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Sample records for helium production cross

  1. Measurement of helium production cross sections of iron for d-T neutrons by helium accumulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Kanda, Yukinori; Nagae, Koji; Fujimoto, Toshihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro

    1997-03-01

    Helium production cross sections of Iron were measured by helium accumulation method for neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.9 MeV. Iron samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. As the neutron energy varies according to the emission angle at the neutron source, the samples were set around the neutron source and were irradiated by neutrons of different energy depending on each sample position. The amount of helium produced in a sample was measured by Helium Atoms Measurement System at Kyushu University. The results of this work are in good agreement with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3. (author)

  2. Helium production in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1975-02-01

    Comparisons of integral helium production measurements with predictions based on ENDF/B Version IV cross sections have been made. It is concluded that an ENDF/B helium production cross section file should be established in order to ensure a complete and consistent cross section evaluation to meet accuracies required for LMFBR, CTR, and LWR applications. (U.S.)

  3. Helium production cross section Measurement of Pb and Sn for 14.9 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Fujimoto, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Shuji; Muramasu, Masatomo; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1998-03-01

    Helium production cross sections of lead and tin for 14.9 MeV neutrons were measured by helium accumulation method. Lead and tin samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. The amount of helium produced in the samples by the neutron irradiation was measured with the Helium Atoms Measurement System (HAMS) at Kyushu University. As the samples contained a small amount of helium because of their small helium production cross sections at 14.9 MeV, the samples were evaporated by radiation from a tungsten filament to decrease background gases at helium measurement. Uncertainties of the present results were less than {+-}4.4%. The results were compared with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3.2. (author)

  4. Secondary-electron-production cross sections for electron-impact ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goruganthu, R.R.; Bonham, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the double-differential cross sections (DDCS) as a function of the ejected energy, angle, and primary energy for electron-impact ionization of helium are reported at incident energies of 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 eV. The ejection angle is varied from 30 0 to 150 0 in steps of 15 0 . The cross sections were obtained by use of a crossed-beam apparatus with an effusive gas source and a pulsed electron beam. Scattered and ejected electrons were energy analyzed by time-of-flight analysis from 2 eV to the primary energy as a function of the ejection angle. The relative measurements were normalized by matching the experimental elastic differential cross sections to absolute measurements at selected angles. Comparisons of the DDCS with available literature values revealed significant differences. At 2000 eV impact energy, first-Born-approximation calculations of the DDCS were found to be in agreement with the present data for ejected energies between 2 and 40 eV. At large angles and lower incident energies the Born calculation results are lower than the present DDCS. The DDCS were fitted with a Legendre-polynomial expansion as a function of ejection angle for fixed ejected and primary energies. The energy distributions of ejected electrons derived from these fits are presented and used to calculate the total ionization cross section

  5. Cosmological helium production simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Brown, L.S.; Feinberg, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a simplified model of helium synthesis in the early universe. The purpose of the model is to explain clearly the physical ideas relevant to the cosmological helium synthesis, in a manner that does not overlay these ideas with complex computer calculations. The model closely follows the standard calculation, except that it neglects the small effect of Fermi-Dirac statistics for the leptons. We also neglect the temperature difference between photons and neutrinos during the period in which neutrons and protons interconvert. These approximations allow us to express the neutron-proton conversion rates in a closed form, which agrees to 10% accuracy or better with the exact rates. Using these analytic expressions for the rates, we reduce the calculation of the neutron-proton ratio as a function of temperature to a simple numerical integral. We also estimate the effect of neutron decay on the helium abundance. Our result for this quantity agrees well with precise computer calculations. We use our semi-analytic formulas to determine how the predicted helium abundance varies with such parameters as the neutron life-time, the baryon to photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and a possible electron-neutrino chemical potential. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Cross sections of electron excitation out of metastable helium levels with a fast metastable target product produced via charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, M.E.; Boffard, J.B.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute direct cross sections for electron excitation out of the 2 3 S level and into the 3 3 D, 4 3 D, and 3 3 S levels of the helium atom from threshold to 500 eV and into the 3 3 P level over a more limited energy range have been measured using a fast metastable atomic beam target. We produce the metastable atoms via near-resonant charge exchange between a 1.6-keV He + ion beam and Cs vapor. Because this reaction is highly nonresonant with the ground state of helium, the charge-transfer process yields a primarily metastable beam. We use a thermal detector which we calibrate with ions to measure absolutely the neutral beam flux. The atomic beam is crossed by an electron beam, and we collect the resulting fluorescence at right angles to both the electron and atomic beams. We obtain the cross sections for excitation out of the 2 3 S level into the various excited levels by monitoring the emission out of the excited level of interest. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Improvement of measurements, theoretical computations and evaluations of neutron induced helium production cross sections. Summary report on the third and final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The present report contains the Summary of the Third and Final IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) on ''Improvement of Measurements, Theoretical Computations and Evaluations of Neutron Induced Helium Production Cross Sections'' which was hosted by the Tohoku University and held in Sendai, Japan, from 25 to 29 September 1995. This RCM was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS), with the co-operation and assistance of local organizers from Tohoku University. Summarized are the proceedings and results of the meeting. The List of Participants and meeting Agenda are included. (author)

  8. Cross Sections for K-shell X-ray Production by Hydrogen and Helium Ions in Elements from Beryllium to Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicki, G.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental cross sections for K-shell x-ray production by hydrogen and helium ions (Z 1 = 1,2) in target atoms from beryllium to uranium (Z 2 = 4--92 ) are tabulated as compiled (7418 cross sections) from the literature (161 references were found) with the search for the data terminated in January 1988. These cross sections are compared with predictions of the first Born approximation and ECPSSR theory for inner-shell ionization. The ECPSSR accounts for the energy loss (E) and Coulomb deflection (C) of the projectile ion as well as for the perturbed stationary state (PSS) and relativistic (R) nature of the target's inner-shell electron.While the first Born approximation generally overestimates the data by orders of magnitude, the ECPSSR theory is confirmed to be, on the average, in agreement with the experiment to within 10%--20%. For light and heavy target atoms, however, systematic and opposite deviations are found in the low projectile-velocity regime. These deviations are associated with the influence of multiple outer-shell ionizations on the fluorescence yields of light elements, particularly in ionization by helium ions, and with the inaccuracy of the ECPSSR theory in the reproduction of relativistic calculations for ionization of heavy elements. The remaining discrepancies at moderate projectile velocities are prima facie attributed to inadequacies of a screened hydrogenic description for the K-shell electron

  9. Helium production in mixed spectrum reactor-irradiated pure elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneff, D.W.; Oliver, B.M.; Skowronski, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to apply helium accumulation neutron dosimetry to the measurement of neutron fluences and energy spectra in mixed-spectrum fission reactors utilized for fusion materials testing, and to measure helium generation rates of materials in these irradiation environments. Helium generation measurements have been made for several Fe, Cu Ti, Nb, Cr, and Pt samples irradiated in the mixed-spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results have been used to integrally test the ENDF/B-V Gas Production File, by comparing the measurements with helium generation predictions made by Argonne National Laboratory using ENDF/B-V cross sections and adjusted reactor spectra. The comparisons indicate consistency between the helium measurements and ENDF/B-V for iron, but cross section discrepancies exist for helium production by fast neutrons in Cu, Ti, Nb, and Cr (the latter for ORR). The Fe, Cu, and Ti work updates and extends previous measurements

  10. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  11. New technique for enhancing helium production in ferritic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Kneff, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    Analyses of iron samples irradiated up to 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR found more helium than was expected from fast neutron reactions at high neutron fluences. The helium excess increases systematically with neutron exposure, suggesting a transmutation-driven process. The extra helium may be produced in two different ways, either by fast neutron reactions on the transmuted isotopes of iron or by a thermal neutron reaction with the radioactive isotope 55 Fe. Radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements of the iron isotopes composing the irradiated samples have been used to determine limits on the cross sections for each process. Either of these processes can be used to enhance helium production in ferritic materials during irradiations in mixed-spectrum reactors by isotopically enriching the samples. Further work is needed to clarify the reaction mechanisms and helium production cross sections. Our measurements determined the thermal neutron total absorption cross section of 55 Fe to be 13.2 +- 2.1 barns. 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Cross sections for deuterium, tritium, and helium production in p(bar sign)p collisions at √( s )=1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Anderson, E. W.; Biswas, N. N.; Bujak, A.; Carmony, D. D.; Erwin, A. R.; Findeisen, C.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gutay, L. J.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a search for the production of light elements in p(bar sign)p collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Momentum, time of flight, and dE/dx measurements are used to distinguish nuclei from elementary particles. A production ratio for deuterium to hydrogen is calculated and compared to the primordial value of the big bang model. Some evidence for tritium is found and none for helium isotopes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Helium production measurements for neutron dosimetry and damage correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV; Lippincott, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Helium accumulation fluence monitors (HAFM's), consisting of miniature vanadium capsules containing small, accurately-known amounts of 10 B or 6 Li, are being used routinely for neutron dosimetry measurements in breeder reactor environments. Additionally, solid wires of Al, Fe and Cu have been irradiated by 14.8-MeV neutrons from the d-T reaction, and measurements of the helium production along these wires have given detailed neutron fluence profiles. Additional materials with relatively high (n,α) cross sections are being tested in a wide variety of neutron environments to select HAFM sets that will provide spectral information by unfolding techniques. The mass spectrometric helium measurement technique has been demonstrated to produce results with better than 2% (1 sigma) absolute accuracy. Intercomparisons with other laboratories have demonstrated good correlations with radiometric and fission chamber dosimetry results

  14. The IAEA co-ordinated research programme on improvement of measurements, theoretical computations and evaluations of neutron induced helium production cross sections. Status report. Prepared at the final CRP meeting in Sendai, Japan 25-29 September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The present report describes the results of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Improvements of Measurements, Theoretical Computation and Evaluations of Neutron Induced Helium Production Cross Sections''. Summarized is the progress achieved under the CRP in the following areas: measurements of α-production cross sections for structural materials, theoretical computations at (nα) cross sections; measurements of activation cross sections; and improvement of experimental methods for (n,α) investigations. The status report gives also short summaries on the work of each laboratory which contributed to the results of the CRP. Attached is the list of program members and participants of CRP meetings. (author). Refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  15. Helium production technology based on natural gas combustion and beneficial use of thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakoryakov Vladimir E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helium is widely used in all industries, including power plant engineering. In recent years, helium is used in plants operating by the Brayton cycle, for example, in the nuclear industry. Using helium-xenon mixture in nuclear reactors has a number of advantages, and this area is rapidly developing. The hydrodynamics and mass transfer processes in single tubes with various cross-sections as well as in inter-channel space of heating tube bundle were studied at the Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Currently, there is a strongest shortage in helium production. The main helium production method consists in the liquefaction of the natural gas and subsequent separation of helium from remaining gas with its further purification using membranes.

  16. The Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy; K. Schultz; L. Brown; M. Fukuie

    2006-01-01

    For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For hydrogen production, the concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. Two concepts that make direct use of the MHR high-temperature process heat are being investigated in order to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production. The first concept involves coupling the MHR to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process and is referred to as the SI-Based H2-MHR. The second concept involves coupling the MHR to high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and is referred to as the HTE-Based H2-MHR

  17. Triply differential cross sections for ionization of helium by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, M.; Briggs, J.S.; Broad, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    A correlated three-body continuum wavefunction, already successfully employed to describe hydrogen atom impact ionization, is used to calculate the triply-differential cross section for electron impact ionization of helium. A good description is obtained of all the major structure in the differential cross sections in both symmetric and asymmetric geometries. It is demonstrated how interference between the various projectile-target interactions is necessary to reproduce the experimentally observed structure. (author)

  18. Neutron-induced hydrogen and helium production in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    In support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, cross sections for hydrogen and helium production by neutrons are being investigated on structural materials from threshold to 100 MeV with the continuous-in-energy spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The present measurements are for elemental iron. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VI library and its extension with LA150 evaluations. For designs in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, structural materials will be subjected to very large fluences of neutrons, and the selection of these materials will be guided by their resistance to radiation damage. The macroscopic effects of radiation damage result both from displacement of atoms in the materials as well as nuclear transmutation. We are studying the production of hydrogen and helium by neutrons, because these gases can lead to significant changes in materials properties such as embrittlement and swelling. Our experiments span the full range from threshold to 100 MeV. The lower neutron energies are those characteristic of fission neutrons, whereas the higher energies are relevant for accelerator-based irradiation test facilities. Results for the nickel isotopes, {sup 58,60}Ni, have been reported previously. The present studies are on natural iron.

  19. Manufacturing cycle for pure neon-helium mixture production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, B.P.; Kravchenko, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The manufacturing cycle for pure neon-helium mixture production with JA-300 nitrogen air distributing device has been developed. Gas mixture containing 2-3% of neon-helium mixture (the rest is mainly nitrogen 96-97%) is selected out of the cover of the JA-300 column condensator and enters the deflegmator under the 2.3-2.5 atm. pressure. The diflegmator presents a heat exchange apparatus in which at 78 K liquid nitrogen the condensation of nitrogen from the mixture of gases entering from the JA-300 column takes place. The enriched gas mixture containing 65-70% of neon-helium mixture and 30-35% of nitrogen goes out from the deflegmator. This enriched neon-helium mixture enters the gasgoeder for impure (65-70%) neon-helium mixture. Full cleaning of-neon helium mixture of nitrogen is performed by means of an adsorber. As adsorbent an activated coal has been used. Adsorption occurs at the 78 K temperature of liquid nitrogen and pressure P=0.1 atm. As activated coal cooled down to nitrogen temperature adsorbs nitrogen better than neon and helium, the nitrogen from the mixture is completely adsorbed. Pure neon-helium mixture from the adsorber comes into a separate gasgolder. In one campaign the cycle allows obtaining 2 m 3 of the mixture. The mixture contains 0.14% of nitrogen, 0.01% of oxygen and 0.06% of hydrogen

  20. Rotary magnetic refrigerator for superfluid helium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakuraku, Y.; Ogata, H.

    1986-01-01

    A new rotary-magnetic refrigerator designed to obtain superfluid helium temperatures by executing a magnetic Carnot cycle is developed. A rotor containing 12 magnetic refrigerants (gadolinium-gallium-garnet) is immersed in liquid helium at 4.2 K and rotated at constant speed in a steady magnetic field distribution. Performance tests demonstrate that the new rotary refrigerator is capable of obtaining a temperature of 1.48 K. The maximum useful cooling power obtained at 1.8 K is 1.81 W which corresponds to a refrigeration efficiency of 34%

  1. Fast production of Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Q.; Chang, R.; Hoendervanger, A. L.; Nogrette, F.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Clément, D.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable 4He atoms using a hybrid approach, consisting of a magnetic quadrupole and an optical dipole trap. In our setup we cross the phase transition with 2 ×106 atoms, and we obtain pure condensates of 5 ×105 atoms in the optical trap. This approach to cooling 4He provides enhanced cycle stability, large optical access to the atoms and results in the production of a condensate every 6 s—a factor 2 faster than the state of the art. This speed-up will significantly reduce the data acquisition time needed for the measurement of many particle correlations, made possible by the ability of metastable helium atoms to be detected individually.

  2. Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, James P.; Pindzola, M.S.; Robicheaux, F.

    2008-01-01

    Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium are calculated using a non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling method. Collision probabilities are found by projection of a time evolved nine dimensional coordinate space wave function onto fully antisymmetric products of spatial and spin functions representing three outgoing Coulomb waves. At an incident energy of 106 eV, we present double energy differential cross sections and pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections. The pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections are found to be in relative agreement with the shapes observed in recent (e,3e) reaction microscope experiments. Integration of the differential cross sections over all energies and angles yields a total ionization cross section that is also in reasonable agreement with absolute crossed-beams experiments.

  3. Cross section for calculating the helium formation rate in construction materials irradiated by nucleons at energies to 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konobeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, effects related to the formation of helium in irradiated construction materials have been studied extensively. Data on the nuclear cross sections for producing helium in these materials form the initial information necessary for such investigations. If the spectrum of the incoming particles is known, the value of the helium production cross section makes it possible to calculate the helium generation rate. In recent years, plans and simulating experiments on radiating materials with high-energy particles made it necessary to determine the helium production cross sections in constructionmaterials, which are irradiated by protons and neutrons with energies to 800 MeV. Helium-formation cross sections have been calculated at these energies. However, a correct description of the experimental data for various construction materials does not yet exist. For example, the calculated helium-formation cross sections turned out to overestimate the experimental data, and to underestimate the experimental data. The objective here is to calculate the helium-formation cross sections for various construction materials, which are irradiated by protons and neutrons to energies from 20 to 800 MeV, and to analyze the probable causes of deviations between experimental and earlier calculated cross sections

  4. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  5. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A.; Hemmers, O.

    1997-01-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He + nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al

  6. Electron-impact ionization doubly differential cross sections of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor; Fursa, Dmitry V; Stelbovics, Andris T

    2003-01-01

    The convergent close-coupling (CCC) method is applied to the calculation of electron-helium ionization doubly differential cross sections (DDCSs) at low to intermediate incident energies. We re-examine the CCC calculations and measurements of Roeder et al (1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 1309-22) by making allowance for the step-function behaviour of the underlying CCC-calculated amplitudes. As done previously, the experimental DDCS were normalized at energies below 100 eV using the 100 eV CCC calculation to determine analyser properties at several secondary energies. In addition, substantially larger calculations are presented, to check the convergence. The agreement between the experiment and the calculations as a whole is much improved on the situation reported earlier

  7. Helium production by 10 MeV neutrons in iron, nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Kneff, D.W.; Oliver, B.M.; Greenwood, L.R.; Vonach, H.

    1994-01-01

    Helium production cross sections for the elements Fe, Ni, and Cu and for the isotopes 56 Fe, 58 Ni and 60 Ni have been measured for 10-MeV neutrons. Samples were irradiated with an intense neutron source from the 1 H(t,n) reaction using a rotating gas cell. The generated helium was determined by isotope dilution gas mass spectrometry. Induced radioactivities and known cross sections were used together with calculations based on the source reaction to deduce the neutron fluence at each sample position. The results are in fair agreement with literature values for (n,α) cross sections measured by α-particle detection and integrated over the α-particle energies and angular distributions

  8. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e,3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , India ... (e, 3e) process; five-fold differential cross-section; scaling; helium isoelec- tronic ions. ... ration and experimental control of the target and the intensity related problems make the measurements extremely difficult. The scaling laws of ...

  9. Helium bubbles aggravated defects production in self-irradiated copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wu, Qiang; Li, XinZhu; Wang, Pei; Wu, HengAn

    2017-12-01

    Under the environment of high radiation, materials used in fission and fusion reactors will internally accumulate numerous lattice defects and bubbles. With extensive studies focused on bubble resolution under irradiation, the mutually effects between helium bubbles and displacement cascades in irradiated materials remain unaddressed. Therefore, the defects production and microstructure evolution under self-irradiation events in vicinity of helium bubbles are investigated by preforming large scale molecular dynamics simulations in single-crystal copper. When subjected to displacement cascades, distinguished bubble resolution categories dependent on bubble size are observed. With the existence of bubbles, radiation damage is aggravated with the increasing bubble size, represented as the promotion of point defects and dislocations. The atomic mechanisms of heterogeneous dislocation structures are attributed to different helium-vacancy cluster modes, transforming from the resolved gas trapped with vacancies to the biased absorption of vacancies by the over-pressured bubble. In both cases, helium impedes the recombination of point defects, leading to the accelerated formation of interstitial loops. The results and insight obtained here might contribute to understand the underlying mechanism of transmutant solute on the long-term evolution of irradiated materials.

  10. Preliminary Overview of a Helium Cooling System for the Secondary Helium Loop in VHTR-based SI Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Youngjoon; Cho, Mintaek; Kim, Dahee; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Yongwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear hydrogen production facilities consist of a very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (VHTR) system, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) system, and a sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical process. This study focuses on the coupling system between the IHX system and SI thermochemical process. To prevent the propagation of the thermal disturbance owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components from the IHX system to the VHTR system, a helium cooling system for the secondary helium of the IHX is required. In this paper, the helium cooling system has been studied. The temperature fluctuation of the secondary helium owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process was then calculated based on the proposed coupling system model. Finally, the preliminary conceptual design of the helium cooling system with a steam generator and forced-draft air-cooled heat exchanger to mitigate the thermal disturbance has been carried out. A conceptual flow diagram of a helium cooling system between the IHX and SI thermochemical processes in VHTR-based SI hydrogen production facilities has been proposed. A helium cooling system for the secondary helium of the IHX in this flow diagram prevents the propagation of the thermal disturbance from the IHX system to the VHTR system, owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components. As a result of a dynamic simulation to anticipate the fluctuations of the secondary helium temperature owing to the abnormal operation of the SI process components with a hydrogen production rate of 60 mol·H{sub 2}/s, it is recommended that the maximum helium cooling capacity to recover the normal operation temperature of 450 .deg. C is 31,933.4 kJ/s. To satisfy this helium cooling capacity, a U-type steam generator, which has a heat transfer area of 12 m{sup 2}, and a forced-draft air-cooled condenser, which has a heat transfer area of 12,388.67 m{sup 2}, are required for the secondary helium cooling system.

  11. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the LAMPF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Davidson, D.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Differential and total displacement and helium-production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760-MeV protons at LAMPF. The calculations are performed using the SPECTOR and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation-damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in the experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho, and in the rotating target neutron source (RTNS-II) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The neutron energy spectra for LAMPF, EBR-II, and RTNS-II and the displacement and helium-production cross sections are shown

  12. Effects of displacement damage and helium production rates on the nucleation and growth of helium bubbles - Positron annihilation spectroscopy aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsjak, Vladimir; Degmova, Jarmila; Sojak, Stanislav; Slugen, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    Fe-12 wt% Cr model alloy samples were implanted by 250 keV He2+ ions to three different fluencies (3 × 1017, 9 × 1017 and 1.5 × 1018 cm-2) at T steel samples [1] irradiated in the frame of a two-years irradiation program of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source. Bi-modal defect distribution represented by two defect components in positron lifetime spectrum reveals two distinct helium bubbles growth mechanisms. While at the lower helium production rate of the spallation environment, the bubbles grow primarily by migration and coalescence, at the high production rates of helium in the implanted samples, the results indicate this growth is driven by Ostwald ripening mechanism. A competitive growth process via emission of interstitial atoms (clusters) is discussed in terms of low-temperature He implantations.

  13. USE OF THE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 A significant ''Hydrogen Economy'' is predicted that will reduce our dependence on petroleum imports and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels, but contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels. The author has recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-slitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen, and to select one for further detailed consideration. They selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this report

  14. Calculation of the differential cross sections of excitation and ionization of a helium atom by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demkin, V.P.; Pecheritsyn, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Equations for the amplitudes and differential cross sections of electronic excitation and ionization of a helium atom are derived in the approximation of a open-quotes frozenclose quotes ion core. The wave functions of the discrete states are chosen in the form of generalized hydrogenlike orbitals. The radial wave functions of the continuous spectrum are determined by solving the equation of motion numerically. The differential excitation cross sections of excitation of the 2p, 3p, and 4p levels and ionization of a helium atom by electrons are calculated in the energy range up to 50 eV. Estimates are obtained for the nonorthogonal wave functions in the amplitudes of the excitation and ionization processes. It is shown that the given method is more compatible with experiment than the Born method

  15. Singly differential electron emission cross sections for ionization of helium by protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, I.F.; Gagyi-Palffy, A.C.; Gulyas, L.; Tokesi, K.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Angular differential cross sections are calculated for electrons emitted in proton-helium collisions within the framework of the time-dependent coupled channel-method. The channel wave functions are constructed from Slater functions and Coulomb wave packets. As projectiles we consider protons with energies between 0.3 and 1.5 MeV. We compare our results with experimental data and other theoretical calculations using the first Born approximation, different distorted wave models and classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations

  16. Absolute 3PO triple differential cross sections for electron-helium Wannier threshold ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, D.R.J.; Crothers, D.S.F.

    1992-01-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of Crothers is employed to find a final-state 3 P O wave function for threshold electron impact ionisation of helium. The Kohn variational principle is applied perturbatively to evaluate the scattering amplitude and hence the absolute 3 P O contribution to the triple differential cross sections. These plus the previous absolute singlet results of Crothers are compared favourably with the relative experimental results of Selles et al. (orig.)

  17. HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Sato, Minoru

    1992-11-01

    HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)

  18. First Double Excitation Cross Sections of Helium Measured for 100-keV Proton Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Laboratoire Collisions, Agregats, Reactivite, IRSAMC, UMR 5589, CNRS and Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Godunov, A.L.; Schipakov, V.A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk, Moscow region, 142092 (Russia)

    1997-12-01

    Excitation cross sections of the (2s{sup 2}){sup 1}S, (2p{sup 2}){sup 1}D , and (2s2p){sup 1}P autoionizing states of helium, produced in collisions with 100-keV protons, have been measured for the first time. Using a high resolution electron spectroscopy together with a recently proposed parametrization of autoionizing resonances distorted by Coulomb interaction in the final state makes it possible to extract from electron spectra {ital total cross sections} as well as {ital magnetic sublevel populations.} These new experimental data are briefly compared with out theoretical calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. First Double Excitation Cross Sections of Helium Measured for 100-keV Proton Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Godunov, A.L.; Schipakov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Excitation cross sections of the (2s 2 ) 1 S, (2p 2 ) 1 D , and (2s2p) 1 P autoionizing states of helium, produced in collisions with 100-keV protons, have been measured for the first time. Using a high resolution electron spectroscopy together with a recently proposed parametrization of autoionizing resonances distorted by Coulomb interaction in the final state makes it possible to extract from electron spectra total cross sections as well as magnetic sublevel populations. These new experimental data are briefly compared with out theoretical calculations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Doubly differential cross sections for ionization of helium by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, H.; Werner, U.; Roy, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Glauber approximation is used to calculate doubly differential cross sections (DDCS's) for electron-impact ionization of helium at incident energies of 100, 300, and 500 eV. Angular dependences of the cross sections are presented for the primary (scattered) electrons. The present calculation is done for the case where the energy of the primary electron is large compared with that of the secondary (ejected) electron. A comparison is made of the present DDCS with the results of other calculations and experiment

  1. Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, Yu.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n≤4 are treated individually, while the states with n≥5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n≥5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form

  2. Triple differential cross section for the ionization of helium by electronic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Saidou, E-mail: saidou40@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Departement de Physique, BP: 5005 Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Faye, I.G.; Diedhiou, I.A.; Tall, M.S.; Gomis, L.; Diatta, C.S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Departement de Physique, BP: 5005 Dakar-Fann (Senegal)

    2011-12-01

    We report results of analytical triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the single ionization of the helium iso-electronic ions by the electron impact. A two variational parameters wave function is used to evaluate the TDCS. This study shows the accuracy of the TDCS for helium atom and helium like ions in the first Born approximation (FBA) at high incident energy domain. The theory is quite acceptable as a fast calculation of the triple differential cross section, particularly at high energies where other theories and methods are cumbersome. A comparison is made of our calculations with previous results of the other theoretical methods and experiment. The FBA results obtained here with the two variational parameters wave function are in good agreement with the experiment data at high incident energy. The results show that the electron correlation effects are important around the maxima and influence only the extrema magnitude but not their positions. The calculations presented here are extanded to the cases where the energies of the outgoing electrons are more equal.

  3. Coupling the modular helium reactor to hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.B.; Shenoy, A.S.; Schultz, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of natural gas (methane) currently produces the bulk of hydrogen gas used in the world today. Because this process depletes natural gas resources and generates the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as a by-product, there is a growing interest in using process heat and/or electricity generated by nuclear reactors to generate hydrogen by splitting water. Process heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor can be used directly to drive a set of chemical reactions, with the net result of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. For example, process heat at temperatures in the range 850 deg C to 950 deg C can drive the sulphur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical process to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. The S-I process produces highly pure hydrogen and oxygen, with formation, decomposition, regeneration, and recycle of the intermediate chemical reagents. Electricity can also 1)e used directly to split water, using conventional, low-temperature electrolysis (LTE). Hydrogen can also be produced with hybrid processes that use both process heat and electricity to generate hydrogen. An example of a hybrid process is high-temperature electrolysis (HTE), in which process heat is used to generate steam, which is then supplied to an electrolyzer to generate hydrogen. This process is of interest because the efficiency of electrolysis increases with temperature. Because of its high temperature capability, advanced stage of development relative to other high-temperature reactor concepts, and passive-safety features, the modular helium reactor (MHR) is well suited for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy. In this paper we investigate the coupling of the MHR to the S-I process, LTE, and HTE. These concepts are referred to as the H2-MHR. (author)

  4. Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinc Erdem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield.

  5. Fast helium production in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24Mg with emulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilany, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the properties of the relativistic helium fragments emitted from the projectile in the interactions of 24 Mg ions accelerated at an energy of 3.7 A GeV with emulsion nuclei. The total, partial nuclear cross-sections and production rates of helium fragmentation channels in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and their dependence on the mass and energy of the incident projectile nucleus are investigated. The yields of multiple helium projectile fragments disrupted from the interactions of 24 Mg projectile nuclei with hydrogen H, light CNO and heavy AgBr groups of target emulsion nuclei are discussed and they indicate that the breakup mechanism of the projectile seems to be independent of the target mass. Limiting fragmentation behavior of fast-moving helium fragments is observed in both the projectile and target nuclei. The multiplicity distributions of helium projectile fragments emitted in the interactions of 24 Mg projectile nuclei with the different target nuclei of the emulsion are well described by the KNO scaling presentation. The mean multiplicities of the different charged secondary particles, normally defined shower, grey and black (left angle n s right angle, left angle n g right angle and left angle n b right angle) emitted in the interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24 Mg with the different groups of emulsion nuclei at different ranges of projectile fragments are decreasing when the number of He fragments stripped from projectile increases. These values of left angle n i right angle (i=s, g, band h particles) in the events where the emission of fast helium fragments were accompanied by heavy fragments having Z≥3 seem to be constant as the He multiplicity increases, and exhibit a behavior independent of the He multiplicity. (orig.)

  6. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of 60 Ni which produces no helium, 59 Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ( Nat Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of 59 Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to ∼7 dpa at 300 and 400 degrees C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400 degrees C than at 300 degrees C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from 59 Ni and Nat Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400 degrees C. At 300 degrees C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400 degrees C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces

  7. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of {sup 60}Ni which produces no helium, {sup 59}Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ({sup Nat}Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of {sup 59}Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to {approx}7 dpa at 300 and 400{degrees}C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400{degrees}C than at 300{degrees}C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from {sup 59}Ni and {sup Nat}Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400{degrees}C. At 300{degrees}C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400{degrees}C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces.

  8. Differential Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Alpha–Helium Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim; Ghavaminia, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    A four-body theoretical study of the single charge transfer process in collision of energetic alpha ions with helium atoms in their ground states is presented. The model utilizes the Coulomb–Born distorted wave approximation with correct boundary conditions to calculate the single-electron capture differential and integral cross sections. The influence of the dynamic and static electron correlations on the capture probability is investigated. The results of the calculations are compared with the recent experimental measurements for differential cross sections and with the other theoretical manipulations. The results for scattering at extreme forward angles are in good agreement with the experimental measurements, but in other scattering angles the agreement is poor. However, the present four-body results for integral cross sections are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  9. Absolute charge-changing cross sections for fast helium ions-C sub 6 sub 0 collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nose, K; Shiraishi, K; Keizaki, T; Itoh, A

    2003-01-01

    Absolute charge-changing cross sections for fast helium ions passing through a C sub 6 sub 0 gas target have been measured. The measurements were carried out for incident projectile energies at 1.0MeV and 1.5MeV. The measured cross sections are compared with calculated values from Bohr-Lindhard model and Bohr model. In addition, we have obtained equilibrium charge state fractions and average equilibrium charge of helium ions passing through C sub 6 sub 0 , by using the measured cross sections.

  10. Absolute cross sections for the ionization-excitation of helium by electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, S.; Lower, J.; Weigold, E.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.; Bartschat, K.; Harris, A. L.; Madison, D. H.

    2008-09-01

    In a recent publication we presented detailed experimental and theoretical results for the electron-impact-induced ionization of ground-state helium atoms. The purpose of that work was to refine theoretical approaches and provide further insight into the Coulomb four-body problem. Cross section ratios were presented for transitions leading to excited states, relative to those leading to the ground state, of the helium ion. We now build on that study by presenting individual relative triple-differential ionization cross sections (TDCSs) for an additional body of experimental data measured at lower values of scattered-electron energies. This has been facilitated through the development of new electron-gun optics which enables us to accurately characterize the spectrometer transmission at low energies. The experimental results are compared to calculations resulting from a number of different approaches. For ionization leading to He+(1s2)1S , cross sections are calculated by the highly accurate convergent close-coupling (CCC) method. The CCC data are used to place the relative experimental data on to an absolute scale. TDCSs describing transitions to the excited states are calculated through three different approaches, namely, through a hybrid distorted- wave+R -matrix (close-coupling) model, through the recently developed four-body distorted-wave model, and by a first Born approximation calculation. Comparison of the first- and second-order theories with experiment allows for the accuracy of the different theoretical approaches to be assessed and gives insight into which physical aspects of the problem are most important to accurately model.

  11. The role of projectile interactions in triply differential cross sections for excitation-ionization of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, R., E-mail: ritud@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Roy, A.C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711 202, West Bengal (India)

    2011-02-01

    We report triply differential cross section (TDCS) for the simultaneous excitation-ionization of helium by electron impact for both coplanar and non-coplanar geometry. In the coplanar case, calculations have been performed for an incident energy of 500 eV and low ejection energies (3 and 10 eV), whereas in the noncoplanar case we have considered impact energies in the range 1240-4260 eV for a symmetric geometry. The present calculation is based on the eikonal approximation due to Glauber. We have incorporated the effect of post-collision interaction in the Glauber approximation. A comparison is made of the present calculations with the results of other theoretical methods and recent experiments. The Glauber results are in reasonably good agreement with the experiment for small scattering angles.

  12. Double photoionization: 2. Analysis of experimental triple differential cross sections in helium and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Mazeau, J.; Huetz, A.; Lablanquie, P.

    1997-01-01

    We use the general formalism established in the companion paper 1 to analyse recent measurements of the triple differential cross sections for double photoionization of He and Ne, for equal energy sharing and for 1 S e symmetry of the residual ion. A dynamical factor, which depends on the energy and on the mutual angle between the two electrons, is extracted from the experiments without relying on nay dynamical approximation. This factor is expanded with respect to the one-electron angular momentum l, up to a maximum value l max , which measures the degree of angular correlation attained by the electron pair. We discuss the physical meaning of l max , and the dependence of the dynamical factor on the target, which is observed when comparing helium and neon results. (author)

  13. Microstructural evolution adjacent to grain boundaries under cascade damage conditions and helium production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Victoria, M.

    1996-01-01

    the cascade damage is accompanied by a high helium production rate. It is shown that, in this case, the width of the peak zone is controlled by the (mostly invisible) bubble structure rather than by the (visible) void structure. The reduced swelling relative to that under neutron irradiation is attributed...

  14. Isotopic alloying to tailor helium production rates in mixed spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Stoller, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The purposes of this work are to increase the understanding of mechanisms by which helium affects microstructure and properties, to aid in the development of materials for fusion reactors, and to obtain data from fission reactors in regimes of direct interest for fusion reactor applications. Isotopic alloying is examined as a means of manipulating the ratio of helium transmutations to atom displacements in mixed spectrum reactors. The application explored is based on artificially altering the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of nickel to systematically vary the fraction of 58 Ni in nickel bearing alloys. The method of calculating helium production rates is described. Results of example calculations for proposed experiments in the High Flux Isotope Reactor are discussed

  15. Study of the helium cross-section of unsymmetric disulfide self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Erol [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir 40000 (Turkey); Karabuga, Semistan [Department of Chemistry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş 46030 (Turkey); Bracco, Gianangelo [CNR-IMEM and Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genoa 16146 (Italy); Danışman, M. Fatih, E-mail: danisman@metu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Unsymmetrtic disulfide (HDD and HOD) self assembled monolayers were grown on Au(111) by supersonic molecular beam deposition. • Helium scattering cross sections for these two different unsymmetric disulfides were determined. • A common low temperature film phase was observed for the studied disulfides. - Abstract: We have investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-hydroxyundecyl decyl disulfide (CH{sub 3}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 9}-S-S-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-OH, HDD) and 11-hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide (CH{sub 3}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}-S-S-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-OH, HOD) produced by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SMBD). The study has been carried out by means of helium diffraction at very low film coverage. In this regime helium single molecule cross sections have been estimated in a temperature range between 100 K and 450 K. The results show a different behavior above 300 K that has been interpreted as the starting of mobility with the formation of two thiolate moieties either linked by a gold adatom or distant enough to prevent cross section overlapping. Finally, helium diffraction patterns measured at 80 K for the SAMs grown at 200 K are discussed and the results support the proposed hypothesis of molecular dissociation based on the cross section data.

  16. Double- and triple-differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, R.; Sinha, C.

    1995-01-01

    Triple- (TDCS) and double- (DDCS) differential cross sections have been calculated for single ionization in electron-helium collisions for asymmetric geometry at intermediate and medium high energies. The TDCS and DDCS results have been presented for different kinematical situations and have been compared with the corresponding experiments. In the present prescription, the final-state wave function involves the correlation between the two continuum electrons and satisfies the three-body asymptotic boundary condition (for asymmetric geometry), which is an important criterion for reliable ionization cross sections. The sensitivity of the ionization cross sections (particularly of the TDCS) with respect to the choice of the bound-state wave function of the He atom has also been studied, using two different forms of wave function of the He atom. The binary-to-recoil peak intensity ratio against momentum transfer in TDCS is found to be in closer agreement with the experiment for the simple Hylleraas wave function than for the Hartree-Fock wave function. The DDCS results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data of Mueller-Fiedler et al. [J. Phys. B 19, 1211 (1986)] for lower ejected energy (E 2 ), while for higher E 2 the results are closer to the measurements of Shyn et al. [Phys. Rev. A 19, 557 (1979)] and Avaldi et al. [Nuovo Cimento D 9, 97 (1987)

  17. Effects of initial microstructure and helium production on radiation hardening in F82H Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, N.; Wakai, E.; Takada, F.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge Noational Laboratory, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Fission neutron irradiation to steels doped with isotope boron-10 is frequently conducted to study effects of the helium production on mechanical properties. The intrinsic mechanical properties of F82H steels could have been changed due to the boron doping. Recently, we reported that co-doping with boron and nitrogen to F82H (F82H+B+N) improved the mechanical properties of F82H doped only with boron. The mechanical properties of F82H+B+N are successfully comparable with the non-doped F82H before irradiation. In order to evaluate the effects of initial microstructure and helium production on radiation hardening, F82H and F82H+B+N were irradiate d Specimens used in this study were standard F82H martensitic steels, F82H steels doped with 60 mass ppm {sup 10}B and 200 ppm N (F82H+10B+N) and F82H steels doped with 60 mass ppm {sup 11}B and 200 ppm N (F82H+11B+N). Initial microstructures were changed by tempering conditions, and the tempering temperatures were at 700, 750 and 780 deg. C. Irradiation was performed at nominally 250 deg. C to 2 dpa in JMTR. Tensile properties were measured for the specimens before and after irradiation. Change of yield stress due to the irradiation in the F82H+11B+N steels depended strongly on the initial microstructure and hardness before irradiation. The radiation hardening due to helium production in the F82H+10B+N steels was less than 60 MPa in these experiments. Size of dimple in the fracture surface of specimen with helium production was larger than that with non-helium production. (authors)

  18. Hyperpolarized 3-helium MR imaging of the lungs: testing the concept of a central production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, E.J.R. van; Schmiedeskamp, J.; Filbir, F.; Heil, W.; Wolf, M.; Otten, E.; Wild, J.M.; Paley, M.N.J.; Fichele, S.; Woodhouse, N.; Swift, A.; Knitz, F.; Mills, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a central production facility with distribution network for implementation of hyperpolarized 3-helium MRI. The 3-helium was hyperpolarized to 50-65% using a large-scale production facility based at a university in Germany. Using a specially designed transport box, containing a permanent low-field shielded magnet and dedicated iron-free glass cells, the hyperpolarized 3-helium gas was transported via airfreight to a university in the UK. At this location, the gas was used to perform in vivo MR experiments in normal volunteers and patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases. Following initial tests, the transport (road-air-road cargo) was successfully arranged on six occasions (approximately once per month). The duration of transport to imaging averaged 18 h (range 16-20 h), which was due mainly to organizational issues such as working times and flight connections. During the course of the project, polarization at imaging increased from 20% to more than 30%. A total of 4 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were imaged. The feasibility of a central production facility for hyperpolarized 3-helium was demonstrated. This should enable a wider distribution of gas for this novel technology without the need for local start-up costs. (orig.)

