WorldWideScience

Sample records for helium isotopic compositions

  1. MEASUREMENT OF THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN AND HELIUM NUCLEI IN COSMIC RAYS WITH THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Borisov, S.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P. [INFN, Sezione di Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Danilchenko, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RU-115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); De Santis, C. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); and others

    2013-06-10

    The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make new measurements of cosmic ray H and He isotopes. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 600 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 900 MeV/n for helium isotopes over the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 July to 2007 December. The energy spectrum of these components carries fundamental information regarding the propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy which are competitive with those obtained from other secondary to primary measurements such as B/C.

  2. Helium and neon isotopes in deep Pacific Ocean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Helium and neon concentration measurements, along with isotope ratio determinations, have been made for particles collected in the deep Pacific with a magnetic sled, and they are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin. Analyses were made for samples consisting of composites of many extremely fine particles and for several individual particles large enough to contain sufficient gas for analysis but small enough to escape melting in their passage through the atmosphere. Step-heating was employed to extract the gas. Cosmic-ray spallation products or solar-wind helium and neon, if present, were not abundant enough to account for the isotopic compositions measured. In the case of the samples of magnetic fines, the low temperature extractions provided elemental and isotopic ratios in the general range found for the primordial gas in carbonaceous chondrites and gas-rich meteorites. The isotopic ratios found in the high temperature extractions suggest the presence of solar-flare helium and neon.

  3. Helium and argon from an Atlantic MORB glass: Concentration, distribution and isotopic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, A. (Orleans Univ., 45 (France). Lab. de Mineralogie); Weber, H.W.; Begemann, F. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany, F.R.))

    1985-05-01

    Data are reported for detailed He and Ar measurements on a single MORB glass from the Atlantic (CH 98-DR 11; 30/sup 0/41'N, 41/sup 0/49'W; depth approx.= 3500 m). Grain-size fractions prepared under ambient conditions are strongly affected by diffusive loss of He from grains and by adsorption of atmospheric argon on grain surfaces. Both effects could be controlled by crushing gram-sized chunks of glass under vaccum and analyzing the powder without any further handling, in particular without its exposure to the atmosphere. Gases from vesicles, released upon crushing, are characterized by a /sup 4/He//sup 40/Ar ratio of 6 +- 1 and a /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar ratio of up to 22,600. In dissolved gases the /sup 4/He//sup 40/Ar ratio was found to be (7.2 +- 1.6) times higher and the /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar ratio to be about ten times lower than in vesicles. The difference of the elemental ratio He/Ar is as anticipated from the ratio of the solubilities (ca. nine) in the investigated basalt of He and Ar. Thus, while elemental abundance ratios are compatible with equilibrium between vesicles and basalt the grossly different isotopic ratios are not. It is proposed that two basalts, chemically very similar but with different /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar ratios, were mixed shortly before eruption. The overall /sup 4/He//sup 40/Ar ratio in the vesiculated basalt is 12 +- 2 so that, for the ratio in the primary magma, we find 6 <= /sup 4/He//sup 40/Ar <= 12 which is considerably higher than the radiogenic production ratio in all conceivable sources of MORB. Preferential removal from a melt of argon via vesicles is suggested to be the most likely explanation, whereas any metasomatic transfer seems unrealistic.

  4. Retention of hydrogen isotopes and helium in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Mitsumasa; Sato, Rikiya; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-10-01

    In the present study, a thin foil of nickel was irradiated by H{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} to a fluence of 1.2-6.0x10{sup 20}/m{sup 2} using the TBTS (Tritium Beam Test System) apparatus. The thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) technique was employed to evaluate the total amount of retained hydrogen isotope and helium atoms in nickel. In the spectra, two peaks appeared at 440-585K and 720-735K for helium. Hydrogen isotopes irradiation after helium preirradiation were found to enhance the helium release and to decrease the peak temperatures. Helium irradiation after hydrogen isotopes preirradiation were found to enhance the helium release, but the peak temperature showed little difference from that without preirradiation. (author)

  5. Dynamics of the Galapagos hotspot from helium isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, M.D.; Geist, D.

    1999-12-01

    The authors have measured the isotopes of He, Sr, Nd and Pb in a number of lava flows from the Galapagos Archipelago; the main goal is to use magmatic helium as a tracer of plume influence in the western volcanoes. Because the Galapagos lava flows are so well preserved, it is also possible to measure surface exposure ages using in situ cosmic-ray-produced {sup 3}He. The exposure ages range from {lt}0.1 to 580 Ka, are consistent with other chronological constrains, and provide the first direct dating of these lava flows. The new age data demonstrate the utility of the technique in this important age range and show that the western Galapagos volcanoes have been erupting distance compositions simultaneously for the last {approximately}10 Ka. The magmatic {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios range from 6.0 to 27 times atmospheric (R{sub a}), with the highest values found on the islands of Isabella (16.8 R{sub a} for Vulcan Sierra Negra) and Fernandina (23 to 27 R{sub a}). Values from Santa Cruz are close to typical mid-ocean ridge basalt values (MORB, of {approximately}9 R{sub 2}) and Pinta has a {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio lower than MORB (6.9 R{sub a}). These data confirm that the plume is centered beneath Fernandina which is the most active volcano in the archipelago and is at the leading edge of plate motion. The data are consistent with previous isotopic studies, confirming extensive contributions from depleted asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle sources, especially to the central islands. The most striking aspect of the helium isotopic data is that the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios decrease systematically in all directions from Fernandina. This spatial variability is assumed to reflect the contribution of the purest plume component to Fernandina magmatism, and shows that helium is a sensitive indicator of plume influence. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are found in volcanoes with lowest Na{sub 2}O(8) and FeO(8), which may relate to source composition as well as degree

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF COSMIC-RAY HYDROGEN AND HELIUM ISOTOPES WITH THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [University of Naples “Federico II,” Department of Physics, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [University of Bari, Department of Physics, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Formato, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M.; Santis, C. De [University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Department of Physics, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Donato, C. De; Simone, N. De; Felice, V. Di [INFN, Sezione di Rome “Tor Vergata,” I-00133 Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-02-10

    The cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium ({sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He) isotopic composition has been measured with the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on 2006 June 15. The rare isotopes {sup 2}H and {sup 3}He in cosmic rays are believed to originate mainly from the interaction of high-energy protons and helium with the galactic interstellar medium. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 1100 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 1400 MeV/n for helium isotopes using two different detector systems over the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 July to 2007 December.

  7. Nuclear polarizability of helium isotopes in atomic transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pachucki, K.; Moro, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the nuclear polarizability correction to atomic transition frequencies in various helium isotopes. This effect is non-negligible for high precision tests of quantum electrodynamics or accurate determination of the nuclear charge radius from spectroscopic measurements in helium atoms and ions. In particular, it amounts to $28(3)$ kHz for 1S-2S transition in 4He+.

  8. Application of helium isotopes to studies of ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Winckler, G.; Lupton, J.; Jenkins, W.; Top, Z.; Roether, W.; Jean-Baptiste, P.

    2004-12-01

    Since the discovery of excess He-3 in the ocean by Clarke and Craig in the 1960's helium isotopes have been used in local, regional and global studies of circulation patterns and water mass transformation in the world ocean. From initial pilot studies through systematic exploration of these tracers during the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections) program to the recent global survey as part of the WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) hydrographic program (WHP) we obtained more detailed information on the distribution of helium isotopes, as well as their sources and sinks in the ocean. This information can now be applied to construct global fields of helium isotopes and to extract unique information on the circulation patterns at different depth levels in the ocean, as well as on local and regional processes such as ventilation of water masses in deep water formation regions. Additionally, the data sets are now sufficiently large to be useful for validation of Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM's). In this contribution we present examples of global helium isotope fields constructed from major programs such as GEOCECS, TTO (Transient Tracers in the Ocean), SAVE (South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment) and WOCE, as well as from individual ocean sections. We use the data to delineate circulation patterns in the major ocean basins at several depth levels, especially mid-depth waters. Additionally, we outline the use of helium isotopes in studies of ocean ventilation. Finally, we compare observed and simulated helium isotope fields to highlight OGCM capabilities and deficiencies to reproduce internal He-3 excesses in the ocean and the related ventilation processes.

  9. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of {sup 60}Ni which produces no helium, {sup 59}Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ({sup Nat}Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of {sup 59}Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to {approx}7 dpa at 300 and 400{degrees}C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400{degrees}C than at 300{degrees}C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from {sup 59}Ni and {sup Nat}Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400{degrees}C. At 300{degrees}C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400{degrees}C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces.

  10. Helium and neon isotopes in stratospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    He and Ne isotope ratios were determined for 16 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The observed He concentration varied greatly from particle to particle, with the highest values approaching those found for lunar surface fines and some gas-rich meteorites. The average Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio was 12.0 + or - 0.5. The data suggest that the observed IDPs could have entered the atmosphere at relatively low velocities, and hence may be primarily of asteroidal rather than cometary origin.

  11. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  12. Hydrogen isotope accumulation in the helium implantation zone in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelj, S.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Založnik, A.

    2017-06-01

    The influence of helium (He) on deuterium (D) transport and retention was studied experimentally in tungsten (W). Helium was implanted 1 µm deep into W to a maximum calculated concentration of 3.4 at.%. To minimize the influence of displacement damage created during the He implantation on D retention, so-called self-damaged W was used. W was damaged by 20 MeV W ion bombardment and defects were populated by low-temperature D plasma at room temperature before He implantation. Deuterium depth profiling was performed in situ during isochronal annealing in the temperature range from 300 K to 800 K. It is shown for the first time unambiguously that He attracts D and locally increases D trapping. Deuterium retention increased by a factor of two as compared to a non-He implanted W reference after sample annealing at 450 K. Rate equation modelling can explain the measured D depth profiles quantitatively when keeping the de-trapping parameters unchanged but only increasing the number of traps in the He zone. This bolsters the confidence in the theoretical calculations predicting that more hydrogen isotopes can be stored around a He cluster zone.

  13. Helium-oxygen-osmium isotopic and elemental constraints on the mantle sources of the Deccan Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bradley J.; Day, James M. D.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Hilton, David R.; Gibson, Jennifer; Franchi, Ian A.

    2017-11-01

    The Deccan Traps, a 65 million-year-old continental flood basalt province located in western India, is the result of one of the largest short-lived magmatic events to have occurred on Earth. The nature and composition of its mantle source(s), however, have been difficult to resolve due to extensive assimilation of continental crust into the ascending Traps magmas. To circumvent this issue, using high-precision electron microprobe analysis, we have analyzed olivine grains from MgO-rich (up to 15.7 wt.%) lavas that likely erupted before substantial crustal assimilation occurred. We compare olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase mineral chemistry and He-O-Os isotope compositions with bulk rock major- and trace-element abundances and 187Os/188Os for both bulk-rocks and mineral separates. Helium isotope compositions for the olivine grains generally show strong influence from crustal assimilation (rocks. Despite significant He-Os isotopic variations, Δ17O is relatively invariant (- 0.008 ± 0.014 ‰) and indistinguishable from the bulk mantle, consistent with high-3He/4He hotspots measured to-date. Compositions of olivine grains indicate the presence of up to 25% of a pyroxenite source for Deccan parental magmas, in good agreement with ∼20% predicted from isotopic data for the same samples. Modeled pyroxenite signatures are similar to geochemical signatures expected to arise due to other types of mantle differentiation or due to assimilation of continental crust; however, we show that crustal assimilation cannot account for all of the compositional features of the olivine. Weak correlations exist between a global compilation of Xpx (Deccan: 0.2-0.7) and 3He/4He, δ18O (Deccan olivine: 4.9-5.2‰) and 187Os/188Os. Robust relationships between these parameters may be precluded due to a lack of two-reservoir source mixing, instead involving multiple mantle domains with distinct compositions, or because Xpx may reflect both source features and crustal assimilation

  14. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  15. Atmospheric helium isotope ratio: Possible temporal and spatial variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuji; Furukawa, Yukiko; Takahata, Naoto

    2010-09-01

    The atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio has been considered to be constant on a global scale, because the residence time of helium is significantly longer than the mixing time in the atmosphere. However, this ratio may be decreasing with time owing to the anthropogenic release of crustal helium from oil and natural gas wells, although this observation has been disputed. Here, we present the 3He/ 4He ratios of old air trapped in historical slags in Japan and of modern surface air samples collected at various sites around the world, measured with a newly developed analytical system. In air helium extracted from metallurgical slag found at refineries in operation between AD 1603 and 1907 in Japan, we determined a mean 3He/ 4He ratio of (5106 ± 108) × 10 -5 R HESJ (where R HESJ is the 3He/ 4He ratio of the Helium Standard of Japan), which is consistent with the previously reported value of (5077 ± 59) × 10 -5 R HESJ for historical slags in France and United Arab Emirates and about 4% higher than that of average modern air, (4901 ± 4) × 10 -5 R HESJ. This result implies that the air 3He/ 4He ratio has decreased with time as expected by anthropogenic causes. Our modern surface air samples revealed that the 3He/ 4He ratio increases from north to south at a rate of (0.16 ± 0.08) × 10 -5 R HESJ/degree of latitude, suggesting that the low 3He/ 4He ratio originates in high-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere, which is consistent with the fact that most fossil fuel is extracted and consumed in the northern hemisphere.

  16. Practical-scale tests of cryogenic molecular sieve for separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, R. S.; Taylor, D. J.; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-04-01

    Earlier bench-scale work at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory examined a number of adsorbents for their suitability for separating low-concentration hydrogen (no tritium) from helium. One of the effective adsorbents was Linde 5A molecular sieve. Recently, experiments including tritium were conducted using practical-scale adsorbers. These tests used existing cryogenic molecular sieve beds (CMSB's) which each contain about 1.6 kg of Linde 5A molecular sieve. They are part of the TSTA integrated tritium processing system. Gas was fed to each CMSB at about 13 SLPM with a nominal composition of 99% He, 0.98% H2, and 0.02% HT. In all cases, for an extended period of time, the beds allowed no detectable (via Raman spectroscopy) hydrogen isotopes to escape in the bed effluent. Thereafter, the hydrogen isotopes appeared in the bed exit with a relatively sharp breakthrough curve. This work concludes that cryogenic molecular sieve adsorption is a practical and effective means of separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from a helium carrier.

  17. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  18. Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laeter, J. R.; Heumann, K. G.; Rosman, K. J. R.

    1991-11-01

    The Subcommittee for Isotopic Abundance Measurements (SIAM) of the IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances has carried out its biennial review of isotopic compositions, as determined by mass spectrometry and other relevant methods. The Subcommittee's critical evaluation of the published literature element by element forms the basis of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements as Determined by Mass Spectrometry 1989, which is presented in this Report. Atomic Weights calculated from the tabulated isotopic abundances are consistent with Ar(E) values listed in the Table of Standard Atomic Weights 1989.

  19. A precise few-nucleon size difference by isotope shift measurements of helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Nima Hassan

    We perform high precision measurements of an isotope shift between the two stable isotopes of helium. We use laser excitation of the 23 S1 -- 23P0 transition at 1083 .... in a metastable beam of 3He and 4He atoms. A newly developed tunable laser frequency selector along with our previous electro-optic frequency modulation technique provides extremely reliable, adaptable, and precise frequency and intensity control. The intensity control contributes negligibly to overall experimental uncertainty by selecting (t selection internal and external consistency checks, we are able to obtain results consistent with the best previous measurements, but with substantially improved precision. Our measurement of the 23S 1 -- 23P0 isotope shift between 3He and 4He is 31 097 535.2 (5)kHz. The most recent theoretic calculation combined with this measuremen. yields a new determination for nuclear size differences between 3He and 4He: Deltarc = 0.292 6 (1)exp (8)th(52)expfm, with a precision of less than a part in 104 coming from the experimental uncertainty (first parenthesis), and a part in 10 3 coming from theory. This value is consistent with electron scattering measurement, but a factor of 10 more precise. It is inconsistent (4 sigma) with a recent isotope shift measurement on another helium transition (2 1S0 -- 23 S1). Comparisons with ongoing muonic helium measurements may provide clues to the origin of what is currently called the proton puzzle: electronic and muonic measurements of the proton size do not agree. In the future, the experimental improvements described here can be used for higher precision tests of atomic theory and quantum electrodynamics, as well as an important atomic physics source of the fine structure constant.

  20. Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, K. J. R.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    1998-11-01

    The Commission's Subcommittee for the Isotopic Composition of the Elements has carried out its biennial review of isotopic compositions, as determined by mass spectrometry and other relevant methods. This involves a critical evaluation of the published literature, element by element, and forms the basis of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements as Determined by Mass Spectrometry presented here. New guidelines have been used to arrive at the uncertainties on the isotopic abundances and there are numerous changes to the table since it was last published in 1991. Atomic Weights calculated from this table are consistent with Ar(E) values listed in the Table of Standard Atomic Weights 1997.

  1. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika

    2009-06-01

    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era.

  2. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  3. Coastal upwelling off Peru and Mauritania inferred from helium isotope disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, R.; Sültenfuß, J.; Dengler, M.; Fischer, T.; Rhein, M.

    2015-07-01

    Oceanic upwelling velocities are too small to be measured directly. The surface disequilibrium of the 3He/4He ratio provides an indirect method to infer vertical velocities at the base of the mixed layer. Samples of helium isotopes were taken from two coastal upwelling regions, off Peru on cruise M91, and off Mauritania on 3 cruises. The helium-3 flux into the mixed layer also depends on the diapycnal mixing. Direct observations of the vertical diffusivity have been performed on all 4 cruises and are also used in this study. The resulting upwelling velocities in the coastal regions vary between 1.1 × 10-5 and 2.8 × 10-5 m s-1 for all cruises. Vertical velocities off the equator can also be inferred from the divergence of the wind driven Ekman transport. In the coastal regimes, the agreement between wind and helium derived upwelling is fairly good at least for the mean values. Further offshore, the helium derived upwelling still reaches 1 × 10-5 m s-1, whereas the wind driven upwelling from Ekman suction is smaller by at least one order of magnitude. One reason for this difference might be eddy induced upwelling. Both advective and diffusive nutrient fluxes into the mixed layer are calculated based on the helium derived vertical velocities and the measured vertical diffusivities. The advective part of these fluxes makes up at least 50 % of the total. The nutrient flux into the mixed layer in the coastal upwelling regimes is equivalent to a net community production (NCP) of 1.3 g C m2 d-1 off Peru and 1.6-1.9 g C m2 d-1 off Mauritania.

  4. Nickel isotopic composition of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Louise; Williams, Helen M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kerr, Andrew C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed high-precision study of Ni isotope variations in mantle peridotites and their minerals, komatiites as well as chondritic and iron meteorites. Ultramafic rocks display a relatively large range in δ60 Ni (permil deviation in 60 Ni /58 Ni relative to the NIST SRM 986 Ni isotope standard) for this environment, from 0.15 ± 0.07‰ to 0.36 ± 0.08‰, with olivine-rich rocks such as dunite and olivine cumulates showing lighter isotope compositions than komatiite, lherzolite and pyroxenite samples. The data for the mineral separates shed light on the origin of these variations. Olivine and orthopyroxene display light δ60 Ni whereas clinopyroxene and garnet are isotopically heavy. This indicates that peridotite whole-rock δ60 Ni may be controlled by variations in modal mineralogy, with the prediction that mantle melts will display variable δ60 Ni values due to variations in residual mantle and cumulate mineralogy. Based on fertile peridotite xenoliths and Phanerozoic komatiite samples it is concluded that the upper mantle has a relatively homogeneous Ni isotope composition, with the best estimate of δ60Nimantle being 0.23 ± 0.06‰ (2 s.d.). Given that >99% of the Ni in the silicate Earth is located in the mantle, this also defines the Ni isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE). This value is nearly identical to the results obtained for a suite of chondrites and iron meteorites (mean δ60 Ni 0.26 ± 0.12‰ and 0.29 ± 0.10‰, respectively) showing that the BSE is chondritic with respect to its Ni isotope composition, with little to no Ni mass-dependent isotope fractionation resulting from core formation.

  5. Pitch angle distribution of trapped energetic protons and helium isotope nuclei measured along the Resurs-01 No. 4 LEO satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonov

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The NINA detector on board the Resurs-01 No. 4 satellite (835 km, 98° inclination is equipped with particle trackers based on silicon strip detectors. From the energy deposited in each of its silicon layers the mass, the momentum direction and energy of incident particles have been determined. The resolutions in mass and energy allow identification of H and He isotopes over the 10-50 MeV/n energy range. The angular resolution is about 2.5°. We present the direct measurements of proton and helium isotopes pitch angle distributions derived from Resurs-01 No.4/NINA observations and their variations as functions of (B, L coordinates and energy. The measurements of trapped helium isotopes spectrum are also presented.

  6. Simulation of the mantle and crustal helium isotope signature in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution regional circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, M.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourré, E.

    2015-12-01

    Helium isotopes (3He, 4He) are useful tracers for investigating the deep ocean circulation and for evaluating ocean general circulation models, because helium is a stable and conservative nuclide that does not take part in any chemical or biological process. Helium in the ocean originates from three different sources, namely, (i) gas dissolution in equilibrium with atmospheric helium, (ii) helium-3 addition by radioactive decay of tritium (called tritiugenic helium), and (iii) injection of terrigenic helium-3 and helium-4 by the submarine volcanic activity which occurs mainly at plate boundaries, and also addition of (mainly) helium-4 from the crust and sedimentary cover by α-decay of uranium and thorium contained in various minerals. We present the first simulation of the terrigenic helium isotope distribution in the whole Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution model (NEMO-MED12). For this simulation we build a simple source function for terrigenic helium isotopes based on published estimates of terrestrial helium fluxes. We estimate a hydrothermal flux of 3.5 mol3 He yr-1 and a lower limit for the crustal flux at 1.6 × 10-7 4He mol m-2 yr-1. In addition to providing constraints on helium isotope degassing fluxes in the Mediterranean, our simulations provide information on the ventilation of the deep Mediterranean waters which is useful for assessing NEMO-MED12 performance. This study is part of the work carried out to assess the robustness of the NEMO-MED12 model, which will be used to study the evolution of the climate and its effect on the biogeochemical cycles in the Mediterranean Sea, and to improve our ability to predict the future evolution of the Mediterranean Sea under the increasing anthropogenic pressure.

  7. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  8. Isotopic compositions of boron in sediments and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Yingkai, X.

    The abundance and isotopic compositions of boron in sediments from the salt lakes of Qaidam Basin, China have been determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of cesium borate. The results show large variations in the isotopic compositions...

  9. Regional and Local Trends in helium isotopes, basin and rangeprovince, western North America: Evidence for deep permeablepathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-07-15

    Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as {approx}6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to ''background'' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of {approx}0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and Range. Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and local geology indicate that these ''He-spikes'' are not related to current or recent magmatic activity, suggesting that the spikes may reflect either localized zones deep mantle melting or deep permeable pathways (faults) with high vertical fluid flowrates. A detailed study of one of the He-spikes (Dixie Valley and the Stillwater Range Front Fault system), indicates that features with high 3He/4He ratios are confined to the range front normal faults characteristic of the extensional regime in the Basin and Range, suggesting that these faults are deep permeable pathways. However, not all range front fault systems transmit fluids with a mantle signature, implying that not all have deep permeable pathways.

  10. Isotope Effects on Delayed Annihilation Time Spectra of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms in Low-Temperature Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, B; Daniel, H; Von Egidy, T; Niestroj, A; Schmid, S; Schmid, W; Yamazaki, T; Sugai, I; Nakayoshi, K; Hayano, R S; Maas, F E; Torii, H A; Ishikawa, T; Tamura, H; Morita, N; Horváth, D; Eades, John; Widmann, E

    1996-01-01

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low temperature ^3He and ^4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8~K and 400~mbar are very similar in shape except for i) a small difference in the time scale and ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of ^3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R = T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{4}He})/T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{3}He}), has been determined to be 1.144 \\pm 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R = [(M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{4}He})/ M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{ \\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He})]^2=1.14, where M^* denotes the reduced mass of the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{He^{++}}\\ system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of (0.154\\pm 0.007)\\ \\mbox{\\mus} in the case of \\mbox{^{3}He}\\ suggests that the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He^{+}}\\ atom has a state of in...

  11. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  12. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Kallio, A.; Heber, V. S.; Jarzebinski, G.; Mao, P.; Coath, C.; Kunihiro, T.; Wiens, R. C.; Judith, A.; Burnett, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An accurate and precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is the highest priority scientific goal of the Genesis Mission [1] as such data would provide a baseline from which one could interpret the oxygen isotopic anomalies found at all spatial scales in inner solar system materials. We have measured oxygen isotope compositions of implanted solar wind in 40 spots along a radial traverse of the Genesis SiC target sample 60001 by depth profiling with the UCLA MegaSIMS [2]. Mass-dependent fractionation induced by the solar wind concentrator [3] ion optics was corrected by comparison of the concentrator 22Ne/20Ne with that measured in a bulk solar wind target (diamond-like carbon on Si, [4]). The solar wind captured at L1 has an isotopic composition of (δ18O, δ17O) ≈ (-99, -79)‰, a value which is far removed from the terrestrial mass fractionation line. Profiles from the central portion of the target, where solar concentrations are highest and background corrections minimal, yield a mean Δ17O = -28.3 ± 1.8 ‰ indicating that the Earth and other planetary materials from the inner solar system are highly depleted in 16O relative to the solar wind. A mass-dependent fractionation of ~ -20%/amu in the acceleration of solar wind is required if we hypothesize that the photospheric oxygen isotope value, which represents the bulk starting composition of the solar system, is on the 16O-mixing line characteristic of refractory phase in primitive meteorites [5]. With this assumption, our preferred value for the bulk solar oxygen isotope composition is δ18O ≈ δ17O ≈ -57‰. A mechanism is required to fractionate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass-dependent manner to deplete 16O by ~6 to 7% in the rocky materials of the solar nebula. As oxygen is the third most abundant element in the solar system, and the most abundant in the terrestrial planets, this mechanism must operate on a large scale. Isotope-selective photochemistry, for example as in

  13. THE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF METEORITIC HCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    HCN is ubiquitous in extraterrestrial environments and is central to current theories on the origin of early solar system organic compounds such as amino acids. These compounds, observed in carbonaceous meteorites, were likely important in the origin and/or evolution of early life. As part of our attempts to understand the origin(s) of meteoritic CN{sup –}, we have analyzed the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic composition of HCN gas released from water extracts of the Murchison meteorite and found its value to be near those of the terrestrial atmosphere. The findings, when evaluated viz-a-viz molecular abundances and isotopic data of meteoritic organic compounds, suggest that HCN formation could have occurred during the protracted water alteration processes known to have affected the mineralogy of many asteroidal bodies during their solar residence. This was an active synthetic stage, which likely involved simple gasses, organic molecules, their presolar precursors, as well as mineral catalysts and would have lead to the formation of molecules of differing isotopic composition, including some with solar values.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater age using helium isotopes in the coastal area of Suruga Bay, adjacent to Mt. Fuji, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, M.; Machida, I.; Koshigai, M.; Ikawa, R.; Marui, A.

    2016-12-01

    Mt. Fuji, the highest mountain in Japan, is a stratovolcano with numerous springs at the foot of mountain. A recent study reported regional groundwater flow through the slope area of Mt. Fuji to the coastal area of Suruga Bay. It also suggested that the coastal groundwater had long residence times (more than 60 years) and may discharge directly into Suruga Bay. The aim of the current study is to clarify groundwater ages in the coastal area by using helium isotopes. Groundwater samples were collected around Mt. Fuji during 2014 to 2016 from 30 industrial wells, one natural spring, and two drilled boreholes (SKB and FGB). The depths of the industrial wells ranged from 9 to 1500 m. Borehole SKB is 50 m from the coastline of Suruga Bay. The depth of SKB is 350m; ten water samples were collected from it at different depths. Borehole FGB is 160 m deep and is equipped with a single screen. Water samples for helium isotopic measurements were collected using a copper tube and clamps. A duplicate sample was also taken at each sampling site/depth. Water samples for the analysis of water quality, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes, and minor elements were collected at the same time. Helium isotopes were analyzed using quadrupole mass spectrometry and noble gas mass spectrometry. Results showed that the ratios of 3He/4H in fresh coastal groundwater were higher than those of atmospheric component and inland groundwater. Brackish water sampled from SKB and FGB had significantly higher 3He/4He compared with the fresh groundwater. In addition, the 3He/4He ratios of saltwater in SKB were more depleted with increasing depth. The result suggested that a mantle helium component is most enriched along the freshwater-saltwater interface. According to the results of groundwater age estimation by a model from an earlier study in Japan, the age of fresh coastal groundwater ranged from 200 to 300 years. In comparison, the groundwater ages of brackish/salt water ranged from approximately

  15. Dynamics of the reaction of the N/sup +/ ion with hydrogen isotopes and helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruska, W.E.W.

    1976-06-28

    Molecular beam techniques were used to study the reactive and non-reactive scattering of the nitrogen positive ion from hydrogen isotopes and helium, at energies above the stability limit for spectator stripping. Reactive scattering was observed from H/sub 2/ and HD targets. Non-reactive scattering was observed from H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ targets, and from He at one energy. A correlation diagram for the system is presented and compared with the available a priori calculations. Two surfaces are expected to lead to reaction. One is a /sup 3/A/sub 2/ - /sup 3/PI surface, the other, a /sup 3/B/sub 1/ - /sup 3/..sigma../sup -/ surface. Collinear approaches are expected to be most reactive on the /sup 3/B/sub 1/ - /sup 3/..sigma../sup -/ surface; noncollinear, on the /sup 3/A/sub 1/ - /sup 3/PI surface. Theoretical models are presented in which an incident hard sphere A, representing the projectile ion, strikes one of a pair of hard spheres B-C representing the B hydrogen molecule. After an impulsive A-B collision, an impulsive B-C collision may take place. The relative energy of A to B is then examined, and a reactive event is considered to have occurred if the energy is less than the dissociation energy for the A-B molecule. This model is treated both in the collinear case and in three dimensions. A graphical technique for the collinear case is summarized and applied to reaction on the /sup 3/B/sub 1/ - /sup 3/..sigma../sup -/ surface. An integral equation for the three-dimensional case is developed. A synthesis of two treatments, representing the behavior of the system on both reactive surfaces, and considering the charge-exchange channel, correctly predicts the observed product distribution. Predictions are also presented for the as yet unobserved case of reactive scattering from a D/sub 2/ target.

  16. Xenon isotopic composition of the Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peto, M. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although convection models do not preclude preservation of smaller mantle regions with more pristine composition throughout Earth's history, it has been widely assumed that the moon forming giant impact likely homogenizes the whole mantle following a magma ocean that extended all the way to the bottom of the mantle. Recent findings of tungsten and xenon heterogeneities in the mantle [1,2,3,4], however, imply that i) the moon forming giant impact may not have homogenized the whole mantle and ii) plate tectonics was inefficient in erasing early formed compositional differences, particularly for the xenon isotopes. Therefore, the xenon isotope composition in the present day mantle still preserves a memory of early Earth processes. However, determination of the xenon isotopic composition of the mantle source is still scarce, since the mantle composition is overprinted by post-eruptive atmospheric contamination in basalts erupted at ocean islands and mid ocean ridges. The xenon composition of the depleted upper mantle has been defined by the gas rich sample, 2πD43 (also known as "popping rock"), from the North Atlantic (13° 469`N). However, the composition of a single sample is not likely to define the composition of the upper mantle, especially since popping rock has an "enriched" trace element composition. We will present Ne, Ar and Xe isotope data on MORB glass samples with "normal" helium isotope composition (8±1 Ra) from the Southeast Indian Ridge, the South Atlantic Ridge, the Sojourn Ridge, the Juan de Fuca, the East Pacific Rise, and the Gakkel Ridge. Following the approach of [1], we correct for syn- and post-eruptive atmosphere contamination, and determine the variation of Ar and Xe isotope composition of the "normal" MORB source. We investigate the effect of atmospheric recycling in the variation of MORB mantle 40Ar/36Ar and 129Xe/130Xe ratios, and attempt to constrain the average upper mantle argon and xenon isotopic compositions. [1] Mukhopadhyay, Nature

  17. Measurements of Isotopic Composition of Vapour on the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, M.; Landais, A.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Genthon, C.; Prie, F.; Kerstel, E.; Kassi, S.; Arnaud, L.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Vignon, E.

    2015-12-01

    The oldest ice core records are obtained on the East Antarctic plateau. The composition in stable isotopes of water (δ18O, δD, δ17O) permits to reconstruct the past climatic conditions over the ice sheet and also at the evaporation source. Paleothermometer accuracy relies on good knowledge of processes affecting the isotopic composition of surface snow in Polar Regions. Both simple models such as Rayleigh distillation and global atmospheric models with isotopes provide good prediction of precipitation isotopic composition in East Antarctica but post deposition processes can alter isotopic composition on site, in particular exchanges with local vapour. To quantitatively interpret the isotopic composition of water archived in ice cores, it is thus essential to study the continuum water vapour - precipitation - surface snow - buried snow. While precipitation and snow sampling are routinely performed in Antarctica, climatic conditions in Concordia, very cold (-55°C in average) and very dry (less than 1000ppmv), impose difficult conditions to measure the water vapour isotopic composition. New developments in infrared spectroscopy enable now the measurement of isotopic composition in water vapour traces (down to 20ppmv). Here we present the results of a campaign of measurement of isotopic composition in Concordia in 2014/2015. Two infrared spectrometers have been deployed or the first time on top of the East Antarctic Plateau allowing a continuous vapour measurement for a month. Comparison of the results from infrared spectroscopy with cryogenic trapping validates the relevance of the method to measure isotopic composition in dry conditions. Identification of different behaviour of isotopic composition in the water vapour associated to turbulent or stratified regime indicates a strong impact of meteorological processes in local vapour/snow interaction.

  18. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  19. Isotopic Composition of Xenon in Petroleum from the Shell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have measured the abundance and isotopic composition of xenon in petroleum samples from the Shell Bullwinkle Field off the coast of Louisiana. We used an oxidation and purification procedure designed to insure complete extraction and clean up of xenon from the petroleum. The xenon isotopic composition was ...

  20. Synergistic helium and deuterium blistering in tungsten–tantalum composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M., E-mail: marta.dias@itn.pt [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Mateus, R.; Catarino, N.; Franco, N. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, D. [CENIMAT-I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hanada, K. [AIST, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, 305-8564 Ibaraki (Japan); Sârbu, C. [National Institute of Materials and Physics, 105bis Atomistilor street, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); and others

    2013-11-15

    Abstruct: Tungsten–tantalum composites with 10 and 20 at.% Ta were prepared by ball milling W powder with Ta fibers and by consolidating the milled materials with spark plasma sintering. The composites were implanted at room temperature with He{sup +} (30 keV with a fluence 5 × 10{sup 21} at/m{sup 2}) and/or D{sup +} (15 keV with a fluence 5 × 10{sup 21} at/m{sup 2}) ion beams. The materials were studied by scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, both coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis. The microstructure observations revealed that the milling operation resulted in severe fragmentation of the Ta fibers. Furthermore, during the consolidation process the Ta phase acted as oxygen getter and reduced the W oxide present in the original material. The surface of the tungsten–tantalum composites implanted with D{sup +} remained essentially unaltered, while the materials implanted with He{sup +} evidenced blisters on the Ta-rich regions. D retention in the composites increased with He{sup +} pre-implantation.

  1. Diffusion of Helium Isotopes in Silicate Glasses and Minerals: Implications for Petrogenesis and Geochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    stable form, trigonal alpha-quartz, to a more ordered hexagonal form, hexagonal beta -quartz (Deer, Howie, and Zussman, 1966). However, this conversion...diffusion of helium and neon in tridymite and cristobalite .Trans. Farad. Soc. 63, 2225-2290. BARRETT P.J. (1972) Stratigrapgy and petrology of the

  2. Diffusion of helium in carbonates: Effects of mineral structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Amidon, W.; Hobbs, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2015-09-01

    dependent on diffusion domain size, general predictions are difficult given the structural complexities of natural samples. Our axis-specific diffusion measurements across a range of carbonate compositions, evaluated through direct profiling, offer important constraints for modeling helium mobility in carbonates, and for understanding the influence of the complexities of carbonate structures on He outgassing patterns.

  3. Design, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning of the Helium Refrigeration system Supporting Superconducting Radio Frequency Testing at Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, F.; Fila, A.; Nguyen, C.; Tatsumoto, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a scientific user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC). The FRIB linear accelerator (LINAC) will be comprised of cryomodules each with multiple Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities operating at 2 K. A helium refrigeration system was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned in the SRF high bay building to test and certify these cavities and cryomodules before installation in the FRIB LINAC tunnel. The helium refrigeration system includes a helium refrigerator which has nominal capacity of 900 W at 4 K, 5000 L liquid helium storage Dewar, helium gas storage, two room temperature vacuum pumps capable of 2.5 g/s each for 2 K testing, purifier, purifier recovery compressor, and the distribution system for liquid nitrogen and helium. The helium refrigeration system is now operational supporting three below grade cavity testing Dewars and one cryomodule testing bunker meeting the required throughput of 1 cavity per day.

  4. The isotopic composition of Nd in different ocean masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Dasch, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the isotopic composition of Nd in marine environments. The Sm-Nd data for authigenic ferromanganese sediments indicate that the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans have a distinct range in Nd isotopic composition characteristics of each ocean basin and reflect the dissolved load of Nd in the water mass. Measurements of the Nd isotopic seawater composition of seawater indicate that the rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese sediments are derived by direct precipitation of these elements out of seawater. It is believed that the Nd isotopic variations in these sediments represent true variations in the dissolved Nd isotopic composition which reflect the age and (Sm-147)/(Nd-144) ratios of the continental masses sampled believed to be the major source of REE in seawater.

  5. Effect of composition on helium diffusion in fluoroapatites investigated with nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, S. [CRISMAT, ENSICAEN, 6 Bd du Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Studer, F. [CRISMAT, ENSICAEN, 6 Bd du Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Costantini, J.-M. [CEA Saclay, DMN/SRMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-marc.costantini@cea.fr; Haussy, J. [CEA DIF, DCRE/SEIM, BP 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel cedex (France); Trouslard, P. [CEA Saclay, LEMFI/INSTN/DRECAM, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Grob, J.-J. [CNRS-InESS, 23, rue du Loess, B.P.20, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2006-09-01

    In the context of nuclear waste disposal, the knowledge of the diffusion of helium produced by {alpha}-decays is an important issue, in order to assess the long-term behavior of the containment matrices. Apatite is one of these potential hosts, which can incorporate many radionuclides as trivalent minor actinides and fission products. In order to determine the influence of the double (cationic/anionic) substitution on helium diffusion, we have studied two different apatite compositions (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} and Ca{sub 4}Nd{sub 6}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}). For that purpose, the helium bulk diffusion constants were derived from non-destructive {sup 3}He depth profiling using the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction. Results have been obtained on sintered ceramics implanted with 3-MeV {sup 3}He{sup +} ions at a depth around 9 {mu}m with a fluence of 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} then annealed in air at temperatures between 250 and 400 deg. C. We show that the activation energy for helium diffusion determined by two different models decreases with substitution, i.e., 1.27 eV for Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} and 0.89 eV for Ca{sub 4}Nd{sub 6}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}. Moreover, the activation energy in sintered Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} ceramics is similar to that determined by other authors on a single crystal of the same composition. It leads us to think that the diffusion mechanism involves the tunnels of the structure, the size of which increases with substitution.

  6. The distributions of helium isotopes and tritium along the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic sections (GEOTRACES GAO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, W. J.; Lott, D. E.; Longworth, B. E.; Curtice, J. M.; Cahill, K. L.

    2015-06-01

    We present the distributions of helium isotopes (in the form of helium isotope ratio anomaly relative to the atmospheric ratio) and tritium along two sections occupied in the subtropical North Atlantic as part of the first U.S. GEOTRACES survey (GEOTRACES GA03). The general distributions of these isotopes are consistent with the continuing penetration and evolution of bomb-produced tritium and its daughter isotope 3He in the main thermocline and along the western boundary current system. We combine these two distributions to compute a tritium-3He age, which is related to the elapsed time since the water was at the ocean surface. Although it is an indicator biased by the effects of mixing and influenced by the time history and spatial distribution of bomb tritium delivery to the ocean surface, it still remains a useful measure of ventilation time-scales. Aside from the continued propagation of the tritium-3He transient into the ocean interior, there are three notable features of interest in these distributions. The first is the clear signature of upwelling in the water column near the coast of Mauritania, characterized by the upward bowing of isochrones in the thermocline and discernable 3He excess at the ocean surface. A simple 3He mass balance calculation suggests an upwelling flux of order 1.8×106 m3 s-1 (1.8 Sv) along the Mauritanian coast. The second is a mid-depth (~1500-2000 m) core of ventilated waters centered over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, an anticyclonic circulation of waters likely originating in the Labrador Sea. The third notable feature is a volcanic 3He plume at about 3500 m depth emanating from the TAG Hydrothermal Area that is detectable as much as 500 km away on each side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We estimate a 3He:heat ratio of ~7×10-18 mol J-1 and a 3He flux from the TAG site of ~15 mmol y-1. Since 3He is a conserved tracer in the absence of measureable tritium, the correlation of volcanic 3He with other hydrothermally influenced TEIs (e.g., Fe

  7. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 3 ... Pyrite; minor element; sulphur isotope; evolution; Jaduguda; Singhbhum; India. ... By integrating minor element and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in conjunction with other published data on the Jaduguda deposit, it is proposed that reduced ...

