /cm at 78 μ m from the chip) and even the sign of the perpendicular field component. This technique is a useful tool for experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces, including atom chips.

  5. Splitting of an electromagnetically induced transparency window of a cascade system with 133Cs Rydberg atoms in a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shanxia; Yang Wenguang; Zhang Hao; Zhang Linjie; Zhao Jianming; Jia Suotang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of 133 Cs vapor at the room temperature in a magnetic field. In a cascade three-level system involved Rydberg state, two collinearly counter-propagating and orthogonally linear-polarized laser fields act on cascaded two transitions, 6S 1/2 → 6P 3/2 and 6P 3/2 ↔ 47D 5/2 , respectively. The EIT window become broadening and split into several sub-EIT windows when the magnetic field is applied. The dependences of splitting shape and intervals of sub-EIT windows on magnetic field are measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical calculation considering the different magnetic effects on ground state, low excited state and Rydberg state. The splitting intervals of sub-EIT windows are well consistent with theoretical calculation. (author)

  6. Charge transfer rates for xenon Rydberg atoms at metal and semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, F.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS 61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)]. E-mail: fbd@rice.edu; Wethekam, S. [Institut fuer Physik der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Dunham, H.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS 61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States); Lancaster, J.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS 61, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Recent progress in the study of charge exchange between xenon Rydberg atoms and surfaces is reviewed. Experiments using Au(1 1 1) surfaces show that under appropriate conditions each incident atom can be detected as an ion. The ionization dynamics, however, are strongly influenced by the perturbations in the energies and structure of the atomic states that occur as the ion collection field is applied and as the atom approaches the surface. These lead to avoided crossings between different atomic levels causing the atom to successively assume the character of a number of different states and lose much of its initial identity. The effects of this mixing are discussed. Efficient surface ionization is also observed at Si(1 0 0) surfaces although the ion signal is influenced by stray fields present at the surface.

  7. Detailed Balance of Thermalization Dynamics in Rydberg-Atom Quantum Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Park, YeJe; Kim, Kyungtae; Sim, H-S; Ahn, Jaewook

    2018-05-04

    Dynamics of large complex systems, such as relaxation towards equilibrium in classical statistical mechanics, often obeys a master equation that captures essential information from the complexities. Here, we find that thermalization of an isolated many-body quantum state can be described by a master equation. We observe sudden quench dynamics of quantum Ising-like models implemented in our quantum simulator, defect-free single-atom tweezers in conjunction with Rydberg-atom interaction. Saturation of their local observables, a thermalization signature, obeys a master equation experimentally constructed by monitoring the occupation probabilities of prequench states and imposing the principle of the detailed balance. Our experiment agrees with theories and demonstrates the detailed balance in a thermalization dynamics that does not require coupling to baths or postulated randomness.

  8. Detailed Balance of Thermalization Dynamics in Rydberg-Atom Quantum Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Park, YeJe; Kim, Kyungtae; Sim, H.-S.; Ahn, Jaewook

    2018-05-01

    Dynamics of large complex systems, such as relaxation towards equilibrium in classical statistical mechanics, often obeys a master equation that captures essential information from the complexities. Here, we find that thermalization of an isolated many-body quantum state can be described by a master equation. We observe sudden quench dynamics of quantum Ising-like models implemented in our quantum simulator, defect-free single-atom tweezers in conjunction with Rydberg-atom interaction. Saturation of their local observables, a thermalization signature, obeys a master equation experimentally constructed by monitoring the occupation probabilities of prequench states and imposing the principle of the detailed balance. Our experiment agrees with theories and demonstrates the detailed balance in a thermalization dynamics that does not require coupling to baths or postulated randomness.

  9. Photoionization of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dehua; Cheng, Shaohao; Chen, Zhaohang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ionization of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a magnetic field has been studied. • Oscillatory structures appear in the electron probability density distributions. • This study can guide the experimental research on the photoionization microscopy. - Abstract: The ionization of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a magnetic field has been studied on the basis of a semiclassical analysis of photoionization microscopy. The photoionization microscopy interference patterns of the photoelectron probability density distribution on a given detector plane are calculated at different scaled energies. We find that due to the interference effect of different types of electron trajectories arrived at a given point on the detector plane, oscillatory structures appear in the electron probability density distributions. The oscillatory structure of the interference pattern, which contains the spatial component of the electronic wave function, evolves sensitively on the scaled energy, through which we gain a deep understanding on the probability density distribution of the electron wave function. This study provides some reference values for the future experiment research on the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg atom in the presence of magnetic field

  10. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    1994-11-01

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n ≤3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 3 3 D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  11. Separation of compressor oil from helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, R.; Perrotta, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Compression of helium by an oil-sealed rorary screw compressor entrains as much as 4000 parts per million by weight of liquid and vapor oil impurities in the gas. The reduction below about 0.1 ppm for cryogenic applications is discussed. Oil seperation equipment designed for compressed air must be modified significantly to produce the desired results with helium. The main differences between air and helium filtration are described. A description of the coalescers is given with the continuous coalescing of liquid mist from air or other gas illustrated. Oil vapor in helium is discussed in terms of typical compressor oils, experimental procedure for measuring oil vapor concentration, measured volatile hydrocarbons in the lubricants, and calculated concentration of oil vapor in Helium. Liquid oil contamination in helium gas can be reduced well below 0.1 ppm by a properly designed multiple state coalescing filter system containing graded efficiency filter elements. The oil vapor problem is best attached by efficiently treating the oil to remove most of the colatiles before charging the compressor

  12. Helium sources to groundwater in active volcanic terrain, and implications for tritium-helium dating at Mount St. Helens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, John B. [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 217 Bessey Hall, Lincoln NE 68588 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater helium sources and residence times were investigated using groundwater discharging from springs surrounding Mount St. Helens in the Cascades region of the United States. Significant contributions of mantle helium were found in all samples and are attributable to interaction between groundwater and magmatic gases. Bounding calculations for residence times were made on the basis of helium isotope mixing plots and historical tritium data. (authors)

  13. ARC: An open-source library for calculating properties of alkali Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šibalić, N.; Pritchard, J. D.; Adams, C. S.; Weatherill, K. J.

    2017-11-01

    We present an object-oriented Python library for the computation of properties of highly-excited Rydberg states of alkali atoms. These include single-body effects such as dipole matrix elements, excited-state lifetimes (radiative and black-body limited) and Stark maps of atoms in external electric fields, as well as two-atom interaction potentials accounting for dipole and quadrupole coupling effects valid at both long and short range for arbitrary placement of the atomic dipoles. The package is cross-referenced to precise measurements of atomic energy levels and features extensive documentation to facilitate rapid upgrade or expansion by users. This library has direct application in the field of quantum information and quantum optics which exploit the strong Rydberg dipolar interactions for two-qubit gates, robust atom-light interfaces and simulating quantum many-body physics, as well as the field of metrology using Rydberg atoms as precise microwave electrometers. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/hm5n8w628c.1 Licensing provisions: BSD-3-Clause Programming language: Python 2.7 or 3.5, with C extension External Routines: NumPy [1], SciPy [1], Matplotlib [2] Nature of problem: Calculating atomic properties of alkali atoms including lifetimes, energies, Stark shifts and dipole-dipole interaction strengths using matrix elements evaluated from radial wavefunctions. Solution method: Numerical integration of radial Schrödinger equation to obtain atomic wavefunctions, which are then used to evaluate dipole matrix elements. Properties are calculated using second order perturbation theory or exact diagonalisation of the interaction Hamiltonian, yielding results valid even at large external fields or small interatomic separation. Restrictions: External electric field fixed to be parallel to quantisation axis. Supplementary material: Detailed documentation (.html), and Jupyter notebook with examples and benchmarking runs (.html and .ipynb). [1] T.E. Oliphant

  14. A Controlled-Phase Gate via Adiabatic Rydberg Dressing of Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, Ivan; Cook, Robert; Biederman, Grant; Jau, Yuan-Yu

    2014-05-01

    The dipole blockade effect between Rydberg atoms is a promising tool for quantum information processing in neutral atoms. So far, most efforts to perform a quantum logic gate with this effect have used resonant laser pulses to excite the atoms, which makes the system particularly susceptible to decoherence through thermal motional effects. We explore an alternative scheme in which the atomic ground states are adiabatically ``dressed'' by turning on an off-resonant laser. We analyze the implementation of a CPHASE gate using this mechanism and find that fidelities of >99% should be possible with current technology, owing primarily to the suppression of motional errors. We also discuss how such a scheme could be generalized to perform more complicated, multi-qubit gates; in particular, a simple generalization would allow us to perform a Toffoli gate in a single step.

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency in thermal Rydberg atoms: superatom model with finite Doppler broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Si-Yin; Bao, Qian-Qian; Tian, Xue-Dong; Liu, Yi-Mou; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2018-04-01

    We study the steady optical responses of a cold atomic ensemble driven into the three-level ladder configuration involving a Rydberg state at finite temperatures. By improving the superatom model with thermal movement included, we calculate relevant atomic coherence effects and find that the residual Doppler broadening at the mK-K temperatures will weaken the nonclassical properties of transmitted probe photons. Furthermore, propagation directions of the probe and coupling fields have a great influence on various properties related to electromagnetically induced transparency. That is, the residual Doppler effect is more destructive to relevant atomic coherence effects in the co-propagation case but can be partially eliminated in the counter-propagation case.

  16. Semi-classical description of Rydberg atoms in strong, single-cycle electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.V.; Sanders, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of the excitation and ionization of Rydberg atoms by single-cycle, electromagnetic pulses have revealed a variety of novel features. Because many quantum states are strongly coupled by the broadband radiation in the short pulse, the traditional methods of quantum mechanics are inadequate to account for the experimental results. We have therefore developed a semi-classical description of the interaction of both hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic atoms with single-cycle pulses of intense, electromagnetic radiation which is based on the strong correspondence theory of Percival and Richards. This theory, which was originally introduced for the description of strong atomic collisions, accounts for some of the surprising features of the experimental measurements and provides new predictions for future experimental studies

  17. Coherent Microwave-to-Optical Conversion via Six-Wave Mixing in Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingshan; Vogt, Thibault; Gross, Christian; Jaksch, Dieter; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui

    2018-03-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of converting a microwave field to an optical field via frequency mixing in a cloud of cold 87Rb atoms, where the microwave field strongly couples to an electric dipole transition between Rydberg states. We show that the conversion allows the phase information of the microwave field to be coherently transferred to the optical field. With the current energy level scheme and experimental geometry, we achieve a photon-conversion efficiency of ˜0.3 % at low microwave intensities and a broad conversion bandwidth of more than 4 MHz. Theoretical simulations agree well with the experimental data, and they indicate that near-unit efficiency is possible in future experiments.

  18. Positronium in the AEgIS experiment: study on its emission from nanochanneled samples and design of a new apparatus for Rydberg excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Noto, Lea

    This experimental thesis has been done in the framework of AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy), an experiment installed at CERN, whose primary goal is the measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on anti-hydrogen. The antiatoms will be produced by the charge exchange reaction, where a cloud of Ps in Rydberg states interacts with cooled trapped antiprotons. Since the charge exchange cross section depends on Ps velocity and quantum number, the velocity distribution of Ps emitted by a positron-positronium converter as well as its excitation in Rydberg states have to be studied and optimized. In this thesis Ps cooling and emission into vacuum from nanochannelled silicon targets was studied by performing Time of Flight measurements with a dedicated apparatus conceived to receive the slow positron beam as produced at the Trento laboratory or at the NEPOMUC facility at Munich. Measurements were done by varying the positron implantation energy, the sample temperature and ...