  19. Total and single differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of the ground state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.S.C.; Choudhury, K.B.; Singh, M.B.; Deb, N.C.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Total cross sections (TCS) and single differential cross sections (SDCS) have been computed for the single ionization of the ground state of helium by electron impact in a distorted wave formalism which takes into account the effects of the initial and final channel distortions. The present TCS and SDCS results are in fair agreement with the measured values and other theoretical predictions for the incident electron energy E i > 150 eV. (orig.)

  20. An evaluation of reactor cooling and coupled hydrogen production processes using the modular helium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, E.A.; Reza, S.M.M.; Richards, M.; Shenoy, A.

    2006-01-01

    The high-temperature characteristics of the modular helium reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for producing hydrogen using either thermochemical or high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical hydrogen production process has been the subject of a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project led by General Atomics, with participation from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Texas A and M University. While the focus of much of the initial work was on the SI thermochemical production of hydrogen, recent activities included development of a preconceptual design for an integral HTE hydrogen production plant driven by the process heat and electricity produced by a 600 MW MHR. This paper describes ATHENA analyses performed to evaluate alternative primary system cooling configurations for the MHR to minimize peak reactor vessel and core temperatures while achieving core helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900-1000 deg. C that are needed for the efficient production of hydrogen using either the SI or HTE process. The cooling schemes investigated are intended to ensure peak fuel temperatures do not exceed specified limits under normal or transient upset conditions, and that reactor vessel temperatures do not exceed American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code limits for steady-state or transient conditions using standard light water reactor vessel materials. Preconceptual designs for SI and HTE hydrogen production plants driven by one or more 600 MW MHRs at helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900-1000 deg. C are described and compared. An initial SAPHIRE model to evaluate the reliability, maintainability, and availability of the SI hydrogen production plant is also described. Finally, a preliminary flowsheet for a conceptual design of an HTE hydrogen production plant coupled to a 600 MW modular helium reactor is presented and

  1. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the LAMPF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Differential and total displacement and helium production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760 MeV protons at LAMPF. The calculations are performed using the SPECTER and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in EBR-II and RTNS-II. The results indicate substantial contributions to the displacement and helium production rates due to neutrons in the high-energy tail (above 40 MeV) of the LAMPF spallation neutron spectrum. Still higher production rates are calculated for irradiations in the direct proton beam. These results will provide useful background information for research to be conducted at a new irradiation facility at LAMPF

  2. Monte Carlo analysis of helium production in the ITER shielding blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.

    1999-01-01

    In order to examine the shielding performances of the inboard blanket module in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), shielding calculations have been carried out using a three-dimensional Monte Carlo method. The impact of radiation streaming through the front access holes and gaps between adjacent blanket modules on the helium gas production in the branch pipe weld locations and back plate have been estimated. The three-dimensional model represents an 18 sector of the overall torus region and includes the vacuum vessel, inboard blanket and back plate, plasma region, and outboard reflecting medium. And it includes the 1 m high inboard mid-plane module and the 20 mm wide gaps between adjacent modules. From the calculated results for the reference design, it has been found that the helium production at the plug of the branch pipe is four to five times higher than the design goal of 1 appm for a neutron fluence of 0.9 MW a m -2 at the inboard mid-plane first wall. Also, it has been found that the helium production at the back plate behind the horizontal gap is about three times higher than the design goal. In the reference design, the stainless steel (SS):H 2 O composition in the blanket module is 80:20%. Shielding calculations also have been carried out for the SS:H 2 O composition of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60%. From the evaluated results for their design, it has been found that the dependence of helium production on the SS:H 2 170 mm will reduce helium production to satisfy the design goal and not have a significant impact on weight limitations imposed by remote maintenance handling limitations. Also based on the calculated results, about 200 mm thick shields such as a key structure in the vertical gap are suggested to be installed in the horizontal gap as well to reduce the helium production at the back plate and to satisfy the design goal. (orig.)

  3. The production and extraction of polarized electrons from an optically pumped helium discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandiver, R.J.; Schearer, L.D.; Gay, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized electrons are produced from interactions involving nearly 100% polarized helium 2 3 S 1 metastable atoms in a weak electrical discharge. The high metastable polarizations are obtained through the use of recently developed, high-power lasers tunable to the relevant helium transitions near 1083 nm and the development of a crossed beam pumping technique. The dominant interactions involving the 2 3 S 1 atoms and electrons are spin preserving; hence the electrons of the discharge attain a high polarization. The authors have extracted a well collimated electron beam with over 20 μA of current from the discharge. An optical polarimeter will be used to determine the polarization of the extracted electrons

  4. Further study of helium production at large impact parameters in 6.4 TeV 32S emulsion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, S.

    1999-01-01

    Further study of helium production in electromagnetic and inelastic peripheral interactions of 32 S nuclei at 200 AGeV in nuclear emulsion is presented. The multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions of relativistic He fragments, and their parameters in both interactions are measured. The effect of the multiple helium production on the present obtained evidence of two different temperatures is investigated. The main characteristics of transverse momentum distributions show a certain dependence on the peripherality degree of the interactions

  5. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. It is based on the equation ( Z ′ 3 / ) exp [ − Z ′ ( r 1 + r 2 ) ] , Z ′ = Z − ( 5 / 16 ) for ground state wave function of helium- like ions and Z ′ 2 scaling of energies. The scaling law is ...

  6. Exel's crossed product and crossed products by completely positive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwaśniewski, Bartosz Kosma

    2017-01-01

    construction we extend a result of Brownlowe, Raeburn and Vittadello, by showing that the C∗-algebra of an arbitrary infinite graph E can be realized as a crossed product of the diagonal algebra DE by a 'Perron-Frobenius' operator L. The important difference to the previous result is that in general...

  7. Fully differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by fast ions: Classical model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi, L.

    2018-04-01

    Fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) have been calculated for the single ionization of helium by 1- and 3-MeV proton and 100-MeV/u C6 + ion impact using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method in the nonrelativistic, three-body approximation. The calculations were made employing a Wigner-type model in which the quantum-mechanical position distribution of the electron is approximated by a weighted integral of the microcanonical distribution over a range of the binding energy of the electron. In the scattering plane, the model satisfactorily reproduces the observed shape of the binary peak. In the region of the peak the calculated FDCSs agree well with the results of continuum-distorted-wave calculations for all the investigated collisions. For 1-MeV proton impact the experimentally observed shift of the binary peak with respect to the first Born approximation is compared with the shifts obtained by different higher-order quantum-mechanical theories and the present CTMC method. The best result was achieved by CTMC, but still a large part of the shift remained unexplained. Furthermore, it was found that the classical theory failed to reproduce the shape of the recoil peak observed in the experiments, it predicts a much narrower peak. This indicates that the formation of the recoil peak is dominated by quantum-mechanical effects. For 100-MeV/u C6 + ion impact the present CTMC calculations confirmed the existence of the "double-peak" structure of the angular distribution of the electron in the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer, in accordance with the observation, the prediction of an incoherent semiclassical model, and previous CTMC results. This finding together with wave-packet calculations suggests that the "C6 + puzzle" may be solved by considering the loss of the projectile coherence. Experiments to be conducted using ion beams of anisotropic coherence are proposed for a more differential investigation of the ionization dynamics.

  8. (e, 2e) triple differential cross sections for the simultaneous ionization and excitation of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, C.; Lahmam-Bennani, A.; Duguet, A. (Paris-11 Univ., 91-Orsay (France). Lab. des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (France)); Mota-Furtado, F. (Univ. Nova de Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica); O' Mahoney, P.F. (Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics); Dal Cappello, C. (Inst. de Physique, Metz (France). Lab. de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions)

    1992-01-14

    We present absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) measurements for ionization of helium leaving the ion in both n = 1 and n = 2 final states, obtained under asymmetric geometry at an incident energy {approx}5.5 keV and ejected electron energies of 5, 10 and 75 eV. The kinematics are chosen to correspond either to a constant ejection energy, or to a constant energy transfer to the target. Angular distributions are measured at both constant ejection angle ({theta}{sub a}mode) and at constant scattering angle ({theta}{sub b} mode). In the {theta}{sub a} mode experiments, the momentum transfer dependence of the n = 2 triple differential generalized oscillator strength is investigated here for the first time. In both modes, the n = 2 angular distributions show several new features which are not present for the n = 1 ones, and which tend to vanish as the ejected energy is increased. They are attributed to final state interactions between the ejected electron and the excited ion. Comparison with first-order theoretical models shows the inadequacy of a Coulomb wave representation of the ejected electron, while in the R-matrix formalism it is found that a five-state multichannel calculation qualitatively describes the shape (but not the amplitude) of the TDCS measured in the {theta}{sub b}mode. Comparison is also made with the photoionization in the dipolar limit where the momentum transfer approaches zero. When integrated over the ejection direction, the double differential generalized oscillator strength ratio for ionization to the n = 1 and n = 2 states in found to agree with a recent first Born close coupling prediction. (author).

  9. The diffusion cross section for atomic hydrogen in helium gas at low temperature and the H-He potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochemsen, R.; Berlinsky, A.J.; Hardy, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    A calculation of the diffusion cross section Q sub(D) of hydrogen atoms in helium gas at low temperature is performed and compared with recent experimental results. The comparison allows an improved determination of the H-He potential. Calculations were done for three different potentials: our own empirical potential based on experimental high-energy scattering results and calculated long-range dispersion terms, which gives good results for Q sub(D) and total collision cross sections; a recently determined semi-empirical potential, and an ab initio calculated potential. All three potentials imply a strong temperature dependence of Q sub(D) for T < 1.5 K

  10. Magnetic-sublevel cross sections for excitation of the n 1P levels of helium by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csanak, G.; Cartwright, D.C.; Trajmar, S.

    1992-01-01

    First-order many-body theory has been used to calculate collision-frame magnetic-sublevel differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the n 1 P (n=2,3,4,5,6) levels of helium for electrons with incident energy in the 25--500-eV range. By combining results from electron-impact differential-cross-section measurements and electron-photon coincidence measurements, experimental magnetic-sublevel cross sections have also been derived for the excitation of the 2 1 P and 3 1 P levels. The theory predicts a pronounced minimum for the M=0 magnetic-sublevel differential cross section for incident electron energies around 30 eV. Our theoretical results are compared to the experimental data and some other theoretical results

  11. Use of Helium Production to Screen Glow Discharges for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Thomas O.

    2011-03-01

    My working hypothesis of the conditions required to observe low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) follows: 1) High fluxes of deuterium atoms through interfaces of grains of metals that readily accommodate movement of hydrogen atoms interstitially is the driving variable that produces the widely observed episodes of excess heat above the total of all input energy. 2) This deuterium atom flux has been most often achieved at high electrochemical current densities on highly deuterium-loaded palladium cathodes but is clearly possible in other experimental arrangements in which the metal is interfacing gaseous deuterium, as in an electrical glow discharge. 3) Since the excess heat episodes must be producing the product(s) of some nuclear fusion reaction(s) screening of options may be easier with measurement of those ``ashes'' than the observance of the excess heat. 4) All but a few of the exothermic fusion reactions known among the first 5 elements produce He-4. Hence helium-4 appearance in an experiment may be the most efficient indicator of some fusion reaction without commitment on which reaction is occurring. This set of hypotheses led me to produce a series of sealed tubes of wire electrodes of metals known to absorb hydrogen and operate them for 100 days at the 1 watt power level using deuterium gas pressures of ~ 100 torr powered by 40 Khz AC power supplies. Observation of helium will be by measurement of helium optical emission lines through the glass envelope surrounding the discharge. The results of the first 18 months of this effort will be described.

  12. The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.; Marr, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment has been set up at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility to make absolute absorption cross section measurements over a wide range of photon energies. New data are reported for helium, neon, argon and krypton over the range 340 to 40 A which are believed to be reliable to +- 5%. A critical evaluation of published cross section data has been carried out to produce best value data from the ionization thresholds throughout the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray region. Agreement with theoretical calculations on helium is demonstrated to be within +- 2 to 3% from threshold down to the double ionization threshold at 79 eV. Comparison with recent calculations of photoionization cross sections has shown that the effect of electron correlations is significant for the heavier inert gases. Contrary to previous claims, the position of the M shell maximum in krypton is located at 184 +- 10 eV in good agreement with r.p.a.e. calculations. Oscillator strength sum rules have been examined and their moments calculated. Discrepancies developing towards the heavier inert gases suggests a decrease in polarizabilities and other atomic factors from those predicted by Hartree-Fock calculations. (author)

  13. Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: II. Excitation cross sections and mechanisms of excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godunov, A.L. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118-5698 (United States); Ivanov, P.B.; Schipakov, V.A. [Troitsk Institute of Innovation and Fusion Research Troitsk, Moscow region, 142092 (Russian Federation); Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Laboratoire Collisions, Agregats, Reactivite, IRSAMC, UMR 5589, CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2000-03-14

    Mechanisms of two-electron excitation of the (2s{sup 2}){sup 1} S, (2p{sup 2} ){sup 1} D and (2s2p){sup 1} P autoionizing states of helium are studied both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that an explicit introduction of a kinematic factor, with a process-specific phase leads to a productive parametrization of experimental cross sections of ionization, allowing one to extract cross sections of excitation of autoionizing states. Using a new fitting procedure together with the proposed parametrization made it possible to obtain the excitation cross sections and magnetic sublevel population from electron spectra as well as, for the first time, to resolve the contribution of resonance and interference components to resonance profiles. Interference with direct ionization is shown to contribute significantly into resonance formation even for backward ejection angles. We demonstrate theoretically that the excitation cross sections thus extracted from experimental electron spectra hold information about the interaction of autoionizing states with an adjacent continuum. (author)

  14. 26Al production in explosive burning of hydrogen-helium layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Hillebrand, W.; Thielemann, F.K.

    1978-08-01

    There is now strong evidence for the presence of live 26 Al (t 1 / 2 approximately 7.2 x 10 5 y) in the early solar system just before the beginning of its condensation phase. It is shown that the passage of a supernova shock wave through the outer part of the helium zone of a massive star can lead to significant 26 Al production if some protons are present in such external layers. In fact, a ratio 26 Al/ 27 Al approximately is derived for a proton mass fraction of the order of 5x10 -3 to 5x10 -2 . The required protons may survive from a preshock incomplete hydrogen burning or may result from some mixing with outer hydrogen-rich layers. (orig.) [de

  15. Seeds of Cross-Media Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2007-01-01

    separately and of cross-media production. Since cross-media production is in the making, we study the instruments currently used for planning and coordination, and analyze them as seeds that will eventually make cross-media production happen. Time and timing are important in news production in general......We present an empirical study of an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production towards cross-media production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, television, radio and web-news. The paper focuses on the daily production rhythms of the media...... with planning and coordination. We demonstrate how the production rhythms of the individual media collide with that of cross-media, and how product lifecycle rhythms add to the list of causes of problems that may jeopardize crossmedia production. We propose to strengthen planning and overview support elements...

  16. Triple differential cross section for the near threshold single ionization of helium atoms for equal energy sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G., E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.in [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India); Singh, P. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India); Dorn, A.; Ren, X. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Patidar, V. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Present paper describes electron impact single ionization of helium atoms near threshold. • This energy range provided challenges to theoretical models due to presence of several physical effects at low energies such as second order processes, PCI, polarization, etc. • Inclusion of second Born term and target polarization is helpful to analyze the measurements. • Present paper also describes usefulness of post collisional interaction in the collision dynamics at low energies. - Abstract: Low energy electron impact single ionization triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the helium atoms in the threshold regime at 1 eV, 3 eV and 5 eV excess energy. TDCSs are calculated in the doubly symmetric kinematics for the coplanar to perpendicular emission of electrons. Present attempt to calculate TDCS in the second Born approximation and treating target polarization and post collision interaction is helpful to analyze the available measurements. The second order processes, target polarization and post collision interaction (PCI) have been found to be significant in describing the trends of TDCS and helpful to produce reasonably good agreement with measurements.

  17. Triple differential cross section for the near threshold single ionization of helium atoms for equal energy sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, G.; Singh, P.; Dorn, A.; Ren, X.; Patidar, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Present paper describes electron impact single ionization of helium atoms near threshold. • This energy range provided challenges to theoretical models due to presence of several physical effects at low energies such as second order processes, PCI, polarization, etc. • Inclusion of second Born term and target polarization is helpful to analyze the measurements. • Present paper also describes usefulness of post collisional interaction in the collision dynamics at low energies. - Abstract: Low energy electron impact single ionization triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the helium atoms in the threshold regime at 1 eV, 3 eV and 5 eV excess energy. TDCSs are calculated in the doubly symmetric kinematics for the coplanar to perpendicular emission of electrons. Present attempt to calculate TDCS in the second Born approximation and treating target polarization and post collision interaction is helpful to analyze the available measurements. The second order processes, target polarization and post collision interaction (PCI) have been found to be significant in describing the trends of TDCS and helpful to produce reasonably good agreement with measurements.

  18. Differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic n=2 excitation of ground-state helium at 29.6 and 40.1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunger, M.J.

    1989-11-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons by ground-state helium at 29.6 and 40.1eV. The normalisation of the cross sections is discussed. Theoretical cross sections have been obtained using a 10-state coupled-channels-optical calculation. In general, there is good agreement between theory and experiment for singlet states but not for triplet. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Collisional-radiative model for neutral helium in plasma. Excitation cross section and singlet-triplet wavefunction mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Motoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fujimoto, Takashi

    1997-10-01

    We have revised the collisional-radiative (CR) model code of neutral helium (T. Fujimoto, JQSRT 21, 1979). The spin-orbit interaction gives rise to mixing of the wavefunctions of the singlet and triplet states. The degree of the mixing depends on the magnetic field, and at the field strength of the level-anticrossings complete mixing, or complete breakdown of the L-S coupling scheme, occurs. We have approximately incorporated this effect into the code. We have reviewed the excitation cross section data for electron impacts. For transitions starting from the ground state, the recent assessment by the group led by Dr. de Heer is judged satisfactory. For transitions from the metastable levels the assessment by the same group appears rather conservative; there remains a question about the cross section values near the threshold. For transitions between different-l levels within the same multiplicity and same n, a semi-empirical formula based on the Born cross section gives a good agreement with experiment. Proton impacts are also considered for these transitions. We compare the new cross sections with those used in the original version. These cross sections for transitions starting from the metastable levels are fitted by analytical formulas and the parameter values are given. We also give parameter values for the excitation rate coefficient for these transitions as well as for transitions starting from the ground state. With all the above revisions incorporated into the CR model code, we have calculated the energy loss rates and the line intensity ratios for the purpose of plasma diagnostics, where the effect of a magnetic field is noted. The calculated population distribution over excited levels are compared with experiment, and a tentative conclusion is drawn concerning the excitation cross section from the metastable level. (author)

  20. Ab initio calculation of scattering length and cross sections at very low energies for electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method for continuum wave functions has been used to calculate the scattering length and phase shifts over extremely low energies ranging from 0 to 1 eV very accurately for electron-helium scattering. The scattering length is calculated very accurately with wave functions computed exactly at zero energy, resulting in an upper bound of 1.1784. The electron correlation and polarization of the target by the scattering electron, which are very important in these calculations, have been taken into account in an accurate ab initio manner through the configuration-interaction procedure by optimizing both bound and continuum orbitals simultaneously at each kinetic energy of the scattered electron. Detailed results for scattering length, differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections obtained from the phase shifts are presented. The present scattering length is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result of Andrick and Bitsch [J. Phys. B 8, 402 (1975)] and the theoretical result of O'Malley, Burke, and Berrington [J. Phys. B 12, 953 (1979)]. There is excellent agreement between the present total cross sections and the corresponding experimental measurements of Buckman and Lohmann [J. Phys. B 19, 2547 (1986)]. The present momentum-transfer cross sections also show remarkable agreement with the experimental results of Crompton, Elford, and Robertson [Aust. J. Phys. 23, 667 (1970)

  1. Seeds of Cross-Media Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2007-01-01

    We present an empirical study of an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production towards cross-media production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, television, radio and web-news. The paper focuses on the daily production rhythms of the media...... separately and of cross-media production. Since cross-media production is in the making, we study the instruments currently used for planning and coordination, and analyze them as seeds that will eventually make cross-media production happen. Time and timing are important in news production in general......, and our analyses focus on the rhythm of the daily planning, coordination and production processes. Specifically, we analyze the temporal coordination of the activities in and around the Superdesk – the current center of coordination of the news organization, and of the persons who work specifically...

  2. Helium Atom Scattering from C2H6, F2HCCH3, F3CCH2F and C2F6 in Crossed Molecular Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Markus; Seidel, Wolfhart

    1997-10-01

    Rotationally unresolved differential cross sections were measured in crossed molecular beam experiments by scattering Helium atoms from Ethane, 1,1-Difluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane and Hexafluoroethane. The damping of observed diffraction oscillations was used to extract anisotropic interaction potentials for these scattering systems applying the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA). Binary macroscopic parameters such as second heterogeneous virial coefficients and the coefficients of diffusion and viscosity were computed from these potentials and compared to results from macroscopic experiments.

  3. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Davidson, D.R.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    CT: Differential and total displacement and helium production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760 MeV protons at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The calculations are performed using the SPECTER and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in EBR-II and RTNS-II. The results indicate substantial contributions to the displacement and helium production rates due to neutrons in the high-energy tail (above 20 MeV) of the LAMPF spallation neutron spectrum. Still higher production rates are calculated for irradiations in the direct proton beam. These results will provide useful background information for research to be conducted at a new irradiation facility at LAMPF

  4. Internet and Cross Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2006-01-01

    , the Internet continues to play a minor role when compared to older media. The content of the cross media concepts and organizations' history are crucial elements in deciding the priority and use of platforms. Methodologically, the article approaches cross media and the roles of the Internet on a micro......Convergence is one of the hot topics in Internet studies. Recently, however, media organizations have turned their focus to cross media communication. Media organizations are interested in optimizing communication across platforms such as TV, radio, websites, mobile telephones and newspapers....... The aim of this article is to examine the roles of the Internet when emphasis is put on cross media rather than convergence. This article proposes not one unidirectional convergent tendency but manifold roles of the Internet in cross media communication. Inside the media organizations, however...

  5. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  6. Active voltage contrast imaging of cross-sectional surface of multilayer ceramic capacitor using helium ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, C., E-mail: SAKAI.Chikako@nims.go.jp; Ishida, N.; Masuda, H.; Nagano, S.; Kitahara, M.; Fujita, D. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ogata, Y. [TAIYO YUDEN CO., LTD., Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-3347 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    We studied active voltage contrast (AVC) imaging using helium ion microscopy (HIM). We observed secondary electron (SE) images of the cross-sectional surface of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with and without a voltage applied to the internal electrodes. When no voltage was applied, we obtained an image reflecting the material contrast between the Ni internal electrode region and the BaTiO{sub 3} dielectric region of the cross-sectional surface of the MLCC. When a voltage was applied, the electrical potential difference between the grounded and the positively biased internal electrodes affected the contrast (voltage contrast). Moreover, attenuation of the SE intensity from the grounded to the positively biased internal electrodes was observed in the dielectric region. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements of the contact potential difference (CPD) were performed on the same sample. By using the AVC image from the HIM observation and the CPD image from the KPFM measurement, we could quantitatively evaluate the electrical potential. We think that the results of this study will lead to an expansion in the number of applications of HIM.

  7. Mechanical compression tests of beryllium pebbles after neutron irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Compression tests of highly neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles have been performed. • Irradiation hardening of beryllium pebbles decreases the steady-state strain-rates. • The steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles exceed their swelling rates. - Abstract: Results: of mechanical compression tests of irradiated and non-irradiated beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 and 2 mm are presented. The neutron irradiation was performed in the HFR in Petten, The Netherlands at 686–968 K up to 1890–2950 appm helium production. The irradiation at 686 and 753 K cause irradiation hardening due to the gas bubble formation in beryllium. The irradiation-induced hardening leads to decrease of steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles compared to non-irradiated ones. In contrary, after irradiation at higher temperatures of 861 and 968 K, the steady-state strain-rates of the pebbles increase because annealing of irradiation defects and softening of the material take place. It was shown that the steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles always exceed their swelling rates.

  8. Absolute differential cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by helium, neon, argon and molecular nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, R.H.J.; De Heer, F.J.; Luyken, H.J.; Van Wingerden, B.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer has been constructed for the study of elastic and inelastic electron scattering processes. Up to now the apparatus has been used to measure differential cross sections of electrons elastically scattered by He, Ne, Ar and N 2 . Direct absolute cross section measurements were performed on N 2 at 500 eV impact energy and at scattering angles between 5 0 and 9 0 . Relative cross section measurements were done on He, Ne, Ar and N 2 at impact energies between 100 and 3000 eV and scattering angles between 5 0 and 55 0 . The relative cross sections were put on an absolute scale by means of the apparatus calibration factor derived from the absolute measurements on N 2 . The experimental apparatus and procedure are described in detail. The results are discussed and compared with those of other experimental and theoretical groups. Analysis of the exponential behaviour of the differential cross section as a function of momentum transfer yielded apparent polarizabilities of the target. (author)

  9. Total scattering cross sections and interatomic potentials for neutral hydrogen and helium on some noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.N.; Cohen, S.A.

    1985-04-01

    Measurements of energy-dependent scattering cross sections for 30 to 1800 eV D incident on He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, and for 40 to 850 eV He incident on He, Ar, and Kr are presented. They are determined by using the charge-exchange efflux from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak as a source of D or He. These neutrals are passed through a gas-filled scattering cell and detected by a time-of-flight spectrometer. The cross section for scattering greater than the effective angle of the apparatus (approx. =20 mrad) is found by measuring the energy-dependent attenuation of D or He as a function of pressure in the scattering cell. The interatomic potential is extracted from the data

  10. Ion source based on Penning discharge for production of doubly charged helium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Voznyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of operation of ion source with Penning discharge developed in the IAP of NAS of Ukraine to produce doubly charged helium ions He2+ beam and to increase the energy of accelerated ions up to 3.2 MeV. This energy is necessary for ERDA channel when measuring hydrogen concentration in the structural materials used in nuclear engineering. The ion source parameters are the following: discharge voltage is 6 kV, discharge current is 0.8 - 1.2 mA, the current of singly charged helium ions He+ 24 μA, the current of doubly charged helium ions He2+ 0.5 μA.

  11. Measurement of x-ray scattering cross sections of hydrogen and helium with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total x-ray scattering is a two-electron expectation value. The prominence of the electron correlation effect was demonstrated in recent theoretical work. Only one measurement of x-ray scattering from H 2 has been reported heretofore, nearly fifty years ago. New measurements were carried out using the virtually monochromatic, intense flux of synchrotron radiation in the SSRP EXAFS line. The targets, at 1 atm pressure, were UHP He and ultrapure H 2 that had been passed through a hot Pd--Ag alloy diffusion purifier. The scattered-photon spectra were measured with a Xe-filled proportional counter and fast multichannel analyzer. The incident flux was monitored with a parallel-plate ion chamber, calibrated by direct counting of the absorber-attenuated beam. Measurements were performed at 5, 6, and 7 keV photon energy, as a function of scattering angle (60, 90, and 135 deg) and azimuthal angle (i.e., polarization). The relative total differential photon scattering cross sections for H 2 over the range 3.0 less than or equal to x = 4πsin (theta/2)lambda less than or equal to 5.6 A -1 agree to within approx. 1% with the correlated calculations of Bentley and Stewart. The ratios of measured cross sections for H 2 to those for He at x = 3.0 and 5.6 A -1 agree to within 1% with the ratios of the Bentley--Stewart H 2 cross sections to the correlated wave-function calculations of Brown for He

  12. Coherent photon scattering cross sections for helium near the delta resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delli Carpini, D.; Booth, E.C.; Miller, J.P.; Igarashi, R.; Bergstrom, J.; Caplan, H.; Doss, M.; Hallin, E.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Skopik, D.; Lucas, M.A.; Nathan, A.M.; Wells, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The angular distributions for coherent photon scattering from 4 He were measured at average laboratory bremsstrahlung energies of 187, 235, and 280 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory using the new high duty factor electron beam. The scattered photons were observed with a high-resolution NaI(Tl) total absorption scintillation detector. These measurements are intended to investigate modification of the Δ properties inside the nuclear medium and the treatment of nonresonant contributions to the scattering cross sections. The results are compared to theoretical calculations in the isobar-hole model. Clear deviations from the theory are evident at all energies, especially at 187 MeV

  13. The EUV Helium Spectrum in the Quiet Sun: A By-Product of Coronal Emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, Vincenzo; DelZanna, Giulio; Jordan, Stuart D.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we test one of the mechanisms proposed to explain the intensities and other observed properties of the solar helium spectrum, and in particular of its Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) resonance lines. The so-called Photoionisation-Recombination (P-R) mechanism involves photoionisation of helium atoms and ions by EUV coronal radiation, followed by recombination cascades. We present calibrated measurements of EUV flux obtained with the two CDS spectrometers on board SOHO, in quiescent solar regions. We were able to obtain an essentially complete estimate of the total photoionizing flux in the wavelength range below 504 A (the photoionisation threshold for He(I)), as well as simultaneous measurements with the same instruments of the intensities of the strongest EUV helium lines: He(II) lambda304, He(I) lambda584, and He(I) lambda537. We find that there are not enough EUV photons to account for the observed helium line intensities. More specifically, we conclude that He(II) intensities cannot be explained by the P-R mechanism. Our results, however, leave open the possibility that the He(I) spectrum could be formed by the P-R mechanism, with the He(II) lambda304 line as a significant photoionizating source.

  14. Production of zero energy radioactive beams through extraction across superfluid helium surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, N; Huang, WX; Gloos, K; Dendooven, P; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    A radioactive Ra-223 source was immersed in superfluid helium at 1.2-1.7 K. Electric fields transported recoiled Rn-219 ions in the form of snowballs to the surface and further extracted them across the surface. The ions were focussed onto an aluminium foil and alpha particle spectra were taken with

  15. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  16. Cross sections for charm production by neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushida, N [Aichi Univ. of Education, Kariya (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kondo, T [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Fujioka, G; Fukushima, J; Takahashi, Y; Tatsumi, S; Yokoyama, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Homma, Y; Tsuzuki, Y [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Bahk, S

    1983-02-03

    The production of charmed particles has been measured using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative cross section for charged current charmed particle production is sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/c)/sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/) = 6.5 +- 1.9/1.8%, and the energy dependence of the cross section is presented. One event with charm pair production was observed. A limit of sigma(v -> ..mu..canti c)/sigma(v -> ..mu..c) < 6% (90% CL) is found for the ratio of charged current pair and single charm production.

  17. Experimental study of cross-section ratios in the collisions of Cq+ and Oq+ (q = 1–4) on atomic helium in strong-interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi-Meng; Jiang Li-Juan; Zhou Peng; Zhou Chun-Lin; Gao Zhi-Min; Qiu Xi-Yu; Cui Ying; Wang Xing-An; Lou Feng-Jun; Lü Xue-Yang; Jia Juan-Juan; Chen Lin; Shao Jian-Xiong; Lü Ying; Wang Fan

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the cross-section ratios of helium induced by C q+ and O q+ (q = 1–4) in an energy range from 20 keV/amu to 500 keV/amu, and obtained the two-dimensional spectra by employing the coincidence method combined with the MPA-3 data acquisition system. Hence, we obtain the ratios of total single-ionization cross-sections (SI, SC, SLSI, and DLSI), total double-ionization cross-sections (DI, DC, TI, SLDI, and DLDI) and cross-sections of every process (SI, SC, SLSI, DLSI, DI, DC, TI, SLDI, and DLDI), which induce the single-ionization and double-ionization, to the total cross sections respectively. The competitive relations between the reaction-channels and the experimental data law of each reaction-channel are revealed explicitly, and the qualitative explanations involved in those results are also presented accordingly. (atomic and molecular physics)

  18. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  19. Automation of the helium jet transport system for nuclear recoil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, Luis F.; Pedrosa, Paulo S.

    1996-09-01

    A computer code and an interface hardware to automate the acquisition data and the sample changer in a helium jet transport system of recoil nucleus was developed for an IBM or compatible personal microcomputer. The software works with a Spectrum-ACE/ADCAM ORTEC's multichannel analysers and the interface card uses the 03EFh port to command the sample changer. This system allows to measure, by gamma spectrometry, radionuclides with half-lives of order of seconds produced from nuclear reactions. (author)

  20. Suzaku Reveals Helium-burning Products in the X-Ray-emitting Planetary Nebula BD +30 3639

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, M.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Kotoku, J.; Murakami, H.; Matsushita, K.; Hayashida, K.; Arnaud, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2006-08-01

    BD +30 3639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and the C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios were determined. The C/O and Ne/O abundance ratios exceed the solar value by factors of at least 30 and 5, respectively. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium-shell-burning products.

  1. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  2. Boundaries, injective envelopes, and reduced crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryder, Rasmus Sylvester

    In this dissertation, we study boundary actions, equivariant injective envelopes, as well as theideal structure of reduced crossed products. These topics have recently been linked to thestudy of C-simple groups, that is, groups with simple reduced group C-algebras.In joint work with Matthew Kennedy......, we consider reduced twisted crossed products overC-simple groups. For any twisted C-dynamical system over a C-simple group, we provethat there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal invariant ideals in the underlyingC-algebra and maximal ideals in the reduced crossed product. When......*-algebras, and relate the intersection property for group actions on unital C*-algebras to the intersection property for theequivariant injective envelope. Moreover, we also prove that the equivariant injective envelopeof the centre of the injective envelope of a unital C*-algebra can be regarded as a C...

  3. Helium cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sciver, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Twenty five years have elapsed since the original publication of Helium Cryogenics. During this time, a considerable amount of research and development involving helium fluids has been carried out culminating in several large-scale projects. Furthermore, the field has matured through these efforts so that there is now a broad engineering base to assist the development of future projects. Helium Cryogenics, 2nd edition brings these advances in helium cryogenics together in an updated form. As in the original edition, the author's approach is to survey the field of cryogenics with emphasis on helium fluids. This approach is more specialized and fundamental than that contained in other cryogenics books, which treat the associated range of cryogenic fluids. As a result, the level of treatment is more advanced and assumes a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles, including some quantum mechanics. The goal throughout the work is to bridge the gap between the physics and engineering aspe...

  4. Options for helium circulation in a hydrogen production plant VHTR-Si: thermal-economic comparative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, A.; Francois L, J. L.; Anaya D, A.

    2011-11-01

    The technologies that take advantage of the heat of nuclear reactors of IV generation are of great interest, due to their high energy efficiencies and to their strong economic potential. An example of these technologies is the sulfur-iodine process coupled to a nuclear reactor of high temperature cooled by helium. In this process heat is transferred from the nuclear reactor to the chemical plant by means of two cycles of helium interconnected by an intermediate heat exchanger. The first, denominated primary cycle of cooling, removes the heat of the nuclear reactor, transferring to the secondary cycle to be distributed to equipment s in the chemical plant. The pass of the helium gas through the equipment s that compose each one of the cycles, implies pressure losses that should be compensated necessarily by re-compression to maintain a stable state in the system, causing the energy consumption, usually rejected in the energy analyses. When to this energy is added the energy required in the hydrogen plant: energy required by the pumping systems, will decrease the efficiency of the nucleus-chemical complex, increasing the even cost of the hydrogen. In this work, three options to supply the compression energy and pumping (CEP) to the system are proposed, and these are analyzed thermodynamic and economically. The results indicate that to consider the CEP in the economic analysis increases between 1.5 and 3% the even cost of the hydrogen, and that the option with more energy efficiency is not necessarily the best for the nucleus-chemical complex. (Author)

  5. An update on measurements of helium-production reactions with a spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report gives the status, updated since the last Research Coordination Meeting, of alpha-particle production cross sections, emission spectra and angular distributions which we are measuring at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135 degrees are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, 0, 27 Al, Si, 51 V, 56 Fe, 59 CO, 58,60 Ni, 89 Y and 93 Nb. Data for 59 Co have been re-analyzed. The results illustrate the capabilities of the approach, agreement with literature values, and comparisons with nuclear reaction model calculations

  6. Status of helium-production reaction studies with a spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Alpha--particle production cross sections and spectra are being measured at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135 degree are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, O, 27 Al, Si, 51 V, 56 Fe, 59 Co, 58,60 Ni, 89 Y and 93 Nb. Results for 59 Co illustrate the capabilities of the approach

  7. Crossed product algebras associated with topological dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Pär Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study connections between topological dynamical systems and associated algebras of crossed product type. We derive equivalences between structural properties of a crossed product and dynamical properties of the associated system and furthermore derive qualitative results concerning the crossed

  8. An update on measurements of helium-production reactions with a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This report gives the status, updated since the last Research Coordination Meeting, of alpha-particle production cross sections, emission spectra and angular distributions which we are measuring at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135{degrees} are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, 0, {sup 27}Al, Si, {sup 51}V, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 59}CO, {sup 58,60}Ni, {sup 89}Y and {sup 93}Nb. Data for {sup 59}Co have been re-analyzed. The results illustrate the capabilities of the approach, agreement with literature values, and comparisons with nuclear reaction model calculations.

  9. Quasi-four-body treatment of charge transfer in the collision of protons with atomic helium: II. Second-order non-Thomas mechanisms and the cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzade, Zohre; Akbarabadi, Farideh Shojaei; Fathi, Reza; Brunger, Michael J.; Bolorizadeh, Mohammad A.

    2018-05-01

    A fully quantum mechanical four-body treatment of charge transfer collisions between energetic protons and atomic helium is developed here. The Pauli exclusion principle is applied to both the wave function of the initial and final states as well as the operators involved in the interaction. Prior to the collision, the helium atom is assumed as a two-body system composed of the nucleus, He2+, and an electron cloud composed of two electrons. Nonetheless, four particles are assumed in the final state. As the double interactions contribute extensively in single charge transfer collisions, the Faddeev-Lovelace-Watson scattering formalism describes it best physically. The treatment of the charge transfer cross section, under this quasi-four-body treatment within the FWL formalism, showed that other mechanisms leading to an effect similar to the Thomas one occur at the same scattering angle. Here, we study the two-body interactions which are not classically described but which lead to an effect similar to the Thomas mechanism and finally we calculate the total singlet and triplet amplitudes as well as the angular distributions of the charge transfer cross sections. As the incoming projectiles are assumed to be plane waves, the present results are calculated for high energies; specifically a projectile energy of 7.42 MeV was assumed as this is where experimental results are available in the literature for comparison. Finally, when possible we compare the present results with the other available theoretical data.

  10. Crossed products for interactions and graph algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasniewski, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    We consider Exel’s interaction (V,H) over a unital C*-algebra A, such that V(A) and H(A) are hereditary subalgebras of A. For the associated crossed product, we obtain a uniqueness theorem, ideal lattice description, simplicity criterion and a version of Pimsner–Voiculescu exact sequence. These r......We consider Exel’s interaction (V,H) over a unital C*-algebra A, such that V(A) and H(A) are hereditary subalgebras of A. For the associated crossed product, we obtain a uniqueness theorem, ideal lattice description, simplicity criterion and a version of Pimsner–Voiculescu exact sequence....... These results cover the case of crossed products by endomorphisms with hereditary ranges and complemented kernels. As model examples of interactions not coming from endomorphisms we introduce and study in detail interactions arising from finite graphs. The interaction (V,H) associated to a graph E acts...... on the core F_E of the graph algebra C*(E). By describing a partial homeomorphism dual to (V,H) we find the fundamental structure theorems for C*(E), such as Cuntz–Krieger uniqueness theorem, as results concerning reversible noncommutative dynamics on F_E . We also provide a new approach to calculation of K...

  11. Development of methods of transport of nuclear reaction products by helium jet, in connection with the ALICE accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprun, C.; Gauvin, H.; Le Beyec, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The He-jet transport systems for use with the heavy-ion accelerator ALICE at Orsay are described in detail. The dependence of the gas flow rate on various parameters (pressure, length and diameter of the capillary) was investigated. Off-line measurements were carried out with a 252 Cf source. Effect on collection yield of UV radiation and additives to the helium was checked. The influence of the distance between the target and the capillary on the collection efficiency for short-lived isotopes of Yb was investigated. Some other useful details are also discussed (collector, volume of the reaction chamber, etc.). Various applications of the He-jet method are described: particle identification, angular distribution of reaction products, mass identification of radioactive nuclei. (Auth.)