  8. A comparative study on isotopic composition of precipitation in wet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion of precipitation are due to isotopic fraction- ation occurring during the advection of the water vapour, condensation of vapour into rain and evap- oration during downfall from cloud level to ground level (Clark and Fritz 1997). The variations in sta- ble isotopic composition of water bodies have been explained in terms of ...

  9. Factors affecting the isotopic composition of organic matter. (1) Carbon isotopic composition of terrestrial plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H W; Wang, W M

    2001-07-01

    The stable isotope composition of the light elements (i.e., H, C, N, O and S) of organic samples varies significantly and, for C, is also unique and distinct from that of inorganic carbon. This is the result of (1) the isotope composition of reactants, (2) the nature of the reactions leading to formation and post-formational modification of the samples, (3) the environmental conditions under which the reactions took place, and (4) the relative concentration of the reactants compared to that of the products (i.e., [products]/[reactants] ratio). This article will examine the carbon isotope composition of terrestrial plant materials and its relationship with the above factors. delta13C(PDB) values of terrestrial plants range approximately from -8 to -38%, inclusive of C3-plants (-22 to -38%), C4-plants (-8 to -15%) and CAM-plants (-13 to -30%). Thus, the delta13C(PDB) values largely reflect the photosynthesis pathways of a plant as well as the genetics (i.e., species difference), delta13C(PDB) values of source CO2, relevant humidity, CO2/O2 ratios, wind and light intensity etc. Significant variations in these values also exist among different tissues, different portions of a tissue and different compounds. This is mainly a consequence of metabolic reactions. Animals mainly inherit the delta13C(PDB) values of the foods they consume; therefore, their delta13C(PDB) values are similar. The delta13C(PDB) values of plant materials, thus, contain information regarding the inner workings of the plants, the environmental conditions under which they grow, the delta13C(PDB) values of CO2 sources etc., and are unique. Furthermore, this uniqueness is passed on to their derivative matter, such as animals, humus etc. Hence, they are very powerful tools in many areas of research, including the ecological and environmental sciences.

  10. Molecular and isotopic composition of foraminiferal organic linings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ní Fhlaithearta, S.; Ernst, S.R.; Nierop, K.G.J.; de Lange, G.J.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Fossil remnants of benthic foraminifera consist of carbonate tests and their organic linings. The macromolecular and stable isotopic composition of these benthic foraminiferal organic liningswas characterized to evaluate their potential use as paleoclimate proxies. Using Curie point

  11. Characters of chlorine isotopic composition in ocean water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, W.G.; Hong, A.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Wei, H.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The chlorine isotopic composition of ocean water was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry based on the measurement of Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion. The results show that the sup(37) Cl/ sup(35) Cl ratios are basically homogeneous...

  12. Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna; Loss, Robert D.; Walczyk, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (ciaaw.org) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (iupac.org) has revised the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements (TICE). The update involved a critical evaluation of the recent published literature. The new TICE 2013 includes evaluated data from the “best measurement” of the isotopic abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotopic abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials.

  13. Controls on the barium isotope compositions of marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgestock, Luke; Hsieh, Yu-Te; Porcelli, Donald; Homoky, William B.; Bryan, Allison; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2018-01-01

    The accumulation of barium (Ba) in marine sediments is considered to be a robust proxy for export production, although this application can be limited by uncertainty in BaSO4 preservation and sediment mass accumulation rates. The Ba isotope compositions of marine sediments could potentially record insights into past changes in the marine Ba cycle, which should be insensitive to these limitations, enabling more robust interpretation of sedimentary Ba as a proxy. To investigate the controls on the Ba isotope compositions of marine sediments and their potential for paleo-oceanographic applications, we present the first Ba isotope compositions results for sediments, as well as overlying seawater depth profiles collected in the South Atlantic. Variations in Ba isotope compositions of the sediments predominantly reflect changes in the relative contributions of detrital and authigenic Ba sources, with open-ocean sediments constraining the isotope composition of authigenic Ba to be δ138/134Ba ≈ + 0.1 ‰. This value is consistent with the average isotope composition inferred for sinking particulate Ba using simple mass balance models of Ba in the overlying water column and is hypothesized to reflect the removal of Ba from the upper water column with an associated isotopic fractionation of Δdiss-part 138/134Ba ≈ + 0.4 to +0.5. Perturbations to upper ocean Ba cycling, due to changes in export production and the supply of Ba via upwelling, should therefore be recorded by the isotope compositions of sedimentary authigenic Ba. Such insights will help to improve the reliable application of Ba accumulation rates in marine sediments as a proxy for past changes in export production.

  14. Cosmic Ray Helium Isotopes From 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, O.; Hof, M.; Menn, W.

    1996-01-01

    mass by means of the velocity vs. magnetic rigidity technique. A model of the instrument response was developed in order to unfold the species and rigidity-dependent effects. Measurements and astrophysical interpretation of the ^3He/^4He isotope ratio from 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon will be presented...

  15. On the origins of trapped helium, neon and argon isotopic variations in meteorites. I - Gas-rich meteorites, lunar soil and breccia. II - Carbonaceous meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented from stepwise heating experiments and total extractions on five meteorites: Kapoeta, Fayetteville, Holman Island, Cee Vee, and Pultusk. These data reveal the presence of four isotopically distinct trapped neon components. A comparison of trapped neon with trapped helium and argon in bulk analyses indicates the existence of correlated helium, neon and argon isotopic structures. Component B is attributed primarily to direct implantation of rare gas ions by the present day solar wind. Component C is identified with directly implanted low energy (1-10 Mev/n) solar flare rare gases. Component D is associated with rare gas ions implanted in meteoritic material by the primitive, pre-main sequence, solar wind. A fourth component, observed only in Kapoeta and the lunar fines and breccia, is tentatively attributed to parent body 'atmospheric' ions implanted in surface material by a solar wind induced electric field.

  16. The ruthenium isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    The approximately chondritic relative, and comparatively high absolute mantle abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), suggest that their concentrations in the bulk silicate Earth were primarily established during a final ∼0.5 to 1% of ;late accretion; to the mantle, following the cessation of core segregation. Consequently, the isotopic composition of the HSE Ru in the mantle reflects an amalgamation of the isotopic compositions of late accretionary contributions to the silicate portion of the Earth. Among cosmochemical materials, Ru is characterized by considerable mass-independent isotopic variability, making it a powerful genetic tracer of Earth's late accretionary building blocks. To define the Ru isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle, the largest portion of the accessible mantle, we report Ru isotopic data for materials from one Archean and seven Phanerozoic oceanic mantle domains. A sample from a continental lithospheric mantle domain is also examined. All samples have identical Ru isotopic compositions, within analytical uncertainties, indicating that Ru isotopes are well mixed in the oceanic mantle, defining a μ100Ru value of 1.2 ± 7.2 (2SD). The only known meteorites with the same Ru isotopic composition are enstatite chondrites and, when corrected for the effects of cosmic ray exposure, members of the Main Group and sLL subgroup of the IAB iron meteorite complex which have a collective CRE corrected μ100Ru value of 0.9 ± 3.0. This suggests that materials from the region(s) of the solar nebula sampled by these meteorites likely contributed the dominant portion of late accreted materials to Earth's mantle.

  17. Isotopic ratio correlation for the isotopic composition analysis of plutonium in Am-Pu mixed samples having high americium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sabyasachi; Agarwal, Chhavi; Chaudhury, Sanhita; Newton Nathaniel, T; Gathibandhe, M; Goswami, A

    2013-08-01

    Interference of high amount of americium in the plutonium isotopic composition analysis has been studied by simulating gamma-ray spectra for Am-Pu samples over a wide composition range (5-97% (241)Am) for both power and research reactor grade plutonium. An alternate way for isotopic composition analysis has been proposed by correlating the isotopic ratios available in our old database with the experimentally obtained (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio. The proposed method has been validated using simulated spectra of known isotopic compositions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation and the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Savage, Paul S.; Teng, Fang-Zehn; Helz, Rosalind T.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    he zinc stable isotope system has been successfully applied to many and varied fields in geochemistry, but to date it is still not completely clear how this isotope system is affected by igneous processes. In order to evaluate the potential application of Zn isotopes as a proxy for planetary differentiation and volatile history, it is important to constrain the magnitude of Zn isotopic fractionation induced by magmatic differentiation. In this study we present high-precision Zn isotope analyses of two sets of chemically diverse, cogenetic samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, and Hekla volcano, Iceland, which both show clear evidence of having undergone variable and significant degrees of magmatic differentiation. The Kilauea Iki samples display small but resolvable variations in Zn isotope composition (0.26‰66Zn66Zn defined as the per mille deviation of a sample's 66Zn/64Zn compositional ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard), with the most differentiated lithologies exhibiting more positive δ66Zn values. This fractionation is likely a result of the crystallization of olivine and/or Fe–Ti oxides, which can both host Zn in their crystal structures. Samples from Hekla have a similar range of isotopic variation (0.22‰66Zn66Zn=0.28±0.05‰ (2s.d.).

  19. Precision Measurement of the Energies and Line Shapes of Antiprotonic Lyman and Balmer Transitions From Hydrogen and Helium Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS207 \\\\ \\\\ For the study of the antiproton-proton and antiproton-nuclear spin-spin and spin-orbital interaction at threshold a high resolution measurement is proposed of the line shapes and energy shifts of antiprotonic K$\\alpha$ and L$\\alpha$ transitions of hydrogen and helium isotopes. The intense LEAR beam, stopped in the cyclotron trap at low gas pressure, provides a unique~X-ray~source with sufficient brightness. Charge coupled devices with their excellent background rejection and energy resolution allow a precise determination of the strong shifts and widths of the 1s hyperfine states of protonium, in addition the detection of the $\\bar{p}$D K$\\alpha$ transition should be possible. A focussing crystal spectrometer with a resolution $\\Delta$E/E of about l0$ ^- ^{4} $, which is superior in the accuracy of the energy determination by two orders of magnitude as compared to the present detection methods, will be used to measure the energies of the L$\\alpha$ transitions. This permits a first direct measure...

  20. Electrical Resistivity Structure and Helium Isotopes around Naruko Volcano, Northeastern Japan and Its Implication for the Distribution of Crustal Magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Asamori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electrical resistivity structure beneath Naruko volcano was determined using magnetotelluric soundings. The resulting model shows that a prominent conductor exists through the middle crust to the uppermost mantle beneath the volcano. The location of the conductor agrees closely with a seismic low-velocity zone. Low-frequency microearthquakes occur near the conductor around the Moho depth. The cutoff depth of crustal earthquakes is coincident with the upper boundary of the conductor, implying that the conductor has a temperature appreciably higher than 400∘C. Furthermore, new helium isotope data from hot springs around the volcano were obtained. The spatial distribution of the observed 3He/4He ratios reveals the extent of mantle-derived materials beneath Naruko volcano. Consequently, it is apparent that the conductor determined beneath the volcano reflects the presence of high-temperature mantle-derived materials such as magmas and/or related fluids derived from active magmatism in the northeastern Japan subduction zone.

  1. Characteristics of stable carbon isotopic composition of shale gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Qu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A type Ⅱ kerogen with low thermal maturity was adopted to perform hydrocarbon generation pyrolysis experiments in a vacuum (Micro-Scale Sealed Vessel system at the heating rates of 2 °C/h and 20 °C/h. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of gas hydrocarbons were measured to investigate their evolving characteristics and the possible reasons for isotope reversal. The δ13C values of methane became more negative with the increasing pyrolysis temperatures until it reached the lightest point, after which they became more positive. Meanwhile, the δ13C values of ethane and propane showed a positive trend with elevating pyrolysis temperatures. The carbon isotopic compositions of shale gasses were mainly determined by the type of parent organic matter, thermal evolutionary extent, and gas migration in shale systems. Our experiments and study proved that the isotope reversal shouldn't occur in a pure thermogenic gas reservoir, it must be involved with some other geochemical process/es; although mechanisms responsible for the reversal are still vague. Carbon isotopic composition of the Fayetteville and Barnett shale gas demonstrated that the isotope reversal was likely involved with water–gas reaction and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis during its generation.

  2. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.grolmusova@geology.sk [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Rapčanová, Anna [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Veis, Pavel [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values. These data were compared to previously published δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied.

  3. Effects of helium and deuterium irradiation on SPS sintered W–Ta composites at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, R., E-mail: rmateus@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, M. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Lopes, J. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Rocha, J.; Catarino, N.; Franco, N. [ITN, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2013-11-15

    Energetic He{sup +} and D{sup +} ions were implanted into different W–Ta composites in order to investigate their stability under helium and deuterium irradiation. The results were compared with morphological and chemical modifications arising from exposure of pure W and Ta. Special attention was given to tantalum hydride (Ta{sub 2}H) formation due to its implications for tritium inventory. Three W–Ta composites with 10 and 20 at.% Ta were prepared from elemental W powder and Ta fibre or powder through low-energy ball milling in argon atmosphere. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used as the consolidation process in the temperature range from 1473 to 1873 K. The results obtained from pure elemental samples and composites are similar. However, Ta{sub 2}H is easily formed in pure Ta by using a pre-implantation stage of He{sup +}, whereas in W–Ta composites the same reaction is clearly reduced, and it can be inhibited by controlling the sintering temperature.

  4. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13 C and 14 C isotope analysis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 8593-8606, 2011. Ceburnis, D., Masalaite, A., Ovadnevaite, J., Garbaras, A., Remeikis, V., Maenhaut, W., Claeys, M., Sciare, J., Baisnée, D., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Stable isotopes measurements reveal dual carbon pools contributing to organic matter enrichment in marine aerosol, Scientific Reports, 6, 2016. Masalaite, A., Remeikis, V., Garbaras, A., Dudoitis, V., Ulevicius, V., and Ceburnis, D.: Elucidating carbonaceous aerosol sources by the stable carbon δ13C TC ratio in size

  5. Mercury isotope compositions in North American forest soils and litters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Obrist, D.; Bergquist, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils represent one of the largest reservoirs of mercury on Earth, playing a critical role in the natural cycle of mercury by acting as both a sink and source. However, it is not well understood how soils sequestrate and remobilize Hg. Natural variations in stable Hg isotopes are being explored as a promising tool in studying the transformation and transport of Hg. However, Hg isotopic data in soils is scarce. In addition, the limited isotopic data that exists is significantly different from those of atmospheric Hg, which is one of the major sources of Hg to soils. For example, Hg mass independent fractionation (MIF, typically reported as Δ199Hg) is positive in atmospheric wet deposition, but most soils display negative Δ199Hg. MIF on 200Hg (Δ200Hg) is also observed in atmospheric wet deposition, but not in soils. The discrepancy between soils and atmospheric samples is still unexplained. In this study, we surveyed the Hg isotope compositions in soil profiles, litters and fresh vegetation from four different forest sites across United States (Thompson forest, WA, Truckee, CA, Niwot Ridge, CO and Howland, MA). The current results from the WA site show that soils primarily display negative mass dependent fractionation for the even isotopes (MDF, reported as δ202Hg) with values for δ202Hg of up to -2.0‰. Significant MIF for both odd isotopes is also observed in all WA soil samples and Δ199Hg is mostly negative (up to -0.4‰). No MIF on 200Hg is observed in these soils. The negative Δ199Hg in soils is inconsistent with the positive Δ199Hg reported in atmospheric wet deposition, suggesting that either Hg transformations within or on the surface of soils and/or plants alter its isotope composition after deposition or other types of Hg deposition (e.g., Hg(0) or Hg(II) dry deposition) is more predominant. The Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg ratio is close to 1 in the soils, which is consistent with the results of laboratory photochemical reduction of inorganic Hg

  6. Constraints on fluid origins and migration velocities along the Marmara Main Fault (Sea of Marmara, Turkey) using helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, P.; Bourlange, S.; Henry, P.; Geli, L.; Tryon, M. D.; Natal'in, B.; Sengör, A. M. C.; Özeren, M. S.; Çagatay, M. N.

    2012-08-01

    Fluids venting from the submarine portion of the Marmara Main Fault (part of the North Anatolian Fault system, Turkey) were sampled in Ti bottles deployed by submersible. The fluids consist of mixtures of fault derived gases, fault related cold seep fluids, and ambient seawater; these components can readily be distinguished using the isotopes of He and the He/Ne ratios. 3He/4He ratios range between 0.03±0.1 and 4.9±0.4 Ra, indicating that both crustal and mantle derived sources of helium are sampled by the fault. The dominant gas in all the samples analyzed is methane with the abundance of CO2 below detection (≤2%) in the mantle rich (high 3He/4He) fluids. This is in contrast to nearly all mantle derived fluids where the C species are dominated by CO2. While high CH4/CO2 ratios may reflect organic or inorganic reactions within the crust which reduce mantle derived CO2 to methane, this is not a priori necessary: we show that simple dilution of mantle fluids with methane produced within local sediments could result in the high 3He/4He, methane rich gases currently emanating from the fault. This observation is supported by an anticorrelation between 3He/4He and C/3He, which is consistent with addition of C and 4He simultaneously to the fluids. The highest 3He/4He ratios were found in the Tekirdag Basin, at the foot of the escarpment bordering the Western Sea of Marmara, where seismic data are consistent with the presence of a fault network at depth which could provide conduits permitting deep-seated fluids to rise to the surface. The lack of recent volcanism, or any evidence of underlying magmatism in the area, along with low temperature fluids, strongly suggests that the 3He-rich helium in these fluids was derived from the mantle itself with the Marmara Main Fault providing a high permeability conduit from the mantle to the surface. Assuming that the mantle source to the fluids originally had a 3He/4He ratio of 6 Ra, the minimum fluid velocities (considering only

  7. Determination of porphyrin carbon isotopic composition using gas chromatography-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z; Sheng, G; Fu, J; Peng, P

    2000-12-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of aetio I occurring in the form of free-base, nickel, demetallation, dihydroxysilicon(IV) and bis(tert.-butyldimethylsiloxy)silicon(IV) [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] have shown that it has experienced no obvious isotope fractionation during the synthesis of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] porphyrin from aetio I. Here, aetio I porphyrin species such as free-base, nickel, demetallated and dihydroxysilicon were analyzed by the conventional method, namely it is combusted in sealed system, and followed by isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometric analysis. [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] aetio I was assayed by gas chromatography-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). A porphyrin mixture of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] aetio I and octaethylporphyrin was also prepared. Their carbon isotopic compositions measured by GC-IRMS indicate that no isotope exchange took place between the porphyrins during the synthesis of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] porphyrins. This method is employed for delta13C determination of geoporphyrins from the Maoming and Jianghan oil shales.

  8. Converting isotope ratios to diet composition - the use of mixing models - June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    One application of stable isotope analysis is to reconstruct diet composition based on isotopic mass balance. The isotopic value of a consumer’s tissue reflects the isotopic values of its food sources proportional to their dietary contributions. Isotopic mixing models are used ...

  9. Heavy nickel isotope compositions in rivers and the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, V.; Vance, D.

    2014-03-01

    Nickel is a biologically-active trace metal whose dissolved concentration depth profiles in the ocean show nutrient-like behaviour. If the pronounced removal of nickel from the dissolved phase in the surface ocean, and its return in the deep, is associated with an isotopic fractionation nickel isotopes may be able to yield constraints on the precise biogeochemical processes involved. Here we present the first nickel isotope data for seawater along with data for the dissolved phase of rivers, one of the principal sources of nickel to the oceans. The dissolved phase of rivers exhibits substantial variability in both Ni concentration and δ60Ni: from 2.2 to 35 nmol kg-1 and +0.29 to +1.34‰, respectively. The most striking result from the nickel isotope analyses of rivers is that they are substantially heavier (by up to 1‰ for δ60Ni) than the range for silicate rocks on the continents, a finding that is analogous to that for other transition metal isotope systems. If the data presented here are close to representative of the global riverine flux, they suggest an annual input of Ni to the oceans of 3.6 × 108moles, and a discharge- and concentration-weighted δ60Ni average of +0.80‰. The relationship between Ni isotopes and concentrations shows similarities with those for other transition metal isotope systems, where the main control has been suggested to be isotopic partitioning between the dissolved phase and particulates, either in the weathering environment or during transport. In stark contrast to the rivers, the dataset for seawater is very homogeneous, with 2SD of the entire dataset being only twice the analytical reproducibility. The second main feature is that seawater is distinctly heavier in Ni isotopes than rivers. The average δ60Ni is 1.44 ± 0.15‰ (2SD), and only 2 of the 29 seawater analyses have a Ni isotopic composition that is lighter than the heaviest river. The lack of an isotopic shift associated with the drawdown of nickel concentrations

  10. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011–2012 at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C−1 (R = 0.76 for 2012. The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1–5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near

  11. Oxygen Isotope Composition of Nitrate Produced by Freshwater Nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, D.; Granger, J.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the naturally occurring nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of nitrate (NO3-), δ15N and δ18O, can be used to determine the source, dispersal, and fate of natural and contaminant NO3- in aquatic environments. To this end, it is necessary to know the extent to which NO3- isotopologues are modified by biological reactions, as heavy and light isotopes have different reaction rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the δ18O of ambient water on the isotope composition of NO3- produced during nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-) and then NO3-, which is poorly constrained in freshwater systems. To determine the δ18O of NO3- produced by nitrification in freshwater, we collected water from a stream in New England, which we amended with NH4+ and with increments of 18O-enriched water, to monitor the isotope composition of NO3- produced by a natural consortium of nitrifiers. Added NH4+ was completely oxidized to NO3- over 26 days. The final δ18O of nitrified NO3- revealed sensitivity to the δ18O of water mediated by (a) isotopic equilibration between water and NO2- and (b) kinetic isotope fractionation during O-atom incorporation from water into NO2- and NO3-. Our results concur with nitrifying culture experiments that have demonstrated analogous sensitivity of the δ18O of nitrified NO3- to equilibrium and kinetic O isotope effects (Buchwald et al. 2012), as well as show that these dynamics need to be considered to interpret NO3- isotope distribution in freshwater environments.

  12. Initial assessment of environmental effects on SiC/SiC composites in helium-cooled nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2013-09-01

    This report summarized the information available in the literature on the chemical reactivity of SiC/SiC composites and of their components in contact with the helium coolant used in HTGR, VHTR and GFR designs. In normal operation conditions, ultra-high purity helium will have chemically controlled impurities (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen) that will create a slightly oxidizing gas environment. Little is known from direct experiments on the reactivity of third generation (nuclear grade) SiC/SiC composites in contact with low concentrations of water or oxygen in inert gas, at high temperature. However, there is ample information about the oxidation in dry and moist air of SiC/SiC composites at high temperatures. This information is reviewed first in the next chapters. The emphasis is places on the improvement in material oxidation, thermal, and mechanical properties during three stages of development of SiC fibers and at least two stages of development of the fiber/matrix interphase. The chemical stability of SiC/SiC composites in contact with oxygen or steam at temperatures that may develop in off-normal reactor conditions supports the conclusion that most advanced composites (also known as nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites) have the chemical resistance that would allow them maintain mechanical properties at temperatures up to 1200 1300 oC in the extreme conditions of an air or water ingress accident scenario. Further research is needed to assess the long-term stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in inert gas (helium) in presence of very low concentrations (traces) of water and oxygen at the temperatures of normal operation of helium-cooled reactors. Another aspect that needs to be investigated is the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the oxidation stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in normal operation conditions.

  13. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  14. H-Isotopic Composition of Apatite in Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Santos, A. R.; Boyce, J. W.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and its pairings comprise a regolith breccia with a basaltic bulk composition [1] that yields a better match than any other martian meteorite to estimates of Mars' bulk crust composition [1]. Given the similarities between NWA 7034 and the martian crust, NWA 7034 may represent an important sample for constraining the crustal composition of components that cannot be measured directly by remote sensing. In the present study, we seek to constrain the H isotopic composition of the martian crust using Cl-rich apatite in NWA 7034.

  15. Geochemistry and Nd - isotopic composition of high silica rhyolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples have very low concentration of the transition elements, Sr (3.13 – 48.4 ppm) and very large negative Europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.27 – 0.48). Their Nd isotopic composition reveals that the T-depleted mantle (DM) model ages of the samples are highly variable and range from 2867 Ma to 4015 Ma.

  16. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  17. Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stable isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC), and contents of OC and nitrogen for four sediment cores recovered from lakes Makat (located in the Ngorongoro Crater), Ndutu and Masek (located in the Serengeti Plains) are used to document sources of organic matter (OM) and climatic changes in sub-arid ...

  18. elemental and isotopic compositions of organic carbon and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A 29 cm long core recovered from a water depth of 5 m in a small closed lake located in the. Empakai crater northern Tanzania, is used to document the contents of organic carbon and nitrogen, stable isotopes composition of organic carbon and nitrogen, and C/N ratios and to infer climatic changes from these ...

  19. Hydrogen and helium isotope inner radiation belts in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Pugacheva

    Full Text Available Radial transport theory for inner radiation zone MeV ions has been extended by combining radial diffusive transport and losses due to Coulomb friction with local generation of D, T and 3He ions from nuclear reactions taking place on the inner edge of the inner radiation zone. Based on interactions between high energy trapped protons and upper atmospheric constituents we have included a nuclear reaction yield D, T and 3He flux source that was numerically derived from a nuclear reaction model code originally developed at the Institute of Nuclear Researches in Moscow, Russia. Magnetospheric transport computations have been made covering the L-shell range L=1.0–1.6. The resulting MeV energy D, T and 3He ion flux distributions show a strong influence of the local nuclear source mechanism on the inner zone energetic D, T and 3He ion content.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (Thermosphere-composition and chemistry · Magnetospheric physics (Energetic particles · trapped.

  20. Isotope composition and volume of Earth's early oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Emily C; Bird, Dennis K; Rosing, Minik T

    2012-03-20

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth's seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen's was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of ancient seawater. Archaean oceans were depleted in deuterium [expressed as δD relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25 ± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios in Earth's oceans. Our calculations predict that the oceans of early Earth were up to 26% more voluminous, and atmospheric CH(4) and CO(2) concentrations determined from limits on hydrogen escape to space are consistent with clement conditions on Archaean Earth.

  1. Helium and deuterium irradiation effects in W-Ta composites produced by pulse plasma compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M.; Catarino, N.; Nunes, D.; Fortunato, E.; Nogueira, I.; Rosinki, M.; Correia, J. B.; Carvalho, P. A.; Alves, E.

    2017-08-01

    Tungsten-tantalum composites have been envisaged for first-wall components of nuclear fusion reactors; however, changes in their microstructure are expected from severe irradiation with helium and hydrogenic plasma species. In this study, composites were produced from ball milled W powder mixed with 10 at.% Ta fibers through consolidation by pulse plasma compaction. Implantation was carried out at room temperature with He+ (30 keV) or D+ (15 keV) or sequentially with He+ and D+ using ion beams with fluences of 5 × 1021 at/m2. Microstructural changes and deuterium retention in the implanted composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, coupled with focused ion beam and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis. The composite materials consisted of Ta fibers dispersed in a nanostructured W matrix, with Ta2O5 layers at the interfacial regions. The Ta and Ta2O5 surfaces exhibited blisters after He+ implantation and subsequent D+ implantation worsened the blistering behavior of Ta2O5. Swelling was also pronounced in Ta2O5 where large blisters exhibited an internal nanometer-sized fuzz structure. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an extensive presence of dislocations in the metallic phases after the sequential implantation, while a relatively low density of defects was detected in Ta2O5. This behavior may be partially justified by a shielding effect from the blisters and fuzz structure developed progressively during implantation. The tungsten peaks in the X-ray diffractograms were markedly shifted after He+ implantation, and even more so after the sequential implantation, which is in agreement with the increased D retention inferred from nuclear reaction analysis.

  2. The isotopic composition of solar flare accelerated neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Spalding, J. D.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The individual isotopes of neon in energetic solar-flare particles have been clearly resolved with a rms mass resolution of 0.20 amu. The ratios found are Ne-20/Ne-22 = 7.6 (+2.0, -1.8) and Ne-21/Ne-22 of no more than about 0.11 in the 11-26 MeV per nucleon interval. This isotopic composition is essentially the same as that of meteoritic planetary neon-A and is significantly different from that of the solar wind.

  3. Menopause effect on blood Fe and Cu isotope compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Iron (δ(56) Fe) and copper (δ(65) Cu) stable isotope compositions in blood of adult human include a sex effect, which still awaits a biological explanation. Here, we investigate the effect of menopause by measuring blood δ(56) Fe and δ(65) Cu values of aging men and women. The results show that, while the Fe and Cu isotope compositions of blood of men are steady throughout their lifetime, postmenopausal women exhibit blood δ(65) Cu values similar to men, and δ(56) Fe values intermediate between men and premenopausal women. The residence time of Cu and Fe in the body likely explains why the blood δ(65) Cu values, but not the δ(56) Fe values, of postmenopausal women resemble that of men. We suggest that the Cu and Fe isotopic fractionation between blood and liver resides in the redox reaction occurring during hepatic solicitation of Fe stores. This reaction affects the Cu speciation, which explains why blood Cu isotope composition is impacted by the cessation of menstruations. Considering that Fe and Cu sex differences are recorded in bones, we believe this work has important implications for their use as a proxy of sex or age at menopause in past populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Chlorine Isotopic Composition Of Lunar UrKREEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. J.; Tartese, R.; Anand, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Neal, C. R.; Franchi, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the long standing paradigm of an anhydrous Moon was challenged there has been a renewed focus on investigating volatiles in a variety of lunar samples. However, the current models for the Moon’s formation have yet to fully account for its thermal evolution in the presence of H2O and other volatiles. When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks, lunar samples have exotic chlorine isotope compositions, which are difficult to explain in light of the abundance and isotopic composition of other volatile species, especially H, and the current estimates for chlorine and H2O in the bulk silicate Moon. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed a comprehensive in situ high precision study of chlorine isotopes, using NanoSIMS (Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) of lunar apatite from a suite of Apollo samples covering a range of geochemical characteristics and petrologic types.

  5. Transition of Plutonium isotopic composition by multi-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofuji, Hirohide; Ono, Kiyoshi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-10-01

    The degradation of Plutonium isotopic composition is suggested by the multi-recycling in the LWR. On the other hand, it is expected that FBR or FR has some advantages from the view point of the use of the degraded Plutonium. In this report, the Plutonium mass flow was calculated on some scenarios focused on the trend of the Plutonium isotopic composition through several times recycling. As the results, the Plutonium composition was remarkably degraded in the case of LWR only recycling, however it would be recovered by using both the FBR core and the blanket fuels. In the case of FR recycling, Plutonium can be consumed steadily by using one ratio of LWR, LWR(Pu) and FR. Though the FBR system has some merits, for example saving the natural Uranium resource, it became clear that the FBR can be used for the purpose of using degraded Plutonium. (author)

  6. Do foraminifera accurately record seawater neodymium isotope composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivner, Adam; Skinner, Luke; Vance, Derek

    2010-05-01

    Palaeoclimate studies involving the reconstruction of past Atlantic meridional overturning circulation increasingly employ isotopes of neodymium (Nd), measured on a variety of sample media (Frank, 2002). In the open ocean, Nd isotopes are a conservative tracer of water mass mixing and are unaffected by biological and low-temperature fractionation processes (Piepgras and Wasserburg, 1987; Lacan and Jeandel, 2005). For decades, benthic foraminifera have been widely utilised in stable isotope and geochemical studies, but have only recently begun to be exploited as a widely distributed, high-resolution Nd isotope archive (Klevenz et al., 2008), potentially circumventing the difficulties associated with other methods used to recover past deep-water Nd isotopes (Klevenz et al., 2008; Rutberg et al., 2000; Tachikawa et al., 2004). Thus far, a single pilot study (Klevenz et al., 2008) has indicated that core-top sedimentary benthic foraminifera record a Nd isotope composition in agreement with the nearest available bottom seawater data, and has suggested that this archive is potentially useful on both millennial and million-year timescales. Here we present seawater and proximal core-top foraminifer Nd isotope data for samples recovered during the 2008 "RETRO" cruise of the Marion Dufresne. The foraminifer samples comprise a depth-transect spanning 3000m of the water column in the Angola Basin and permit a direct comparison between high-resolution water column and core-top foraminiferal Nd isotope data. We use these data to assess the reliability of both planktonic and benthic foraminifera as recorders of water column neodymium isotope composition. Frank, M., 2002. Radiogenic isotopes: Tracers of past ocean circulation and erosional input, Rev. Geophys., 40 (1), 1001, doi:10.1029/2000RG000094. Klevenz, V., Vance, D., Schmidt, D.N., and Mezger, K., 2008. Neodymium isotopes in benthic foraminifera: Core-top systematics and a down-core record from the Neogene south Atlantic

  7. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  8. Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13O versus δ18O bivariate diagram indicates that the limestone is predominantly average marine limestone with chalk and late cement. The values of depositional setting (Z), estimated from δ13O and δ18O composition support a diagenetic ...

  9. Stable isotope composition and volume of Early Archaean oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes between mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust) and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time oxygen was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen was not, as it can...... escape to space [1]. Hydrogen isotope ratios of serpentinites from the ~3.8Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are between -53 and -99‰; the highest values are in antigorite ± lizardite serpentinites from a low-strain lithologic domain where hydrothermal reaction of Archaean seawater with oceanic...... of continents present at that time), and the mass of Early Archaean oceans to ~109 to 126% of present day oceans. Oxygen isotope analyses from these Isua serpentinites (δ18O = +0.1 to 5.6‰ relative to VSMOW) indicate that early Archaean δ18OSEAWATER similar to modern oceans. Our observations suggest...

  10. Triple oxygen isotope composition of the Campi Flegrei magma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Wörner, Gerhard; Pack, Andreas; Sengupta, Sukanya; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Arienzo, Ilenia; D'Antonio, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Sr-O isotope relationships in igneous rocks are a powerful tool to distinguish magma sources and quantify assimilation processes in magmatic rocks. Isotopic (87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O-17O/16O) data have been acquired on whole rocks and separated minerals (feldspar, Fe-cpx, Mg-cpx, olivine phenocrysts) from pyroclastic products of the Campi Flegrei volcanic complex (Gulf of Naples, Southern Italy). Oxygen isotope ratios were measured by infrared laser fluorination using a Thermo MAT253 gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer in dual inlet mode, on ˜2 mg of hand-picked phenocrysts. Variations in triple oxygen isotope ratios (17O/16O, 18O/16O) are expressed as the δ notation relative to VSMOW. Sr isotopic compositions were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry after standard cation-exchange methods on separated hand-picked phenocrysts (˜300 mg), and on whole rocks, in case of insufficient sample size to separate crystals. Sr-isotopes in Campi Flegrei minerals range from 0.707305 to 0.707605 and δ18O varies from 6.5 to 8.3‰ . Recalculated δ18Omelt values accordingly show a large range between 7.2 and 8.6‰ . Our data, compared with published δ18O-isotope data from other Italian volcanic centers (Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia, Mt. Vesuvius, Aeolian Islands, Tuscany and Sardinia) and from subduction zones worldwide (Kamchatka, Lesser Antilles, Indonesia and Central Andean ignimbrites), show compositions that are very different from typical mantle values. Distinct trends and sources are recognized in our compilation from global data: (1) serpentinized mantle (Kamchatka), (2) sediment-enrichment in the mantle source (Indonesia, Lesser Antilles, Eolian arc), (3) assimilation of old radiogenic continental crust affecting magmas derived from sediment-modified mantle sources (Tuscany, Sardinia), (4) assimilation of lower crustal lithologies (Central Andes, Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia). Sr-O-isotope values of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius magmas

  11. Oxygen isotopic composition of opaline phytoliths: Potential for terrestrial climatic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahack-Gross, R.; Weiner, S.; Shemesh, A.; Yakir, D. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1996-10-01

    Opaline mineralized bodies are produced by many terrestrial plants and accumulate in certain soils and archaeological sites. Analyses of the oxygen isotopic compositions of these so-called phytoliths from stems and leaves of wheat plants grown in a greenhouse showed a linear relationship with stem and leaf water isotopic compositions and hence, indirectly, rain water isotopic composition. Analyses of wheat plants grown in fields showed that stem phytoliths isotopic composition directly reflects the seasonal air temperature change, whereas leaf phytoliths isotopic composition reflects both temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and the oxygen isotopic composition of stem phytoliths were related by an equation similar to that proposed for marine opal. Oxygen isotopic compositions of fossil phytoliths, and in particular those from stems, could be valuable for reconstructing past terrestrial climate change.

  12. On the Effect of Planetary Stable Isotope Compositions on Growth and Survival of Terrestrial Organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshu Xie

    Full Text Available Isotopic compositions of reactants affect the rates of chemical and biochemical reactions. Usually it is assumed that heavy stable isotope enrichment leads to progressively slower reactions. Yet the effect of stable isotopes may be nonlinear, as exemplified by the "isotopic resonance" phenomenon. Since the isotopic compositions of other planets of Solar system, including Mars and Venus, are markedly different from terrestrial (e.g., deuterium content is ≈5 and ≈100 times higher, respectively, it is far from certain that terrestrial life will thrive in these isotopic conditions. Here we found that Martian deuterium content negatively affected survival of shrimp in semi-closed biosphere on a year-long time scale. Moreover, the bacterium Escherichia coli grows slower at Martian isotopic compositions and even slower at Venus's compositions. Thus, the biological impact of varying stable isotope compositions needs to be taken into account when planning interplanetary missions.

  13. On the Effect of Planetary Stable Isotope Compositions on Growth and Survival of Terrestrial Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xueshu; Zubarev, Roman A

    2017-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of reactants affect the rates of chemical and biochemical reactions. Usually it is assumed that heavy stable isotope enrichment leads to progressively slower reactions. Yet the effect of stable isotopes may be nonlinear, as exemplified by the "isotopic resonance" phenomenon. Since the isotopic compositions of other planets of Solar system, including Mars and Venus, are markedly different from terrestrial (e.g., deuterium content is ≈5 and ≈100 times higher, respectively), it is far from certain that terrestrial life will thrive in these isotopic conditions. Here we found that Martian deuterium content negatively affected survival of shrimp in semi-closed biosphere on a year-long time scale. Moreover, the bacterium Escherichia coli grows slower at Martian isotopic compositions and even slower at Venus's compositions. Thus, the biological impact of varying stable isotope compositions needs to be taken into account when planning interplanetary missions.

  14. Clumped-isotope geochemistry of carbonates: A new tool for the reconstruction of temperature and oxygen isotope composition of seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernasconi, Stefano M., E-mail: Stefano.bernasconi@erdw.ethz.ch [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas W.; Grauel, Anna-Lena [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mutterlose, Joerg [Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Clumped-isotope thermometry of carbonates is discussed. > Clumped isotopes of Belemnites show higher sea surface temperatures than commonly assumed for the lower Cretaceous. > The potential of clumped-isotope measurement on foraminifera is discussed. - Abstract: Clumped-isotope geochemistry deals with State of ordering of rare isotopes in molecules, in particular with their tendency to form bonds with other rare isotopes rather than with the most abundant ones. Among its possible applications, carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry is the one that has gained most attention because of the wide potential of applications in many disciplines of the earth sciences. In particular, it allows reconstructing the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals without knowledge of the isotopic composition of the water from which they were formed. In addition, the O isotope composition of the waters from which they were formed can be calculated using the {delta}{sup 18}O of the same carbonate sample. This feature offers new approaches in paleoclimatology for reconstructing past global geochemical cycles. In this contribution two applications of this method are presented. First the potential of a new analytical method of measurement of clumped isotopes on small samples of foraminifera, for high-resolution SST and seawater {delta}{sup 18}O reconstructions from marine sediments is shown. Furthermore the potential of clumped isotope analysis of belemnites, for reconstructing seawater {delta}{sup 18}O and temperatures in the Cretaceous is shown.

  15. BOREAS TE-5 CO2 Concentration and Stable Isotope Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. This data set contains measurements of the concentration and stable carbon (C-13/C-12 and oxygen (O-18/O-16) isotope ratios of atmospheric CO2 in air samples collected at different heights within forest canopies. The data were collected to determine the influence of photosynthesis and respiration by the forest ecosystems on the concentration and stable isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 These measurements were collected at the SSA during each 1994 IFC at OJP, OBS, and OA sites. Measurements were also collected at the NSA during each 1994 IFC at the OJP, T6R5S TE UBS, and T2Q6A TE OA sites. The stable isotope ratios are expressed using standard delta notation and in units of per mil. The isotope ratios are expressed relative to the international standard, PDB, for both carbon and oxygen samples. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. Oxygen isotope composition of mafic magmas at Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, L.; Cioni, R.; Boschi, C.; D'Oriano, C.