  19. Recent developments in liquid helium 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarao, I.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of the theories for the ground state of liquid helium 3, are reviewed. To begin with, a brief summary of the experimental results on the thermodynamic properties of liquid helium 3 including its recently discovered superfulid phases is given. The basic ideas of the Landau theory of a normal Fermi liquid are then introduced. A qualitative discussion of the current understanding of the anisotropic phases of superfluid helium 3 is given, the microscopic calculaations for the binding energy of liquid helium 3 are reviewed and the results obtained for the two-body contributions to the binding energy using the Brueckner-Goldstone formulation and that of Mohling and his collaborators are summarized and discussed. The importance of a proper estimate of the three-body contributions to the binding energy is stressed. The results obtained in the literature using variational methods and constrained variational methods are discussed. A critical analysis of the results by various methods is given. Despite much effort the basic problem of the ground state of liquid helium 3, remains unresolved. (author)

  20. High-temperature helium-loop facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100 0 F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system. The experimental capabilities and test conand presents the results that have been obtained. The study has been conducted using a four-phase approach. The first phase develops the solution to the steady-state radon-diffusion equation in one-dimensieered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent f water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, BB, a 200 mK. In case 2), x-ray studies of isotopic phase separation in 3 He-- 4 He bcc solids were carried out by B. A. Fraass

  1. Self-excitation of Rydberg atoms at a metal surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The novel effect of self-excitation of an atomic beam propagating above a metal surface is predicted and a theory is developed. Its underlying mechanism is positive feedback provided by the reflective surface for the atomic polarization. Under certain conditions the atomic beam flying in the near...... field of the metal surface acts as an active device that supports sustained atomic dipole oscillations, which generate, in their turn, an electromagnetic field. This phenomenon does not exploit stimulated emission and therefore does not require population inversion in atoms. An experiment with Rydberg...... atoms in which this effect should be most pronounced is proposed and the necessary estimates are given....

  2. Lamb shift of Rydberg atoms in a resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.A.; Lozovik, Yu.E.; Pokrovsky, V.L.

    1988-08-01

    The Lamb shift of a Rydberg atom in a cavity is shown to be enhanced with the resonance interaction of a virtual atomic transition and cavity modes. The dependence of the Lamb shift on quantum numbers and atomic number changes drastically. Shifting cavity walls and scanning the atomic beam one can vary the Lamb shift. The value of the Lamb shift in a cavity may exceed a typical magnitude of the fine structure energy. For a rough resonance tuning the Coulumb multiplet occurs to be strongly mixed and a novel classification is necessary. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  3. Rydberg State Stark Spectroscopy and Applications to Plasma Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Bayfield47 provides an excellent review of the AC Stark effect, in which the primary effect is Rabi splitting. Several authors48 , 49, 50 have...purity of the spectrum indicates that the field present is dominantly anisotropic . 53 n:26NEON LINE n=35 0 n= 40 p.- n=45 IL 0 31975 31950 31925 31900...applied (axial) electric field which is anisotropic , so pure polarization spectra can be recorded. The intensity profile of the Am = 0 polarization is

  4. Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.

  5. Superexcited states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Takagi, Hidekazu.

    1990-01-01

    The report addresses the nature and major features of molecule's superexcited states, focusing on their involvement in dynamic processes. It also outlines the quantum defect theory which allows various processes involving these states to be treated in a unified way. The Rydberg state has close relation with an ionized state with a positive energy. The quantum defect theory interprets such relation. Specifically, the report first describes the quantum defect theory focusing on its basic principle. The multi-channel quantum defect theory is then outlined centering on how to describe a Rydberg-type superexcited state. Description of a dissociative double-electron excited state is also discussed. The quantum defect theory is based on the fact that the physics of the motion of a Rydberg electron vary with the region in the electron's coordinate space. Finally, various molecular processes that involve a superexcited state are addressed focusing on autoionization, photoionization, dissociative recombination and bonding ionization of diatomic molecules. (N.K.)

  6. Semiclassical study of the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom with the molecules HF and HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, M.; Lane, N.F.

    1990-01-01

    The semiclassical impact-parameter method is applied to the processes of state changing and energy transfer in the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom (n≥20) with the polar molecules HF and HCl. The relative motion of the molecule and atomic nucleus is taken to be rectilinear; the electron-molecule and ion core-molecule interactions are represented by cutoff dipole forms. Cross sections for transitions involving quantum numbers n and l of the atom and rotational quantum number j of the molecule are obtained for a range of collision energies and initial atomic and molecular states. Comparisons are made with the results of earlier classical studies and with the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation. Collision rates are calculated and compared with experimental values for l mixing and n and j changing. The agreement between experiment and theory is shown to be satisfactory, within the uncertainties of both the measurements and the theory. Cases of agreement and disagreement between various theories are examined. One finding of the present work is that the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation appears to significantly overestimate the values of various state-changing cross sections when the internal energy defect is small. The validity of the impulse approximation for collisions of Rydberg atoms with polar molecules is discussed

  7. Helium refrigerator for 'SULTAN'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpagaus, M.; Erlach, H.; Quack, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe the helium refrigerator designed for the SULTAN test facility. SULTAN (Supraleiter-Testanlage) is intended to serve for the developments and testing of high field superconducting magnets. These magnets are needed mainly for future applications in nuclear fusion. (Auth.)

  8. Cosmological helium production simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Brown, L.S.; Feinberg, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a simplified model of helium synthesis in the early universe. The purpose of the model is to explain clearly the physical ideas relevant to the cosmological helium synthesis, in a manner that does not overlay these ideas with complex computer calculations. The model closely follows the standard calculation, except that it neglects the small effect of Fermi-Dirac statistics for the leptons. We also neglect the temperature difference between photons and neutrinos during the period in which neutrons and protons interconvert. These approximations allow us to express the neutron-proton conversion rates in a closed form, which agrees to 10% accuracy or better with the exact rates. Using these analytic expressions for the rates, we reduce the calculation of the neutron-proton ratio as a function of temperature to a simple numerical integral. We also estimate the effect of neutron decay on the helium abundance. Our result for this quantity agrees well with precise computer calculations. We use our semi-analytic formulas to determine how the predicted helium abundance varies with such parameters as the neutron life-time, the baryon to photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and a possible electron-neutrino chemical potential. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Analysis of high-n dielectronic Rydberg satellites in the spectra of Na-like Zn XX and Mg-like Zn XIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, K.B.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Murra, D.; Belyaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.I.; Kyrilov, A.S.; Matafonov, A.P.; Francucci, M.; Martellucci, S.; Petrocelli, G.

    2004-01-01

    We have observed spectra from highly charged zinc ions in a variety of laser-produced plasmas. Spectral features that are Na- and Mg-like satellites to high-n Rydberg transitions in the Ne-like Zn XXI spectrum are analyzed and modeled. Identifications and analysis are made by comparison with highly accurate atomic structure calculations and steady state collisional-radiative models. Each observed Zn XX and Zn XIX feature comprises up to ≅2 dozen individual transitions, these transitions are excited principally by dielectronic recombination through autoionizing levels in Na- and Mg-like Zn 19+ and Zn 18+ . We find these satellites to be ubiquitous in laser-produced plasmas formed by lasers with pulse lengths that span four orders of magnitude, from 1 ps to ≅10 ns. The diagnostic potential of these Rydberg satellite lines is demonstrated

  10. Electronic Rydberg wavepacket effects on molecular vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Meacher, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic wavepacket states of molecular hydrogen are considered which represent the situation of a spectator electron orbiting a molecular core. A quantum defect theory approach is used to determine the energy level structure, wavefunctions and molecular potentials, which is valid in regions where the quantum defects approach zero. In such a region the orbital motion of the wavepacket leads to a periodic variation in the molecular vibration frequency of the order of 100 cm -1 . Possible detection schemes are discussed. (author)

  11. Inner-shell spectroscopy and exchange interaction of Rydberg electrons bound by singly and doubly charged Kr and Xe atoms in small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Hatsui, Takaki; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Ruehl, Eckart; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Surface-site resolved Kr 3d 5/2 -1 5p and 3d 5/2 -1 6p and Xe 4d 5/2 -1 6p and 4d 5/2 -1 7p Rydberg excited states in small van der Waals Kr and Xe clusters with a mean size of = 15 are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface-site resolved Kr 4s -2 5p, 4s -2 6p, and 4s -1 4p -1 5p shakeup-like Rydberg states in small Kr clusters are investigated by resonant Auger electron spectroscopy. The exchange interaction of the Rydberg electron with the surrounding atoms and the induced polarization of the surrounding atoms in the singly and doubly ionized atoms are deduced from the experimental spectra to analyze different surface-site contributions in small clusters, assuming that the corner, edge, face, and bulk sites have 3, 5-6, 8, and 12 nearest neighbor atoms. These energies are almost proportional to the number of the nearest neighbor atoms. The present analysis indicates that small Kr and Xe clusters with = 15 have an average or mixture structure between the fcc-like cubic and icosahedron-like spherical structures.

  12. l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, B.; Harnafi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5-13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 AṦ are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li* colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n-->n' changing processes with large cross sections (10-100 AṦ) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔEnn'>103 cm-1). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes.

  13. Room temperature desorption of helium-3 from metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, L.C.; Kass, W.J.

    1976-10-01

    It has long been known that helium-3 accumulates in metal tritides as tritium decays. Early in life nearly 100% of the helium-3 is retained in the lattice, but when a critical concentration is reached (material dependent), the lattice will no longer retain the helium-3 and it is emitted at about the generation rate. Measurements were recently made on a number of erbium tritides with varying concentrations in the ditritide phase. The expected early release characteristics are observed for all of the samples. However, ditritides with higher tritium concentrations reach the rapid release state at much lower helium-3 concentrations. For instance, the helium to metal concentration for rapid release in the unsaturated ditritide is about 0.22, whereas it is only one-tenth this value in the saturated ditritide. The additional tritium in the tritide appears to be the cause of this effect

  14. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  15. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  16. The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled

  17. Excitation and ionization of hydrogen and helium atoms by femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical approach by Coulomb-Volkov states; Excitation et ionisation des atomes d'hydrogene et d'helium par des impulsions laser femtosecondes: approche theorique par des etats de Coulomb-Volkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guichard, R

    2007-12-15

    We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when {Dirac_h}{omega} > I{sub p}: it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with {Dirac_h}{omega} < I{sub p}: new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)

  18. Excitation and ionization of hydrogen and helium atoms by femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical approach by Coulomb-Volkov states; Excitation et ionisation des atomes d'hydrogene et d'helium par des impulsions laser femtosecondes: approche theorique par des etats de Coulomb-Volkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guichard, R

    2007-12-15

    We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when {Dirac_h}{omega} > I{sub p}: it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with {Dirac_h}{omega} < I{sub p}: new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)

  19. Ramsey interferometry of Rydberg ensembles inside microwave cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christian; Genes, Claudiu

    2018-06-01

    We study ensembles of Rydberg atoms in a confined electromagnetic environment such as is provided by a microwave cavity. The competition between standard free space Ising type and cavity-mediated interactions leads to the emergence of different regimes where the particle‑particle couplings range from the typical van der Waals r ‑6 behavior to r ‑3 and to r-independence. We apply a Ramsey spectroscopic technique to map the two-body interactions into a characteristic signal such as intensity and contrast decay curves. As opposed to previous treatments requiring high-densities for considerable contrast and phase decay (Takei et al 2016 Nat. Comms. 7 13449; Sommer et al 2016 Phys. Rev. A 94 053607), the cavity scenario can exhibit similar behavior at much lower densities.