  12. The gas turbine modular helium reactor. An international project to develop a safe, efficient, flexible product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    As originally scheduled, the Conceptual Design Report of the 600 Mwt Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor has been issued in October 1997 by OKBM in Nizhny Novgorod, a keystone Russian Engineering Institute fully involved in the realization of this International Project. The plutonium burning, graphite moderated helium cooled reactor design results from the work done on the basis of General Atomics original concept combined with the goal of optimizing safety power and efficiency with multi contributions in specific fields from the Russian organizations: MINATOM, OKBM, VNIINM, Lutch, Kurchatov Institute, Seversk Chemical Combinat, Fuji Electric and FRAMATOME. The objective to concentrate the engineering work in Russia has met a full success due principally to the quality and experience of the people, to the international support and to the progressive integration of new techniques of communication, of project management culture and utilization of modern computerized design tools and methods. To day the best international standard of quality is reached in the engineering activity and expected to stay at this level for future developments, when including experimental facilities operation and components manufacturing activities, thanks to the diffusion of the common culture, acquired by the main actors during the conceptual design phase, that will be exported to Russian third parties. At this stage we are planning to start design verification and sensitive components and systems qualification, with the same original actors. The European Commission has already shown some significant interest through the MICHELANGELO Initiative in supporting the HTR concepts assessment and identification of the R and D needs. We are looking forward for further support from the International Community and particularly from European Institutions in the frame of the 5th PCRD to pursue the GT MHR R and D program. Furthermore we are looking for funding the building of a prototype in Russia

  13. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, E.

    2011-01-01

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  14. Absolute triple differential cross section for electron-impact ionization of helium at 40 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, J.; Ehrhardt, H.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.V.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1995-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of ionization of the ground state of helium by 40 eV incident electrons is presented. Absolute in-plane and out-of-plane measurements are provided for the case of 4 eV slow electron energy. These are found to be in good agreement with the convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations. Three calculations are presented, in order to demonstrate convergence, which couple a total of 87, 99 and 103 states. These also simultaneously yield results for the equal energy sharing kinematics which are found to be in good agreement with the available relative coplanar symmetric measurement. 30 refs., 8 figs

  15. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  16. The algebraic structure of crossed products

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    2014-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the theory of crossed products has enjoyed a period of vigorous development. The foundations have been strengthened and reorganized from new points of view, especially from the viewpoint of graded rings.The purpose of this monograph is to give, in a self-contained manner, an up-to-date account of various aspects of this development, in an effort to convey a comprehensive picture of the current state of the subject. It is assumed that the reader has had the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate course, thus familiarity with basic ring-theoretic and g

  17. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems. 16 refs., 6 figs

  18. Absolute triple differential cross section for electron-impact ionization of helium at 50 eV. Letter to the Editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, J.; Ehrhardt, H.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.V.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1995-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of 50 eV electron-impact ionization of helium is presented. The absolute coplanar triple differential cross sections (TDCS) are measured for 4 eV and 10 eV slow electrons for fixed scattering angles; -20 deg, -25 deg, -30 deg and -35 deg of the fast electron. The convergent close-coupling (CCC) theory is used to calculate these and is found to be in good quantitative agreement with experiment for the 4 eV case, but lower than the measurement for the 10 eV case. The shape of the CCC theory shows good agreement with previous relative coplanar symmetric TDCS measurements. 11 refs., 4 figs

  19. Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.

    1979-01-01

    The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion

  20. Post irradiation characterization of beryllium and beryllides after high temperature irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production in HIDOBE-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A.V., E-mail: fedorov@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Til, S. van; Stijkel, M.P. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, Petten, 1755 ZG (Netherlands); Nakamichi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/ Josep Pla, n° 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Titanium beryllides are considered as advanced candidate material for neutron multiplier for the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) and/or the water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) breeder blankets. In the HIDOBE-01 (HIgh DOse irradiation of BEryllium) experiment, beryllium and beryllide pellets with 5 at% and 7 at% Ti are irradiated at four different target temperatures (T{sub irr}): 425 °C, 525 °C, 650 °C and 750 °C up to the dose corresponding to 3000 appm He production in beryllium. The pellets were supplied by JAEA. During post irradiation examinations the critical properties of volumetric swelling and tritium retention were studied. Both titanium beryllide grades show significantly less swelling than the beryllium grade, with the difference increasing with the irradiation temperature. The irradiation induced swelling was studied by using direct dimensions. Both beryllide grades showed much less swelling as compare to the reference beryllium grade. Densities of the grades were studied by Archimedean immersion and by He-pycnometry, giving indications of porosity formation. While both beryllide grades show no significant reduction in density at all irradiation temperatures, the beryllium density falls steeply at higher T{sub irr}. Finally, the tritium release and retention were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Beryllium shows the same strong tritium retention as earlier observed in studies on beryllium pebbles, while the tritium inventory of the beryllides is significantly less, already at the lowest T{sub irr} of 425 °C.

  1. Measurement of ozone production scaling in a helium plasma jet with oxygen admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian; Ganguly, Biswa

    2012-10-01

    Capillary dielectric barrier plasma jet devices that generate confined streamer-like discharges along a rare gas flow can produce significant quantities of reactive oxygen species with average input powers ranging from 100 mW to >1 W. We have measured spatially-resolved ozone production in a He plasma jet with O2 admixture concentrations up to 5% using absorption spectroscopy of the O3 Hartley band system. A 20-ns risetime, 10-13 kV positive unipolar voltage pulse train was used to power the discharge, with pulse repetition rates varied from 1-20 kHz. The discharge was operated in a transient glow mode to scale the input power by adjusting the gap width between the anode and downstream cathodic plane. Peak ozone number densities in the range of 10^16 - 10^17 cm-3 were measured. At a given voltage, the density of ozone increased monotonically up to 3% O2 admixture (6 mm gap) as the peak discharge current decreased by an order of magnitude. Ozone production increased with distance from the capillary, consistent with observations by other groups. Atomic oxygen production inferred from O-atom 777 nm emission intensity did not scale with ozone as the input power was increased. The spatial distribution of ozone and scaling with input power will be presented.

  2. DEPOSITION OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM HELIUM GAS FLOWING AT HIGH VELOCITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abriss, A.; Ewing, R. A.; Sunderman, D. N.

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. Out-of- pile experiments simulating gas cooled reactor flow and temperature conditions were made to correlate by both empirical and theoretical considerations such parameters as Reynolds numbers, velocity, surface conditions, materials of construction, geometry, particulate matter, and fission product diffusion coefficients. It was concluded that all regions of flow disturbance are areas of buildup of activity. No selectivity in deposition among the elements studied, with the exception of I, Te, and Cs, was found. Relative abundances to each other of less volatile isotopes remained constant throughout any particular experiment. Data are tabulated. (P.C.H.)

  3. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination: industrial and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination is a serious problem which has been detected as an obstacle ... In the pharmaceutical care of patients in developed countries, cross-contamination ..... neonatal intensive care units.

  4. Evolution from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry of helium (e,2e) differential cross sections symmetric in scattering angle and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.J.; Read, F.H.

    1993-01-01

    Experimentally determined differential cross sections are presented for the (e,2e) process in helium, in which the two outgoing electrons have the same energy and the same scattering angle with respect to the incident beam. At four incident energies from 20 to 50 eV above the ionization threshold the detection plane defined by the outgoing electrons was varied from being coplanar with the incident beam to being perpendicular to the beam. The differential cross section evolves from a two-peak structure in coplanar geometry to a three-peak structure in the perpendicular plane. At the lowest energy the forward-scattering coplanar peak is smaller than the backscatter peak, in contrast to the results at higher energies. A deep minimum is seen at an intermediate plane angle of 67.5 degree, this minimum being deepest at 40 eV above the ionization threshold. The results are normalized to an absolute scale using previous coplanar measurements as discussed in the text. The spectrometer used to collect these results is fully computer controlled and real-time computer optimized

  5. Defect production and formation of helium-vacancy clusters due to cascades in α-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Zu, X.T.; Xiao, H.Y.; Gao, F.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Displacement cascades are simulated by molecular dynamics methods in α-Fe containing different concentrations of substitutional He atoms. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies, E p , from 0.5 to 5 keV are considered at the irradiation temperature of 100 K. The concentration of He in Fe varies from 1 to 5 at%, and the results are compared with the simulations performed in pure α-Fe. We find that the total number of point defects increases with increasing He concentration. The present studies reveal the formation and the configurations of He-vacancy clusters in the cascades of α-Fe. Furthermore, the production efficiency of He-vacancy clusters increases with increasing He concentration and PKA energy. The nucleation mechanisms of He-vacancy clusters in displacement cascades are discussed in detail

  6. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  7. Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms for a singly charged helium ion, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, T.; Nishikori, M.; Yamato, N.

    1991-08-01

    Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms with Z (55 ≤ Z ≤ 92) for a He + ion are tabulated as the second part of NIFS-DATA-11 (1991) on the basis of the wave-packet theory. (author)

  8. Partial Photoionization Cross Sections and Angular Distributions for Double Excitation of Helium up to the N=13 Threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czasch, A.; Schoeffler, M.; Hattass, M.; Schoessler, S.; Jahnke, T.; Weber, Th.; Staudte, A.; Titze, J.; Wimmer, C.; Kammer, S.; Weckenbrock, M.; Voss, S.; Grisenti, R.E.; Jagutzki, O.; Schmidt, L.Ph.H.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Rost, J.M.; Schneider, T.; Liu, C.-N.

    2005-01-01

    Partial photoionization cross sections σ N (E γ ) and photoelectron angular distributions β N (E γ ) were measured for the final ionic states He + (N>4) in the region between the N=8 and N=13 thresholds (E γ >78.155 eV) using the cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy technique (COLTRIMS). Comparison of the experimental data with two independent sets of theoretical predictions reveals disagreement for the branching ratios to the various He N + states. The angular distributions just below the double ionization threshold suggest an excitation process for highly excited N states similar to the Wannier mechanism for double ionization

  9. pp production cross sections and the constraint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J.C.; Santoro, A.F.S.; Souza, M.H.G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of constructing production cross sections that satisfy the constraints represented by the first few moments is shown to give an excellent account of the data when applied to the high energy pp production cross section ν sub(n) (s) plotted as functions of n. (Author) [pt

  10. Using ion production to monitor the birth and death of a metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidelin, S; Sirjean, O; Gomes, J Viana; Boiron, D; Westbrook, C I; Aspect, A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss observations of the ion flux from a cloud of trapped 2 3 S 1 metastable helium atoms. Both Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and thermal clouds were investigated. The ion flux is compared with time-of-flight observations of the expanded cloud. We show data concerning BEC formation and decay, as well as measurements of two-and three-body ionization rate constants. We also discuss possible improvements and extensions of our results

  11. Helium in inert matrix dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, A. van; Konings, R.J.M.; Fedorov, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of helium, an important decay product in the transmutation chains of actinides, in dispersion-type inert matrix fuels is discussed. A phenomenological description of its accumulation and release in CERCER and CERMET fuel is given. A summary of recent He-implantation studies with inert matrix metal oxides (ZrO 2 , MgAl 2 O 4 , MgO and Al 2 O 3 ) is presented. A general picture is that for high helium concentrations helium and vacancy defects form helium clusters which convert into over-pressurized bubbles. At elevated temperature helium is released from the bubbles. On some occasions thermal stable nano-cavities or nano-pores remain. On the basis of these results the consequences for helium induced swelling and helium storage in oxide matrices kept at 800-1000 deg. C will be discussed. In addition, results of He-implantation studies for metal matrices (W, Mo, Nb and V alloys) will be presented. Introduction of helium in metals at elevated temperatures leads to clustering of helium to bubbles. When operational temperatures are higher than 0.5 melting temperature, swelling and helium embrittlement might occur

  12. Differential bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Haakon A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed differential cross sections for high energy bremsstrahlung and pair production are derived with specific attention to the differences between the two processes, which are considerable. For the integrated cross sections, which are the only cross sections specifically known until now, the final state integration theorem guarantees that the exact cross section formulas can be exchanged between bremsstrahlung and pair production by the same substitution rules as for the Born-approximation Bethe-Heitler cross sections, for any amount of atomic screening. In fact the theorem states that the Coulomb corrections to the integrated bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections are identical for any amount of screening. The analysis of the basic differential cross sections leads to fundamental physical differences between bremsstrahlung and pair production. Coulomb corrections occur for pair production in the strong electric field of the atom for 'large' momentum transfer of the order of mc. For bremsstrahlung, on the other hand, the Coulomb corrections take place at a 'large' distance from the atom of the order of ((ℎ/2π)/mc)ε, with a 'small' momentum transfer mc/ε, where ε is the initial electron energy in units of mc 2 . And the Coulomb corrections can be large, of the order of larger than (Z/137) 2 , which is considerably larger than the integrated cross section corrections

  13. Behaviour of helium after implantation in molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, C.; Maillard, S.; Carlot, G.; Valot, C.; Gilabert, E.; Sauvage, T.; Peaucelle, C.; Moncoffre, N.

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the behaviour of helium in a molybdenum liner dedicated to the retention of fission products. More precisely this work contributes to evaluate the release of implanted helium when the gas has precipitated into nanometric bubbles close to the free surface. A simple model dedicated to calculate the helium release in such a condition is presented. The specificity of this model lays on the assumption that the gas is in equilibrium with a simple distribution of growing bubbles. This effort is encouraging since the calculated helium release fits an experimental dataset with a set of parameters in good agreement with the literature

  14. Helium Extraction from LNG End Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghoi

    2014-01-01

    Helium is an invaluable element as it is widely used in industry such as cryo-genics and welding due to its unique properties. However, helium shortage is expected in near future because of increasing demand and the anxiety of sup-ply. Consequently, helium production has attracted the attention of industry. The main source of He is natural gas and extracting it from LNG end-flash is considered as the most promising way of producing crude helium. Thus, many process suppliers have proposed proc...

  15. Post-giant evolution of helium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberner, D.

    1977-01-01

    Extremely hydrogen deficient stars (helium stars and R Coronae Borealis variables) are considered to be remnants of double shell source stars (of the asymptotic giant branch). The evolution of stars with a condensed C/O-core and a helium envelope is followed numerically from the red giant stage to the white dwarf domain, crossing the regions of R CrB- and helium stars (so far analyzed). They have typically masses M/M(sun) = 0.7 and luminosities log L/L(sun) = 4.1. The time for crossing the helium star domain is some 10 3 years. The corresponding times in the R CrB-region amounts up to several 10 4 years. The lower limit of the death rate of helium stars is estimated to be 4 x 10 -14 pc -3 yr -1 . This value is only a factor of ten lower than the birth rate of all non-DA white dwarfs. It is therefore possible that the helium stars are the precursors of helium rich white dwarfs. As a consequence, a significant fraction of all stars which end their lives as white dwarfs should pass through the helium star phase. (orig.) [de

  16. Experimental-theoretical comparisons of 1/sup 1/S. -->. 3/sup 1/P differential magnetic sublevel cross sections for electron-helium scattering at 80 and 100 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chutjian, A [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-07-11

    Experimental normalized absolute differential cross sections (DCS) for the excitation 1/sup 1/S ..-->.. 3/sup 1/P in helium are reported at incident electron energies of 80 and 100 eV, and at scattering angles between 7/sup 0/ and 135/sup 0/. The measurements are combined with results of recent electron-photon coincidence studies, and absolute DCS for the excitation of the magnetic sublevels 3/sup 1/P/sub 0/ and 3/sup 1/Psub(+-1) are obtained. These experimental sublevel cross sections, and their sum, are compared with results of recent calculations in the multichannel eikonal and distorted-wave polarized-orbital theories.

  17. Cross sections for hadron and lepton production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1976-01-01

    Charged heavy lepton production in proton-proton collisions is studied. Motivated by recent experimental results from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center a parton model analysis is given of the reaction p + p → L + + L - + x → μ +- + e/ -+ / + neutrinos + x. Results are presented for the total cross section and the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the final charged leptons and the transverse momenta of each one of them. The two-photon mechanism for pair production in colliding beam exeriments is considered. Through the use of mapped invariant integration variables, a reliable exact numerical calculation of the cross section for the production of muon and pion pairs by the two-photon mechanism is provided. Results are given for the exact total cross sections and also the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the pair. These are compared to the results obtained from the equivalent photon approximation method

  18. Standard Guide for Simulation of Helium Effects in Irradiated Metals

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides advice for conducting experiments to investigate the effects of helium on the properties of metals where the technique for introducing the helium differs in some way from the actual mechanism of introduction of helium in service. Simulation techniques considered for introducing helium shall include charged particle implantation, exposure to α-emitting radioisotopes, and tritium decay techniques. Procedures for the analysis of helium content and helium distribution within the specimen are also recommended. 1.2 Two other methods for introducing helium into irradiated materials are not covered in this guide. They are the enhancement of helium production in nickel-bearing alloys by spectral tailoring in mixed-spectrum fission reactors, and isotopic tailoring in both fast and mixed-spectrum fission reactors. These techniques are described in Refs (1-5). Dual ion beam techniques (6) for simultaneously implanting helium and generating displacement damage are also not included here. This lat...

  19. Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.X.; Guzik, T.G.; McMahon, M.; Wefel, J.P.; Flores, I.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Tull, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Cronqvist, M.; Crawford, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    New isotopic production cross sections from 22 Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.)

  20. Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C X; Guzik, T G; McMahon, M; Wefel, J P [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Flores, I; Lindstrom, P J; Tull, C E [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Cronqvist, M; Crawford, H J [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.; and others

    1996-02-01

    New isotopic production cross sections from {sup 22}Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.). 9 refs.

  1. Strange matter and Big Bang helium synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, J.; Riisager, K.

    1985-01-01

    Stable strange quark matter produced in the QCD phase transition in the early universe will trap neutrons and repel protons, thus reducing primordial helium production, Ysub(p). For reasonable values of Ysub(p), the radius of strange droplets must exceed 10 -6 cm if strange matter shall solve the dark-matter problem without spoiling Big Bang helium synthesis. (orig.)

  2. Six-term exact sequences for smooth generalized crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Grensing, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We define smooth generalized crossed products and prove six-term exact sequences of Pimsner–Voiculescu type. This sequence may, in particular, be applied to smooth subalgebras of the quantum Heisenberg manifolds in order to compute the generators of their cyclic cohomology. Further, our results...... include the known results for smooth crossed products. Our proof is based on a combination of arguments from the setting of (Cuntz–)Pimsner algebras and the Toeplitz proof of Bott periodicity....

  3. Crossed products by endomorphisms, vector bundles and group duality, II

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2004-01-01

    We study C*-algebra endomorphims which are special in a weaker sense w.r.t. the notion introduced by Doplicher and Roberts. We assign to such endomorphisms a geometrical invariant, representing a cohomological obstruction for them to be special in the usual sense. Moreover, we construct the crossed product of a C*-algebra by the action of the dual of a (nonabelian, noncompact) group of vector bundle automorphisms. These crossed products supply a class of examples for such generalized special ...

  4. Heavy flavour hadro-production cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Wöhri, H K

    2003-01-01

    Hadro-production data on charm and beauty absolute cross-sections, collected by experiments at CERN, DESY and Fermilab, are reviewed. The measurements, corrected for the 'time evolution' of the branching ratios, are compared to calculations done with Pythia, as a function of the collision energy, using the latest parametrizations of the parton densities. We then estimate some charm and beauty production cross-sections relevant for future measurements, including nuclear effectes in the PDFs. We finish by briefly addressing the relevance, in heavy-ion collisions, of beauty production as feed-down for J/psi production.

  5. Measurement of Charmonium Production Cross Section at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Frosini, M

    2010-01-01

    The great abundance of charmonium states, collected from the start up of LHC, allows to study its production mechanism. In particular the total and differential $J/\\psi$ production cross section are measured in the transverse momentum range [0;10] GeV/$c$ and in the pseudorapidity range $y \\in$ [2.5;4]. The measurements are performed disentagling the prompt (direct production in $pp$ collisions and feed down from excited charmonium states) and delayed ($b$-hadron decays products) component.

  6. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares profit maximization, output optimization and resource use efficiency in ... of two varieties of swamp rice by farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. ... The result of the finding also shows that small-scale farmers were more ...

  7. Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.

  8. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  9. Tables of RCN-2 fission-product cross section evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.

    1979-05-01

    This report (continuation of ECN-13 and ECN-33) describes the third part of the RCN-2 evaluation of neutron cross sections for fission product nuclides in KEDAK format. It contains evaluated data for nine nuclides, i.e. 142 Nd, 143 Nd, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 146 Nd, 147 Nd, 148 Nd, 150 Nd and 147 Pm. Most emphasis has been given to the evaluation of the radiative capture cross section, in order to provide a data base for adjustment calculations using results of integral measurements. Short evaluation reports are given for this cross section. The evaluated capture cross sections are compared with recent experimental differential and integral data. Graphs are given of the capture cross sections at neutron energies above 1 keV, in which also adjusted point cross sections, based upon integral STEK and CFRMF data have been plotted. Moreover, the results are compared with those of the well-known ENDF/B-IV evaluation for fission product nucleides. Finally, evaluation summaries are given, which include tables of other important neutron cross sections, such as the total, elastic scattering and inelastic scattering cross sections

  10. Advanced Heat Transfer Studies in Superfluid Helium for Large-scale High-yield Production of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Benedikt J; Schirm, Karl-Martin; Koettig, Torsten

    Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OSTs) can be used to localize quenches in superconducting radio frequency cavities. In the presented work the occurring thermal effects during such events are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In the theoretical part the entire heat transfer process from the heat generation to the detection is covered. The experimental part focuses on the effects in superfluid helium. Previous publications observed the detection of an OST signal that was faster than the second sound velocity. This fast propagation could be verified in dedicated small scale experiments. Resistors were used to simulate the quench spots under controlled conditions. The three dimensional propagation of second sound was linked to OST signals for the first time, which improves the understanding of the OST signal and allows to gather information about the heating pulse. Additionally, OSTs were used as a tool for quench localisation on a real size cavity. Their sensitivity as well as the time resol...

  11. Cross section measurements of the processes occurring in the fragmentation of Hn+ (3 ≤ n ≤ 35) hydrogen clusters induced by high speed (60 keV/u) collisions on helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louc, Sandrine

    1997-01-01

    Different processes involved in the fragmentation of ionised hydrogen clusters H 3 + (H 2 ) (n-3)/2 (n = 5-35) have been studied in the same experiment: the fragmentation of the cluster is induced by the collision with an helium atom at high velocity (≅ c/100). The collision is realised in reversed kinematic - clusters are accelerated - which allows the detection of neutral and charged fragments. The different channels of fragmentation are identified by using coincidence techniques. For all the cluster sizes studied the capture cross sections of one electron of the target by the cluster is equal to the capture cross section of the H 3 + ion. In the same way, the dissociation cross section of the H 3 + core of the cluster does not depend on cluster size. These fragmentation processes are due to the interaction of H 3 + core of the cluster and the helium atom without ionization of another component of the cluster. On the contrary, the cross sections of loss of one, two and three molecules by the cluster and the dissociation cross section of the cluster in all its molecular components depends strongly on the cluster size. This dependence is different from the one measured for the metastable decay of the cluster. Thus, the process of loss of molecules induced by a collision should correspond to a different dissociation mechanism. In regard of the singularities observed for the size dependence, the H 9 + , H 15 + , H 19 + and H 29 + clusters could be the 'core' of the biggest clusters. These observation are in agreement with the size effects of smaller magnitude observed for the dissociation cross section (all the processes). The values of the cross section for the process of at least one ionization of the cluster indicate that about 80% of the fragmentation events result from this process. (author)

  12. Investigating the cross-sales effect of product associations

    OpenAIRE

    Vindevogel, B.; Van de Poel, D.; WETS, Geert

    2004-01-01

    In this research, we use the framework of association rule discovery to find 1,350 interesting product associations between two sku’s. Using multivariate time series techniques, we successively simulate a price promotion in both products and measure the impact on the sales of the associated product. This approach allows us to model both the short run and long run cross-sales effect. For both complement and substitute relationships, we investigate the moderating effect of several covariates on...

  13. ENDF/B-5 fission product cross section evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenter, R.E.; England, T.R.

    1979-12-01

    Cross section evaluations were made for the 196 fission product nuclides on the ENDF/B-5 data files. Most of the evaluations involve updating the capture cross sections of the important absorbers for fast and thermal reactor systems. This included updating thermal values, resonance integrals, resonance parameter sets, and fast capture cross sections. For the fast capture results generalized least-squares calculations were made with the computer code FERRET. Input for these cross section adjustments included nuclear models calculations and both integral and differential experimental data results. The differential cross sections and their uncertainties were obtained from the CSIRS library. Integral measurement results came from CFRMF and STEK Assemblies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000. Comparisons of these evaluations with recent capture measurements are shown. 15 figures, 10 tables

  14. Scattering angle-integrated (total) and magnetic sublevel cross-sections and degree of linear polarization for electron and proton induced excitation [HeI (1snp) sup 1 P sup 0 (n=2-5)] of helium

    CERN Document Server

    Merabet, H; Hanni, J; Bailey, M; Godunov, A L; McGuire, J H; Fursa, D V; Bray, I; Bartschat, K; Tseng, H C; Lin, C D

    2003-01-01

    Experimental scattering-angle-integrated (total) cross-sections sigma-bar, (scattering) angle-integrated magnetic sublevel cross-sections sigma-bar sub M sub sub L , and degree of linear polarization data have been measured in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region following decay of HeI (1snp) sup 1 P sup 0 (n=2-5) states induced by electron and proton impact on a neutral helium target. These measurements are compared with a first Born approach as well as more sophisticated theoretical calculations. Specifically, theoretical values for electron impact include convergent close-coupling (CCC) and R-matrix with pseudo states (RMPS) methods in addition to first Born (Born 1) approximation while proton induced excitation cross-sections are compared with atomic-orbital close-coupling (AOCC) and first Born predictions.

  15. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  16. Modified TAROT for cross-selling personal financial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ya-Mei; LEE, Lai-Soon; LEE, Chew-Ging; SEOW, Hsin-Vonn

    2014-09-01

    The Top Application characteristics Remainder Offer characteristics Tree (TAROT) was first introduced in 2007. This is a modified Classification and Regression Trees (CART) used to help decide which question(s) to ask potential applicants to customise an offer of a personal financial product so that it would have a high probability of take up. In this piece of work the authors are presenting, they have further modified the TAROT to cross TAROT, using its properties and modeling steps to deal with the issue of cross-selling. Since the bank already has ready customers, it would be ideal to cross-sell the financial products seeing that one can ask one (or more) further question(s) based on the initial offer to identify and customise another financial product to offer.

  17. Modeling Secondary Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Möbius, Eberhard; Wood, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate, analytic heliospheric neutral test-particle code for helium atoms from the interstellar medium (ISM) is coupled to global heliospheric models dominated by hydrogen and protons from the solar wind and the ISM. This coupling enables the forward-calculation of secondary helium neutrals from first principles. Secondaries are produced predominantly in the outer heliosheath, upwind of the heliopause, by charge exchange of helium ions with neutral atoms. The forward model integrates the secondary production terms along neutral trajectories and calculates the combined neutral helium phase space density in the innermost heliosphere where it can be related to in-situ observations. The phase space density of the secondary component is lower than that of primary neutral helium, but its presence can change the analysis of primaries and the ISM, and can yield valuable insight into the characteristics of the plasma in the outer heliosheath. (paper)

  18. PCS a code system for generating production cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document outlines the use of the PCS Code System. It summarizes the execution process for generating FORMAT2000 production cross section files from FORMAT2000 reaction cross section files. It also describes the process of assembling the ASCII versions of the high energy production files made from ENDL and Mark Chadwick's calculations. Descriptions of the function of each code along with its input and output and use are given. This document is under construction. Please submit entries, suggestions, questions, and corrections to (ljc at sign llnl.gov) 3 tabs

  19. Performance test results of helium gas circulator of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane will be connected to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) against development of nuclear heat utilization system. To obtain design and safety database of the HTTR hydrogen production system, mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}N{sub /}h was successfully produced in overall performance test. This report describes performance test results of a helium gas circulator in this facility. The circulator performance curves regarding to pressure-rise, input power and adiabatic thermal efficiency at standard revolution number were made based on the measured flow-rate, temperature and pressure data in overall performance test. The circulator performance prediction code was made based on these performance curves. The code can calculate revolution number, electric power and temperature-rise of the circulator using flow-rate, inlet temperature, inlet pressure and pressure-rise data. The verification of the code was carried out with the test data in FY 2002. Total pressure loss of the helium gas circulation loop was also evaluated. The circulator should be operated in conditions such as pressure from 2.7MPa to 4.0MPa and flow-rate from 250g/s to 400g/s and at maximum pressure-rise of 250 kPa in test operation. It was confirmed in above verification and evaluations that the circulator had performance to satisfy above conditions within operation limitation of the circulator such as maximum input-power of 150 kW and maximum revolution number of 12,000 rpm. (author)

  20. Model cross section calculations using LAHET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prael, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of LAHET is discussed. The effect of a multistage preequilibrium exciton model following the INC is examined for neutron emission benchmark calculations, as is the use of a Fermi breakup model for light nuclei rather than an evaporation model. Comparisons are made also for recent fission cross section experiments, and a discussion of helium production cross sections is presented

  1. Double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T. M.; Townsend, L. W.

    2004-01-01

    Current computational tools used for space or accelerator shielding studies transport energetic heavy ions either using a one-dimensional straight-ahead approximation or by dissociating the nuclei into protons and neutrons and then performing neutron and proton transport using Monte Carlo techniques. Although the heavy secondary particles generally travel close to the beam direction, a proper treatment of the light ions produced in these reactions requires that double-differential cross sections should be utilised. Unfortunately, no fundamental nuclear model capable of serving as an event generator to provide these cross sections for all ions and energies of interest exists currently. Herein, we present a model for producing double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections that uses heavy-ion fragmentation yields produced by the NUCFRG2 fragmentation code coupled with a model of energy degradation in nucleus-nucleus collisions and systematics of momentum distributions to provide energy and angular dependences of the heavy-ion production. (authors)

  2. Purely infinite C*-algebras arising from crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Mikael; Sierakowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We study conditions that will ensure that a crossed product of a C-algebra by a discrete exact group is purely innite (simple or non-simple). We are particularly interested in the case of a discrete nonamenable exact group acting on a commutative C-algebra, where our sucient conditions can...

  3. Capital yields assessment trough cross section production function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodera, Jan; Pánková, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 14 (2001), s. 79-87 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/00/0439 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : yield of capital * cross-section production function * maximisation of profit Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  4. Exotic helium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portier, M.

    2007-12-01

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 P 0 ) molecule, or a 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 ± 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range 4 He 2 (2 3 S 1 -2 3 S 1 ) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime τ = (1.4 ± 0.3) μs is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  5. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  6. Calculated differential secondary-particle production cross sections after nonelastic neutron interactions with carbon and oxygen between 15 and 60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Calculated values are given for double-differential (energy/angle) cross sections for the nonelastic production of hydrogen and helium isotopes and heavier-mass recoils, after the interaction of 15- to 60-MeV neutrons with carbon and oxygen. The data are calculated with an intranuclear cascade code, including alpha clustering and particle pickup, followed by a Fermi-breakup mechanism, incorporating decay via intermediate particle-unstable states. The predictions have been extensively tested against available experimental data in this energy/mass range. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  8. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  9. Evaluation of fission product neutron cross sections for JENDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The recent activities on the evaluation of fission product (FP) neutron cross sections for JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) are presented briefly. The integral test of JENDL-1 FP cross section file was performed using the CFRMF sample activation data and the STEK sample reactivity data, and the ratio of experiment to calculation was nearly constant for all the samples in the STEK measurement. Therefore, a tentative analysis was performed by applying the correction to the calculated scattering reactivity component. Better agreement with the experiment was obtained after applying this correction in most cases. The evaluation work on the JENDL-2 FP neutron cross sections is now in progress. The improvement of the data evaluation is presented in an itemized form. The JENDL-2 FP file will contain the evaluated data for 100 nuclides from Kr to Tb. The improvement and the future scope of the integral test for JENDL-2 FP data are summarized. (Asami, T.)

  10. ON A REDUCED CROSSED PRODUCT OF A GROUP BY A C*-ALGEBRA. THE CASES OF CONTINUOUS TRACE AND TYPE I REDUCED CROSSED PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Tudor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes two special cases of C* -algebras, the cases of universal crossed product and reduced crossed product of a group by a C* -algebra. In the hypothesis that the universal crossed product is a continuous trace C* -algebra or a type I C* -algebra, it is proved that the reduced crossed product is a continuous trace C* -algebra or, respectively, a type I C* -algebra. Moreover, these results can be extended in the case when the crossed products are obtained from a groupoid an...

  11. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  12. Helium localisation in tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, J.L.; Lozes, G.

    1982-06-01

    Study of titanium and LaNi 5 type alloys tritides lattice parameters evolution revealed that helium created by tritium decay remains in interstitial sites up to a limit material dependant concentration. Beyond this one exceeding helium precipites in voids [fr

  13. Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1990-03-01

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Measurement, Calculation and Evaluation of Photon Production Cross-Sections was held in Smolenice, Czechoslovakia, 5-7 February 1990. The meeting was hosted by the Institute of Physics of the Electro-Physical Research Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava. This report contains the conclusions and recommendations of this meeting. The papers which the participants have presented at the meeting will be published as an INDC Report. (author)

  14. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Scholes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources.

  15. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  16. A liquid helium saver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenel, O.; Der Nigohossian, G.; Roubeau, P.

    1976-01-01

    A cryostat equipped with a 'liquid helium saver' is described. A mass flow rate M of helium gas at high pressure is injected in a counter-flow heat exchanger extending from room to liquid helium temperature. After isenthalpic expansion through a calibrated flow impedance this helium gas returns via the low pressure side of the heat exchanger. The helium boil-off of the cryostat represents a mass flow rate m, which provides additional precooling of the incoming helium gas. Two operating regimes appear possible giving nearly the same efficiency: (1) high pressure (20 to 25 atm) and minimum flow (M . L/W approximately = 1.5) which would be used in an open circuit with helium taken from a high pressure cylinder; and (2) low pressure (approximately = 3 atm), high flow (M . L/W > 10) which would be used in a closed circuit with a rubber diaphragm pumping-compressing unit; both provide a minimum theoretical boil-off factor of about 8%. Experimental results are reported. (U.K.)

  17. SHIELD and HZETRN comparisons of pion production cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Werneth, Charles M.

    2018-03-01

    A program of comparing American (NASA) and Russian (ROSCOSMOS) space radiation transport codes has recently begun, and the first paper directly comparing the NASA and ROSCOSMOS space radiation transport codes, HZETRN and SHIELD respectively has recently appeared. The present work represents the second time that NASA and ROSCOSMOS calculations have been directly compared, and the focus here is on models of pion production cross sections used in the two transport codes mentioned above. It was found that these models are in overall moderate agreement with each other and with experimental data. Disagreements that were found are discussed.

  18. Parton distributions with the combined HERA charm production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Heavy quark structure functions from HERA provide a direct handle on the medium and small-x gluon PDF. In this contribution, we discuss ongoing progress on the implementation of the FONLL General-Mass scheme with running heavy quark masses, and of its benchmarking with the HOPPET and OpenQCDrad codes, and then present the impact of the recently released combined HERA charm production cross sections in the NNPDF 2.3 analysis. We find that the combined charm data contribute to constraining the gluon and quarks at small values of Bjorken-x.

  19. Parton distributions with the combined HERA charm production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg i. B (Germany); Rojo, Juan [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    Heavy quark structure functions from HERA provide a direct handle on the medium and small-x gluon PDF. In this contribution, we discuss ongoing progress on the implementation of the FONLL General-Mass scheme with running heavy quark masses, and of its benchmarking with the HOPPET and OpenQCDrad codes, and then present the impact of the recently released combined HERA charm production cross sections in the NNPDF 2.3 analysis. We find that the combined charm data contribute to constraining the gluon and quarks at small values of Bjorken-x.

  20. Measurement of photon production cross sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Turra, Ruggero; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs at 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The dynamics of isolated-photon plus jet production in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV will be presented and discussed.

  1. Measurement of photon (also +jets) production cross sections, jets production cross sections and extraction of the strong coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Villaplana Perez, Miguel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs and tri-photon production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The ATLAS collaboration has studied the dynamics of isolated-photon production in association with gluon, light and heavy quark final states in pp collisions at a centre-of-...

  2. Transport and agricultural productivity: A cross-national analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sike Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transportation infrastructure plays a significant role in the development of agriculture. In this study we examine the relationship between transport and agricultural performance by employing the World Bank’s roads infrastructure indicators. Based on a cross-country sample, a classic method is employed to test the hypothesis that better transport fosters agricultural productivity. The empirical results of the method support the hypothesis. As for this method, the estimation results of the widely-used inter-country aggregate agricultural production function describe that a country with better transport can produce more agricultural outputs given the same amounts of agricultural inputs and the same education level. Our empirical work lends support to the claim of Gollin and Rogerson (2010 [19] that transport is a basic factor explaining the poor economic performance of many developing countries, apart from physical and education investments, more emphasis should be placed on improving the transport infrastructure of these countries.

  3. Benchmark of neutron production cross sections with Monte Carlo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pi-En; Lai, Bo-Lun; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2018-02-01

    Aiming to provide critical information in the fields of heavy ion therapy, radiation shielding in space, and facility design for heavy-ion research accelerators, the physics models in three Monte Carlo simulation codes - PHITS, FLUKA, and MCNP6, were systematically benchmarked with comparisons to fifteen sets of experimental data for neutron production cross sections, which include various combinations of 12C, 20Ne, 40Ar, 84Kr and 132Xe projectiles and natLi, natC, natAl, natCu, and natPb target nuclides at incident energies between 135 MeV/nucleon and 600 MeV/nucleon. For neutron energies above 60% of the specific projectile energy per nucleon, the LAQGMS03.03 in MCNP6, the JQMD/JQMD-2.0 in PHITS, and the RQMD-2.4 in FLUKA all show a better agreement with data in heavy-projectile systems than with light-projectile systems, suggesting that the collective properties of projectile nuclei and nucleon interactions in the nucleus should be considered for light projectiles. For intermediate-energy neutrons whose energies are below the 60% projectile energy per nucleon and above 20 MeV, FLUKA is likely to overestimate the secondary neutron production, while MCNP6 tends towards underestimation. PHITS with JQMD shows a mild tendency for underestimation, but the JQMD-2.0 model with a modified physics description for central collisions generally improves the agreement between data and calculations. For low-energy neutrons (below 20 MeV), which are dominated by the evaporation mechanism, PHITS (which uses GEM linked with JQMD and JQMD-2.0) and FLUKA both tend to overestimate the production cross section, whereas MCNP6 tends to underestimate more systems than to overestimate. For total neutron production cross sections, the trends of the benchmark results over the entire energy range are similar to the trends seen in the dominate energy region. Also, the comparison of GEM coupled with either JQMD or JQMD-2.0 in the PHITS code indicates that the model used to describe the first

  4. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    1994-11-01

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n ≤3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 3 3 D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  5. Proton-induced production cross-sections and production rates of 41Ca from Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, C.; Synal, H.-A.; Gartenmann, P.; Santos-Arevalo, F.J.; Gomez-Martinez, I.; Suter, M.; Tarabischi, A.; Bastian, T.; Sudbrock, F.; Herpers, U.; Leya, I.; Gloris, M.; Michel, R.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-induced production cross-sections of 41 Ca from Ni are presented. Moreover, depth-dependent production rates of 41 Ca from Ni were determined in a meteoroid simulation experiment. Based on these data, modelled production rates of 41 Ca from Ni in iron meteoroids are presented as a function of depth and size. These data are relevant for modelling the production rate ratio of 41 Ca/ 36 Cl in metal phases of meteoroids and thus for the application of the 41 Ca- 36 Cl method to determine terrestrial ages of meteorites

  6. Helium production for 0.8-2.5 GeV proton induced spallation reactions, damage induced in metallic window materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, D.; Herbach, C.-M.; Jahnke, U.; Tishchenko, V.; Enke, M.; Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Neef, R.-D.; Nuenighoff, K.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.; Sterzenbach, G.; Letourneau, A.; Boehm, A.; Galin, J.; Lott, B.; Peghaire, A.; Pienkowski, L.