    2009-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of olivine and clinopyroxene from four plinian (AD 79 Pompeii, 3960 BP Avellino), subplinian (AD 472 Pollena) and violent strombolian (Middle Age activity) eruptions were measured to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas of the last 4000 years of Mt. Vesuvius activity. A large set of mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material of the four eruptions. Crystals were analyzed for their major and trace element compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS), and for 18O/16O ratios. As oxygen isotope composition of uncontaminated mantle rocks on world-wide scale is well constrained (δ18Oolivine = 5.2 ± 0.3; δ18Ocpx = 5.6 ± 0.3 ‰), the measured values can be conveniently used to monitor the effects of assimilation/contamination of crustal rocks in the evolution of the primary magmas. Instead, typically uncontaminated mantle values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary magmas during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). Low δ18O values have been measured in olivine from Pompeii eruption (δ18Oolivine = 5.54 ± 0.03‰), whereas higher O-compositions are recorded in mafic minerals from pumices or scoria of the other three eruptions. Measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas, as also constrained by their trace element compositions. Data on melt inclusions hosted in crystals of these compositions have been largely collected in the past demonstrating that they crystallized from mafic melt, basaltic to tephritic in composition. Published data on volatile content of these melt inclusions reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting

  17. Nitrogen isotope composition of organically and conventionally grown crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D; Woolfe, Mark

    2007-04-04

    Authentic samples of commercially produced organic and conventionally grown tomatoes, lettuces, and carrots were collected and analyzed for their delta15N composition in order to assemble datasets to establish if there are any systematic differences in nitrogen isotope composition due to the method of production. The tomato and lettuce datasets suggest that the different types of fertilizer commonly used in organic and conventional systems result in differences in the nitrogen isotope composition of these crops. A mean delta15N value of 8.1 per thousand was found for the organically grown tomatoes compared with a mean value of -0.1 per thousand for those grown conventionally. The organically grown lettuces had a mean value of 7.6 per thousand compared with a mean value of 2.9 per thousand for the conventionally grown lettuces. The mean value for organic carrots was not significantly different from the mean value for those grown conventionally. Overlap between the delta15N values of the organic and conventional datasets (for both tomatoes and lettuces) means that it is necessary to employ a statistical methodology to try and classify a randomly analyzed "off the shelf" sample as organic/conventional, and such an approach is demonstrated. Overall, the study suggests that nitrogen isotope analysis could be used to provide useful "intelligence" to help detect the substitution of certain organic crop types with their conventional counterparts. However, delta15N analysis of a "test sample" will not provide unequivocal evidence as to whether synthetic fertilizers have been used on the crop but could, for example, in a situation when there is suspicion that mislabeling of conventionally grown crops as "organic" is occurring, be used to provide supporting evidence.

  18. Recent insights into intramolecular 13C isotope composition of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.; Yamada, K.; Julien, M.; Yoshida, N.; Remaud, G.; Robins, R.

    2016-12-01

    In 1961 Abelson & Hoering shown that the intramolecular 13C distribution in amino acids was not homogeneous, namely the carboxylic acid positions were 13C-enriched compared with the mean of the remaining C-atoms in the molecule [1]. Nearly 20 years later, Monson & Hayes were able to demonstrate that even and odd positions in acetogenic fatty acids also showed non-statistical 13C isotope distributions, and that the pattern varied depending on the organism [2]. It took a further decade for the intramolecular 13C distribution in the key metabolite, glucose, to be defined [3]. Although informative, much of this work was incomplete, a number of positions having to be deduced by difference. This limitation arose mainly due to the lack of techniques enabling the separation and quantification of 13C isotopomers of the target molecule. In the past decade, quantitative 13C NMR has been developed for the determination of the intramolecular isotope composition of a given molecule with a precision of 1‰ or better [4]. This breakthrough has made possible a comprehensive view of the determinants governing intramolecular isotope composition of biological molecules. In particular, it can be shown that intramolecular pattern in sugars is influenced by the C-assimilation pathway and by post-photosynthetic fractionation associated with carbohydrate metabolism [5]. In addition, analysis by NMR of the alkyl chain of acetogenic lipids (fatty acids, n-alkanes) shows an alternation between odd and even C-atom positions, as observed by Monson& Hayes [2], throughout the molecule [6]. Overall, it is becoming apparent that this pattern is influenced by two principal metabolic factors: (i) the 13C pattern extant in the starting compounds; (ii) isotope fractionation associated with the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway. On the whole, the determination of intramolecular isotope patterns in biomolecules allows better insights into the conditions and pathways by which they are formed

  19. Oxygen Isotopic composition of nitrate trapped in Vostok ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, J.; Michalski, G.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    It is well known that NOx plays a key role in the mediation of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Our ability to model and understand pre-industrial atmospheric chemistry is mainly limited by our lack of knowledge of past NOx emissions. For years, the hope was that HNO3 trapped in ice cores would probe NOx emissions the during glacial/interglacial climate oscillations. However, it was soon realized that post depositional effects in the snow pack obscure the original atmospheric signal of this end product of NOx oxidation. So far, none of the concentration profiles of nitrate obtained from ice cores has been used to constrain NOx emissions. Recent observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate have opened a possible new way to link the nitrate ice core profile and past atmospheric chemistry. For \\17O, thermodynamic, kinetic, and equilibrium isotope effects dictate that δ 17O = .52 x δ 18O . Certain photochemical processes violate this rule due to quantum effects and are quantified by Δ 17O = δ 17O -.52 x δ 18O which are termed mass independent fractionations (MIF). Atmospheric nitrates have now been measured and have been found to have a large MIF; Δ 17O ~ 29 ‰ and a small range +/- 2‰ . The large variations in δ 18O of atmospheric nitrate are due to mass dependent fractions from transport and source ratios, and do not effect the Δ 17O. In addition, post depositional fractionations associated with remobilization (condensation/evaporation, phase changes .) in the snow pack are processes known for years to be mass dependent processes. The Δ 17O can then be used as a conservative trace of atmospheric nitrate deposition and chemistry. Experiments performed in our lab show that the oxygen isotopic anomaly of nitrate derives from the ozone-NOx catalytic cycle. During this process, the ozone transfer to the NOx inscribes its unique isotopic signature. Antarctic soils have a Δ 17O ~ 30 ‰ , acknowledging they are purely atmospheric in

  20. Pressure-dependent Isotopic Composition of Iron Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, M. M.; Shahar, A.; Schauble, E. A.; Caracas, R.; Gleason, A. E.; Elardo, S. M.; Xiao, Y.; Shu, J.; Mao, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding core formation, the main differentiation event in Earth's history, has important implications for our planet's geochemical and geophysical evolution, including the volatile cycle. Our current knowledge of core including formation processes as well as its composition is poorly constrained. For example, the identity of the light element present is still the subject of much debate and thus limits our understanding of the volatile cycle within the deep Earth. As carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are all cosmochemically abundant and have been proposed as possible candidates for the main light element in planetary cores, iron isotope fractionation could be a powerful tracer of the light-element composition in the core. It has the potential to shed light on whether these volatiles are sequestered in the core or remained in the magma ocean. This talk will focus on how pressure affects fractionation factors for these iron compounds relative to the silicate mantle. We collected high pressure synchrotron nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering data at Sector 16-ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source on 57Fe enriched Fe, FeO, FeHx and Fe3C from which we calculated iron isotope fractionation factors for these compounds. Our results suggest that core formation could leave an isotopic imprint on the silicate portion of Earth, which may be seen in natural samples. Moreover, the addition of different light elements or varying core formation conditions would modulate this imprint. Additionally, our results indicate that hydrogen or carbon is not likely the major light element in the core.

  1. Continuous measurements of isotopic composition of water vapour on the East Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in central Antarctic ice cores are critical to quantify past temperature changes. Accurate temperature reconstructions require one to understand the processes controlling surface snow isotopic composition. Isotopic fractionation processes occurring in the atmosphere and controlling snowfall isotopic composition are well understood theoretically and implemented in atmospheric models. However, post-deposition processes are poorly documented and understood. To quantitatively interpret the isotopic composition of water archived in ice cores, it is thus essential to study the continuum between surface water vapour, precipitation, surface snow and buried snow. Here, we target the isotopic composition of water vapour at Concordia Station, where the oldest EPICA Dome C ice cores have been retrieved. While snowfall and surface snow sampling is routinely performed, accurate measurements of surface water vapour are challenging in such cold and dry conditions. New developments in infrared spectroscopy enable now the measurement of isotopic composition in water vapour traces. Two infrared spectrometers have been deployed at Concordia, allowing continuous, in situ measurements for 1 month in December 2014–January 2015. Comparison of the results from infrared spectroscopy with laboratory measurements of discrete samples trapped using cryogenic sampling validates the relevance of the method to measure isotopic composition in dry conditions. We observe very large diurnal cycles in isotopic composition well correlated with temperature diurnal cycles. Identification of different behaviours of isotopic composition in the water vapour associated with turbulent or stratified regime indicates a strong impact of meteorological processes in local vapour/snow interaction. Even if the vapour isotopic composition seems to be, at least part of the time, at equilibrium with the local snow, the slope of δD against δ18O prevents us from identifying

  2. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  3. Isotope composition of Cd, Ca and Mg in the Brownfield chondrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Barnes, I.L.; Moore, L.J.; Gramlich, J.W. (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (USA))

    1980-01-01

    The isotopic composition of cadmium, calcium and magnesium in the Brownfield chondrite have been measured. The measurements on cadmium show that this element is isotopically fractionated with the heavier isotopes relatively enriched to the extent of 0.27% per mass unit. This confirms earlier reports by ROSMAN and DE LAETER (1976, 1978). Calcium and magnesium show no evidence of isotope fractionation, indicating that the process responsible for fractionating cadmium dose not seem to have affected these more refractory elements.

  4. Spatial patterns of throughfall isotopic composition at the event and seasonal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott T. Allen; Richard F. Keim; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variability of throughfall isotopic composition in forests is indicative of complex processes occurring in the canopy and remains insufficiently understood to properly characterize precipitation inputs to the catchment water balance. Here we investigate variability of throughfall isotopic composition with the objectives: (1) to quantify the spatial variability...

  5. Aquifer Susceptibility in Virginia: Data on Chemical and Isotopic Composition, Recharge Temperature, and Apparent Age of Water from Wells and Springs, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of aquifer susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources by the use of ground-water dating techniques is a critical part of Virginia's Source Water Assessment Program. As part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study, water samples were collected between 1998 and 2000 from 145 wells and 6 springs in various hydrogeologic settings across the Commonwealth. Samples were analyzed to determine water chemistry?including nitrate (NO3), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and radon-222 (222Rn), major dissolved and noble gases?nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), helium (He), and neon (Ne), environmental tracers?chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), carbon isotopes?carbon-14 (14C) and carbon-13 (d13C), and stable isotopes of oxygen (d18O) and hydrogen (d2H). The chemical and isotopic composition, recharge temperatures, and apparent ages of these water samples are presented in this report. Data collected between 1999 and 2000 from 18 wells in Virginia as part of two other studies by the U.S. Geological Survey also are presented. Most of the sites sampled serve as public water supplies and are included in the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth.

  6. Changes in stable isotope composition in Lake Michigan trout ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have frequently sought to use environmental archives of sediment, peat and glacial ice to try and assess historical trends in atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to aquatic ecosystems. While this information is valuable in the context of identifying temporal source trends, these types of assessments cannot account for likely changes in bioavailability of Hg sources that are tied to the formation of methylmercury (MeHg) and accumulation in fish tissues. For this study we propose the use of long-term fish archives and Hg stable isotope determination as an improved means to relate temporal changes in fish Hg levels to varying Hg sources in the Great Lakes. For this study we acquired 180 archived fish composites from Lake Michigan over a 40-year time period (1975 to 2014) from the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program, which were analyzed for their total Hg content and Hg isotope abundances. The results reveal that Hg sources to Lake Michigan trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have encountered considerable changes as well as a large shift in the food web trophic position as a result of the introduction of several invasive species, especially the recent invasion of dreissenid mussels. Total Hg concentrations span a large range (1,600 to 150 ng g-1) and exhibit large variations from 1975 to 1985. Ä199Hg signatures similarly exhibit large variation (3.2 to 6.9‰) until 1985, followed by less variation through the end of the data record in 2014.

  7. Volatile Concentrations and H-Isotope Composition of Unequilibrated Eucrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Marschall, Horst R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hauri, Erik H.; Righter, Kevin; Berger, Eve L.

    2017-01-01

    Eucrites are among the oldest and best studied asteroidal basalts (1). They represent magmatism that occurred on their parent asteroid, likely 4-Vesta, starting at 4563 Ma and continuing for approx. 30 Myr. Two hypotheses are debated for the genesis of eucrites, a magma ocean model (2), and a mantle partial melting model. In general, volatiles (H, C, F, Cl) have been ignored for eucrites and 4-Vesta, but solubility of wt% levels of H2O are possible at Vestan interior PT conditions. Targeted measurements on samples could aid our understanding considerably. Recent studies have found evidence of volatile elements in eucrites, but quantifying the abundance of volatiles remains problematic (6). Volatile elements have a disproportionately large effect on melt properties and phase stability, relative to their low abundance. The source of volatile elements can be elucidated by examining the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H), as different H reservoirs have drastically different H isotope compositions. Recent studies of apatite in eucrites have shown that the D/H of 4-Vesta matches that of Earth and carbonaceous chondrites, however, the D/H of apatites may not represent the D/H of a primitive 4-Vesta melt due to the possibility of degassing prior to the crystallization of apatite. Therefore, the D/H of early crystallizing phases must be measured to determine if the D/H of 4-Vesta is equal to that of the Earth and carbonaceous chondrites.

  8. Baseline shifts in coral skeletal oxygen isotopic composition: a signature of symbiont shuffling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, J. E.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Decades-long records of the stable isotopic composition of coral skeletal cores were analyzed from four sites on the Mesoamerican Reef. Two of the sites exhibited baseline shifts in oxygen isotopic composition after known coral bleaching events. Changes in pH at the calcification site caused by a change in the associated symbiont community are invoked to explain the observed shift in the isotopic composition. To test the hypothesis that changes in symbiont clade could affect skeletal chemistry, additional coral samples were collected from Belize for paired Symbiodinium identification and skeletal stable isotopic analysis. We found some evidence that skeletal stable isotopic composition may be affected by symbiont clade and suggest this is an important topic for future investigation. If different Symbiodinium clades leave consistent signatures in skeletal geochemical composition, the signature will provide a method to quantify past symbiont shuffling events, important for understanding how corals are likely to respond to climate change.

  9. Nitrate isotopic composition and ancillary variables (land use, redox, excess N2, age, water isotopics) in California groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Nathan; Moran, Jean; Visser, Ate; Singleton, Michael; Esser, Bradley

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate is a critical water quality issue in California, the United States and the world. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has compiled a large, unique database of California groundwater nitrate isotopic compositions (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3), acquired largely through more than a decade of coordination with the State of California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The water samples are predominantly from shallow aquifers accessed by domestic and monitoring wells. The database of >1,300 nitrate isotopic compositions includes a number of important ancillary parameters: DO, ORP and DOC (measured for 18% of samples); excess air and dissolved N2 (24%); water isotopic composition (δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O) (43%); and tritium/3He groundwater age (27%). Methods used at LLNL include sample preparation by the denitrifier method (for δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3) and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry with (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 and δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O), Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry (NGMS; for excess air and groundwater age), and Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS; for major dissolved gases and excess N2). Redox indicators (DO, ORP and DOC) in conjunction with excess N2, groundwater age, and nitrate isotopic composition are used to assess the presence or absence, and potentially the rate of, saturated-zone denitrification. Comparison of δ18O-NO3 to δ18O-H2O isotopic composition is used to distinguish synthetic nitrate from nitrification of reduced forms of nitrogen as a source of groundwater nitrate. Groundwater age is used to discern timing and temporal trends in groundwater nitrate isotopic composition. The relationship of nitrate isotopic composition to ancillary parameters (redox, excess N2, water isotopic composition and groundwater age) is explored, along with its relationship to well location, screened interval, and land use, with a focus on the extent of saturated-zone denitrification and the significance of synthetic nitrate as

  10. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  11. Iron and nickel isotope compositions of presolar silicon carbide grains from supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodolányi, János; Stephan, Thomas; Trappitsch, Reto; Hoppe, Peter; Pignatari, Marco; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    We report the carbon, silicon, iron, and nickel isotope compositions of twenty-five presolar SiC grains of mostly supernova (SN) origin. The iron and nickel isotope compositions were measured with the new Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, CHILI, which allows the analysis of all iron and nickel isotopes without the isobaric interferences that plagued previous measurements with the NanoSIMS. Despite terrestrial iron and nickel contamination, significant isotopic anomalies in 54Fe/56Fe, 57Fe/56Fe, 60Ni/58Ni, 61Ni/58Ni, 62Ni/58Ni, and 64Ni/58Ni were detected in nine SN grains (of type X). Combined multi-isotope data of three grains with the largest nickel isotope anomalies (>100‰ or isotope ratio, when expressed as deviation from the solar value) are compared with the predictions of two SN models, one with and one without hydrogen ingestion in the He shell prior to SN explosion. One grain's carbon-silicon-iron-nickel isotope composition is consistent with the prediction of the model without hydrogen ingestion, whereas the other two grains' isotope anomalies could not be reproduced using either SN models. The discrepancies between the measured isotope compositions and model predictions may indicate element fractionation in the SN ejecta prior to or during grain condensation, and reiterate the need for three-dimensional SN models.

  12. The isotopic composition of CO in vehicle exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, S.; Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the isotopic composition of CO in the exhaust of individual vehicles. Additionally, the CO2 isotopes, and the CO:CO2, CH4:CO2 and H2:CO gas ratios were measured. This was done under idling and revving conditions, and for three vehicles in a full driving cycle on a testbench. The spread in the results, even for a single vehicle, was large: for δ13 C in CO ∼ -60 to 0‰, for δ18 O in CO ∼ +10 to +35‰, and for all gas ratios several orders of magnitude. The results show an increase in the spread of isotopic values for CO compared to previous studies, suggesting that increasing complexity of emission control in vehicles might be reflected in the isotopic composition. When including all samples, we find a weighted mean for the δ13 C and δ18 O in CO of -28.7 ± 0.5‰ and +24.8 ± 0.3‰ respectively. This result is dominated by cold petrol vehicles. Diesel vehicles behaved as a distinct group, with CO enriched in 13C and depleted in 18O, compared to petrol vehicles. For the H2:CO ratio of all vehicles, we found a value of 0.71 ± 0.31 ppb:ppb. The CO:CO2 ratio, with a mean of 19.4 ± 6.8 ppb:ppm, and the CH4:CO2 ratio, with a mean of 0.26 ± 0.05 ppb:ppm, are both higher than recent literature indicates. This is likely because our sampling distribution was biased towards cold vehicles, and therefore towards higher emission situations. The CH4:CO2 ratio was found to behave similarly to the CO:CO2 ratio, suggesting that the processes affecting CO and CH4 are similar. The δ13 C values in CO2 were close to the expected δ13 C in fuel, with no significant difference between petrol and diesel vehicles. The δ18 O values in CO2 for petrol vehicles covered a range of 20-35‰, similar to the δ18 O of CO. The δ18 O values in CO2 for diesel vehicles were close to the δ18 O in atmospheric oxygen. A set of polluted atmospheric samples, taken near a highway and inside parking garages, showed an isotopic signature of CO and a H2:CO ratio that were

  13. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Response of Nanolaminate Composites Irradiated with Helium at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Demkowicz, Michael J.; Mara, Nathan A.

    2017-11-01

    We summarize recent work on helium (He) interaction with various heterophase boundaries under high temperature irradiation. We categorize the ion-affected material beneath the He-implanted surface into three regions of depth, based on the He/vacancy ratio. The differing defect structures in these three regions lead to the distinct temperature sensitivity of He-induced microstructure evolution. The effect of He bubbles or voids on material mechanical performance is explored. Overall design guidelines for developing materials where He-induced damage can be mitigated in materials are discussed.

  14. Mantle helium and carbon isotopes in Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon: Evidence for renewed volcanic activity or a long term steady state system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Soest, M.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Evans, W.C.; Mariner, R.H.

    2002-04-30

    Cold bubbling springs in the Separation Creek area, the locus of current uplift at South Sister volcano show strong mantle signatures in helium and carbon isotopes and CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He. This suggests the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system. Currently there is no evidence to link this system directly to the uplift, which started in 1998. To the contrary, all geochemical evidence suggests that there is a long-lived geothermal system in the Separation Creek area, which has not significantly changed since the early 1990s. There was no archived helium and carbon data, so a definite conclusion regarding the strong mantle signature observed in these tracers cannot yet be drawn. There is a distinct discrepancy between the yearly magma supply required to explain the current uplift (0.006 km{sup 3}/yr) and that required to explain the discharge of CO{sub 2} from the system (0.0005 km{sup 3}/yr). This discrepancy may imply that the chemical signal associated with the increase in magma supply has not reached the surface yet. With respect to this the small changes observed at upper Mesa Creek require further attention, due to the recent volcanic vent in that area it may be the location were the chemical signal related to the uplift can most quickly reach the surface. Occurrence of such strong mantle signals in cold/diffuse geothermal systems suggests that these systems should not be ignored during volcano monitoring or geothermal evaluation studies. Although the surface-expression of these springs in terms of heat is minimal, the chemistry carries important information concerning the size and nature of the underlying high-temperature system and any changes taking place in it.

  15. Light element isotopic compositions of cometary matter returned by the STARDUST mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeegan, K D; Aleon, J; Bradley, J; Brownlee, D; Busemann, H; Butterworth, A; Chaussidon, M; Fallon, S; Floss, C; Gilmour, J; Gounelle, M; Graham, G; Guan, Y; Heck, P R; Hoppe, P; Hutcheon, I D; Huth, J; Ishii, H; Ito, M; Jacobsen, S B; Kearsley, A; Leshin, L A; Liu, M; Lyon, I; Marhas, K; Marty, B; Matrajt, G; Meibom, A; Messenger, S; Mostefaoui, S; Nakamura-Messenger, K; Nittler, L; Palma, R; Pepin, R O; Papanastassiou, D A; Robert, F; Schlutter, D; Snead, C J; Stadermann, F J; Stroud, R; Tsou, P; Westphal, A; Young, E D; Ziegler, K; Zimmermann, L; Zinner, E

    2006-10-10

    Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopic compositions are heterogeneous among comet 81P/Wild2 particle fragments, however extreme isotopic anomalies are rare, indicating that the comet is not a pristine aggregate of presolar materials. Non-terrestrial nitrogen and neon isotope ratios suggest that indigenous organic matter and highly volatile materials were successfully collected. Except for a single circumstellar stardust grain, silicate and oxide minerals have oxygen isotopic compositions consistent with solar system origin. One refractory grain is {sup 16}O-enriched like refractory inclusions in meteorites, suggesting formation in the hot inner solar nebula and large-scale radial transport prior to comet accretion in the outer solar system.

  16. A continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for high precision determination of dissolved gas ratios and isotopic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charoenpong, C. N.; Bristow, L. A.; Altabet, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved gas ratios and isotopic compositions provide essential information about the biological and physical mechanisms influencing N-2, O-2, and Ar in aquatic systems. Current methods available are either limited by overall cost, labor-intensive sample collection and analysis, or insufficient...... precision. Here, we present a new highly accurate and robust method for sample collection and subsequent simultaneous measurement of the dissolved gas ratios (N-2/Ar and O-2/Ar) and isotopic compositions (delta N-15(2) and delta O-18(2)) in seawater. The relatively simple sampling procedure using low cost...

  17. Swelling behaviour and TEM studies of SiC f/SiC composites after fusion relevant helium implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, H. W.; Frias Rebelo, A. J.; Rickerby, D. G.; Krogul, P.; Lee, W. E.; Evans, J. H.; Fenici, P.

    1998-10-01

    Helium implantation was carried out on SiC f/SiC (CVI) composites up to doses of 2500 appm, at temperatures of 1175 ± 50 K. In this paper the swelling behaviour of the implanted bending bars is reported. A significant differential swelling effect after the α-implantation was evidenced by the matrix jutting out with respect to the fibre ends, at the side surfaces of the implanted zone. A similar fibre shrinkage together with slight expansion of the matrix was already reported for neutron irradiated materials. However, after α-implantation this effect is enhanced by an increased swelling of the β-SiC matrix. These data are discussed in relation to microstructural observations by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  18. Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolot

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process. As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  19. Tungsten isotope composition of the Acasta Gneiss Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbold, M.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Chen, H.-W.; Elliott, T.

    2015-06-01

    High-precision tungsten (182W/184W) isotope measurements on well-characterised mafic and felsic samples of the ca. 3960 Ma Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC; Northwest Territories, Canada) show radiogenic ε182W values between +0.06 to +0.15. Two ca. 3600 Ma felsic samples from this terrane have ε182W ∼ 0 and are the oldest samples so far documented to have a W isotopic composition indistinguishable from that of the modern mantle. The ε182W data are correlated with ε142Nd (Roth et al., 2014) and we attribute this variability to incomplete metamorphic homogenisation of the 3960 Ma protolith with more recent material in a 3370 Ma tectono-thermal event. Notably, the value of the positive ε182W anomalies seen in the 3960 Ma AGC samples that are least affected by metamorphic homogenisation is comparable to that observed in other early Archean rocks (Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland; Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, Canada) and the late Archean Kostomuksha komatiites (Karelia). This demonstrates a globally constant signature. We infer that the presence of a pre-late veneer mantle represents the most straightforward interpretation of a uniform distribution of ε182W ∼ + 0.15 value in Archean rocks of different ages. We show that such a notion is compatible with independent constraints from highly siderophile element abundances in mafic and ultra-mafic Archean mantle-derived rocks. The absence of anomalous ε182W and ε142Nd so far measured in samples younger than ca. 2800 Ma suggests progressive convective homogenisation of silicate reservoirs. The downward mixing of an upper mantle rich in late-delivered meteoritic material might account for these combined observations.

  20. Seasonality of Oxygen isotope composition in cow (Bos taurus) hair and its model interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories based on the isotopic relationship between hair oxygen and annual precipitation and the well-known spatial pattern of oxygen isotope composition in meteoric water. However, seasonal variation of oxygen isotope composition may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of oxygen isotope composition in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, and keeping and feeding strategies during five years. A detailed mechanistic model involving in ambient conditions, soil properties and animal physiology was built to explain this variation. The measured oxygen isotope composition in hair was significantly related (panalysis. Modelling suggested that this relation was only partly derived from the direct influence of feed moisture. Ambient conditions (temperature, moisture) did not only influence the isotopic signal of precipitation but also affected the animal itself (drinking water demand, transcutaneous vapor etc.). The clear temporal variation thus resulted from complex interactions with multiple influences. The twofold influence of ambient conditions via the feed and via the animal itself is advantageous for tracing the geographic origin because the oxygen isotope composition is then less influenced by variations in moisture uptake; however, it is unfavorable for indicating the production system, e.g. to distinguish between milk produced from fresh grass or from silage.

  1. Estimation of neonatal body composition: isotope dilution versus total-body electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kazumasa; Wong, William W; Thomas, Alicia J; Uvena-Celebrezze, Jennifer; Huston-Pressley, Larriane; Amini, Saeid B; Catalano, Patrick M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate neonatal body composition determined by the isotope dilution method compared with the total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) method. An oral dose of 18O- and 2H-labeled water was given to 40 healthy term newborns, and 26 infants successfully completed the protocol. The isotope concentrations in urine samples were measured by gas-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fat and percent body fat (%F) estimated by isotope dilution were correlated with fat and %F estimated. Total body water measured by isotope dilution of 18O and 2H was 2.44 +/- 0.36 and 2.49 +/- 0.35 kg, respectively (p water content in individuals, the isotope dilution method may not be the optimal way of assessing body composition, and specifically body fat, in newborns. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Deciphering the "chemical" nature of the exotic isotopes of hydrogen by the MC-QTAIM analysis: the positively charged muon and the muonic helium as new members of the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2014-04-14

    This report is a primarily survey on the chemical nature of some exotic species containing the positively charged muon and the muonic helium, i.e., the negatively charged muon plus helium nucleus, as exotic isotopes of hydrogen, using the newly developed multi-component quantum theory of atoms in molecules (MC-QTAIM) analysis, employing ab initio non-Born-Oppenhiemer wavefunctions. Accordingly, the "atoms in molecules" analysis performed on various asymmetric exotic isotopomers of the hydrogen molecule, recently detected experimentally [Science, 2011, 331, 448], demonstrates that both the exotic isotopes are capable of forming atoms in molecules and retaining the identity of hydrogen atoms. Various derived properties of atomic basins containing the muonic helium cast no doubt that apart from its short life time, it is a heavier isotope of hydrogen while the properties of basins containing the positively charged muon are more remote from those of the orthodox hydrogen basins, capable of appreciable donation of electrons as well as large charge polarization. However, with some tolerance, they may also be categorized as hydrogen basins though with a smaller electronegativity. All in all, the present study also clearly demonstrates that the MC-QTAIM analysis is an efficient approach to decipher the chemical nature of species containing exotic constituents, which are difficult to elucidate by experimental and/or alternative theoretical schemes.

  3. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  4. In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; Van Der Veen, Carina; Popa, Maria E.; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    High-precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in

  5. The isotopic composition of present-day Antarctic snow in a Lagrangian atmospheric simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325802459; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2007-01-01

    The isotopic composition of present-day Antarctic snow is simulated for the period September 1980–August 2002 using a Rayleigh-type isotope distillation model in combination with backward trajectory calculations with 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis

  6. On the equilibrium isotopic composition of the thorium–uranium–plutonium fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshalkin, V. Ye., E-mail: marshalkin@vniief.ru; Povyshev, V. M. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The equilibrium isotopic compositions and the times to equilibrium in the process of thorium–uranium–plutonium oxide fuel recycling in VVER-type reactors using heavy water mixed with light water are estimated. It is demonstrated thEhfat such reactors have a capacity to operate with self-reproduction of active isotopes in the equilibrium mode.

  7. Near Surface CO2 Triple Oxygen Isotope Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasadhar Mahata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a powerful tool for constraining its sources and sinks. In particular, the 17O oxygen anomaly [Δ17O = 1000 × ln(1 + δ17O/1000 - 0.516 × 1000 × ln(1 + δ18O/1000], with a value > 0.5‰ produced in the middle atmosphere, provides an ideal tool for probing the exchange of carbon dioxide between the biosphere/hydrosphere and atmosphere. The biosphere/hydrosphere and anthropogenic emissions give values ≤ 0.3‰. Therefore, any anomaly in near surface CO2 would reflect the balance between stratospheric input and exchange with the aforementioned surface sources. We have analyzed Δ17O values of CO2 separated from air samples collected in Taipei, Taiwan, located in the western Pacific region. The obtained mean anomaly is 0.42 ± 0.14‰ (1-σ standard deviation, in good agreement with model prediction and a published decadal record. Apart from typically used δ13C and δ18O values, the Δ17O value could provide an additional tracer for constraining the carbon cycle.

  8. Cosmology: Rare isotopic insight into the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prantzos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes of hydrogen and helium formed minutes after the Big Bang. The study of one of these primordial isotopes, helium-3, has now been proposed as a useful strategy for constraining the physics of the standard cosmological model.

  9. Isotopic composition of Pb and Th in interplinian volcanics from Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortini, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Holden, P.; Somma, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed isotopic study of volcanic rocks emitted from Somma-Vesuvius volcano during three periods of interplinian activity: "Protohistoric" (3550 y B.P. to 79 A.D.), "Ancient Historic" (79 to 472 A.D.) and "Medieval" (472 to 1631 A.D.). Pb isotopic compositions of two acid leached fractions and whole rock residues of 37 whole rock samples (determined by Somma et al., 2001) show that each of the three interplinian periods is distinguished by small, systematic, and unique uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotopic trends. This key and novel feature is compatible with the notion that the Pb isotopic data reflect small-scale source heterogeneity operating over relatively short periods of time. From this representative group of samples, a selected set of nine whole rocks were analysed for Th isotopes. 232Th/238U ratios in the source can be obtained independently from Pb and from Th isotopes. Those obtained from Pb isotopes represent source ratios, time-integrated over the whole age of the Earth; they range from 3.9 to 4.1. 232Th/238U obtained from Th isotopes are those of the present source. They are lower, and cluster around 3.5; this difference probably indicates recent U enrichment of the present source. The behaviour of Pb, as inferred by its isotopic ratios, is quite distinct from that of Sr and Nd isotopes: Pb isotope variations are not correlated to Sr or Nd isotope variations. The isotopic contrast is compatible with the idea that the isotopes were decoupled during magmatic production, evolution, and ascent through the crust. Thus, the Pb isotopes do not reflect the effects of the same processes as in the case of the Sr and Nd isotopes, or, as we also favor, they do not necessarily reflect the same source contributions into the magmas. Moreover, the Pb isotopic evolution of the interplinian rocks chiefly reflects mixing, driven by processes that are superimposed on, and independent of, other source contributions that determine the isotopic compositions

  10. Conceptual model: possible changes of the seawater uranium isotopic composition through time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowitzki, Hannah; Frank, Norbert; Fohlmeister, Jens [Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    U behaves in seawater like a conservative element. More than 99% of the oceanic U content is {sup 238}U, whereas {sup 234}U is only present in trace amounts. As the residence time of U is significantly longer than the mixing time of the ocean, the ocean is well mixed with respect to U and its isotopic composition (Dunk 2002). Moreover, living corals incorporate U without isotopic fractionation. Therefore, the past seawater isotopic evolution of ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) can be accessed via U/Th age-dating of corals and the subsequent calculation of the initial ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) value. The isotopic ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) composition of seawater during the last 360 ka scatters around the modern seawater value (δ{sup 234}U ∼ (145±15) %, Henderson 2002). As these variations in the δ{sup 234}U value are rather small, a 'constant seawater isotopic composition hypothesis' is often used to validate U/Th ages of fossil corals. However, some authors find that the variability of the isotopic composition exceeds the expected range and suggest that it provides valuable information on variations in continental weathering and global run-off fluctuations or sea-level changes. This work will attempt to compare literature data of the seawater U isotopic composition to the results of a conceptual box-model of the oceanic U budget.

  11. Monitoring the water vapor isotopic composition in the temperate North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinbjörnsdottir, Arny E.; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Jonsson, Thorsteinn; Johnsen, Sigfus J.

    2013-04-01

    Water stable isotopes have during many decades been used as climate proxies and indicators for variations in the hydrological cycle. However we are to a great extent still using simple empirical relationships without any deeper theoretical understanding. In order to properly relate changes in the climate and hydrological cycle to changes in the observed stable water isotopic signal we must understand the underlying physical processes. Furthermore it is a challenge for General Climate Models to adequately represent the isotopes in the hydrological cycle because of lack of in-situ measurements of the atmospheric water-vapor composition in the source regions. During the fall of 2010 we installed an autonomous water vapor spectroscopy laser (from Los Gatos Research) in a lighthouse on the South Coast of Iceland (63.83 N 21.47W) with the plan to be operational for several years. The purpose of this installation was through monitoring of the water vapor isotopic composition to understand the physical processes governing the isotopic composition of the water vapor evaporated from the ocean as well as the processes of mixing between the free troposphere and marine boundary layer. Because of the remoteness of the monitoring site and simple topography we are able to isolate the 'fingerprint' on the isotopic signal in the water vapor from respectively the ocean and the interior highland leading to a near perfect case-study area. Using back-trajectories we find a strong influence of the origin of the air masses on the measured isotopic composition. The mixing of the marine-boundary layer is found to strongly influence the measured isotopic composition. The second order isotopic parameter, d-excess, is contrary to theory and previous observations found not to depend on the relative humidity. However we do find a good correlation between the d-excess and the measured isotopic composition. We speculate that the lack of correlation between d-excess and relative humidity can be

  12. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended particulate matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the surface Bay of Bengal (BOB) at 24 different locations during pre- (April-May 2003) and post- (September-October 2002) monsoon...

  13. CARVE: Fire-Related Aerosol and Soil Elemental and Isotopic Composition, Alaska, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of the isotopic composition of black carbon and organic carbon aerosols collected at two locations in interior Alaska during the...

  14. Converting isotope values to diet composition: the use of mixing models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald L. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    ...) measured in tissues and food sources of a consumer. Mathematical mixing models are used to estimate the proportional contributions of food sources to the isotopic composition of the tissues of a consumer, which reflect the assimilated diet...

  15. Influence of helium on hydrogen isotope exchange in tungsten at sequential exposures to deuterium and helium–protium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyr, N.P., E-mail: NPBobyr@gmail.com [NRC “Kurcharov Institute”, Ac. Kurcharov sq., 1/1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Alimov, V.Kh. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Khripunov, B.I.; Spitsyn, A.V. [NRC “Kurcharov Institute”, Ac. Kurcharov sq., 1/1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Golubeva, A.V.; Petrov, V.B. [NRC “Kurcharov Institute”, Ac. Kurcharov sq., 1/1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen isotopes exchange in tungsten was investigated after sequential exposures to low energy deuterium (D) and helium–seeded protium (He–seeded H) plasmas at sample temperatures of 403 and 533 K. Deuterium depth profiles were measured by the D({sup 3}He, p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction with {sup 3}He{sup +} energies between 0.69 and 4.5 MeV allowing determination of the D concentration up to a depth of 8 μm. It was found that a significant part of the deuterium initially retained in tungsten after D plasma exposure was released during sequential exposure to a protium plasma. However, exposure of the D-plasma-exposed W samples to the He–seeded H plasma reduces the amount of released deuterium as compared to pure H plasma exposure.

  16. Non-destructive measurement of carbonic anhydrase activity and the oxygen isotope composition of soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Sauze, Joana; Ogée, Jérôme; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases are a group of metalloenzymes that catalyse the hydration of aqueous carbon dioxide (CO2). The expression of carbonic anhydrase by bacteria, archaea and eukarya has been linked to a variety of important biological processes including pH regulation, substrate supply and biomineralisation. As oxygen isotopes are exchanged between CO2 and water during hydration, the presence of carbonic anhydrase in plants and soil organisms also influences the oxygen isotope budget of atmospheric CO2. Leaf and soil water pools have distinct oxygen isotope compositions, owing to differences in pool sizes and evaporation rates, which are imparted on CO2during hydration. These differences in the isotopic signature of CO2 interacting with leaves and soil can be used to partition the contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net terrestrial CO2 exchange. However, this relies on our knowledge of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and currently, the prevalence and function of these enzymes in soils is poorly understood. Isotopic approaches used to estimate soil carbonic anhydrase activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of oxygen exchange during hydration. This requires information about the composition of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water obtained from destructive, depth-resolved soil water sampling. This can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the considerable potential for spatial and temporal variability in the isotopic composition of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by constraining carbonic anhydrase activity and the composition of soil water in isotopic equilibrium with CO2 by solving simultaneously the mass balance for two soil CO2 steady states differing only in the

  17. Development of a Bayesian approach to assess the probability of concealed active faults using Helium isotope ratios: An example from the western Tottori area, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Umeda, K.; Ishimaru, T.

    2012-12-01

    In Japan, numerous research projects have been carried out to assess the long-term stability of the geological environment including in particular, the spatio-temporal distribution of volcanism and active faulting in the context siting of a geological repository for the long-term (0.1 - 1 Ma) disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Of particular concern is the existence of active faulting that shows no expression at the surface and thus not necessarily recorded in currently published active fault maps. Recent research carried out in the western Tottori area, southwest Japan, has implied the potential of using He-3/He-4 ratios as a means of providing indirect evidence of the existence of source fault(s) that caused the 6 Oct 2000 Tottori earthquake but which had no apparent surface indication [e.g. Umeda et al. 2011]. This is based on the theory that mantle helium can reach the shallow crustal depths due to faults in the crust acting as pathways [e.g. Kennedy et al. 1997]. Here we introduce a new technique based on Bayesian inference in an effort to quantify this phenomenon and present our preliminary findings. In the Bayesian paradigm, we make a priori assumptions based on the tectonic setting of the study area as a starting point. One a priori assumption could be that 'unknown' faults do not exist far from 'known' faults. Depending on the degree of conservation required in the first step, 2-D a priori probability distributions are calculated using kernel functions with varying values of standard deviation. The recently acquired helium isotope ratios are then combined to the a priori probability distributions using Bayes' rule to produce modified a posteriori probabilities that is expected to better capture the hidden faults. The potential of the methodology to incorporate other information such as GPS data will also be presented and discussed. References Kennedy, B. M., Y. K. Kharaka, W. C. Evans, A. Ellwood, D. J. DePaolo, J. Thordsen, G. Ambats, and R. H

  18. Spatiotemporal variation of stable isotopic composition in precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha; Stumpp, Christine; Sørensen, Jens Havskov

    2017-01-01

    gradient and predominant westerly winds. Data showed the local meteoric water line for this region is expressed by the equation δ2H = 7.4δ18O + 5.4‰. A significant trend correlating enriched isotopic values to humidities around 70% during dry season and more depleted isotopic values to humidities around 90...

  19. Long-term data set analysis of stable isotopic composition in German rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckerth, Anne; Stichler, Willibald; Schmidt, Axel; Stumpp, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) are commonly used to investigate hydrological processes in catchments. However, only a few isotope studies have been conducted on a large scale and rarely over long time periods. The objective of this study was to identify the spatial and seasonal variability of isotopic composition in river water and how it is affected by geographical and hydrological factors. The stable isotopic composition of river water has been measured in nine large river catchments in Germany for a time period of 12 years or 26 years. We conducted time series and correlation analyses to identify spatial and temporal patterns of the isotopic composition in the rivers. Further, we compared it to isotopic composition in local precipitation and catchments characteristics. In the majority of the rivers, the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation were directly reflected in river water. The isotopic signals of the river water were time shifted and show attenuated amplitudes. Further deviations from isotopic compositions in local precipitation were observed in catchments with complex flow systems. These deviations were attributed to catchment processes and influences like evaporation, damming and storage. The seasonality of the isotopic composition was mainly determined by the discharge regimes of the rivers. We found correlations between isotopic long-term averages and catchment altitude as well as latitude and longitude, resulting in a northwest-southeast gradient. Furthermore, it was shown that long-term averages of d-excess were inversely related to flow length and catchment size, which indicates that evaporation enrichment has an impact on the isotopic composition even in catchments of humid climates. This study showed that isotopic composition in rivers can serve as a proxy for the local precipitation and can be utilized as an indicator for hydrological processes even in large river basins. In future, such long time series will help to

  20. Sulphur and carbon isotopic composition of power supply coals in the Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamor-Vido, Maria [Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute of Hungary, H-1145 Budapest, Kolumbusz st. 17-23 (Hungary); Hamor, Tamas [Hungarian Geological Survey, H-1143 Budapest, Stefania st. 14 (Hungary)

    2007-08-01

    The present work is an attempt to establish the stable isotope database for Mesozoic to Tertiary coals from the Pannonian Basin, Hungary. Maceral composition, proximate analysis, sulphur form, sulphur isotopes (organic and pyritic), and carbon isotopes were determined. This database supports the assessment of the environmental risks associated with energy generation, the characterization of the formation and the distribution of sulphur in the coals used. The maceral composition, the sulphur composition, the C, S isotopic signatures, and some of the geological evidences published earlier show that the majority of these coals were deposited in freshwater and brackish water environments, despite the relatively high average sulphur content. However, the Upper Cretaceous, Eocene, and Lower Miocene formations also contain coal seams of marine origin, as indicated by their maceral composition and sulphur and carbon chemistry. The majority of the sulphur in these coals occurs in the organic form. All studied sulphur phases are relatively rich in {sup 34}S isotopes ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub organic} = + 12.74 permille, {delta}{sup 34}S{sub pyrite} = + 10.06 permille, on average). This indicates that marine bacterial sulphate reduction played a minor role in their formation, in the sense that isotopic fractionation was limited. It seems that the interstitial spaces of the peat closed rapidly during early diagenesis due to a regime of high depositional rate, leading to a relative enrichment of the heavy sulphur isotopes. (author)

  1. Analysis of the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane by gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A. A.; Neto, E. V. Santos; Eiler, John M.