  20. The Rydberg constant and proton size from atomic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Axel; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Matveev, Arthur; Pohl, Randolf; Khabarova, Ksenia; Grinin, Alexey; Lamour, Tobias; Yost, Dylan C.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Kolachevsky, Nikolai; Udem, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    At the core of the “proton radius puzzle” is a four-standard deviation discrepancy between the proton root-mean-square charge radii (rp) determined from the regular hydrogen (H) and the muonic hydrogen (µp) atoms. Using a cryogenic beam of H atoms, we measured the 2S-4P transition frequency in H, yielding the values of the Rydberg constant R∞ = 10973731.568076(96) per meterand rp = 0.8335(95) femtometer. Our rp value is 3.3 combined standard deviations smaller than the previous H world data, but in good agreement with the µp value. We motivate an asymmetric fit function, which eliminates line shifts from quantum interference of neighboring atomic resonances.

  1. Ionization due to the interaction between two Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robicheaux, F

    2005-01-01

    Using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo method, we have computed the ionization resulting from the interaction between two cold Rydberg atoms. We focus on the products resulting from close interaction between two highly excited atoms. We give information on the distribution of ejected electron energies, the distribution of internal atom energies and the velocity distribution of the atoms and ions after the ionization. If the potential for the atom is not purely Coulombic, the average interaction between two atoms can change from attractive to repulsive giving a Van de Graaff-like mechanism for accelerating atoms. In a small fraction of ionization cases, we find that the ionization leads to a positive molecular ion where all of the distances are larger than 1000 Bohr radii

  2. Application of the Faddeev-Watson expansion to thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Prunele, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Faddeev-Watson expansion (FWE) for the T operator is applied to the study of thermal collisions between Rydberg atom and neutral atom. These collisions are considered as a three-body problem (the perturber, the Rydberg electron, and its parent core) and it is assumed, as already done in most theoretical works dealing with Rydberg-atom--atom collisions, that the core-perturber interaction can be neglected. Then the evaluation of the FWE first- and second-order terms is made tractable by using an appropriate separable potential for the Rydberg-electron--perturber interaction. The evaluation of the second-order term allows us to estimate the importance of taking into account explicitly the Rydberg-electron--core interaction in the expression of the (three-body) T operator for the thermal collisions considered. Detailed calculations for the process Rb(n, l = 0)+He →Rb(n',l')+He are presented and discussed. The FWE second-order term has been evaluated for the first time by taking the (two-body) t operator associated with the Rydberg atom (valence electron plus parent core) as the Coulomb potential. The contribution of the FWE second-order term to the scattering amplitude decreases as n increases and is found especially significant when both the momentum transfers involved in the collision are large and the values of l and l' are small

  3. Absolute high-resolution Se+ photoionization cross-section measurements with Rydberg-series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, D. A.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Sterling, N. C.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Red, E. C.; Aguilar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements for Se + ions were performed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the photo-ion merged-beams technique. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 5.5 meV from 17.75 to 21.85 eV spanning the 4s 2 4p 3 4 S 3/2 o ground-state ionization threshold and the 2 P 3/2 o , 2 P 1/2 o , 2 D 5/2 o , and 2 D 3/2 o metastable state thresholds. Extensive analysis of the complex resonant structure in this region identified numerous Rydberg series of resonances and obtained the Se 2+ 4s 2 4p 23 P 2 and 4s 2 4p 21 S 0 state energies. In addition, particular attention was given to removing significant effects in the measurements due to a small percentage of higher-order undulator radiation.

  4. Evaluation of helium cooling for fusion divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    The divertors of future fusion reactors will have a power throughput of several hundred MW. The peak heat flux on the diverter surface is estimated to be 5 to 15 MW/m 2 at an average heat flux of 2 MW/m 2 . The divertors have a requirement of both minimum temperature (100 degrees C) and maximum temperature. The minimum temperature is dictated by the requirement to reduce the absorption of plasma, and the maximum temperature is determined by the thermo-mechanical properties of the plasma facing materials. Coolants that have been considered for fusion reactors are water, liquid metals and helium. Helium cooling has been shown to be very attractive from safety and other considerations. Helium is chemically and neutronically inert and is suitable for power conversion. The challenges associated with helium cooling are: (1) Manifold sizes; (2) Pumping power; and (3) Leak prevention. In this paper the first two of the above design issues are addressed. A variety of heat transfer enhancement techniques are considered to demonstrate that the manifold sizes and the pumping power can be reduced to acceptable levels. A helium-cooled diverter module was designed and fabricated by GA for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . This module was recently tested at Sandia National Laboratories. At an inlet pressure of 4 MPa, the module was tested at a steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . The pumping power required was less than 1% of the power removed. These results verified the design prediction

  5. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cherman, Aleksey, E-mail: bedaque@umd.edu, E-mail: evanb@umd.edu, E-mail: a.cherman@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-10

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  6. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  7. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  8. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Merrill, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  9. Orientation, alignment and polarisation in electron-helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijers, J.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis electron-photon coincidence experiments to study the excitation of helium by electron impact are updated. This is achieved by cross firing a well collimated and mono-energetic electron beam with a thermal helium beam and measuring the angular and/or polarisation distribution of the decay photons in coincidence with the inelastically scattered electrons. In this way target parameters are determined for the 2 1 P, 3 1 P, 3 1 D and 3 3 P states of helium. (Auth.)

  10. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, G; Pintsuk, G; Linke, J; Hirai, T; Norajitra, P; Reiser, J; Giniyatulin, R; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ∼14 MW m -2 , the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  11. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, G.; Hirai, T.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, J.; Giniyatulin, R.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.

    2009-12-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ~14 MW m-2, the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  12. Orion A helium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilev, A.P.; Ershov, A.A.; Smirnov, G.T.; Sorochenko, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The 22.4-GHz (H,He)66-alpha and 36.5-GHz (H,He)56-alpha radio recombination lines have been observed at several Jaffe-Pankonin positions in the central part of the Orion A source. The measured relative abundance of ionized helium increases with distance, averaging 11.6 percent at peripheral points. The observed behavior is interpreted by a blister-type model nebula, which implies that Orion A has a true He abundance of 12 percent, is moving with a radial velocity of 5 km/sec, and is expanding. 18 references

  13. Simulation of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceperley, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    The author discusses simulation methods for quantum mechanical systems at finite temperatures. Recently it has been shown that static properties of some quantum systems can be obtained by simulation in a straightforward manner using path integrals, albeit with an order of magnitude more computing effort needed than for the corresponding classical systems. Some dynamical information can be gleaned from these simulations as will be discussed below. But this is very limited - there is no quantum version of the molecular dynamics method. The path integral method is illustrated by discussing the application to liquid helium. 12 refs., 8 figs

  14. The Excitation of Rydberg Atoms of Thallium in an Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevskii, D. E.; Kim, V. A.; Fateev, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    The spectrum of excitation of Rydberg states of thallium atoms has been investigated using a collimated atomic beam in a two-step isotope selective laser scheme 62 P 1/2 → 62 D 3/2 → Tl** in the presence of an electric field with a strength of up to 1.5 kV/cm near the level 16 F 5/2. The optical transitions 6 D 3/2 → 18 D 3/2 and 6 D 3/2 → 16 G 7/2, which were induced by an external electric field and dipole-forbidden, have been studied experimentally. The values for the scalar polarizabilities (in units cm-1/(kV/cm)2) α0(16 F 5/2) = 3.71 ± 0.3, α0(18 D 3/2) = 11.70 ± 0.25, and α0(16 G 7/2) = 44.1 ± 0.9, which are compared with the calculated one, have been obtained. The new values of energy parameters for the states 18 D 3/2 and 16 G 7/2 have been determined.

  15. Oxidation characteristics of the electron beam surface-treated Alloy 617 in high temperature helium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Sah, Injin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Hyunmyung; Jang, Changheui

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of the electron beam surface-treated Alloy 617, which has an Al-rich surface layer, were evaluated in high temperature helium environments. Isothermal oxidation tests were performed in helium (99.999% purity) and VHTR-helium (helium of prototypical VHTR chemistry containing impurities like CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 ) environments at 900 °C for up to 1000 h. The surface-treated Alloy 617 showed an initial transient oxidation stage followed by the steady-state oxidation in all test environments. In addition, the steady-state oxidation kinetics of the surface-treated Alloy 617 was 2-order of magnitude lower than that of the as-received Alloy 617 in both helium environments as well as in air. The improvement in oxidation resistance was primarily due to the formation of the protective Al 2 O 3 layer on the surface. The weight gain was larger in the order of air, helium, and VHTR-helium, while the parabolic rate constants (k p ) at steady-state were similar for all test environments. In both helium environments, the oxide structure consisted of the outer transition Al 2 O 3 with a small amount of Cr 2 O 3 and inner columnar structured Al 2 O 3 without an internal oxide. In the VHTR-helium environment, where the impurities were added to helium, the initial transient oxidation increased but the steady state kinetics was not affected

  16. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  17. A photoionization study of OH and OD from 680A to 950A: An analysis of the Rydberg series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, J. N.; He, Z. X.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The photoionization spectra of OH(+) and OD(+) have been reported from 680 to 950 A (18.23 to 13.05 eV) at a wavelength resolution of 0.07 A. Through interpretation of both spectra, the Rydberg series and their higher vibrational members have been reported for three of the excited ionic states, a(sup 1)Delta, A(sup 3)Pi(i), and b(sup 1) Sigma(sup +). A vibrational progression has also been observed in both OH(+) and OD(+) which is apparently related to a fourth excited ionic state, c(sup 1)Pi. Finally, the dissociative ionization limits, corrected to 0 K,for H2O AND D2O have been measured to be 18.11+/-0.01 and 18.21+/-0.01 eV, respectively, and shown to be in good agreement with previously reported results.

  18. A helium regenerative compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  19. Measurements of the antineutrino spin asymmetry in beta decay of the neutron and restrictions on the male scattering at microelectronvolt energies using very-high-n Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Serebrov, A.P.; Stepanenko, I.V.; Alduschenkov, A.V.; Lasakov, M.S.; Kokin, A.A.; Mostovoi, Y.A.; Yerozolimsky, B.G.; Dewey, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Atoms in very high Rydberg states, 100 approx-lt n approx-lt 1100, are used to investigate electron-molecule interactions at electron energies extending down to a few microelectronvolts. At such energies the cross section for electron capture by CCl 4 is observed to vary inversely with electron velocity, indicative of an s-wave process. Studies with the polar target CH 3 Cl suggest that dipole-supported states may be important in inelastic electron-polar molecule scattering at very low electron energies

  20. Ultralow temperature helium compressor for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. started the development of an ultralow temperature helium compressor for helium liquefaction in 1984 jointly with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and has delivered the first practical machine to the Superconductive Magnet Laboratory of JAERI. For a large superconductive magnet to be used in the stable state for a fusion reactor, conventional superconductive materials (NbTi, NbTi 3 Sn, etc.) must be used, being cooled forcibly with supercritical helium. The supercritical helium which is compressed above the critical pressure of 228 kPa has a stable cooling effect since the thermal conductivity does not change due to the evaporation of liquid helium. In order to maintain the temperature of the supercritical helium below 4 K before it enters a magnet, a heat exchanger is used. The compressor that IHI has developed has the ability to reduce the vapor pressure of liquid helium from atmospheric pressure to 50.7 kPa, and can attain the temperature of 3.5 K. The specification of this single stage centrifugal compressor is: mass flow rate 25 - 64 g/s, speed 80,000 rpm, adiabatic efficiency 62 - 69 %. The structure and the performance are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Spectroscopy of helium hydride and triatomic hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterle, W.