    2001-01-01

    Production cross-sections for neutrons and charged particles as well as excitation energy distributions in spallation reactions were measured recently by the NESSI-collaboration and have been employed to test different intra nuclear cascade models and the subsequent evaporation. The INCL/GEMINI code, which describes best the experimental data has been employed to calculate the damage cross-sections in Fe and Ta as well as the He/dpa ratio as a function of proton energy. For the same amount of neutron production in a typical target of a spallation neutron source the proton beam induced radiation damage in an Fe window is shown to decrease almost linearly with proton energy. For heavier materials such as Ta a similar decrease of the radiation damage is found only for energies above about 3 GeV

  7. Production cross sections of proton-induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The production cross sections of residual radionuclides such as {sup 86,88,89g}Zr, {sup 86g,87m,87g,88}Y, {sup 83g,85g}Sr, and {sup 83,84g}Rb in the {sup 89}Y(p,x) reaction were measured using a stacked-foil activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric technique with proton energies of 57 MeV and 69 MeV at the 100 MeV proton linac in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), Gyeongju, Korea. The induced activities of the activated samples were measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the proton flux was determined using the {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62}Zn reaction. The measured data was compared with other experimental data and the data from the TENLD-2015 library based on the TALYS code. The present results are generally lower than those in literature, but are found to be in agreement with the shape of the excitation functions. The integral yields for the thick target using the measured cross sections are given.

  8. The lithium-lithium hydride process for the production of hydrogen: comparison of two concepts for 950 and 1300 deg C HTR helium outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, M.; Weirich, W.; Kuegler, B.; Luecke, L.; Pietsch, M.; Winkelmann, U.

    1987-01-01

    The lithium-lithium hydride process serves to generate hydrogen from water efficiently, using the high temperature heat of a nuclear reactor. Thermodynamic analyses show that hydrogen can be produced with an overall thermal efficiency of 48% at conventional HTR outlet temperatures of 950 0 C. Assuming helium heat of 1300 0 C, 56% overall thermal efficiency can be achieved. (author)

  9. New production cross sections for the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupillo, Gaia; Sounalet, Thomas; Michel, Nathalie; Mou, Liliana; Esposito, Juan; Haddad, Férid

    2018-01-01

    The cross sections of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were measured at the ARRONAX facility by using the 70 MeV cyclotron, with particular attention to the production of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu. Enriched 68Zn material was electroplated on silver backing and exposed to a low-intensity proton beam by using the stacked-foils target method. Since 67Cu and 67Ga radionuclides have similar half-lives and same γ-lines (they both decay to 67Zn), a radiochemical process aimed at Cu/Ga separation was mandatory to avoid interferences in γ-spectrometry measurements. A simple chemical procedure having a high separation efficiency (>99%) was developed and monitored during each foil processing, thanks to the tracer isotopes 61Cu and 66Ga. Nuclear cross sections were measured in the energy range 35-70 MeV by using reference reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to monitor beam flux. In comparison with literature data a general good agreement on the trend of the nuclear reactions was noted, especially with latest measurements, but slightly lower values were obtained in case of 67Cu. Experimental results of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were also compared with the theoretical values estimated by using the software TALYS. The production yield of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu was estimated considering the results obtained in this work.

  10. Chromosomal rearrangements in interspecific hybrids between Nicotiana gossei Domin and N. tabacum L., obtained by crossing with pollen exposed to helium ion beams or gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, S.; Inoue, M.; Ohmido, N.; Fukui, K.; Tanaka, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is very difficult to obtain interspecific hybrids between Nicotiana tabacum L. (2n=48) and N. gossei Domin (2n=36), because of strong cross incompatibility. We had already obtained interspecific hybrids between these two species, crossing N. gossei flower with N. tabacum pollen exposed to He ions or gamma-rays. Here, we analyze chromosome constitution of these hybrids by genomic in situ hybridization. In root tip cells of the two hybrids obtained with He ion exposure, most mitotic cells contained 18 chromosomes of N. gossei and 24 chromosomes of N. tabacum. However, in some cells, translocations and insertions between parental genomes were observed. On the other hand, in a hybrid obtained by gamma-ray irradiation, intergenomic rearrangements were not observed, although mitotic cells showed 19 hybridization signals with N. gossei DNA in 41 chromosomes. Such chromosomal changes in structure or constitution may be related to overcoming cross incompatibility between these two species

  11. Potential applications of high temperature helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Kennedy, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses the DOE MHTGR-SC program's recent activity to improve the economics of the MHTGR without sacrificing safety performance and two potential applications of high temperature helium, the MHTGR gas turbine plant and a process heat application for methanol production from coal

  12. Helium refrigerator for 'SULTAN'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpagaus, M.; Erlach, H.; Quack, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe the helium refrigerator designed for the SULTAN test facility. SULTAN (Supraleiter-Testanlage) is intended to serve for the developments and testing of high field superconducting magnets. These magnets are needed mainly for future applications in nuclear fusion. (Auth.)

  13. Orientation, alignment and polarisation in electron-helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijers, J.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis electron-photon coincidence experiments to study the excitation of helium by electron impact are updated. This is achieved by cross firing a well collimated and mono-energetic electron beam with a thermal helium beam and measuring the angular and/or polarisation distribution of the decay photons in coincidence with the inelastically scattered electrons. In this way target parameters are determined for the 2 1 P, 3 1 P, 3 1 D and 3 3 P states of helium. (Auth.)

  14. Evidence for WZ Production and a Measurement of the WZ Production Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, James D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes a test of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics by measuring the probability, or cross section, of simultaneously producing a W boson and a Z boson from proton-antiproton collisions. The SM predicts the cross section of WZ production to be 3.68 ± 0.25 pb. The SM and physics of WZ production are described in Chapter 2 of this dissertation. The 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy proton-antiproton collisions are provided by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Tevatron Collider. The W and Z particles are detected using the D0 detector, which is described in Chapter 3. The data were collected by the detector during 2002-2006 corresponding to 1 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions. This data set is described in Chapter 6. The measurement uses the trilepton (evee, μvee, evμμ, and μvμμ) decay channels, in which a W decays to a charged lepton plus a neutrino and a Z decays to a pair of charged leptons. The W and Z particle selection criteria, detection efficiency, and background determination are described in Chapter 7. We observe 13 candidate events in 1 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions. In this data set we expect to see 4.5 ± 0.6 background events, and we expect to see 9.2 ± 1.0 signal events. The probability of 4.5 ± 0.6 background events to fluctuate to 13 or more events is 1.2 x 10-3 which is a 3.0 σ deviation from the background estimate. A log likelihood method is used to determine the most likely cross section as determined by the measured signal efficiencies, the expected backgrounds, and the observed data. Presented in Chapter 8 is a measurement of the cross section for p$\\bar{p}$ → WZ + X at √s = 1.96 TeV. The WZ diboson production cross section is measured to be σWZ = 2.7$+1.7\\atop{-1.3}$ pb. This is in agreement with the predicted Standard Model cross section.

  15. Total cross sections for heavy flavour production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We compute total cross sections for charm and bottom photoproduction at HERA energies, and discuss the relevant theoretical uncertainties. In particular we discuss the problems arising from the small-x region, the uncertainties in the gluon parton density, and the uncertainties in the hadronic component of the cross section. Total electroproduction cross sections, calculated in the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation, are also given.

  16. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [ed.

    1992-06-15

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10{sup {minus}5} eV to 20 MeV. Almost of the cross section data reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in order tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum.

  17. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1992-06-01

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. Almost all the cross section data are reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in other tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum. (author)

  18. High-temperature helium embrittlement (T>=0,45Tsub(M)) of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batfalsky, P.

    1984-06-01

    High temperature helium embrittlement, swelling and irradiation creep are the main technical problem of fusion reactor materials. The expected helium production will be very high. The helium produced by (n,α)-processes precipitates into helium bubbles because its solubility in solid metals is very low. Under continuous helium production at high temperature and stress the helium bubbles grow and lead to intergranular early failure. Solution annealed foil specimens of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 were implanted with α-particles: 1. during creep tests at 1023 K (''in-beam'' test) 2. before the creep tests at high temperature (1023 K). The creep tests have been performed within large ranges of test parameter, e.g. applied stress, temperature, helium implantation rate and helium concentration. After the creep tests the microstructure was investigated using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. All the helium implanted specimens showed high temperature helium embrittlement, i.e. reduction of rupture time tsub(R) and ductility epsilonsub(R) and evidence of intergranular brittle fracture. The ''in-beam'' creep tests showed greater reduction of rupture time tsub(R) and ductility than the preimplanted creep tests. The comparison of this experimentally obtained data with various theoretical models of high temperature helium embrittlement showed that within the investigated parameter ranges the mechanism controlling the life time of the samples is probably the gas driven stable growth of the helium bubbles within the grain boundaries. (orig.)

  19. DIRECT EVALUATION OF THE HELIUM ABUNDANCES IN OMEGA CENTAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H., E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: eavrett@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    A direct measure of the helium abundances from the near-infrared transition of He I at 1.08 {mu}m is obtained for two nearly identical red giant stars in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. One star exhibits the He I line; the line is weak or absent in the other star. Detailed non-local thermal equilibrium semi-empirical models including expansion in spherical geometry are developed to match the chromospheric H{alpha}, H{beta}, and Ca II K lines, in order to predict the helium profile and derive a helium abundance. The red giant spectra suggest a helium abundance of Y {<=} 0.22 (LEID 54064) and Y = 0.39-0.44 (LEID 54084) corresponding to a difference in the abundance {Delta}Y {>=} 0.17. Helium is enhanced in the giant star (LEID 54084) that also contains enhanced aluminum and magnesium. This direct evaluation of the helium abundances gives observational support to the theoretical conjecture that multiple populations harbor enhanced helium in addition to light elements that are products of high-temperature hydrogen burning. We demonstrate that the 1.08 {mu}m He I line can yield a helium abundance in cool stars when constraints on the semi-empirical chromospheric model are provided by other spectroscopic features.

  20. the policies and production in maternal mortality reduction in cross

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. T. U. Agan

    The study was designed to determine the status of maternal health in Cross River ... Human resources for health are 12 Doctors and 47.4 Nurse/midwives per 100,000 of the ... It was against this background that we sought to .... Poverty is a major social cause of death in ..... The Cross River State Tourism Bureau, official.

  1. Tritium and helium-3 in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasser, R.

    1989-01-01

    The book surveys recent results on the behaviour of tritium and its decay product helium-3 metals. In contrast to many earlier books which discuss the properties of the stable hydrogen isotopes without mentioning tritium, this book reviews mainly the results on tritium in metals. Due to the difficulties in preparing metal tritide samples, very important quantities such as diffusivity, superconductivity, solubility, etc. have only been determined very recently. The book not only presents the measured tritium data, but also the isotopic dependency of the different physical properties by comparing H, D and T results. A chapter is devoted to helium-3 in metals. Aspects such as helium release, generation of helium bubbles, swelling, and change of the lattice parameter upon aging are discussed. The book provides the reader with up-to-date information and deep insight into the behaviour of H, D, T and He-3 in metals. Further important topics such a tritium production, its risks, handling and discharge to the environment are also addressed

  2. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  3. Antiprotonic helium atomcules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauge Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available About 3% of antiprotons ( stopped in helium are long-lived with microsecond lifetimes, against picoseconds in all other materials. This unusual longevity has been ascribed to the trapping of on metastable bound states in He+ helium atom-molecules thus named atomcules. Apart from their unique dual structure investigated by laser spectroscopy – a near-circular quasi-classical Rydberg atom with l ~ n – 1 ~ 37 or a special diatomic molecule with a negatively charged nucleus in high rotational state with J = l – the chemical physics aspects of their interaction with other atoms or molecules constitute an interesting topic for molecular physics. While atomcules may resist to million collisions in helium, molecular contaminants such as H2 are likely to destroy them in a single one, down to very low temperatures. In the Born-Oppenheimer framework, we interpret the molecular interaction obtained by ab initio quantum chemical calculations in terms of classical reactive channels, with activation barriers accounting for the experiments carried out in He and H2. From classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the thermalization stage strongly quenches initial populations, thus reduced to a recovered 3 % trapping fraction. This work illustrates the pertinence of chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter. New insights into the physico-chemistry of cold interstellar radicals are anticipated.

  4. Evaluation of Cross-Section Sensitivities in Computing Burnup Credit Fission Product Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interim Staff Guidance 8 (ISG-8) for burnup credit covers actinides only, a position based primarily on the lack of definitive critical experiments and adequate radiochemical assay data that can be used to quantify the uncertainty associated with fission product credit. The accuracy of fission product neutron cross sections is paramount to the accuracy of criticality analyses that credit fission products in two respects: (1) the microscopic cross sections determine the reactivity worth of the fission products in spent fuel and (2) the cross sections determine the reaction rates during irradiation and thus influence the accuracy of predicted final concentrations of the fission products in the spent fuel. This report evaluates and quantifies the importance of the fission product cross sections in predicting concentrations of fission products proposed for use in burnup credit. The study includes an assessment of the major fission products in burnup credit and their production precursors. Finally, the cross-section importances, or sensitivities, are combined with the importance of each major fission product to the system eigenvalue (k eff ) to determine the net importance of cross sections to k eff . The importances established the following fission products, listed in descending order of priority, that are most likely to benefit burnup credit when their cross-section uncertainties are reduced: 151 Sm, 103 Rh, 155 Eu, 150 Sm, 152 Sm, 153 Eu, 154 Eu, and 143 Nd

  5. Coherent production on nuclei and measurements of total cross sections for unstable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyz, W.; Zielinski, M.

    1980-01-01

    The Koelbig-Margolis Formula is fitted to some explicity nonperturbative models of diffractive production. It is shown that, in spite of the fact that the standard procedure of fitting the integrated cross sections may give acceptable fits, thus obtained ''cross sections of unstable particles'', grossly disagree with the ''true'' cross sections known exactly from the models. (author)

  6. Automation of the helium jet transport system for nuclear recoil products; Automacao do sistema de transporte de nucleos de recuo por jato de helio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Luis F.; Pedrosa, Paulo S

    1996-09-01

    A computer code and an interface hardware to automate the acquisition data and the sample changer in a helium jet transport system of recoil nucleus was developed for an IBM or compatible personal microcomputer. The software works with a Spectrum-ACE/ADCAM ORTEC`s multichannel analysers and the interface card uses the 03EFh port to command the sample changer. This system allows to measure, by gamma spectrometry, radionuclides with half-lives of order of seconds produced from nuclear reactions. (author) 3 refs.

  7. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  8. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M

    2007-12-15

    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  9. Consumers' cross-channel use in online and offline purchases : An Analysis of Cross-Media And Cross-Channel Behaviors between Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Bronner, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how online and offline buyers of a specific product differ in their cross-channel use throughout the purchase process and how this differs across types of products. The authors studied more than 1,000 consumers and their use of 17 channels during a recent purchase. Results showed

  10. Habit, Production, and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Andrew Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solutions to the equity premium puzzle should inform us about the cross-section of stock returns. An external habit model with heterogeneous firms reproduces numerous stylized facts about both the equity premium and the value premium. The equity premium is large, time-varying, and linked with consumption volatility. The cross-section of expected returns is log-linear in B/M, and the slope matches the data. The explanation for the value premium lies in the interaction between the cross-section...

  11. Cross section measurements of the processes occurring in the fragmentation of H{sub n}{sup +} (3 {<=} n {<=} 35) hydrogen clusters induced by high speed (60 keV/u) collisions on helium atoms; Mesure des sections efficaces des differents processus intervenant dans la fragmentation d`agregats d`hydrogene H{sub n}{sup +} (3 {<=} n {<=} 35) induite par collision a haute vitesse (60 keV/u) sur un atome d`helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louc, Sandrine [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-09-15

    Different processes involved in the fragmentation of ionised hydrogen clusters H{sub 3} + (H{sub 2}){sub (n-3)/2} (n = 5-35) have been studied in the same experiment: the fragmentation of the cluster is induced by the collision with an helium atom at high velocity ({approx_equal} c/100). The collision is realised in reversed kinematic - clusters are accelerated - which allows the detection of neutral and charged fragments. The different channels of fragmentation are identified by using coincidence techniques. For all the cluster sizes studied the capture cross sections of one electron of the target by the cluster is equal to the capture cross section of the H{sub 3}{sup +} ion. In the same way, the dissociation cross section of the H{sub 3}{sup +} core of the cluster does not depend on cluster size. These fragmentation processes are due to the interaction of H{sub 3}{sup +} core of the cluster and the helium atom without ionization of another component of the cluster. On the contrary, the cross sections of loss of one, two and three molecules by the cluster and the dissociation cross section of the cluster in all its molecular components depends strongly on the cluster size. This dependence is different from the one measured for the metastable decay of the cluster. Thus, the process of loss of molecules induced by a collision should correspond to a different dissociation mechanism. In regard of the singularities observed for the size dependence, the H{sub 9}{sup +}, H{sub 15}{sup +}, H{sub 19}{sup +} and H{sub 29}{sup +} clusters could be the `core` of the biggest clusters. These observation are in agreement with the size effects of smaller magnitude observed for the dissociation cross section (all the processes). The values of the cross section for the process of at least one ionization of the cluster indicate that about 80% of the fragmentation events result from this process. (author) 114 refs., 74 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals and a test for white noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals are defined. By studying the sample paths of these statistics, changes in residual dependence can be detected that might be missed by statistics using only the total sum of cross-products. Also, a test statistic for white noise is proposed. It is

  13. Crossed products of C(X)-algebras by endomorphisms and C(X)-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2001-01-01

    We construct the crossed product of a C(X)-algebra by an endomorphism, in such a way that it becomes induced by a Hilbert C(X)-bimodule. Furthermore we introduce the notion of C(X)-category, and discuss relationships with crossed products and duality for compact groups.

  14. Surface electrons of helium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studart, N.; Hipolito, O.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of some properties of two-dimensional electrons on a liquid helium film adsorbed on a solid substrate are reviewed. We describe the spectrum of electron bound states on bulk helium as well on helium films. The correlational properties, such as the structure factor and correlation energy, are determined as functions of the film thickness for different types of substrates in the framework of a Generalized Random-Phase Approximation. The collective excitations of this system are also described. The results for electrons on the surface of thin films and bulk helium are easily obtained. we examine the electron interaction with the excitations of the liquid helium surface resulting in a new polaron state, which was observed very recently. The ground state energy and the effective mass of this polaron are determined by using the path-integral formalism and unitary-transformation method. Recent speculations about the phase diagram of electrons on the helium film are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  15. Evaluation of the neutron and gamma-ray production cross-sections for 55Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.

    1974-11-01

    The evaluation of neutron and gamma production cross sections for manganese-55 from 1.0 (10) -5 eV to 20.0 MeV for ENDF/ B-IV is summarized. Included are resonance parameters, neutron cross sections, angular and energy distribution of secondary neutrons, gamma multiplicities and transition probability array, gamma angular and energy distributions, nuclear model calculations, uncertainty estimates of cross sections, and evaluated cross sections. (U.S.)

  16. Cross sections of the lumped fission products for the AMZ library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.; Corcueca, R.P.; Nascimento, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of the lumped fission product cross section for the AMZ library is described. For this purpose 100 nuclides were selected. The cross sections for each nuclide were generated by the NJOY code with evaluated nuclear data from ENDF/B-V, complemented with ENDF/B-IV data. A comparison is performed between the data obtained and the lumped fission product cross section of JFS-II [pt

  17. Use of helium in uranium exploration, Grants district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVoto, R.H.; Mead, R.H.; Martin, J.P.; Bergquist, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous generation of inert helium gas from uranium and its daughter products provides a potentially useful means for remote detection of uranium deposits. The practicality of conducting helium surveys in the atmosphere, soil gas, and ground water to explore for buried uranium deposits has been tested in the Grants district and in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. No detectable helium anomalies related to buried or surface uranium deposits were found in the atmosphere. However, reproducible helium-in-soil-gas anomalies were detected spatially related to uranium deposits buried from 50 to 800 ft deep. Diurnal and atmospheric effects can cause helium content variations (noise) in soil gas that are as great as the anomalies observed from instantaneous soil-gas samples. Cumulative soil-gas helium analyses, such as those obtained from collecting undisturbed soil samples and degassing them in the laboratory, may reveal anomalies from 5 to 100 percent above background. Ground water samples from the Grants district, New Mexico, and the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, have distinctly anomalous helium values spatially related to buried uranium deposits. In the southern Powder River Basin, helium values 20 to 200 percent above background occur 2 to 18 mile down the ground-water flow path from known uranium roll-front deposits. In the Grants district, helium contents 40 to 700 percent above background levels are present in ground waters from the host sandstone in the vicinity of uranium deposits and from aquifers up to 3,000 ft stratigraphically above the deep uranium deposits. The use of helium in soil and ground-water surveys, along with uranium and radon analyses of the same materials, is strongly recommended is expensive, deep, uranium-exploration programs such as those being conducted in the Grants district

  18. Determination of proton-induced production cross sections and production rates of {sup 129}I from Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, C.; Lopez-Guitierrez, J.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gloris, M.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In order to model the production of {sup 129}I in meteoroids, proton-induced production cross sections in the medium range of {sup 129}I from Te as well as production from meteoroid simulation experiments have been determined. {sup 129}I is a very important cosmogenic nuclide to study the constancy of cosmic radiation on long time scales. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  19. Ab initio investigation of helium in Y_2Ti_2O_7: Mobility and effects on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, T.; Tea, E.; Hin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide nanoclusters (NCs) in nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are known to be efficient trapping sites for the transmutation product helium. In this study, the migration barriers and potential energy surfaces of helium in Y_2Ti_2O_7 are presented to explain the mobility of helium through oxide NCs and shed light on the accumulation of helium and the trapping mechanisms of the oxides. A complex tunnel-shaped potential energy surface is identified and gives rise to relatively large migration barriers. Subsequently, the effect of helium accumulation on the mechanical properties of Y_2Ti_2O_7 oxide nanoclusters is investigated and it is shown that the mechanical properties of the oxide do not significantly degrade as helium accumulates. - Highlights: • Migration barriers of helium in Y_2Ti_2O_7 are calculated using the climbing image nudged elastic band. • Helium Potential energy surfaces are calculated. • Mechanical properties of varying helium concentrations are presented.

  20. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Merrill, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  1. Cost management and cross-functional communication through product architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Ruud; Wouters, Marc; Hissel, Paul; Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.

    2007-01-01

    Product architecture decisions regarding, for example, product modularity, component commonality, and design re-use, are important for balancing costs, responsiveness, quality, and other important business objectives. Firms are challenged with complex tradeoffs between competing design priorities,

  2. Preparation of multigroup lumped fission product cross-sections from ENDF/B-VI for FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Sridharan, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Multigroup pseudo fission product cross-sections were computed from the American evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VI, corresponding to various burnups of the proposed 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), in India. The data were derived from the cross-sections of 111 selected fission products that account for almost complete capture of fission products in an FBR. The dependence of burnup on the pseudo fission product cross-sections, and comparison with other data sets, viz. JNDC, ENDF/B-IV and ABBN, are discussed. (author)

  3. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp......A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...

  4. Orion A helium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilev, A.P.; Ershov, A.A.; Smirnov, G.T.; Sorochenko, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The 22.4-GHz (H,He)66-alpha and 36.5-GHz (H,He)56-alpha radio recombination lines have been observed at several Jaffe-Pankonin positions in the central part of the Orion A source. The measured relative abundance of ionized helium increases with distance, averaging 11.6 percent at peripheral points. The observed behavior is interpreted by a blister-type model nebula, which implies that Orion A has a true He abundance of 12 percent, is moving with a radial velocity of 5 km/sec, and is expanding. 18 references

  5. Simulation of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceperley, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    The author discusses simulation methods for quantum mechanical systems at finite temperatures. Recently it has been shown that static properties of some quantum systems can be obtained by simulation in a straightforward manner using path integrals, albeit with an order of magnitude more computing effort needed than for the corresponding classical systems. Some dynamical information can be gleaned from these simulations as will be discussed below. But this is very limited - there is no quantum version of the molecular dynamics method. The path integral method is illustrated by discussing the application to liquid helium. 12 refs., 8 figs

  6. Single Top quark production cross section using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Monini, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production cross section in proton proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. The single top-quark and anti-top total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. In addition, a measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson is presented. All measurements are compared to NLO and NLO+NNLO calculations and the CKM matrix element |Vtb| is determined. In addition, the s-channel production is explored and limits on exotic production in single top quark processes are discussed. This includes the search for flavor changing neutral currents and the search for additional W’ bosons in the s-channel.

  7. Single Top quark production cross section using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production cross section in proton proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. For this process for the first time a fiducial cross section measured within the detector acceptance is presented and the modelling uncertainty when extrapolating to the total inclusive cross section is assessed with a large number of different Monte Carlo generators. The result is in good agreement with the most up-to-date theory predictions. Furthermore, the single top-quark and anti-top total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum and the absolute value of the rapidity of top and anti-top quarks.

  8. Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1990-11-01

    The meeting proceedings were divided into three sessions devoted to the following topics: Experimental measurement and techniques (3 papers), calculation of photon cross-sections (9 papers), and evaluation (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Diamond-like-carbon nanoparticle production and agglomeration following UV multi-photon excitation of static naphthalene/helium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, A. J.; Ruth, A. A., E-mail: a.ruth@ucc.ie [Physics Department and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-07-14

    We report the formation of nanoparticles with significant diamond character after UV multi-photon laser excitation of gaseous naphthalene, buffered in static helium gas, at room temperature. The nanoparticles are identified in situ by their absorption and scattering spectra between 400 and 850 nm, which are modeled using Mie theory. Comparisons of the particles’ spectroscopic and optical properties with those of carbonaceous materials indicate a sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridization ratio of 8:1 of the particles formed. The particle extinction in the closed static (unstirred) gas-phase system exhibits a complex and quasi-oscillatory time dependence for the duration of up to several hours with periods ranging from seconds to many minutes. The extinction dynamics of the system is based on a combination of transport features and particle interaction, predominantly agglomeration. The relatively long period of agglomeration allows for a unique analysis of the agglomeration process of diamond-like carbon nanoparticles in situ.

  10. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  11. A helium regenerative compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  12. Helium synthesis, neutrino flavors, and cosmological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the production of helium in the big bang is reexamined in the light of several recent astrophysical observations. These data, and theoretical particle-physics considerations, lead to some important inconsistencies in the standard big-bang model and suggest that a more complicated picture is needed. Thus, recent constraints on the number of neutrino flavors, as well as constraints on the mean density (openness) of the universe, need not be valid

  13. Fragmentation of high-energy ionic hydrogen clusters by single collision with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouaskit, S.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Chevarier, A.; Chevarier, N.; Gerlic, E.; Stern, M.

    1994-09-01

    Fragmentation of mass-selected 60-keV/amu-H n + induced by single collision with helium has been studied for various cluster sizes n (9, 13,21, 25, and 31). The absolute cross sections of the charged fragments H p + are measured from p equal to n-2. The deduced mass distributions are strongly different from those obtained at lower collision energy (where molecular evaporation is mainly involved) due to a strong production of ionic fragments with a size of p/n -τ , where A is the normalized fragment mass (p/n) and τ an exponent close to 2.6. (authors)

  14. Accurate and simple wavefunctions for the helium isoelectronic sequence with correct cusp conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, K V [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, 8000 BahIa Blanca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gasaneo, G [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, 8000 BahIa Blanca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mitnik, D M [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C C 67, Suc. 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-10-14

    Simple and accurate wavefunctions for the He atom and He-like isoelectronic ions are presented. These functions-the product of hydrogenic one-electron solutions and a fully correlated part-satisfy all the coalescence cusp conditions at the Coulomb singularities. Functions with different numbers of parameters and different degrees of accuracy are discussed. Simple analytic expressions for the wavefunction and the energy, valid for a wide range of nuclear charges, are presented. The wavefunctions are tested, in the case of helium, through the calculations of various cross sections which probe different regions of the configuration space, mostly those close to the two-particle coalescence points.

  15. Helium behaviour in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, T.

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the study of helium behavior in R7T7 nuclear waste glass. Helium is generated by the minor actinides alpha decays incorporated in the glass matrix. Therefore, four types of materials were used in this work. These are non radioactive R7T7 glasses saturated with helium under pressure, glasses implanted with 3 He + ions, glasses doped with curium and glasses irradiated in nuclear reactor. The study of helium solubility in saturated R7T7 glass has shown that helium atoms are inserted in the glass free volume. The results yielded a solubility of about 10 16 at. cm -3 atm. -1 . The incorporation limit of helium in this type of glass has been determined; its value amounted to about 2*10 21 at. cm -3 , corresponding to 2.5 at.%. Diffusion studies have shown that the helium migration is controlled by the single population dissolved in the glass free volume. An ideal diffusion model was used to simulate the helium release data which allowed to determine diffusion coefficients obeying to the following Arrhenius law: D = D 0 exp(-E a /kBT), where D 0 = 2.2*10 -2 and 5.4*10 -3 cm 2 s -1 and E a = 0.61 eV for the helium saturated and the curium doped glass respectively. These results reflect a thermally activated diffusion mechanism which seems to be not influenced by the glass radiation damage and helium concentrations studied in the present work (up to 8*10 19 at. g -1 , corresponding to 0.1 at.%). Characterizations of the macroscopic, structural and microstructural properties of glasses irradiated in nuclear reactor did not reveal any impact associated with the presence of helium at high concentrations. The observed modifications i.e. a swelling of 0.7 %, a decrease in hardness by 38 %, an increase between 8 and 34 % of the fracture toughness and a stabilization of the glass structure under irradiation, were attributed to the glass nuclear damage induced by the irradiation in reactor. Characterizations by SEM and TEM of R7T7 glasses implanted

  16. Interdiffusion of krypton and xenon in high-pressure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.; Jensen, D.D.; Epstein, B.D.; Hudson, R.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    The interdiffusion of gaseous fission products in high-pressure helium is an important factor in the control of radioactivity in gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (GCFRs). As presently conceived, GCFRs use pressure-equalized and vented fuel in which fission gases released from the solid matrix oxide fuel are transported through the fuel rod interstices and internal fission product traps to the fuel assembly vents, where they are swept away to external traps and storage. Since the predominant transport process under steady-state operating conditions is interdiffusion of gaseous fission products in helium, the diffusion properties of krypton-helium and xenon-helium couples have been measured over the range of GCFR temperature and pressure conditions ( -1 ) and expected temperature dependence to the 1.66 power (Tsup(1.66)) at lower pressures and temperatures. Additional work is in progress to measure the behaviour of the krypton-helium and xenon-helium couples in GCFR fuel rod charcoal delay traps. (author)

  17. K X-Ray production cross sections for 40-180 keV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegedi, S.; Hassan, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In view of the importance of the X-ray production cross-section for the determination of element concentration in a given material, we have measured them experimentally for light elements Sc and Fe using proton beams of energy between 40 and 180 keV. The obtained K X-ray production cross-section is compared with the previous experimental results. The experimental K X-ray production cross-section for proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, using low energy (200 keV) accelerator, have been improved

  18. Single ionization of helium by fast proton impact: Searching for projectile coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassert, H; Waitz, M; Kim, H-K; Bauer, T; Laucke, A; Müller, Ch; Voigtsberger, J; Weller, M; Rist, J; Pahl, K; Honig, M; Pitzer, M; Zeller, S; Jahnke, T; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Chuluunbaatar, O; Bulychev, A A; Zaytsev, S A; Kouzakov, K A

    2015-01-01

    The fully differential cross section (FDCS) for single ionization p + He → p + e + He + at proton energy of 1 MeV is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The 3D angular electron distribution is presented. The role of electron-electron correlations both in a trial helium ground-state wave function and in the final helium state is inspected. (paper)

  19. The Role Of Rural Women In Crop And Poultry Production In Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the roles of rural women in crops and poultry production in rural areas in Cross River State, and their contribution to food production and preservation. The paper also revealed that rural women participate in food production and bearing responsibility for food marketing and distribution, family health, ...

  20. Top quark production at the LHC (single top and tt-bar cross sections)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, J.

    2014-01-01

    With the large number of top quarks produced at the LHC, top quark physics enters an era of precision and properties measurements. This article reviews the recent advances in top quark cross section measurements performed by ATLAS and CMS using data recorded in 2011 with integrated luminosities up to 5 fb -1 . They include precision inclusive cross sections, the establishment of challenging channels, first differential cross section measurements and single top production. An overall good agreement with Standard Model predictions is observed

  1. Measurement of reaction cross sections of fission products induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    With the view of future application of fusion reactor to incineration of fission products, we have measured the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction cross section by DT neutrons with the activation method. The measured cross section was compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2. From the result, it was confirmed that the evaluation overestimated the cross section by about 20-40%. (author)

  2. Photoionization of helium dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havermeier, Tilo

    2010-01-01

    The helium dimer is one of the most weakly bound systems in the universe. This makes it an interesting quantum mechanical object for investigation. These Van der Waals Clusters can be produced in an expansion of a cryogenic gas jet through a small nozzle into vacuum. In the present experiment we examine the interaction of He dimers with synchrotron radiation at an energy range from 64 to 78 eV. We observed different pathways leading to single ionization of both He atoms of the dimer compound. This two close standing ions begin now to dissociate in cause of their coulomb potential. All charged fragments were detected in coincidence with a COLTRIMS system. Especially Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD) and the two step process (TS1) were clearly identified. Furthermore a distribution of the internuclear distance was obtained from the measured Kinetic Energy Release (KER). (orig.)

  3. Tritium decay helium-3 effects in tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (T implanted by plasmas diffuses into bulk material, especially rapidly at elevated temperatures, and becomes trapped in neutron radiation-induced defects in materials that act as trapping sites for the tritium. The trapped tritium atoms will decay to produce helium-3 (3He atoms at a half-life of 12.3 years. 3He has a large cross section for absorbing thermal neutrons, which after absorbing a neutron produces hydrogen (H and tritium ions with a combined kinetic energy of 0.76 MeV through the 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the 3He produced in tungsten by tritium decay compared to the neutron-induced helium-4 (4He produced in tungsten. This is important given the fact that helium in materials not only creates microstructural damage in the bulk of the material but alters surface morphology of the material effecting plasma-surface interaction process (e.g. material evolution, erosion and tritium behavior of plasma-facing component materials. Effects of tritium decay 3He in tungsten are investigated here with a simple model that predicts quantity of 3He produced in a fusion DEMO FW based on a neutron energy spectrum found in literature. This study reveals that: (1 helium-3 concentration was equilibrated to ∼6% of initial/trapped tritium concentration, (2 tritium concentration remained approximately constant (94% of initial tritium concentration, and (3 displacement damage from 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction became >1 dpa/year in DEMO FW.

  4. Single Top quark production cross section and properties using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sapp, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. The single top-quark and anti-top total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. In addition, a measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson is presented. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations and the CKM matrix element |Vtb| is determined. In addition, the s-channel production is explored and limits on exotic production in single top quark processes are discussed. This includes the search for flavor changing neutral currents and the search for additional W’ bosons or a search for monotops.

  5. Single Top quark production cross section and properties using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of single top­quark production in proton proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In the leading order process,​a W boson is exchanged in the t­channel. The single top­ quark and anti­top total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. In addition, a measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson is presented. All measurements are compared to state­-of­-the­-art theoretical calculations and the CKM matrix element |Vtb| is determined. In addition, the s­-channel production is explored and limits on exotic production in single top quark processes are discussed. This includes the search for flavor changing neutral currents and the search for additional W’ bosons or a search for monotops.

  6. Single Top quark production cross-section measurements using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez Pena, Javier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton-proton collisions are presented based on the 13 TeV and 8 TeV ATLAS datasets. In the leading order process, a W-boson is exchanged in the t-channel. The cross-section for the production of single top-quarks and single antitop-quarks, their ratio, as well as differential cross-section measurements are also reported. Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for the production of a single top quark in association with a W-boson, the second largest single top production mode are also presented. Evidence for the s-channel single top-quark production in the 8 TeV dataset is presented. Finally, the first measurement of the tZq electroweak production is presented. All measurements are compared to state-of-the art theoretical calculations. (On behalf of the ATLAS collaboration)

  7. Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD an attempt has been made to deliver a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge in tourism and leisure studies. The necessity of this attempt originates in: thegrowing cultural complexity in a globalising world. From a cross-cultural

  8. Sum rules and moments for lepton-pair production. [Cross sections, Drell--Yan formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Sum rules on lepton-pair production cross sections are derived on the bases of the Drell--Yan formula and the known sum rules in leptoproduction. Also exact relations are obtained between the average transverse momenta squared of the valence quarks and moments of the dilepton cross sections. 12 references.

  9. Cross section formulae on single W and Z boson productions in electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katuya, Mituaki

    1987-01-01

    The formulae are given for the transverse momentum distributions and total cross sections for the single W boson and Z boson productions in electron-positron collisions by using the equivalent photon approximation. (author)

  10. Safety in handling helium and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmauch, G.; Lansing, L.; Santay, T.; Nahmias, D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the authors' industrial experience and practices, they have provided an overview of safety in storage, handling, and transfer of both laboratory and bulk quantities of gaseous and liquid forms of nitrogen and helium. They have addressed the properties and characteristics of both the gaseous and liquid fluids, typical storage and transport containers, transfer techniques, and the associated hazards which include low temperatures, high pressures, and asphyxiation. Methods and procedures to control and eliminate these hazards are described, as well as risk remediation through safety awareness training, personal protective equipment, area ventilation, and atmosphere monitoring. They have included as an example a recent process hazards analysis performed by Air Products on the asphyxiation hazard associated with the use of liquid helium in MRI magnet systems

  11. single-top quark production cross section using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Cunfeng; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production cross section in proton proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. For this process, for the first time a fiducial cross section measured within the detector acceptance is presented and the modelling uncertainty when extrapolating to the total inclusive cross section is assessed with a large number of different Monte Carlo generators. The result is in good agreement with the most up-to-date theory predictions. Furthermore, the single top-quark and anti-top total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum and the absolute value of the rapidity of top and anti-top quarks. In addition, a measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson is presented. The s-channel production is explored and l...

  12. Measuring industry productivity and cross-country convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Diewert, W. Erwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for simultaneously comparing industry productivity across countries and over time. The new method is similar to the method for making multilateral comparisons of Caves, Christensen and Diewert (1982b) but their method can only compare gross outputs across

  13. Energy transfer in O collisions with He isotopes and helium escape from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S.; Zhang, P.; Kharchenko, V.; Dalgarno, A.

    2010-12-01

    Helium is one of the dominant constituents in the upper atmosphere of Mars [1]. Thermal (Jeans’) escape of He is negligible on Mars [2] and major mechanism of escape is related to the collisional ejection of He atoms by energetic oxygen. Collisional ejection dominates over ion-related mechanisms [3] and evaluation of the escape flux of neutral He becomes an important issue. The dissociative recombination of O2+ is considered to be the major source of energetic oxygen atoms [4]. We report accurate data on energy-transfer collisions between hot oxygen atoms and the atmospheric helium gas. Angular dependent scattering cross sections for elastic collisions of O(3P) and O(1D) atoms with helium gas have been calculated quantum mechanically and found to be surprisingly similar. Cross sections, computed for collisions with both helium isotopes, 3He and 4He, have been used to construct the kernel of the Boltzmann equation, describing the energy relaxation of hot oxygen atoms. Computed rates of energy transfer in O + He collisions have been used to evaluate the flux of He atoms escaping from the Mars atmosphere at different solar conditions. We have identified atmospheric layers mostly responsible for production of the He escape flux. Our results are consistent with recent data from Monte Carlo simulations of the escape of O atoms: strong angular anisotropy of atomic cross sections leads to an increased transparency of the upper atmosphere for escaping O flux [5] and stimulate the collisional ejection of He atoms. References [1] Krasnopolsky, V. A., and G. R. Gladstone (2005), Helium on Mars and Venus: EUVE observations and modeling, Icarus, 176, 395. [2] Chassefiere E. and F. Leblanc (2004), Mars atmospheric escape and evolution; interaction with the solar wind, Planetary and Space Science, 52, 1039 [3] Krasnopolsky, V. (2010), Solar activity variations of thermospheric temperatures on Mars and a problem of CO in the lower atmoshpere, Icarus, 207, 638. [4] Fox, J. L

  14. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  15. Electronic properties of physisorbed helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossler, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with electronic excitations of helium physisorbed on metal substrates. It is studied to what extent the electronic properties change compared to the gas phase due to the increased helium density and the proximity of the metal. Furthermore, the influence of different substrate materials is investigated systematically. To this end, up to two helium layers were adsorbed onto Ru (001), Pt (111), Cu (111), and Ag (111) surfaces in a custom-made cryostat. These samples were studied spectroscopically using synchrotron radiation and a time-of-flight detector. The experimental results were then analyzed in comparison with extensive theoretical model calculations.