    2016-09-01

    Site-specific isotope ratio measurements potentially provide valuable information about the formation and degradation of complex molecules-information that is lost in conventional bulk isotopic measurements. Here we discuss the background and possible applications of such measurements, and present a technique for studying the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane at natural abundance based on mass spectrometric analysis of the intact propane molecule and its fragment ions. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach through measurements of mixtures of natural propane and propane synthesized with site-specific 13C enrichment, and we document the limits of precision of our technique. We show that mass balance calculations of the bulk δ13C of propane based on our site-specific measurements is generally consistent with independent constraints on bulk δ13C. We further demonstrate the accuracy of the technique, and illustrate one of its simpler applications by documenting the site-specific carbon isotope signature associated with gas phase diffusion of propane, confirming that our measurements conform to the predictions of the kinetic theory of gases. This method can be applied to propane samples of moderate size (tens of micromoles) isolated from natural gases. Thus, it provides a means of studying the site-specific stable isotope systematics of propane at natural isotope abundances on sample sizes that are readily recovered from many natural environments. This method may also serve as a model for future techniques that apply high-resolution mass spectrometry to study the site-specific isotopic distributions of larger organic molecules, with potential applications to biosynthesis, forensics and other geochemical subjects.

  2. Helium cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sciver, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Twenty five years have elapsed since the original publication of Helium Cryogenics. During this time, a considerable amount of research and development involving helium fluids has been carried out culminating in several large-scale projects. Furthermore, the field has matured through these efforts so that there is now a broad engineering base to assist the development of future projects. Helium Cryogenics, 2nd edition brings these advances in helium cryogenics together in an updated form. As in the original edition, the author's approach is to survey the field of cryogenics with emphasis on helium fluids. This approach is more specialized and fundamental than that contained in other cryogenics books, which treat the associated range of cryogenic fluids. As a result, the level of treatment is more advanced and assumes a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles, including some quantum mechanics. The goal throughout the work is to bridge the gap between the physics and engineering aspe...

  3. Stable isotopic composition of perchlorate and nitrate accumulated in plants: Hydroponic experiments and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Nubia Luz; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Gu, Baohua; Harvey, Greg; Burkey, Kent O.; Grantz, David A.; McGrath, Margaret T.; Anderson, Todd A.; Rao, Balaji; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4−) in soil and groundwater exhibits a wide range in stable isotopic compositions (δ37Cl, δ18O, and Δ17O), indicating that ClO4− may be formed through more than one pathway and/or undergoes post-depositional isotopic alteration. Plants are known to accumulate ClO4−, but little is known about their ability to alter its isotopic composition. We examined the potential for plants to alter the isotopic composition of ClO4− in hydroponic and field experiments conducted with snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In hydroponic studies, anion ratios indicated that ClO4− was transported from solutions into plants similarly to NO3− but preferentially to Cl− (4-fold). The ClO4− isotopic compositions of initial ClO4− reagents, final growth solutions, and aqueous extracts from plant tissues were essentially indistinguishable, indicating no significant isotope effects during ClO4− uptake or accumulation. The ClO4− isotopic composition of field-grown snap beans was also consistent with that of ClO4− in varying proportions from irrigation water and precipitation. NO3− uptake had little or no effect on NO3− isotopic compositions in hydroponic solutions. However, a large fractionation effect with an apparent ε (15N/18O) ratio of 1.05 was observed between NO3− in hydroponic solutions and leaf extracts, consistent with partial NO3− reduction during assimilation within plant tissue. We also explored the feasibility of evaluating sources of ClO4− in commercial produce, as illustrated by spinach, for which the ClO4− isotopic composition was similar to that of indigenous natural ClO4−. Our results indicate that some types of plants can accumulate and (presumably) release ClO4− to soil and groundwater without altering its isotopic characteristics. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of ClO4−and NO3− in plants may be useful for determining sources of fertilizers and sources of ClO4− in their growth environments and

  4. Normal variations in the isotopic composition of metabolically relevant transition metals in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heghe, L.; Cloquet, C.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2012-04-01

    Cu, Fe and Zn are transition metals with great catalytic, structural and regulating importance in the human body. Hence, an aberrant metabolism of these elements can have serious implications on the health of a person. It is assumed that, due to differences in isotope fractionation, the isotopic composition of these elements in whole blood of patients can be different from that in blood of healthy subjects. Therefore, isotopic analysis of the element affected by the disease can be a promising approach for early diagnosis. A method for isotopic analysis of Cu, Fe and Zn in human whole blood was developed. The simultaneous chromatographic isolation of these elements and the conditions for isotope ratio measurement via multi-collector ICP - mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were optimized. So far, only whole blood of supposedly healthy volunteers (reference population) was analyzed. Results for Fe confirmed the known differences in isotopic composition between male and female blood. It is also shown that other parameters can have influence as well, e.g., the isotopic composition of Zn seems to be governed by the diet.

  5. Origin of heavy Fe isotope compositions in high-silica igneous rocks: A rhyolite perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, De-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Tao; Chen, Xin; Li, Jun-Yong; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-12-01

    The origin of heavy Fe isotope compositions in high-silica (>70 wt% SiO2) igneous rocks remains a highly controversial topic. Considering that fluid exsolution in eruptive rocks is more straight-forward to constrain than in plutonic rocks, this study addresses the problem of Fe isotope fractionation in high-silica igneous rocks by measuring Fe isotope compositions of representative rhyolitic samples from the Neoproterozoic volcanic-sedimentary basins in southern China and the Triassic Tu Le Basin in northern Vietnam. The samples show remarkably varied δ56FeIRMM014 values ranging from 0.05 ± 0.05‰ to 0.55 ± 0.05‰, which is among the highest values reported from felsic rocks. The extensional tectonic setting and short melt residence time in magma chambers for the studied rhyolites rule out Soret diffusion and thermal migration processes as causes of the high δ56Fe values. Effects of volcanic degassing and fluid exsolution on bulk rock δ56Fe values for the rhyolites are also assessed using bulk rock geochemical indicators and Rayleigh fractionation models, and these processes are found to be insufficient to produce resolvable changes in Fe isotope compositions of the residual melt. The most probable mechanism accounting for heavy Fe isotope compositions in the high-silica rhyolites is narrowed down to fractional crystallization processes in the magma before rhyolite eruption. Removal of isotopically light Fe-bearing minerals (i.e. ulvöspinel-rich titanomagnetite, ilmenite and biotite) is proposed as the main cause of Fe isotope variation in silicic melts during magmatic evolution. This study implies that crystal fractionation is the dominant mechanism that controls Fe isotope fractionation in eruptive rocks and Fe isotopes could be used to study magmatic differentiation of high-silica magmas.

  6. One year observation of water vapour isotopic composition at Ivittuut, Southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Delmotte, Marc; Cattani, Olivier; Sodemann, Harald; Risi, Camille

    2013-04-01

    In September 2011, an automatic continuous water vapour isotopic composition monitoring instrument has been installed in the atmospheric station of Ivittuut (61.21° N, 48.17° W), southern Greenland. Precipitation has been regularly sampled on site at event to weekly scales and analysed in our laboratory for isotopic composition. Meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) and atmospheric composition (CO2, CH4, Atmospheric Potential Oxygen) are also continuously monitored at Ivittuut. The meteorological context of our observation period will be assessed by comparison with the local climatology. The water vapour analyser is a Picarro Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS, model L2120i). It is automatically and regularly calibrated on the VSMOW scale using measurements of the isotopic composition of vaporized reference water standards using the Picarro Syringe Delivery Module (SDM). As measurements are sensitive to humidity level, an experimentally estimated calibration response function is used to correct our isotopic measurements. After data treatment, successive isotopic measurements of reference waters have a standard deviation of around 0.35 per mil for δ18O and 2.3 per mil for δD. Our instrumentation protocol and data quality control method will be presented, together with our one year δ18O, δD and d-excess measurements in water vapour and precipitation. The relationship between surface water vapour isotopic composition and precipitation isotopic composition will be investigated based on a distillation model. Specific difficulties linked to our low maintenance remote station will also be discussed. The processes responsible for the synoptic variability of Ivittuut water vapour isotopic composition will be investigated by comparing our observational dataset with (i) atmospheric back-trajectories and (ii) results from an isotopically-enabled atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM

  7. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  8. Measurement of natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keita; Ohishi, Kazuki; Gilbert, Alexis; Akasaka, Mai; Yoshida, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine was measured in healthy subjects using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS). Before applying the technique to a urine sample, we optimized the measurement conditions of HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS using aqueous solutions of commercial acetone reagents. The optimization enabled us to determine the carbon isotopic compositions within ±0.2 ‰ of precision and ±0.3‰ of error using 0.05 or 0.2 mL of aqueous solutions with acetone concentrations of 0.3-121 mg/L. For several days, we monitored the carbon isotopic compositions and concentrations of acetone in urine from three subjects who lived a daily life with no restrictions. We also monitored one subject for 3 days including a fasting period of 24 h. These results suggest that changes in the availability of glucose in the liver are reflected in changes in the carbon isotopic compositions of urine acetone. Results demonstrate that carbon isotopic measurement of metabolites in human biological samples at natural abundance levels has great potential as a tool for detecting metabolic changes caused by changes in physiological states and disease.

  9. Classification of Chinese Honeys According to Their Floral Origins Using Elemental and Stable Isotopic Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaobin; Chen, Lanzhen; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Ye, Zhihua; Lin, Guanghui

    2015-06-10

    The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of multi-isotopic and elemental analyses combined with chemometric techniques for differentiating the botanical origins of major honey products in China. The stable isotope and elemental compositions of 57 honey samples from four major floral origins in China (i.e., rape honey, acacia honey, vitex honey, and jujube honey) were analyzed using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that hydrogen and oxygen isotopes could be more suitable than the carbon isotope for discriminating the floral origins of major honeys in China. There were significant differences in the contents of most elements between or among different floral origins. The combination of IRMS and ICP-MS methods provides the most effective and accurate approach (in most cases close to 100% accuracy) for classifying Chinese honeys according to their floral origins.

  10. The isotopic composition of dissolved cadmium in the water column of the West Philippine Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chung eYang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved concentration and isotopic compositions of cadmium (Cd in the seawater of the West Philippine Sea were determined. In general, Cd isotopic composition in the water column decreased with depth, with ε114/110Cd (ε114/110Cd = [(114Cd/110Cdsample / (114Cd/110CdNIST 3108 - 1]×10000 ranging from +7.2 to +10.1 in the top 60 m, from +4.8 to +5.1 between 100 and 150 m, peaking at +8.2 at 200 m, decreasing from +4.5 to +3.3 from 400 to 1000 m, and remaining constant at +3.0 from 1000 m and deeper. Different to a Rayleigh fractionation model, the isotopic composition and log scale concentrations of Cd do not exhibit a linear relationship. However, from the deep water to thermocline, the variations in Cd concentration and ε114/110Cd are relevant to the variations of temperature and salinity, indicating that water mixing is the dominant processes determining the concentration and isotopic composition in the interval. At 200 m where North Pacific Tropic Water dominates the water mass, the elevated ε114/110Cd could be linked to the composition in the upper portions of the water mass. In the top 150 m, the ε114/110Cd varies similarly to the phytoplankton community structures, implying that Cd uptake by various phytoplankton species may be associated with the isotopic variation. However, the effects of atmospheric inputs to the ε114/110Cd in the surface water cannot be excluded. A box model calculation is used to constrain the contributions of various processes to the Cd isotopes of surface water, and the results indicate that the Cd concentration and isotopic composition in most of the water body of the region are controlled by physical mixing, while the effects of biological fractionation and atmospheric inputs are limited in the euphotic zone.

  11. A lower limit of atmospheric pressure on early Mars inferred from nitrogen and argon isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Usui, Tomohiro

    2018-01-01

    We examine the history of the loss and replenishment of the Martian atmosphere using elemental and isotopic compositions of nitrogen and noble gases. The evolution of the atmosphere is calculated by taking into consideration various processes: impact erosion and replenishment by asteroids and comets, atmospheric escape induced by solar radiation and wind, volcanic degassing, and gas deposition by interplanetary dust particles. Our model reproduces the elemental and isotopic compositions of N and noble gases (except for Xe) in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from exploration missions and analyses of Martian meteorites. Other processes such as ionization-induced fractionation, which are not included in our model, are likely to make a large contribution in producing the current Xe isotope composition. Since intense impacts during the heavy bombardment period greatly affect the atmospheric mass, the atmospheric pressure evolves stochastically. Whereas a dense atmosphere preserves primitive isotopic compositions, a thin atmosphere on early Mars is severely influenced by stochastic impact events and following escape-induced fractionation. The onset of fractionation following the decrease in atmospheric pressure is explained by shorter timescales of isotopic fractionation under a lower atmospheric pressure. The comparison of our numerical results with the less fractionated N (15N/14N) and Ar (38Ar/36Ar) isotope compositions of the ancient atmosphere recorded in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 provides a lower limit of the atmospheric pressure in 4 Ga to preserve the primitive isotopic compositions. We conclude that the atmospheric pressure was higher than approximately 0.5 bar at 4 Ga.

  12. Stable isotopic composition of water vapor in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, James Robert; Gedzelman, Stanley David; Dexheimer, Darielle; Cho, Hye-Khung; Carrie, Gordon D.; Gasparini, Robert; Anderson, Casey R.; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Biggerstaff, Mike I.

    2004-03-01

    Water vapor samples collected during tropical field experiments at Puerto Escondido, Mexico, near Kwajalein (KWAJEX), and near Key West, Florida (CAMEX 4), were analyzed for their stable isotope contents, 1H218O:1H216O and 2H1H16O:1H216O. Highest δ18O values approached isotopic equilibrium with seawater during quiescent weather or in regions of isolated or disorganized convection. Lowest δ18O values occurred in or downwind from regions of organized mesoscale weather disturbances and ranged as low as 15‰ below isotopic equilibrium with seawater. The mean δ18O value of vapor over the sea surface therefore decreases as storm activity and organization increases.

  13. Magmatic recharge buffers the isotopic compositions against crustal contamination in formation of continental flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2017-07-01

    Isotopic compositions of continental flood basalts are essential to understand their genesis and to constrain the character of their mantle sources. Because of potential crustal contamination, it needs to be evaluated if and to which degree these basalts record original isotopic signals of their mantle sources and/or crustal signatures. This study examines the Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions of the late Cenozoic Xinchang-Shengzhou (XS) flood basalts, a small-scale continental flood basalt field in eastern China. The basalts show positive correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd, and negative correlations between 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf, which deviate from compositional arrays of crustal contamination and instead highlight variations in magmatic recharge intensity and mantle source compositions. The lava samples formed by high-volume magmatic recharge recorded signals of recycled sediments in the mantle source, which are characterized by moderate Ba/Th (91.9-106.5), excess 208Pb/204Pb relative to 206Pb/204Pb, and excess 176Hf/177Hf relative to 143Nd/144Nd. Thus, we propose that magmatic recharge buffers the original isotopic compositions of magmas against crustal contamination. Identifying and utilizing the isotope systematics of continental flood basalts generated by high volumes of magmatic recharge are thus crucial to trace their mantle sources.

  14. Antiprotonic helium

    CERN Multimedia

    Eades, John

    2005-01-01

    An exotic atom in w hich an electron and an antiproton orbit a helium nucleus could reveal if there are any differences between matter and antimatter. The author describes this unusual mirror on the antiworld (5 pages)

  15. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  16. Isotopic composition of high-activity particles released in the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S.; Dabrowska, M.; Jaracz, P.; Kaczanowski, J.; Le Van Kho; Mirowski, S.; Piasecki, E.; Szeflinska, G.; Szeflinski, Z.; Tropilo, J.; (Warsaw Univ. (Poland))

    1989-11-01

    Gamma spectra were measured and activities of the detected isotopes were analyzed for 206 high-activity particles (hot particles, HPs) found in northeastern Poland after the Chernobyl accident. The isotopic composition of HPs observed in gamma-activity is compared with that of the general fallout and core inventory calculations. Particle formation and a process of depletion in Ru and Cs isotopes are discussed. On the basis of a search performed a year later, some comments on the behavior of HPs in the soil are made.

  17. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the carbonate facies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan sedimentary succession in central India spans a wide time bracket from the Paleopro- terozoic to the Neoproterozoic period.Chronostratigraphic significance of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of the carbonate phase in Vindhyan sediments has been discussed in some recent studies.However,the ...

  18. Carbon isotopic composition of fossil leaves from the Early ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of fossil leaves from the Bhuj Formation, western India was carried out to infer the prevailing environmental conditions. Compression fossil leaves such as Pachypteris indica, Otozamite kachchhensis, Brachyphyllum royii and Dictyozamites sp. were recovered from three sedimentary ...

  19. The anatectic effect on the zircon Hf isotope composition of migmatites and associated granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2015-12-01

    Zircon Hf isotope composition is widely used to trace the growth and evolution of continental crust. However, it is controversial whether the Hf isotope composition of magmatic zircons can faithfully reflect that of their sources, especially for S-type granites. In order to provide an insight into this issue, we have revisited the published Lu-Hf isotope data of zircons from well-studied migmatites and associated granites in the Sulu orogen and the Cathaysian terrane, respectively. The results show greatly elevated 176Hf/177Hf ratios (by more than 10ε units) for newly grown zircon domains compared to the relict zircon domains. This indicates considerable contributions from non-zircon Hf to anatectic melts during crustal anatexis and subsequent magmatism. Furthermore, this more radiogenic Hf isotope signature was not erased during magmatic processes such as crystal fractionation during melt ascent and emplacement. The budget of Hf isotopes in source rocks with respect to mineral Lu/Hf ratios suggests the involvement of Hf-bearing major minerals in anatectic reactions by dissolving Hf-bearing major minerals into the anatectic melts. The significant Hf isotope variations in some anatectic and magmatic zircon domains from the migmatites and granites suggest not only the source heterogeneity but also the variable non-zircon Hf contributions. As such, the Hf isotope compositions of anatectic and magmatic zircons are substantially dictated by the mass balance between the non-zircon Hf from anatectic reactions and the zircon-Hf from the dissolution of protolith zircons into the anatectic melts. They are primarily controlled by P-T conditions and mechanism of crustal anatexis, and the magmatic processes during melt evolution. The present study highlights the important contribution of non-zircon Hf to the anatectic and magmatic zircon domains. In this regard, the greatly elevated 176Hf/177Hf ratios for newly grown zircon domains in the migmatites and granites cannot reflect

  20. Correspondence between human diet, body composition and stable isotopic composition of hair and breath in Fijian villagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Robert; Rush, Elaine; Aalbersberg, William

    2009-03-01

    The main aim of this work was to describe the relationship between diet, and hair and breath isotopic composition. From one Fijian rural village, hair and breath samples were procured from 20 women. Physical anthropometrics were made, and hair (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N and breath (13)C/(12)C were measured. Individual diet diaries were kept for two of the four preceding weeks, and isotopic compositions of items which accounted for most of the diet were measured. Individual average diets were analysed for macronutrient and energy content and conform to reasonable nutritional expectation. Characteristics of the diet are described in terms of protein and energy, their patterning with respect to different clusters of food items and their relationship to individuals' anthropometry. Breath CO(2) is depleted in (13)C by 1-2 per thousand on average with respect to the total diet. Hair was enriched on average by 4.1 per thousand in nitrogen and 4.5 per thousand in carbon with respect to the total diet. There was insufficient population variation in hair isotopic composition to establish individual hair-diet isotopic differences. The definite relationship that we establish in this work, between dietary and tissue isotopic values for a human community, provides a basis for determining and validating dietary regimes more generally within non-industrial, non-global-'supermarket' economies.

  1. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierepko, Renata, E-mail: Renata.Kierepko@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Mietelski, Jerzy W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Ustrnul, Zbigniew [Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Krakow (Poland); Anczkiewicz, Robert [Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Wershofen, Herbert [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Holgye, Zoltan [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Kapała, Jacek [Medical University of Bialystok (Poland); Isajenko, Krzysztof [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000 km{sup 2}. We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990–2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991–2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997–2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990–2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for {sup 238}Pu and for {sup (239} {sup +} {sup 240)}Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBq m{sup −} {sup 3}, respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of {sup 238}Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air. - Highlights: • Evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe • The effective annual doses associated with Pu inhalation • New approach to the problem of solving mixed Pu origins in one sample (3SM) • Relationship between Pu isotopes activity concentration and circulation factors.

  2. Zinc isotope fractionation during mantle melting and constraints on the Zn isotope composition of Earth's upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Liu, Jingao; Huang, Jian; Xiao, Yan; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Tang, Limei

    2017-02-01

    compositions of MORB. Therefore, preferential melting of spinel in the peridotites may account for the Zn isotopic difference between spinel peridotites and basalts. By contrast, the absence of Zn isotope fractionation between silicate minerals suggests that Zn isotopes are not significantly fractionated during partial melting of spinel-free garnet-facies mantle. If the studied non-metasomatized peridotites represent the refractory upper mantle, mass balance calculation shows that the depleted MORB mantle (DMM) has a δ66Zn value of +0.20 ± 0.05‰ (2SD), which is lighter than the primitive upper mantle (PUM) estimated in previous studies (+0.28 ± 0.05‰, 2SD, Chen et al., 2013b; +0.30 ± 0.07‰, 2SD, Doucet et al., 2016). This indicates that the Earth's upper mantle has a heterogeneous Zn isotopic composition vertically, which is probably due to shallow mantle melting processes.

  3. Thallium-isotopic compositions of euxinic sediments as a proxy for global manganese-oxide burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jeremy D.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Horner, Tristan J.; Ostrander, Chadlin M.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2017-09-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potentially powerful paleoredox proxy that may track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the global burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ∼20 thousand years, which is longer than the ocean mixing time, and it has been inferred that modern oxic seawater is conservative with respect to both concentration and isotopes. Marine sources of Tl have nearly identical isotopic values. Therefore, the Tl sinks, adsorption onto manganese oxides and low temperature oceanic crust alteration (the dominant seawater output), are the primary controls of the seawater isotopic composition. For relatively short-term, ∼million years, redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant mechanism that alters the Tl isotopic composition of seawater is associated with manganese oxide burial because large variability in low temperature ocean crust alteration is controlled by long-term, multi-million years, average ocean crust production rates. This study presents new Tl isotope data for an open ocean transect in the South Atlantic, and depth transects for two euxinic basins (anoxic and free sulfide in the water column), the Cariaco Basin and Black Sea. The Tl isotopic signature of open ocean seawater in the South Atlantic was found to be homogeneous with ε205Tl = -6.0 ± 0.3 (±2 SD, n = 41) while oxic waters from Cariaco and the Black Sea are -5.6 and -2.2, respectively. Combined with existing data from the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, our Atlantic data establish the conservatism of Tl isotopes in the global ocean. In contrast, partially- and predominantly-restricted basins reveal Tl isotope differences that vary between open-ocean (-6) and continental material (-2) ε205Tl, scaling with the degree of restriction. Regardless of the differences between basins, Tl is quantitatively removed from their euxinic waters below the chemocline. The burial of Tl in euxinic sediments is estimated to be an order of magnitude

  4. Avian embryonic development does not change the stable isotope composition of the calcite eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, G; Portugal, S J; Boomer, I; Cassey, P

    2011-01-01

    The avian embryo resorbs most of the calcium for bone formation from the calcite eggshell but the exact mechanisms of the resorption are unknown. The present study tested whether this process results in variable fractionation of the oxygen and carbon isotopes in shell calcium carbonate, which could provide a detailed insight into the temporal and spatial use of the eggshell by the developing embryo. Despite the uncertainty regarding changes in stable isotope composition of the eggshell across developmental stages or regions of the shell, eggshells are a popular resource for the analysis of historic and extant trophic relationships. To clarify how the stable isotope composition varies with embryonic development, the δ(13)C and δ(18)O content of the carbonate fraction in shells of black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs were sampled at four different stages of embryonic development and at five eggshell regions. No consistent relationship between the stable isotope composition of the eggshell and embryonic development, shell region or maculation was observed, although shell thickness decreased with development in all shell regions. By contrast, individual eggs differed significantly in isotope composition. These results establish that eggshells can be used to investigate a species' carbon and oxygen sources, regardless of the egg's developmental stage.

  5. SIMSISH technique does not alter the apparent isotopic composition of bacterial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Chapleur

    Full Text Available In order to identify the function of uncultured microorganisms in their environment, the SIMSISH method, combining in situ hybridization (ISH and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS imaging, has been proposed to determine the quantitative uptake of specific labelled substrates by uncultured microbes at the single cell level. This technique requires the hybridization of rRNA targeted halogenated DNA probes on fixed and permeabilized microorganisms. Exogenous atoms are introduced into cells and endogenous atoms removed during the experimental procedures. Consequently differences between the original and the apparent isotopic composition of cells may occur. In the present study, the influence of the experimental procedures of SIMSISH on the isotopic composition of carbon in E. coli cells was evaluated with nanoSIMS and compared to elemental analyser-isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS measurements. Our results show that fixation and hybridization have a very limited, reproducible and homogeneous influence on the isotopic composition of cells. Thereby, the SIMSISH procedure minimizes the contamination of the sample by exogenous atoms, thus providing a means to detect the phylogenetic identity and to measure precisely the carbon isotopic composition at the single cell level. This technique was successfully applied to a complex sample with double bromine - iodine labelling targeting a large group of bacteria and a specific archaea to evaluate their specific (13C uptake during labelled methanol anaerobic degradation.

  6. Spurious and functional correlates of the isotopic composition of a generalist across a tropical rainforest landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirson Evan K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isotopic composition of generalist consumers may be expected to vary in space as a consequence of spatial heterogeneity in isotope ratios, the abundance of resources, and competition. We aim to account for the spatial variation in the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of a generalized predatory species across a 500 ha. tropical rain forest landscape. We test competing models to account for relative influence of resources and competitors to the carbon and nitrogen isotopic enrichment of gypsy ants (Aphaenogaster araneoides, taking into account site-specific differences in baseline isotope ratios. Results We found that 75% of the variance in the fraction of 15N in the tissue of A. araneoides was accounted by one environmental parameter, the concentration of soil phosphorus. After taking into account landscape-scale variation in baseline resources, the most parsimonious model indicated that colony growth and leaf litter biomass accounted for nearly all of the variance in the δ15N discrimination factor, whereas the δ13C discrimination factor was most parsimoniously associated with colony size and the rate of leaf litter decomposition. There was no indication that competitor density or diversity accounted for spatial differences in the isotopic composition of gypsy ants. Conclusion Across a 500 ha. landscape, soil phosphorus accounted for spatial variation in baseline nitrogen isotope ratios. The δ15N discrimination factor of a higher order consumer in this food web was structured by bottom-up influences - the quantity and decomposition rate of leaf litter. Stable isotope studies on the trophic biology of consumers may benefit from explicit spatial design to account for edaphic properties that alter the baseline at fine spatial grains.

  7. The isotopic composition of methane in the stratosphere: high-altitude balloon sample measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of stratospheric methane has been determined on a large suite of air samples from stratospheric balloon flights covering subtropical to polar latitudes and a time period of 16 yr. 154 samples were analyzed for δ13C and 119 samples for δD, increasing the previously published dataset for balloon borne samples by an order of magnitude, and more than doubling the total available stratospheric data (including aircraft samples published to date. The samples also cover a large range in mixing ratio from tropospheric values near 1800 ppb down to only 250 ppb, and the strong isotope fractionation processes accordingly increase the isotopic composition up to δ13C = −14‰ and δD = +190‰, the largest enrichments observed for atmospheric CH4 so far. When analyzing and comparing kinetic isotope effects (KIEs derived from single balloon profiles, it is necessary to take into account the residence time in the stratosphere in combination with the observed mixing ratio and isotope trends in the troposphere, and the range of isotope values covered by the individual profile. The isotopic composition of CH4 in the stratosphere is affected by both chemical and dynamical processes. This severely hampers interpretation of the data in terms of the relative fractions of the three important sink mechanisms (reaction with OH, O(1D and Cl. It is shown that a formal sink partitioning using the measured data severely underestimates the fraction removed by OH, which is likely due to the insensitivity of the measurements to the kinetic fractionation in the lower stratosphere. Full quantitative interpretation of the CH4 isotope data in terms of the three sink reactions requires a global model.

  8. Synergistic effect of displacement damage, helium and hydrogen on microstructural change of SiC/SiC composites fabricated by reaction bonding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T.; Igawa, N.; Wakai, E.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hasegawa, A. [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engr., Sendai (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Continuous silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are known to be attractive candidate materials for first wall and blanket components in fusion reactors. In the fusion environment, helium and hydrogen are produced and helium bubbles can be formed in the SiC by irradiation of 14-MeV neutrons. Authors reported the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen as transmutation products on swelling behavior and microstructural change of the SiC/SiC composites fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process. Authors also reported about the fabrication of high thermal conductive SiC/SiC composites by reaction bonding (RB) process. The matrix fabricated by RB process has different microstructures such as bigger grain size of SiC and including Si phase as second phase from that by CVI process. It is, therefore, investigated the synergistic effect of displacement damage, helium and hydrogen as transmutation products on the microstructure of SiC/SiC composite by RB process in this study. The SiC/SiC composites by RB process were irradiated by the simultaneous triple ion irradiation (Si{sup 2+}, He{sup +} and H{sup +}) at 800 and 1000 deg. C. The displacement damage was induced by 6.0 MeV Si{sup 2+} ion irradiation up to 10 dpa. The microstructures of irradiated SiC/SiC composites by RB process were observed by TEM. The double layer of carbon and SiC as interphase between fiber and matrix by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was coated on SiC fibers in the SiC/SiC composites by RB process. The TEM observation revealed that He bubbles were formed both in the matrix by RB and SiC interphase by CVD process. Almost all He bubbles were formed at the grain boundary in SiC interphase by CVD process. On the other hand, He bubbles were formed both at the grain boundary and in Si grain of the matrix by RB process. The average size of He bubbles in the matrix by RB was smaller than that in SiC interphase by CVD

  9. [Carbon Isotope Composition in Landscape Components and Its Changes under Different Ecological Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovda, I V; Morgun, E G; Gongalskii, K B; Balandin, S A; Erokhina, A I

    2016-01-01

    The composition of stable carbon isotopes in plants, plant litter, leaf litter, and soil organic matter was studied experimentally in the western part of the northern foothills of the Caucasus and mountainsides. It was found that the changes in carbon isotope composition depending on the vertical zonation do not exceed 8 per thousand and depend on the type of C3 plant communities, its presence in biogeocenosis components (living matter, plant litter, soil organic matter), and the degree of moistening of the plot studied.

  10. Nitrate distribution and isotopic composition in vadose-zone sediments underlying large dairy operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Roberts, S. K.; Barton, C. G.; Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the transport and cycling of nitrate in the vadose zone is essential to 1) linking agronomic models of nitrate flux out of the root zone to groundwater models of nitrate loading at the water table, 2) quantifying the impact of vadose-zone biogeochemical processes on nitrate isotopic composition for the purpose of source attribution, and 3) constraining transport time scales through the vadose zone in order to assess the impact of changes in agricultural nutrient management on underlying groundwater quality. In this study, we have investigated the isotopic composition of water-leachable nitrate extracted from sediment cores underlying three dairy operations in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. One of the dairy operations is new (less than ten years old) and is sited on former range land; the other two operations are older (with one having been continuously operated for over a century). All use dairy wastewater for irrigation, and have vadose zones of 25-60 meters thickness developed in sedimentary sequences dominated by alluvial fan deposits. Sediment core samples from a UC-Davis monitor well drilling program were extracted with an equal amount of ultrapure water, and analyzed for nitrate isotopic composition using the denitrifying bacteria method at LLNL. The range in nitrate isotopic composition (δ15N,air = 4.8 to 26.6 permil, δ18O,VSMOW = -0.3 to 16.2 permil) is large, comparable to isotopic compositions observed in dairy wastewater-impacted groundwaters (Singleton et al., 2007, ES&T 41:759-765), and varies from site to site. The range is the largest on the oldest operation (δ15N = 5.2 to 26.6), and most tightly clustered on the youngest operation (δ15N = 4.8 to 7.8). Leachable nitrate-δ18O correlates with nitrate-δ15N along a characteristic denitrification trend for individual cores. Leachable nitrate-δ15N is not simply correlated with leachable nitrate concentration (which is generally high in shallow sediments and decreases

  11. Lead isotope studies of the Guerrero composite terrane, west-central Mexico: implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, Adriana; Macfarlane, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    New thermal ionization mass spectrometry and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Pb isotope analyses of three Cenozoic ores from the La Verde porphyry copper deposit located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane of the Guerrero composite terrane are presented and the metal sources are evaluated. Lead isotope ratios of 3 Cenozoic ores from the El Malacate and La Esmeralda porphyry copper deposits located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane and of 14 ores from the Zimapan and La Negra skarn deposits from the adjoining Sierra Madre terrane are also presented to look for systematic differences in the lead isotope trends and ore metal sources among the proposed exotic tectonostratigraphic terranes of southern Mexico. Comparison among the isotopic signatures of ores from the Sierra Madre terrane and distinct subterranes of the Guerrero terrane supports the idea that there is no direct correlation between the distinct suspect terranes of Mexico and the isotopic signatures of the associated Cenozoic ores. Rather, these Pb isotope patterns are interpreted to reflect increasing crustal contribution to mantle-derived magmas as the arc advanced eastward onto a progressively thicker continental crust. The lead isotope trend observed in Cenozoic ores is not recognized in the ores from Mesozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide and sedimentary exhalative deposits. The Mesozoic ores formed prior to the amalgamation of the Guerrero composite terrane to the continental margin, which took place during the Late Cretaceous, in intraoceanic island arc and intracontinental marginal basin settings, while the Tertiary deposits formed after this event in a continental arc setting. Lead isotope ratios of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic ores appear to reflect these differences in tectonic setting of ore formation. Most Pb isotope values of ores from the La Verde deposit (206Pb/204Pb = 18.674-18.719) are less radiogenic than those of the host igneous rocks, but plot within the

  12. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  13. Numerical modeling of radioactive neutron capture influence of Hf isotopic composition dynamics rate in the RBMK-1500 reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Jurkevicius, A; Auzelyte, V; Remeikis, V

    2000-01-01

    The nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel and isotopic composition of the hafnium in the radial neutron flux detectors of the RBMK-1500 reactor were numerically modelled. The sequence SAS2 from package SCALE 4.3 was used for calculations. The nuclear fuel nuclide concentrations, the concentration of Hf isotopes, the neutron absorption rate on Hf isotopes and summary absorption rate dependences on the fuel assembly burn up are presented. (author)

  14. Uncertainties in the oxygen isotopic composition of barium sulfate induced by coprecipitation of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg; Kasem, Michelle; Rech, Jason A; Adieu, Sabine; Showers, William S; Genna, Bernie; Thiemens, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Coprecipitation of nitrate and sulfate by barium has probably resulted in significant error in numerous studies dealing with the oxygen isotopic composition of natural sulfates using chemical/thermal conversion of BaSO(4) and analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In solutions where NO(3) (-)/SO(4) (2-) molar ratios are above 2 the amount of nitrate coprecipitated with BaSO(4) reaches a maximum of approximately 7% and decreases roughly linearly as the molar ratio decreases. The fraction of coprecipitated nitrate appears to increase with decreasing pH and is also affected by the nature of the cations in the precipitating solution. The size of the oxygen isotope artifact in sulfate depends both on the amount of coprecipitated nitrate and the delta(18)O and Delta(17)O values of the nitrate, both of which can be highly variable. The oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate extracted from atmospheric aerosols or rain waters are probably severely biased because photochemical nitrate is usually also present and it is highly enriched in (18)O (delta(18)O approximately 50-90 per thousand) and has a large mass-independent isotopic composition (Delta(17)O approximately 20-32 per thousand). The sulfate delta(18)O error can be 2-5 per thousand with Delta(17)O artifacts reaching as high as 4.0 per thousand.

  15. Effect of photosynthetic light dosage on carbon isotope composition in the coral skeleton: Long-term culture of Porites spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Tamano; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sato, Takanori; Minoshima, Kayo; Nomaru, Eriko; Murakami, Akio; Murayama, Shohei; Kawahata, Hodaka; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2008-06-01

    Whereas the oxygen isotope ratio of the coral skeleton is used for reconstruction of past information on seawater, the carbon isotope ratio is considered a proxy for physiological processes, principally photosynthesis and respiration. However, the fractionation of carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonate such as coral skeleton is still unclear. We conducted a long-term culture experiment of Porites spp. corals at different light dosages (light intensity, 100, 300, or 500 μmol m-2 s-1; daily light period, 10 or 12 h) at 25 ± 0.6°C to examine the contribution of photosynthetic activity to skeletal carbon isotope composition. Corals were grown in sand-filtered seawater and not fed; thus, they subsisted from photosynthesis of symbiotic algae. As the daily dose of photosynthetically active radiation increased, the rate of annual extension also increased. Mean isotope compositions shifted; the carbon isotope compositions (δ13C) became heavier and the oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) became lighter at higher radiation dose. Skeletal δ18O decrease coincided with increasing skeletal growth rate, indicating the influence of so-called kinetic isotope effects. The observed δ13C increase should be subject to both kinetic and metabolic isotope effects, with the latter reflecting skeletal δ13C enrichment due to photosynthesis by symbiotic algae. Using a vector approach in the δ13C-δ18O plane, we discriminated between kinetic and metabolic isotope effects on δ13C. The calculated δ13C changes from metabolic isotope effects were light dose dependent. The δ13C fractionation curve related to metabolic isotope effects is very similar to the photosynthesis-irradiance curve, indicating the direct contribution of photosynthetic activity to metabolic isotope effects. In contrast, δ13C fractionation related to kinetic isotope effects gradually increased as the growth rate increased. Our experiment demonstrated that the kinetic and metabolic isotope effects in coral skeleton

  16. Boron and calcium isotope composition in Neoproterozoic carbonate rocks from Namibia: evidence for extreme environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemann, Simone A.; Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Prave, Anthony R.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Pearson, Paul N.

    2005-02-01

    The level and evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide throughout Earth's history are key issues for palaeoclimate reconstructions, especially during times of extreme climate change such as those that marked the Neoproterozoic. The carbon isotope ratios of marine carbonates are crucial in the correlation and identification of Neoproterozoic glacial deposits, and they are also used as a record for biogeochemical cycling and potential proxy for atmospheric pCO 2. Likewise, the boron and calcium isotope compositions of marine carbonates are potential proxies for palaeo-seawater pH and the ratio of calcium fluxes into and out of seawater, respectively, and together they may be used to estimate atmospheric carbon dioxide. Here we use B and Ca isotopes to estimate palaeoenvironmental conditions in the aftermath of a major Neoproterozoic glaciation in Namibia. The validity of the B and Ca isotope variation in the ancient marine carbonates is evaluated using the oxygen isotope composition of the carbonates and its correlation to the carbon isotope variation. A negative (2.7 to -6.2‰) δ 11B excursion occurs in the postglacial carbonates and is interpreted to reflect a temporary decrease in seawater pH. Associated variations in δ 44Ca values (ranging between 0.35 and 1.14‰) are linearly coupled with the carbon isotope ratios and imply enhanced postglacial weathering rates. The reconstructed seawater pH and weathering profiles indicates that high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were likely during the melt back of Neoproterozoic glaciations and precipitation of cap carbonates. However, the B isotope trend suggests that these concentrations rapidly ameliorated and they do not co-vary with δ 13C. Thus models attempting to link long-lived negative δ 13C excursions to elevated pCO 2 need to be reconsidered.

  17. Constraints on Galactic Cosmic-Ray Origins from Elemental and Isotopic Composition Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A,; Stone, E. C.; vonRosevinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent measurements by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite of ultra-heavy cosmic ray isotopic and elemental abundances will be presented. A range of isotope and element ratios, most importantly Ne-22/Ne-20, Fe-58/Fe-56, and Ga-31/Ge -32 show that the composition is consistent with source material that is a mix of approx 80% ISM (with Solar System abundances) and 20% outflow/ejecta from massive stars. In addition, our data show that the ordering of refractory and volatile elements with atomic mass is greatly improved when compared to an approx 80%/20% mix rather than pure ISM, that the refractory and volatile elements have similar slopes, and that refractory elements are preferentially accelerated by a factor of approx 4. We conclude that these data are consistent with an OB association origin of GCRs.