    1986-07-01

    Helium hydride and triatomic hydrogen has been produced by charge exchange between fast mass selected beams of molecular ions and alkali vapor. Using this method, the first discrete spectra of helium hydride were obtained. Fine electronic transitions with resolved rotational structure were observed in the visible and near infrared. Four isotopic mixtures were studied. Furthermore the first lifetime measurement of triatomic hydrogen states were performed and compared to theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  2. Helium production in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1975-02-01

    Comparisons of integral helium production measurements with predictions based on ENDF/B Version IV cross sections have been made. It is concluded that an ENDF/B helium production cross section file should be established in order to ensure a complete and consistent cross section evaluation to meet accuracies required for LMFBR, CTR, and LWR applications. (U.S.)

  3. Hydrogen and helium recycling from a JxB-force convected liquid metal Ga{sub 67}In{sub 20.5}Sn{sub 12.5} under steady state plasma bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Yoshi, E-mail: hirooka.yoshihiko@nifs.ac.jp [National institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Bi, Hailin [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Shimada, Michiya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Kamikita, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ono, Masa [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    A series of first-of-a-kind laboratory-scale experiments on the JxB-force convected liquid metal divertor concept have been carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to ∼200 °C, employing a eutectic alloy: Ga{sub 67}In{sub 20.5}Sn{sub 12.5}, the melting point of which is 10.5 °C. The electrical current conducted through the alloy is set at about 70A and the magnetic field is set at about 700 G. It has reproducibly been observed that hydrogen as well as helium particle recycling is noticeably reduced under steady state plasma bombardment when the liquid is convected by the JxB force.

  4. Electron impact excitation-autoionisation of the (2s2)1S, (2p2)1D and (2s2p)1P autoionising states of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardzic, O.; Hurn, J.A.; Weigold, E.; Brunger, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The electron impact excitation of the (2s 2 ) 1 S, (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P autoionising states of helium and their subsequent radiationless decay was studied by observation of the ejected electrons. The present work was carried out at an incident energy of 94.6 eV and for ejected electron scattering angles in the range 25-135 deg C. The lineshapes observed in the present ejected electron spectra are analysed using the Shore-Balashov parametrisation. As part of the analysis procedure, numerically rigorous confidence limits were determined for the derived parameters. No previous experimental or theoretical work has been undertaken at the incident energy of the present investigation but, where possible, the resulting parameters are qualitatively compared against the 80 eV results of other experiments and theory. 37 refs., 4 figs

  5. Helium behaviour in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, T.

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the study of helium behavior in R7T7 nuclear waste glass. Helium is generated by the minor actinides alpha decays incorporated in the glass matrix. Therefore, four types of materials were used in this work. These are non radioactive R7T7 glasses saturated with helium under pressure, glasses implanted with 3 He + ions, glasses doped with curium and glasses irradiated in nuclear reactor. The study of helium solubility in saturated R7T7 glass has shown that helium atoms are inserted in the glass free volume. The results yielded a solubility of about 10 16 at. cm -3 atm. -1 . The incorporation limit of helium in this type of glass has been determined; its value amounted to about 2*10 21 at. cm -3 , corresponding to 2.5 at.%. Diffusion studies have shown that the helium migration is controlled by the single population dissolved in the glass free volume. An ideal diffusion model was used to simulate the helium release data which allowed to determine diffusion coefficients obeying to the following Arrhenius law: D = D 0 exp(-E a /kBT), where D 0 = 2.2*10 -2 and 5.4*10 -3 cm 2 s -1 and E a = 0.61 eV for the helium saturated and the curium doped glass respectively. These results reflect a thermally activated diffusion mechanism which seems to be not influenced by the glass radiation damage and helium concentrations studied in the present work (up to 8*10 19 at. g -1 , corresponding to 0.1 at.%). Characterizations of the macroscopic, structural and microstructural properties of glasses irradiated in nuclear reactor did not reveal any impact associated with the presence of helium at high concentrations. The observed modifications i.e. a swelling of 0.7 %, a decrease in hardness by 38 %, an increase between 8 and 34 % of the fracture toughness and a stabilization of the glass structure under irradiation, were attributed to the glass nuclear damage induced by the irradiation in reactor. Characterizations by SEM and TEM of R7T7 glasses implanted

  6. Recombination of positive helium ions in gaseous helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Wigner-Keck Monte Carlo trajectory method and the resonance complex theory are employed to calculate the rate coefficient k for H e + ions recombining in gaseous helium in the temperature range 80 2 + is obtained from a Morse potential and a long range ion-induced dipole interaction term. The three body He 3 + interaction is represented by an approximate expression which, for practical purpose, depends on the same parameters that determine the two body interaction. Russell had employed the Wigner-Keck Monte Carlo trajectory method to the same reaction. Unlike his calculation, in which the final quasibound states are treated as continuous, we apply the JWKB approximation to quantize those quasibound states. Both the values of k, calculated from two different quasibound state treatments, are found to be very close and give good agreement with experimental results obtained by Biondi, although they are still 10% to 20% lower than the experimental results. The resonance complex theory, developed by Roberts et al, is then employed to investigated de-excitation from the highest quasibound state, which can be populated by inward tunneling through the rotational (centrifugal) barrier. It is found that this strongly supports a suggestion proposed by Russell. He had suggested that the remaining difference between the Wigner-Keck method and experiment might be largely due to the formation of highly excited quasibound states. The statistical errors of the rate constants, which is the sun of results obtained from both methods, are kept less then 5% by running 2500 trajectories in the first method and 500 in the second

  7. Computing many-body wave functions with guaranteed precision: the first-order Møller-Plesset wave function for the ground state of helium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Florian A; Harrison, Robert J; Valeev, Edward F

    2012-09-14

    We present an approach to compute accurate correlation energies for atoms and molecules using an adaptive discontinuous spectral-element multiresolution representation for the two-electron wave function. Because of the exponential storage complexity of the spectral-element representation with the number of dimensions, a brute-force computation of two-electron (six-dimensional) wave functions with high precision was not practical. To overcome the key storage bottlenecks we utilized (1) a low-rank tensor approximation (specifically, the singular value decomposition) to compress the wave function, and (2) explicitly correlated R12-type terms in the wave function to regularize the Coulomb electron-electron singularities of the Hamiltonian. All operations necessary to solve the Schrödinger equation were expressed so that the reconstruction of the full-rank form of the wave function is never necessary. Numerical performance of the method was highlighted by computing the first-order Møller-Plesset wave function of a helium atom. The computed second-order Møller-Plesset energy is precise to ~2 microhartrees, which is at the precision limit of the existing general atomic-orbital-based approaches. Our approach does not assume special geometric symmetries, hence application to molecules is straightforward.

  8. Exciton Rydberg series in mono- and few-layer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikov, Alexey; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert; Li, Yilei; Aslan, Özgur B.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.; Heinz, Tony F.

    2014-03-01

    Considered a long-awaited semiconducting analogue to graphene, the family of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attracted intense interest in the scientific community due to their remarkable physical properties resulting from the reduced dimensionality. A fundamental manifestation of the two-dimensional nature is a strong increase in the Coulomb interaction. The resulting formation of tightly bound excitons plays a crucial role for a majority of optical and transport phenomena. In our work, we investigate the excitons in atomically thin TMDs by optical micro-spectroscopy and apply a microscopic, ab-initio theoretical approach. We observe a full sequence of excited exciton states, i.e., the Rydberg series, in the monolayer WS2, identifying tightly bound excitons with energies exceeding 0.3 eV - almost an order of magnitude higher than in the corresponding, three-dimensional crystal. We also find significant deviations of the excitonic properties from the conventional hydrogenic physics - a direct evidence of a non-uniform dielectric environment. Finally, an excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between the experimental findings and the developed theoretical approach.

  9. Biomolecular ions in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Florez, Ana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The function of a biological molecule is closely related to its structure. As a result, understanding and predicting biomolecular structure has become the focus of an extensive field of research. However, the investigation of molecular structure can be hampered by two main difficulties: the inherent complications that may arise from studying biological molecules in their native environment, and the potential congestion of the experimental results as a consequence of the large number of degrees of freedom present in these molecules. In this work, a new experimental setup has been developed and established in order to overcome the afore mentioned limitations combining structure-sensitive gas-phase methods with superfluid helium droplets. First, biological molecules are ionised and brought into the gas phase, often referred to as a clean-room environment, where the species of interest are isolated from their surroundings and, thus, intermolecular interactions are absent. The mass-to-charge selected biomolecules are then embedded inside clusters of superfluid helium with an equilibrium temperature of ∝0.37 K. As a result, the internal energy of the molecules is lowered, thereby reducing the number of populated quantum states. Finally, the local hydrogen bonding patterns of the molecules are investigated by probing specific vibrational modes using the Fritz Haber Institute's free electron laser as a source of infrared radiation. Although the structure of a wide variety of molecules has been studied making use of the sub-Kelvin environment provided by superfluid helium droplets, the suitability of this method for the investigation of biological molecular ions was still unclear. However, the experimental results presented in this thesis demonstrate the applicability of this experimental approach in order to study the structure of intact, large biomolecular ions and the first vibrational spectrum of the protonated pentapeptide leu-enkephalin embedded in helium

  10. Biomolecular ions in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Florez, Ana Isabel

    2016-07-01

    The function of a biological molecule is closely related to its structure. As a result, understanding and predicting biomolecular structure has become the focus of an extensive field of research. However, the investigation of molecular structure can be hampered by two main difficulties: the inherent complications that may arise from studying biological molecules in their native environment, and the potential congestion of the experimental results as a consequence of the large number of degrees of freedom present in these molecules. In this work, a new experimental setup has been developed and established in order to overcome the afore mentioned limitations combining structure-sensitive gas-phase methods with superfluid helium droplets. First, biological molecules are ionised and brought into the gas phase, often referred to as a clean-room environment, where the species of interest are isolated from their surroundings and, thus, intermolecular interactions are absent. The mass-to-charge selected biomolecules are then embedded inside clusters of superfluid helium with an equilibrium temperature of ∝0.37 K. As a result, the internal energy of the molecules is lowered, thereby reducing the number of populated quantum states. Finally, the local hydrogen bonding patterns of the molecules are investigated by probing specific vibrational modes using the Fritz Haber Institute's free electron laser as a source of infrared radiation. Although the structure of a wide variety of molecules has been studied making use of the sub-Kelvin environment provided by superfluid helium droplets, the suitability of this method for the investigation of biological molecular ions was still unclear. However, the experimental results presented in this thesis demonstrate the applicability of this experimental approach in order to study the structure of intact, large biomolecular ions and the first vibrational spectrum of the protonated pentapeptide leu-enkephalin embedded in helium

  11. Robustness of high-fidelity Rydberg gates with single-site addressability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Halperin, Eli J.; Aytac, Jon M.; Koch, Christiane P.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2014-09-01

    Controlled-phase (cphase) gates can be realized with trapped neutral atoms by making use of the Rydberg blockade. Achieving the ultrahigh fidelities required for quantum computation with such Rydberg gates, however, is compromised by experimental inaccuracies in pulse amplitudes and timings, as well as by stray fields that cause fluctuations of the Rydberg levels. We report here a comparative study of analytic and numerical pulse sequences for the Rydberg cphase gate that specifically examines the robustness of the gate fidelity with respect to such experimental perturbations. Analytical pulse sequences of both simultaneous and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are found to be at best moderately robust under these perturbations. In contrast, optimal control theory is seen to allow generation of numerical pulses that are inherently robust within a predefined tolerance window. The resulting numerical pulse shapes display simple modulation patterns and can be rationalized in terms of an interference between distinct two-photon Rydberg excitation pathways. Pulses of such low complexity should be experimentally feasible, allowing gate fidelities of order 99.90-99.99% to be achievable under realistic experimental conditions.