  16. Electronic properties of physisorbed helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossler, Sarah

    2011-09-22

    This thesis deals with electronic excitations of helium physisorbed on metal substrates. It is studied to what extent the electronic properties change compared to the gas phase due to the increased helium density and the proximity of the metal. Furthermore, the influence of different substrate materials is investigated systematically. To this end, up to two helium layers were adsorbed onto Ru (001), Pt (111), Cu (111), and Ag (111) surfaces in a custom-made cryostat. These samples were studied spectroscopically using synchrotron radiation and a time-of-flight detector. The experimental results were then analyzed in comparison with extensive theoretical model calculations.

  17. Fission neutron irradiation of copper containing implanted and transmutation produced helium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Horsewell, A.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1992-01-01

    High purity copper containing approximately 100 appm helium was produced in two ways. In the first, helium was implanted by cyclotron at Harwell at 323 K. In the second method, helium was produced as a transmutation product in 800 MeV proton irradiation at Los Alamos, also at 323 K. The distribut......High purity copper containing approximately 100 appm helium was produced in two ways. In the first, helium was implanted by cyclotron at Harwell at 323 K. In the second method, helium was produced as a transmutation product in 800 MeV proton irradiation at Los Alamos, also at 323 K...... as well as the effect of the presence of other transmutation produced impurity atoms in the 800 MeV proton irradiated copper will be discussed....

  18. Creep behavior of 8Cr2WVTa martensitic steel designed for fusion DEMO reactor. An assessment on helium embrittlement resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Norikazu; Murase, Yoshiharu; Nagakawa, Johsei; Shiba, Kiyoyuki

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical response against transmutational helium production, alternatively susceptibility to helium embrittlement, in a nuclear fusion reactor was examined on 8Cr2WVTa martensitic steel, a prominent structural candidate for advanced fusion systems. In order to simulate DEMO (demonstrative) reactor environments, helium was implanted into the material at 823 K with concentrations up to 1000 appmHe utilizing an α-beam from a cyclotron. Creep rupture properties were subsequently determined at the same temperature and were compared with those of the material without helium. It has been proved that helium caused no meaningful deterioration in terms of both the creep lifetime and rupture elongation. Furthermore, failure occurred completely in a transgranular and ductile manner even after high concentration helium introduction and there was no symptom of grain boundary decohesion which very often arises in helium bearing materials. These facts would mirror preferable resistance of this steel toward helium embrittlement. (author)

  19. Differential cross sections for top pair production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, Marco; Lipka, Katerina; Moch, Sven-Olaf; Hamburg Univ.

    2014-09-01

    We present results of phenomenological studies for top-quark pair production at the LHC at the center of mass energy √(S)=7 TeV. The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions for final-state top quarks are calculated in perturbative QCD at approximate next-to-next-to-leading order O(α s 4 ) by using methods of threshold resummation beyond the leading logarithmic accuracy. The theoretical predictions are obtained by using the computer code DIFFTOP and are compared to recent measurements by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. DIFFTOP can be employed in the general case of heavy-quark pair production at hadron-hadron colliders and provides a basis for applications in QCD analyses for parton distribution functions determination.

  20. DWBA differential and total pair production cross sections for intermediate energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraju, C.; Bhullar, A.S.; Sud, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    We present in this communication the theoretical differential and total cross section for electron-positron pair creation by intermediate energy photons (5.0-10.0 MeV) on different targets (Z=1, 30, 50, 68, 82 and 92). The computed cross sections are in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) in point Coulomb potential. The database of the differential and total pair production cross sections is presented in tabulated as well as in graphical form and the interpolation of differential cross sections for different atomic numbers, positron and photon energies is discussed

  1. The JENDL-3 sublibrary for gas production. Summary of contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.; Narita, T.

    1993-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the JENDL-3 Sublibrary for Gas Production. This nuclear data library contains neutron-induced production cross-sections of hydrogen and helium nuclei for elements from 3-Li to 41-Nb. The library or retrievals of selected materials are available on magnetic tape from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section upon request. (author)

  2. Measurements of the top-quark mass and production cross section at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Recent measurements of the top mass at CMS are presented, based on several channels and different techniques. The results are combined giving a precise determination of the top mass. The measurements of the ttbar and single top production cross sections at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy are reviewed. The ttbar production cross section is utilized to derive a precise determination of the strong coupling constant, the single top cross section is interpreted in terms of the CKM element V_tb

  3. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    2016-12-20

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections ‘non-optically’ from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO{sub 2}, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  4. Preparation of lumped fission product (FP) cross sections for a multigroup library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.; Corcuera, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A method for the calculation of lumped Fission Product (FP) cross sections has been developed. The group constants fo each nuclide are generated by NJOY code, based on ENDF/B-V data. In this first version, cross section of 28 nuclides are lumped for typical characteristics of Binary Breeder Reactor (BBR). One energy group calculations are made for a 1000 MWe fast reactor to verify the influence of burnup, number of FP and fuel composition on the lumped fission product cross sections. (Author) [pt

  5. Single Top quark production cross section using ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada Pastor, Oscar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton-proton collisions are presented based on the 8 TeV and 13 TeV ATLAS datasets. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. The cross-section for the production of single top-quarks and single anti-top-quarks, their ratio, as well as differential cross-section measurements are also reported. These analyses include limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex and measurement of the top quark polarization. Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for the production of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, are also presented. Finally, evidence for s-channel single-top production in the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset is presented. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations.

  6. Single ionization of helium by positron and electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R; Purkait, M; Mandal, C R

    2012-01-01

    Four-body formalism of Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS-4B) approximation is introduced to study the (e, 2e) reaction for Helium targets. The influence of the description of the ejected electron on triple differential cross sections is analyzed.

  7. Stopping Power of Solid Argon for Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Grauersen, O.

    1981-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford-backscattering method, the stopping cross section of solid argon has been measured for 0.5–3 MeV helium ions to an accuracy of not, vert, similar3%. The results agree within the experimental accuracies with our earlier measurements for gaseous argon over the energy region...

  8. Test on e–e correlations in helium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The angular variations of the five-fold differential cross section obtained by using different wave functions of helium are compared with experimental data. It is found that in the coplanar geometry two kinematical arrangements, (i) equal energy sharing between the two ejected electrons with one of them ejected along the ...

  9. Single top quark production cross section using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cioara, Irina Antonela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton-proton collisions are presented based on the 8 TeV and 13 TeV ATLAS datasets. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. The cross-section for the production of single top-quarks and single anti-top-quarks total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. At 8 TeV, differential cross-section measurements of the t-channel process are also reported, these analyses include limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex and measurement of the top quark polarization. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, evidence for s-channel single-top production in the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset is presented. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations.

  10. Associative ionization of neon and helium atoms by collisions of excited helium (31p) atoms of thermal energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, Serge.

    1980-12-01

    The relative cross-sections of ionizing collisions between He + He and He + Ne atoms, have been studied, the helium being excited in a state (3 1 p) by a laser beam. The results obtained made it possible (a) to reveal in a direct manner the production of molecular ions He 2 + and He Ne + and (b) to determine the relative change in the associative ionizing cross-section in the area (0.035 - 0.17 eV) in the He (3 1 P) + Ne collision, despite the very short life of the He (3 1 P) excited state (1.7 ns). The production of He 2 + ions from an He (3 1 P) + He collision sets an upper limit to the appearance potential of these ions. The experimental study of the associative ionization in the He (3 1 P) + Ne system made it possible to extend the utilization of the GAMMA(R) self ionization model, already tested for the metastable states, to the radiative states. The GAMMA(R) model seems well suited for the description of collisions of the A excited + B type, where the excitation energy of A is greater than the ionization potential of B [fr

  11. Status of recent fast capture cross section evaluations for important fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison is made between recent evaluations of fission-product cross sections as given in the CNEN/CEA, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/V-V, JENDL-1, RCN-2 and RCN-3 data libraries. The intercomparison is restricted to 24 important fission products in a fast power reactor. The evaluation methods used to obtain the various data files are reviewed and possible shortcomings are indicated. A survey is given of the experimental data based used in the various evaluations. Some graphs are included showing the new ENDF/B-V and RCN-3 fastcapture cross-section evaluations. Further intercomparisons are made by means of multi-group and one-group cross sections. It is shown that lumped fission-product cross sections calculated from the most recent versions of the data files are in quite good agreement with each other. This review concludes with a discussion on observed discrepancies and requests for new measurements. 78 references

  12. Effects of product form and boron addition on the creep damage in the modified Hastelloy X alloys in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Yuji; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper investigates early-stage-creep damage of Hastelloy XR and XR-II alloys, modified versions of Hastelloy X alloy, which have been developed in Japan as most promising candidate structural alloys for Japanese high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Creep tests were made on Hastelloy XR forging, tube and XR-II tube at 1,123 to 1,273 K in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment. The tests were interrupted at different strain levels of up to 5 % in order to evaluate creep damage via intergranular voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries and the A-parameter, the ratio of the number of damaged grain boundaries, on which one or more voids are found, to that of the total grain boundaries observed are used in order to evaluate creep damage. Statistical analysis of the A-parameter as well as the void sizes reveals that the values of the parameter show wide variations and follow the Weibull distribution, reflecting spatial randomness of the voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries, on the other hand, follow the log-normal distribution. The maximum void size d max and the mean value of the A-parameter A m are calculated and plotted against interruption creep strain ε int . The resultant d max vs. ε int and A m vs. ε int diagrams show that Hastelloy XR forging had suffered more damage than Hastelloy XR tube; nevertheless, the forging has longer interruption life, or the time to reach a given interruption creep strain. The result indicates that grains may have been deformed more easily in Hastelloy XR in the form of tube than in the form of forging. The diagrams also imply that the addition of boron has suppressed the nucleation as well as the growth of voids and thus has brought about longer interruption life of Hastelloy XR-II. (author)

  13. Analytical characterisation of glutardialdehyde cross-linking products in gelatine-gum arabic complex coacervates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuguet, Elisabet [Advanced Measurement and Imaging, Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands)], E-mail: eli.fuguet@gmail.com; Platerink, Chris van [Advanced Measurement and Imaging, Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands); Department of Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Janssen, Hans-Gerd [Advanced Measurement and Imaging, Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands); van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-11-26

    Encapsulates having shells of cross-linked mixtures of proteins and polysaccharides are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry for controlled release of actives and flavour compounds. In order to be able to predict the behaviour and the release characteristics of the microcapsules, a better understanding of the nature and extent of the cross-linking reaction is needed. Several analytical techniques were applied for the characterisation of glutardialdehyde (GDA) cross-linked encapsulates made of gelatine and gum arabic. To allow the use of sensitive, high-resolution methods such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, the sample first had to be hydrolysed. In this way, a mixture of amino acids, small peptides and the cross-link moieties was obtained. High-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was applied to detect possible cross-link markers through a comparison of HPLC-MS mass-chromatograms obtained for cross-linked and non-cross-linked coacervates. HPLC-MS/MS was used to identify the species responsible for the differences. Cross-linking occurred between GDA molecules and lysine and hydroxylysine {epsilon}-amino groups, and up to eight cross-link products of different nature could be identified. They included pyridinium ions and Schiff bases, and also unreacted GDA condensation products. Next, based on the insight gained in the possible chemical structures present in the cross-link markers, methods for selective labelling of these functionalities were employed to allow easier detection of related reaction products. Both liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used in these experiments. Unfortunately, these approaches failed to detect new cross-link markers, most likely as a result of the low levels at which these are present.

  14. Analytical characterisation of glutardialdehyde cross-linking products in gelatine-gum arabic complex coacervates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Platerink, Chris van; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2007-01-01

    Encapsulates having shells of cross-linked mixtures of proteins and polysaccharides are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry for controlled release of actives and flavour compounds. In order to be able to predict the behaviour and the release characteristics of the microcapsules, a better understanding of the nature and extent of the cross-linking reaction is needed. Several analytical techniques were applied for the characterisation of glutardialdehyde (GDA) cross-linked encapsulates made of gelatine and gum arabic. To allow the use of sensitive, high-resolution methods such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, the sample first had to be hydrolysed. In this way, a mixture of amino acids, small peptides and the cross-link moieties was obtained. High-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was applied to detect possible cross-link markers through a comparison of HPLC-MS mass-chromatograms obtained for cross-linked and non-cross-linked coacervates. HPLC-MS/MS was used to identify the species responsible for the differences. Cross-linking occurred between GDA molecules and lysine and hydroxylysine ε-amino groups, and up to eight cross-link products of different nature could be identified. They included pyridinium ions and Schiff bases, and also unreacted GDA condensation products. Next, based on the insight gained in the possible chemical structures present in the cross-link markers, methods for selective labelling of these functionalities were employed to allow easier detection of related reaction products. Both liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used in these experiments. Unfortunately, these approaches failed to detect new cross-link markers, most likely as a result of the low levels at which these are present

  15. Operating Manual of Helium Refrigerator (Rev. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K.M.; Son, S.H.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, M.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    A helium refrigerator was installed as a supplier of 20K cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system of WTRF pilot plant. The operating procedures of the helium refrigerator, helium compressor and auxiliary apparatus are described for the safety and efficient operation in this manual. The function of the helium refrigerator is to remove the impurities from the compressed helium of about 250psig, to cool down the helium from ambient temperature to 20K through the heat exchanger and expansion engine and to transfer the cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system. For the smoothly operation of helium refrigerator, the preparation, the start-up, the cool-down and the shut-down of the helium refrigerator are described in this operating manual. (author). 3 refs., 14 tabs.

  16. Helium cooling of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Baxi, C.; Bourque, R.; Dahms, C.; Inamati, S.; Ryder, R.; Sager, G.; Schleicher, R.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of worldwide design experience and in coordination with the evolution of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, the application of helium as a coolant for fusion appears to be at the verge of a transition from conceptual design to engineering development. This paper presents a review of the use of helium as the coolant for fusion reactor blanket and divertor designs. The concept of a high-pressure helium cooling radial plate design was studied for both ITER and PULSAR. These designs can resolve many engineering issues, and can help with reaching the goals of low activation and high performance designs. The combination of helium cooling, advanced low-activation materials, and gas turbine technology may permit high thermal efficiency and reduced costs, resulting in the environmental advantages and competitive economics required to make fusion a 21st century power source. ((orig.))

  17. Laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2005-01-01

    When antiprotons (i.e. the antimatter counterpart of protons) are stopped in helium gas, 97% of them annihilate within picoseconds by reacting with the helium nuclei; a 3% fraction, however, survive with an anomalously long lifetime of several microseconds. This longevity is due to the formation of antiprotonic helium, which is a three-body Rydberg atom composed of an antiproton, electron, and helium nucleus. The ASACUSA experimental collaboration has recently synthesized large numbers of these atoms using CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility, and measured the atom's transition frequencies to 60 parts per billion by laser spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental results with recent three-body QED calculations and the known antiproton cyclotron frequency, we were able to show that the antiproton mass and charge are the same as the corresponding proton values to a precision of 10 parts per billion. Ongoing and future series of experiments will further improve the experimental precision by using chirp-compe...

  18. High Accuracy Vector Helium Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed HAVHM instrument is a laser-pumped helium magnetometer with both triaxial vector and omnidirectional scalar measurement capabilities in a single...

  19. Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

  20. State of the Art Report for a Bearing for VHTR Helium Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Yong Wan; Lee, Won Jae

    2008-10-01

    A helium circulator in a VHTR(Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) plays a core role which translates thermal energy at high temperature from a nuclear core to a steam generator. Helium as a operating coolant circulates a primary circuit in high temperature and high pressure state, and controls thermal output of a nuclear core by controlling flow rate. A helium circulator is the only rotating machinery in a VHTR, and its reliability should be guaranteed for reliable operation of a reactor and stable production of hydrogen. Generally a main helium circulator is installed on the top of a steam generator vessel, and helium is circulated only by a main helium circulator in a normal operation state. An auxiliary or shutdown circulator is installed at the bottom of a reactor vessel, and it is an auxiliary circulator for shutting down a reactor in case of refueling or accelerating cooling down in case of fast cooling. Since a rotating shaft of a helium circulator is supported by bearings, bearings are the important machine elements which determines reliability of a helium circulator and a nuclear reactor. Various types of support bearings have been developed and applied for circulator bearings since 1960s, and it is still developing for developing VHTRs. So it is necessary to review and analyze the current technical state of helium circulator support bearings to develop bearings for Koran developing VHTR helium circulator

  1. High temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, James S.K.-L., E-mail: james.gibson@materials.ox.ac.uk [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Roberts, Steve G. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Armstrong, David E.J. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    Nanoindentation has been performed on tungsten, unimplanted and helium-implanted to ~600 appm, at temperatures up to 750 °C. The hardening effect of the damage was 0.90 GPa at 50 °C, but is negligible above 450 °C. The hardness value at a given temperature did not change on re-testing after heating to 750 °C. This suggests that the helium is trapped in small vacancy complexes that are stable to at least 750 °C, but which can be bypassed due to increased dislocation mobility (cross slip or climb) above 450 °C.

  2. A Neutron Scattering Study of Collective Excitations in Superfluid Helium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, E. H.; Minkiewicz, V. J.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Extensive inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments have been performed on superfluid helium over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers. A high-resolution study has been made of the pressure dependence of the single-excitation scattering at the first maximum of the dispersion curve over...... of the multiexcitation scattering was also studied. It is shown that the multiphonon spectrum of a simple Debye solid with the phonon dispersion and single-excitation cross section of superfluid helium qualitatively reproduces these data....

  3. PHOBINS: an index file of photon production cross section data and its utility code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Koyama, Kinji; Ido, Masaru; Hotta, Masakazu; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi

    1978-08-01

    The code System PHOBINS developed for reference of photon production cross sections is described in detail. The system is intended to grasp the present status of photon production data and present the information of available data. It consists of four utility routines, CREA, UP-DT, REF and BACK, and data files. These utility routines are used for making an index file of the photon production cross sections, updating the index file, searching the index file and producing a back-up file of the index file. In the index file of the photon production cross sections, a data base system is employed for efficient data management in economical storage, ease of updating and efficient reference. The present report is a reference manual of PHOBINS. (author)

  4. Measurement of 230Pa and 186Re Production Cross Sections Induced by Deuterons at Arronax Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, Charlotte; Guertin, Arnaud; Metivier, Vincent; Haddad, Ferid; Michel, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particles at the ARRONAX cyclotron. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility of using them to produce medical isotopes. Two isotopes dedicated to targeted therapy have been considered: 226Th, a decay product of 230Pa, and 186Re. The production cross sections of 230Pa and 186Re, as well as those of the contaminants created during the irradiation, have been determined by the stacked-foil technique using deuteron beams. Experimental values have been quantified using a referenced cross section. The measured cross sections have been used to determine expected production yields and compared with the calculated values obtained using the Talys code with default parameters.

  5. Relativistic total and differential cross section proton--proton electron--positron pair production calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Circle Feynman diagrams for a specific permutation of variables along with their corresponding algebraic expressions are presented to evaluate [H] 2 for proton-proton electron-positron pair production. A Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced and is used to set up the multiple integral expression for the total pair production cross section. The technique is first applied to the Compton scattering problem and then to an arbitrary multiple integral. The relativistic total cross section for proton-proton electron-positron pair production was calculated for eight different values of incident proton energy. A variety of differential cross sections were calculated for the above energies. Angular differential cross section distributions are presented for the electron, positron, and proton. Invariant mass differential cross section distributions are done both with and without the presence of [H] 2 . Both WGHT and log 10 (TOTAL) distributions were also obtained. The general behavioral trends of the total and differential cross sections for proton-proton electron-positron pair production are presented. The range of validity for this calculation is from 0 to about 200 MeV

  6. Excitation of the n=2 states of He+ in the ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, A.J.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-03-01

    The cross section ratio for the symmetric (e,2e) reaction on helium leading to the n = 2 and ground states of the helium ion has been calculated as a function of the ion recoil momentum q, using a correlated helium wave function, and compared with the results of a 1200eV noncoplanar experiment and some previous results at 800eV. The calculation agrees well with the measured (e,2e) cross section ratios and at high q with ratios measured in photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. (author)

  7. Cryogenic filter method produces super-pure helium and helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1964-01-01

    Helium is purified when cooled in a low pressure environment until it becomes superfluid. The liquid helium is then filtered through iron oxide particles. Heating, cooling and filtering processes continue until the purified liquid helium is heated to a gas.

  8. Towards helium-3 neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    1995-01-01

    With a large absorption cross-section entirely due to antiparallel spin capture, polarized helium-3 is presently the most promising broad-band polarizer for thermal and epithermal neutrons. Immediate interest was raised amongst the neutron community when a dense gaseous 3 He polarizer was used for the first time in 1988, on a pulsed neutron beam at Los Alamos. With 20 W of laser power on a 30 cm long, 8.6 atm target, 40% 3 He polarization was achieved in a recent polarized electron scattering experiment at SLAC. In this technique the 3 He nuclei are polarized directly at an appropriate high pressure through spin-exchange collisions with a thick, optically pumped rubidium vapor. A different and competitive approach is being presently developed at Mainz University in collaboration with ENS Paris and now the ILL. A discharge is established in pure 3 He at low pressure producing excited metastable atoms which can be optically pumped with infra-red light. Highly effective exchange collision with the atoms remaining in the ground state quickly produces 75% polarization at 1.5 mbar. A truly non-magnetic system then compresses the polarized gas up to several bars as required. The most recent machine comprises a two-stage glass-titanium compressor. In less than 1 h it can inflate a 100 cm 3 target cell with three bars of polarized gas. The very long relaxation times (several days) now being obtained at high pressure with a special metallic coating on the glass walls, the polarized cell can be detached and inserted in the neutron beam as polarizer. We expect 50% 3 He-polarization to be reached soon, allowing such filters to compete favorably with existing Heusler-crystal polarizers at thermal and short neutron wavelengths. It must be stressed that such a system based on a 3 He polarization factory able to feed several passive, transportable, polarizers is well matched to neutron scattering needs. (orig.)

  9. Single top quark production cross-section and properties using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00358737; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of single top-quark processes are summarized. Measurements using data at 7 and 8 TeV collisions from the LHC are presented. The measurements are performed using the semi-leptonic decay mode of the top-quark. Production cross-sections and the $\\left|V_{tb}\\right|$ CKM matrix element extraction are shown. All measurements are compared to theoretical calculations. In addition, the $s$-channel production mode is explored along with limits on exotic production modes.

  10. Delimbing and Cross-cutting of Coniferous Trees–Time Consumption, Work Productivity and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadie Ciubotaru

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research established the time consumption, work time structure, and productivity for primary processing in felling areas of coniferous trees felled with a chainsaw. Delimbing and partial cross-cutting were taken into consideration. The research was conducted in a mixed spruce and fir tree stand situated in the Carpathian Mountains. The team of workers consisted of a chainsaw operator and assistant with over 10 years of experience. The results indicated a total time of 536.32 s·m−3 (1145.26 s·tree−1, work performance (including delays of 6.716 m3·h−1 (3.14 tree·h−1, and work productivity (without delays of 35.459 m3·h−1 (16.58 tree·h−1. The chainsaw productivity during tree cross-cutting was 82.29 cm2·s−1. Delimbing accounted for 96.18% of the real work time, while cross-cutting accounted for 3.82%. The time consumption for delimbing and cross-cutting, as well as the work productivity and performance in the primary processing of coniferous trees in the felling area, were influenced by the breast height diameter, stem length, and tree volume, while the chainsaw productivity was influenced by the diameter of the cross-cut sections. The relationships between the aforementioned dependent and independent variables were determined by simple and linear multiple regression equations.

  11. Upsilon production cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; 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Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; 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Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; 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Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The Upsilon production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is measured using a data sample collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 +/- 0.3 inverse picobarns. Integrated over the rapidity range |y|<2, we find the product of the Upsilon(1S) production cross section and branching fraction to dimuons to be sigma(pp to Upsilon(1S) X ) B(Upsilon(1S) to mu+ mu-) = 7.37 +/- 0.13^{+0.61}_{-0.42}pm 0.81 nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is associated with the estimation of the integrated luminosity of the data sample. This cross section is obtained assuming unpolarized Upsilon(1S) production. If the Upsilon(1S) production polarization is fully transverse or fully longitudinal the cross section changes by about 20%. We also report the measurement of the Upsilon(1S), Upsilon(2S), and Upsilon(3S) differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity.

  12. Evaluations of fission product capture cross sections for ENDF/B-V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenter, R.E.; Johnson, D.L.; Mann, F.M.; Schmittroth, F.

    1979-01-01

    Capture cross section evaluations were made for the 36 most important fission product absorbers in a fast reactor system. These evaluations were obtained by use of a generalized least-squares approach with calculations being performed with the computer code FERRET. These results will provide the major revisions to the ENDF/B-IV Fission Product Cross Section File which will be released as part of ENDF/B-V. Input for the cross section adjustment calculations included both integral and differential experimental data results. The differential cross sections and their uncertainties were obtained from the CSIRS library. Integral measurement results came from CFRMF and STEK Assemblies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000. Comparisons of these evaluations with recent capture measurements are presented. 14 figures

  13. New closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for prevention of product cross-contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, K.; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T.R.; Viswas, K.N.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Agarwal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, a promising diagnostic test, has been developed for detection of different pathogens of human as well as animals. Various positive points support its use as a field level test but the major problem is product cross contamination leading to false positive results. Different methods were adopted by various researchers to control this false positive amplification due to cross contamination but all have their own advantages and disadvantages. A...

  14. The evaluated neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of fission products with Z = 57-62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.F.; Pisanko, Zh.I.; Novoselov, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron cross sections at a neutron velocity of V=2200 m/s, and resonance integrals for fission products with Z=57-71 are estimated. In obtaining the recommended values the results of the neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for elements used as references were normalized in accordance with the latest adjusted values. In the course of estimation, preference was given to the more accurate methods for obtaining the measured values and to the more recent investigations

  15. Evaluation of angular distributions and production cross-sections for discrete gamma lines in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, M.V.; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental data were compiled and the angular distributions and production cross-sections for the E γ = 846.8, 1238.3 and 1810.8 keV discrete gamma-lines evaluated. The Legendre polynomial coefficients describing the angular distributions in the energy range up to E n = 14.0 MeV and cross-section values in the E n = 0.85-19.0 MeV range were evaluated. (author)

  16. LHCb: Measurement of $J/\\psi$ production cross-section at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Zhang, Y

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the $J/\\psi$ production cross-section with the LHCb detector is presented. The cross-section is measured as a function of the $J/\\psi$ transverse momentum and rapidity, in the forward region. Contributions from prompt $J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi$ from $b$ are measured separately. Prospects for measurements of the $J/\\psi$ polarisation with a full angular analysis are also shown.

  17. The evaluated neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of fission products with Z=63-71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.F.; Pisanko, Zh.I.; Novoselov, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron cross sections at a neutron velocity of V=2200 m/s, and the resonance integrals for fission products with Z=63-71 are estimated. In obtaining the recommended values the results were normalized of the neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for elements used as references in accordance with the latest adjusted values. In the course of estimation, preference was given to the more accurate measuring methods and the more recent investigations. Scientific publications up to 1975 have been used

  18. Single top-quark production cross section measurements using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rieck, Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of single top­quark production in proton proton collisions are presented. The measurements include the first such measurements from the 13 TeV ATLAS dataset. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t­channel. The single top­quark and anti­top total production cross sections, their ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive production cross section is presented. At 8 TeV, differential cross­section measurements of the t­channel process are also presented, these measurements include limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single­top production mode, is also presented. Finally, evidence for single­top production in the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset is presented. All measurements are compared to state­of­ the­art theoretical calculations.

  19. Use of intergeneric cross for production of doubled haploid wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Shaukat, S.; Kashif, M.; Khan, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of conventional breeding or hybridisation is to bring about homozygosity, for which 6 to 7 years may be required. Wheat and maize crosses have proved to be more efficient in DH lines production than anther culture methods, because of its lower genetic specificity. Doubled haploid technique facilitates the development of homozygous plants within one generation. The system is developed through haploid production, followed by chromosome doubling, to produce homozygous plants in a single generation. For doubled haploid production method wheat and maize crossing system is better than anther culture and ovule culture because maize pollens are highly responsive and produce stable progeny population. Wheat is being used as female parent and maize as a male parent for the production of doubled haploid. Moreover, Silver Nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) in tiller culture media can improve the frequency of haploid embryo production in this crossing system. Our result showed that DH production through wheat and maize crossing system was proved to be time saving (2 years) as compared to other conventional breeding methods (6 years). (author)

  20. Two-loop corrections to the triple Higgs boson production cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian, Daniel de [International Center for Advanced Studies (ICAS), ECyT-UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Javier [International Center for Advanced Studies (ICAS), ECyT-UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-02-22

    In this paper we compute the QCD corrections for the triple Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion, within the heavy-top approximation. We present, for the first time, analytical results for the next-to-leading order corrections, and also compute the soft and virtual contributions of the next-to-next-to-leading order cross section. We provide predictions for the total cross section and the triple Higgs invariant mass distribution. We find that the QCD corrections are large at both perturbative orders, and that the scale uncertainty is substantially reduced when the second order perturbative corrections are included.

  1. Heavy flavour production cross-sections from fixed target to collider energies

    CERN Document Server

    Wöhri, H K

    2004-01-01

    We review the hadro-production data presently available on charm and beauty absolute production cross-sections, collected by experiments at CERN, DESY and Fermilab. After correcting the published values, in particular for the 'time evolution' of the branching ratios, the measurements are compared to LO pQCD calculations performed with Pythia. as a function of the collision energy, using the latest parametrizations of the parton distribution functions. We then estimate, including nuclear effects on the parton densities, the charm and beauty production cross-sections relevant for future measurements at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies, in proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. We also compare some indirect charm measurements, done using leptonic decays, to the others and we briefly address the importance of beauty production as a feed-down mechanism of J/ psi production. (34 refs).

  2. Calculation of nucleon production cross sections for 200 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Mittig, W.

    1997-01-01

    The differential neutron and proton production cross sections have been investigated for 200 MeV incident deuterons on thin and thick 9 Be, 56 Fe and 238 U targets using the LAHET code system. The examples of the deuteron beam on different target materials are analysed to determine the differences of converting the energy of the beam into the nucleons produced. Both double differential, energy and angle integrated nuclear production cross sections are presented together with the average nucleon multiplicities per incident deuteron. (K.A.)

  3. Calculation of nucleon production cross sections for 200 MeV deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridikas, D.; Mittig, W.

    1997-12-31

    The differential neutron and proton production cross sections have been investigated for 200 MeV incident deuterons on thin and thick {sup 9}Be, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 238}U targets using the LAHET code system. The examples of the deuteron beam on different target materials are analysed to determine the differences of converting the energy of the beam into the nucleons produced. Both double differential, energy and angle integrated nuclear production cross sections are presented together with the average nucleon multiplicities per incident deuteron. (K.A.). 31 refs.

  4. Bed system performance in helium circulation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yean Jin; Jung, Kwang Jin; Ahn, Do Hee; Chung, Hong Suk [UST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Suk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei Hun [NFRI, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, We have conducted an experiment for storing hydrogen to depleted uranium and zirconium cobalt. The helium blanket effect has been observed in experiments using metal hydrides. The collapse of the hydrogen isotopes are accompanied by the decay heat and helium-3. Helium-3 dramatically reduces the hydrogen isotope storage capacity by surrounding the metal. This phenomenon is called a helium blanket effect. In addition the authors are working on the recovery and removal techniques of helium-3. In this paper, we discuss the equipment used to test the helium blanket effect and the results of a helium circulation experiment. The helium-3 produced surrounds the storage material surface and thus disturbs the reaction of the storage material and the hydrogen isotope. Even if the amount of helium-3 is small, the storage capacity of the SDS bed significantly drops. This phenomenon is the helium blanket effect. To resolve this phenomenon, a circulating loop was introduced. Using a circulating system, helium can be separated from the storage material. We made a helium loop that includes a ZrCo bed. Then using a metal bellows pump, we tested the helium circulation.

  5. Single-Top quark production cross section and properties using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stamm, Soren; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton proton collisions at 8 TeV and 13 TeV are presented. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. The single top-quark and anti-top total production cross sections is presented. In addition, a measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson is discussed. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations and the CKM matrix element |Vtb| is determined. Finally, the first evidence for s-channel production at LHC is presented. In this analysis the signal is extracted using a maximum-likelihood fit of a discriminant which is based on the matrix element method.

  6. Radioanalytical prediction of radiative capture in 99Mo production via transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing by cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Pazirandeh, Ali; Tenreiro, Claudio; Kadi, Yacine

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing (TARC) concept was estimated in Mo-99 radioisotope production via radiative capture reaction in two designs. The TARC method was composed of moderating neutrons in lead or a composition of lead and water. Additionally, the target was surrounded by a moderator assembly and a graphite reflector district. Produced neutrons were investigated by (p,xn) interactions with 30 MeV and 300 mu A proton beam on tungsten, beryllium, and tantalum targets. The Mo-99 production yield was related to the moderator property, cross section, and sample positioning inside the distinct region of neutron storage as must be proper to achieve gains. Gathered thermal flux of neutrons can contribute to molybdenum isotope production. Moreover, the sample positioning to gain higher production yield was dependent on a greater flux in the length of thermal neutrons and region materials inside the moderator or reflector. When the sample radial distance from Be was 38 cm inside the...

  7. Parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections at LAMPF energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, R.L.; Smith, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    A parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections is developed for eventual use in modeling neutrino production by protons in a beam stop. Emphasis is placed upon smooth parameterizations for proton energies up to 800 MeV, for all pion energies and angles, and for a wide range of materials. The resulting representations of the data are well-behaved and can be used for extrapolation to regions where there are no measurements. 22 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Cross-country differences in productivity: the role of allocation and selection

    OpenAIRE

    Bartelsman, Eric J.; Haltiwanger, John; Scarpetta, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper combines different strands of the productivity literature to investigate the effect of idiosyncratic (firm-level) policy distortions on aggregate outcomes. On the one hand, a growing body of empirical research has been relating cross-country differences in key economic outcomes, such as productivity or output per capita, to differences in policies and institutions that shape the business environment. On the other hand, a branch of empirical research has attempted to shed light on t...

  9. Electron impact ionization-excitation of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Gomez, A. I.; Gasaneo, G.; Mitnik, D. M.; Ambrosio, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the process of ionization-excitation of Helium by fast electron impact in which the residual ion is left in the n =2 excited state. We chose the strongly asymmetric kinematics used in the experiment performed by Dupré et al.. In a perturbative scheme, for high projectile energies the four-body problem reduces to a three-body one and, within that framework, we solve the time- independent Schrödinger equation with a Sturmian approach. The method, based on Generalized Sturmian Functions (GSF), is employed to obtain the initial ground state of Helium, the single-continuum state and the scattering wave function; for each of them, the GSF basis is constructed with the corresponding adequate asymptotic conditions. Besides, the method presents the following advantage: the scattering amplitudes can be extracted directly in the asymptotic region of the scattering solution, and thus the TDCS can be obtained without requiring a matrix element evaluation.

  10. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y p . The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y p . In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y p = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y p = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination

  11. Evaluation of neutron and gamma-ray-production cross-section data for lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Perey, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made of the available information on neutron and gamma-ray-production cross-section measurements of lead. From these and from relevant nuclear-structure information on the Pb isotopes, recommended neutron cross-section data sets for lead covering the neutron energy range from 0.00001 eV to 20.0 MeV have been prepared. The cross sections are derived from experimental results available to February 1972 and from calculations based on optical-model, DWBA, and Hauser--Feshbach theories. Comparisons which show good agreement between theoretical and experimental values are displayed in a number of graphs. Also presented graphically are smoothed total cross sections, Legendre coefficients for angular distributions, and a representative energy distribution of gamma rays from resonance capture. 15 tables, 36 figures, 104 references

  12. Measurement of neutron-production double-differential cross sections for intermediate energy pion incident reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Satoh, Daiki

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-production double-differential cross sections for 870-MeV π + and π - and 2.1-GeV π + mesons incident on iron and lead targets were measured with NE213 liquid scintillators by time-of-flight technique. NE213 liquid scintillators 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm thick were placed in directions of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150deg. The typical flight path length was 15 m. Neutron detection efficiencies were derived from the calculation results of SCINFUL and CECIL codes. The experimental results were compared with the JAM code. The double differential cross sections calculated by the JAM code disagree with experimental data at neutron energies below about 30 MeV. JAM overestimates π + -incident neutron-production cross sections in forward angles at neutron energies of 100 to 500 MeV. (author)

  13. Measurement of the Cross Section of W-boson pair production at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Button, A.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Nandakumar, R.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2004-01-01

    The cross section of W-boson pair-production is measured with the L3 detector at LEP. In a data sample corresponding to a total luminosity of 629.4/pb, collected at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 189 to 209 GeV, 9834 four-fermion events with W bosons decaying into hadrons or leptons are selected. The total cross section is measured with a precision of 1.4 % and agrees with the Standard Model expectation. Assuming charged-lepton universality, the branching fraction for hadronic W-boson decays is measured to be: Br(W-->hadrons) = 67.50 +- 0.42 (stat.) +- 0.30(syst.) %, in agreement with the Standard Model. Differential cross sections as a function of the W- production angle are also measured for the semi-leptonic channels qqev and qqmv.

  14. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  15. Gamma-ray production cross sections for MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Hideo; Harima, Yoshiko; Yamakoshi, Hisao; Sano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross section and spectra for 1- to 20-MeV neutrons were theoretically obtained, which were requested for heating calculations, for shielding design calculations, and for material damage estimates. Calculations were carried out for Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Nb, Ta, Au, and Pb, using a spin-dependent evaporation model without the parity conservation and including the dipole and quardupole gamma-ray transitions. The results were compared with the experimental data measured in ORNL to confirm the availability of this model in applications. In addition, the effects on the gamma-ray production cross section of the optical potential, level density, yrast level, and radiation width were investigated in detail. The conclusions are: 1) the use of the optical potential which gives the correct total reaction cross section is essential to gamma-ray production calculations, 2) the gamma-ray production cross section is not so sensitive to the choice of level density parameters, 3) the inclusion of yrast levels is necessary in dealing with the competition of the neutron and gamma-ray emissions from highly excited states, and 4) the Brink-Axel type's radiation width is unsuitable to be applied to radiative capture processes. (author)

  16. Amenable crossed product Banach algebras associated with a class of C*-dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Elharti, R.; Pinto, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    We prove that the crossed product Banach algebra ℓ1(G,A;α) that is associated with a C∗-dynamical system (A,G,α) is amenable if G is a discrete amenable group and A is a commutative or finite dimensional C∗-algebra. Perspectives for further developments are indicated.

  17. Using P-Stat, BMDP and SPSS for a cross-products factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, B A; Leiman, J M

    1983-06-01

    The major disadvantage of the Q factor analysis with Euclidean distances described by Tanner and Koning [Comput. Progr. Biomed. 12 (1980) 201-202] is the considerable editing required. An alternative procedure with commercially distributed software, and with cross-products in place of Euclidean distances is described. This procedure does not require any editing.

  18. NNLO QCD corrections for the differential Higgs boson production cross-section in gluon fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, Charalampos

    2006-01-01

    I describe a recent computation of the NNLO QCD corrections for the fully differential cross-section for Higgs boson production in the gluon fusion channel. This result is an application of a new method for calculating perturbative corrections beyond the next-to-leading order

  19. K,L X-rays production cross sections for 1H and 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, C.; Costa, G.J.; Cailleret, J.; Lagarde, G.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental X-ray production cross sections are tabulated for 1 H and 4 He projectiles. In the case of K X-rays, a comparison with theoretical values is also performed in view of applications, such a PIXE analysis [fr

  20. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: Evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners

  1. Rising pion inclusive cross section and n anti n cluster production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Tow, D.M.