  18. Standard Guide for Simulation of Helium Effects in Irradiated Metals

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides advice for conducting experiments to investigate the effects of helium on the properties of metals where the technique for introducing the helium differs in some way from the actual mechanism of introduction of helium in service. Simulation techniques considered for introducing helium shall include charged particle implantation, exposure to α-emitting radioisotopes, and tritium decay techniques. Procedures for the analysis of helium content and helium distribution within the specimen are also recommended. 1.2 Two other methods for introducing helium into irradiated materials are not covered in this guide. They are the enhancement of helium production in nickel-bearing alloys by spectral tailoring in mixed-spectrum fission reactors, and isotopic tailoring in both fast and mixed-spectrum fission reactors. These techniques are described in Refs (1-5). Dual ion beam techniques (6) for simultaneously implanting helium and generating displacement damage are also not included here. This lat...

  19. Stable water isotopic composition of the Antarctic subglacial Lake Vostok: implications for understanding the lake's hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaykin, Alexey A; Lipenkov, Vladimir Y; Kozachek, Anna V; Vladimirova, Diana O

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the stable isotopic composition of water from the subglacial Lake Vostok using two different sets of samples: (1) water frozen on the drill bit immediately after the first lake unsealing and (2) water frozen in the borehole after the unsealing and re-drilled one year later. The most reliable values of the water isotopic composition are: -59.0 ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18, -455 ± 1 ‰ for deuterium and 17 ± 1 ‰ for d-excess. This result is also confirmed by the modelling of isotopic transformations in the water which froze in the borehole, and by a laboratory experiment simulating this process. A comparison of the newly obtained water isotopic composition with that of the lake ice (-56.2 ‰ for oxygen-18, -442.4 ‰ for deuterium and 7.2 ‰ for d-excess) leads to the conclusion that the lake ice is very likely formed in isotopic equilibrium with water. In turn, this means that ice is formed by a slow freezing without formation of frazil ice crystals and/or water pockets. This conclusion agrees well with the observed physical and chemical properties of the lake's accreted ice. However, our estimate of the water's isotopic composition is only valid for the upper water layer and may not be representative for the deeper layers of the lake, so further investigations are required.

  20. Soil moisture effects on the carbon isotope composition of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire L. Phillips; Nick Nickerson; David Risk; Zachary E. Kayler; Chris Andersen; Alan Mix; Barbara J. Bond

    2010-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of recently assimilated plant carbon is known to depend on water-stress, caused either by low soil moisture or by low atmospheric humidity. Air humidity has also been shown to correlate with the δ13C of soil respiration, which suggests indirectly that recently fixed photosynthates...

  1. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzelmann, S.M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Daniëlle; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07401370X; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Van der Meer, Marcel T J

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids

  2. The isotopic composition of methane in the stratosphere: high-altitude balloon sample measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Brass, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823600; Borchers, R.; Engel, A.

    2011-01-01

    The isotopic composition of stratospheric methane has been determined on a large suite of air samples from stratospheric balloon flights covering subtropical to polar latitudes and a time period of 16 yr. 154 samples were analyzed for 13C and 119 samples for D, increasing the previously published

  3. Interpretation of groundwater origin in the Velenje coal mine on the basis of isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Urbanc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to determine the isotopic properties of cave waters from the Velenje coal mine and define the recharge areas of individual aquifers. With regard to the oxygen isotope composition, groundwater in the Velenje coal mine can beclassified into three types. Typical d18O values of the first type are around -9 ‰ and are found in surface waters in the vicinity of the mine, therefore it is supposed that these waters are recharged locally. The second type is represented mainly by waters from thelower part of the pliocene aquifer. The average oxygen composition of these waters is about -11 ‰. This isotope composition is considerably different from the isotope composition of recent waters from the mine’s vicinity, which leads to the conclusion that these are older, fossile waters. These waters also have a very high degree of mineralization and consequently conductivity. Waters of the third type have average δ18O values around -10 ‰ and originate mainly from triassic dolomites. These waters could be a mixture of recentand old waters, but it is also possible that they flow into the coal mine from the higher areas of Paški Kozjak.

  4. Single-molecule fluorescence autocorrelation experiments on pentacene : The dependence of intersystem crossing on isotopic composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.C.J.; Köhler, J.; Oijen, A.M. van; Groenen, E.J.J.; Schmidt, J.

    1999-01-01

    Single pentacene molecules containing 13C or 1H in a pentacene-d14 doped p-terphenyl crystal have been studied by fluorescence autocorrelation. The triplet dynamics has been analyzed and a systematic dependence of the S1→T1 intersystem crossing rate on isotopic composition was found. This variation

  5. High-precision measurements of seawater Pb isotope compositions by double spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Maxence; Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van DeFlierdt, Tina; Weiss, Dominik

    2015-03-10

    A new method for the determination of seawater Pb isotope compositions and concentrations was developed, which combines and optimizes previously published protocols for the separation and isotopic analysis of this element. For isotopic analysis, the procedure involves initial separation of Pb from 1 to 2L of seawater by co-precipitation with Mg hydroxide and further purification by a two stage anion exchange procedure. The Pb isotope measurements are subsequently carried out by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using a (207)Pb-(204)Pb double spike for correction of instrumental mass fractionation. These methods are associated with a total procedural Pb blank of 28±21 pg (1sd) and typical Pb recoveries of 40-60%. The Pb concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID) on 50 mL of seawater, using a simplified version of above methods. Analyses of multiple aliquots of six seawater samples yield a reproducibility of about ±1 to ±10% (1sd) for Pb concentrations of between 7 and 50 pmol/kg, where precision was primarily limited by the uncertainty of the blank correction (12±4 pg; 1sd). For the Pb isotope analyses, typical reproducibilities (±2sd) of 700-1500 ppm and 1000-2000 ppm were achieved for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb, respectively. These results are superior to literature data that were obtained using plasma source mass spectrometry and they are at least a factor of five more precise for ratios involving the minor (204)Pb isotope. Both Pb concentration and isotope data, furthermore, show good agreement with published results for two seawater intercomparison samples of the GEOTRACES program. Finally, the new methods were applied to a seawater depth profile from the eastern South Atlantic. Both Pb contents and isotope compositions display a smooth evolution with depth, and no obvious outliers. Compared to previous Pb isotope data for seawater, the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios are well correlated

  6. The Influence of Kinetic Growth Factors on the Clumped Isotope Composition of Calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. D.; Watkins, J. M.; Tripati, A.; Ryerson, F. J.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Clumped isotope paleothermometry is based on the association of 13C and 18O within carbonate minerals. Although the influence of temperature on equilibrium 13C-18O bond ordering has been studied, recent oxygen isotope studies of inorganic calcite demonstrate that calcite grown in laboratory experiments and in many natural settings does not form in equilibrium with water. It is therefore likely that the carbon and clumped isotope composition of these calcite crystals are not representative of true thermodynamic equilibrium. To isolate kinetic clumped isotope effects that arise at the mineral-solution interface, clumped isotopic equilibrium of DIC species must be maintained. This can be accomplished by dissolving the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) into the solution, thereby reducing the time required for isotopic equilibration of DIC species by approximately two orders of magnitude between pH 7.7 and 9.3. We conduct calcite growth experiments aimed specifically at measuring the pH-dependence of kinetic clumped isotope effects during non-equilibrium precipitation of calcite. We precipitated calcite from aqueous solution at a constant pH and controlled supersaturation over the pH range 7.7-9.3 in the presence of CA. For each experiment, a gas mixture of N2 and CO2 is bubbled through a beaker of solution without seed crystals. As CO2 from the gas dissolves into solution, calcite crystals grow on the beaker walls. The pH of the solution is maintained by use of an autotitrator with NaOH as the titrant. We control the temperature, pH, the pCO2 of the gas inflow, and the gas inflow rate, and monitor the total alkalinity, the pCO2 of the gas outflow, and the amount of NaOH added. A constant crystal growth rate of ~1.6 mmol/m2/hr is maintained over all experiments. Results from these experiments are compared to predictions from a recently-developed isotopic ion-by-ion growth model of calcite. The model describes the rate, temperature and pH dependence of oxygen isotope uptake

  7. Variable Isotopic Compositions of Host Plant Populations Preclude Assessment of Aphid Overwintering Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a regional scale. In this preliminary study, we explored the utility of variation in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to distinguish soybean aphid overwintering origins. We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L. and soybean aphids in Wisconsin, among known overwintering locations in the northern Midwest. Specifically, we looked for associations between buckthorn and environmental variables that could aid in identifying overwintering habitats. We detected significant evidence of correlation between the bulk 13C and 15N signals of soybean aphids and buckthorn, despite high variability in stable isotope composition within and among buckthorn plants. Further, the 15N signal in buckthorn varied predictably with soil composition. However, lack of sufficient differentiation of geographic areas along axes of isotopic and environmental variation appears to preclude the use of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals as effective predictors of likely aphid overwintering sites. These preliminary data suggest the need for future work that can further account for variability in 13C and 15N within/among buckthorn plants, and that explores the utility of other stable isotopes in assessing likely aphid overwintering sites.

  8. Calcium isotopic fractionation in mantle peridotites by melting and metasomatism and Ca isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ting; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chen-Lei; Golovin, Alexander V.; Qin, Li-Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Huang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    To better constrain the Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) and explore the Ca isotope fractionation in the mantle, we determined the Ca isotopic composition of 28 peridotite xenoliths from Mongolia, southern Siberia and the Siberian craton. The samples are divided in three chemical groups: (1) fertile, unmetasomatized lherzolites (3.7-4.7 wt.% Al2O3); (2) moderately melt-depleted peridotites (1.3-3.0 wt.% Al2O3) with no or very limited metasomatism (LREE-depleted cpx); (3) strongly metasomatized peridotites (LREE-enriched cpx and bulk rock) further divided in subgroups 3a (harzburgites, 0.1-1.0% Al2O3) and 3b (fertile lherzolites, 3.9-4.3% Al2O3). In Group 1, δ44/40Ca of fertile spinel and garnet peridotites, which experienced little or no melting and metasomatism, show a limited variation from 0.90 to 0.99‰ (relative to SRM 915a) and an average of 0.94 ± 0.05‰ (2SD, n = 14), which defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE. In Group 2, the δ44/40Ca is the highest for three rocks with the lowest Al2O3, i.e. the greatest melt extraction degrees (average 1.06 ± 0.04 ‰, i.e. ∼0.1‰ heavier than the BSE estimate). Simple modeling of modal melting shows that partial melting of the BSE with 103 ln ⁡αperidotite-melt ranging from 0.10 to 0.25 can explain the Group 2 data. By contrast, δ44/40Ca in eight out of nine metasomatized Group 3 peridotites are lower than the BSE estimate. The Group 3a harzburgites show the greatest δ44/40Ca variation range (0.25-0.96‰), with δ44/40Ca positively correlated with CaO and negatively correlated with Ce/Eu. Chemical evidence suggests that the residual, melt-depleted, low-Ca protoliths of the Group 3a harzburgites were metasomatized, likely by carbonate-rich melts/fluids. We argue that such fluids may have low (≤0.25‰) δ44/40Ca either because they contain recycled crustal components or because Ca isotopes, similar to trace elements and their ratios, may be fractionated by kinetic and

  9. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of algae and bacteria from hydrothermal environments, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Marilyn L. F.

    1984-03-01

    Stromatolites forming today on a small scale in hydrothermal environments are chemical and biological analogues of much larger Precambrian formations. Carbon isotopic composition varied as a function of CO 2 concentration, pH, and species composition. Stratiform, layered stromatolites grew in silica-depositing springs at 55° to 70°C; they consisted mainly of a unicellular alga, Synechococcus, and a filamentous, photosynthetic bacterium, Chloroflexus. These thermophiles become enriched in 12C as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the effluent waters increases. At a concentration of 40 ppm total inorganic C, and δ 13C of organic carbon was ˜ -12%., whereas at 900 ppm total inorganic C, the δ 13C of similar species was ˜ -25%.. Conical stromatolites or conophytons (principally a filamentous, blue-green alga Phormidium and Chloroflexus) grew at 40°-55°C. In older, broader conophytons, Chloroflexus was the dominant organism. Their δ 13C values were ˜ -18%. in a variety of hot springs. In carbonate-depositing springs, i.e., carbon dioxide saturated, conophytons and stromatolites consisting of a variety of blue-green algae and photosynthetic bacteria had the most negative δ 13C values (to -30%.). These carbon isotope ratios are directly comparable to carbon isotope ratios of kerogen from Precambrian stromatolites. The presence and activity of methanogenic bacteria or heterotrophic, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria did not alter significantly the δ 13C of the original organic matter. The hydrogen isotopic fractionation between thermophilic organisms and water is 0 to -74 for temperatures of 85° to 46°C, respectively. Acidophilic algae fractionated hydrogen isotopes to a lesser extent than did the photosynthetic organisms inhabiting neutral pH springs. Because organic matter retains some of its original isotopic signature, relationships of CO 2 levels, pH, temperature, and species composition between modern stromatolites and their environment and those of

  10. Influence of sea ice cover on evaporation and water vapour isotopic composition in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Werner, Martin; Meyer, Hanno; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rabe, Benjamin; Behrens, Melanie; Schönicke, Lutz; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian

    2017-04-01

    Since July 2015, water stable isotopes (HDO and H218O) have been measured at two Arctic facilities: during the summer on board of the research vessel Polarstern, and year-round at the Siberian coastal site of Samoylov, situated in the Lena delta (N 72°22', E 126°29'), close to the Laptev Sea. In both places, the isotopic composition of water vapour is analysed continuously in surface air. Additional isotopic measurements are performed on a daily basis in ocean surface water samples taken on Polarstern and on an event basis from precipitation sampled in Samoylov. The two Polarstern summer campaigns cover a large region of the western Artic Ocean, including a one-month campaign in the central and eastern Arctic crossing the North Pole in September 2015, with very cold conditions (up to -20°C). Combining ocean and atmospheric observations from Polarstern allows an evaluation of local surface water evaporation and its isotopic fingerprint relative to the oceanic and meteorological conditions as well as the partial sea ice cover. In the central and eastern Arctic, a large area of complete sea ice cover also revealed a strong impact on the advected moisture above the ice cap under very cold conditions. A first year of Siberian observations at Samoylov depicted a large seasonal variability, with extremely dry and isotopically depleted winter values. Contrasted seasonal isotopic regimes might be utilized for identifying moisture sources changes in the region, such as ocean surface closure by sea ice, or freezing of the Lena River. Besides documenting the present meteorology and changes in the Arctic, our measurements will contribute to a better interpretation of regional paleoclimate records based on water isotopes and to the evaluation of climate models in the Arctic. A first model-data comparison of our measurements with simulation results by the isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso have revealed relevant model biases in the Arctic realm.

  11. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  12. Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Walker, Richard J.; Carlson, Richard W.; Horan, Mary F.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Manthos, Vicky; Francis, Don; Jackson, Matthew G.

    2016-05-01

    How much of Earth's compositional variation dates to processes that occurred during planet formation remains an unanswered question. High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tungsten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle. These heterogeneities, caused by the decay of hafnium-182 in mantle domains with high hafnium/tungsten ratios, were created during the first ~50 million years of solar system history, indicating that portions of the mantle that formed during Earth’s primary accretionary period have survived to the present.

  13. A non-terrestrial 16O-rich isotopic composition for the protosolar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Ko; Chaussidon, Marc

    2005-03-31

    The discovery in primitive components of meteorites of large oxygen isotopic variations that could not be attributed to mass-dependent fractionation effects has raised a fundamental question: what is the composition of the protosolar gas from which the host grains formed? This composition is probably preserved in the outer layers of the Sun, but the resolution of astronomical spectroscopic measurements is still too poor to be useful for comparison with planetary material. Here we report a precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind from particles implanted in the outer hundreds of nanometres of metallic grains in the lunar regolith. These layers of the grains are enriched in 16O by >20 +/- 4 per thousand relative to the Earth, Mars and bulk meteorites, which implies the existence in the solar accretion disk of reactions--as yet unknown--that were able to change the 17O/16O and 18O/16O ratios in a way that was not dependent strictly on the mass of the isotope. Photochemical self-shielding of the CO gas irradiated by ultraviolet light may be one of these key processes, because it depends on the abundance of the isotopes, rather than their masses.

  14. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Two C-Rich Hydrated Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites reflect mixing between a O-16-rich reservoir and a O-17,O-18-rich reservoir produced via mass-independent fractionation. The composition of the O-16-rich reservoir is reasonably well constrained, but material representing the O-17,O-18-rich end-member is rare. Self-shielding models predict that cometary water, presumed to represent this reservoir, should be enriched in O-17 and O-18 18O by > 200%. Hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) rich in carbonaceous matter may be derived from comets; such particles likely contain the products of reaction between O-16-poor water and anhydrous silicates that formed in the inner solar system. Here we present mineralogy and oxygen isotope compositions of two C-rich hydrated IDPs, L2083E47 and L2071E35.

  15. The boron and lithium isotopic composition of mid-ocean ridge basalts and the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Wanless, V. Dorsey; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Elliott, Tim; Monteleone, Brian D.

    2017-06-01

    A global selection of 56 mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses were analysed for Li and B abundances and isotopic compositions. Analytical accuracy and precision of analyses constitute an improvement over previously published MORB data and allow a more detailed discussion of the Li and B systematics of the crust-mantle system. Refined estimates for primitive mantle abundances ([ Li ] = 1.39 ± 0.10 μg/g and [ B ] = 0.19 ± 0.02 μg/g) and depleted mantle abundances ([ Li ] = 1.20 ± 0.10 μg/g and [ B ] = 0.077 ± 0.010 μg/g) are presented based on mass balance and on partial melting models that utilise observed element ratios in MORB. Assimilation of seawater (or brine) or seawater-altered material beneath the ridge, identified by high Cl / K , causes significant elevation of MORB δ11 B and variable elevation in δ7 Li . The B isotope ratio is, hence, identified as a reliable indicator of assimilation in MORB and values higher than -6‰ are strongly indicative of shallow contamination of the magma. The global set of samples investigated here were produced at various degrees of partial melting and include depleted and enriched MORB from slow and fast-spreading ridge segments with a range of radiogenic isotope signatures and trace element compositions. Uncontaminated (low- Cl / K) MORB show no significant boron isotope variation at the current level of analytical precision, and hence a homogenous B isotopic composition of δ11 B = - 7.1 ± 0.9 ‰ (mean of six ridge segments; 2SD). Boron isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basalt fractionation likely is small, and this δ11 B value reflects the B isotopic composition of the depleted mantle and the bulk silicate Earth, probably within ±0.4‰. Our sample set shows a mean δ7 Li = + 3.5 ± 1.0 ‰ (mean of five ridge segments; 2SD), excluding high- Cl / K samples. A significant variation of 1.0-1.5‰ exists among various ridge segments and among samples within individual ridge segments, but this

  16. Carbon isotope composition of latex does not reflect temporal variations of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanpanon, Nicha; Kasemsap, Poonpipope; Thaler, Philippe; Kositsup, Boonthida; Gay, Frédéric; Lacote, Régis; Epron, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Latex, the cytoplasm of laticiferous cells localized in the inner bark of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.), is collected by tapping the bark. Following tapping, latex flows out of the trunk and is regenerated, whereas in untapped trees, there is no natural exudation. It is still unknown whether the carbohydrates used for latex regeneration in tapped trees is coming from recent photosynthates or from stored carbohydrates, and in the former case, it is expected that latex carbon isotope composition of tapped trees will vary seasonally, whereas latex isotope composition of untapped trees will be more stable. Temporal variations of carbon isotope composition of trunk latex (δ(13)C-L), leaf soluble compounds (δ(13)C-S) and bulk leaf material (δ(13)C-B) collected from tapped and untapped 20-year-old trees were compared. A marked difference in δ(13)C-L was observed between tapped and untapped trees whatever the season. Trunk latex from tapped trees was more depleted (1.6‰ on average) with more variable δ(13)C values than those of untapped trees. δ(13)C-L was higher and more stable across seasons than δ(13)C-S and δ(13)C-B, with a maximum seasonal difference of 0.7‰ for tapped trees and 0.3‰ for untapped trees. δ(13)C-B was lower in tapped than in untapped trees, increasing from August (middle of the rainy season) to April (end of the dry season). Differences in δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-B between tapped and untapped trees indicated that tapping affects the metabolism of both laticiferous cells and leaves. The lack of correlation between δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-S suggests that recent photosynthates are mixed in the large pool of stored carbohydrates that are involved in latex regeneration after tapping. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Radium isotopes in the Polish Outer Carpathian mineral waters of various chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Lucyna, Rajchel; Jakub, Nowak; Paweł, Jodłowski

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra) and chemical compositions of above 70 mineral water samples collected from several dozens of springs and boreholes localized in the Polish Outer Carpathians. The activity concentrations of both radium isotopes clearly increase with the increase of water TDS, but decrease when the SO(4)(2-) content increases. These concentrations vary in the broad interval from a few to near 1000 mBq/L. The coefficient of the linear correlation between concentrations of these isotopes amounts to 0.85, and the activity ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra is >1 for chloride-sodium waters, being ≈1 for hydrogen-carbonate and <1 for the sulfate ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stable isotope study of a new chondrichthyan fauna (Kimmeridgian, Porrentruy, Swiss Jura): an unusual freshwater-influenced isotopic composition for the hybodont shark Asteracanthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, L.; Kocsis, L.; Billon-Bruyat, J.-P.; Spezzaferri, S.; Vennemann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Chondrichthyan teeth (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) are mineralized in isotopic equilibrium with the surrounding water, and parameters such as water temperature and salinity can be inferred from the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Op) of their bioapatite. We analysed a new chondrichthyan assemblage, as well as teeth from bony fish (Pycnodontiformes). All specimens are from Kimmeridgian coastal marine deposits of the Swiss Jura (vicinity of Porrentruy, Ajoie district, NW Switzerland). While the overall faunal composition and the isotopic composition of bony fish are generally consistent with marine conditions, unusually low δ18Op values were measured for the hybodont shark Asteracanthus. These values are also lower compared to previously published data from older European Jurassic localities. Additional analyses on material from Solothurn (Kimmeridgian, NW Switzerland) also have comparable, low-18O isotopic compositions for Asteracanthus. The data are hence interpreted to represent a so far unique, freshwater-influenced isotopic composition for this shark that is classically considered a marine genus. While reproduction in freshwater or brackish realms is established for other hybodonts, a similar behaviour for Asteracanthus is proposed here. Regular excursions into lower salinity waters can be linked to the age of the deposits and correspond to an ecological adaptation, most likely driven by the Kimmeridgian transgression and by the competition of the hybodont shark Asteracanthus with the rapidly diversifying neoselachians (modern sharks).

  19. Cd Isotopic Composition Measured by Plasma Source Mass Spectrometry on Natural and Anthropogenic Materials. A Preliminary Outline of Cd Isotope Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, C.

    2004-05-01

    Cadmium is a trace metal that is used as a geochemical tracer of natural processes, like biological productivity and paleoproductivity, and also of anthropogenic pollution, as Cd is known to be a toxic heavy metal that has become a major environmental and health concern. For these purposes, an outstanding issue is to determine whether Cd, like a number of metallic elements (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Tl), may display variable isotopic compositions in natural and/or industrial compounds. It is known that Cd may display variable isotopic composition. Indeed, isotopic fractionation processes have been documented in some meteorites and in lunar soils. Consequently, due to its relatively low boiling point (767\\deg C) and also to the large mass range covered by its isotopes (10 mass units), Cd might fractionate isotopically, for example during the outpouring of acidic volcanic magmas and/or the emplacement of granitoids. On another hand, isotopic fractionation could also occur during human activities like refuse incineration or industrial manufacturing, for instance. Finally, biologically-induced isotopic fractionation should not be ruled out, as it is clearly evidenced for other metals, like Fe. A high precision method has been developed for determining the isotopic composition of Cd by plasma source mass spectrometry (Neptune). This method holds on the standard-bracketing technique, owing to the availability of Cd solutions of known isotopic composition provided by the University of M\\H{u}nster. This allows to correct precisely for mass fractionation that occurs in the plasma source mass spectrometer. It is also critical for the analysis to be possible to work with Cd solutions of very high purity. Chemical isolation of Cd involves 3 steps, and may be also suitable for Cd isotopic measurements using solid source mass spectrometry. Preliminary results suggest that Cd is likely to fractionate during smelting activities, as indicated by measurements on mining waste. The

  20. Carbon isotopic composition of fossil leaves from the Early ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    composition of atmospheric CO2 that varied bet- ween 0.5 and −10% and estimated an average δ13C of atmospheric CO2 in the order of −3.0% . Since no single proxy record is able to provide this infor- mation with sufficient temporal and spatial reso- lution, it is thus essential to analyze fossil plants at various stratigraphic ...

  1. Oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from Rumuruti (R) chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S. S.; Bischoff, A.; Nagashima, K.; Krot, A. N.; Huss, G. R.; Keil, K.

    2009-07-01

    We report oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from several Rumuruti (R) chondrites measured in situ using a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe. On a three-isotope oxygen diagram, δ 17O vs. δ 18O, compositions of individual minerals in most R CAIs analyzed fall along a slope-1 line. Based on the variations of Δ 17O values (Δ 17O = δ 17O - 0.52 × δ 18O) within individual inclusions, the R CAIs are divided into (i) 16O-rich (Δ 17O ˜ -23-26‰), (ii) uniformly 16O-depleted (Δ 17O ˜ -2‰), and (iii) isotopically heterogeneous (Δ 17O ranges from -25‰ to +5‰). One of the hibonite-rich CAIs, H030/L, has an intermediate Δ 17O value of -12‰ and a highly fractionated composition (δ 18O ˜ +47‰). We infer that like most CAIs in other chondrite groups, the R CAIs formed in an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir. The uniformly 16O-depleted and isotopically heterogeneous CAIs subsequently experienced oxygen-isotope exchange during remelting in an 16O-depleted nebular gas, possibly during R chondrite chondrule formation, and/or during fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism on the R chondrite parent asteroid. Three hibonite-bearing CAIs and one spinel-plagioclase-rich inclusion were analyzed for magnesium-isotope compositions. The CAI with the highly fractionated oxygen isotopes, H030/L, shows a resolvable excess of 26Mg ( 26Mg ∗) corresponding to an initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio of ˜7 × 10 -7. Three other CAIs show no resolvable excess of 26Mg ( 26Mg ∗). The absence of 26Mg ∗ in the spinel-plagioclase-rich CAI from a metamorphosed R chondrite NWA 753 (R3.9) could have resulted from metamorphic resetting. Two other hibonite-bearing CAIs occur in the R chondrites (NWA 1476 and NWA 2446), which appear to have experienced only minor degrees of thermal metamorphism. These inclusions could have formed from precursors with lower than canonical 26Al/ 27Al ratio.

  2. Isotope composition of winter precipitation and snow cover in the foothills of the Altai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Malygina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, several general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean (atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models  – GCMs have been improved by modeling the hydrological cycle with the use of isotopologues (isotopes of water HDO and H2 18O. Input parameters for the GCM models taking into account changes in the isotope composition of atmospheric precipitation were, above all, the results obtained by the network GNIP – Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation. At different times, on the vast territory of Russia there were only about 40 simultaneously functioning stations where the sampling of atmospheric precipitation was performed. In this study we present the results of the isotope composition of samples taken on the foothills of the Altai during two winter seasons of 2014/15 and 2015/16. Values of the isotope composition of precipitation changed in a wide range and their maximum fluctuations were 25, 202 and 18‰ for δ18О, dexc and δD, respectively. The weighted-mean values of δ18О and δD of the precipitation analyzed for the above two seasons were close to each other (−21.1 and −158.1‰ for the first season and −21.1 and −161.9‰ for the second one, while dexc values differed significantly. The comparison of the results of isotope analysis of the snow cover integral samples with the corresponding in the time interval the weighted-mean values of precipitation showed high consistency. However, despite the similarity of values of δ18О and δD, calculated for precipitation and snow cover, and the results, interpolated in IsoMAP (from data of the GNIP stations for 1960–2010, the dexc values were close to mean annual values of IsoMAP for only the second winter season. According to the trajectory analysis (the HYSPLIT model, the revealed differences between both, the seasons, and the long-term average values of IsoMAP, were associated with a change of main regions where the air masses

  3. The neodymium stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth and chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Burton, Kevin W.

    2017-12-01

    The non-chondritic neodymium (Nd) 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the silicate Earth potentially provides a key constraint on the accretion and early evolution of the Earth. Yet, it is debated whether this offset is due to the Earth being formed from material enriched in s-process Nd isotopes or results from an early differentiation process such as the segregation of a late sulfide matte during core formation, collisional erosion or a some combination of these processes. Neodymium stable isotopes are potentially sensitive to early sulfide segregation into Earth's core, a process that cannot be resolved using their radiogenic counterparts. This study presents the first comprehensive Nd stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Stable Nd measurements were made using a double spike technique coupled with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. All three of the major classes of chondritic meteorites, carbonaceous, enstatite and ordinary chondrites have broadly similar isotopic compositions allowing calculation of a chondritic mean of δ146/144Nd = -0.025 ± 0.025‰ (±2 s.d.; n = 39). Enstatite chondrites yield the most uniform stable isotope composition (Δ146/144Nd = 26 ppm), with considerably more variability observed within ordinary (Δ146/144Nd = 72 ppm) and carbonaceous meteorites (Δ146/144Nd = 143 ppm). Terrestrial weathering, nucleosynthetic variations and parent body thermal metamorphism appear to have little measurable effect on δ146/144Nd in chondrites. The small variations observed between ordinary chondrite groups most likely reflect inherited compositional differences between parent bodies, with the larger variations observed in carbonaceous chondrites being linked to varying modal proportions of calcium-aluminium rich inclusions. The terrestrial samples analysed here include rocks ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition, MORB glasses and residual mantle lithologies. All of these terrestrial rocks possess a broadly similar Nd

  4. Elemental and isotopic fingerprint of Argentinean wheat. Matching soil, water, and crop composition to differentiate provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Natalia S; Baroni, María V; Badini, Raúl G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Héctor A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gautier, Eduardo A; García, Pilar Peral; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2013-04-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate if elemental and isotopic signatures of Argentinean wheat can be used to develop a reliable fingerprint to assess its geographical provenance. For this pilot study we used wheat cultivated at three different regions (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Entre Ríos), together with matching soil and water. Elemental composition was determined by ICP-MS. δ(13)C and δ(15)N were measured by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, while (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Wheat samples from three sampling sites were differentiated by the combination of 11 key variables (K/Rb, Ca/Sr, Ba, (87)Sr/(86)Sr, Co, Mo, Zn, Mn, Eu, δ(13)C, and Na), demonstrating differences among the three studied regions. The application of generalized Procrustes analysis showed 99.2% consensus between cultivation soil, irrigation water, and wheat samples, in addition to clear differences between studied areas. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis showed significant correlation between the elemental and isotopic profiles of wheat and those corresponding to both soil and water (r(2) = 0.97, p soil, water, and wheat samples using different statistical methods, showing that wheat elemental and isotopic compositions are mainly related to soil and irrigation water characteristics of the site of growth.

  5. Isotopic composition of strontium in volcanic rocks from oahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J L; Delong, S E

    1966-09-09

    Analysis of several well-documented specimens from each of the three volcanic series on Oahu gives the following mean ratios of Sr(87) to Sr(86): the Waianae series, 0.7030 +/- 0.00010 (sigma); the Koolau series, 0.70385+/- 0.00009 (sigma); and the Honolulu series, 0.7029 ++/- 0.00006 ( sigma). The mean ratio of Sr(87) to Sr(86) of the Koolau series specimens is significantly higher than the means of the other two series. With one exception, significant differences in Sr(87)/ Sr(86) within a series were not found, even though some large compositional differences existed.

  6. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in Arabidopsis lines with different transpiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Lawson, T.; Eley, Y.; McAusland, L.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are used widely to investigate modern and ancient water cycles. The D/H composition of organic compounds derived from terrestrial plants has recently attracted significant attention as a proxy for palaeohydrology. However, the role of various plant physiological and biochemical factors in controlling the D/H signature of leaf wax lipids in extant plants remains unclear. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of plant transpiration on the D/H composition of n-alkanes in terrestrial plants. This experiment includes 4 varieties of Arabidopsis thaliana that differ with respect to stomatal density and stomatal geometry. All 4 varieties were grown indoors under identical temperature, relative humidity, light and watering regimes and then sampled for leaf wax and leaf water stable isotopic measurements. During growth, stomatal conductance to carbon dioxide and water vapour were also determined. We found that the plants varied significantly in terms of their transpiration rates. Transpiration rates were significantly higher in Arabidopsis ost1 and ost1-1 varieties (2.4 and 3.2 mmol m-2 s-1, respectively) than in Arabidopsis RbohD and Col-0 (1.5 and 1.4). However, hydrogen isotope measurements of n-alkanes extracted from leaf waxes revealed a very different pattern. Varieties ost1, ost1-1, and RbohD have very similar deltaD values of n-C29 alkane (-125, -128, and -127 per mil), whereas the deltaD value of Col-0 is more negative (-137 per mil). The initial results of this work suggest that plant transpiration is decoupled from the D/H composition of n-alkanes. In other words, physical processes that affect water vapour movement between the plant and its environment apparently cannot account for the stable hydrogen isotope composition of organic compounds that comprise leaf waxes. Additional, perhaps biochemical, processes that affect hydrogen isotope fractionation during photosynthesis might need to be invoked

  7. Modelling the isotopic composition of snow using backward trajectories : a particular precipitation event in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, MM; Van de Wal, RSW; Van den Broeke, MR; Kerstel, ERT; Masson-Delmotte, [No Value; Meijer, HAJ; Reijmer, CH; Scheele, MP; Jacka, J

    2004-01-01

    We consider a specific accumulation event that occurred in January 2002 in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Snow samples were obtained a few days after accumulation. We combine meteorological analyses and isotopic modelling to describe the isotopic composition of moisture during transport.

  8. The effects of growth phase and salinity on the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones produced by coastal haptophyte algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivall, D.; M'Boule, D.; Sinke-Schoen, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; van der Meer, M.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic fractionation of hydrogen during the biosynthesis of alkenones produced by marine haptophyte algae has been shown to depend on salinity and, as such, the hydrogen isotopic composition of alkenones is emerging as a palaeosalinity proxy. The relationship between fractionation and salinity

  9. Chemical and isotopic composition of secondary organic aerosol generated by α-pinene ozonolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl; Dusek, Ulrike; King, Stephanie M.

    2017-01-01

    of the specific carbon atom sites was determined using positionspecific isotope analysis (PSIA). The PSIA analysis showed variations at individual positions from -6.9 to +10:5% relative to the bulk composition. SOA was formed from α-pinene and ozone in a constant-flow chamber under dark, dry, and low......-NOx conditions, with OH scavengers and in the absence of seed particles. The excess of ozone and long residence time in the flow chamber ensured that virtually all α-pinene had reacted. Product SOA was collected on two sequential quartz filters. The filters were analysed offline by heating them stepwise from 100....... The observation of a number of components that occurred across the full range of desorption temperatures suggests that they are generated by thermal decomposition of oligomers. The isotopic composition of SOA was more or less independent of desorption temperature above 100 °C. TC analysis showed that SOA...

  10. In-situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; E Popa, Maria; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    High precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) based technique for in-situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in-situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of +0.05 ± 0.03 ‰ for δ13C-CH4 and -3.6 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD-CH4. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high precision and temporal resolution dataset does not only reveal the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site, but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget, when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European

  11. In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS-based technique for in situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of (+0.25 ± 0.04 ‰ for δ13C and (−4.3 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high-precision and high-temporal-resolution dataset not only reveals the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for

  12. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Griffis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle – an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012. These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from −40.2 to −15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from −278.7 to −113.0 ‰ and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( >  25 mmol mol−1

  13. Investigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, Timothy J.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Baker, John M.; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Ke; Chen, Zichong; Welp, Lisa R.; Schultz, Natalie M.; Gorski, Galen; Chen, Ming; Nieber, John

    2016-04-01

    Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle - an expected response to surface warming. The extent to which terrestrial ecosystems modulate these hydrologic factors is important to understand feedbacks in the climate system. We measured the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water vapor at a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a 3-year period (2010 to 2012). These measurements represent the first set of annual water vapor isotope observations for this region. Several simple isotope models and cross-wavelet analyses were used to assess the importance of the Rayleigh distillation process, evaporation, and PBL entrainment processes on the isotope composition of water vapor. The vapor isotope composition at this tall tower site showed a large seasonal amplitude (mean monthly δ18Ov ranged from -40.2 to -15.9 ‰ and δ2Hv ranged from -278.7 to -113.0 ‰) and followed the familiar Rayleigh distillation relation with water vapor mixing ratio when considering the entire hourly data set. However, this relation was strongly modulated by evaporation and PBL entrainment processes at timescales ranging from hours to several days. The wavelet coherence spectra indicate that the oxygen isotope ratio and the deuterium excess (dv) of water vapor are sensitive to synoptic and PBL processes. According to the phase of the coherence analyses, we show that evaporation often leads changes in dv, confirming that it is a potential tracer of regional evaporation. Isotope mixing models indicate that on average about 31 % of the growing season PBL water vapor is derived from regional evaporation. However, isoforcing calculations and mixing model analyses for high PBL water vapor mixing ratio events ( > 25 mmol mol-1) indicate that regional evaporation can account

  14. The molybdenum isotopic compositions of I-, S- and A-type granitic suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Barling, Jane; Siebert, Christopher; Fietzke, Jan; Stephens, Ed; Halliday, Alex N.

    2017-05-01

    This study reports Mo isotopic compositions for fifty-two Palaeozoic granitic rocks with contrasting source affinities (A-, I- and S-type) from the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) and the New England Batholith (NEB), both in SE Australia, and three compositionally zoned plutons (Loch Doon, Criffell, and Fleet) located in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. The results show relatively large variations in δ98Mo for igneous rocks ranging from -1.73‰ to 0.59‰ with significant overlaps between different types. No relationships between δ98Mo and δ18O or ASI (Alumina Saturation Index) are observed, indicating that Mo isotopes do not clearly distinguish igneous vs. sedimentary source types. Instead, effects of igneous processes, source mixing, regional geology, as well as hydrothermal activity control the Mo isotope compositions in these granites. It is found that Mo is mainly accommodated in biotite and to a lesser extent in hornblende. Hornblende and Fe3+-rich minerals may preferentially incorporate light isotopes, as reflected by negative correlations between δ98Mo and K/Rb and [Fe2O3]. There is a positive correlation between initial 87Sr/86Sr and δ98Mo in I-type granitic rocks, reflecting the admixing of material from isotopically distinct sources. Granitic rocks from Scotland and Australia display strikingly similar curvilinear trends in δ98Mo vs. initial 87Sr/86Sr despite the differing regional geology. Localized hydrothermal effects can result in low δ98Mo in granite, as seen in three samples from Loch Doon and Criffell which have anomalously light δ98Mo of <-1‰. Based on this study, an estimate of δ98Mo = 0.14 ± 0.07‰ (95% s.e.) for the Phanerozoic upper crust is proposed. This is slightly heavier than basalts indicating an isotopically light lower crust and/or a systematic change to the crust resulting from subduction of isotopically light dehydrated slab and/or pelagic sediment over time.

  15. Secular changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of Devonian biogenic apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisig, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Buggisch, W.

    2003-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes are a key tool for quantifying temperature and salinity of ancient sea water. Initially, pristine skeletal carbonates (preferentially LMC) have been utilized to monitor variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of past oceans. A high preservation potential of the primordial isotopic signature may also be awarded to conodonts. These microfossils consist of fluor-apatite (francolite) with a dense microcrystalline structure and therefore are comparatively insensitive with regard to diagenetic overprinting. Because conodonts are frequent in Devonian rocks and widely used as index fossils, their application for oxygen isotope analysis is espe-cially promising for this specific geological time interval. Laser-based microsampling or high-temperature combustion techniques (TC/EA) allows us to analyse microsamples of conodont apatite (0.5 to 1 mg). The oxygen isotope measurements are performed on trisilverphosphate after dissolving conodont apatite (0.5 to 1 mg) in nitric acid and precipitating the phosphate group as Ag_3PO_4. Conodont samples from different locations in Germany (Rheinisches Schieferge-birge) and the Czech Republic (Prague Basin) as well as from the United States (Iowa) and Morocco (Anti-Atlas) have been analysed. δ18Oapatite values are presented for the Lochkovian, Middle and Late Devonian. δ18Oapatite values for the Lochkovian (Prague Basin) vary between 18.5 and 19.0 ppm (δ18Oapatite values given in V-SMOW). Assuming an oxygen isotopic composition for Devonian seawater of -1 ppm (ice-free world), the δ18Oapatite values translate into tem-peratures of 26^o to 28^oC for the tropical Lochkovian ocean. Eifelian to Givetian conodonts (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Prague Basin) show δ18Oapatite values from 18.5 to 20.4 ppm, corresponding to paleotemperatures of 20 to 28^o C. The Middle to Late Devonian transition is mainly documented by conodonts from Iowa with δ18Oapatite values of 18 to 20 ppm (21-30^o C). Conodont δ18Oapatite

  16. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; Rahman, Z.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Hibonite-rich Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are among the earliest formed solids that condensed in the early nebula. We discovered an unusual refractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) containing an approx 500 micron long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and petrography of SHAL show strong similarities to some FUN inclusions, especially HAL. Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions in SHAL.