  12. Photoionization of helium dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havermeier, Tilo

    2010-01-01

    The helium dimer is one of the most weakly bound systems in the universe. This makes it an interesting quantum mechanical object for investigation. These Van der Waals Clusters can be produced in an expansion of a cryogenic gas jet through a small nozzle into vacuum. In the present experiment we examine the interaction of He dimers with synchrotron radiation at an energy range from 64 to 78 eV. We observed different pathways leading to single ionization of both He atoms of the dimer compound. This two close standing ions begin now to dissociate in cause of their coulomb potential. All charged fragments were detected in coincidence with a COLTRIMS system. Especially Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD) and the two step process (TS1) were clearly identified. Furthermore a distribution of the internuclear distance was obtained from the measured Kinetic Energy Release (KER). (orig.)

  13. Observation and measurement of interaction-induced dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold rydberg atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, V.; Bimbard, E.; Stanojevic, J.

    2012-01-01

    We observe and measure dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical nonlinearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within...

  14. The role of Rydberg and continuum levels in computing high harmonic generation spectra of the hydrogen atom using time-dependent configuration interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luppi, Eleonora; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We study the role of Rydberg bound-states and continuum levels in the field-induced electronic dynamics associated with the High-Harmonic Generation (HHG) spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom. Time-dependent configuration-interaction (TD-CI) is used with very large atomic orbital (AO) expansions (up to L= 4 with sextuple augmentation and off-center functions) to describe the bound Rydberg levels, and some continuum levels. To address the lack of ionization losses in TD-CI with finite AO basis sets, we employed a heuristic lifetime for energy levels above the ionization potential. The heuristic lifetime model is compared against the conventional atomic orbital treatment (infinite lifetimes), and a third approximation which is TD-CI using only the bound levels (continuum lifetimes go to zero). The results suggest that spectra calculated using conventional TD-CI do not converge with increasing AO basis set size, while the zero lifetime and heuristic lifetime models converge to qualitatively similar spectra, with implications for how best to apply bound state electronic structure methods to simulate HHG. The origin of HHG spectral features including the cutoff and extent of interference between peaks is uncovered by separating field-induced coupling between different types of levels (ground state, bound Rydberg levels, and continuum) in the simulated electronic dynamics. Thus the origin of deviations between the predictions of the semi-classical three step model and the full simulation can be associated with particular physical contributions, which helps to explain both the successes and the limitations of the three step model

  15. Effect of finite detection efficiency on the observation of the dipole-dipole interaction of a few Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Entin, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a simple analytical model describing multiatom signals that are measured in experiments on dipole-dipole interaction at resonant collisions of a few Rydberg atoms. It has been shown that finite efficiency of the selective field-ionization detector leads to the mixing up of the spectra of resonant collisions registered for various numbers of Rydberg atoms. The formulas which help to estimate an appropriate mean Rydberg atom number for a given detection efficiency are presented. We have found that a measurement of the relation between the amplitudes of collisional resonances observed in the one- and two-atom signals provides a straightforward determination of the absolute detection efficiency and mean Rydberg atom number. We also performed a testing experiment on resonant collisions in a small excitation volume of a sodium atomic beam. The resonances observed for 1-4 detected Rydberg atoms have been analyzed and compared with theory

  16. Electronic properties of physisorbed helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossler, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with electronic excitations of helium physisorbed on metal substrates. It is studied to what extent the electronic properties change compared to the gas phase due to the increased helium density and the proximity of the metal. Furthermore, the influence of different substrate materials is investigated systematically. To this end, up to two helium layers were adsorbed onto Ru (001), Pt (111), Cu (111), and Ag (111) surfaces in a custom-made cryostat. These samples were studied spectroscopically using synchrotron radiation and a time-of-flight detector. The experimental results were then analyzed in comparison with extensive theoretical model calculations.

  17. Electronic properties of physisorbed helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossler, Sarah

    2011-09-22

    This thesis deals with electronic excitations of helium physisorbed on metal substrates. It is studied to what extent the electronic properties change compared to the gas phase due to the increased helium density and the proximity of the metal. Furthermore, the influence of different substrate materials is investigated systematically. To this end, up to two helium layers were adsorbed onto Ru (001), Pt (111), Cu (111), and Ag (111) surfaces in a custom-made cryostat. These samples were studied spectroscopically using synchrotron radiation and a time-of-flight detector. The experimental results were then analyzed in comparison with extensive theoretical model calculations.

  18. Single ionization of helium by fast proton impact: Searching for projectile coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassert, H; Waitz, M; Kim, H-K; Bauer, T; Laucke, A; Müller, Ch; Voigtsberger, J; Weller, M; Rist, J; Pahl, K; Honig, M; Pitzer, M; Zeller, S; Jahnke, T; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Chuluunbaatar, O; Bulychev, A A; Zaytsev, S A; Kouzakov, K A

    2015-01-01

    The fully differential cross section (FDCS) for single ionization p + He → p + e + He + at proton energy of 1 MeV is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The 3D angular electron distribution is presented. The role of electron-electron correlations both in a trial helium ground-state wave function and in the final helium state is inspected. (paper)

  19. Operating Manual of Helium Refrigerator (Rev. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K.M.; Son, S.H.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, M.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    A helium refrigerator was installed as a supplier of 20K cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system of WTRF pilot plant. The operating procedures of the helium refrigerator, helium compressor and auxiliary apparatus are described for the safety and efficient operation in this manual. The function of the helium refrigerator is to remove the impurities from the compressed helium of about 250psig, to cool down the helium from ambient temperature to 20K through the heat exchanger and expansion engine and to transfer the cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system. For the smoothly operation of helium refrigerator, the preparation, the start-up, the cool-down and the shut-down of the helium refrigerator are described in this operating manual. (author). 3 refs., 14 tabs.

  20. Helium cooling of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Baxi, C.; Bourque, R.; Dahms, C.; Inamati, S.; Ryder, R.; Sager, G.; Schleicher, R.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of worldwide design experience and in coordination with the evolution of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, the application of helium as a coolant for fusion appears to be at the verge of a transition from conceptual design to engineering development. This paper presents a review of the use of helium as the coolant for fusion reactor blanket and divertor designs. The concept of a high-pressure helium cooling radial plate design was studied for both ITER and PULSAR. These designs can resolve many engineering issues, and can help with reaching the goals of low activation and high performance designs. The combination of helium cooling, advanced low-activation materials, and gas turbine technology may permit high thermal efficiency and reduced costs, resulting in the environmental advantages and competitive economics required to make fusion a 21st century power source. ((orig.))

  1. High Accuracy Vector Helium Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed HAVHM instrument is a laser-pumped helium magnetometer with both triaxial vector and omnidirectional scalar measurement capabilities in a single...

  2. Survival of Rydberg atoms in intense laser fields and the role of nondipole effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiber, Michael; Dimitrovski, Darko

    2015-02-01

    We consider the interaction of Rydberg atoms with strong infrared laser pulses using an approach based on the Magnus expansion of the time evolution operator. First-order corrections beyond the electric dipole approximation are also included in the theory. We illustrate the dynamics of the interaction at the parameters of the experiment [Eichmann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.203002]. It emerges that the depletion of Rydberg atoms in this regime comes predominantly from the nondipole effects.

  3. Laser Spectroscopy of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %PS205 %title\\\\ \\\\Following the discovery of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms ($\\overline{p}He^{+} $) at KEK in 1991, systematic studies of their properties were made at LEAR from 1991 to 1996. In the first two years the lifetime of $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ in liquid and gaseous helium at various temperatures and pressures was measured and the effect of foreign gases on the lifetime of these atoms was investigated. Effects were also discovered which gave the antiproton a 14\\% longer lifetime in $^4$He than in $^3$He, and resulted in important differences in the shape of the annihilation time spectra in the two isotopes.\\\\ \\\\Since 1993 laser spectroscopy of the metastable $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atoms became the main focus of PS205. Transitions were stimulated between metastable and non-metastable states of the $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atom by firing a pulsed dye laser beam into the helium target every time an identified metastable atom was present (Figure 1). If the laser frequency matched the transition energy, the...

  4. Interdiffusion of krypton and xenon in high-pressure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.; Jensen, D.D.; Epstein, B.D.; Hudson, R.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    The interdiffusion of gaseous fission products in high-pressure helium is an important factor in the control of radioactivity in gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (GCFRs). As presently conceived, GCFRs use pressure-equalized and vented fuel in which fission gases released from the solid matrix oxide fuel are transported through the fuel rod interstices and internal fission product traps to the fuel assembly vents, where they are swept away to external traps and storage. Since the predominant transport process under steady-state operating conditions is interdiffusion of gaseous fission products in helium, the diffusion properties of krypton-helium and xenon-helium couples have been measured over the range of GCFR temperature and pressure conditions ( -1 ) and expected temperature dependence to the 1.66 power (Tsup(1.66)) at lower pressures and temperatures. Additional work is in progress to measure the behaviour of the krypton-helium and xenon-helium couples in GCFR fuel rod charcoal delay traps. (author)

  5. Tables of thermodynamic properties of helium magnet coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAshan, M.

    1992-07-01

    The most complete treatment of the thermodynamic properties of helium at the present time is the monograph by McCarty: ''Thermodynamic Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K at Pressures to 10 8 Pa'', Robert D. McCarty, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 2, page 923--1040 (1973). In this work the complete range of data on helium is examined and the P-V-T surface is described by an equation of state consisting of three functions P(r,T) covering different regions together with rules for making the transition from one region to another. From this thermodynamic compilation together with correlations of the transport properties of helium was published the well-known NBS Technical Note: ''Thermophysical Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K with pressures to 1000 Atmospheres'', Robert D. McCarty, US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 631 (1972). This is the standard reference for helium cryogenics. The NBS 631 tables cover a wide range of temperature and pressure, and as a consequence, the number of points tabulated in the region of the single phase coolant for the SSC magnets are relatively few. The present work sets out to cover the range of interest in more detail in a way that is consistent with NBS 631. This new table is essentially identical to the older one and can be used as an auxiliary to it

  6. Cryogenic filter method produces super-pure helium and helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1964-01-01

    Helium is purified when cooled in a low pressure environment until it becomes superfluid. The liquid helium is then filtered through iron oxide particles. Heating, cooling and filtering processes continue until the purified liquid helium is heated to a gas.