    1976-05-01

    It is argued that the reason for π - inclusive cross section to rise in the ISR energies is due to the threshold production of nucleon-antinucleon clusters. Such contributions are formulated and calculated at π - . Our results can account for the observed rise

  2. Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in the $2\\ell2\

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; 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Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; 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Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; 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Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; 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Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; 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Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; 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Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Ratnikov, Fedor; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Malik, Sudhir; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-10-29

    Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are presented. Candidate events for the leptonic decay mode $\\mathrm{ZZ} \\to 2\\ell2\

  3. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  4. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  5. Measurement of muon neutrino and antineutrino induced single neutral pion production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Colin E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Elucidating the nature of neutrino oscillation continues to be a goal in the vanguard of the efforts of physics experiment. As neutrino oscillation searches seek an increasingly elusive signal, a thorough understanding of the possible backgrounds becomes ever more important. Measurements of neutrino-nucleus interaction cross sections are key to this understanding. Searches for νμ → νe oscillation - a channel that may yield insight into the vanishingly small mixing parameter θ13, CP violation, and the neutrino mass hierarchy - are particularly susceptible to contamination from neutral current single π0 (NC 1π0) production. Unfortunately, the available data concerning NC 1π0 production are limited in scope and statistics. Without satisfactory constraints, theoretical models of NC 1π0 production yield substantially differing predictions in the critical Eν ~ 1 GeV regime. Additional investigation of this interaction can ameliorate the current deficiencies. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) is a short-baseline neutrino oscillation search operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). While the oscillation search is the principal charge of the MiniBooNE collaboration, the extensive data (~ 106 neutrino events) offer a rich resource with which to conduct neutrino cross section measurements. This work concerns the measurement of both neutrino and antineutrino NC 1π0 production cross sections at MiniBooNE. The size of the event samples used in the analysis exceeds that of all other similar experiments combined by an order of magnitude. We present the first measurements of the absolute NC 1π0 cross section as well as the first differential cross sections in both neutrino and antineutrino mode. Specifically, we measure single differential cross sections with respect to pion momentum and pion angle. We find the

  6. Helium localization around the microscopic impurities embedded to liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, E.B.; Shestakov, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and properties of the environment round the impurity atoms (Im) embedded in liquid helium are considered. It is shown that there are two qualitatively different types of structure of the He atom layer next to Im - attraction and repulsion structures. For the center attraction structure (strong Im-He interaction) the Im-He separation is longer than the equilibrium one for the pair Im-He potential, and the density and localization of He atoms are higher than in the bulk. It this case the He atom content in the layer, n, is almost independent of applied pressure. In the repulsion structure realized for alkaline metal atoms the Im-He separation is shorter than the equilibrium one and the density is lower than in the helium bulk. At T approx 1 K occupied are several states with different n and their energies differ only by approx 0.1 K, an increase in pressure resulting in a considerable reduction of n. The optical and EPR spectra of the atoms embedded to liquid and solid helium are interpreted on the basis of the analysis carried out. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the helium surroundings characteristics from the experimental pressure dependences of atomic line shifts in the absorption and emission spectra. The attraction structures in 3 He - 4 He mixtures are suggested to be highly enriched by 4 He atoms which the repulsion structures - by 3 He atoms. a possibility for existence of phase transitions in helium shells surrounding impurity atoms is considered

  7. Helium behaviour in aluminium under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurskij, Yu.N.; Tebus, V.N.; Zudilin, V.A.; Tumanova, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic compression on equilibrium helium bubbles in low aluminium-lithium alloy irradiated in reactor at 570 K is investigated. Measurements of hydrostatic density and electron-microscopic investigations have shown, that application of up to 2 GPa pressure reduces equilibrium size of helium bubbles and reduces helium swelling. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the process are considered with application of 'rigid sphere' equation which describes helium state in bubbles

  8. PG-100 helium loop in the MR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Yakovlev, V.V.; Tikhonov, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Main systems and production equipment units of PG-100 helium loop in the MR reactor are described. Possible long-term synchronizing operation of loop and reactor as well as possibility of carrying out life-time tests of spherical fuel elements and materials are shown. Serviceability of spherical fuel elements under conditions similar to the ones of HTGR-50 operation as well as high serviceability of cleanup system accepted for HTGR are verified. Due to low radiation dose the loop is operated without limits, helium losses in the loop don't exceed 0.5%/24 h, taking account of experimental gas sampling

  9. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal; Wibowo, Aris T.; Rahmawati, Silvya D.; Yasutra, Amega; Sukarno, Pudjo

    2017-01-01

    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  10. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal

    2017-10-17

    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  11. A metastable helium trap for atomic collision physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colla, M.; Gulley, R.; Uhlmann, L.; Hoogerland, M.D.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Buckman, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Metastable helium in the 2 3 S state is an important species for atom optics and atomic collision physics. Because of its large internal energy (20eV), long lifetime (∼8000s) and large collision cross section for a range of processes, metastable helium plays an important role in atmospheric physics, plasma discharges and gas laser physics. We have embarked on a program of studies on atom-atom and electron-atom collision processes involving cold metastable helium. We confine metastable helium atoms in a magneto-optic trap (MOT), which is loaded by a transversely collimated, slowed and 2-D focussed atomic beam. We employ diode laser tuned to the 1083 nm (2 3 S 1 - 2 3 P2 1 ) transition to generate laser cooling forces in both the loading beam and the trap. Approximately 10 million helium atoms are trapped at temperatures of ∼ 1mK. We use phase modulation spectroscopy to measure the trapped atomic density. The cold, trapped atoms can collide to produce either atomic He + or molecular He 2 + ions by Penning Ionisation (PI) or Associative Ionisation (AI). The rate of formation of these ions is dependant upon the detuning of the trapping laser from resonance. A further laser can be used to connect the 2 3 S 1 state to another higher lying excited state, and variation of the probe laser detuning used to measure interatomic collision potential. Electron-atom collision processes are studied using a monochromatic electron beam with a well defined spatial current distribution. The total trap loss due to electron collisions is measured as a function of electron energy. Results will be presented for these atomic collision physics measurements involving cold, trapped metastable helium atoms. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  12. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1984-04-01

    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  13. Clustering of Helium Atoms at a ½

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. v.d.; Heugten, W. v.; Caspers, L.M.; Veen, A. v.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Atomistic calculations on a ½<111>{110} edge dislocation show a restricted tendency of clustering of helium atom along this dislocation. Clusters with up to 4 helium atoms have been studied. A cluster with 3 helium proved to be most stable.

  14. Structural changes in a copper alloy due to helium implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, D.; Eliezer, D.

    1996-01-01

    The most suitable nuclear fusion reaction for energy production occurs between the two heavy hydrogen isotopes, deuterium and tritium. Structural materials in fusion reactors will be exposed to helium implantation over a broad range of energies. The deformation and partial exfoliation of surface layers due to hydrogen isotopes and helium contribute to the total erosion of the first wall. For this reason, one of the most important criteria in the choice of materials for the first wall of fusion reactors is the material's damage resistance. Recent advances in developing nuclear fusion reactors reveal that efficient heat removal from plasma-facing components is very important. Copper and copper alloys are considered an attractive choice for transporting such a high heat flux without thermal damage as they have high thermal conductivity. In the present study the authors report on the structural changes in a copper alloy, due to the helium implantation on the very near surface area, observed by transmission electron microscopy

  15. Muonium and neutral muonic helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, H.

    1981-01-01

    In this brief article the current status on muonium spectroscopy with emphasis on recent developments will be summarized. The experimental and theoretical progress of the muonic helium atom will be reviewed. Future directions in this field of research will be discussed. (orig./HSI)

  16. Electric response in superfluid helium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chagovets, Tymofiy

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 488, May (2016), s. 62-66 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-03806P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : superfluid helium * electric response * second sound * ions in He II Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2016

  17. Top quark production cross-section measurements with the ATLAS detector at EPS-HEP 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Christopher Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top-quark pair and single-top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV are presented. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of the top-quark production are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-quark pair production in the TeV regime.

  18. Helium diffusion in irradiated boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1981-03-01

    Boron carbide has been internationally adopted as the neutron absorber material in the control and safety rods of large fast breeder reactors. Its relatively large neutron capture cross section at high neutron energies provides sufficient reactivity worth with a minimum of core space. In addition, the commercial availability of boron carbide makes it attractive from a fabrication standpoint. Instrumented irradiation experiments in EBR-II have provided continuous helium release data on boron carbide at a variety of operating temperatures. Although some microstructural and compositional variations were examined in these experiments most of the boron carbide was prototypic of that used in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The density of the boron carbide pellets was approximately 92% of theoretical. The boron carbide pellets were approximately 1.0 cm in diameter and possessed average grain sizes that varied from 8 to 30 μm. Pellet centerline temperatures were continually measured during the irradiation experiments

  19. Neutron cross sections for defect production by high-energy displacement cascades in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Mann, F.M.

    1983-08-01

    Defect production cross sections for copper have been devised, based on computer simulations of displacement cascades. One thousand cascades ranging in energy from 200 eV to 200 keV were generated with the MARLOWE computer code. The cascades were subjected to a semi-empirical cascade quenching procedure and to short-term annealing with the ALSOME computer code. Functions were fitted to the numbers of defects produced as a function of primary knock-on atom (PKA) damage energy for the following defect types: 1) the total number of point defects after quenching and after short-term annealing, 2) the numbers of free interstitials and free vacancies after shortterm annealing, and 3) the numbers and sizes of vacancy and interstitial clusters after shortterm annealing. In addition, a function describing the number of distinct damage regions (lobes) per cascade was fitted to results of a graphical analysis of the cascade configurations. The defect production functions have been folded into PKA spectra using the NJOY nuclear data processing code system with ENDF/B-V nuclear data to yield neutron cross sections for defect production in copper. The free vacancy cross section displays much less variation with neutron energy than the cross sections for damage energy or total point defects

  20. Neutron cross sections for defect production by high energy displacement cascades in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Mann, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    Defect production cross sections for copper have been devised, based on computer simulations of displacement cascades. One thousand cascades ranging in energy from 200 eV to 200 keV were generated with the MARLOWE computer code. The cascades were subjected to a semi-empirical cascade quenching procedure and to short-term annealing with the ALSOME computer code. Functions were fitted to the numbers of defects produced as a function of primary knock-on atom (PKA) damage energy for the following defect types: 1) the total number of point defects after quenching and after short-term annealing, 2) the numbers of free interstitials and free vacancies after short-term annealing, and 3) the numbers and sizes of vacancy and interstitial clusters after short-term annealing. In addition, a function describing the number of distinct damage regions (lobes) per cascade was fitted to results of a graphical analysis of the cascade configurations. The defect production functions have been folded into PKA spectra using the NJOY nuclear data processing code system with ENDF/B-V nuclear data to yield neutron cross sections for defect production in copper. The free vacancy cross section displays much less variation with neutron energy than the cross sections for damage energy or total point defects. (orig.)

  1. Analytical formulas for calculation of K X-ray production cross sections by alpha ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, A.; Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Nekkab, M.; Medjadi, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, different procedures are followed to deduce the semi-empirical and the empirical K X-rayX-ray production cross sections induced by alpha ions from the available experimental data and the theoretical results of the ECPSSR model for elements with 20≤Z≤30. The deduced K X-ray production cross sections are compared with predictions from ECPSSR model and with other earlier works. Generally, the deduced K X-ray production cross sections obtained by fitting the available experimental data for each element separately give the most reliable values than those obtained by a global fit. - Highlights: ► The results were presented for elements with atomic numbers 20≤Z≤30 by alpha impact. ► The present semi-empirical formulas were derived from both theoretical and experimental values. ► The available experimental data are directly fitted to deduce the empirical one. ► The results obtained for each element separately give the most reliable values than those obtained by a global fit. ► This procedure is proposed as a black-box way to quickly estimate the cross section.

  2. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  3. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowley, Roger [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  4. Isospin dependent Boltzmann-langevin equation and the production cross section of 19Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhaoyu; Zhang Fengshou; Chen Liewen; Zhu Zhiyuan; Zhang Wenlong; Guo Zhongyan; Xiao Guoqing

    2000-01-01

    A new transport model (isospin dependent Boltzmann-Langevin equation) is developed and it is shown that this model can regenerate the experimental data for reaction of 12 C + 12 C at 28.7 MeV/u. The production cross section of 19 Na is systematically studied for reactions of 17-20,22 Ne + 12 C at 28.7 MeV/u. It is found that a neutron deficient projectile has larger 19 Na cross section than a stable projectile

  5. Total cross section for Z0 production in electron proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.; Wallet, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    We present an exact calculation of the total cross section sigmasub(t)sub(o)sub(t) of the Z 0 production in e - +p→e - +Z 0 +X processes. We find a total cross section sigmasub(t)sub(o)sub(t)approx. equal to2.2x10 -36 cm 2 for an energy in the center of mass of 300 GeV and a Z 0 mass of 90 GeV, which is quite a measurable result in some e - proton collider experiments, like HERA or SPS/LEP. (orig.)

  6. Convergent j-matrix calculation of electron-helium resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1994-12-01

    Resonance structures in n=2 and n=3 electron-helium excitation cross sections are calculated using the J-matrix method. The number of close-coupled helium bound and continuum states is taken to convergence, e.g. about 100 channels are coupled for each total spin and angular momentum. It is found that the present J-matrix results are in good shape agreement with recent 29-state R-matrix calculations. However the J-matrix absolute cross sections are slightly lower due to the influence of continuum channels included in the present method. Experiment and theory agree on the positions of n=2 and n=3 resonances. 22 refs., 1 tab.; 3 figs

  7. Stark effect in Rydberg states of helium and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaije, C.T.W.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis, which deals with the effect of an electric field up to moderate field strengths on atoms with two valence electrons outside closed shells, in casu helium and barium, contains chapter in which the linear Stark effect in the 1 snp 1, 3 p Rydberg states of helium (n around 40) has been studied in a CW laser-atomic beam experiment. The evolution of the angular momentum manifolds into the n-mixing regime was followed and avoided level crossings were observed. Stark manifolds were also calculated by diagonalization of the complete energy matrix in the presence of an electric field. It turned out to be necessary to include up to five n-values in the calculations already at moderate values of the field to reproduce the data within the experimental accuracy (a few MHz), especially in the regime of the avoided crossings. (author). 147 refs.; 30 figs.; 8 tabs

  8. Measurements of the $B$ meson production cross-sections at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    LIU, Bo; ROBBE, Patrick; HE, Jibo

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), one of the most fundamental components of the Standard Model theory of Particle Physics, is dedicated to describe the strong interactions among quarks and gluons. For the $B$ meson production cross-sections in hadron-hadron collisions, perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations are available at next-to-leading order (NLO) and with the fixed-order plus next-to-leading logarithms (FONLL) approximations. Measuring $B$ meson production cross-sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is of great importance to test the pQCD calculations. The LHCb detector is a single-arm forward spectrometer. It collects the physical information of the products in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The differential and total production cross-sections of $B$ mesons (including $B^+$, $B^0$ and $B_s^0$) in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,{\\rm TeV}$ are studied using 35${\\rm pb}^{-1}$ of data in 2010 and 370${\\rm pb}^{-1}$ of data in 2011 collected by the LHCb detector, and reported in this dissert...

  9. HeREF-2003: Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 Cost per participant: 500.- CHF Language: Bilingual English...

  10. HeREF-2003 : Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. • Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 • Cost per participant: 500.- CHF ...

  11. Effect of γ-ray emission on transuranium element production cross sections in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'inov, A.S.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of competition of the γ ray emission with neutron evaporation and of compound nuclei fission induced by heavy ion reactions on the production cross sections for transuranium elements is considered. It is shown that taking account of γ ray emission leads to the broadening of the excitation functions of the (HI, xny) reactions such as 18 O+ 238 U, 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 207 Pb and 40 Ar+ 208 Pb reactions and to the displacement of their maximum toward the higher energies as well as to an increase of the absolute cross sections which is especially strong close to the fusion barrier. Cross sections for the radiative capture of heavy ions by a heavy target nucleus in 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 208 Pb, 48 Ca+ 204 Pb and 48 Ca+ 208 Pb reactions are estimated

  12. Production and correlation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in gas- and liquid-phase generated by helium plasma jets under different pulse widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Zhou, Chunxi; Liu, Dingxin; Xu, Dehui; Xia, Wenjie; Cui, Qingjie; Wang, Bingchuan; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the effects of the pulse width (PW) on the plasma jet's discharge characteristics, particularly focusing on the production and correlation of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in gas- and liquid-phase. It is found that the length of plasma jet plume first increases before the PW of 10 μs, then gradually decreases and finally almost remains unchanged beyond 150 μs. The plasma bullet disappears after the falling edge of the voltage pulse at low PW, while it terminates far ahead of the falling edge of voltage pulse at high PW. This is mainly attributed to accumulation of space charges that lead to weakening of the reduced electric field with an increase of PW from low to high. More important, it is found that the excited reactive species, the positive and negative ions from plasma jet, and the concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in deionized water exposed to plasma jet also display the first increasing and then decreasing change trend with increase of PW, while the concentration of H2O2 in water almost displays the linearly increasing trend. This mainly results from the formation of the H3O+ and HO2-, as well as their ion water clusters that can produce more OH radicals to be converted into H2O2, while the NO2- and NO3- in gas phase can transport into water and exist most stably in water. The water cluster formation at gas-liquid interface is an important key process that can affect the chemical nature and dose of aqueous RONS in water; this is beneficial for understanding how the RONS are formed in liquid-phase.

  13. Helium generation and diffusion in graphite and some carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.B.; Guinan, M.W.; Hosmer, D.W.; Condit, R.H.; Borg, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The cross section for the generation of helium in neutron irradiated carbon was found to be 654 mb at 14.4 MeV and 744 mb at 14.9 MeV. Extrapolating to 14.1 MeV (the fusion reactor spectrum) gives 615 mb. The diffusion of helium in dense polycrystalline graphite and in pyrographite was measured and found to be D = 7.2 x 10 -7 m 2 s -1 exp (-80 kJ/RT). It is assumed that diffusion is primarily in the basal plane direction in crystals of the graphite. In polycrystalline graphite the path length is a factor of √2 longer than the measured distance due to the random orientation mismatch between successive grains. Isochronal anneals (measured helium release as the specimen is steadily heated) were run and maximum release rates were found at 200 0 C in polycrystalline graphite, 1000 0 C in pyrographite, 1350 0 C in boron carbide, and 1350 0 and 2400 0 C (two peaks) in silicon carbide. It is concluded that in these candidates for curtain materials in fusion reactors the helium releases can probably occur without bubble formation in graphites, may occur in boron carbide, but will probably cause bubble formation in silicon carbide. 7 figures

  14. Hydrogen isotope double differential production cross sections induced by 62.7 MeV neutrons on a lead target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerveno, M.; Haddad, F.; Eudes, Ph.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.; Slypen, I.; Meulders, J.P.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Lefebvres, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Double differential hydrogen isotope production cross sections have been extracted in 62.7 MeV neutron induced reactions on a lead target. The angular distribution was measured at eight angles from 20 deg. to 160 deg. allowing the extraction of angle-differential, energy differential, and total production cross sections. A first set of comparisons with several theoretical calculations is also presented

  15. Measurements of prompt charm production cross-sections in pp collisions at √s=5 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d’Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D’Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall’Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O’Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J.G.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J.P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T’Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Production cross-sections of prompt charm mesons are measured using data from pp collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 5 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 8.60 ± 0.33 pb−1 collected by the LHCb experiment. The production cross-sections of D0, D+, Ds +, and

  16. Production and cross-sectional characterization of aligned co-electrospun hollow microfibrous bulk assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Feng-Lei [Centre for Imaging Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); The School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); CRUK-EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre in Cambridge and Manchester (United Kingdom); Parker, Geoff J.M., E-mail: geoff.parker@manchester.ac.uk [Centre for Imaging Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); CRUK-EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre in Cambridge and Manchester (United Kingdom); Eichhorn, Stephen J. [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom); Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L. [Centre for Imaging Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    The development of co-electrospun (co-ES) hollow microfibrous assemblies of an appreciable thickness is critical for many practical applications, including filtration membranes and tissue-mimicking scaffolds. In this study, thick uniaxially aligned hollow microfibrous assemblies forming fiber bundles and strips were prepared by co-ES of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as shell and core materials, respectively. Hollow microfiber bundles were deposited on a fixed rotating disc, which resulted in non-controllable cross-sectional shapes on a macroscopic scale. In comparison, fiber strips were produced with tuneable thickness and width by additionally employing an x–y translation stage in co-ES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of cross-sections of fiber assemblies were analyzed to investigate the effects of production time (from 0.5 h to 12 h), core flow rate (from 0.8 mL/h to 2.0 mL/h) and/or translation speed (from 0.2 mm/s to 5 mm/s) on the pores and porosity. We observed significant changes in pore size and shape with core flow rate but the influence of production time varied; five strips produced under the same conditions had reasonably good size and porosity reproducibility; pore sizes didn't vary significantly from strip bottom to surface, although the porosity gradually decreased and then returned to the initial level. - Highlights: • Hollow microfibrous assemblies based on co-electrospinning are demonstrated. • The thickness and width of co-electrospun strips were controllable. • Cross-sections of fibres had non-normally distributed pore sizes and shapes. • Cross-sections were significantly influenced by production time and flow rate. • Co-electrospun strips had reasonably good reproducible cross-sections.

  17. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  18. Radiation damage in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium with helium bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, FengChao [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wang, Pei [Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Liu, XiaoYi [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wu, HengAn, E-mail: wuha@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2017-02-15

    To understand the role of helium on self-irradiation effects in δ-plutonium, microstructure evolutions due to α-decay events near pre-existing helium bubbles in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Bubble promoting effect plays a dominating role in point defects production, resulting in increasing number of point defects. When lightweight helium atoms act as media, energy transfer discrepancy and altered spatial morphology of point defects induced by mass effect are revealed. The evolution of stacking faults surrounding the disordered core is studied and their binding effect on the propagation of point defects are presented. The cascade-induced bubble coalescence, resolution and re-nucleation driven by internal pressure are obtained in the investigation on helium behaviors. The intrinsic tendency in our simulated self-irradiation with helium bubbles is significant for understanding the underlying mechanism of aging in plutonium and its alloys.

  19. Assessment of Fission Product Cross-Section Data for Burnup Credit Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Luiz C; Derrien, Herve; Dunn, Michael E; Mueller, Don

    2007-01-01

    Past efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and others have provided sufficient technical information to enable the NRC to issue regulatory guidance for implementation of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) burnup credit; however, consideration of only the reactivity change due to the major actinides is recommended in the guidance. Moreover, DOE, NRC, and EPRI have noted the need for additional scientific and technical data to justify expanding PWR burnup credit to include fission product (FP) nuclides and enable burnup credit implementation for boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The criticality safety assessment needed for burnup credit applications will utilize computational analyses of packages containing SNF with FP nuclides. Over the years, significant efforts have been devoted to the nuclear data evaluation of major isotopes pertinent to reactor applications (i.e., uranium, plutonium, etc.); however, efforts to evaluate FP cross-section data in the resonance region have been less thorough relative to actinide data. In particular, resonance region cross-section measurements with corresponding R-matrix resonance analyses have not been performed for FP nuclides. Therefore, the objective of this work is to assess the status and performance of existing FP cross-section and cross-section uncertainty data in the resonance region for use in burnup credit analyses. Recommendations for new cross-section measurements and/or evaluations are made based on the data assessment. The assessment focuses on seven primary FP isotopes (103Rh, 133Cs, 143Nd, 149Sm, 151Sm, 152Sm, and 155Gd) that impact reactivity analyses of transportation packages and two FP isotopes (153Eu and 155Eu) that impact prediction of 155Gd concentrations. Much of the assessment work was completed in 2005, and the assessment focused on the latest FP cross-section evaluations available in the

  20. Helium turbomachinery operating experience from gas turbine power plants and test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Colin F.

    2012-01-01

    The closed-cycle gas turbine, pioneered and deployed in Europe, is not well known in the USA. Since nuclear power plant studies currently being conducted in several countries involve the coupling of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a helium closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system, the experience gained from operated helium turbomachinery is the focus of this paper. A study done as early as 1945 foresaw the use of a helium closed-cycle gas turbine coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, and some two decades later this was investigated but not implemented because of lack of technology readiness. However, the first practical use of helium as a gas turbine working fluid was recognized for cryogenic processes, and the first two small fossil-fired helium gas turbines to operate were in the USA for air liquefaction and nitrogen production facilities. In the 1970's a larger helium gas turbine plant and helium test facilities were built and operated in Germany to establish technology bases for a projected future high efficiency large nuclear gas turbine power plant concept. This review paper covers the experience gained, and the lessons learned from the operation of helium gas turbine plants and related test facilities, and puts these into perspective since over three decades have passed since they were deployed. An understanding of the many unexpected events encountered, and how the problems, some of them serious, were resolved is important to avoid them being replicated in future helium turbomachines. The valuable lessons learned in the past, in many cases the hard way, particularly from the operation in Germany of the Oberhausen II 50 MWe helium gas turbine plant, and the technical know-how gained from the formidable HHV helium turbine test facility, are viewed as being germane in the context of current helium turbomachine design work being done for future high efficiency nuclear gas turbine plant concepts. - Highlights:

  1. Orthogonality, Lommel integrals and cross product zeros of linear combinations of Bessel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziener, Christian H; Kurz, Felix T; Buschle, Lukas R; Kampf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cylindrical Bessel differential equation and the spherical Bessel differential equation in the interval [Formula: see text] with Neumann boundary conditions are considered. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of the Bessel function [Formula: see text] or linear combinations of the spherical Bessel functions [Formula: see text]. The orthogonality relations with analytical expressions for the normalization constant are given. Explicit expressions for the Lommel integrals in terms of Lommel functions are derived. The cross product zeros [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are considered in the complex plane for real as well as complex values of the index [Formula: see text] and approximations for the exceptional zero [Formula: see text] are obtained. A numerical scheme based on the discretization of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional Laplace operator with Neumann boundary conditions is presented. Explicit representations of the radial part of the Laplace operator in form of a tridiagonal matrix allow the simple computation of the cross product zeros.

  2. Measurement of quarkonium production cross sections in pp collisions at √{ s } = 13TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Croce, D.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Flouris, G.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Roskas, C.; Salva, S.; Tytgat, M.; Verbeke, W.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caputo, C.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. 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S.; Zarubin, A.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Stepennov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Aushev, T.; Bylinkin, A.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Parygin, P.; Philippov, D.; Polikarpov, S.; Tarkovskii, E.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Shtol, D.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Álvarez Fernández, A.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Erice, C.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Vischia, P.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chazin Quero, B.; Curras, E.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bianco, M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; Chapon, E.; Chen, Y.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Everaerts, P.; Fallavollita, F.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karacheban, O.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Milenovic, P.; Moortgat, F.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Selvaggi, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Stakia, A.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Verweij, M.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Caminada, L.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Berger, P.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Klijnsma, T.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Reichmann, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Shchutska, L.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Vesterbacka Olsson, M. L.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D. H.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Del Burgo, R.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Steen, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Bakirci, M. N.; Boran, F.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Topakli, H.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Tekten, S.; Yetkin, E. A.; Agaras, M. N.; Atay, S.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Davignon, O.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Breeze, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Elwood, A.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Matsushita, T.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Palladino, V.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wardle, N.; Winterbottom, D.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Smith, C.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Pazzini, J.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Yu, D.; Band, R.; Brainerd, C.; Breedon, R.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Wang, Z.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Hashemi, B.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Masciovecchio, M.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Nguyen, T.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Mudholkar, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cerati, G. B.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Joshi, Y. R.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Martinez, G.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Saha, A.; Santra, A.; Sharma, V.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Joyce, M.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    Differential production cross sections of prompt J / ψ and ψ (2S) charmonium and ϒ (nS) (n = 1 , 2 , 3) bottomonium states are measured in proton-proton collisions at √{ s } = 13TeV, with data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3 fb-1 for the J / ψ and 2.7 fb-1 for the other mesons. The five quarkonium states are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel, for dimuon rapidity | y | y and transverse momentum, and compared to theoretical expectations. In addition, ratios are presented of cross sections for prompt ψ (2S) to J / ψ, ϒ (2S) to ϒ (1S) , and ϒ (3S) to ϒ (1S) production.

  3. Measurement of the Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section in pp Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; James, E.; Johns, K.; Markosky, L.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Butler, J.M.; Fatyga, M.; Featherly, J.; Gibbard, B.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Kahn, S.; Kotcher, J.; Protopopescu, S.; Rajagopalan, S.; Bantly, J.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cutts, D.; Guida, J.M.; Hoftun, J.S.; Nesic, D.; Partridge, R.; Grinstein, S.; Piegaia, R.; Bloom, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Glenn, S.; Grim, G.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lander, R.; Mani, S.; Drinkard, J.; Fahland, T.; Hall, R.E.; Boswell, C.; Choudhary, B.C.; Cochran, J.; Ellison, J.; Gartung, P.; Heinson, A.P.; Huehn, T.; Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; Miranda, J.M. de; Motta, H. da.; Nicola, M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Adam, I.; Kotwal, A.V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Abachi, S.; Ahn, S.; Baldin, B.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bhat, P.C.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Bross, A.; Christenson, J.H.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Feher, S.; Fisk, H.E.; Flattum, E.; Fuess, S.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grossman, N.; Haggerty, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a measurement of the t bar t production cross section in p bar p collisions at √(s)=1.8 TeV by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. The measurement is based on data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 125 pb -1 accumulated during the 1992 endash 1996 collider run. We observe 39t bar t candidate events in the dilepton and lepton+jets decay channels with an expected background of 13.7±2.2 events. For a top quark mass of 173.3 GeV/c 2 , we measure the t bar t production cross section to be 5.5±1.8 pb. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Neutron secondary-particle production cross sections and their incorporation into Monte-Carlo transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.; Little, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Realistic simulations of the passage of fast neutrons through tissue require a large quantity of cross-sectional data. What are needed are differential (in particle type, energy and angle) cross sections. A computer code is described which produces such spectra for neutrons above ∼14 MeV incident on light nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. Comparisons have been made with experimental measurements of double-differential secondary charged-particle production on carbon and oxygen at energies from 27 to 60 MeV; they indicate that the model is adequate in this energy range. In order to utilize fully the results of these calculations, they should be incorporated into a neutron transport code. This requires defining a generalized format for describing charged-particle production, putting the calculated results in this format, interfacing the neutron transport code with these data, and charged-particle transport. The design and development of such a program is described. 13 refs., 3 figs

  5. The multiple ionization of helium induced by partially stripped carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiaohong; Chen Ximeng; Shen Ziyong

    1996-01-01

    The ratios of the double to single ionization cross sections of helium impacted by partially stripped C q+ ions (q = 1,2,3,4) in energy range of 1.5-7.5 MeV were measured by using the time of flight procedure. The n-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculation was carried out to get the Olson-Schlachter scaling. The single and double ionization cross sections of helium were obtained by comparing the cross section ratios of the present work with the Olson-Schlachter scaling

  6. Top quark production cross-section at the Tevatron Run 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, S.

    2003-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross-section ${\\sigma}_{t\\bar{t}}$ has been measured in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at center of mass energies of 1.96 TeV using Tevatron Run 2 data. In the begining of Run 2 both CDF and D\\O\\ $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}}$ measurements in the {\\it dilepton} channel $t\\bar{t}{\\to}WbW\\bar{b}{\\to}\\bar{\\ell}{\

  7. Battle of the Retail Channels: How Product Selection and Geography Drive Cross-Channel Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Brynjolfsson; Yu (Jeffrey) Hu; Mohammad S. Rahman

    2009-01-01

    A key question for Internet commerce is the nature of competition with traditional brick-and-mortar retailers. Although traditional retailers vastly outsell Internet retailers in most product categories, research on Internet retailing has largely neglected this fundamental dimension of competition. Is cross-channel competition significant, and if so, how and where can Internet retailers win this battle? This paper attempts to answer these questions using a unique combination of data sets. We ...

  8. Measurement of neutron and gamma-ray production double differential cross section at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    High energy nuclear radiations were measured for 0.8-3.0 GeV proton induced reactions at KEK. The measurement was carried out to overcome the problems arising from the use of secondary beam line of a quite low incident beam intensity. Digital pulse shape discrimination method was applicable to separation between high energy neutrons and gamma-rays. By the use of a number of scintillators, cross sections were obtained for production of neutrons and gamma-rays. (author)

  9. Threshold resummation and the total cross section for top quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Contopanagos, H.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the motivation for resummation of the effects of initial-state soft gluon radiation, to all orders in the strong coupling strength, for processes in which the near-threshold region in the partonic subenergy is important. We summarize our calculation of the total cross section for top quark production at hadron colliders. Comments are included on the differences between our treatment of subleading logarithmic terms and other methods

  10. Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections of Th by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, A., E-mail: aurelien.moy@cea.fr [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Merlet, C. [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Dugne, O. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • The M X-ray production cross sections of Th were measured by electron impact. • The M-subshell ionization cross sections of Th were determined from 3 to 38 keV. • Theoretical ionization cross-sections are in agreement with our experimental results. - Abstract: Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections for element Th were made by electron impact for energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 38 keV. Experimental data were obtained by measuring the X-ray intensity emitted from ultrathin Th films deposited onto self-supporting C backing films. The measurements were conducted with an electron microprobe using high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Recorded intensities were converted into absolute X-ray production cross sections by means of atomic data and estimation of the number of primary electrons, target thickness, and detector efficiency. Our experimental X-ray production cross sections, the first to be reported for the M subshells of Th, are compared with X-ray production cross sections calculated with the mean of ionization cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation. The Mα X-ray production cross section calculated is in excellent agreement with the measurements, allowing future use for standardless quantification in electron probe microanalysis.

  11. Top-quark production at the LHC. Differential cross section and phenomenological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, Marco; Lipka, Katerina; Moch, Sven-Olaf

    2013-08-01

    We discuss top-quark pair production at hadron colliders and review available calculations of differential top-pair production cross section in perturbative QCD at approximate next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) within the threshold resummation formalism. These calculations are implemented into an open source program under development. We present phenomenological studies at the LHC that include transverse momentum and rapidity distribution of the top quarks at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Preliminary results obtained with this program are in very good agreement with the recent LHC measurements.

  12. The investigation of deuteron production double differential cross section induced by 392 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, Tadahiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Imamura, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the deuteron productions from 392 MeV proton induced reaction for target nuclei of 12 C, 27 Al, 93 Nb. Deuteron production double differential cross sections were determined over a broad energy range and scattered angles from 20 to 105 degrees in laboratory system. Those spectra were compared with two theoretical models; Quantum Molecular Dynamics model and Intranuclear Cascade model. We developed the code of Intra Nuclear Cascade model and we've got good results to reproduce the experimental data. (author)

  13. Measurement of low $p_{T}$ $D^{0}$ meson production cross section at CDF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussini, Manuel [Univ. of Bologna (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    In this thesis we present a study of the production of D0 meson in the low transverse momentum region. In particular the inclusive differential production cross section of the D0 meson (in the two-body decay channel D0 → K-π+) is obtained extending the published CDF II measurement to pT as low as 1.5 GeV/c. This study is performed at the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab with the CDF II detector.

  14. Pion production differential cross section of heavy-ion collisions at subthreshold energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abumurad, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    A revised model for pion production in heavy-ion peripheral collisions at subthreshold energies is presented. The pion-production mechanism investigated here is a two step process involving the formation and subsequent decay of an isobar resonance in the projectile nucleus. The independent-particle shell model with harmonic oscillator states is used to approximate the internal structure of the nucleus. The pion production cross section shows a definite angular distribution characteristic of coherent production. It also gives an indication of the quantum signature of the emitted pions. The results show the disappearance of the quantum signature from the energy spectra because of the inclusion of higher order multipoles. The theory is compared to recent experimental data. The comparison reveals that the general trend is reproduced, which is encouraging

  15. Multiple regression technique for Pth degree polynominals with and without linear cross products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple regression technique was developed by which the nonlinear behavior of specified independent variables can be related to a given dependent variable. The polynomial expression can be of Pth degree and can incorporate N independent variables. Two cases are treated such that mathematical models can be studied both with and without linear cross products. The resulting surface fits can be used to summarize trends for a given phenomenon and provide a mathematical relationship for subsequent analysis. To implement this technique, separate computer programs were developed for the case without linear cross products and for the case incorporating such cross products which evaluate the various constants in the model regression equation. In addition, the significance of the estimated regression equation is considered and the standard deviation, the F statistic, the maximum absolute percent error, and the average of the absolute values of the percent of error evaluated. The computer programs and their manner of utilization are described. Sample problems are included to illustrate the use and capability of the technique which show the output formats and typical plots comparing computer results to each set of input data.

  16. Productivity of Pure Breeds and Crossed Caprine Genotypes in the Coastal Oases of Southern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gaddour

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of pure breeds of goats and genotypes resulting from crossing of absorption of the local goat by ameliorative breeds aims at determining the best goat genotypes which allow enhancing oasis resources. The study of individual growth performances in kids of the local population, in Alpine, Damascus and Murciana-Granadina breeds is insufficient to conclude on genetic and economic advantages allowing to select the ameliorative breed. This study helped to establish bioeconomic indices to evaluate the productivity of pure and crossed genetic groups. The meat index corrected the growth performances by the metabolic weight of the adults and productivity rates. The index analysis, elaborated from a data bank based on sixteen performance control campaigns, led to somewhat different results from those established on the comparison of individual performances. It is necessary to develop more complete indices, which will help to consider productivity better as well as costs of intensive farming, and to apply them to the whole of the data in order to answer the genetic and economic objectives of the project on crossing of absorption of the local goat population.

  17. Impulse approximation in solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The incoherent dynamic form factor S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated in solid helium for comparison with the impulse approximation (IA). The purpose is to determine the Q values for which the IA is valid for systems such a helium where the atoms interact via a potential having a steeply repulsive but not infinite hard core. For 3 He, S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated from first principles, beginning with the pair potential. The density of states g(ω) is evaluated using the self-consistent phonon theory and S/sub i/(Q,ω) is expressed in terms of g(ω). For solid 4 He resonable models of g(ω) using observed input parameters are used to evaluate S/sub i/(Q,ω). In both cases S/sub i/(Q, ω) is found to approach the impulse approximation S/sub IA/(Q, ω) closely for wave vector transfers Q> or approx. =20 A -1 . The difference between S/sub i/ and S/sub IA/, which is due to final state interactions of the scattering atom with the remainder of the atoms in the solid, is also predominantly antisymmetric in (ω-ω/sub R/), where ω/sub R/ is the recoil frequency. This suggests that the symmetrization procedure proposed by Sears to eliminate final state contributions should work well in solid helium

  18. Liquid helium plant in Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapov, N.N.; Baldin, A.M.; Kovalenko, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The liquid-helium cooling capacity installed at the Laboratory of High Energies is about 5 kw at a 4.5 K temperature level. It is provided with four industrial helium liquefiers of 1.6 kw/4.5 K each. They have been made by the Russian enterprise NPO GELYMASH and upgraded by the specialists of the Laboratory. The first one was put into operation in 1980, the two others in 1991, and the last one is under commissioning. The development of the LHE cryoplant was concerned with the construction of the new superconducting accelerator Nuclotron aimed to accelerate nuclei and heavy ions up to energies of 6 GeV/u. The first test run at the Nuclotron was carried out in March 1993, and the total running time has been about 2000 hours up to now. Since 1992 the cryoplant has been intensively used by the users outside the Laboratory. More than a million liters of liquid helium was provided in 1993 for such users. The reliability of the cryoplant system was as high as 98 percent for 4500 hours of operation in 1993-1994. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Self-trapping of helium in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.D.; Bisson, C.L.; Baskes, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Atomistic calculations are presented which demonstrate that helium atoms in a metal lattice are able to cluster with each other, producing vacancies and nearby self-interstitial defects. Even a small number of helium atoms is found to be sufficient to create these large distortions. As few as five interstitial helium can spontaneously produce a lattice vacancy and nearby self-interstitial. An eight-helium-atom cluster gives rise to two such defects, and 16 helium atoms to more than five self-interstitial vacancy pairs. It was noted that the self-interstitials prefer to agglomerate on the same ''side'' of the helium cluster rather than to spread themselves out uniformly. The binding energy of each additional helium atom to these clusters increases with helium concentration and the trap is apparently unsaturable. A rate theory using these atomistic binding energies has been used to calculate the kinetics of helium-bubble nucleation and growth. The results are consistent with measurements of the properties of helium resulting from tritium decay

  20. Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses ionization phenomena in helium, both photoionization and electron ionization. In particular he compares double ionization cross sections with total cross sections, as a function of electron energy, and photon energy. Data is discussed over the energy range up to 10 keV

  1. 26Al/sup g,m/ production cross sections from the 23Na(α,n)26Al reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Chupp, T.E.; Lesko, K.T.; Schwalbach, P.; Grant, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cross sections have been determined for the production of 26 Al/sup g,m/ from the 23 Na(α,n) reaction. Total 26 Al production cross sections were obtained from measurements of the thick-target neutron yield. 26 Al/sup m/ cross sections were measured using an activation technique. 26 Al/sup g/ cross sections were deduced by subtracting the 26 Al/sup m/ cross sections from the total (α,n) cross sections. The principle of detailed balance has been applied to the low energy data to obtain cross sections for the astrophysically interesting 26 Al/sup g/(n,α 0 ) 23 Na reaction. These results are compared with the results of Hauser-Feshbach calculations

  2. Interaction of electrons with biomolecules and development of a helium cluster source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denifl, S.