  17. Limitations of the isotopic composition of nitrates as a tracer of their origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Bernhard; Otero, Neus; Sebilo, Mathieu; Gooddy, Daren; Lapworth, Dan; Surridge, Ben; Petelet Giraud, Emmanuelle; Flehoc, Christine; Baran, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes are traditionally considered and frequently used as tracers of nitrate sources in watersheds used for drinking water production. The enrichment of synthetic nitrate-containing fertilizers in 18O due to the contribution of atmospheric oxygen in the production process confers a specific isotopic fingerprint to mineral fertilizers. In spite of the still widespread use on nitrate-containing synthetic fertilizers, their characteristic N and O isotope signatures are rarely unambiguously observed in nitrate-contaminated groundwater. We postulate, in line with Mengis et al. (2001), that fertilizer-derived nitrate is not directly and rapidly transferred to groundwater but rather retained in the soil-plant system as organic N and then mineralized and re-oxidized (termed the mineralization-immobilization turnover, MIT) thereby re-setting the oxygen isotope composition of nitrate and also changing its N isotope ratios. We show examples from watersheds on diverse alluvial/clastic and carbonate aquifers in eastern and northern France where, in spite of the use of mineral fertilizers, evidenced also through other isotopic tracers (boron isotopes), both N and O-isotope ratios are very homogeneous and compatible with nitrification of ammonium where 2/3 of oxygen is derived from soil water and 1/3 from atmospheric O2. These field data are corroborated by lysimeter data from Canada. Even if in areas where ammonium is derived from chemical fertilizers, N values still tend to be lower than in areas where ammonium is derived from manure/sewage, this is clearly a limitation to the dual isotope method (N, O) for nitrate source identification, but has important implications for the nitrogen mobility and residence time in soils amended with synthetic fertilizers (Sebilo et al., 2013). Mengis M., Walther U., Bernasconi S. M., Wehrli B. (2001) Limitations of Using δ18O for the Source Identification of Nitrate in Agricultural Soils. Environmental Science

  18. Tracking nitrous oxide emission processes at a suburban site with semicontinuous, in situ measurements of isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Henne, Stephan; Hüglin, Christoph; Zellweger, Christoph; Tuzson, Béla; Ibraim, Erkan; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) was measured semicontinuously, at ˜35 min frequency in intermittent periods of 1-6 days over one and a half years, using preconcentration coupled to a quantum cascade laser spectrometer at the suburban site of Dübendorf, Switzerland. The achieved measurement repeatability was 0.08‰, 0.11‰, and 0.10‰ for δ18O, site preference, and δ15Nbulk respectively, which is better than or equal to standard flask sampling-based isotope ratio mass spectrometry performance. The observed mean diurnal cycle reflected the buildup of N2O from isotopically light sources on an isotopically heavy tropospheric background. The measurements were used to determine the source isotopic composition, which varied significantly compared to chemical and meteorological parameters monitored at the site. FLEXPART-COSMO transport modeling in combination with modified Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research inventory emissions was used to model N2O mole fractions at the site. Additionally, isotopic signatures were estimated for different source categories using literature data and used to simulate N2O isotopic composition over the measurement period. The model was able to capture variability in N2O mole fraction well, but simulations of isotopic composition showed little agreement with observations. In particular, measured source isotopic composition exhibited one magnitude larger variability than simulated, clearly indicating that the range of isotopic source signatures estimated from literature significantly underestimates true variability of source signatures. Source δ18O signature was found to be the most sensitive tracer for urban/industry versus agricultural N2O. δ15Nbulk and site preference may provide more insight into microbial and chemical emission processes than partitioning of anthropogenic source categories.

  19. Probing Upper Mantle Heterogeneity: Os and Pb Isotopic Compositions of Individual Sulfide Grains in Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J. M.; Shirey, S. B.

    2008-12-01

    Abyssal peridotites from mid-ocean ridges are unique samples of the depleted upper mantle that can be used to understand a variety of processes from melting and melt extraction to the compositional evolution of the interior of the earth. Traditional work on abyssal peridotites has focused on either bulk rock compositions or on the compositions of clinopyroxenes, which are the main repository of trace elements in these rocks. However, recent (e.g., Alard et al., 2000; Luguet et al., 2003; Harvey et al., 2006) and previous (Meijer, 1980; Morgan, 1985) works on peridotites have indicated that Fe-Ni-Cu sulfides, present at trace levels in abyssal peridotites, may contain a significant proportion of both the Pb and Os budget of the upper mantle. As the isotopic compositions of Pb and Os provide important information about the long term evolution of the mantle, analysis of single sulfide grains can provide unique information not available from basalt or whole-rock peridotite studies: the spatial scale is small compared to basaltic melt sampling, adjacent silicate mineralogy can be evaluated, and secondary sulfide and alteration minerals can be avoided. Thus, while sulfides represent chalcopyrite. We have adapted single grain sulfide techniques from studies of sulfide inclusions in diamonds, to allow us to extract Os, Pb and transition metals from sulfides down to 5 μg. Os concentrations in pentlandites are ~0.4-5 ppm, 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than bulk rock abyssal peridotite concentrations. In contrast, chalcopyrites, associated with veins in the peridotites, do not contain measurable quantities of Os. Preliminary Pb data indicates that pentlanditic sulfides have Pb concentrations close to ~9 ppm. 187Os/188Os isotopic compositions range from 0.1209 to 0.1278 in sulfides away from hotspots, typical of depleted mantle and in agreement with the depleted Sr and Nd isotopic composition of clinopyroxenes from the same samples. To date, we have not found any anomalously

  20. The oxygen isotope composition of nitrate generated by nitrification in acid forest floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Bernhard; Bollwerk, Sandra M.; Mansfeldt, Tim; Hütter, Birgit; Veizer, Jan

    2001-08-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of nitrate is used increasingly for identifying the origin of nitrate in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This novel isotope tracer technique is based on the fact that nitrate in atmospheric deposition, in fertilizers, and nitrate generated by nitrification in soils appear to have distinct oxygen isotope ratios. While the typical ranges of δ18O values of nitrate in atmospheric deposition and fertilizers are comparatively well known, few experimental data exist for the oxygen isotope composition of nitrate generated by nitrification in soils. The objective of this study was to determine δ18O values of nitrate formed by microbial nitrification in acid forest floors. Evidence from laboratory incubation experiments and field studies suggests that during microbial nitrification in acid forest floor horizons, up to two of the three oxygen atoms in newly formed nitrate are derived from water, particularly if ammonium is abundant and nitrification rates are high. It was, however, also observed that in ammonium-limited systems with low nitrification rates, significantly less than two thirds of the oxygen in newly formed nitrate can be derived from water oxygen, presumably as a result of heterotrophic nitrification. It can be concluded from the presented data that the δ18O values of nitrate formed by microbial nitrification in acid forest floors typically range between +2 and +14‰, assuming that soil water δ18O values vary between -15 and -5‰. Hence, oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate formed by nitrification in forest floors are usually distinct from those of other nitrate sources such as atmospheric deposition and synthetic fertilizers and, therefore, constitute a valuable qualitative tracer for distinguishing among these sources of nitrate. A quantitative source apportionment appears, however, difficult because of the wide range of δ18O values, particularly for atmospheric nitrate deposition and for nitrate from microbial

  1. Discrimination of the Cigarettes Geographical Origin by DRC-ICP-MS Measurements of Pb Isotope Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W.; Hu, S.; Jin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Trace Pb are taken up with the same isotopic ratios as is present in the source soil, and the isotopic composition of Pb could used to reflect these sources and provide powerful indicators of the geographic origin of agriculture products derived from vegetative matter. We developed a simple and high throughput method, which based on DRC-ICP-MS for determination of Pb isotope ratios for discriminating the geographic origin of cigarettes. After acid digestion procedure, the cigarette digested solutions were directly analyzed by ICP-QMS with a DRC pressurized by the non-reactive gas Ne. In the DRC, Ne molecules collision with Pb ions and improves Pb isotope ratios precision 3-fold, which may be due to the collisional dampling smoothes out the ion beam fluctuations. Under the optimum DRC rejection parameter Q (RPq = 0.45), the main matrix components (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe etc.) originating from cigarettes were filtered out. Mass discrimination of 208Pb/206Pb ratio in Ne DRC mode increased 0.3% compared to the standard mode, the mass bias due to the in-cell Ne gas collision can be accurately corrected by NIST 981 Pb isotope standard. This method was verified by a tobacco reference material CTV-OTL-2. Results of 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb were 2.0848 ± 0.0028 (2δ) and 0.8452 ± 0.0011 (2δ) for CTA-VTL-2, which were agreed with the literature values (208Pb/206Pb = 2.0884 ± 0.0090 and 207Pb/206Pb = 0.8442 ± 0.0032). The precision of Pb isotope ratios (208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb) for the cigarette samples are ranged from 0.01 to 0.08% (N = 5). It has sufficient precision to discriminate 91 different brand cigarettes originated from four different geographic regions (Shown in Fig).

  2. Assessing the ability of isotope-enabled General Circulation Models to simulate the variability of Iceland water vapor isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erla Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Jonsson, Thorsteinn; Ritter, Francois; Riser, Camilla; Messon-Delmotte, Valerie; Bonne, Jean Louis; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2014-05-01

    During the fall of 2010 we installed an autonomous water vapor spectroscopy laser (Los Gatos Research analyzer) in a lighthouse on the Southwest coast of Iceland (63.83°N, 21.47°W). Despite initial significant problems with volcanic ash, high wind, and attack of sea gulls, the system has been continuously operational since the end of 2011 with limited down time. The system automatically performs calibration every 2 hours, which results in high accuracy and precision allowing for analysis of the second order parameter, d-excess, in the water vapor. We find a strong linear relationship between d-excess and local relative humidity (RH) when normalized to SST. The observed slope of approximately -45 o/oo/% is similar to theoretical predictions by Merlivat and Jouzel [1979] for smooth surface, but the calculated intercept is significant lower than predicted. Despite this good linear agreement with theoretical calculations, mismatches arise between the simulated seasonal cycle of water vapour isotopic composition using LMDZiso GCM nudged to large-scale winds from atmospheric analyses, and our data. The GCM is not able to capture seasonal variations in local RH, nor seasonal variations in d-excess. Based on daily data, the performance of LMDZiso to resolve day-to-day variability is measured based on the strength of the correlation coefficient between observations and model outputs. This correlation coefficient reaches ~0.8 for surface absolute humidity, but decreases to ~0.6 for δD and ~0.45 d-excess. Moreover, the magnitude of day-to-day humidity variations is also underestimated by LMDZiso, which can explain the underestimated magnitude of isotopic depletion. Finally, the simulated and observed d-excess vs. RH has similar slopes. We conclude that the under-estimation of d-excess variability may partly arise from the poor performance of the humidity simulations.

  3. Isotopic Composition of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman's Tooth Enamel and Clues to his Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, W.; Muller, W.; Halliday, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Five small enamel fragments from three teeth of the upper right jaw from the mummy of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman have been investigated for their isotopic composition in order to shed light on his geographic origins. Soils from approximately contemporaneous sites were sampled for comparison. Tooth enamel forms ontogenetically very early and is not re-mineralized during later lifetime (unlike with bone material). Therefore, unique insights into the Iceman's childhood can be acquired. Enamel also is the densest tissue of a human body and is thus less susceptible to post-mortem alteration. Both radiogenic (Sr, Pb, Nd) and stable isotopes (O, C) are investigated. Radiogenic isotopes allow reconstruction of the local geological background, because humans incorporate Sr, Pb and Nd from their local environment by eating local food. Stable isotopes provide information about altitude and/or position relative to the main Alpine watershed. High spatial-resolution laser-ablation ICPMS profiles reveal that most elements are distributed in a manner that is essentially similar to modern human teeth except of that La, Ce, Nd (LREE) show up to a 100-fold enrichment towards the outer enamel surface. These uptake-profiles may reflect interaction with melt water, consistent with data for the composition of samples of the Iceman's skin. Biogenic apatites (enamel, bone) have very low in-vivo LREE concentrations, but take up LREEs post-mortem from the burial environment. Ice core samples from the finding site show concentrations up to 400 ppt Ce. Such high uptake of the LREEs precludes the derivation of an in-vivo Nd isotopic signal, but both other radiogenic tracers, Sr and Pb, show pristine (in-vivo) concentrations of 87 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively. Strontium isotopic compositions were determined on fragments from the canine, the first and second premolar (1 - 9 mg) and two hip bone samples, utilizing three sequential leaching steps for each sample to detect possible alteration

  4. Uranium isotope composition of a laterite profile during extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Y.; Lundstrom, C.; Huang, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rock weathering and soil formation in the critical zone are important for material cycle from the solid Earth to superficial system. Laterite is a major type of soil in South China forming at hot-humid climate, which has strong effect on the global uranium cycle. Uranium is closely related to the environmental redox condition because U is stable at U(Ⅳ) in anoxic condition and U(Ⅵ) as soluble uranyl ion (UO22+) under oxic circumstance. In order to understand the behavior of U isotopes during crust weathering, here we report uranium isotopic compositions of soil and base rock samples from a laterite profile originated from extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China. The uranium isotopic data were measured on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using the double spike method. The δ238U of BCR-1 is -0.29±0.03‰ (relative to the international standard CRM-112A), corresponding to a 238U/235U ratio of 137.911±0.004. Our result of BCR-1 agrees with previous analyses (e.g., -0.28‰ in Weyer et al. 2008) [1]. U contents of the laterite profile decrease from 1.9 ppm to 0.9 ppm with depth, and peak at 160 - 170 cm (2.3 ppm), much higher than the U content of base rocks (~0.5 ppm). In contrary, U/Th of laterites is lower than that of base rock (0.27) except the peak at the depth of 160-170 cm (0.38), indicating significant U loss during weathering. Notably, U isotope compositions of soils show a small variation from -0.38 to -0.28‰, consistent with the base rock within analytical error (0.05‰ to 0.08‰, 2sd). Such small variation can be explained by a "rind effect" (Wang et al., 2015) [2], by which U(Ⅳ) can be completely oxidized to U(VI) layer by layer during basalt weathering by dissolved oxygen. Therefore, our study indicates that U loss during basalt weathering at the hot-humid climate does not change U isotope composition of superficial water system. [1] Weyer S. et al. (2008) Natural fractionation of 238U/235

  5. Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma for postulated conditions present in a stagnation shock layer of a spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Jupiter. These properties can be used to evaluate transport properties, to calculate convective heating, and to investigate nonequilibrium behavior. The calculations have been made for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K, densities of 10 to the minus 7th and .00001 g cu cm, and three plasma compositions: pure hydrogen, 50% hydrogen/50% helium, and pure helium. The shock layer plasma consists of electrons, protons, atomic hydrogen, atomic helium, singly ionized helium, and doubly atomized helium. The thermodynamic properties which have been investigated are: pressure, average molecular weight, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, and isentropic speed of sound. A consistent model was used for the reduction of the ionization potential in the calculation of the partition functions.

  6. The isotope composition of inorganic germanium in seawater and deep sea sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermic, Maxence; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

    2017-09-01

    Although dissolved concentrations of germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) in modern seawater are tightly correlated, uncertainties still exist in the modern marine Ge cycle. Germanium stable isotope systematics in marine systems should provide additional constraints on marine Ge sources and sinks, however the low concentration of Ge in seawater presents an analytical challenge for isotopic measurement. Here, we present a new method of pre-concentration of inorganic Ge from seawater which was applied to measure three Ge isotope profiles in the Southern Ocean and deep seawater from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Germanium isotopic measurements were performed on Ge amounts as low as 2.6 ng using a double-spike approach and a hydride generation system coupled to a MC-ICP-MS. Germanium was co-precipitated with iron hydroxide and then purified through anion-exchange chromatography. Results for the deep (i.e. >1000 m depth) Pacific Ocean off Hawaii (nearby Loihi Seamount) and the deep Atlantic off Bermuda (BATS station) showed nearly identical δ74/70Ge values at 3.19 ± 0.31‰ (2SD, n = 9) and 2.93 ± 0.10‰ (2SD, n = 2), respectively. Vertical distributions of Ge concentration and isotope composition in the deep Southern Ocean for water depth > 1300 m yielded an average δ74/70Ge = 3.13 ± 0.25‰ (2SD, n = 14) and Ge/Si = 0.80 ± 0.09 μmol/mol (2SD, n = 12). Significant variations in δ74/70Ge, from 2.62 to 3.71‰, were measured in the first 1000 m in one station of the Southern Ocean near Sars Seamount in the Drake Passage, with the heaviest values measured in surface waters. Isotope fractionation by diatoms during opal biomineralization may explain the enrichment in heavy isotopes for both Ge and Si in surface seawater. However, examination of both oceanographic parameters and δ74/70Ge values suggest also that water mass mixing and potential contribution of shelf-derived Ge also could contribute to the variations. Combining these results with new Ge isotope data

  7. Possible effects of diagenesis on the stable isotope composition of amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael H.

    2015-09-01

    The initial report of indigenous, non-racemic protein amino acids (L-enantiomer excess) in the Murchison meteorite was based on the fact that only eight of the twenty amino acids characteristic of all life on Earth was present in this stone1. The absence of the other protein amino acids indicated that contamination subsequent to impact was highly unlikely. The development of new techniques for determining the stable isotope composition of individual amino acid enantiomers in the Murchison meteorite further documented the extraterrestrial origins of these compounds2,3. The stable isotope approach continues to be used to document the occurrence of an extraterrestrial L-enantiomer excess of protein amino acids in other carbonaceous meteorites4. It has been suggested that this L-enantiomer excess may result from aqueous reprocessing on meteorite parent bodies4,5. Preliminary results of simulation experiments are presented that are used to determine the extent to which the stable isotope compositions of amino acid constituents of carbonaceous meteorites may have been altered by these types of diagenetic processes subsequent to synthesis.

  8. RECONSTRUCTION OF PAST CLIMATE BASING ON THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF CARBON FROM FOSSIL REMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas of Northern Eurasia and the Far North regions with a sharply continental climate are of particular interest to paleoclimatologists. The nature of these areas preserves many features of the Late Glacial period. However, the reliability of the classical paleoclimatic methods in these areas is low. It is known that climate may affect the δ13C value of plants, causing isotopic variations of up to 3‰. The authors propose to use the carbon isotope compositions of bone carbonate of herbivorous animals as a paleoclimatic indicator for the Polar Regions.To test the potential of the proposed paleoclimatic indicator, the authors studied the carbon isotopic composition of carbonate of bone (reliably dated by the radiocarbon method of Late Pleistocene mammals (mammoth mostly from the area of the Lena River delta—the New Siberian Islands—Oyagossky Yar (the total of 43 samples. These data suggest that the Late Pleistocene climate in North Yakutia was not stable. Instability was expressed in the sharp, short-term (500–2000 years, occasional episodes of relatively warm climate that may be ranked as interstadials based on their intensity.

  9. Tracing the secular evolution of the UCC using the iron isotope composition of ancient glacial diamictites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. M.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Rudnick, R. L.; Hazen, R. M.; Shahar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the continental crust and influences global climate and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean1. Continental inputs, including river waters, sediments and atmospheric dust are dominant sources (>95%) of iron into the ocean2. Therefore, understanding how continental inputs may have changed through time is important in understanding the secular evolution of the marine Fe cycle. We analysed the Fe isotopic composition of twenty-four glacial diamictite composites, upper continental crust (UCC) proxies, with ages ranging from the Mesoarchean to the Paleozoic eras to characterize the secular evolution of the UCC. The diamictites all have elevated chemical index of alteration (CIA) and other characteristics of weathered regolith (e.g., strong depletion in soluble elements such as Sr), which they inherited from their upper crustal source region3. δ56Fe in the diamictite composites range from -0.59 to +0.23‰, however, most diamictites cluster with an average δ56Fe of 0.11± 0.20 (2s), overlapping juvenile continental material such as island arc basalts (IABs), which show a narrow range in δ56Fe from -0.04 to +0.14 ‰4. There is no obvious correlation between δ56Fe of the glacial diamictites and the CIA, except that the diamictite with the lowest δ56Fe at -0.59 ‰ also has the highest CIA = 89 (the Paleoproterozoic Makganyene Fm.). The data suggest that the Fe isotope compositions in the upper continental crust did not vary throughout Earth history. Interestingly, chemical weathering and sedimentary transport likely play only a minor role in producing Fe isotope variations in the upper continental crust. Anoxic weathering pre-GOE (Great Oxidation Event) does not seem to generate different Fe isotopic signatures from the post-GOE oxidative weathering environment in the upper continental crust. Therefore, large Fe isotopic fractionations observed in various marine sedimentary records are likely due to other processes occurring

  10. Iron isotopic compositions of adakitic and non-adakitic granitic magmas: Magma compositional control and subtle residual garnet effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongsheng; Wu, Hongjie; Ke, Shan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Here we present iron (Fe) isotopic compositions of 51 well-characterized adakitic and non-adakitic igneous rocks from the Dabie orogen, Central China and Panama/Costa Rica, Central America. Twelve I-type non-adakitic granitoid samples from the Dabie orogen yield δ56Fe ranging from -0.015‰ to 0.184‰. The good correlations between δ56Fe and indices of magma differentiation (e.g., SiO2, FeOt, Mg#, and Fe3+/ΣFe) suggest Fe2+-rich silicate and oxide minerals dominated fractional crystallization with Δ56Femelt-crystal ∼ 0.06‰ may account for the δ56Fe variation in these samples. One A-type granite sample from the Dabie orogen has δ56Fe as high as 0.447‰, likely indicating less magnetite crystallization and an increase in 103lnβmelt with magma (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg). Combined with the literature data, most high silica (SiO2 ⩾ 71 wt.%) granitic rocks define a good positive linear correlation between δ56Fe and (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg): δ56Fe = 0.0062‰ × (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg) + 0.130‰ (R2 = 0.66). Given that fractional crystallization also tends to increase δ56Fe with (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg), this correlation can serve as the maximum estimate of the magma compositional control on Fe isotope fractionation. Low-Mg adakitic samples (LMA) have δ56Fe ranging from 0.114‰ to 0.253‰. The melt compositional control on LMA δ56Fe could be insignificant due to their limited (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg) variation. Except for one sample that may be affected by late differentiation, 14 out of 15 LMA have δ56Fe increasing with (Dy/Yb)N, reflecting a subtle but significant effect of residual garnet proportion. This serves as evidence for that source mineralogy may play an important role in fractionating Fe isotopes during partial melting. Dabie and Central America high-Mg adakitic samples have homogeneous Fe isotopic compositions with mean δ56Fe of 0.098 ± 0.038‰ (2SD, N = 11) and 0.085 ± 0.045‰ (2SD, N = 11), respectively. These samples have undergone melt-mantle interaction

  11. Chlorine isotopic compositions of deep saline fluids in Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan : using B–Cl isotopes to interpret fluid sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musashi, Masaaki; Oi, Takao; Kreulen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We report chlorine stable isotopic compositions (δ37Cl, expressed in ‰ relative to the standard mean ocean chloride) as well as δ2H and δ18O values of deep saline fluids taken at eight drill-holes reaching from 73 to 780 m below sea level in the Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan. Analytical

  12. Triple oxygen isotope composition of leaf waters in Mpala, central Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuning; Levin, Naomi E.; Soderberg, Keir; Dennis, Kate J.; Caylor, Kelly K.

    2017-06-01

    Variations in triple oxygen isotopes have been used in studies of atmospheric photochemistry, global productivity and increasingly in studies of hydroclimate. Understanding the distribution of triple oxygen isotopes in plant waters is critical to studying the fluxes of oxygen isotopes between the atmosphere and hydrosphere, in which plants play an important role. In this paper we report triple oxygen isotope data for stem and leaf waters from Mpala, Kenya and explore how Δ17 O, the deviation from an expected relationship between 17O /16O and 18O /16O ratios, in plant waters vary with respect to relative humidity and deuterium excess (d-excess). We observe significant variation in Δ17 O among waters in leaves and stems from a single plant (up to 0.16‰ range in Δ17 O in leaf water in a plant over the course of a signal day), which correlates to changes in relative humidity. A steady state model for evaporation in leaf water reproduces the majority of variation in Δ17 O and d-excess we observed in leaf waters, except for samples that were collected in the morning, when relative humidity is high and the degree of fractionation in the system is minimal. The data and the steady state model indicate that the slope, λtransp, that links δ17 O and δ18 O values of stem and leaf waters and characterizes the fractionation during transpiration, is strongly influenced by the isotopic composition of ambient vapor when relative humidity is high. We observe a strong, positive relationship between d-excess and Δ17 O, with a slope 2.2 ± 0.2 per meg ‰-1, which is consistent with the observed relationship in tropical rainfall and in water in an evaporating open pan. The strong linear relationship between d-excess and Δ17 O should be typical for any process involving evaporation or any other fractionation that is governed by kinetic effects.

  13. High temporal resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of CH4 at the Lutjewad station, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, Thomas; van der Veen, Carina; Chen, Huilin; Scheeren, Bert

    2017-04-01

    Isotope measurements can help constraining the atmospheric budget of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) because different sources emit CH4 with slightly different isotopic composition. In the past, high precision isotope measurements have primarily been carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry on flask samples that are usually collected at relatively low temporal resolution. We have recently developed a fully automated gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry system (GC-IRMS) for autonomous and unattended CH4 isotope measurements (δD and δ13C) in the field. The first deployment at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) indicated that CH4 emissions from fossil fuel sources are overestimated in this region [1]. To further exploit the potential of this approach, the in situ system has been installed in November 2016 at the Lutjewad atmospheric monitoring and sampling site in the North of the Netherlands. This site is expected to sample also emissions from the large Groningen gas fields. The isotope measurements are expected to allow distinguishing these emissions from the agricultural emissions, which are also strong in this region. We will present the results from these ongoing measurements of δD and δ13C in CH4.. 1. Röckmann, T., et al., In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2016. 16: 10469-10487.

  14. Tracing Altiplano-Puna plateau surface uplift via radiogenic isotope composition of Andean arc lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E. M.; Allen, M. B.; Macpherson, C.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Davidson, J.; Saville, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have compiled published geochemical data for Jurassic to Holocene Andean arc lavas from 5oN to 47oS, covering the current extent of the northern, central and southern volcanic zones. Using this dataset we evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of age corrected Sr- and Nd-radiogenic isotopes in arc lavas at a continental-scale, in order to understand the tectonic and surface uplift histories of the Andean margin. It has long been noted that baseline 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of Quaternary lavas from the central volcanic zone, located within the Altiplano-Puna plateau, are distinct from volcanic rocks to the north and south. This is commonly attributed to greater crustal thickness, which increases to roughly twice that of the average continental crust within the Altiplano-Puna plateau. By comparing 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in Quaternary lavas to published crustal thickness models, present day topography and the compositions of basement terranes, we note that Sr- and Nd-isotope values of Quaternary lavas are an effective proxy for present day regional elevation. In contrast, variation in basement terranes has only a small, second order effect on isotopic composition at the scale of our study. Using this isotopic proxy, we infer the spatial extent of the plateau and its surface uplift history from the Jurassic to the present. Our results concur with a crustal thickening model of continued surface uplift, which initiated in the Altiplano, with deformation propagating southwards into the Puna throughout the Neogene and then continuing in central Chile and Argentina up to the present day.

  15. Mixing ratio and carbon isotopic composition investigation of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, J.; Wen, X.; Sun, X.

    2016-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 can be used as a tracer in the study of urban carbon cycles, which are affected by anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 components. Continuous measurements of the mixing ratio and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 were conducted in Beijing from Nov. 15, 2012 to Mar. 8, 2014 including two heating seasons and a vegetative season. Both δ13C and the isotopic composition of source CO2 (δ13CS) were depleted in the heating seasons and enriched in the vegetative season. The diurnal variations in the CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C contained two peaks in the heating season, which are due to the effects of morning rush hour traffic. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of the CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C were affected by anthropogenic emissions and biogenic activity. Assuming that the primary CO2 sources at night (22:00-04:00) were coal and natural gas combustion during heating seasons I and II, an isotopic mass balance analysis indicated that coal combustion had average contributions of 83.83 ± 14.11% and 86.84 ± 12.27% and that natural gas had average contributions of 16.17 ± 14.11% and 13.16 ± 12.27%, respectively. The δ13C of background CO2 in air was the main error source in the isotopic mass balance model. Both the mixing ratio and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 had significant linear relationships with the air quality index (AQI) and can be used to indicate local air pollution conditions. Energy structure optimization, for example, reducing coal consumption, will improve the local air conditions in Beijing.

  16. Altitude effect on leaf wax carbon isotopic composition in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mong Sin; Feakins, Sarah J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Shenkin, Alexander; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Blonder, Benjamin; Salinas, Norma; Asner, Gregory P.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-06-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of plant leaf wax biomarkers is commonly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Adding to the limited calibration information available for modern tropical forests, we analyzed plant leaf and leaf wax carbon isotopic compositions in forest canopy trees across a highly biodiverse, 3.3 km elevation gradient on the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains. We sampled the dominant tree species and assessed their relative abundance in each tree community. In total, 405 sunlit canopy leaves were sampled across 129 species and nine forest plots along the elevation profile for bulk leaf and leaf wax n-alkane (C27-C33) concentration and carbon isotopic analyses (δ13C); a subset (76 individuals, 29 species, five forest plots) were additionally analyzed for n-alkanoic acid (C22-C32) concentrations and δ13C. δ13C values display trends of +0.87 ± 0.16‰ km-1 (95% CI, r2 = 0.96, p families, suggesting the biochemical response to environment is robust to taxonomic turnover. We calculate fractionations and compare to adiabatic gradients, environmental variables, leaf wax n-alkane concentrations, and sun/shade position to assess factors influencing foliar chemical response. For the 4 km forested elevation range of the Andes, 4-6‰ higher δ13C values are expected for upland versus lowland C3 plant bulk leaves and their n-alkyl lipids, and we expect this pattern to be a systematic feature of very wet tropical montane environments. This elevation dependency of δ13C values should inform interpretations of sedimentary archives, as 13C-enriched values may derive from C4 grasses, petrogenic inputs or upland C3 plants. Finally, we outline the potential for leaf wax carbon isotopes to trace biomarker sourcing within catchments and for paleoaltimetry.

  17. Mixing ratio and carbon isotopic composition investigation of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jiaping; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 can be used as a tracer in the study of urban carbon cycles, which are affected by anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 components. Continuous measurements of the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 were conducted in Beijing from Nov. 15, 2012 to Mar. 8, 2014 including two heating seasons and a vegetative season. Both δ(13)C and the isotopic composition of source CO2 (δ(13)CS) were depleted in the heating seasons and enriched in the vegetative season. The diurnal variations in the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C contained two peaks in the heating season, which are due to the effects of morning rush hour traffic. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of the CO2 mixing ratio and δ(13)C were affected by anthropogenic emissions and biogenic activity. Assuming that the primary CO2 sources at night (22:00-04:00) were coal and natural gas combustion during heating seasons I and II, an isotopic mass balance analysis indicated that coal combustion had average contributions of 83.83±14.11% and 86.84±12.27% and that natural gas had average contributions of 16.17±14.11% and 13.16±12.27%, respectively. The δ(13)C of background CO2 in air was the main error source in the isotopic mass balance model. Both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of atmospheric CO2 had significant linear relationships with the air quality index (AQI) and can be used to indicate local air pollution conditions. Energy structure optimization, for example, reducing coal consumption, will improve the local air conditions in Beijing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Source Biases on Sedimentary Leaf Waxes and Their Stable Isotope Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freimuth, E. J.; Lowell, T. V.; Wiles, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes and their carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic compositions are an important tool to understand past changes in paleoclimate and paleovegetation. Important recent advances in our understanding about the isotopic signal preserved in sedimentary leaf waxes have been inferred from studies made on individual modern plants. However, paleoreconstructions are based on sedimentary leaf waxes, which reflect mixing between multiple sources, such as ablated leaf waxes from nearby or from afar, wind blown leaf litter, and riverine transported leaf waxes. Each of these sources integrates leaf waxes from different species and growth forms, likely resulting in source-specific taphonomic biases on sedimentary leaf wax isotopes. To better understand source biases in sedimentary leaf waxes, we investigated n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids and their carbon and hydrogen isotopes in vegetation and lake sediments at Brown's Lake and Bog, a 'simple' forested closed-basin lake in northeastern Ohio. Interestingly, we found that tree n-alkane δD varied substantially during the growing season, broadly tracking changes in source water composition. However, δD values of n-alkanes in the tree leaf litter did not match that of the most recent sedimentary n-alkanes. Instead, surface sediment n-alkane δD more closely matched that of the woody shrubs and grasses growing right around the lake. n-Alkanoic acid data is forthcoming. We are currently exploring lake sediment n-alkane accumulation rates against midwestern flux rates of wind blown leaf waxes from afar. Our preliminary results suggest that although studies made on individual leaves are indeed important, we may need to consider additional leaf wax sources that potentially influence sedimentary archives.

  19. Iron isotope composition of particles produced by UV-femtosecond laser ablation of natural oxides, sulfides, and carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Beard, Brian L; Czaja, Andrew D; Konishi, Hiromi; Schauer, James J; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-12-17

    The need for femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) systems coupled to MC-ICP-MS to accurately perform in situ stable isotope analyses remains an open question, because of the lack of knowledge concerning ablation-related isotopic fractionation in this regime. We report the first iron isotope analysis of size-resolved, laser-induced particles of natural magnetite, siderite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, collected through cascade impaction, followed by analysis by solution nebulization MC-ICP-MS, as well as imaging using electron microscopy. Iron mass distributions are independent of mineralogy, and particle morphology includes both spheres and agglomerates for all ablated phases. X-ray spectroscopy shows elemental fractionation in siderite (C-rich agglomerates) and pyrrhotite/pyrite (S-rich spheres). We find an increase in (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratios of +2‰, +1.2‰, and +0.8‰ with increasing particle size for magnetite, siderite, and pyrrhotite, respectively. Fe isotope differences in size-sorted aerosols from pyrite ablation are not analytically resolvable. Experimental data are discussed using models of particles generation by Hergenröder and elemental/isotopic fractionation by Richter. We interpret the isotopic fractionation to be related to the iron condensation time scale, dependent on its saturation in the gas phase, as a function of mineral composition. Despite the isotopic variations across aerosol size fractions, total aerosol composition, as calculated from mass balance, confirms that fs-LA produces a stoichiometric sampling in terms of isotopic composition. Specifically, both elemental and isotopic fractionation are produced by particle generation processes and not by femtosecond laser-matter interactions. These results provide critical insights into the analytical requirements for laser-ablation-based stable isotope measurements of high-precision and accuracy in geological samples, including the importance of quantitative aerosol transport to the ICP.

  20. Isotopic composition of snow and ice on the glaciers of Novaya Zemlya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mikhalenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015–2016 during the research expeditions of Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences the study of stable water isotopes (18O and D was conducted on glaciers of Novaya Zemlya. As a result, first data on isotopic composition of seasonal snow cover and glacial ice of different ages were obtained and its connection to recent climate change has been shown. The first studies of the isotopic composition of snow cover and glacial ice at Novaya Zemlya allowed determine the average values and the range of variability of δ18O and δD. It shown that for the Northern ice cap glacial ice δ18O vary within −13.91 ÷ −15.83 ‰ with an average value of −14.93 ‰ and −103,95 ÷ −116.75 ‰ for δD at −109.88 ‰ mean value. The maximum variations were recorded for summer snow samples (−8.35 ‰ for δ18O and −55.79 ‰ for δD, as well as for the horizon of superimposed ice (−20.67 ‰ for δ18O and −151.48 ‰ for δD where isotopic composition has been inherited from winter precipitation. Insignificant differences in the coefficients of the meteoric water regression equation for precipitation on GNIP stations and glacial ice at Novaya Zemlya indicate similar conditions of air masses and precipitation formation both at GNIP station and on glaciers. Deuterium excess showed no seasonal fluctuations, and its values did not exceed 15 ‰, which shows that the proportion of continental precipitation of moisture is very low. Analysis of isotopic profiles obtained on the glaciers of Novaya Zemlya indicated the presence of significant melting. This applies not only to the modern shallow horizons, but also to the part of the glacial strata that formed in the highest part of the archipelago close to ice divide and came to the surface at the Serp i Molot Glacier tongue. Therefore, in terms of ice core palaeogeographic reconstructions the most interesting site is the highest part of the Northern ice cap where it is possible to assume

  1. Sulfide in the core and the Nd isotopic composition of the silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-West, A.; Millet, M. A.; Nowell, G. M.; Wohlers, A.; Wood, B. J.; Burton, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of the Earth is traditionally explained in terms of evolution from a solar-like composition, similar to that found in primitive chondritic meteorites. It now appears, however, that the silicate Earth is not chondritic, but depleted in incompatible elements and a resovable 20 ppm excess is observed in 142Nd relative to chondirtes [1, 2]. This anomaly requires a process that occurred within 30 Myr of solar system formation and has been variably ascribed to: a complementary enriched reservoir in the deep Earth [1]; loss to space through collisional erosion [3]; or the inhertence of nucleosynthetic anomalies [4]. Sulfide in the core may provide a reservoir capable of balancing the composition of the silicate Earth. Recent experimental work suggests that the core contains a significant proportion of sulfide, added during the final stages of accretion and new data suggests that at high pressures sulfide can incorporate a substantial amount of refractory lithophile and heat-producing elements [5]. The drawback of the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd radiogenic isotope system is that it is not possible to distinguish between fractionations of Sm/Nd that occurs during silicate melting or segregation of a sulfide-melt. Neodymium stable isotopes have the potential to provide just such a tracer of sulfide segregation, because there is a significant contrast in bonding environment between sulfide and silicate, where heavy isotopes should be preferentially incorporated into high force-constant bonds involving REE3+ (i.e. the silicate mantle). Preliminary data indicate that mantle rocks do indeed possess heavier 146Nd/144Nd values than chondritic meteorites by 0.3 ‰, consistent with the removal of light Nd into sulfide in the core, driving the residual mantle to heavier values. Overall, our isotope and elemental data indicate that the rare earths and other incompatible elements are substantially incorporated into sulfide. While Nd stable isotope data for

  2. Titanium isotopic compositions of rare presolar SiC grain types from the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Hoppe, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We report the Ti isotopic compositions of 8 mainstream, 22 Y, 9 Z, and 26 AB presolar SiC grains from two SiC-rich residues of the Murchison CM2 meteorite together with Si, C and some Mg-Al isotopic data for the same grains. Mainstream, Y and Z grains are believed to originate in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of varying metallicities, but the stellar sources of AB grains are poorly understood. We find that the 46,47,49Ti/48Ti ratios are correlated with 29Si/28Si for all of the grain types, indicating that these ratios are mainly dominated by Galactic chemical evolution (GCE). The mainstream, Y and Z grains all show enrichments in 50Ti from neutron capture nucleosynthesis. However, AGB models predict smaller excesses in 50Ti (and 49Ti) than are observed in these grains. For Z grains and especially for Y grains, the enhancement of 50Ti is greater than the enhancement in 30Si, indicating that the 13C neutron source produced a greater total fluence of neutrons than the 22Ne source in the low metallicity parent AGB stars. The Z grains plot below the mainstream correlation lines at more 48Ti- and 28Si-rich compositions in plots of 46,47,49Ti/48Ti vs. 29Si/28Si. On the other hand, the Y grains plot close to the mainstream correlation line. This could imply that the Ti isotopes evolved non-linearly at metallicities below ∼1/3 solar. The AB grains in this study have Ti isotopic compositions that fall along correlation lines defined by the mainstream grains, suggesting origins in close to solar metallicity stars. However, these grains fall below the mainstream correlation lines in plots of 46,49,50Ti/48Ti vs. 29Si/28Si and do not show enhancements in 50Ti, indicating that their parent stars did not undergo significant s-process nucleosynthesis. These data support origins of AB grains in J-type C stars rather than born-again AGB stars that undergo s-process nucleosynthesis. AB grains that do not have 50Ti excesses may provide the best measure of Si and Ti isotope GCE

  3. Effect of amino acids on the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harouaka, Khadouja; Kubicki, James D.; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2017-12-01

    Stirred gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) precipitation experiments (initial Ωgypsum = 2.4 ± 0.14, duration ≈ 1.0-1.5 h) were conducted in the presence of the amino acids glycine (190 μM), L-alanine (190 μM), D- and L-arginine (45 μM), and L-tyrosine (200 μM) to investigate the effect of simple organic compounds on both the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum. Relative to abiotic controls, glycine, tyrosine, and alanine inhibited precipitation rates by ∼22%, 27%, and 29%, respectively, while L- and D-arginine accelerated crystal growth by ∼8% and 48%, respectively. With the exception of tyrosine, amino acid induced inhibition resulted in fractionation factors (αs-f) associated with precipitation that were no more than 0.3‰ lower than amino acid-free controls. In contrast, the tyrosine and D- and L-arginine experiments had αs-f values associated with precipitation that were similar to the controls. Our experimental results indicate that Ca isotopic fractionation associated with gypsum precipitation is impacted by growth inhibition in the presence of amino acids. Specifically, we propose that the surface-specific binding of amino acids to gypsum can change the equilibrium fractionation factor of the bulk mineral. We investigate the hypothesis that amino acids can influence the growth of gypsum at specific crystal faces via adsorption and that different faces have distinct fractionation factors (αface-fluid). Accordingly, preferential sorption of amino acids at particular faces changes the relative, face-specific mass fluxes of Ca during growth, which influences the bulk isotopic composition of the mineral. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the energetic favorability of glycine sorption onto gypsum crystal faces occurs in the order: (1 1 0) > (0 1 0) > (1 2 0) > (0 1 1), while glycine sorption onto the (-1 1 1) face was found to be energetically unfavorable. Face-specific fractionation factors constrained by

  4. Analysis of trace levels of impurities and hydrogen isotopes in helium purge gas using gas chromatography for tritium extraction system of an Indian lead lithium ceramic breeder test blanket module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V Gayathri; Sircar, Amit; Yadav, Deepak; Parmar, Jayraj

    2018-01-12

    In the fusion fuel cycle, the accurate analysis and understanding of the chemical composition of any gas mixture is of great importance for the efficient design of a tritium extraction and purification system or any tritium handling system. Methods like laser Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector have been considered for hydrogen isotopes analyses in fuel cycles. Gas chromatography with a cryogenic separation column has been used for the analysis of hydrogen isotopes gas mixtures in general due to its high reliability and ease of operation. Hydrogen isotopes gas mixture analysis with cryogenic columns has been reported earlier using different column materials for percentage level composition. In the present work, trace levels of hydrogen isotopes (∼100 ppm of H 2 and D 2 ) have been analyzed with a Zeolite 5A and a modified γ-Al 2 O 3 column. Impurities in He gas (∼10 ppm of H 2 , O 2 , and N 2 ) have been analyzed using a Zeolite 13-X column. Gas chromatography with discharge ionization detection has been utilized for this purpose. The results of these experiments suggest that the columns developed were able to separate ppm levels of the desired components with a small response time (<6 min) and good resolution in both cases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. δ 18O of carbonate, quartz and phosphate from belemnite guards: implications for the isotopic record of old fossils and the isotopic composition of ancient seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Iacumin, Paola; Ramigni, Michele

    2002-10-01

    Belemnite guards of Cretaceous and Jurassic age were found to contain varying amounts of quartz deposited both on the external surface and inside the rostrum. The oxygen isotopic composition of coexisting carbonate, quartz and phosphate from the same rostrum was measured according to well-established techniques. None of these compounds showed isotopic values in equilibrium with one another. Assuming δ18O values of the diagenetic water within the range of meteoric waters, the δ18O(SiO2) yield temperatures in agreement with the apparent secondary origin of this phase. The δ18O(CO32-) range, with a certain continuity, between -10.8 and +0.97 PDB-1 with most of the intermediate values being within the range of the carbonate isotopic values of Mesozoic fossils. The most positive isotopic results obtained from phosphate are close to +23/+24‰ (V-SMOW). They can hardly be related to a secondary origin of the phosphate, or to the presence of diagenetic effects, since these results are among the most positive ever measured on phosphate. As far as we know there is no widespread diagenetic process determining an 18O enrichment of phosphate. The very low concentration of phosphate did not allow the determination of its mineralogical composition. All the available δ18O(PO43-) values from belemnite and non-belemnite fossils of marine origin of Tertiary and Mesozoic age are reported along with the newly measured belemnites. The following conclusions may be drawn from the data reported: (1) the pristine oxygen isotope composition of fossil marine organisms (either carbonate or phosphate) may easily undergo fairly large changes because of oxygen isotope exchange processes with diagenetic water; this process is apparent even in the case of geologically recent fossils; (2) the δ18O(PO43-) of belemnite rostra seems to be, at least in the case of the most positive results, in isotopic equilibrium with environmental water because of the similarity between the results from

  6. Technical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Jordon D.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Galy, Valier V.