  7. New value for the Rydberg constant by precision measurement of the hydrogen Balmer-β transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Rydberg constant R is determined to a very high accuracy of 3 parts in 10 10 by a direct comparison of the four hydrogen and deuterium Balmer-β transitions with a standard laser from the National Bureau of Standards. This experiment is now the most precise measurement for R and approaches the limits of accuracy for wavelength or frequency measurements in the visible region. The result is R = 109 737.315 73 (3) cm -1 with the definition of the meter: c = 299 792 458 m/sec. The experiment also yields the following results: the fine-structure splittings 4P/sub 1/2/ ↔ 4P/sub 3/2 in H: 1370.9 (3) MHz and in D: 1371.8(3) MHZ. The isotope shifts between H and D in the transitions 2S/sub 1/2/ ↔ 4P/sub 1/2/: 167 752.4(3) MHz and 2S/sub 1/2/ ↔ 4P/sub 3/2/ : 167 753.3 (3) MHz. The experiment utilizes atomic beam laser spectroscopy. A beam of atomic hydrogen (or deuterium) is excited by electron bombardment to the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state and is detected by a secondary electron emission detector. A chopped cw dye laser beam crosses the atomic beam at an angle of 90 0 to eliminate Doppler broadening. The metastables are quenched by laser excitation to 4P/sub 1/2/ or 4P/sub 3/2/ states. The signal is monitored by a lock-in amplifier with the chopper as reference

  8. Low temperature calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy of helium bubbles in Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syskakis, E.

    1985-08-01

    Helium has been introduced into 100 μm thick pure Cu specimens by implantation of α-particles at T = 300 K. Post-implantation annealing of the specimens at high temperatures caused helium to precipitate into bubbles. We have measured the low-temperature heat capacity of helium confined in bubbles of average radius of less than 100 A. The size of the bubbles was obtained by transmission electron microscope investigations. We have observed that helium liquifies at low temperatures and undergoes the transition to the superfluid state in bubbles of average radius larger than 35 A. The confining geometry of bubbles is new and possesses unique features for investigations of confined helium. It provides the possibility to study properties of extremely small, spherical, completely isolated Bose ''particles'' consisting of 10 4 helium atoms each. Furthermore, as we show, it can be known with better accuracy than formerly investigated confining geometries. (orig./BHO)

  9. Line shapes and time dynamics of the Förster resonances between two Rydberg atoms in a time-varying electric field

    KAUST Repository

    Yakshina, E. A.

    2016-10-21

    The observation of the Stark-tuned Förster resonances between Rydberg atoms excited by narrowband cw laser radiation requires usage of a Stark-switching technique in order to excite the atoms first in a fixed electric field and then to induce the interactions in a varied electric field, which is scanned across the Förster resonance. In our experiments with a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms, we have found that the transients at the edges of the electric pulses strongly affect the line shapes of the Förster resonances, since the population transfer at the resonances occurs on a time scale of ∼100 ns, which is comparable with the duration of the transients. For example, a short-term ringing at a certain frequency causes additional radio-frequency-assisted Förster resonances, while nonsharp edges lead to asymmetry. The intentional application of the radio-frequency field induces transitions between collective states, whose line shape depends on the interaction strengths and time. Spatial averaging over the atom positions in a single interaction volume yields a cusped line shape of the Förster resonance. We present a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the line shape and time dynamics of the Stark-tuned Förster resonances Rb(nP3/2)+Rb(nP3/2)→Rb(nS1/2)+Rb([n+1]S1/2) for two Rb Rydberg atoms interacting in a time-varying electric field.

  10. Line shapes and time dynamics of the Förster resonances between two Rydberg atoms in a time-varying electric field

    KAUST Repository

    Yakshina, E. A.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Entin, V. M.; Andreeva, C.; Cinins, A.; Markovski, A.; Iftikhar, Z.; Ekers, Aigars; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2016-01-01

    The observation of the Stark-tuned Förster resonances between Rydberg atoms excited by narrowband cw laser radiation requires usage of a Stark-switching technique in order to excite the atoms first in a fixed electric field and then to induce the interactions in a varied electric field, which is scanned across the Förster resonance. In our experiments with a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms, we have found that the transients at the edges of the electric pulses strongly affect the line shapes of the Förster resonances, since the population transfer at the resonances occurs on a time scale of ∼100 ns, which is comparable with the duration of the transients. For example, a short-term ringing at a certain frequency causes additional radio-frequency-assisted Förster resonances, while nonsharp edges lead to asymmetry. The intentional application of the radio-frequency field induces transitions between collective states, whose line shape depends on the interaction strengths and time. Spatial averaging over the atom positions in a single interaction volume yields a cusped line shape of the Förster resonance. We present a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the line shape and time dynamics of the Stark-tuned Förster resonances Rb(nP3/2)+Rb(nP3/2)→Rb(nS1/2)+Rb([n+1]S1/2) for two Rb Rydberg atoms interacting in a time-varying electric field.

  11. Rotons, Superfluidity, and Helium Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balibar, Sébastien

    2006-09-01

    Fritz London understood that quantum mechanics could show up at the macroscopic level, and, in 1938, he proposed that superfluidity was a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation. However, Lev Landau never believed in London's ideas; instead, he introduced quasiparticles to explain the thermodynamics of superfluid 4He and a possible mechanism for its critical velocity. One of these quasiparticles, a crucial one, was his famous "roton" which he considered as an elementary vortex. At the LT0 conference (Cambridge, 1946), London criticized Landau and his "theory based on the shaky grounds of imaginary rotons". Despite their rather strong disagreement, Landau was awarded the London prize in 1960, six years after London's death. Today, we know that London and Landau had both found part of the truth: BEC takes place in 4He, and rotons exist. In my early experiments on quantum evaporation, I found direct evidence for the existence of rotons and for evaporation processes in which they play the role of photons in the photoelectric effect. But rotons are now considered as particular phonons which are nearly soft, due to some local order in superfluid 4He. Later we studied helium crystals which are model systems for the general study of crystal surfaces, but also exceptional systems with unique quantum properties. In our recent studies of nucleation, rotons show their importance again: by using acoustic techniques, we have extended the study of liquid 4He up to very high pressures where the liquid state is metastable, and we wish to demonstrate that the vanishing of the roton gap may destroy superfluidity and trigger an instability towards the crystalline state.

  12. Calculations of resonances parameters for the ((2s2) 1Se, (2s2p) 1,3P0) and ((3s2) 1Se, (3s3p) 1,3P0) doubly excited states of helium-like ions with Z≤10 using a complex rotation method implemented in Scilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gning, Youssou; Sow, Malick; Traoré, Alassane; Dieng, Matabara; Diakhate, Babacar; Biaye, Mamadi; Wagué, Ahmadou

    2015-01-01

    In the present work a special computational program Scilab (Scientific Laboratory) in the complex rotation method has been used to calculate resonance parameters of ((2s 2 ) 1 S e , (2s2p) 1,3 P 0 ) and ((3s 2 ) 1 S e , (3s3p) 1,3 P 0 ) states of helium-like ions with Z≤10. The purpose of this study required a mathematical development of the Hamiltonian applied to Hylleraas wave function for intrashell states, leading to analytical expressions which are carried out under Scilab computational program. Results are in compliance with recent theoretical calculations. - Highlights: • Resonance energy and widths computed for doubly excited states of helium-like ions. • Well-comparable results to the theoretical literature values up to Z=10. • Satisfactory agreements with theoretical calculations for widths

  13. Ionization of Rydberg atoms by the kicks of half-cycle pulses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 4. Ionization of Rydberg atoms by the kicks of half-cycle pulses ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  14. Experiments with Rydberg atoms on a current-carrying atom chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cisternas San Martín, N.V.

    2018-01-01

    On one side, atom-chip experiments have demonstrated to be a versatile tool to study quantum physics in cold atoms systems. On the other side, Rydberg atoms have exaggerated properties that makes them good candidates to study quantum information and quantum simulations protocols. In this thesis both

  15. Interaction of K(nd) Rydberg atoms with an amorphous gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis reports the first controlled study of the interactions of Rydberg atoms with a metal surface. In these experiments, a collimated beam of potassium Rydberg atoms is directed at a plane surface at near grazing incidence. Positive ions formed by surface ionization are attracted to the surface by their image charge, which is counterbalanced by an external electric field applied perpendicular to the surface. The ions are detected by a position-sensitive detector (PSD). At some critical value of the external field, the ion trajectories just miss the surface, suggesting that analysis of the dependence of the ion signals of external electric field can be used to determine the distance from the surface at which ionization occurs. This distance, and thus the corresponding critical electric field, is expected to be n-dependent. Experimentally, however, it was observed that the ion signal had a sudden n-independent onset when only a small positive perpendicular electric field was applied at the surface. This observation requires, surprisingly, that the ions produced by surface ionization can readily escape from the surface. The data do, however, show that Rydberg atoms are efficiently ionized in collisions with the surface. This process may provide a useful new detection technique for Rydberg atoms

  16. Rydberg atoms in circular polarization: Classical stabilization in optical frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, Will; Reichl, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the classical dynamics of the Rydberg atom in circularly polarized laser fields, restricted to the two-dimensional plane of polarization. We use a Poincare surface of section to study nonlinear resonance structures for optical frequency driving fields. We demonstrate the existence and morphology of these structures as the laser intensity transitions from moderate to intense

  17. A quantitative experiment on the fountain effect in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, M. L.; Herrera, T.; Neñer, L.; Peralta Gavensky, L.; Turco, F.; Luzuriaga, J.

    2017-09-01

    Superfluid helium, a state of matter existing at low temperatures, shows many remarkable properties. One example is the so called fountain effect, where a heater can produce a jet of helium. This converts heat into mechanical motion; a machine with no moving parts, but working only below 2 K. Allen and Jones first demonstrated the effect in 1938, but their work was basically qualitative. We now present data of a quantitative version of the experiment. We have measured the heat supplied, the temperature and the height of the jet produced. We also develop equations, based on the two-fluid model of superfluid helium, that give a satisfactory fit to the data. The experiment has been performed by advanced undergraduate students in our home institution, and illustrates in a vivid way some of the striking properties of the superfluid state.

  18. Lamb shift in helium-like uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munger, C.T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports an experimental value of 70.4 (8.3) ev for the one-electron Lamb shift in uranium, in agreement with the theoretical value of 75.3 (0.4) ev. He extracts the Lamb shift from a beam-foil time-of-flight measurement of the 54.4 (3.4) ps lifetime of the 1s2p/sub 1/2/ 3 P 0 state of helium-like (two electron) uranium

  19. Calculation of the density shift and broadening of the transition lines in pionic helium: Computational problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, INRNE (Bulgaria)

    2015-08-15

    The potential energy surface and the computational codes, developed for the evaluation of the density shift and broadening of the spectral lines of laser-induced transitions from metastable states of antiprotonic helium, fail to produce convergent results in the case of pionic helium. We briefly analyze the encountered computational problems and outline possible solutions of the problems.

  20. Electron impact ionization-excitation of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Gomez, A. I.; Gasaneo, G.; Mitnik, D. M.; Ambrosio, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the process of ionization-excitation of Helium by fast electron impact in which the residual ion is left in the n =2 excited state. We chose the strongly asymmetric kinematics used in the experiment performed by Dupré et al.. In a perturbative scheme, for high projectile energies the four-body problem reduces to a three-body one and, within that framework, we solve the time- independent Schrödinger equation with a Sturmian approach. The method, based on Generalized Sturmian Functions (GSF), is employed to obtain the initial ground state of Helium, the single-continuum state and the scattering wave function; for each of them, the GSF basis is constructed with the corresponding adequate asymptotic conditions. Besides, the method presents the following advantage: the scattering amplitudes can be extracted directly in the asymptotic region of the scattering solution, and thus the TDCS can be obtained without requiring a matrix element evaluation.