    2004-07-01

    In the main part of the present work electron interaction (attachment/ionization) with molecules of biological relevance has been studied in the electron energy range from about 0 to 70 eV. For these measurements a crossed neutral / high resolution electron beams apparatus in conjunction with a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been used. The present work should evaluate the description of the damage induced by high energy radiation since low secondary electrons with energies below 20 eV are created in a large amount in the interaction of the primary radiation with cell compounds. Thus dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and electron impact ionization near the threshold of biomulecules has been studied below 20 eV under isolated conditions. DEA to the DNA/RNA molecules thymine, cytosine and uracil has been carried out. As for most of the recently studied simple biomolecules (like isolated DNA bases, amino acids and sugars) no parent ion has been observed. It turned out that the most abundant fragment ions for DNA/RNA bases are the dehydrogenated bases. In addition to DNA/RNA bases also electron interaction with 6-Chlorouracil has been studied. Another part of this thesis is the construction of a He cluster source. Helium clusters are most difficult to produce as temperatures of about 10 K have to be reached in the stagnation chamber at the stagnation pressure of about 20 bar. The newly developed source allows achieving stagnation conditions for a helium cluster production. (author)

  3. Constraints on top quark nonstandard interactions from Higgs boson and t t¯ production cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, D.; Fabbrichesi, M.; Tonero, A.

    2017-10-01

    We identify the differential cross sections for t t ¯ production and the total cross section for Higgs production through gluon fusion as the processes in which the two effective operators describing the leading nonstandard interactions of the top quark with the gluon can be disentangled and studied in an independent fashion. Current data on the Higgs production and the d σ /d pTt differential cross section provide limits comparable to, but not more stringent than, those from the total t t ¯ cross sections measurements at the LHC and Tevatron, where however the two operators enter on the same footing and can only be constrained together. We conclude by stating the (modest) reduction in the uncertainties necessary to provide more stringent limits by means of the Higgs production and t t ¯ differential cross section observables at the LHC with the future luminosity of 300 and 3000 fb-1 .

  4. Cross-section measurement for quasi-elastic production of charmed baryons in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Spada, F R; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Pittoni, G L; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Chizhov, M; Doucet, M; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2003-01-01

    A study of quasi-elastic production of charmed baryons in charged-current interactions of neutrinos with the nuclear emulsion target of CHORUS is presented. In a sample of about 46000 interactions located in the emulsion, candidates for decays of short-lived particles were identified by using new automatic scanning systems and later confirmed through visual inspection. Criteria based both on topologival and kinematical characteristics of quasi-elastic charm production allowed a clear separation between events of this type and those in which charm is produced in deep inelastic processes. A final sample containing 13 candidates consistent with quasi-elastic production of a charmed baryon with an estimated background of 1.7 events was obtained. At the average neutrino energy of 27GeV the cross section for total quasi-elastic production of charmed baryons relative to the nuN charged-current cross-section was measured to be sigma(QE)/sigma(CC)=(0.23^+0.12_-0.06(stat)^+0.02_-0.03(syst))x10^-2. Through an analysis o...

  5. Cross-section measurement for quasielastic production of charmed baryons in nu N interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Spada, F R; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Pittoni, G L; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Chizhov, M; Doucet, M; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Lavina, L S; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2003-01-01

    A study of quasielastic production of charmed baryons in charged- current interactions of neutrinos with the nuclear emulsion target of CHORUS is presented. In a sample of about 46 000 interactions located in the emulsion, candidates for decays of short-lived particles were identified by using new automatic scanning systems and later confirmed through visual inspection. Criteria based both on the topological and kinematical characteristics of quasielastic charm production allowed a clear separation between events of this type and those in which charm is produced in deep inelastic processes. A final sample containing 13 candidates consistent with quasielastic production of a charmed baryon with an estimated background of 1.7 events was obtained. At the average neutrino energy of 27 GeV the cross-section for the total quasielastic production of charmed baryons relative to the nu N charged-current cross-section was measured to be sigma (QE)/ sigma (CC)=(0.23/sub -0.06//sup +0.12 /(stat)/sub -0.03//sup + /0/sup ....

  6. Double ionization of atomic helium under heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Cross sections for double ionization of helium by multiply-charged ion impact and the corresponding ratios of double-to-single ionization are presented as a sum of the contributions given by the one-step (shake-off) and two-step (TS) processes. An analytic form is found for the continuum wavefunction which is valid in both limiting cases of low and high velocities of the relative motion. Using this wavefunction, the TS cross sections are calculated within the independent-event model. The results for the ratios of double-to-single ionization show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data available. (author)

  7. FENDL/E-2.0. Evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections and photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. Version 1, March 1997. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections, photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. It is part of the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications FENDL-2. The data are available cost-free from the Nuclear Data Section upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author)

  8. Thermal-hydraulic optimization of flexible transfer lines for liquid helium; Thermohydraulische Optimierung flexibler Transferleitungen fuer Fluessighelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmar, Nico; Haberstroh, Christoph; Hesse, U. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Bitzer-Stiftungsprofessur fuer Kaelte-, Kryo- und Kompressorentechnik; Wolfram, M.; Krzyzowski, M.; Raccanelli, A. [CryoVac Gesellschaft fuer Tieftemperaturtechnik mbH und Co. KG, Troisdorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Cooling systems and applications at very low temperatures are based on the use of liquid helium as cryogenic agent; the normal boiling temperature of helium-4 is 4.2 K. Due to the restricted economic production possibilities and the high energetic expenditure for helium liquefaction an efficient and sustainable handling with the resources is recommended. In university facilities the liquid helium is usually stored in containers and filled into smaller containers for transport using cryogenic transfer lines. This procedure can cause 20% loss by evaporation due to heat input and friction pressure losses. The gaseous helium has to be collected for re-liquefaction. The contribution shows that using systematic measurements an increase of the transfer rate and the efficiency of the helium filling system can be reached by a modified transfer line design.

  9. New closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for prevention of product cross-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, K; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T R; Viswas, K N; Dhama, Kuldeep; Agarwal, R K

    2014-01-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, a promising diagnostic test, has been developed for detection of different pathogens of human as well as animals. Various positive points support its use as a field level test but the major problem is product cross contamination leading to false positive results. Different methods were adopted by various researchers to control this false positive amplification due to cross contamination but all have their own advantages and disadvantages. A new closed tube LAMP assay based on agar dye capsule was developed in the present study and this technique has some advantages over the other closed tube technique.•Agar at the concentration of 1.5% was used to sandwich SYBR green dye I with the aid of intradermal syringe. This agar dye capsule was placed over the LAMP reaction mixture before it was amplified.•To eliminate the hazardous nature of Ultra Violet (UV) light during result visualization of LAMP products, the present study demonstrates the use of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lights for result visualization.•LAMP was carried out for Brucella species detection using this modified techniques yielding good results without any cross contamination and LED showed similar fluorescence compared to UV.

  10. Helium diffusion in nickel at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.

    1980-09-01

    Helium has been implanted at certain temperatures between 800 and 1250 0 C into single and polycrystalline Ni-samples with implantation depths between 15 and 90 μm. Simultaneously the helium reemission from the sample is measured by a mass-spectrometer. It has been shown that the time dependence of the observed reemission rate is governed by volume diffusion of the helium. Measuring this time dependence as a function of temperature the helium diffusion constant has been determined. The He-diffusion is interpreted as a interstitial diffusion hindered by thermal vacancies. Depending on the implantation depth more or less of the implanted helium remains in the sample and forms large helium bubbles. (orig./GSCH)

  11. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds

  12. Backscattered Helium Spectroscopy in the Helium Ion Microscope: Principles, Resolution and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Raoul; Hlawacek, G.; Dutta, S.; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibilities and limitations for microstructure characterization using backscattered particles from a sharply focused helium ion beam. The interaction of helium ions with matter enables the imaging, spectroscopic characterization, as well as the nanometer scale modification of

  13. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  14. Production, separation and target preparation of 171Tm an 147Pm for neutron cross section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Heinitz, S; Schumann, D; Dressler, R; Kivel, N; Guerrero, C; Köster, U; Tessler, M; Paul, M; Halfon, S

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the neutron capture cross sections of s-process branching point isotopes represents a basic requirement for the understanding of star evolution. Since such branching point isotopes are by definition radioactive, the measurement of their cross sections from thermal to stellar energies becomes a challenging task. Considerable amounts of material have to be produced, representing a significant radioactive hazard. We report here on the production and separation of 3.5 mg 171Tm from 240 mg 170Er2O3 and 72 µg 147Pm from 100 mg 146Nd2O3 irradiated at the ILL high flux reactor. Thin targets were prepared with high chemical and radioisotopic purity suitable for neutron capture measurements at n_TOF CERN and the SARAF-LiLiT facility.

  15. Prompt ignition of a unipolar arc on helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Takamura, Shuichi; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    A fibreform nanostructured layer is formed on a tungsten surface by helium plasma bombardment. The helium fluence was of the order of 10 26 m -2 , and the surface temperature and incident ion energy during helium irradiation were, respectively, 1900 K and 75 eV. By irradiating a laser pulse to the surface in the plasma, a unipolar arc, which many people have tried to verify in well-defined experiments, is promptly initiated and continued for a much longer time than the laser pulse width. The laser pulse width (∼0.6 ms) and power (∼5 MJ m -2 ) are similar to the heat load accompanied by type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER. The unipolar arc is verified from an increase in the floating potential, a moving arc spot detected by a fast camera and arcing traces on the surface. This result suggests that the nanostructure on the tungsten surface formed by the bombardment of helium, which is a fusion product, could significantly change the ignition property of arcing, and ELMs become a trigger of unipolar arcing, which would be a great impurity source in fusion devices. (letter)

  16. r-process nucleosynthesis in dynamic helium-burning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J. J.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Truran, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an extended examination of r-process nucleosynthesis in helium-burning enviroments are presented. Using newly calculated nuclear rates, dynamical r-process calculations have been made of thermal runaways in helium cores typical of low-mass stars and in the helium zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions. These calculations show that, for a sufficient flux of neutrons produced by the C-13 neutron source, r-process nuclei in solar proportions can be produced. The conditions required for r-process production are found to be 10 to the 20th-10 to the 21st neutrons per cubic centimeter for times of 0.01-0.1 s and neutron number densities in excess of 10 to the 19th per cubic centimeter for times of about 1 s. The amount of C-13 required is found to be exceedingly high - larger than is found to occur in any current stellar evolutionary model. It is thus unlikely that these helium-burning environments are responsible for producing the bulk of the r-process elements seen in the solar system.

  17. The Chalk River helium jet and skimmer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeing, H.; Koslowsky, V.; Wightman, M.; Hardy, J.C.; MacDonald, J.A.; Faestermann, T.; Andrews, H.R.; Geiger, J.S.; Graham, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A helium jet and skimmer system intended as an interface between a target location at the Chalk River tandem accelerator and the ion source of an on-line separator presently under construction has been developed. The system consists of a target chamber, a 125 cm long capillary, and a one stage skimmer chamber. The designs of the target and skimmer chambers allow one to vary a large number of independent flow and geometrical parameters with accurate reproducibility. Experiments with the β-delayed proton emitter 25 Si (tsub(1/2)=218 ms) produced in the reaction 24 Mg( 3 He,2n) 25 Si show that under optimized conditions about 75% of the reaction products leaving the target are transported to the skimmer. Of those, more than 90% pass through the skimmer orifice, which separates off 97.5% of the transport gas, helium. By introducing an additional helium flow across the skimming orifice the amount of helium separated off the transport jet can be increased to beyond 99.85%, leaving the high throughput of recoils unaffected. (Auth.)

  18. Impact of neutron irradiation on thermal helium desorption from iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xunxiang, E-mail: hux1@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Taller, Stephen [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The synergistic effect of neutron irradiation and transmutant helium production is an important concern for the application of iron-based alloys as structural materials in fission and fusion reactors. In this study, we investigated the impact of neutron irradiation on thermal helium desorption behavior in high purity iron. Single crystalline and polycrystalline iron samples were neutron irradiated in HFIR to 5 dpa at 300 °C and in BOR-60 to 16.6 dpa at 386 °C, respectively. Following neutron irradiation, 10 keV He ion implantation was performed at room temperature on both samples to a fluence of 7 × 10{sup 18} He/m{sup 2}. Thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) was conducted to assess the helium diffusion and clustering kinetics by analyzing the desorption spectra. The comparison of He desorption spectra between unirradiated and neutron irradiated samples showed that the major He desorption peaks shift to higher temperatures for the neutron-irradiated iron samples, implying that strong trapping sites for He were produced during neutron irradiation, which appeared to be nm-sized cavities through TEM examination. The underlying mechanisms controlling the helium trapping and desorption behavior were deduced by assessing changes in the microstructure, as characterized by TEM, of the neutron irradiated samples before and after TDS measurements.

  19. r-process nucleosynthesis in dynamic helium-burning environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, J.J.; Cameron, A.G.W.; Truran, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an extended examination of r-process nucleosynthesis in helium-burning environments are presented. Using newly calculated nuclear rates, dynamical r-process calculations have been made of thermal runaways in helium cores typical of low-mass stars and in the helium zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions. These calculations show that, for a sufficient flux of neutrons produced by the 13 C neutron source, r-process nuclei in solar proportions can be produced. The conditions required for r-process production are found to be: 10 20 --10 21 neutrons cm -3 for times of 0.01--0.1 s and neutron number densities in excess of 10 19 cm -3 for times of approx.1 s. The amount of 13 C required is found to be exceedingly high: larger than is found to occur in any current stellar evolutionary model. It is thus unlikely that these helium-burning environments are responsible for producing the bulk of the r-process elements seen in the solar system

  20. Productivity loss of caregivers of schizophrenia patients: a cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Mori, Yasuhiro; Mahlich, Jörg

    2018-04-27

    When a family member is diagnosed with schizophrenia, it causes stress to the caregiver that can eventually result in missed work days and lower work performance. This study aims at revealing productivity costs for caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of caregivers was conducted and resulted in 171 respondents. The assessment of work productivity included calculating the costs of absenteeism, presenteeism and total productivity costs. This was accomplished using the "Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire" (WPAI). A relative majority of caregivers in the sample provided care for their spouse (47%), 18% cared for their brother or sister and 16% provided care for their child. Per capita productivity costs totaled JPY 2.42 million, with JPY 2.36 million (97%) of that amount being due to presenteeism. The burden on caregivers is substantial enough to warrant structured support programs aimed at maintaining careers' physical and mental health, helping them provide more effective care to schizophrenia patients and eventually increase productivity at work.

  1. Measurement of photon production cross sections also in association with jets with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tassi, Enrico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs and tri-photon production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The ATLAS collaboration has studied the dynamics of isolated-photon production in association with gluon, light and heavy quark final states in pp collisions at a centre-of-...

  2. Evaluation of the total gamma-ray production cross-sections for nonelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, M.V.; Nefedov, Yu.Ya; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on the total gamma-ray production cross-sections for inelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei were analysed. The total gamma-ray production cross-sections, grouped according to E γ , were evaluated in the neutron energy range 0.5-19 MeV. The statistical spline approximation method was used to evaluate the experimental data. Evaluated data stored in the ENDF, JENDL, BROND, and other libraries on gamma-ray production spectra and cross-sections for inelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei, were analysed. (author)

  3. Thermalization of positronium in helium: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjanovic, S.; Suvakov, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Engbrecht, J.J. [Saint Olaf College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Petrovic, Z.Lj., E-mail: zoran@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper we present a numerical study of positronium (Ps) thermalization in pure helium (He). Recent measurements of Ps thermalization yielded data that were analyzed to produce the scattering cross-sections in helium by using energy balance equations with an assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (MBD) function for Ps. We have applied a Monte Carlo code to test the cross-sections. As our code was developed without any approximations for the energy distribution function we have effectively also tested the assumptions and the validity of the simple theory based on Maxwellian distributions. We present the simulation results using the simulation technique that is limited only by the accuracy of the available cross-sections. We calculate thermalization profiles for several theoretical and measured cross-sections. Also, the temporal evolution of energy distributions has been shown along with diffusion coefficients and spatial ranges of penetration. Thermalization of the initial distribution is rapid and the data follow relatively closely, those calculated in recent experiment, which supports the choice of MBD and the obtained cross-section. However the distribution function most of the time deviates from the MBD due to strong scattering. Finally, we applied the same procedure to analyze Ps thermalization in water vapor.

  4. Joint Interpretation of Bathymetric and Gravity Anomaly Maps Using Cross and Dot-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilinski, Pavel; Fontes, Sergio Luiz

    2010-05-01

    0.1 Summary We present the results of joint map interpretation technique based on cross and dot-products applied to bathymetric and gravity anomaly gradients maps. According to the theory (Gallardo, Meju, 2004) joint interpretation of different gradient characteristics help to localize and empathize patterns unseen on one image interpretation and gives information about the correlation of different spatial data. Values of angles between gradients and their cross and dot-product were used. This technique helps to map unseen relations between bathymetric and gravity anomaly maps if they are analyzed separately. According to the method applied for the southern segment of Eastern-Brazilian coast bathymetrical and gravity anomaly gradients indicates a strong source-effect relation between them. The details of the method and the obtained results are discussed. 0.2 Introduction We applied this method to investigate the correlation between bathymetric and gravity anomalies at the southern segment of the Eastern-Brazilian coast. Gridded satellite global marine gravity data and bathymetrical data were used. The studied area is located at the Eastern- Brazilian coast between the 20° W and 30° W meridians and 15° S and 25° S parallels. The volcanic events responsible for the uncommon width of the continental shelf at the Abrolhos bank also were responsible for the formation of the Abrolhos islands and seamounts including the major Vitoria-Trindade chain. According to the literature this volcanic structures are expected to have a corresponding gravity anomaly (McKenzie, 1976, Zembruscki, S.G. 1979). The main objective of this study is to develop and test joint image interpretation method to compare spatial data and analyze its relations. 0.3 Theory and Method 0.3.1 Data sources The bathymetrical satellite data were derived bathymetry 2-minute grid of the ETOPO2v2 obtained from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov). The satellite marine gravity 1

  5. Helium turbo-expander with an alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshitane

    1980-01-01

    Study was made on a helium turbo-expander, the heart of helium refrigerator systems, in order to develop a system which satisfies the required conditions. A helium turbo-expander with externally pressurized helium gas bearings at the temperature of liquid nitrogen and an alternator as a brake have been employed. The essential difference between a helium turbo-expander and a nitrogen turbo-expander was clarified. The gas bearing lubricated with nitrogen at room temperature and the gas bearing lubricated with helium at low temperature were tested. The flow rate of helium in a helium refrigerator for a large superconducting magnet is comparatively small, therefore a helium turbine must be small, but the standard for large turbine design can be applied to such small turbine. Using the alternator as a brake, the turbo-expander was easily controllable electrically. The prototype turbo-expander was made, and the liquefaction test with it and MHD power generation test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  6. Helium supply demand in future years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverick, C.

    1975-01-01

    Adequate helium will be available to the year 2000 AD to meet anticipated helium demands for present day applications and the development of new superconducting technologies of potential importance to the nation. It is almost certain that there will not be enough helium at acceptable financial and energy cost after the turn of the century to meet the needs of the many promising helium based technologies now under development. Serious consideration should be given to establishing priorities in development and application based upon their relative value to the country. In the first half of the next century, three ways of estimating helium demand lead to cumulative ranges of from 75 to 125 Gcf (economic study), 89 to 470 Gcf (projected national energy growth rates) and 154 to 328 Gcf (needs for new technologies). These needs contrast with estimated helium resources in natural gas after 2000 AD which may be as low as 10 or 126 Gcf depending upon how the federal helium program is managed and the nation's natural gas resources are utilized. The technological and financial return on a modest national investment in further helium storage and a rational long term helium program promises to be considerable

  7. Measurement of the $WW+WZ$ production cross section in a semileptonic decay mode at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitz, Martina [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The measurement of the WW + WZ production cross section in a semileptonic decay mode is presented. The measurement is carried out with 4.6 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector in √s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. The main experimental challenge is identifying the signal in the overwhelming background from W+jets production. The modeling of the W+jets background is carefully studied and a matrix element technique is used to build a discriminant to separate signal and background. The cross section of WW + WZ production is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → WW + WZ) = 16.5-3.0+3.3 pb, in agreement with the next-to-leading order theoretical prediction of 15.1 ± 0.9 pb. The significance of the signal is evaluated to be 5.4σ. This measurement is an important milestone in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson at the Tevatron.

  8. Measurement of double differential t anti t production cross sections with the CMS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, Ievgen

    2016-05-01

    The high energy scale of the pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN makes this facility to a real factory for the production of t anti t pairs. This enables to study the top-quark properties and its production and decay mechanisms in unprecedent detail. The dileptonic decay channel of the top-quark pair, in which both W bosons, produced from the top-quark decay, decay into a lepton and neutrino, is studied in this analysis. The limitation to one electron and one muon in final state used in this work allows to strongly suppress the possible background processes and leads to a higher signal purity. About 40k events with a top-quark pair have been selected using the √(s)=8 TeV data recorded with the CMS detector in the year 2012. Exploiting this large sample, double differential top-quark pair production cross sections are measured for the first time. The cross sections are studied as functions of various observables which describe the top and top-pair kinematics. To obtain the full kinematics of the t anti t final state, which contains two undetected neutrinos, a kinematic reconstruction procedure was developed and exploited in this work. The new procedure makes use of all available constraints and is based on a repeated reconstruction of each event with detector observables smeared according to their resolutions in order to obtain for each event solutions for the kinematic constraint equations. In order to obtain double differential cross sections, the distributions of reconstructed observables are then corrected for detector effects by using a double differential unfolding procedure, which is based on a χ 2 minimization. The double differential cross sections presented in this work allow to test the Standard Model in detail and investigate previously seen disagreements between measured and predicted single differential cross sections. The results of this work are compared to Standard Model predictions (up to next-to-leading order of the hard

  9. New helium spectrum variable and a new helium-rich star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, N.R.

    1974-01-01

    HD 184927, known previously as a helium-rich star, has been found to have a variable helium spectrum; the equivalent widths of five He I lines are larger by an average of 46 percent on a 1974 spectrogram than on one obtained with the same equipment in 1970. HD 186205 has been found to be a new, pronounced helium-rich star. (auth)

  10. 180Ta/sup g,m/ production cross sections form the 180Hf(p,n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Renner, T.R.; Grant, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cross sections have been determined for the production of the J/sup π/ = 1 + 180 Ta/sup g/ and the J/sup π/= 9 - 180 Ta/sup m/ from the 180 Hf(p,n) reaction. The 180 Ta/sup g/ cross sections were determined from measurements of γ-rays emitted following the electron-capture and β-decay of this 8.1-hour state. Total 180 Ta production cross sections were determined from measurements of the thick-target (p,n) yield. 180 Ta/sup m/ cross sections were calculated by subtracting the 180 Ta/sup g/ cross sections from the total (p,n) cross sections. These measurements are compared with the results of a statistical-model evaporation calculation

  11. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  12. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  13. Measurement of the Charm Production Cross Section in gamma gamma Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Open charm production in gamma-gamma collisions is studied with data collected at e+e- centre-of-mass energies from 189 GeV to 202 GeV corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 410 pb-1. The charm cross section sigma(gamma gamma ---> c c~ X) is measured for the first time as a function of the two-photon centre-of-mass energy in the interval from 5 GeV to 70 GeV and is compared to NLO QCD calculations.

  14. Decomposition and Cross-Product-Based Method for Computing the Dynamic Equation of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Long Shih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate a clear relationship between Lagrange equations and Newton-Euler equations regarding computational methods for robot dynamics, from which we derive a systematic method for using either symbolic or on-line numerical computations. Based on the decomposition approach and cross-product operation, a computing method for robot dynamics can be easily developed. The advantages of this computing framework are that: it can be used for both symbolic and on-line numeric computation purposes, and it can also be applied to biped systems, as well as some simple closed-chain robot systems.

  15. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  16. H-bar and H-bar + production cross sections for the GBAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comini, P; Hervieux, P-A

    2013-01-01

    The production and cooling of the H-bar + ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure g-bar , the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. H-bar + ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of H-bar + ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave – Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the H-bar excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the H-bar production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest H-bar + production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of H-bar + could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-BORDER BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea N. POPOVICI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current research is to study bank mergers and acquisitions (M-A and to see whether they have implications on the productivity of the target banks, and also for the bidder bank. The aim of this paper is to see if, during 2002-2008 period, three banks from the European banking system, Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania, Slovenskásporiteľňa from Slovakia and Erste Bank Group from Austria improved their productivity due to the fact that all of them were involved in a process of cross-border merger or acquisitions, even if the bank is the purchaser or the target. To reach our goal, we used DEA method, by estimating the productivity achieved by these three banks during the period pre-M-A, post M-A, but we also estimated the productivity for entire period of seven years. Using Malquist DEA method, we show that, on average, the merger or acquisition in which a bank was involved improved the Total Factor Productivity of all analyzed banks.

  18. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  19. Single top quark production cross-section measurements using the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, Kevin Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of single top quark production in proton--proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV using the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC are presented. In the leading order process, a $W$ boson is exchanged in the $t$-channel. The single top quark and anti-top total production cross-sections ratio, as well as a measurement of the inclusive and fiducial production cross-sections are presented. In addition, a measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a $W$ boson is presented. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations and the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ is determined. The $s$-channel production is also explored and limits on exotic production in single top quark processes are discussed. This includes the search for additional $W’$ bosons and a search for monotops.

  20. Application of Concepts from Cross-Recurrence Analysis in Speech Production: An Overview and Comparison with Other Nonlinear Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Leonardo; Fuchs, Susanne; Tiede, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article was to introduce an important tool, cross-recurrence analysis, to speech production applications by showing how it can be adapted to evaluate the similarity of multivariate patterns of articulatory motion. The method differs from classical applications of cross-recurrence analysis because no phase space…

  1. Measurement of production cross sections for negative pions, kaons, and protons at 10, 18, and 24 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.F.; Macek, R.J.; Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-10-01

    We report here on a measurement of the 0 0 -production cross sections for low-energy negative secondaries from 10-, 18-, and 24-GeV protons on a variety of targets. Special emphasis is given to determining the dependence of the cross sections on incident proton energy

  2. Productivity cost due to postpartum ill health: A cross-sectional study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Horton, Jennifer; Darshika, Ishani; Galgamuwa, Kaushila Dinithi; Ranasinghe, Wasantha Pradeep; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika

    2017-01-01

    Even though postpartum morbidity continues to cause high disease burden in maternal morbidity and mortality across the globe, the literature pertaining to resultant productivity loss is scarce. Hence, the present study aimed at determining the productivity loss and associated cost of episodes of postpartum ill health. A cross sectional study was conducted in two Medical Officer of Heath areas in the Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka in 2011, among 407 women residing in Anuradhapura district with an infant aged between 8 to 24 weeks. Validated interviewer administered questionnaires, including the IMMPACT productivity cost tool, were used to collect data on self-reported episodes of postpartum ill health. The productivity loss was calculated as the sum of days lost due to partial and total incapacitation. The adjusted productivity loss for coping strategies was calculated. Productivity cost, both total and adjusted, were calculated based on the mean daily per capita income of the study sample. Of the 407 participants, 161(39.6%) reported at least one episode of postpartum illness. Hospitalisations were reported by 27 (16.8%) of all symptomatic postpartum women. Common symptoms of postpartum ill health were pain/infection at either episiotomy or surgical site (n = 44, 27.3%), lower abdominal pain (n = 40, 24.8%) and backache (n = 27, 16.8%). The mean productivity loss per episode of ill health was 15 days (SD = 7.8 days) and the mean productivity loss per episode after adjusting for coping strategies was 7.9 days (SD = 4.4 days). The mean productivity cost per an episode was US$ 34.2(95%CI US$ 26.7-41.6) and the mean productivity cost per an episode after adjusting for coping strategies was US$ 18.0 (95%CI US$ 14.1-22.0). The prevalence of self-reported postpartum ill health, associated productivity loss and cost were high in the study sample and the main contributors were preventable conditions including pain and infection. Thus, effective pain management and proper

  3. Average equilibrium charge state of 278113 ions moving in a helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, D.; Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    Difficulty to identify a new heavy element comes from the small production cross section. For example, the production cross section was about 0.5 pb in the case of searching for the 112th element produced by the cold fusion reaction of 208 Pb( 70 Zn,n) 277 ll2. In order to identify heavier elements than element 112, the experimental apparatus with a sensitivity of sub-pico barn level is essentially needed. A gas-filled recoil separator, in general, has a large collection efficiency compared with other recoil separators as seen from the operation principle of a gas-filled recoil separator. One of the most important parameters for a gas-filled recoil separator is the average equilibrium charge state q ave of ions moving in a used gas. This is because the recoil ion can not be properly transported to the focal plane of the separator, if the q ave of an element of interest in a gas is unknown. We have systematically measured equilibrium charge state distributions of heavy ions ( 169 Tm, 208 Pb, 193,209 Bi, 196 Po, 200 At, 203,204 Fr, 212 Ac, 234 Bk, 245 Fm, 254 No, 255 Lr, and 265 Hs) moving in a helium gas by using the gas-filled recoil separator GARIS at RIKEN. Ana then, the empirical formula on q ave of heavy ions in a helium gas was derived as a function of the velocity and the atomic number of an ion on the basis of the Tomas-Fermi model of the atom. The formula was found to be applicable to search for transactinide nuclides of 271 Ds, 272 Rg, and 277 112 produced by cold fusion reactions. Using the formula on q ave , we searched for a new isotope of element 113 produced by the cold fusion reaction of 209 Bi( 70 Zn,n) 278 113. As a result, a decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113 was observed. Recently, we have successfully observed the 2nd decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113. In this report, we will present experimental results in detail, and will also discuss the average equilibrium charge sate of 278 113 in a helium gas by

  4. Hydrogen Process Coupling to Modular Helium Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Arkal; Richards, Matt; Buckingham, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the concept to be used for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), because it is the most advanced Generation IV concept with the capability to provide process heat at sufficiently high temperatures for production of hydrogen with high thermal efficiency. Concurrently with the NGNP program, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) was established to develop hydrogen production technologies that are compatible with advanced nuclear systems and do not produce greenhouse gases. The current DOE schedule for the NGNP Project calls for startup of the NGNP plant by 2021. The General Atomics (GA) NGNP pre-conceptual design is based on the GA Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), which utilizes a direct Brayton cycle Power Conversion System (PCS) to produce electricity with a thermal efficiency of 48%. The nuclear heat source for the NGNP consists of a single 600-MW(t) MHR module with two primary coolant loops for transport of the high-temperature helium exiting the reactor core to a direct cycle PCS for electricity generation and to an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for hydrogen production. The GA NGNP concept is designed to demonstrate hydrogen production using both the thermochemical sulfur-iodine (SI) process and high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). The two primary coolant loops can be operated independently or in parallel. The reactor design is essentially the same as that for the GT-MHR, but includes the additional primary coolant loop to transport heat to the IHX and other modifications to allow operation with a reactor outlet helium temperature of 950 .deg. C (vs. 850 .deg. C for the GT-MHR). The IHX transfers a nominal 65 MW(t) to the secondary heat transport loop that provides the high-temperature heat required by the SI-based and HTE-based hydrogen production facilities. Two commercial nuclear hydrogen plant variations were evaluated with

  5. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  6. Ruminal production of methane ''in vitro'' with Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerken, C M; Funes, F; Gonzalez, R

    1980-11-01

    1. Samples of Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days of cut, irrigated and fertilized at a rate of 400 kg N/ha/year, were used to determine their bromatological composition, digestibility and methane production ''in vitro''. 2. Crude protein concentration of the pasture fell sharply from 20 to 4% and crude fibre increased from 26 to 34% as the pasture grew older. DM digestibility decreased from 58 to 44% from the 6th to the 15th week of cut. Methane production ''in vitro'' was significantly lower (P is less than 0,01), at 3 and 6 weeks, than that obtained at older ages. The differences were more marked when calculated per unit of digested DM. 3. These results could be of interest in the search of a better utilization of dietary energy for grazing animals. (Refs. 16).

  7. Measurements of cross sections for Higgs boson production and forward jet calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367060

    This thesis presents measurements of inclusive and differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the fiducial and total phase space regions, as well as a calibration of the ATLAS calorimeter response to jets. The fiducial $pp \\rightarrow H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ cross section for $m_{H}=125.4$ GeV was measured at ${\\sqrt{s}=8}$ TeV with 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector. The $H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ signal was extracted from the background with a fit to the diphoton invariant mass spectrum, within the fiducial phase space defined by two isolated photons with $|\\eta|<2.37$ and fractional transverse momentum greater than 0.35 and 0.25 relative to the diphoton invariant mass. The signal yields were corrected for inefficiency and resolution of the detector. The $pp \\rightarrow H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ cross section is measured to be $\\sigma_{\\rm fid} = 43.2 \\pm 9.4 \\, ({\\rm stat.}) \\, {}^{+3.2}_{-2.9} \\, ({\\rm syst.}) \\pm 1.2 \\, ({\\rm ...

  8. γ production and neutron inelastic scattering cross sections for 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouki, C.; Domula, A. R.; Drohé, J. C.; Koning, A. J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Zuber, K.

    2013-11-01

    The 2040.7-keV γ ray from the 69th excited state of 76Ge was investigated in the interest of Ge-based double-β-decay experiments like the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment. The predicted transition could interfere with valid 0νββ events at 2039.0 keV, creating false signals in large-volume 76Ge enriched detectors. The measurement was performed with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) white neutron source, using the (n,n'γ) technique and focusing on the strongest γ rays originating from the level. Upper limits obtained for the production cross section of the 2040.7-keV γ ray showed no possible influence on GERDA data. Additional analysis of the data yielded high-resolution cross sections for the low-lying states of 76Ge and related γ rays, improving the accuracy and extending existing data for five transitions and five levels. The inelastic scattering cross section for 76Ge was determined for incident neutron energies up to 2.23 MeV, significantly increasing the energy range for which experimental data are available. Comparisons with model calculations using the talys code are presented indicating that accounting for the recently established asymmetric rotor structure should lead to an improved description of the data.

  9. Neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in JENDL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Igarasi, Sin-iti; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Iijima, Shungo.

    1981-02-01

    This is the final report concerning the evaluated neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in the first version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-1). These 28 nuclides were selected as being most important for fast reactor calculations, and are 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 95 Mo, 97 Mo, 99 Tc, 101 Ru, 102 Ru, 103 Rh, 104 Ru, 105 Pd, 106 Ru, 107 Pd, 109 Ag, 129 I, 131 Xe, 133 Cs, 135 Cs, 137 Cs, 143 Nd, 144 Ce, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 147 Pm, 147 Sm, 149 Sm, 151 Sm, 153 Eu and 155 Eu. The status of the experimental data was reviewed over the whole energy range. The present evaluation was performed on the basis of the measured data with the aid of theoretical calculations. The optical and statical models were used for evaluation of the smooth cross sections. An improved method was developed in treating the multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the resonance region. Various physical parameters and the level schemes, adopted in the present work are discussed by comparing with those used in the other evaluations such as ENDF/B-IV, CEA, CNEN-2 and RCN-2. Furthermore, the evaluation method and results are described in detail for each nuclide. The evaluated total, capture and inelastic scattering cross sections are compared with the other evaluated data and some recent measured data. Some problems of the present work are pointed out and ways of their improvement are suggested. (author)

  10. Measurement of neutrino induced charged current neutral pion production cross section at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catala-Perez, Juan [Univ. of Valencia (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino scattering experiment located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. It collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon around 1 GeV neutrino energy. In this thesis we present the results on the measurement of the muon neutrino cross section resulting in a μ- plus a single π0 final state (CC- π0 channel). The present work will show the steps taken to achieve this result: from the reconstruction improvements to the background extraction. The flux-averaged CC - π0 production cross section measurement obtained in this thesis < σCC- π0 > Φ = (5.6 ± 1.9fit ± 0.7beam ± 0.5int - 0.7det) × 10-40 cm2/N at an average energy of 0.89 GeV is found to agree well both with the expectation from the Monte Ca

  11. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  12. Spectroscopy of antiproton helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2005-01-01

    Antiproton helium atom is three-body system consisting of an antiproton, electrons and a helium nucleus (denoted by the chemical symbol, p-bar H + ). The authors produced abundant atoms of p-bar 4 He + , and p-bar 3 He + in a cooled He gas target chamber stopping the p-bar beam decelerated to approximately 100 keV in the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN. A precision laser spectroscopy on the atomic transitions in the p-bar 4 He + , and in p-bar 3 He + was performed. Principle of laser spectroscopy and various modifications of the system to eliminate factors affecting the accuracy of the experiment were described. Deduced mass ratio of antiproton and proton, (|m p -bar - m p |)/m p reached to the accuracy of 10 ppb (10 -8 ) as of 2002, as adopted in the recent article of the Particle Data Group by P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor. This value is the highest precise data for the CPT invariance in baryon. In future, antihydrogen atoms will be produced in the same facility, and will provide far accurate value of antiproton mass thus enabling a better confirmation of CPT theorem in baryon. (T. Tamura)

  13. A reassessment of the effects of helium on Charpy impact properties of ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L.; Hankin, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    To test the effect of helium on Charpy impact properties of ferritic/martensitic steels, two approaches are reviewed: quantification of results of tests performed on specimens irradiated in reactors with very different neutron spectra, and isotopic tailoring experiments. Data analysis can show that if the differences in reactor response are indeed due to helium effects, then irradiation in a fusion machine at 400 C to 100 dpa and 1000 appm He will result in a ductile to brittle transition temperature shift of over 500 C. However, the response as a function of dose and helium level is unlikely to be simply due to helium based on physical reasoning. Shear punch tests and microstructural examinations also support this conclusion based on irradiated samples of a series of alloys made by adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation in HFIR. The addition of nickel at any isotopic balance to the Fe-12Cr base alloy significantly increased the shear yield and maximum strengths of the alloys. However, helium itself, up to 75 appm at over 7 dpa appears to have little effect on the mechanical properties of the alloys. This behavior is instead understood to result from complex precipitation response. The database for effects of helium on embrittlement based on nickel additions is therefore probably misleading and experiments should be redesigned to avoid nickel precipitation

  14. Protocol for production of a genetic cross of the rodent malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2011-01-03

    divisions, leading to four haploid nuclei. An ookinete further develops into an oocyst. Once the oocyst matures, thousands of sporozoites (the progeny of the cross) are formed and released into mosquito hemoceal. Sporozoites are harvested from the salivary glands and injected into a new murine host, where pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stage development takes place. Erythrocytic forms are cloned and classified with regard to the characters distinguishing the parental lines prior to genetic linkage mapping. Control infections of individual parental clones are performed in the same way as the production of a genetic cross.

  15. Crossing the chasm marketing and selling disruptive products to mainstream customers

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The bible for bringing cutting-edge products to larger markets—now revised and updated with new insights into the realities of high-tech marketing In Crossing the Chasm, Geoffrey A. Moore shows that in the Technology Adoption Life Cycle—which begins with innovators and moves to early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards—there is a vast chasm between the early adopters and the early majority. While early adopters are willing to sacrifice for the advantage of being first, the early majority waits until they know that the technology actually offers improvements in productivity. The challenge for innovators and marketers is to narrow this chasm and ultimately accelerate adoption across every segment. This third edition brings Moore's classic work up to date with dozens of new examples of successes and failures, new strategies for marketing in the digital world, and Moore's most current insights and findings. He also includes two new appendices, the first connecting the ideas in Crossing t...

  16. A neutron detector for measurement of total neutron production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekharan, K K; Laumer, H; Kern, B D; Gabbard, F [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1976-03-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 60 cm diameter in which eight /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from /sup 7/Li(p, n)/sup 7/Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF/sub 3/ counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from /sup 51/V(p, n)/sup 51/Cr and /sup 57/Fe(p, n)/sup 57/Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for determination of neutron production cross sections are given.