    2017-11-01

    Serial oxidation coupled with stable carbon and radiocarbon analysis of sequentially evolved CO2 is a promising method to characterize the relationship between organic carbon (OC) chemical composition, source, and residence time in the environment. However, observed decay profiles depend on experimental conditions and oxidation pathway. It is therefore necessary to properly assess serial oxidation kinetics before utilizing decay profiles as a measure of OC reactivity. We present a regularized inverse method to estimate the distribution of OC activation energy (E), a proxy for bond strength, using serial oxidation. Here, we apply this method to ramped temperature pyrolysis or oxidation (RPO) analysis but note that this approach is broadly applicable to any serial oxidation technique. RPO analysis directly compares thermal reactivity to isotope composition by determining the E range for OC decaying within each temperature interval over which CO2 is collected. By analyzing a decarbonated test sample at multiple masses and oven ramp rates, we show that OC decay during RPO analysis follows a superposition of parallel first-order kinetics and that resulting E distributions are independent of experimental conditions. We therefore propose the E distribution as a novel proxy to describe OC thermal reactivity and suggest that E vs. isotope relationships can provide new insight into the compositional controls on OC source and residence time.

  7. Technical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hemingway

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serial oxidation coupled with stable carbon and radiocarbon analysis of sequentially evolved CO2 is a promising method to characterize the relationship between organic carbon (OC chemical composition, source, and residence time in the environment. However, observed decay profiles depend on experimental conditions and oxidation pathway. It is therefore necessary to properly assess serial oxidation kinetics before utilizing decay profiles as a measure of OC reactivity. We present a regularized inverse method to estimate the distribution of OC activation energy (E, a proxy for bond strength, using serial oxidation. Here, we apply this method to ramped temperature pyrolysis or oxidation (RPO analysis but note that this approach is broadly applicable to any serial oxidation technique. RPO analysis directly compares thermal reactivity to isotope composition by determining the E range for OC decaying within each temperature interval over which CO2 is collected. By analyzing a decarbonated test sample at multiple masses and oven ramp rates, we show that OC decay during RPO analysis follows a superposition of parallel first-order kinetics and that resulting E distributions are independent of experimental conditions. We therefore propose the E distribution as a novel proxy to describe OC thermal reactivity and suggest that E vs. isotope relationships can provide new insight into the compositional controls on OC source and residence time.

  8. PORE-WATER ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION AND UNSATURATED-ZONE FLOW, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Yang

    2000-10-23

    Site characterization at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, has included studies of recharge, flow paths, percolation flux, perched water bodies, and chemical compositions of the water in the thick unsaturated zone (UZ). Samples of pore water from cores of two recently drilled boreholes, USW SD-6 near the ridge top of Yucca Mountain and USW WT-24 north of Yucca mountain, were analyzed for isotopic compositions as part of a study by the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033. The purpose of this report is to interpret {sup 14}C, {delta}{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H, {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O isotopic compositions of pore water from the core of boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 in relation to sources of recharge and flow paths in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Borehole designation USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 subsequently will be referred to as SD-6 and WT-24. The sources of recharge and flow paths are important parameters that can be used in a UZ flow model, total system performance assessment (TSPA), and the license application (LA) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Measurement of the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Methane Using Helicoidal Laser Eigenstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D.; Le Floch, A.; Bretenaker, F.; Guenot, P.

    1996-06-01

    The spatially generalized Jones matrix formalism is used to design a laser cavity to make intracavity measurements of the carbon isotopic composition of methane. the method is based on a double optical lever effect for helicoidally polarized eigenstates, permitting to measure successively the ^{12}CH_4 and ^{13}CH_4 concentrations. To choose the probed isotope, one simply tunes the frequency of the laser by Zeeman effect. The experiment exhibits a good agreement with the predictions and permits to measure the ^{13}CH4/^{12}CH_4 composition ratio of methane with an uncertainty of the order of ± 0.07% for a sample containing only 6× 10^{-9} mole of methane. On utilise le formalisme des matrices de Jones généralisées spatialement pour concevoir une cavité laser permettant la mesure intra-cavité de la composition isotopique du carbone présent dans le méthane. La méthode est fondée sur une double application de l'effet de levier optique pour les états propres hélicoïdaux, permettant de mesurer successivement les concentrations de ^{12}CH_4 et de ^{13}CH_4. Pour passer d'un isotope à l'autre, on ajuste simplement la fréquence du laser par effet Zeeman. L'expérience est en bon accord avec les prédictions et permet d'effectuer la mesure du rapport isotopique ^{13}CH4/^{12}CH_4 avec une fourchette d'incertitude de ± 0,07% pour des échantillons de gaz ne contenant que 6× 10^{-9} mole de méthane.

  10. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    and isotopic compositions. Three of the spherules, AAS38-43- P55, AAS62-61-P22 and AAS38-188-P43, are fine-grained and vesicular and are classified as relict bearing (Figs. 1 and 2 b, f, g). The vesicular texture indicates escape of volatile elements, mostly... likely as a result of heating during atmospheric entry. The other nine particles have porphyritic textures, similar to textures of porphyritic chondrules. AAS38-43-P38 and AAS62-51-P8 (Figs. 1 and 2 a, h) both contain larger vesicles, located around...

  11. The Oxygen Isotope Composition of Dark Inclusions in HEDs, Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Buchanan, P. C.; Franchi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dark inclusions (DIs) are lithic fragments that form a volumetrically small, but important, component in carbonaceous chondrites. Carbonaceous clasts similar to DIs are also found in some ordinary chondrites and HEDs. DIs are of particular interest because they provide a record of nebular and planetary processes distinct from that of their host meteorite. DIs may be representative of the material that delivered water and other volatiles to early Earth as a late veneer. Here we focus on the oxygen isotopic composition of DIs in a variety of settings with the aim of understanding their formational history and relationship to the enclosing host meteorite.

  12. Signature of terrestrial influence on nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; Sardessai, S.; Patel, P.P.

    Institute of Oceanography, Goa 403 004, I n dia 4 M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India Nitrogen concentration and its isotopic composition in surface su spended matter have been measured at 24 di f- ferent loc a tions during..., primarily the aste r oids and occasionally Mars and the Moon. They also pr o vide information about the energetic environment in the inte r- planetary space where they spend a considerable p e riod of time, ranging from less than a million years to a few...

  13. The stable isotopic and chemical composition of pedogenic carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchuk, Jessica; Ivanova, Elena; Krechetov, Pavel; Litvinskiy, Vladimir; Budantseva, Nadine; Chizhova, Julia; Vasil'chuk, Yurij

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of carbonate neoformations can be used as a proxy for the reconstructons of environmental conditions of the past. Carbonate coatings on coarse rock framents are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. Such coatings commonly occur in different types of soils and paleosols of South Siberian intermountain basins mainly in relatively dry modern conditions. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition and chemical composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with defferent factors. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized; therefore, soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Minor and major elements content was also measured by ICP-MS. Carbonates mostly contain calcuim (37-45%) and highly enriched in Pb, Tl and Ba. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from -7.49 to -10.5‰ (vs V-PDB). The lowest values corresponds the coatings found between two buried mid-Holocene soil horizons. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates' δ18O values' range is -8.3...-11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is -9.0...-10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate close conditions of pendants formation. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from -2.5 to -6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug

  14. Chlorine isotopic composition of perchlorate in human urine as a means of distinguishing among exposure sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig M; Sturchio, Neil C

    2016-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4(-)) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with high human exposure potential. Natural perchlorate forms in the atmosphere from where it deposits onto the surface of Earth, whereas synthetic perchlorate is manufactured as an oxidant for industrial, aerospace, and military applications. Perchlorate exposure can potentially cause adverse health effects in humans by interfering with the production of thyroid hormones through competitively blocking iodide uptake. To control and reduce perchlorate exposure, the contributions of different sources of perchlorate exposure need to be quantified. Thus, we demonstrate a novel approach for determining the contribution of different perchlorate exposure sources by quantifying stable and radioactive chlorine isotopes of perchlorate extracted from composite urine samples from two distinct populations: one in Atlanta, USA and one in Taltal, Chile (Atacama region). Urinary perchlorate from the Atlanta region resembles indigenous natural perchlorate from the western USA (δ(37)Cl=+4.1±1.0‰; (36)Cl/Cl=1 811 (±136) × 10(-15)), and urinary perchlorate from the Taltal, Chile region is similar to natural perchlorate in nitrate salt deposits from the Atacama Desert of northern Chile (δ(37)Cl=-11.0±1.0‰; (36)Cl/Cl=254 (±40) × 10(-15)). Neither urinary perchlorate resembled the isotopic pattern found in synthetic perchlorate. These results indicate that natural perchlorate of regional provenance is the dominant exposure source for the two sample populations, and that chlorine isotope ratios provide a robust tool for elucidating perchlorate exposure pathways.

  15. Validation of the scale system for PWR spent fuel isotopic composition analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brady, M.C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The validity of the computation of pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel isotopic composition by the SCALE system depletion analysis was assessed using data presented in the report. Radiochemical measurements and SCALE/SAS2H computations of depleted fuel isotopics were compared with 19 benchmark-problem samples from Calvert Cliffs Unit 1, H. B. Robinson Unit 2, and Obrigheim PWRs. Even though not exhaustive in scope, the validation included comparison of predicted and measured concentrations for 14 actinides and 37 fission and activation products. The basic method by which the SAS2H control module applies the neutron transport treatment and point-depletion methods of SCALE functional modules (XSDRNPM-S, NITAWL-II, BONAMI, and ORIGEN-S) is described in the report. Also, the reactor fuel design data, the operating histories, and the isotopic measurements for all cases are included in detail. The underlying radiochemical assays were conducted by the Materials Characterization. Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Approved Testing Material program and by four different laboratories in Europe on samples processed at the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant.

  16. Continuous monitoring of summer surface water vapor isotopic composition above the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here surface water vapor isotopic measurements conducted from June to August 2010 at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Drilling Project camp, NW Greenland (77.45° N, 51.05° W, 2484 m a.s.l.. Measurements were conducted at 9 different heights from 0.1 m to 13.5 m above the snow surface using two different types of cavity-enhanced near-infrared absorption spectroscopy analyzers. For each instrument specific protocols were developed for calibration and drift corrections. The inter-comparison of corrected results from different instruments reveals excellent reproducibility, stability, and precision with a standard deviations of ~ 0.23‰ for δ18O and ~ 1.4‰ for δD. Diurnal and intraseasonal variations show strong relationships between changes in local surface humidity and water vapor isotopic composition, and with local and synoptic weather conditions. This variability probably results from the interplay between local moisture fluxes, linked with firn–air exchanges, boundary layer dynamics, and large-scale moisture advection. Particularly remarkable are several episodes characterized by high (> 40‰ surface water vapor deuterium excess. Air mass back-trajectory calculations from atmospheric analyses and water tagging in the LMDZiso (Laboratory of Meteorology Dynamics Zoom-isotopic atmospheric model reveal that these events are associated with predominant Arctic air mass origin. The analysis suggests that high deuterium excess levels are a result of strong kinetic fractionation during evaporation at the sea-ice margin.

  17. Variation in the isotopic composition of striped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean in response to dietary shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Paso Viola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the isotopic composition in muscle of striped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa from Southwest Atlantic Ocean in order to evaluate a possible variation in δ13C and δ15N in response to dietary shifts that occur as animals grow. We also explored for isotopic evidence of differences between sample locations. The results showed an agreement between isotope analysis and previous conventional studies. Differences in the isotope composition between sampling location were not observed. A positive relation exists between isotope values and total body length of the animals. The Cluster analysis defined three groups of size classes, validated by the MDS. Differences in the relative consumption of prey species in each size class were also observed performing isotope mixing models (SIAR. Variation in δ15N among size classes would be associated with the consumption of a different type of prey as animals grow. Small striped weakfish feed on small crustaceans and progressively increase their consumption of fish (anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, increasing by this way their isotope values. On the other hand, differences in δ13C values seemed to be related to age-class specific spatial distribution patterns. Therefore, large and small striped weakfish remain specialized but feeding on different prey at different trophic levels. These results contribute to the study of the diet of striped weakfish, improve the isotopic ecology models and highlight on the importance of accounting for variation in the isotopic composition in response to dietary shifts with the size of one of the most important fishery resources in the region.

  18. Variation in the isotopic composition of striped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean in response to dietary shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, M N Paso; Riccialdelli, L; Jaureguizar, A; Panarello, H O; Cappozzo, H L

    2017-08-17

    The aim of this study was to analyze the isotopic composition in muscle of striped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa from Southwest Atlantic Ocean in order to evaluate a possible variation in δ13C and δ15N in response to dietary shifts that occur as animals grow. We also explored for isotopic evidence of differences between sample locations. The results showed an agreement between isotope analysis and previous conventional studies. Differences in the isotope composition between sampling location were not observed. A positive relation exists between isotope values and total body length of the animals. The Cluster analysis defined three groups of size classes, validated by the MDS. Differences in the relative consumption of prey species in each size class were also observed performing isotope mixing models (SIAR). Variation in δ15N among size classes would be associated with the consumption of a different type of prey as animals grow. Small striped weakfish feed on small crustaceans and progressively increase their consumption of fish (anchovy, Engraulis anchoita), increasing by this way their isotope values. On the other hand, differences in δ13C values seemed to be related to age-class specific spatial distribution patterns. Therefore, large and small striped weakfish remain specialized but feeding on different prey at different trophic levels. These results contribute to the study of the diet of striped weakfish, improve the isotopic ecology models and highlight on the importance of accounting for variation in the isotopic composition in response to dietary shifts with the size of one of the most important fishery resources in the region.

  19. Helium-abundance and other composition effects on the properties of stellar surface convection in solar-like main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of helium abundance and α-element enhancement on the properties of convection in envelopes of solar-like main-sequence stars using a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Helium abundance increases the mean molecular weight of the gas and alters opacity by displacing hydrogen. Since the scale of the effect of helium may depend on the metallicity, the grid consists of simulations with three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3), each with two metallicities (Z = 0.001, 0.020). We find that changing the helium mass fraction generally affects structure and convective dynamics in a way opposite to that of metallicity. Furthermore, the effect is considerably smaller than that of metallicity. The signature of helium differs from that of metallicity in the manner in which the photospheric velocity distribution is affected. We also find that helium abundance and surface gravity behave largely in similar ways, but differ in the way they affect the mean molecular weight. A simple model for spectral line formation suggests that the bisectors and absolute Doppler shifts of spectral lines depend on the helium abundance. We look at the effect of α-element enhancement and find that it has a considerably smaller effect on the convective dynamics in the superadiabatic layer compared to that of helium abundance.

  20. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Balci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62− and elemental sulfur (S° to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6 by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4 from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2. During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4

  1. Effect of varying frontal systems on stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of modern planktic foraminifera of Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, M.; Mohan, R.; Meloth, T.; Naik, S.S.; Sudhakar, M.

    SCIENCE, VOL. 100, NO. 6, 25 MARCH 2011 881 *For correspondence. (e-mail: manish@ncaor.org) Effect of varying frontal systems on stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of modern planktic foraminifera of Southern Ocean Manish Tiwari 1...: Carbon isotopes, foraminifera, oxygen iso- topes, Southern Ocean. PLANKTIC foraminifera thrive in various environments of the upper water column and are sensitive to changes occurring in the temperature, salinity, nutrients, food availability...

  2. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: Evidence of depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo Sarata Kumar; Fujimoto Kenzo; Čeliković Igor; Ujić Predrag; Žunić Zora S.

    2004-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrom - etry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by anion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic c...

  3. The Boron Isotopic Composition of Elephant Dung: Inputs to the Global Boron Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. B.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    A survey of boron in kerogen showed isotopically light δ11B values (0 to -50%) that are distinctly different from most mineral and natural water B reservoirs. Diagenesis releases this isotopically light B into pore fluids when hydrocarbons are generated, thus enriching oilfield brines in 10B. This observation suggests that borated biomolecules (BM) are primarily tetrahedral favoring 10B, whereas 11B is preferred in trigonal coordination. Plants, with optimal concentrations up to 100ppm, contribute more B than animal remains to sediment. Elephants are one of the largest herbivores on earth, consuming 200 - 250 kg of plant material/day and producing 50 kg of manure/day. They are inefficient at digestion, thus the manure contains >50% undigested plant material. Dung samples are therefore ideal for studying the δ11B of both the food input and digested output of a significant B supply to sedimentary systems. Horse and rabbit manure were studied for comparison to evaluate B isotope variations in the food supply and potential vital effects on the output. B-content and isotopic composition of dung plant material and digested fractions were measured in the solid state by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The digests were rinsed in 1.8% mannitol, a B-complexing agent, to remove surface adsorbed-B, then air dried and Au-coated for charge compensation. Results showed that the elephant diet contains 3-13 ppm B, with an average δ11B of -20 ± 0.8% (1σ), while rabbit food had 88 ppm B with a δ11B of -50 ± 1.3 %. The digested fraction of the elephant dung contains 4-10ppm B with average δ11B values of -12 ± 1.2%. In comparison, horse manure with 11-21 ppm B has a δ11B of -10.7 ± 0.5% and rabbit manure contains 2-3 ppm B with a δ11B of -8.8 ± 1%. Boron isotope compositions of these manures are indistinguishable (within error). Clearly plant material is a major contributor of isotopically light B to sediments. The herbivores studied fractionate their total B intake in

  4. The Effect of Phytase on the Oxygen Isotope Composition of Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2013-12-01

    Plants and microorganisms under phosphorus (P) stress release extracellular phosphatases as a strategy to acquire inorganic phosphate (Pi) (1-2). These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoesters leading to a release of Pi. The enzymatic hydrolysis leads, via a nucleophilic attack, to the incorporation of one oxygen atom from the water into the newly formed Pi molecule. During the incorporation, an isotopic fractionation occurs, which might be used to identify the origin of Pi in the environment (3-6). While the effect of phosphomonoesterases and phosphodiesterases on the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate has been examined, there are, so far, no studies dealing with the effect of phytases (4-6). Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of myo-inositol-hexakis-phosphate (IP6), which is an important component of organic P in many ecosystems (7). Enzymatic assays with phytase from wheat germ and Aspergillus niger were prepared under sterile and temperature controlled conditions in order to determine the effect of phytases on the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate, which has been liberated from IP6 via enzymatic hydrolysis. Assays with phytase from wheat germ lead to a turnover of the substrate close to 100%, while assays with phytase from Aspergillus niger lead to a turnover of the substrate close to 80%. In the case of the assays with phytase from wheat germ, our results indicate that one sixth of the total 24 oxygen which are associated to the phosphates in IP6 are exchanged with oxygen from water. From this we conclude that the incorporation of one oxygen atom from water occurs only at four phosphate molecules of IP6, while two phosphate molecules do not experience an incorporation of oxygen. This suggests that during the enzymatic hydrolysis, four P-O bonds and two C-O bonds are broken. Provided that, the isotopic fractionation can be calculated with an isotopic mass balance resulting in -8.4‰ (×3.6 SD). This is a value very similar to those reported

  5. Monitoring of Pb Contamination in Loire Estuary: Trends, Distribution and Isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach-Papa, Christophe; Chiffoleau, Jean-François; Knoery, Joel; Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Auger, Dominique; Bretaudeau, Jane; Crochet, Sylvette; Rozuel, Emmanuelle; Thomas, Batien; Vasileva, Emilia; Oriani, Anna Maria

    2014-05-01

    The Loire River is one of the largest river systems in Western Europe and constitutes a major continental input to marine environment in the Bay of Biscay. Its catchment area flows through agricultural, industrial areas and through a more and more urbanized estuary. Even if Loire River is not considered as a highly polluted system, some studies identified a Pb contamination of its estuary due to industrial inputs and combustion of leaded gasoline up to the mid 90's. A retrospective study, based on the analysis (Pb contents and isotopic composition) of Mytilus edulis samples collected by the French mussel watch program (RNO/ROCCH) has highlighted this contamination and its trend between 1985-2005 (Couture et al., 2010). This poster will first complete the work initiated by Couture et al. Pb contents and isotopic signatures in mussel samples collected by RNO/ROCCH over the last 10 years will be presented and discussed. Results will be compared to measurements performed on various environmental samples (sediment, biota…) collected in the frame of the environmental monitoring project RS2E started in 2012 by the "Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers Nantes-Atlantique" (OSUNA). This new data will contribute to a better characterisation of Pb contents and distribution along the Loire Estuary. Moreover, some key samples will be submitted to HR-ICP-MS for Pb isotopic analysis. Discrimination of anthropic Pb sources requires both precise and accurate isotope ratio determination and also high versatility due to the complex matrix, which is typical for marine and estuarine samples. These measurements will contribute to a more accurate definition and characterisation of main actual anthropic Pb sources (urban, agricultural, industrial or atmospheric deposition). Couture R.- M., Chiffoleau J.-F., Auger D., Claisse D., Gobeil C. and Cossa D. (2010) Seasonal and decadal variation in lead sources to eastern north Atlantic mussels. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 1211-1216.

  6. Compositional impact of acidification and warming on Fucus vesiculosus: First biogeochemical and stable isotope results from coastal benthocosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Vera; Al-Janabi, Balsam; Sokol, Steffani; Buchholz, Björn; Escher, Peter; Voss, Maren; Schneider, Bernd; Wahl, Martin; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the German BIOACID II project, the separate and combined effects of warming and acidification on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus are investigated by means of benthic mesocosm experiments in brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. We aim for a calibration of the composition of Fucus in response to single and combined temperature and pCO2 elevation. Benthocosm experiments are carried out in the Kiel Fjord with a fully crossed array of 2 globally importnant stressors: an increase in temperature and an increase in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure. The experiments run for almost 3 months per season (winter, spring, summer, autumn). There are analyses from the experiments of the aquatic chemistry (TA, pH, salinity, carbon isotope composition of DIC, main and trace elements and nutrients) as well as the composition of the Fucus vesiculosus organic tissues (C-N-S-P contents, and C and N stable isotope composition, as well as major and trace elements). The composition of the aqueous solution in the mesocosms was recovered two times a week and for the Fucus tissue at the start and the end of the experiments. In addition several 24h cycles were followed in high temporal resolution to characterize the community response to diurnal light cycles. It was found, that seasonal variations in the composition of the input solutions (brackish water from the Kiel Fjord) were reflected by changes in the experiments with short time delay. The changes in the aquatic chemistry of the mesocosms, however, were strongly superimposed for most parameters during daytime by biological activity. The response of the communities to light conditions was clearly observed during the 24h-campaigns, when alternating phases of net respiration and photosynthesis were creating strong variations in the dissolved carbonate system. These variations were accompanied by significant changes in the carbon isotope composition of DIC. The atmosphere of some experimental

  7. A revision in hydrogen isotopic composition of USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair stable isotopic reference materials for forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δ2HVSMOW-SLAP) of USGS42 and USGS43 human hair stable isotopic reference materials, normalized to the VSMOW (Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water)–SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, was originally determined with a high temperature conversion technique using an elemental analyzer (TC/EA) with a glassy carbon tube and glassy carbon filling and analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method can produce inaccurate δ2HVSMOW-SLAPresults when analyzing nitrogen-bearing organic substances owing to the formation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), leading to non-quantitative conversion of a sample into molecular hydrogen (H2) for IRMS analysis. A single-oven, chromium-filled, elemental analyzer (Cr-EA) coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability of hydrogen isotopic analysis of hydrogen- and nitrogen-bearing organic material because hot chromium scavenges all reactive elements except hydrogen. USGS42 and USGS43 human hair isotopic reference materials have been analyzed with the Cr-EA IRMS method, and the δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values of their non-exchangeable hydrogen fractions have been revised:where mUr = 0.001 = ‰. On average, these revised δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values are 5.7 mUr more positive than those previously measured. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ2HVSMOW-SLAP of isotopic reference materials in publications as they may need to adjust the δ2HVSMOW–SLAP measurement results of human hair in previous publications to ensure all results are on the same isotope-delta scale.

  8. Chemical and isotopic composition of secondary organic aerosol generated by α-pinene ozonolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, Carl; Dusek, Ulrike; King, Stephanie M.; Holzinger, Rupert; Rosenørn, Thomas; Sperlich, Peter; Julien, Maxime; Remaud, Gerald S.; Bilde, Merete; Röckmann, Thomas; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2017-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) plays a central role in air pollution and climate. However, the description of the sources and mechanisms leading to SOA is elusive despite decades of research. While stable isotope analysis is increasingly used to constrain sources of ambient aerosol, in many cases it is difficult to apply because neither the isotopic composition of aerosol precursors nor the fractionation of aerosol forming processes is well characterised. In this paper, SOA formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene - an important precursor and perhaps the best-known model system used in laboratory studies - was investigated using position-dependent and average determinations of 13C in α-pinene and advanced analysis of reaction products using thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The total carbon (TC) isotopic composition δ13C of the initial α-pinene was measured, and the δ13C of the specific carbon atom sites was determined using position-specific isotope analysis (PSIA). The PSIA analysis showed variations at individual positions from -6.9 to +10. 5 ‰ relative to the bulk composition. SOA was formed from α-pinene and ozone in a constant-flow chamber under dark, dry, and low-NOx conditions, with OH scavengers and in the absence of seed particles. The excess of ozone and long residence time in the flow chamber ensured that virtually all α-pinene had reacted. Product SOA was collected on two sequential quartz filters. The filters were analysed offline by heating them stepwise from 100 to 400 °C to desorb organic compounds that were (i) detected using PTR-MS for chemical analysis and to determine the O : C ratio, and (ii) converted to CO2 for 13C analysis. More than 400 ions in the mass range 39-800 Da were detected from the desorbed material and quantified using a PTR-MS. The largest amount desorbed at 150 °C. The O : C ratio of material from the front filter increased from 0.18 to 0.25 as the desorption temperature was

  9. Processes controlling the Si-isotopic composition in the Southern Ocean and application for paleoceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fripiat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern Ocean biogeochemical processes have an impact on global marine primary production and global elemental cycling, e.g. by likely controlling glacial-interglacial pCO2 variation. In this context, the natural silicon isotopic composition30Si of sedimentary biogenic silica has been used to reconstruct past Si-consumption:supply ratios in the surface waters. We present a new dataset in the Southern Ocean from a IPY-GEOTRACES transect (Bonus-GoodHope which includes for the first time summer δ30Si signatures of suspended biogenic silica (i for the whole water column at three stations and (ii in the mixed layer at seven stations from the subtropical zone up to the Weddell Gyre. In general, the isotopic composition of biogenic opal exported to depth was comparable to the opal leaving the mixed layer and did not seem to be affected by any diagenetic processes during settling, even if an effect of biogenic silica dissolution cannot be ruled out in the northern part of the Weddell Gyre. We develop a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in the modern Si-isotopic balance, by implementing a mixed layer model. We observe that the accumulated biogenic silica (sensu Rayleigh distillation should satisfactorily describe the δ30Si composition of biogenic silica exported out of the mixed layer, within the limit of the current analytical precision on the δ30Si. The failures of previous models (Rayleigh and steady state become apparent especially at the end of the productive period in the mixed layer, when biogenic silica production and export are low. This results from (1 a higher biogenic silica dissolution:production ratio imposing a lower net fractionation factor and (2 a higher Si-supply:Si-uptake ratio supplying light Si-isotopes into the mixed layer. The latter effect is especially expressed when the summer mixed layer becomes strongly Si-depleted, together with a large

  10. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead contents were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the use of leaded petrol for automobiles in Australia from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in (206)Pb/(207)Pb values from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi (206)Pb/(207)Pb values increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of algae and bacteria from hydrothermal environments, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, M.L.E.

    1984-03-01

    Stromatolites forming today on a small scale in hydrothermal environments are chemical and biological analogues of much larger Precambrian formations. Carbon isotopic composition varied as a function of CO/sub 2/ concentration, pH, and species composition. Stratiform, layered stromatolites grew in silica-depositing springs at 55/sup 0/ to 70/sup 0/C; they consisted mainly of a unicellular alga, Synechococcus, and a filamentous, photosynthetic bacterium, Chloroflexus. These thermophiles become enriched in /sup 12/C as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the effluent waters increases. At a concentration of 40 ppm total inorganic C, and delta/sup 13/C of organic carbon was approx. -1.2%, whereas at 900 ppm total inorganic C, the delta/sup 13/C of similar species was approx. -2.5%. Conical stromatolites or conophytons (principally a filamentous, blue-green alga Phormidium and Chloroflexus) grew at 40/sup 0/-55/sup 0/C. In older, broader conophytons, Chloroflexus was the dominant organism. Their delta/sup 13/C values were approx. -1.8% in a variety of hot springs. In carbonate-depositing springs, i.e., carbon dioxide saturated, conophytons and stromatolites consisting of a variety of blue-green algae and photosynthetic bacteria had the most negative delta/sup 13/C values (to -3 %). These carbon isotope ratios are directly comparable to carbon isotope ratios of kerogen from Precambrian stromatolites. The presence and activity of methanogenic bacteria or heterotrophic, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria did not alter significantly the delta/sup 13/C of the original organic matter.

  12. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N of Lipids in Marine Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Svensson

    Full Text Available Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete, as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰. Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰. The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰ than the TLE (-7 ‰, possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms.

  13. Mechanisms controlling the carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton in karst reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to systematically understand the mechanisms controlling the carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton (δ13CPHYin freshwater ecosystems, seasonal changes in δ13CPHY and related environmental factors were determined in karst reservoirs from the Wujiang river basin, China. Substantial and systematic differences within seasons and reservoirs were observed for δ13CPHY, which ranged from -39.2‰ to -15.1‰. An increase in water temperature triggered fast growth of phytoplankton which assimilated more dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, resulting in the increase of δ13CPHY, δ13CDIC and pH. When the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2 was less than 10 mmol L–1, phytoplankton shifted to using HCO3– as a carbon source. This resulted in the sharp increase of δ13CPHY. The carbon stable isotope composition of phytoplankton tended to decrease with the increase of Bacillariophyta, which dominated in January and April, but tended to increase with the increase of Chlorophyta and Dinophyta, which dominated in July. Multiple regression equations suggested that the influence of biological factors such as taxonomic difference on δ13CPHY could be equal or more important than that of physical and chemical factors. Thus, the effect of taxonomic differences on δ13CPHY must be considered when explaining the δ13C of organic matter in lacustrine ecosystem.

  14. Unsaturated zone carbon dioxide flux, mixing, and isotopic composition at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.; Haase, K.; Moreo, M. T.; Walvoord, M. A.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of tritium, radiocarbon, and volatile organic compounds at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site, adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, have stimulated research on factors affecting transport of these contaminants. This research includes an examination of unsaturated zone carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, mixing, and isotopic composition, which can help in understanding these factors. In late April 2015 we collected 76 soil-gas samples in multi-layer foil bags from existing 1.5-m deep tubes, both inside and outside the low-level waste area, as well as from two 110-m-deep multilevel gas-sampling boreholes and a distant background site. These samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide concentration and isotopic composition by direct injection into a cavity ring-down spectrometer. Graphical analysis of results indicates mixing of CO2 characteristic of the root zone (δ13C -18 ‰ VPDB), deep soil gas of the capillary fringe (-20‰), and CO2 produced by microbial respiration of organic matter disposed in the waste area trenches (-28‰). Land-surface boundary conditions are being constrained by the application of a novel non-dispersive infrared sensor and traditional concentration and flux measurements, including discrete CO2 flux data using a gas chamber method to complement continuous data from surface- and tower-based CO2 sensors. These results shed light on radionuclide and VOC mobilization and transport mechanisms from this and similar waste disposal facilities.

  15. TRANSFORMATION OF THE INITIAL ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF PRECIPITATION IN CAVES OF THE SOUTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mikhalenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary results and interpretation from an ongoing research project in the Novy Afon and Abrskil caves of Abkhazia. The research have demonstrated that δ18O and δD analyses of drip and ground waters in two caves in the South-Western Caucasian region allows to better understand interaction between isotopic composition of precipitation, soil, and vadose zone. Drip and ground water samples from the caves were compared with the present-day Global (GMWL and the Local Meteoric Water Lines (LMWL. They fall along the GMWL and LMWL and are tied by equation δD = 5.74δ18O - 6.98 (r2 = 0.94. Drip water isotopic composition is similar to that from lakes and pools. The incline of δ18O - δD line differs from GMWL and LMWL. It reflects a possible result from secondary condensation and evaporation and water-rock interaction, and depends on the climate aridity level.

  16. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  17. Constant Molybdenum Isotope Composition of Ocean Water and Fe-Mn crusts for the Last 70 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Nagler, T. F.; von Blankenburg, F.; Kramers, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    In the relatively new field of heavy stable isotope geochemistry, molybdenum (Mo) is one of the very promising elements. Molybdenum is a redox-sensitive trace metal. Isotope fractionation during terrestrial processes such as low-temperature redox transitions, chemical weathering, changes in the composition of the atmosphere, hydrothermal activity and sedimentary cycling is likely. Molybdenum is also an essential element for biological nitrogen fixation. Therefore, biogeochemical Mo isotope fractionation is also probable. The oceans represent an important terrestrial Mo reservoir. Dissolved concentrations in seawater are relatively high (0.01 ppm). The global ocean residence time is corresponding high with 800 kyr. The aim of this study is to characterise the principle present day oceanic Mo reservoirs and their changes with time. Molybdenum isotopic compositions were determined precisely using a Nu instruments MC-ICP-MS. Instrumental and laboratory mass fractionation is separated from natural mass dependent fractionation by addition of a molybdenum double spike prior to chemical separation (Siebert et al., 2001). The external standard reproducibility is at or below 0.1 per mil for the 98Mo/95Mo ratio (2s.d.). We analysed ocean water samples from the Atlantic (n=3, 0m-2400m depth), the Pacific and the Indian Ocean (deep water). These yield a homogeneous Mo isotopic composition as would be expexted from the long residence time of Mo in the oceans. Ocean water has the heaviest Mo isotopic composition measured to date (+2.3 per mil on the 98Mo/95Mo ratio relative to a Johnson Mattey ICP standard solution, lot 602332B). In view of the homogeneous ocean water ratios, we propose the use of present day ocean water as an reference standard (Mean Ocean Molybdenum: MOMO). Significantly lighter compositions from -2.7 to -3.1 per mil on the 98Mo/95Mo ratio relative to MOMO were determined for six Fe-Mn crust surface layers. Pelagic clay (-2.7 per mil) and clastic sediments (-2

  18. Variogram analysis of stable oxygen isotope composition of daily precipitation over the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohán, Balázs; Tyler, Jonathan; Jones, Matthew; Kern, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Water stable isotopes are important natural tracers in the hydrological cycle on global, regional and local scales. Daily precipitation water samples were collected from 70 sites over the British Isles on the 23rd, 24th, and 25th January, 2012 [1]. Samples were collected as part of a pilot study for the British Isotopes in Rainfall Project, a community engagement initiative, in collaboration with volunteer weather observers and the UK Met Office. Spatial correlation structure of daily precipitation stable oxygen isotope composition (δ18OP) has been explored by variogram analysis [2]. Since the variograms from the raw data suggested a pronounced trend, owing to the spatial trend discussed in the original study [1], a second order polynomial trend was removed from the raw δ18OP data and variograms were calculated on the residuals. Directional experimental semivariograms were calculated (steps: 10°, tolerance: 30°) and aggregated into variogram surface plots to explore the spatial dependence structure of daily δ18OP. Each daily data set produced distinct variogram plots. -A well expressed anisotropic structure can be seen for Jan 23. The lowest and highest variance was observed in the SW-NE and NNE-SSW direction, respectively. Meteorological observations showed that the majority of the atmospheric flow was SW on this day, so the direction of low variance seems to reflect this flow direction, while the maximum variance might reflect the moisture variance near the elongation of the frontal system. -A less characteristic but still expressed anisotropic structure was found for Jan 24 when a warm front passed the British Isles perpendicular to the east coast, leading to a characteristic east-west δ18OP gradient suggestive of progressive rainout. The low variance central zone has a 100 km radius which might correspond well to the width of the warm front zone. Although, the axis of minimum variance was similarly SW-NE, the zone of maximum variance was broader and

  19. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Particulate-Bound Fatty Acids From the California Borderland Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. A.; Sessions, A. L.; Campbell, B. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the hydrogen-isotopic composition of fatty acids associated with particulate organic matter (POM) from depth transects in three California Borderland stations. Our goals were to determine (1) the natural variability of δD values in POM-associated fatty acids and (2) the magnitude of isotopic fractionations associated with fatty acid degradation in the marine environment. Some differences in molecular abundance were observed between completely ventilated and occasionally suboxic sites, but no corresponding shifts in δD values were measured. Values of δD for specific fatty acids were generally consistent between stations. Saturated fatty acids (C14, C16, and C18) yielded δD values ranging from -230‰ to -132‰, with δD values generally decreasing with chain length. We found no evidence of extreme D-enrichment of the C18 fatty acid as has been observed in studies of isolated macroalgae (Chikaraishi, et al, 2004). The unsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids showed a similar trend while the polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6 was somewhat enriched in D (δD values ranging from -186‰ to -68‰) relative to 20:5 (-208‰ to -93‰). Unsaturated fatty acids tended to have more positive δD values than their saturated counterparts, opposite the trend observed in sediments from the same location. The bacterial fatty acid C15 showed even greater deuterium enrichment with δD values ranging from - 145‰ to -88‰. This offset can likely be attributed to differences in biosynthetic fractionation between bacteria and eukaryotes, to differences in hydrogen isotopic composition of the food sources of these organisms, or some combination of these two factors. Within the surface waters, fatty acids become enriched with depth by an average of 25‰. The C18:0 acid is a significant exception, becoming depleted by 48‰ over that same interval. Below 100 meters depth, all fatty acids tend to become slightly depleted in D with increasing depth. The difference in δD values

  20. Fluid evolution in CM carbonaceous chondrites tracked through the oxygen isotopic compositions of carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, P.; Lee, M. R.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of calcite grains in four CM carbonaceous chondrites have been determined by NanoSIMS, and results reveal that aqueous solutions evolved in a similar manner between parent body regions with different intensities of aqueous alteration. Two types of calcite were identified in Murchison, Mighei, Cold Bokkeveld and LaPaz Icefield 031166 by differences in their petrographic properties and oxygen isotope values. Type 1 calcite occurs as small equant grains that formed by filling of pore spaces in meteorite matrices during the earliest stages of alteration. On average, the type 1 grains have a δ18O of ∼32-36‰ (VSMOW), and Δ17O of between ∼2‰ and -1‰. Most grains of type 2 calcite precipitated after type 1. They contain micropores and inclusions, and have replaced ferromagnesian silicate minerals. Type 2 calcite has an average δ18O of ∼21-24‰ (VSMOW) and a Δ17O of between ∼-1‰ and -3‰. Such consistent isotopic differences between the two calcite types show that they formed in discrete episodes and from solutions whose δ18O and δ17O values had changed by reaction with parent body silicates, as predicted by the closed-system model for aqueous alteration. Temperatures are likely to have increased over the timespan of calcite precipitation, possibly owing to exothermic serpentinisation. The most highly altered CM chondrites commonly contain dolomite in addition to calcite. Dolomite grains in two previously studied CM chondrites have a narrow range in δ18O (∼25-29‰ VSMOW), with Δ17O ∼-1‰ to -3‰. These grains are likely to have precipitated between types 1 and 2 calcite, and in response to a transient heating event and/or a brief increase in fluid magnesium/calcium ratios. In spite of this evidence for localised excursions in temperature and/or solution chemistry, the carbonate oxygen isotope record shows that fluid evolution was comparable between many parent body regions. The CM carbonaceous chondrites

  1. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87Sr/86Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87Sr/86Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  2. Determination of the isotopic composition of evapotranspiration in a mature oil palm plantation in Jambi province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Mattia; Meijide, Ana; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is defined as the sum of the water vapor fluxes from evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). The relative proportion between these two quantities depends on the species, on their age and on the structure of the stand and canopy. Evaporation represents the fraction of water that doesn't contribute to plants growth hence it often considered as "unused" water by the plants root system. For this reason, in a fast changing environment like Indonesia where, since almost 30 years, tropical rainforests are gradually converted into extensive oil palm plantation, it is important to quantify the amount of evaporated water to improve agricultural practices and water quality. As powerful tracers of the hydrological cycle, water stable isotopes represent an important tool to estimate the isotopic composition of the evapotranspiration flux and they can be used as a starting point for the determination of the T/ET ratio, which can be considered as a plant water uptake efficiency indicator. The isotopic composition (δDvand δ18Ov) and the mixing ratio (qv) of water vapor measured in a stand is the result of the isotopic mixing between two members; ecosystem evapotranspiration (δET) and background air (δa). With the implementation of laser-based isotopic analysers we are now able to improve the measurement frequency of δDvand δ18Ov that leads us to an improved estimation of δET. Here we present the results of a measurement campaign, performed with a Picarro L-2120i and conducted in a mature oil palm plantation in the province of Jambi, Indonesia. We measured the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio and isotopic composition at 5 sampling heights (21 m, 16 m, 9 m, 3.5 and 0.3 m) along a flux tower throughout the oil palm canopy (average height 10 m). The range of the water vapor isotopic composition was between -19 and -11 and -134 and -82 ‰ for δ18Ov and δDvrespectively. A fairly open canopy structure resulted in small mixing ratio gradients along the

  3. [Identification of using organic carbon isotopic composition of soil pollution process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Jun; Chen, Tong-Bin; Yang, Jun; Strauss, Harald; Lei, Mei; Zhu, Guang-Xu; Li, Yan-Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Yong; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2011-10-01

    This study has taken advantage of the characteristics of concentration of soil organic matter (SOC) and delta13 C(SOC) values to provide proofs for environment quality assessment and to know more about polluted sources, sizes and processes in Beijing steel company area. delta13C values of SOC is good for tracing sources and documenting shifts in community composition and distribution. Two sections (Beijing steel company area and Yongledian, Tongzhou) which belong to two different soil types collected in Beijing, and organic carbon isotopic composition and total soil organic carbon were analyzed. These results shows that SOC of soil samples from Beijing steel company area are quite high, and even 9.7% at the surface sample, however SOC from unpolluted area (Yongledian area) is lower than those of industrial area. delta13 C(SOC) from soils of Beijing steel company area and Yongledian area respectively vary from -24.8 per thousand to -23.1 per thousand and -26.4 per thousand to -20.5 per thousand, the results are quite different. The results reflect that there are different organic carbon sources in different types' soil: Organic carbon from Beijing steel company area has been mainly affected by coal burning, soil organic carbon concentrations are quite high, and pollution can affect on soils 70 cm deep underground; and soils from Yongledian area, have been not polluted, and organic matter is from natural litter (C3 plants). Although there are different soil organic carbon concentrations and isotope compositions, two soil sections have similar variation trends. This study provides proofs for environment quality assessment and know more about polluted and natural sources, sizes in Beijing.