  1. Bed system performance in helium circulation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yean Jin; Jung, Kwang Jin; Ahn, Do Hee; Chung, Hong Suk [UST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Suk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei Hun [NFRI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, We have conducted an experiment for storing hydrogen to depleted uranium and zirconium cobalt. The helium blanket effect has been observed in experiments using metal hydrides. The collapse of the hydrogen isotopes are accompanied by the decay heat and helium-3. Helium-3 dramatically reduces the hydrogen isotope storage capacity by surrounding the metal. This phenomenon is called a helium blanket effect. In addition the authors are working on the recovery and removal techniques of helium-3. In this paper, we discuss the equipment used to test the helium blanket effect and the results of a helium circulation experiment. The helium-3 produced surrounds the storage material surface and thus disturbs the reaction of the storage material and the hydrogen isotope. Even if the amount of helium-3 is small, the storage capacity of the SDS bed significantly drops. This phenomenon is the helium blanket effect. To resolve this phenomenon, a circulating loop was introduced. Using a circulating system, helium can be separated from the storage material. We made a helium loop that includes a ZrCo bed. Then using a metal bellows pump, we tested the helium circulation.

  2. Towards helium-3 neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    1995-01-01

    With a large absorption cross-section entirely due to antiparallel spin capture, polarized helium-3 is presently the most promising broad-band polarizer for thermal and epithermal neutrons. Immediate interest was raised amongst the neutron community when a dense gaseous 3 He polarizer was used for the first time in 1988, on a pulsed neutron beam at Los Alamos. With 20 W of laser power on a 30 cm long, 8.6 atm target, 40% 3 He polarization was achieved in a recent polarized electron scattering experiment at SLAC. In this technique the 3 He nuclei are polarized directly at an appropriate high pressure through spin-exchange collisions with a thick, optically pumped rubidium vapor. A different and competitive approach is being presently developed at Mainz University in collaboration with ENS Paris and now the ILL. A discharge is established in pure 3 He at low pressure producing excited metastable atoms which can be optically pumped with infra-red light. Highly effective exchange collision with the atoms remaining in the ground state quickly produces 75% polarization at 1.5 mbar. A truly non-magnetic system then compresses the polarized gas up to several bars as required. The most recent machine comprises a two-stage glass-titanium compressor. In less than 1 h it can inflate a 100 cm 3 target cell with three bars of polarized gas. The very long relaxation times (several days) now being obtained at high pressure with a special metallic coating on the glass walls, the polarized cell can be detached and inserted in the neutron beam as polarizer. We expect 50% 3 He-polarization to be reached soon, allowing such filters to compete favorably with existing Heusler-crystal polarizers at thermal and short neutron wavelengths. It must be stressed that such a system based on a 3 He polarization factory able to feed several passive, transportable, polarizers is well matched to neutron scattering needs. (orig.)

  3. Hydrogen retention properties of polycrystalline tungsten and helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Koyama, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hirohata, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogen retention properties of a polycrystalline tungsten and tungsten irradiated by helium ions with an energy of 5 keV were examined by using an ECR ion irradiation apparatus and a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy, TDS. The polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated at RT with energetic hydrogen ions, with a flux of 10 15 H cm -2 and an energy of 1.7 keV up to a fluence of 5 x 10 18 H cm -2 . Subsequently, the amount of retained hydrogen was measured by TDS. The heating temperature was increased from RT to 1000 C, and the heating rate was 50 C min -1 . Below 1000 C, two distinct hydrogen desorption peaks were observed at 200 C and 400 C. The retained amount of hydrogen was observed to be five times smaller than that of graphite, but the concentration in the implantation layer was comparable with that of graphite. Also, the polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated with 5 keV helium ions up to a fluence of 1.4 x 10 18 He cm -2 , and then re-irradiated with 1.7 keV hydrogen ions. The amount of retained hydrogen in this later experiment was close to the value in the case without prior helium ion irradiation. However, the amount of hydrogen which desorbed around the low temperature peak, 200 C, was largely enhanced. The desorption amount at 200 C saturated for the helium fluence of more than 5 x 10 17 He cm -2 . The present data shows that the trapping state of hydrogen is largely changed by the helium ion irradiation. Additionally, 5 keV helium ion irradiation was conducted on a sample pre-implanted with hydrogen ions to simulate a helium ion impact desorption of hydrogen retained in tungsten. The amount of the hydrogen was reduced as much as 50%. (orig.)

  4. Spectroscopic properties of the low-lying electronic states of RbHen (n = 1, 2) and their comparison with lighter alkali metal-helium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Ab initio-based configuration interaction studies on RbHe and He–Rb–He have explored some key features of the low-lying electronic states of these van der Waals systems. The radiative lifetime of the Rb*He exciplex has been calculated to be around 24.5 ns, which is slightly higher than the HeRb*He lifetime (∼20 ns) and lower than the atomic fluorescence lifetime of Rb, by roughly 3.5 ns. Better exciplex stability of the symmetric triatomic system is evidenced by its higher binding energy value in comparison to the diatomic system by a substantial margin. BSSE-corrected spin–orbit calculations of RbHe have predicted a potential barrier of the 1 2 Π 1/2 state with a height of 15 cm −1 and width of 2.57 Å. The 2 Π u state of the triatomic molecule shows a conical intersection of its Renner–Teller components (1 2 A 1 and 1 2 B 2 ) near a 99° bond angle along the bending path. Their unstable higher excited states (1 2 Σ + 1/2 or 1 2 Σ + g, 1/2 ) can trigger the pumping of the blue side of the ns 2 S 1/2 → np 2 P 3/2 transition, and this may eventually lead to the np 2 P 1/2 →ns 2 S 1/2 lasing transition. The broad fluorescence band with a peak near 11 900 cm −1 is found to arise from the 1 2 Π 3/2 –X 2 Σ + 1/2 transition of RbHe. (paper)

  5. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  6. Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.

    1979-01-01

    The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion

  7. A metastable helium trap for atomic collision physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colla, M.; Gulley, R.; Uhlmann, L.; Hoogerland, M.D.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Buckman, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Metastable helium in the 2 3 S state is an important species for atom optics and atomic collision physics. Because of its large internal energy (20eV), long lifetime (∼8000s) and large collision cross section for a range of processes, metastable helium plays an important role in atmospheric physics, plasma discharges and gas laser physics. We have embarked on a program of studies on atom-atom and electron-atom collision processes involving cold metastable helium. We confine metastable helium atoms in a magneto-optic trap (MOT), which is loaded by a transversely collimated, slowed and 2-D focussed atomic beam. We employ diode laser tuned to the 1083 nm (2 3 S 1 - 2 3 P2 1 ) transition to generate laser cooling forces in both the loading beam and the trap. Approximately 10 million helium atoms are trapped at temperatures of ∼ 1mK. We use phase modulation spectroscopy to measure the trapped atomic density. The cold, trapped atoms can collide to produce either atomic He + or molecular He 2 + ions by Penning Ionisation (PI) or Associative Ionisation (AI). The rate of formation of these ions is dependant upon the detuning of the trapping laser from resonance. A further laser can be used to connect the 2 3 S 1 state to another higher lying excited state, and variation of the probe laser detuning used to measure interatomic collision potential. Electron-atom collision processes are studied using a monochromatic electron beam with a well defined spatial current distribution. The total trap loss due to electron collisions is measured as a function of electron energy. Results will be presented for these atomic collision physics measurements involving cold, trapped metastable helium atoms. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  8. The electronic states of 1,2,3-triazole studied by vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and a comparison with ab initio configuration interaction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.

    2011-01-01

    The Rydberg states in the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of 1,2,3-triazole have been measured and analyzed with the aid of comparison to the UV valence photoelectron ionizations and the results of ab initio configuration interaction (CI) calculations. Calculated electronic ionization...... and excitation energies for singlet, triplet valence, and Rydberg states were obtained using multireference multiroot CI procedures with an aug-cc-pVTZ [5s3p3d1f] basis set and a set of Rydberg [4s3p3d3f] functions. Adiabatic excitation energies obtained for several electronic states using coupled...... are the excitations consistent with an f-series....

  9. Quantum transition and decoherence of levitating polaron on helium film thickness under an electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, S. C.; Fotue, A. J.; Fobasso, M. F. C.; Djomou, J.-R. D.; Tiotsop, M.; Ngouana, K. S. L.; Fai, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the transition probability and decoherence time of levitating polaron in helium film thickness. By using a variational method of Pekar type, the ground and the first excited states of polaron are calculated above the liquid-helium film placed on the polar substrate. It is shown that the polaron transits from the ground to the excited state in the presence of an external electromagnetic field in the plane. We have seen that, in the helium film, the effects of the magnetic and electric fields on the polaron are opposite. It is also shown that the energy, transition probability and decoherence time of the polaron depend sensitively on the helium film thickness. We found that decoherence time decreases as a function of increasing electron-phonon coupling strength and the helium film thickness. It is seen that the film thickness can be considered as a new confinement in our system and can be adjusted in order to reduce decoherence.

  10. Quenching of the resonance 5s({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of krypton atoms in collisions with krypton and helium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayarnyi, D A; L' dov, A Yu; Kholin, I V [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    The processes of collision quenching of the resonance 5s[3/2]{sub 1}{sup o}({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of the krypton atom are studied by the absorption probe method in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He – Kr mixtures with a low content of krypton. The rate constants of plasmochemical reactions Kr* + Kr + He → Kr*{sub 2} + He [(4.21 ± 0.42) × 10{sup -33} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}], Kr* + 2He → HeKr* + He [(4.5 ± 1.2) × 10{sup -36} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}] and Kr* + He → products + He [(2.21 ± 0.22) × 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}] are measured for the first time. The rate constants of similar reactions are refined for krypton in the metastable 5s[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o} ({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. Transport of deuterium, tritium and helium in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, J.H.H.M.

    1984-02-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model for determining steady-state radial profiles of the densities of the particles, including neutrals, in a multispecies toroidal plasma is described. For prescribed temperature profiles, the coupled momentum and particle balances of the ions are solved numerically with a newly developed compact finite difference scheme for a non-equidistant mesh. Neutral densities are obtained by solving the Boltzmann equations, using a collocation method. The model is applied to deuterium-tritium plasmas without and with a helium admixture. For the charged particles, Pfirsch-Schlueter transport, including the highly collisional extension, and either of two anomalous transport models are adopted. For equal densities of deuterons and tritons in the plasma centre, the neutral tritium density in front of the wall is found to be 1.3 to 1.6 times higher than that of deuterium, depending on the plasma density, the temperature profile and the transport model. Secondly, it is found that pumping neutral helium, originating from fusion alpha particles, out of a cold plasma/gas blanket surrounding the hot plasma is not feasible, as the helium gas density, corresponding to a relative abundance of alpha-particles in the plasma core below 10%, is very low. Although depending strongly on the ion transport model and being increased by elastic collisions between neutral helium and charged hydrogen isotopes, the neutral helium enrichment ratio is always much less than unity. (Auth.)