  17. A neutron detector for measurement of total neutron production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharan, K.K.; Laumer, H.; Kern, B.D.; Gabbard, F.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 60 cm diameter in which eight 10 BF 3 counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF 3 counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from 51 V(p, n) 51 Cr and 57 Fe(p, n) 57 Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for determination of neutron production cross sections are given. (Auth.)

  18. Feeding of Total Mixed Ration on the Productivity of Friesian Holstein Cross-Grade Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarso; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding of total mixed ration (TMR) on the productivity of Friesian Holstein (FH) male cross-grade cattle at Semarang Municipality. TMR was a ration formulated with agricultural and agro-industrial by-product (no grass and/or green forage were used) to fulfilled the nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Total mixed ration were formulated on iso-energy of 66% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different level of crude protein (CP) content of 11%, 12%, 13%, and 14%. Twenty (20) heads of FH male cross-grade cattle with initial body weight of 292.40+33.06 kg were used in this experiment, and were arranged into 5 treatments T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), and 4 replications. Data collected were analysed statistically using analyses of variance (Anova) based on the completely randomized design (CRD), then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for different among treatments. Results of the experiment showed significantly different effect (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency. Others parameter showed that there were no significantly different (P>0.05) effect on the dry matter and organic matter digestibility in vitro, rumen ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acid’s rumen concentration. It was concluded that feeding TMR was potentially prospected for fattening of beef cattle, particularly as feeding strategy when there was no grass and/or green forage anymore.

  19. Light ion induced L X-ray production cross-sections in Au and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental proton-induced L α , L β , L γ , L l and L tot absolute X-ray production cross-sections for Au and Pb in the incident proton energy range between 1 and 2.5 MeV are presented. The experimental results for X-ray production cross-sections are compared to available data given in Sokhi and Crumpton [R.S. Sokhi, D. Crumpton, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 30 (1984) 49], Jesus et al. [A.P. Jesus, J.S. Lopes, J.P. Ribeiro, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 18 (1985) 2456; A.P. Jesus, T.M. Pinheiro, I.A. Nisa, J.P. Ribeiro, J.S. Lopes, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B15 (1986) 95] and Goudarzi et al. [M. Goudarzi, F. Shokouhi, M. Lamehi-Rachti, P.Olialiy, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B247 (2006) 218]. The given data are also compared with the predictions of ECPSSR model [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A23 (1981) 1717

  20. Measurement of the fine structure in 33P helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.

    1985-01-01

    The author measured two positions of the Zeeman level crossing between the (J,M) = (2,2) and (0,0) and between the (J,M) = (1,1) and (0,0) sublevels of the 3 3 P state in helium. The zero field fine structure splittings were calculated from these two measured values. These splittings are of interest for a precision test of quantum electrodynamics and giving an independent contribution to fine structure constant determination. This experiment uses time resolved level crossing spectroscopy. A pulsed beam of helium 2 3 S metastables is excited by a pulse of 388.9 nm dye laser light to the 3 3 P state in a dc magnetic field interaction region. After a certain delay time, a 532 nm laser pulse ionizes the atoms from the 3 3 P state. The photoelectrons are detected by a microchannel plate. The magnetic field is in the z direction, while the atomic beam and the two laser beams are in the xy plane. These two laser beams couterpropagate at a 45 0 angle for the atomic beam for convenience. The photoionization signal is recorded as a function of magnetic field near each of the two crossing positions. Results for these two crossing positions are in agreement with, but more precise than, the previously reported results

  1. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OH, S.Y.; CHANG, J.; MUGHABGHAB, S.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, 95 Mo, 99 Tc, 101 Ru, 103 Rh, 105 Pd, 109 Ag, 131 Xe, 133 Cs, 141 Pr, 141 Nd, 147 Sm, 149 Sm, 150 Sm, 151 Sm, 152 Sm, 153 Eu, 155 Gd, and 157 Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of 155 Gd and 157 Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations

  2. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OH,S.Y.; CHANG,J.; MUGHABGHAB,S.

    2000-05-11

    Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 155}Gd, and {sup 157}Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of {sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations.

  3. Organ protection by the noble gas helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate whether helium induces preconditioning in humans, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind this possible protection. First, we collected data regarding organ protective effects of noble gases in general, and of helium in particular (chapters 1-3). In chapter

  4. Radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P.G.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; Aysto, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve

  5. Photo association in metastable helium in the vicinity of the Bose-Einstein condensation and production of giant dimers; Photo-association de l'helium metastable au voisinage de la condensation de Bose-Einstein et formation de dimeres geants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J

    2003-11-15

    In the vicinity of Bose-Einstein condensation, the collisional properties of a dilute gas of metastable helium (He{sub 2}{sup 3}S) are governed by the rate of ionizing Penning collisions and the s-wave scattering length. In order to investigate these properties, we have carried out new photo-association experiments in which a pair of free atoms absorbs a photon to produce a molecule in an excited electronic state. In particular, we have observed 'giant dimers' for which the autoionizing process is inhibited. Accurate spectra have been acquired by the use of an original 'calorimetric' detection scheme. In addition, we have calculated long-range electronic potentials for the 2{sup 3} S + 2{sup 3} P system. Our asymptotic approach is described in detail, which reproduces the measured binding energies of the giant dimers with very good accuracy. (author)

  6. Measuring Scholastic Production by Dermatopathologists Using the H-Index: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Garth R

    2018-06-01

    Academic advancement in dermatopathology requires evidence of scientific production. The H-index is a useful bibliometric for measuring scientific production because it weights both volume and impact of an individual's scholastic production. The H-index distribution among academic dermatopathologists is unknown. In this cross-sectional study of 299 dermatopathologists with academic appointments in North America, H-index, publication counts, and citation counts were retrieved from Thomas Reuters Web of Science. Analytic statistics were performed to identify best predictors of academic rank and cutoff points between academic ranks. The H-index was a superior predictor of overall academic rank than publication or citation counts. The median H-index for assistant, associate, and full professors was 4, 6, and 11, respectively. H-index cutoff scores of 8 and 10 favored associate and full professor rank, respectively. These data provide benchmarks for dermatopathologists to gauge their scientific productivity against that of their peers. Although advancement decisions will depend on a careful examination of the scope and impact of a candidate's work, assistant professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >7 and associate professors of dermatopathology with H-index scores of >9 may wish to consider application for promotion.

  7. In vitro wheat haploid embryo production by wheat x maize cross system under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Ahmad, J.

    2011-01-01

    Haploids are helpful in studies for inter genomic relationship, identifying molecular markers, reducing time period of varietal development and increasing efficiency of breeding program. In case of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wheat x maize cross system is the most successful system due to its higher efficiency, more haploid embryo production and low genetic specificity. The haploid embryo production is affected by many factors i.e. light, temperature, relative humidity and tiller culture media. A study was carried out comprising 25 genotypes of bread wheat for haploid embryo production using 100 mgL/sup -1/ 2,4-D, 40Gl/sup -1/ Sucrose and 8mlL/sup -1/ Sulphurous acid. Haploid embryo production was observed at various levels of environmental factors i.e. maize pollen collection temperature, time of pollination after tiller emasculation, light intensity and relative humidity during haploid seed formation. Maximum haploid embryo formation recorded was 9.52%. Best temperature observed for pollination was 21-26 degree C, optimum time duration for pollination was 24 hours after emasculation, light intensity was 10,000 Lux and relative humidity was 60-65% at 20-22 degree C. (author)

  8. Time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production for a dynamical system driven by noises with coloured cross-correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wen-Xian; Xu Wei; Cai Li

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the Fokker-Planck equation of a dynamical system driven by coloured cross-correlated white noises in the absence and presence of a small external force. Based on the Fokker-Planck equation and the definition of Shannon's information entropy, the time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production can be calculated. The present results can be used to explain the extremal behaviour of time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production in view of the dissipative parameter γ of the system, coloured cross-correlation time τ and coloured cross-correlation strength λ.

  9. Determination of helium in beryl minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Barcellos, E. de.

    1985-08-01

    In order to obtain the diffusion coefficients of helium in beryl and phenacite samples at various temperatures, helium leak rates were measured in these minerals at these temperatures. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to obtain helium leak rates and the gas flow was plotted against time. The gas quantity determined by MS was first obtained at various temperatures until no helium leak rate was detected. After that, these samples were irradiated with fast neutrons to produce helium which was measured again. This procedure was used to estimate the experimental error. The quantity of helium produced by interaction of gamma radiation with beryl minerals was theoretically calculated from the amount of thorium-232 at the neighbourhood of the samples. The quantity of helium produced in the minerals due to uranium and thorium decay was calculated using the amount of these heavy elements, and the results were compared with the amounts determined by MS. The amount of potassium-40 was determined in order to derive the quantity of argonium-40, since some workers found argonium in excess in these minerals. The quantity of helium in the beryl samples (s) was determined in the center and in the surface of the samples in order to obtain informations about the effectiveness of the Be(α, η) He reaction. Beryl and phenacite minerals were choosen in this research since they are opposite each other with respect to the helium contents. Both have beryllium in their compositon but beryl hold a large amount of helium while phenacite, in spite of having about three times more beryllium than beryl, do not hold the gas. (author) [pt

  10. Cluster dynamics modeling of the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimbal, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.brimbal@areva.com [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Fournier, Lionel [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Barbu, Alain [Alain Barbu Consultant, 6 Avenue Pasteur Martin Luther King, 78230 Le Pecq (France)

    2016-01-15

    A mean field cluster dynamics model has been developed in order to study the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructural evolution of metals. In this model, self-interstitial clusters, stacking-fault tetrahedra and helium-vacancy clusters are taken into account, in a configuration well adapted to austenitic stainless steels. For small helium-vacancy cluster sizes, the densities of each small cluster are calculated. However, for large sizes, only the mean number of helium atoms per cluster size is calculated. This aspect allows us to calculate the evolution of the microstructural features up to high irradiation doses in a few minutes. It is shown that the presence of stacking-fault tetrahedra notably reduces cavity sizes below 400 °C, but they have little influence on the microstructure above this temperature. The binding energies of vacancies to cavities are calculated using a new method essentially based on ab initio data. It is shown that helium has little effect on the cavity microstructure at 300 °C. However, at higher temperatures, even small helium production rates such as those typical of sodium-fast-reactors induce a notable increase in cavity density compared to an irradiation without helium. - Highlights: • Irradiation of steels with helium is studied through a new cluster dynamics model. • There is only a small effect of helium on cavity distributions in PWR conditions. • An increase in helium production causes an increase in cavity density over 500 °C. • The role of helium is to stabilize cavities via reduced emission of vacancies.

  11. Effects of helium and air inhalation on the innate and early adaptive immune system in healthy volunteers ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oei Gezina TML

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helium inhalation protects myocardium, brain and endothelium against ischemia/reperfusion injury in animals and humans, when applied according to specific “conditioning” protocols. Before widespread use of this “conditioning” agent in clinical practice, negative side effects have to be ruled out. We investigated the effect of prolonged helium inhalation on the responsiveness of the human immune response in whole blood ex vivo. Methods Male healthy volunteers inhaled 30 minutes heliox (79%He/21%O2 or air in a cross over design, with two weeks between measurements. Blood was withdrawn at T0 (baseline, T1 (25 min inhalation and T2-T5 (1, 2, 6, 24 h after inhalation and incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lipoteichoic acid (LTA, T-cell stimuli anti-CD3/ anti-CD28 (TCS or RPMI (as control for 2, 4 and 24 hours or not incubated (0 h. An additional group of six volunteers inhaled 60 minutes of heliox or air, followed by blood incubation with LPS and RPMI. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2 was analyzed by cytometric bead array. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test for matched samples. Results Incubation with LPS, LTA or TCS significantly increased TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ and IL-2 in comparison to incubation with RPMI alone. Thirty min of helium inhalation did not influence the amounts of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ and IL-2 in comparison to air. Sixty min of helium inhalation did not affect cytokine production after LPS stimulation. Conclusions We conclude that 79% helium inhalation does not affect the responsiveness of the human immune system in healthy volunteers. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: http://www.trialregister.nl/ NTR2152

  12. Weld repair of helium degraded reactor vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Lohmeier, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Rankin, D.T.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Madeyski, A.; Shogan, R.P.; Lessmann, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    Welding methods for modification or repair of irradiated nuclear reactor vessels are being evaluated at the Savannah River Site. A low-penetration weld overlay technique has been developed to minimize the adverse effects of irradiation induced helium on the weldability of metals and alloys. This technique was successfully applied to Type 304 stainless steel test plates that contained 3 to 220 appm helium from tritium decay. Conventional welding practices caused significant cracking and degradation in the test plates. Optical microscopy of weld surfaces and cross sections showed that large surface toe cracks formed around conventional welds in the test plates but did not form around overlay welds. Scattered incipient underbead cracks (grain boundary separations) were associated with both conventional and overlay test welds. Tensile and bend tests were used to assess the effect of base metal helium content on the mechanical integrity of the low-penetration overlay welds. The axis of tensile specimens was perpendicular to the weld-base metal interface. Tensile specimens were machined after studs were resistance welded to overlay surfaces

  13. H → γγ search and direct photon pair production differential cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    At a hadron collider, diphoton (γγ) production allows detailed studies of the Standard Model (SM), as well as as searches for new phenomena, such as new heavy resonances, extra spatial dimensions or cascade decays of heavy new particles. Within the SM, continuum γγ+X production is characterized by a steeply-falling γγ mass spectrum, on top of which a heavy resonance decaying into γγ can potentially be observed. In particular, this is considered one of the most promising discovery channels for a SM Higgs boson at the LHC, despite the small branching ratio of BR (H → γγ) ∼ 0.2% for 110 Higgs -1 of the D0 Run II data, collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider from April 2002 to December 2008. Good agreement between the data and the SM background prediction is observed. Since there is no evidence for new physics, we set 95% C.L. limits on the production cross section times the branching ratio (σ x BR(H → γγ)) relative to the SM-like Higgs prediction for different assumed Higgs masses. The observed limits (σ(limit)/σ(SM)) range from 11.9 to 35.2 for Higgs masses from 100 to 150 GeV, while the expected limits range from 17.5 to 32.0. This search is also interpreted in the context of the particular fermiophobic Higgs model. The corresponding results have reached the same sensitivity as a single LEP experiement, setting a lower limit on the fermiophobic Higgs of M h# sub f# > 102.5 GeV (M h# sub f# > 107.5 GeV expected). We are slightly below the combined LEP limit (M h# sub f# > 109.7 GeV). We also provide access to the M h# sub f# > 125 GeV region which was inaccessible at LEP. During the study, we found the major and irreducible background direct γγ (DPP) production is not well modelled by the current theoretical predictions: RESBOS, DIPHOX or PYTHIA. There is ∼20% theoretical uncertainty for the predicted values. Thus, for our Higgs search, we use the side-band fitting method to estimate DPP contribution directly from the data events

  14. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  15. Helium hammer in superfluid transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    Large transient pressure pulses, referred to as a helium hammer, which occurred in the transfer line of the main cryogenic tank during the development tests of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, launched on January 25, 1983, are analyzed, and the measures taken to prevent a failure described. The modifications include an installation of a 2.3-liter surge tank upstream, and a back-up relief valve downstream, of a burst disk. The surge tank is designed to attenuate a 0.33-MPa pressure pulse at the inlet down to 0.092 MPa at the outlet. A mechanism of the pulse generation is suggested, which involves flashing and rapid recondensation of the small amount of liquid entering the warm section of a transition to room temperature.

  16. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  17. Formation of excited states in high-Z helium-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Fricke, B.; Brinzanescu, O.

    1999-12-01

    High-Z helium-like ions represent the simplest multi-electron systems for studying the interplay between electron-electron correlations, relativistic as well as quantum electrodynamical effects in strong fields. In contrast to the adjacent lithium-like ions, however, almost no experimental information is available about the excited states in the high-Z domain of the helium sequence. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the X-ray production and decay dynamics of the excited states in helium-like uranium. Emphasize has been paid particularly to the formation of the 3 P 0 and 3 P 2 levels by using electron capture into hydrogen-like U 91+ . Both states are of interest for precise measurements on high-Z helium-like ions in the future. (orig.)

  18. Effect of helium preinjection and prior thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure of Type 316 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Ayrault, G.; Turner, A.P.L.; Igata, N.

    1982-10-01

    Samples of 316 SS were preinjected with 15 appM helium either hot (650 0 C) or cold (room temperature) and irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + ions to a dose level of 25 dpa at 625 0 C in order to test the validity of helium preinjection as a means of simulation of transmutant helium production. Results for preinjected and single-ion irradiated samples were compared to samples irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + and simultaneously injected with helium at a rate of 15 appM He/dpa (dual-ion irradiated samples). Preinjected samples exhibited bimodal cavity size distributions. Preinjected samples of solution annealed or solution annealed and aged material showed lower swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples. However, He preinjection in 20% cold worked samples showed greater swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples 9 figures, 1 table

  19. Influence of production circumstances and economic evaluation criteria on economic comparison of breeds and breed-crosses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahi, A.K.; Koskey, I.S.; Cardoso, V.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ranking of genotypes (i.e., breeds and breed crosses) for economic performance depends on the production circumstances of the herd and the criteria for economic evaluation. In this study, the effects of evaluation criteria and production circumstance are quantified using data from the literature

  20. Lexical activation in bilinguals’ speech production is dynamic: How language ambiguous words can affect cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Ormel, E.A.; Besselaar, R. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1

  1. Survey of atomic data base needs and accuracies for helium beam stopping and alpha particle diagnostics for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, H.P.; Hellermann, M. von.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with establishing a recommended collection of atomic collision data for the modelling, experimental investigation and exploitation of helium beams. The motivation stems from proposals for diagnostic beams for the ITER tokamak, targeted at alpha particle measurement via double charge transfer, neutralized alpha particle analysis and spectroscopic analysis of recombination radiation. The report discusses the beam energies, species involved in collisions with the helium atom beam (fuel, helium ash and plasma impurities) and plasma conditions prevailing in large tokamak devices. It also lists the required cross-section data

  2. Four-body conversion of atomic helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vries, C.P.; Oskam, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion of atomic helium ions into molecular ions was studied in pure helium and in helium-neon mixtures containing between 0.1 at. % and 50 at. % neon. The experiments showed that the termolecular conversion reaction, He + +2He → He 2 + +He, is augmented by the four-body conversion reaction He + +3He → products, where the products could include either He 2 + or He 3 + ions. Conversion rate coefficients of (5.7 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 and (2.6 +- 0.4) x 10 -49 cm 9 sec -1 were found for the termolecular and four-body conversion reactions, respectively. In addition, rate coefficients for the following Ne + conversion reactions were measured: Ne + +He+He → (HeNe) + +He, (2.3 +- 0.1) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; Ne + +He+Ne → (HeNe) + +Ne or Ne 2 + +He, (8.0 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; and Ne + +Ne+Ne → Ne 2 + +Ne, (5.1 +- 0.3) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 . All rate coefficients are at a gas temperature of 295 K

  3. FENDL/E. Evaluated nuclear data library of neutron nuclear interaction cross-sections and photon production cross-sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. Version 1.1 of November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron nuclear interaction cross-sections and photon production cross-sections and photon-atom interaction cross-sections for fusion applications. It is part of FENDL, the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications. The nuclear data are available cost-free for distribution to interested scientists upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  4. Determination of the total $c\\overline{c}$ production cross section in 340 GeV/c $\\Sigma^{-}$ - nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M.I.; Barberis, D.; Beck, M.; Berat, C.; Beusch, W.; Boss, M.; Brons, S.; Bruckner, W.; Buenerd, M.; Busch, C.; Buscher, C.; Charignon, F.; Chauvin, J.; Chudakov, E.A.; Dersch, U.; Dropmann, F.; Engelfried, J.; Faller, F.; Fournier, A.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Godbersen, M.; Grafstrom, P.; Haller, T.; Heidrich, M.; Hubbard, E.; Hurst, R.B.; Konigsmann, Kay; Konorov, I.; Keller, N.; Martens, K.; Martin, P.; Masciocchi, S.; Michaels, R.; Muller, U.; Neeb, H.; Newbold, D.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Potashnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Ransome, R.; Ren, Z.; Rey-Campagnolle, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, L.; Rudolph, H.; Scheel, C.; Schmitt, L.; Siebert, H.W.; Simon, A.; Smith, V.J.; Thilmann, O.; Trombini, A.; Vesin, E.; Volkemer, B.; Vorwalter, K.; Walcher, T.; Walder, G.; Werding, R.; Wittmann, E.; Zavertyaev, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    The production of charmed particles by Sigma- of 340 Gev/c momentum was studied in the hyperon beam experiment WA89 at the CERN-SPS, using the Omega-spectrometer. In two data-taking periods in 1993 and 1994 an integrated luminosity of 1600 microb^-1 on copper and carbon targets was recorded. From the reconstruction of 930 +- 90 charm particle decays in 10 decay channels production cross sections for D, antiD, Ds and Lambdac were determined in the region xF>0. Assuming an A^1 dependence of the cross section on the nucleon number, we calculate a total ccbar production cross section of sigma(x_F > 0) = 5.3+- 0.4(stat)+-1.0(syst)+1.0(Xi_c) microb per nucleon. The last term is an upper limit on the unknown contribution from charmed-strange baryon production.

  5. Ranking and validation of spallation models for isotopic production cross sections of heavy residua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Kamys, Bogusław; Goldenbaum, Frank; Filges, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    The production cross sections of isotopically identified residual nuclei of spallation reactions induced by 136Xe projectiles at 500AMeV on hydrogen target were analyzed in a two-step model. The first stage of the reaction was described by the INCL4.6 model of an intranuclear cascade of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon collisions whereas the second stage was analyzed by means of four different models; ABLA07, GEM2, GEMINI++ and SMM. The quality of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors; the H-factor and the M-factor. It was found that the present analysis leads to a different ranking of models as compared to that obtained from the qualitative inspection of the data reproduction. The disagreement was caused by sensitivity of the deviation factors to large statistical errors present in some of the data. A new deviation factor, the A factor, was proposed, that is not sensitive to the statistical errors of the cross sections. The quantitative ranking of models performed using the A-factor agreed well with the qualitative analysis of the data. It was concluded that using the deviation factors weighted by statistical errors may lead to erroneous conclusions in the case when the data cover a large range of values. The quality of data reproduction by the theoretical models is discussed. Some systematic deviations of the theoretical predictions from the experimental results are observed.

  6. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, Dante E.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, Alberto; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab /Purdue U.

    2008-09-01

    We report a measurement of the single top quark production cross section in 2.2 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Candidate events are classified as signal-like by three parallel analyses which use likelihood, matrix element, and neural network discriminants. These results are combined in order to improve the sensitivity. We observe a signal consistent with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with the background only model by 3.7 standard deviations with a median expected sensitivity of 4.9 standard deviations. We measure a cross section of 2.2{sub -0.6}{sup +0.7}(stat+sys) pb, extract the CKM matrix element value |V{sub tb}| = 0.88{sub -0.12}{sup +0.13}(stat + sys) {+-} 0.07(theory), and set the limit |V{sub tb}| > 0.66 at the 95% C.L.

  7. Approximate N3LO Higgs-boson production cross section using physical-kernel constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, D. de; Moch, S.; Hamburg Univ.; Vogt, A.

    2014-08-01

    The single-logarithmic enhancement of the physical kernel for Higgs production by gluon-gluon fusion in the heavy top-quark limit is employed to derive the leading so far unknown contributions, ln 5,4,3 (1-z), to the N 3 LO coefficient function in the threshold expansion. Also using knowledge from Higgs-exchange DIS to estimate the remaining terms not vanishing for z=m 2 H /s→1, these results are combined with the recently completed soft+virtual contributions to provide an uncertainty band for the complete N 3 LO correction. For the 2008 MSTW parton distributions these N 3 LO contributions increase the cross section at 14 TeV by (10±2)% and (3±2.5)% for the standard choices μ R =m H and μ R =m H /2 of the renormalization scale. The remaining uncertainty arising from the hard-scattering cross sections can be quantified as no more than 5%, which is smaller than that due to the strong coupling and the parton distributions.

  8. Ranking and validation of spallation models for isotopic production cross sections of heavy residua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Kamys, Boguslaw [Jagiellonian University, The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Goldenbaum, Frank; Filges, Detlef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The production cross sections of isotopically identified residual nuclei of spallation reactions induced by {sup 136}Xe projectiles at 500 AMeV on hydrogen target were analyzed in a two-step model. The first stage of the reaction was described by the INCL4.6 model of an intranuclear cascade of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon collisions whereas the second stage was analyzed by means of four different models; ABLA07, GEM2, GEMINI++ and SMM. The quality of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors; the H-factor and the M-factor. It was found that the present analysis leads to a different ranking of models as compared to that obtained from the qualitative inspection of the data reproduction. The disagreement was caused by sensitivity of the deviation factors to large statistical errors present in some of the data. A new deviation factor, the A factor, was proposed, that is not sensitive to the statistical errors of the cross sections. The quantitative ranking of models performed using the A-factor agreed well with the qualitative analysis of the data. It was concluded that using the deviation factors weighted by statistical errors may lead to erroneous conclusions in the case when the data cover a large range of values. The quality of data reproduction by the theoretical models is discussed. Some systematic deviations of the theoretical predictions from the experimental results are observed. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of the single-top-quark production cross section at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schall, I; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-12-19

    We report a measurement of the single-top-quark production cross section in 2.2 fb;{-1} of pp collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV. Candidate events are classified as signal-like by three parallel analyses which use likelihood, matrix element, and neural network discriminants. These results are combined in order to improve the sensitivity. We observe a signal consistent with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with the background-only model by 3.7 standard deviations with a median expected sensitivity of 4.9 standard deviations. We measure a cross section of 2.2(-0.6)(+0.7)(stat+syst) pb, extract the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix-element value |V(tb)|=0.88(-0.12)(+0.13)(stat+syst)+/-0.07(theory), and set the limit |V(tb)|>0.66 at the 95% C.L.

  10. Cross-section measurement of single-top t-channel production at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth

    2014-06-02

    This study presents the cross-section measurement of electroweak single-top quark production in the t-channel with a semi-leptonically decaying top quark. The study is based on 4.7 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in the year 2011. Selected events contain two highly energetic jets, one of which is identified as originating from a beauty quark, as well as a highly energetic electron or muon and transverse missing energy. The case of three and four jets is also considered but eventually discarded since their inclusion degrades the precision of the result. The event reconstruction is done with a chi-square-based kinematic fit using W boson and top quark mass constraints. The chi-square value in each event serves to classify the event as a signal-like or background-like process. The cross-section is extracted by performing a template-based maximum likelihood fit to the distribution that displays the best discriminatory power: This distribution i...

  11. Measurement of the ^235mU Production Cross Section Using a Critical Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, Robert; Authier, Nicolas; Becker, John; Belier, Gilbert; Bond, Evelyn; Bredeweg, Todd; Glover, S.; Meot, Vincent; Rundberg, Robert; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Measurements of the creation and destruction cross sections for actinide nuclei constitute an important experimental effort in support of Stockpile Stewardship. In this talk I will give a progress report on the effort to measure the production cross section of the ^235mU isomer integrated over a fission neutron spectrum. This ongoing experiment is fielded at CEA in Valduc, France, taking advantage of the CALIBAN critical assembly. This effort is performed in collaboration with LANL, LLNL, Bruyeres le Chatel, and Valduc staff. This experiment utilizes a technique to measure internal conversion electrons from the ^235mU isomer with the French BIII detector (Bruyeres le Chatel), and involves a substantial chemistry effort (LANL) to prepare targets for irradiation and counting, as well as to remove fission fragments after irradiation. Experimental techniques will be discussed and preliminary data presented. *Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory (W-7405-ENG-36) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (W-7405-ENG-48), and CEA-DAM under CEA-DAM NNSA-DOE agreement.

  12. W+W- production at the LHC. Fiducial cross sections and distributions in NNLO QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazzini, Massimiliano; Wiesemann, Marius; Kallweit, Stefan; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Pozzorini, Stefano; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Rathlev, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    We consider QCD radiative corrections to W + W - production at the LHC and present the first fully differential predictions for this process at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbation theory. Our computation consistently includes the leptonic decays of the W bosons, taking into account spin correlations, off-shell effects and non-resonant contributions. Detailed predictions are presented for the different-flavour channel pp→μ + e - ν μ anti ν e +X at √(s)=8 and 13 TeV. In particular, we discuss fiducial cross sections and distributions in the presence of standard selection cuts used in experimental W + W - and H→W + W - analyses at the LHC. The inclusive W + W - cross section receives large NNLO corrections, and, due to the presence of a jet veto, typical fiducial cuts have a sizeable influence on the behaviour of the perturbative expansion. The availability of differential NNLO predictions, both for inclusive and fiducial observables, will play an important role in the rich physics programme that is based on precision studies of W + W - signatures at the LHC.

  13. The production of radioisotopes for medical applications by the adiabatic resonance crossing (ARC) technique

    CERN Document Server

    Froment, P; Delbar, T; Ryckewaert, G; Tilquin, I; Vervier, J

    2002-01-01

    The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) technique has been proposed by Rubbia (Resonance enhanced neutron captures for element activation and waste transmutation, CERN-LHC/97-0040EET, 1997; TARC collaboration, Neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing, CERN-SL-99-036EET, 1999; Abanades et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487 (2002) 577) for element activation and waste transmutation. We investigate the possibility to use this technique for the industrial production of **9**9Mo and **1**2**5Xe by resonance neutron capture in **9**8Mo and **1**2**4Xe, respectively. Their daughters, i.e. **9**9**mTc and **1**2**5I, are widely used in medical applications. The high neutron flux needed is produced by bombarding a thick Be target with 65 or 75 MeV proton beam (few microamperes). This target is placed at the centre of a large cubic lead assembly (1.6 m side, purity: 99.999%). The neutrons are progressively slowed down by elastic scattering on lead, and their energies "scan" t...

  14. Friendly fermions of helium-three

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggatt, T.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of helium in showing up the effects of atomic indistinguishability and as a material by which to test some of the most fundamental principles of quantum mechanics is discussed. Helium not only remains liquid down to zero temperature but of the two isotopes helium-three has intrinsic spin 1/2 and should therefore obey the Pauli principle, while helium-four has spin zero and is expected to undergo Bose condensation. Helium-three becomes superfluid at temperatures of a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero by the bulk liquid collecting its atoms into spinning pairs. There are three different superfluid phases, now conveniently called A, B and A 1 and each is characterised by a different behaviour of the spin and/or relative angular motion of the atoms composing the Cooper pairs. Problems surrounding the complicated physical system of helium-three are discussed. It is suggested that the combined coherence and directionality of superfluid helium-three should create some fascinating physics. (U.K.)

  15. Seismological measurement of solar helium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, S.V.; Pamyatnykh, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The internal structure and evolution of the Sun depends on its chemical composition, particularly the helium abundance. In addition, the helium abundance in the solar envelope is thought to represent the protosolar value, making it a datum of cosmological significance. Spectroscopic measurements of the helium abundance are uncertain, and the most reliable estimates until now have come from the calibration of solar evolutionary models. The frequencies of solar acoustic oscillations are sensitive, however, to the behaviour of the speed of sound in the Sun's helium ionization zone, which allows a helioseismological determination of the helium abundance. Sound-speed inversion of helioseismological data can be used for this purpose, but precise frequency measurements of high-degree oscillation modes are needed. Here we describe a new approach based on an analysis of the phase shift of acoustic waves of intermediate-degree modes. From the accurate intermediate-mode data now available, we obtain a helium mass fraction Y=0.25±0.01 in the solar convection zone, significantly smaller than the value Y=0.27-0.29 predicted by recent solar evolutionary models. The discrepancy indicates either that initial helium abundance was reduced in the envelope by downward diffusion or that the protosolar value was lower than currently accepted. (author)

  16. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lath, A.

    1994-09-01

    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A{sub LR}, n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was {rho}{sup lum} = (63.0{+-}1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A{sub LR} to be 0.1626{+-}0.0071(stat){+-}0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations.

  17. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lath, A.

    1994-09-01

    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A LR , n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e + e - annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was ρ lum = (63.0±1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A LR to be 0.1626±0.0071(stat)±0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations

  18. Determination of effective cross sections and production rates for tritium in the irradiation experiment TRIDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, L.

    1986-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a fusion reactor blanket the irradiation experiment TRIDEX (Tritium Recovery Irradiation DIDO Experiment) takes place at the Juelich Research Reactor FRJ-2 (DIDO). For this equipment the required neutronic calculations have been performed. The aim was the determination of the neutron spectrum and several therefrom derived integral parameters for the irradiation positions in interest. From the calculated effective cross sections for the formation of Tritium resulting from irradiated Lithium samples on one hand and from measured neutron flux densities on the other hand, all needed quantities of the Tritium production could be determined. The calculation of the neutron spectrum has been performed in a two-dimensional x-y-geometry. The neutron flux densities have been gained by gamma-spectrometric measurement of the activities in irradiated activation samples. (orig.) [de

  19. The first measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z0 boson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-David, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    The first measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) in Z degrees boson production has been made with the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy (E cm ) of 91.55 GeV with a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The average beam polarization was (22.4 ± 0.6)%. Using a sample of 10,224 Z degrees decays, A LR is measured to be 0.102 ± 0.044(stat) ± 0.003(syst), which determines the effective electroweak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2375 ± 0.0056(stat) ± 0.0004(syst)

  20. Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Stephen Milton [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

  1. Electron impact excitation of helium in Debye plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, S.; Gomis, L.; Faye, I. G.; Tall, M. S.; Diédhiou, I. [Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences and Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Diatta, C. S. [Institut International des Sciences et de Technologie, 28 Avenue des Ambassadeurs Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Zammit, M. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    The probability, differential, and integral scattering cross sections of the 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}S and 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}P transitions of helium have been calculated in the first Born approximation. The projectile-target interactions depending on the temperature and the density of plasma are described by the Debye-Hückel model. Wave functions of the target before and after collision were modeled by non orthogonal Hartree-Fock orbitals. The wave functions parameters are calculated with the Ritz variational method. We improve our unscreened first Born approximation integral cross sections by using the BE-scaled (B stands for binding energy and E excitation energy) method. The second Born approximation has also been used to calculate the excitation cross sections in Debye plasma. Our calculations are compared to other theoretical and experimental results where applicable.

  2. Measurement of the ttbar production cross section in the MET+jets channel at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compostella, Gabriele; INFN, Trento

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is focused on an inclusive search of the t(bar t) → E T + jets decay channel by means of neural network tools in proton antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). At the Tevatron p(bar p) collider top quarks are mainly produced in pairs through quark-antiquark annihilation and gluon-gluon fusion processes; in the Standard Model description, the top quark then decays to a W boson and a b quark almost 100% of the times, so that its decay signatures are classified according to the W decay modes. When only one W decays leptonically, the t(bar t) event typically contains a charged lepton, missing transverse energy due to the presence of a neutrino escaping from the detector, and four high transverse momentum jets, two of which originate from b quarks. In this thesis we describe a t(bar t) production cross section measurement which uses data collected by a 'multijet' trigger, and selects this kind of top decays by requiring a high-P T neutrino signature and by using an optimized neural network to discriminate top quark pair production from backgrounds. In Chapter 1, a brief review of the Standard Model of particle physics will be discussed, focusing on top quark properties and experimental signatures. In Chapter 2 will be presented an overview of the Tevatron accelerator chain that provides p(bar p) collisions at the center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, and proton and antiproton beams production procedure will be discussed. The CDF detector and its components and subsystems used for the study of p(bar p) collisions provided by the Tevatron will be described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 will detail the reconstruction procedures used in CDF to detect physical objects exploiting the features of the different detector subsystems. Chapter 5 will provide an overview of the main concepts regarding Artificial Neural Networks, one of the most important tools we will use in the analysis. Chapter 6 will be devoted to

  3. Superfluid helium-4: An introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinen, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Helium was first liquefied by Kamerlingh Onnes in Leiden in July 1908, an achievement that followed much careful and painstaking work. On the same day Onnes reduced the temperature of his helium to a value approaching lK, and he must therefore have produced and observed the superfluid phase. These experimental discoveries led very quickly to a series of remarkable theoretical contributions that laid the foundations for all subsequent work. The period since the second world war has of course seen an enormous amount of work on superfluid helium-4. In reviewing it the author tries to see it in terms of two threads: one originating from Landau; the other from London

  4. Superfluid helium at subcritical active core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.V.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Muratov, V.G.; Rakhno, I.L.

    2002-01-01

    Power range and neutron flux wherein super thermal source was realized at high volume of superfluid helium were investigated. MCU, BRAND, MCNP codes were used for the calculation of reactors. It is shown that the availability of full-size diameter for cryogenic source of ultracold neutrons, as the source with superfluid helium is considered, is possible in the reflector of subcritical assembly. Results obtained from the MCNP-4B code application demonstrated that the density of thermal neutron flux in helium must be not higher than 2.3 x 10 11 s -1 cm -2 [ru

  5. Low-temperature centrifugal helium compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, M.; Togo, S.; Akiyama, Y.; Wada, R.

    1974-01-01

    A centrifugal helium compressor with gas bearings, which can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, has been investigated. This compressor has the advantages that the compression ratio should be higher than the room temperature operation and that the contamination of helium could be eliminated. The outer diameter of the rotor is 112 mm. The experimental result for helium gas at low temperature shows a flow rate of 47 g/s and a compression ratio of 1.2 when the inlet pressure was 1 ata and the rotational speed 550 rev/s. The investigation is now focused on obtaining a compression ratio of 1.5. (author)

  6. Damage, trapping and desorption at the implantation of helium and deuterium in graphite, diamond and silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.A.R.

    1995-07-01

    The production, thermal stability and structure of ion induced defects have been studied by Rutherford backscattering in channeling geometry for the implantation of helium and deuterium in graphite, diamond and silicon carbide with energies of 8 and 20 keV. At the implantation of deuterium and helium ions more defects were measured in graphite than in diamond or silicon carbide at equal experimental conditions. This is due to increased backscattering in graphite, which is caused by the splitting and tilting of crystallites and a local reordering of lattice atoms around defects. At 300 K, Helium produces more defects in all three materials than deuterium with equal depth distribution of defects. The ratio of the defects produced by helium and deuterium agrees very well with the corresponding ratio of the energy deposited in nuclear collisions. In graphite, only small concentrations of deuterium induced defects anneal below 800 K, while in diamond small concentrations of deuterium as well as of helium induced defects anneal mostly below 800 K. This annealing behavior is considered to be due to recombination of point defects. The buildup of helium and deuterium in graphite is different. The trapping of deuterium proceeds until saturation is reached, while in the case of helium trapping is interrupted by flaking. In diamond, deuterium as well as helium are trapped almost completely until at higher fluences reemission starts and saturation is reached. Two desorption mechanisms were identified for the thermal desorption of helium from base-oriented graphite. Helium implanted at low fluences desorbs diffusing to the surface, while for the implantation of high fluences the release of helium due to blistering dominates. The desorption of deuterium from graphite and diamond shows differences. While in graphite the desorption starts already at 800 K, in diamond up to 1140 K only little desorption can be observed. These differences can be explained by the different transport

  7. Measurement of the Inclusive Upsilon production cross section in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-06-01

    The Upsilon production cross section in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is measured using a data sample collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 +/- 0.3 inverse picobarns. Integrated over the rapidity range |y|<2, we find the product of the Upsilon(1S) production cross section and branching fraction to dimuons to be sigma(pp to Upsilon(1S) X) B(Upsilon(1S) to mu+ mu-) = 7.37 +/- 0.13^{+0.61}_{-0.42}\\pm 0.81 nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is associated with the estimation of the integrated luminosity of the data sample. This cross section is obtained assuming unpolarized Upsilon(1S) production. If the Upsilon(1S) production polarization is fully transverse or fully longitudinal the cross section changes by about 20%. We also report the measurement of the Upsilon(1S), Upsilon(2S), and Upsilon(3S) differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity.

  8. Binary and tertiary neutron induced reaction cross sections of chromium and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation has been carried out for the following binary and tertiary reaction cross-sections of Cr-52 and Fe-56: (n,p), (n,pn), (n,np), (n,α), (n, nα), (n, 2n) and (n, 3n), energy spectra of the emitted neutron, proton, α-particle and γ-rays, angle-energy correlated double differential cross