  12. A Study of Confined Helium Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenfang

    2007-01-01

    The helium atom confined by a spherical parabolic potential well is studied employing the adiabatic hyperspherical approach method. Total energies of the ground and three low-excited states are obtained as a function of the confined potential radii. We find that the energies of a spherical parabolic potential well are in good agreement with those of an impenetrable spherical box for the larger confined potential radius. We find also that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values. The results for the three-dimensional spherical potential well and the two-dimensional disc-like potential well are compared with each other. We find that the energy difference between states in a two-dimensional parabolic potential is also obviously larger than the corresponding levels for a spherical parabolic potential.

  13. Conductivity change of defective graphene by helium ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Naitou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Applying a recently developed helium ion microscope, we demonstrated direct nano-patterning and Anderson localization of single-layer graphene (SLG on SiO2/Si substrates. In this study, we clarified the spatial-resolution-limitation factor of direct nano-patterning of SLG. Analysis of scanning capacitance microscopy measurements reveals that the conductivity of helium ion (H+-irradiated SLG nanostructures depends on their geometrical size, i.e., the smaller the H+-irradiated SLG region, the higher its conductivity becomes. This finding can be explained by the hopping carrier transport across strongly localized states of defective SLG.

  14. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Zimmer, O.; Grigoriev, A. D.; Ziman, T.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyze the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons, and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed 1 h, and rapidly increases with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the sequence of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved tests of short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron β -decay experiments. We also sketch new experimental propositions for level population and trapping of ultracold neutrons above a flat horizontal mirror.

  15. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1984-04-01

    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  16. Clustering of Helium Atoms at a ½

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. v.d.; Heugten, W. v.; Caspers, L.M.; Veen, A. v.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Atomistic calculations on a ½<111>{110} edge dislocation show a restricted tendency of clustering of helium atom along this dislocation. Clusters with up to 4 helium atoms have been studied. A cluster with 3 helium proved to be most stable.

  17. Low-energy measurements of electron-photon angular correlation in electron-impact excitation of the 21P state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steph, N.C.; Golden, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Electron-photon angular correlations between electrons which have excited the 2 1 P state of He and photons from the 2 1 P→1 1 S transition have been studied for 27-, 30-, 35-, and 40-eV incident electrons. Values of lambda and Vertical BarchiVertical Bar obtained from these measurements are compared to values obtained in distorted-wave and R-matrix calculations. The values of lambda and Vertical BarchiVertical Bar have been combined to examine the behavior of Vertical BarO 1 /sub -//sup colvertical-bar/ [lambda(1-lambda)sinVertical BarchiVertical Bar], the nonvanishing component of orientation. At 27 eV, a substantial decrease was observed in the values of lambda and Vertical BarO 1 /sub -//sup colvertical-bar/, compared with their values for E> or =30 eV

  18. Energy eigenvalues of helium-like atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashino, Tasuke; Nakazaki, Shinobu; Kato, Takako; Kashiwabara, Hiromichi.

    1987-04-01

    Calculations based on a variational method with wave functions including the correlation of electrons are carried out to obtain energy eigenvalues of Schroedinger's equation for helium-like atoms embedded in dense plasmas, taking the Debye-Hueckel approximation. Energy eigenvalues for the 1 1 S, 2 1 S, and 2 3 S states are obtained as a function of Debye screening length. (author)

  19. Proposed ripplon induced weak localization of electrons over liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahm, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ripplon induced weak localization is proposed for electrons on a liquid helium surface. Ripplon scattering is quasi-elastic, the ripplon are quasi-static relative to the electron velocity, and the relative change in occupation number of the ripplon state in a scattering event is small. Conditions for the observation of ripplon induced weak localization are calculated

  20. Single ionization of helium by positron and electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R; Purkait, M; Mandal, C R

    2012-01-01

    Four-body formalism of Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS-4B) approximation is introduced to study the (e, 2e) reaction for Helium targets. The influence of the description of the ejected electron on triple differential cross sections is analyzed.

  1. Measurement of strong interaction effects in antiprotonic helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.D.; Gorringe, T.P.; Lowe, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Playfer, S.M.; Pyle, G.J.; Squier, G.T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The strong interaction shift and width for the 2 p level and the width for the 3d level have been measured for antiprotonic helium atoms. The results are compared with optical model calculations. The possible existence of strongly bound antiproton states in nuclei is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Long Range Forces between Atomic Impurities in Liquid Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Roc, J.

    2002-01-01

    Van der Waals or Casimir interaction between neutral quantum objects in their ground state is known to be universally attractive. This is not necessarily so when these objects are embedded in a polarizable medium. We show that atomic impurities in liquid helium may indeed realize repulsive forces, and even Van der Waals and Casimir forces with different signs. (author)

  3. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…

  4. The evolution of US helium-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Cheng, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares four helium-cooled fusion reactor blanket designs. These designs represent generic configurations of using helium to cool fusion reactor blankets that were studied over the past 20 years in the United States of America (US). These configurations are the pressurized module design, the pressurized tube design, the solid particulate and gas mixture design, and the nested shell design. Among these four designs, the nested shell design, which was invented for the ARIES study, is the simplest in configuration and has the least number of critical issues. Both metallic and ceramic-composite structural materials can be used for this design. It is believed that the nested shell design can be the most suitable blanket configuration for helium-cooled fusion power and experimental reactors. (orig.)

  5. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  6. Muonium and neutral muonic helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, H.

    1981-01-01

    In this brief article the current status on muonium spectroscopy with emphasis on recent developments will be summarized. The experimental and theoretical progress of the muonic helium atom will be reviewed. Future directions in this field of research will be discussed. (orig./HSI)

  7. Electric response in superfluid helium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chagovets, Tymofiy

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 488, May (2016), s. 62-66 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-03806P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : superfluid helium * electric response * second sound * ions in He II Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2016

  8. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  9. Observation of the Borromean Three-Body Förster Resonances for Three Interacting Rb Rydberg Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakov, D B; Beterov, I I; Yakshina, E A; Entin, V M; Ryabtsev, I I; Cheinet, P; Pillet, P

    2017-10-27

    Three-body Förster resonances at long-range interactions of Rydberg atoms were first predicted and observed in Cs Rydberg atoms by Faoro et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 8173 (2015)NCAOBW2041-172310.1038/ncomms9173]. In these resonances, one of the atoms carries away an energy excess preventing the two-body resonance, leading thus to a Borromean type of Förster energy transfer. But they were in fact observed as the average signal for the large number of atoms N≫1. In this Letter, we report on the first experimental observation of the three-body Förster resonances 3×nP_{3/2}(|M|)→nS_{1/2}+(n+1)S_{1/2}+nP_{3/2}(|M^{*}|) in a few Rb Rydberg atoms with n=36, 37. We have found here clear evidence that there is no signature of the three-body Förster resonance for exactly two interacting Rydberg atoms, while it is present for N=3-5 atoms. This demonstrates the assumption that three-body resonances can generalize to any Rydberg atom. As such resonance represents an effective three-body operator, it can be used to directly control the three-body interactions in quantum simulations and quantum information processing with Rydberg atoms.

  10. Correlated wave functions for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction - The muonic helium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1977-01-01

    A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.

  11. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  12. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowley, Roger [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  13. HeREF-2003: Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 Cost per participant: 500.- CHF Language: Bilingual English...

  14. HeREF-2003 : Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. • Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 • Cost per participant: 500.- CHF ...

  15. Implementation of quantum logic gates via Stark-tuned Förster resonance in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi-Rong; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Wu, Huai-Zhi

    2018-02-01

    We present a scheme for implementation of controlled-Z and controlled-NOT gates via rapid adiabatic passage and Stark-tuned Förster resonance. By sweeping the Förster resonance once without passing through it and adiabatically tuning the angle-dependent Rydberg-Rydberg interaction of the dipolar nature, the system can be effectively described by a two-level system with the adiabatic theorem. The single adiabatic passage leads to a gate fidelity as high as 0.999 and a greatly reduced gate operation time. We investigate the scheme by considering an actual atomic level configuration with rubidium atoms, where the fidelity of the controlled-Z gate is still higher than 0.99 under the influence of the Zeeman effect.

  16. The search For Closed Orbits Of General Rydberg Atoms in External Fields And Their Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboni, R.

    1997-01-01

    A program of high precision that find closed orbits for the classical motion of the electron of general Rydberg atoms in crossed magnetic and electric fields is explained. Investigations of the influence of the ionic core on the electronic trajectories using a phenomenological model potential were done. Additional closed orbits that are not present in hydrogen atoms and that seem to be composed of hydrogenic orbits were found. The stability and formation of orbits are explained. Using the generalized closed-orbit theory, the scaled recurrence spectra for rubidium Rydberg atoms were calculated. The results are in good agreement with reported experiments. Two important features of the expectra can be explained by classical core scattering: The additional non-hydrogenic resonances associated to composite orbits and the vanishing of hydrogenic resonances related to closed or whose trajectories approach the core. (Author) [es

  17. The Closed-Orbit Theory for General Rydberg Atoms in External Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboni, R.

    1997-01-01

    The photoabsorption spectra of hydrogen Rydberg atoms, as well of model Rydberg atoms in pure magnetic or electric fields have been successfully calculated using the semiclassical closed-orbit theory. The theory relates the resonances of the spectra to closed classical orbits of the excited electron. The dynamics of multielectron atoms is more complicated than the hydrogenic one; additionally, when the atoms are in the presence of perpendicular magnetic and electric fields becomes more complex than when they are in pure fields, due to the fact that the Hamiltonian is non-separable in three degrees of freedom, instead of two non-separable degrees of freedom. In this work, I present an extension of the closed-orbit theory to three degrees of freedom, considering arbitrary quantum defects, i.e., general atoms. (Author) [es

  18. Analytical investigation of one-dimensional Rydberg atoms interacting with half-cycle pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersons, I.; Veilande, R.

    2004-01-01

    Classical, quantum-mechanical, and semiclassical expressions for the transition probability in one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by short half-cycle pulse are derived and compared. The simple formulas obtained for excitation of Rydberg atom by two time delayed weak half-cycle pulses reproduce well the experimental data and the solutions of time-dependent Schroedinger equation. When the transferred momenta are stronger and positive, the transition probabilities exhibit fast oscillations with time delay between the pulses. The classical transition probability is constant in time. For negative transferred momenta a focusing phenomenon is observed, and there is a region in time delay, where the transition probabilities oscillate with the Kepler period

  19. One- and zero-dimensional electron systems over liquid helium (Review article)

    CERN Document Server

    Kovdrya, Y Z

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of one-dimensional and zero-dimensional electron systems near the liquid helium surface are surveyed. The properties of electron states over the plane surface of liquid helium including thin layers of helium are considered. The methods of realization of one- and zero-dimensional electron systems are discussed, and the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of their properties are given. The experiments with localization processes in a quasi-one-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium are described. The collective effects in one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional electron systems are considered, and the point of possible application of low-dimensional electron systems on liquid helium in electron devices and quantum computers is discussed.

  20. Time evolution of cascade processes of muonic atoms in hydrogen-helium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskij, V.; Czaplinski, W.; Filipowicz, M.; Gula, E.; Popov, N.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependence of population of muonic hydrogen states in hydrogen-helium mixtures is calculated for principal quantum number n. Number of muons transferred to helium nuclei is also determined. Dependence of population of the ground state of muonic hydrogen q ls He on time and target density and helium concentration is also considered. The results are in agreement with recent experimental data. The comparison of the calculated yield of K lines of x-ray in pure hydrogen and deuterium with experimental data indicates on essential role of Coulomb de-excitation process. Possible Stark mixing is also analyzed