  4. Wet degradation of keratin proteins: linking amino acid, elemental and isotopic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein, I C C; Penkman, K E H; Peacock, E E; Collins, M J

    2014-10-15

    Archaeological keratin samples are increasingly the subject of palaeodietary, provenancing and dating studies. Keratin samples from wet archaeological contexts are microbiologically and chemically degraded, causing differential diagenesis of protein structures in hair fibres. The effects of these processes on the analytical parameters of interest are currently unknown. This study examined the impact of degradation of wool fibres on isotopic (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, un-exchangeable δ(2)H and δ(18)O values) composition. It compared two models of archaeological protein degradation in wet burial environments: (1) short term (up to 8 years) experimental burial in three contrasting soil environments; and (2) laboratory wet conditions, in which elevated temperature (80 °C, 110 °C, and 140 °C) and pressure simulated longer exposure. Elemental and amino acid (AA) composition were also measured. In experimentally soil-buried samples, AA, elemental and isotopic composition changes were small, despite extensive macroscopic alteration. Isothermally heated samples showed preferential loss of hydrophilic AAs (Asx, Glx, Ser, Gly) from wool residues, with depletion in (2)H and (18)O at higher temperatures (up to -73‰ change in δ(2)H and -2.6‰ in δ(18)O values). The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values showed little change except in densely pigmented samples at low temperatures only. Samples dyed with madder/alum were better preserved than undyed samples. Diagenesis in experimentally soil-buried wool textiles was consistent with microbiological, non-protein-selective activity, in contrast to highly AA-selective hydrolytic behaviour under laboratory wet conditions. Changes in δ(2)H and δ(18)O values were correlated with degree of AA change, but the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were not. The results contribute to a baseline for interpreting analytical data from archaeological hair samples preserved by burial in wet environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Rubidium isotopic composition of the Earth, meteorites, and the Moon: Evidence for the origin of volatile loss during planetary accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the origin of volatile element variations in the inner Solar System has long been a goal of cosmochemistry, but many early studies searching for the fingerprint of volatile loss using stable isotope systems failed to find any resolvable variations. An improved method for the chemical purification of Rb for high-precision isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry. This method has been used to measure the Rb isotopic composition for a suite of planetary materials, including carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites, as well as achondrites (eucrite, angrite), terrestrial igneous rocks (basalt, andesite, granite), and Apollo lunar samples (mare basalts, alkali suite). Volatile depleted bodies (e.g. HED parent body, thermally metamorphosed meteorites) are enriched in the heavy isotope of Rb by up to several per mil compared to chondrites, suggesting volatile loss by evaporation at the surface of planetesimals. In addition, the Moon is isotopically distinct from the Moon in Rb. The variations in Rb isotope compositions in the volatile-poor samples are attributed to volatile loss from planetesimals during accretion. This suggests that either the Rb (and other volatile elements) were lost during or following the giant impact or by evaporation earlier during the accretion history of Theia.

  6. Oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from CR2 carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Bischoff, Addi

    2009-09-01

    We report both oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions measured in situ using a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe in 20 of 166 CAIs identified in 47 polished sections of 15 CR2 (Renazzo-type) carbonaceous chondrites. Two additional CAIs were measured for oxygen isotopes only. Most CR2 CAIs are mineralogically pristine; only few contain secondary phyllosilicates, sodalite, and carbonates - most likely products of aqueous alteration on the CR2 chondrite parent asteroid. Spinel, hibonite, grossite, anorthite, and melilite in 18 CAIs have 16O-rich (Δ 17O = -23.3 ± 1.9‰, 2 σ error) compositions and show no evidence for postcrystallization isotopic exchange commonly observed in CAIs from metamorphosed CV carbonaceous chondrites. The inferred initial 26Al/ 27Al ratios, ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0, in 15 of 16 16O-rich CAIs measured are consistent with the canonical value of (4.5-5) × 10 -5 and a short duration (magnesium and lower-than-canonical 26Al abundance. Another 16O-enriched (Δ 17O = -20.3 ± 1.2‰) inclusion, a spinel-melilite CAI fragment Gao-Guenie (b) #3, has highly-fractionated oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions (˜11 and 23‰/amu, respectively), a deficit of 26Mg, and a relatively low ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (2.0 ± 1.7) × 10 -5. This could be the first FUN ( Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear effects) CAI found in CR2 chondrites. Because this inclusion is slightly 16O-depleted compared to most CR2 CAIs and has lower than the canonical ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0, it may have experienced multistage formation from precursors with nonsolar magnesium-isotope composition and recorded evolution of oxygen-isotope composition in the early solar nebula over 0.9+2.2-0.7 My. Eight of the 166 CR2 CAIs identified are associated with chondrule materials, indicating that they experienced late-stage, incomplete melting during chondrule formation. Three of these CAIs show large variations in oxygen-isotope compositions (Δ 17O ranges from -23.5‰ to -1.7‰), suggesting dilution by

  7. Rubidium Isotope Composition of the Earth and the Moon: Evidence for the Origin of Volatile Loss During Planetary Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, E. A.; Moynier, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth-Moon system has a variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics that provide clues to understanding the mechanism of lunar formation. One important observation is the depletion in moderately volatile elements in the Moon compared to the Earth. This volatile element depletion may be a signature of volatile loss during the Moon-forming Giant Impact. Stable isotopes are powerful tracers of such a process, since volatile loss via evaporation enriches the residue in heavy isotopes. However, early studies searching for the fingerprint of volatile loss failed to find any resolvable variations [1]. Recent work has now revealed heavy isotope enrichments in the Moon relative to the Earth for the moderately volatile elements Zn [2,3] and K [4]. The purely lithophile nature of Rb (in contrast to the chalcophile/lithophile nature of Zn) and the higher volatility of Rb compared to K make Rb an ideal element with which to study the origin of lunar volatile element depletion. We have developed a new method for the high-precision measurement of Rb isotope ratios by MC-ICP-MS. The Rb isotope compositions of terrestrial rocks define a narrow range, indicating that Rb isotope fractionation during igneous differentiation is limited (Comm. 2015. [4] Wang and Jacobsen Nature in press.

  8. Spatial, seasonal, and source variability in the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of tap waters throughout the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Jurate M.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Stewart, David W.

    2013-01-01

    To assess spatial, seasonal, and source variability in stable isotopic composition of human drinking waters throughout the entire USA, we have constructed a database of δ18O and δ2H of US tap waters. An additional purpose was to create a publicly available dataset useful for evaluating the forensic applicability of these isotopes for human tissue source geolocation. Samples were obtained at 349 sites, from diverse population centres, grouped by surface hydrologic units for regional comparisons. Samples were taken concurrently during two contrasting seasons, summer and winter. Source supply (surface, groundwater, mixed, and cistern) and system (public and private) types were noted. The isotopic composition of tap waters exhibits large spatial and regional variation within each season as well as significant at-site differences between seasons at many locations, consistent with patterns found in environmental (river and precipitation) waters deriving from hydrologic processes influenced by geographic factors. However, anthropogenic factors, such as the population of a tap’s surrounding community and local availability from diverse sources, also influence the isotopic composition of tap waters. Even within a locale as small as a single metropolitan area, tap waters with greatly differing isotopic compositions can be found, so that tap water within a region may not exhibit the spatial or temporal coherence predicted for environmental water. Such heterogeneities can be confounding factors when attempting forensic inference of source water location, and they underscore the necessity of measurements, not just predictions, with which to characterize the isotopic composition of regional tap waters. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Elucidating the controls on the Mg isotopic composition of marine pore fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, P.; Fantle, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sr and Mg isotopic composition of pore fluids and carbonates from the Neogene section of Ocean Drilling Project Site 806B are reported (87Sr/86Sr and δ26Mg, measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune Plus multi-collector ICP-MS). Site 806B, located on the northern margin of the Ontong Java Plateau, hosts a thick (776 m cored, depth to basement ~ 1200 m), relatively continuous, carbonate-rich section (between 83 and 96% CaCO3). Our goal in the current study is to use the Sr and Mg isotope data of pore fluids and carbonates to address open questions regarding (1) the extent to which the pore fluid chemistry is overprinted by calcite recrystallization, (2) the effects of diagenesis on bulk carbonate chemistry, and (3) the likelihood of preserving secular seawater δ26Mg trends in pore fluids. Accordingly, the current study compares and contrasts the isotopic and elemental data between adjacent ODP Sites 806B and 807A, which have similar depositional histories, carbonate contents, and pore fluid chemistries. The measured 87Sr/86Sr ratios of pore fluids at 806B range smoothly from 0.70914 at 4.45 mbsf to 0.70851 at 509.3 mbsf, similar (though offset relative) to the bulk carbonate trend (0.70918 to 0.70877 between 1.11 and 501.94 mbsf). The δ26MgDSM3 of 806B pore fluids generally increases from -0.86‰ at 4.45 mbsf to -0.17‰ at 679.0 mbsf. The overall trend is consistent with previously collected δ26Mg data at 807A [1]; there is, however, a significant difference in pore fluid δ26Mg between the two sites at depths of 300 to 600 mbsf. At these depths, 806B pore fluid δ26Mg values are +0.2 to 0.3‰ relative to 807A at similar depths [1]. The application of a depositional reactive transport model to the Sr isotope data suggests that bulk carbonate recrystallization rates at 806B are similar to those at 807A (histories of the sedimentary column (the latter is suggested by the differences in δ26Mg trends at depth). Preliminary model results suggest that

  10. Helium enrichment during convective carbon dioxide dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, T.; Hesse, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by observed variations of the CO2/He ratios in natural carbon dioxide (CO2) reservoirs, such as the Bravo Dome field in northeastern New Mexico, we have performed laboratory experiments equilibrating gas mixtures containing Helium (He) and CO2 with water, at close to ambient conditions in a closed system. The experimental design allows for continuous measurement of headspace pressure as well as timed interval measurements of the CO2/He ratios and the δ13C value of CO2 in the headspace. Results from three dissolution experiments are reported: 1) pure Helium system, 2) 98% CO2 + 2% Nitrogen system, and 3) 97% CO2 and 3% Helium. Final equilibrated experimental results are compared to theoretical results obtained using Henry's Law relationships. The evolution of the amount of dissolved CO2 computed from gas pressure and gas compositions are in good agreement with Henry's Law relationships. For example, the CO2 + N2 system was initially pressurized with pure CO2 to 1323 mbar and after six days it equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 596 mbar. This compares very well with a calculated equilibrium headspace pressure of 592 mbar for this system. The CO2 + He system was pressurized to 1398 mbar CO2 and after six days equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 397 mbar. This measured pressure is slightly higher than the predicted equilibrated headspace pressure of 341 mbar, indicating a possible leak in the system during this particular experiment. In both experiments the initial pH of the water was 9.3 and the final equilibrated pH was 5.4. The δ13C value of equilibrated headspace CO2 was within 0.25‰ of its starting δ13C value, demonstrating insignificant carbon isotope fractionation at low pH. Measured Helium/ CO2 ratios throughout the CO2+Helium experiment preserve a non-linear trend of increasing He/ CO2 ratios through time that correlate very well with the measured pressure drop from CO2 dissolution. This indicates that gas composition

  11. Analyses of TmAl{sub 2} and ErAl{sub 2} composite for use as an active magnetic regenerator close to liquid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.V. de, E-mail: marcos_vinicios@hotmail.com [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, J.A. da [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, L.S. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Tocantins, IFTO – Campus Colinas do Tocantins, AV. Bernardo Sayao S/N, Chácara Raio de Sol, Setor Santa Maria, CEP 77760-000, Colinas do Tocantins, TO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of the thermodynamics quantities in RAl{sub 2} (R = Er, Tm) single crystal and polycrystal. • An optimal hybrid magnetocaloric material using TmAl{sub 2} and ErAl{sub 2} compounds. • Suppression of the ferromagnetic canted order in the compound TmAl{sub 2} in single crystal form. - Abstract: We report the thermodynamic properties of selected intermetallic RAl{sub 2} (R = Er, Tm) compounds calculated by using a model Hamiltonian, including the Zeeman-exchange interactions and the crystalline electrical field, which are responsible for the magnetic anisotropy. The relationship between the behavior of the temperature-dependent magnetization, calculated in different crystallographic directions for several magnetic fields, and the influence of spin reorientation on the magnetocaloric effect, is discussed. In order to validate the obtained theoretical results, experimental data are compared to calculated data. Also, an optimum molar fraction of the ErAl{sub 2} and TmAl{sub 2} composite was determined theoretically, showing a high potential for use in a regenerative thermal cycle, especially close to the liquid helium temperature range.

  12. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  13. Stable isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate in soils of Minusinsk Hollow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'chuk, Jessica; Krechetov, Pavel; Budantseva, Nadine; Chizhova, Julia; Vasil'chuk, Yurij

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition of carbonate neoformations in soils and estimate its correlation with isotopic composition of water and parent material. The study site is located in the Minusinsk Hollow that is situated among Kuznetsk Alatau and Sayan Mountains. Three key-sites with in different parts of hollow, under mainly steppe vegetation with calciphilic grasses and diverse parent material were studied including: 1) Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve in foothills of Kuznetsk Alatau 2) Hankul salt lake that is considered as natural monument 3) region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter on a left bank of the Yenisei river. The samples of pedogenic and lithogenic carbonates as well as water samples were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with a standard option of a gas bench according to standard methods. Carbonate coatings (also called pendants or cutans) is one of the most common types of carbonate neoformations occurring in the region. Fine coatings' layers one over another usually can be found on the bottom sides of rubble and gravel inside the soil profile colour varies from white to brownish and yellowish (probably depending on the impurities of organic matter). In Petric Calcisols, Chernozems and Kastanozems δ18O values of coatings vary in a rather small range from - 8.9 to - 10.1 ‰ PDB. This probably shows that their forming took place approximately in the same climatic conditions. While δ18O values of carbonate parent rocks are close to them and are vary from - 11.1 to - 11.9 ‰ PDB. Also, δ13C values of coatings strongly decrease from inner (older) to outer (younger) layers, that can indicate differences connected with the diffusion of organic material. River waters' δ18O values also show a small range from - 16.62 to - 17.66‰ SMOW, while salt lakes' waters due to the fractionation evaporation effects demonstrate much heavier values from - 4.73 to - 9.22‰ SMOW. The groundwater shows δ18O

  14. Effect of microtopography on isotopic composition of methane in porewater and efflux at a boreal peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorodnikov, M.; Wilmking, M. [Greifswald Univ. (Georgia). Inst. of Botany and Landscape Ecology; Marushchak, M.; Biasi, C. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science, Bioteknia 2], E-mail: maxim.dorodnikov@uef.fi

    2013-09-01

    The application of stable isotopes is an approach to identify pathways of methanogenesis, methane (CH{sub 4}) oxidation and transport in peatlands. We measured the stable C isotopic characteristics ({delta}C-13) of CH{sub 4} in peat profiles below hummocks, lawns and hollows of a Finnish mire to study the patterns of CH{sub 4} turnover. Porewater CH{sub 4} concentrations ([CH{sub 4}]; at 0.5-2 m) increased with depth below all microforms. Emissions of CH{sub 4} from hummocks were the lowest, and increased with the increasing water-saturated zone, being {approx}10 times higher from hollows. Thus, the microtopography of the peatland did not affect the porewater [CH{sub 4}] in the water-saturated part of the peat profile, but the CH{sub 4} emissions were affected due to differences in the oxidative potential of the microforms. There was a decrease in {delta}C-13-CH{sub 4} with depth below all microforms indicating dominance of CO{sub 2}-reduction over acetate cleavage pathway of methanogenesis at deep peat layers. However, estimated potential portions of transported CH{sub 4} comprised 50%-70% of the {delta}C-13-CH{sub 4} enrichment on microforms at the 0.5-m depth, hereby masking the acetate cleavage pathway of methanogenesis. Stable C composition ({delta}C-13) of CH{sub 4} proved to be a suitable (but not sufficient) tool to differentiate between types of methanogenesis in continuously water-saturated layers below microforms of a peatland. Combined flux-based and multi-isotopic approaches are needed to better understand the CH{sub 4} turnover process. (orig.)

  15. Boron isotopic compositions in growing corals from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Xiao, Yingkai; Jin, Zhangdong; Liu, Congqiang; He, Maoyong

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine incorporation of boron species, boron isotopic fractionation, and influence of trace elements on isotopic compositions of boron in corals (δ11Bcoral), concentrations of Mg, Sr, Na, B and δ11Bcoral in growing corals from the South China Sea were measured. Relative to seawater, Sr enriched while Mg depleted in corals in the South China Sea. Although the δ11Bcoral values were different from various species and were not closely correlated with the element concentrations in corals in the South China Sea, Mg(OH)2 existed in corals can result in high δ11Bcoral. Thus, it is necessary to examine the existence of Mg(OH)2 and to choose the same species when δ11Bcoral is used in the δ11B-pH proxy. Based on the measured δ11B values of corals and coexisting seawater as well as the seawater pH in the South China Sea, a new isotopic fractionation factor a4-3 between B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 was determined to be 0.979. Besides B(OH)4- into corals, our results showed that B(OH)3 may also be incorporated into corals with variable proportions. The incorporation of B(OH)3 into corals may challenge the hypothesis of δ11Bcoral = δ11B4, resulting in increasing uncertainty to the calculated seawater pH values to the δ11B-pH proxy. We suggested that a best-fit empirical equation between δ11B of bio-carbonates and seawater pH needs to be established by the precipitation experiments of inorganic carbonates or culture experiments of corals or foraminifera.

  16. Temporal variation in isotopic composition and diet of Weddell seals in the western Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Kimberly T.; Burns, Jennifer M.; Hückstӓdt, Luis A.; Shero, Michelle R.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2017-06-01

    Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are important predators in the Antarctic marine ecosystem, yet little is known about their diet. Previous studies have used scat and stomach content analyses to examine Weddell seal diet, however, these methods are biased towards prey with indigestible hard parts. To provide a more complete picture of their diet, we analyzed the stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ15N values) of red blood cells (RBC, n=96, representing a time scale of weeks to months) and vibrissae (n=45, representing months to a year) collected over a three year period (2010-2012). Our objectives were to (1) examine isotopic variation in relation to Weddell seal mass, sex, season, location, percent lipid, and age, and (2) quantify the contribution of prey items to overall diet. Body mass was a significant predictor of δ13C and δ15N values for both tissues, though the strength and direction of the relationship varied by year. The prey group consisting of Pleurogramma antarcticum and Trematomus newnesi was found to be an important dietary component, but its proportional contribution to Weddell seal diet varied with the timeframe represented by each tissue type [median RBC (range): 59.2% (40.2-8 1.1%); median mean vibrissae (range): 69.3% (43.9-89.6%)]. Results from mixing models ran for each seal indicate individual variation in diet. Overall, this study presents novel information on the isotopic variation and diet of Weddell seals over two time scales and provides insight into the feeding ecology of an important Antarctic predator.

  17. The sulfur-isotopic compositions of benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes as a proxy for thermochemical sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Alon; Deev, Andrei; Sessions, Alex L.; Tang, Yongchun; Adkins, Jess F.; Hill, Ronald J.; Moldowan, J. Michael; Wei, Zhibin

    2012-05-01

    Compound-specific analyses of the 34S/32S isotope ratios of individual organosulfur compounds in Upper Jurassic oil and condensate samples from the Smackover Fm. reveal differences of up to ˜50‰ between compounds. There is a clear distinction between oils altered by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) versus those that are not. Oils that did experience TSR exhibit significant 34S enrichment of benzothiophenes (BTs) compared to dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), while in unaltered oils these compounds have similar isotopic compositions. The δ34S values of BTs are close to those of sulfate-bearing evaporites of the Smackover Fm., whereas the δ34S values of DBTs are spread over a wider range and gradually approach those of the BTs. Gold-tube hydrous pyrolysis experiments using three representative oils show that isotopic alteration readily occurs under TSR conditions and can significantly affect the δ34S values of individual compounds. Our results indicate that BTs can be a sensitive tracer for TSR as they form readily under TSR conditions, with large 34S enrichments relative to the bulk oil. In contrast, DBTs exhibit relatively small changes in δ34S, preserving their original δ34S values longer than do BTs because of their greater thermal stability and slow rate of formation. We propose that comparison of the δ34S values of BT and DBT can be used to detect TSR alteration of oils from the very early stages up to highly altered oils. The approach should find numerous uses in petroleum exploration, as well as for understanding the basic reaction mechanisms and kinetics of thermochemical sulfate reduction and secondary sulfur incorporation into oils.

  18. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  19. A model composition for Mars derived from the oxygen isotopic ratios of martian/SNC meteorites. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen is the most abundant element in most meteorites, yet the ratios of its isotopes are seldom used to constrain the compositional history of achondrites. The two major achondrite groups have O isotope signatures that differ from any plausible chondritic precursors and lie between the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite domains. If the assumption is made that the present global sampling of chondritic meteorites reflects the variability of O reservoirs at the time of planetessimal/planet aggregation in the early nebula, then the O in these groups must reflect mixing between known chondritic reservoirs. This approach, in combination with constraints based on Fe-Mn-Mg systematics, has been used previously to model the composition of the basaltic achondrite parent body (BAP) and provides a model precursor composition that is generally consistent with previous eucrite parent body (EPB) estimates. The same approach is applied to Mars exploiting the assumption that the SNC and related meteorites sample the martian lithosphere. Model planet and planetesimal compositions can be derived by mixing of known chondritic components using O isotope ratios as the fundamental compositional constraint. The major- and minor-element composition for Mars derived here and that derived previously for the basaltic achondrite parent body are, in many respects, compatible with model compositions generated using completely independent constraints. The role of volatile elements and alkalis in particular remains a major difficulty in applying such models.

  20. Deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus on the Baltic Sea: seasonal patterns and nitrogen isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus on the central Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper was estimated monthly at two coastal stations and two isolated islands in 2001 and 2002. Yearly nitrogen deposition ranged between 387 and 727 mg N m−2 yr−1 (average 617 and was composed of ~10% organic N and approximately equal amounts of ammonium and nitrate. Winter nitrate peaks at the isolated islands possibly indicated ship emissions. Load weighted δ15N of deposited N was 3.7‰ and 0.35‰ at the coastal stations and the isolated islands respectively. Winter δ15N was ~3‰ lighter than in summer, reflecting winter dominance of nitrate. The light isotopic composition of deposited nitrogen may cause overestimates of nitrogen fixation in basin-wide isotopic budgeting, whereas relatively heavy deposition of ammonium during summer instead may cause underestimates of fixation in budgets of the upper mixed layer. δ15N in atmospherically deposited nitrate and ammonium was estimated by regression to −7.9 and 13.5‰ respectively. Phosphorus deposition showed no clear seasonal pattern and was considerably lower at the isolated islands. Organic P constituted 20–40% of annual P deposition. P deposition is unlikely to be a major source for cyanobacterial blooms but may potentially prolong an ongoing bloom.

  1. Carbon isotope composition of ambient CO2 and recycling: a matrix simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Lobo Sternberg, Leonel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between isotopic composition and concentration of ambient CO2 in a canopy and its associated convective boundary layer was modeled. The model divides the canopy and convective boundary layer into several layers. Photosynthesis, respiration, and exchange between each layer can be simulated by matrix equations. This simulation can be used to calculate recycling; defined here as the amount of respired CO2 re-fixed by photosynthesis relative to the total amount of respired CO2. At steady state the matrix equations can be solved for the canopy and convective boundary layer CO2 concentration and isotopic profile, which can be used to calculate a theoretical recycling index according to a previously developed equation. There is complete agreement between simulated and theoretical recycling indices for different exchange scenarios. Recycling indices from a simulation of gas exchange between a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the troposphere also agreed with a more generalized form of the theoretical recycling equation developed here.

  2. Water Vapor and its Isotopic Composition in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Sherwood, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    Any theory of water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) must explain both the abundance and isotopic composition of water there. We have previously presented a model of the TTL that simulated the abundance of water vapor as well as the details of the vertical profile. That model included the effects of 'overshooting convection', which injects dry air directly into the TTL. Here, we present results for the model after modifying it to include water's stable isotope HDO. The model is capable of accurately simulating the recently observed, nearly uniform HDO depletion (delta D) in the TTL. We find that lofted ice is necessary to accurately simulate the profile of delta D in the TTL, as has been suggested previously. We also find that vertical mixing due to overshooting convection plays an important role in maintaining the observed profile. Finally, any theory of lofted ice requires a complementary source of dry air in the TTL; without that, the TTL will rapidly saturate and the lofted ice will not evaporate.

  3. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  4. Carbon isotopic compositions of the Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates in Tarim Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.; He, H.; Shao, L.; Shi, Z.; Gao, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Composition features of carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine carbonate rocks of Cambrian-Ordovician in Bachu area of Tarim Basin were researched. Factors influencing the variation of carbon isotope were analysed. The results show that the variation of {delta}{sup 13}C of the Cambrian-Ordovician marine carbonate rocks is closely related to the changes of sea level. The slower organic carbon burial during sea level fall from the Early Cambrian to Middle Cambrian led to a decrease of the {delta}{sup 13}C value of carbonate rocks of this stage. The rise of organic productivity together with a rapid burial of organic carbon during the rise of sea level in Early Ordivician led to an increase of the {delta}{sup 13}C value of carbonate rocks of this stage because of a high sulfate content in seawater in the Middle Cambrian, the reduction by sulfate bacteria caused an oxidation of organic matter, resulting in a decrease of the {delta}{sup 13} values. The negative {delta}{sup 13}C value in some samples may be related to the fractionation of CO{sub 2} emitted from magma activity or volcanism. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  6. Carbon isotopic composition of Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen: assessment of a C₃-plant paleophysiological indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M

    2012-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how shifts in plant physiological performance influence vegetation variations in the paleorecord. To evaluate δ¹³C of pollen from C₃ plants as an indicator of community-level physiology, small quantities (10-30 grains) of untreated pollen and sporopollenin from herbarium specimens of Ambrosia (A. tomentosa and A. psilostachya) and Artemisia (A. frigida, A. ludoviciana and A. dracunculus), genera abundant in grassland pollen profiles, were isolated by micromanipulation. Their δ¹³C values were measured using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. Leaf δ¹³C was also measured. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) for untreated pollen, sporopollenin and leaves was compared with historic records of seasonal precipitation amount, vapor pressure deficit and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Each species showed positive correlations between Δ of untreated pollen and sporopollenin. Sporopollenin Δ was most strongly correlated with PDSI. Correlations among leaf Δ and moisture indicators were stronger for Ambrosia than Artemisia. These results suggest that sporopollenin Δ indicates the level of moisture stress in C₃ plants. Therefore, δ¹³C analysis of pollen promises to help address important paleoecological questions, such as how community-level physiology contributes to shifts in vegetation composition. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Changing compositions in the Iceland plume; Isotopic and elemental constraints from the Paleogene Faroe flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Elemental and Sr, Nd, Hf and high precision Pb isotopic data are presented from 59 low-Ti and high-Ti lavas from the syn-break up part of the Faroe Flood Basalt Province. The depleted MORB-like low-Ti lavas erupted in the rift zone between the Faroe Islands and central East Greenland around......-type component similar in geochemistry to the Icelandic Öræfajökull lavas. This component is believed to be recycled pelagic sediments in the plume but it can alternatively be a local crustal or lithospheric mantle component. The enriched Faroe high-Ti lavas erupted inland from the rift have isotopic...... compositions very similar to the enriched Icelandic neo-volcanics and these lava suites apparently share the two enriched plume end-members IE1 and IE2 (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 2, 2004). The lack of mixing between high and low-Ti melts at the time of break up, is explained by a zoned plume where only low...

  8. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  9. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from the Mariinsky emerald deposit, Central Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksheev, Ivan A.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Popov, Mikhail P.; Erokhin, Yuri V.; Kudryavtseva, Olesya E.; Yapaskurt, Vasily O.; Khiller, Vera V.; Vovna, Galina M.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.

    2017-07-01

    Tourmaline is abundant at the Mariinsky schist-hosted emerald deposit in the Central Urals, Russia, both in emerald-bearing phlogopite veins (type 1) and later, emerald-free pockets, lenses, and veinlets cutting the phlogopite veins (type 2). The Ca content in tourmaline is influenced by the host rocks (ultramafic and mafic rocks), associated minerals, and minerals crystallized before tourmaline (amphibole, fluorite, margarite). The Na concentration in tourmaline depends on the presence or absence of paragonite, and the association with micas also strongly influences the contents of Li, Zn, Ni, and Co in tourmaline. Type 1 tourmalines associated with phlogopite are relatively depleted in these elements, whereas type 2 tourmalines associated with margarite or paragonite are enriched. Some differences in isomorphic substitutions along with the trace element composition (Zn, V, Sr, Co, REE) may have value in exploration of emerald-bearing and emerald-free veins in schist-hosted emerald deposits. The δ11B values in tourmaline of all types fall in a narrow total range from -11.3 to -8.4‰. These values, combined with a mineralization temperature of 420-360 °C, yield an estimated δ11B fluid composition of -7.4 to -6.8‰ suggesting a mixed source of boron, likely dominated from the granitic rocks surrounding the emerald belt. The narrow range of B-isotope compositions in tourmaline from throughout the Mariinsky deposit suggests a well-mixed hydrothermal system.

  10. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Organic Matter in a Pristine Collection IDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, A. N.; Walker, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Anhydrous chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are probable cometary materials that show primitive characteristics, such as unequilibrated mineralogy, fragile structure, and abundant presolar grains and organic matter [1-3]. CP IDPs are richer in aliphatic species and N-bearing aromatic hydrocarbons than meteoritic organics and commonly exhibit highly anomalous H and N isotopic compositions [4,5]. Cometary organic matter is of interest in part because it has escaped the hydrothermal processing experienced by meteorites. However, IDPs are collected using silicon oil that must be removed with strong organic solvents such as hexane. This procedure is likely to have removed some fraction of soluble organic phases in IDPs. We recently reported the first stratospheric collection of IDPs without the use of silicone oil [6]. Here we present initial studies of the carbonaceous material in an IDP from this collection.

  11. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper describes changes in chemical and δ37Cl signatures observed in a 1750 h isothermal evaporation experiment on hyperacid (pH 0.1) sulphate-chloride brine water from the active lake of Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Although gypsum was the only evaporite mineral identified in the evolving brine, decreasing Si concentrations may ultimately result in amorphous silica precipitation. Geochemical simulations predict the additional formation of elemental sulphur at lower water activities (aH2O ≤ 0.65) that were not reached in the experiment. Absence of other sulphates and halides despite the high load of dissolved elements (initial TDS ca. 100 g/kg) can be attributed to increased solubility of metals, promoted by extensive formation of complexes between the variety of cations and the major anions (HSO4-, Cl-, F-) present. Chlorine deviations from a conservative behaviour point to losses of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl(g)) and consequently an increase in Br/Cl ratios. Chlorine isotope fractionation that accompanied the escape of HCl(g) showed a marked change in sign and magnitude in the course of progressive evaporation of the brine. The calculated factor of fractionation between HCl(g) and dissolved Cl for the initial interval (before 500 h) is positive (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = + 1.55 ± 0.49‰to + 3.37 ± 1.11‰), indicating that, at first, the escaping HCl(g) was isotopically heavier than the dissolved Cl remaining in the brine. Conversely, fractionation shifted to the opposite direction in the subsequent interval (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = 5.67 ± 0.17‰to - 5.64 ± 0.08‰), in agreement with values reported in literature. It is proposed that Cl isotopic fractionation in

  12. Inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen influence isotopic composition and trophic structure in SE Australian estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Debashish; Saintilan, Neil; Alderson, Brendan; Hollins, Suzanne

    2015-11-15

    Urban development in coastal settings has increased the input of nitrogen into estuaries globally, in many cases changing the composition of estuarine ecosystems. By focussing on three adjacent estuaries with a gradient of anthropogenic N loadings, we used stable isotopes of N and C to test for changes due to increased anthropogenic N input on the structure of some key trophic linkages in estuaries. We found a consistent enrichment in δ(15)N corresponding to increased anthropogenic N at the three ecosystem levels studied: fine benthic organic matter, grazing invertebrate, and planktivorous fish. The degree of enrichment in δ(15)N between fine benthic organic matter and the grapsid crab Parasesarma erythrodactyla was identical across the three sites. The glassfish Ambassis jacksoniensis showed lower levels of enrichment compared to basal food sources at the higher N-loaded sites, suggesting a possible effect of anthropogenic N in decreasing food-chain length in these estuaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stable hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkanes in urban atmospheric aerosols in Taiyuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huiling; Li, Yinghui; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiangkai; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Mu, Ling

    2017-03-01

    The hydrogen isotope compositions (δD) of n-alkanes associated with particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 μm from Taiyuan, China, during heating and non-heating periods were measured via gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry to reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of five functional zones and to provide another constraint on atmospheric pollutants. The δD values of n-C16 to n-C31 during the heating and non-heating periods ranged from -235.9‰ to -119.8‰ and from -231.3‰ to -129.2‰, respectively, but these similar spans had different distribution features. During the heating period, the δD distributions between non-central heating and commercial districts were consistent, as were those between residential and industrial districts; the n-alkanes came from two or more types of emission sources. Coal soot might be the primary local emission source, but not the only source. During the non-heating period, the n-alkanes of n-C16 to n-C20 were more depleted in D with the increasing carbon number in all functional zones, but there was no rule for n-C21 to n-C31. Specifically, coal soot and vehicle exhaust might be the primary sources of n-alkanes for non-central heating districts in the heating and non-heating periods, respectively, according to the δD distribution of n-C18 to n-C22; gasoline vehicle exhaust might be an n-alkane source, and the hydrogen isotope fractionation effect during the condensation process should be a pollution mechanism for the commercial district during the heating period; the δD distribution difference of n-C16 to n-C18 between the two periods in the residential and industrial districts was consistent, which indicates a similar source of fossil fuel combustion and a similar isotope fractionation effect during the non-heating period.

  14. Nitrogen isotopic composition of enameloid-bound organic matter from modern and fossil shark teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, E.; Wang, X. T.; Kim, S.; Kocsis, L.; Sigman, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    The nitrogen isotopic composition of fossil organic matter has been used to reconstruct ocean biogeochemical conditions in the past, and there is the potential for such investigations to be extended to trophic and ecological processes. Organic matter trapped within biogenic minerals is of particular interest for this purpose because of relatively good preservation and specificity when compared to bulk sedimentary organic matter. The approach for measuring mineral bound organic matter δ15N previously applied to diatoms, foraminifera, and coral skeleton has been adapted for use with tooth apatite, with reproducibility within 0.25‰ for modern and fossil shark enameloid. Studies of modern shark enameloid bound δ15N (δ15NEB) show substantial variability ( 3‰) between individuals of a single species and in some cases among teeth from a given individual. δ15NEB is affected by the isotopic composition of nutrient supply, which is a primary determinant of the δ15N at the base of the food web, and progressive 15N enrichment with trophic level due to the metabolism and excretion of low-δ15N N. Among modern shark species studied, patterns in δ15NEB appear to primarily reflect regional variations in subsurface nitrate δ15N, with the trophic effect as a secondary signal, in part because trophic level does not vary greatly across the studied shark species (or, indeed, across many shark species). Teeth from individual jaws can show trends in δ15NEB with the age of the tooth, possibly representing a dietary shift or seasonal migration. The modern measurements suggest that, with care, enameloid bound δ15N can be used to reconstruct past nutrient cycling dynamics. In this context, measurements will be presented of δ15NEB from fossil shark teeth of various Cenozoic ages from the Atlantic basin.

  15. Delta Chromium-53/52 isotopic composition of native and contaminated groundwater, Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Martin, Peter; Schroth, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Chromium(VI) concentrations in groundwater sampled from three contaminant plumes in aquifers in the Mojave Desert near Hinkley, Topock and El Mirage, California, USA, were as high as 2600, 5800 and 330 μg/L, respectively. δ53/52Cr compositions from more than 50 samples collected within these plumes ranged from near 0‰ to almost 4‰ near the plume margins. Assuming only reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) within the plume, apparent fractionation factors for δ53/52Cr isotopes ranged from εapp = 0.3 to 0.4 within the Hinkley and Topock plumes, respectively, and only the El Mirage plume had a fractionation factor similar to the laboratory derived value of ε = 3.5. One possible explanation for the difference between field and laboratory fractionation factors at the Hinkley and Topock sites is localized reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), with subsequent advective mixing of native and contaminated water near the plume margin. Chromium(VI) concentrations and δ53/52Cr isotopic compositions did not uniquely define the source of Cr near the plume margin, or the extent of reductive fractionation within the plume. However, Cr(VI) and δ53/52Cr data contribute to understanding of the interaction between reductive and mixing processes that occur within and near the margins of Cr contamination plumes. Reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) predominates in plumes having higher εapp, these plumes may be suitable for monitored natural attenuation. In contrast, advective mixing predominates in plumes having lower εapp, the highly dispersed margins of these plumes may be difficult to define and manage.

  16. The chromium isotopic composition of an Early to Middle Ordovician marine carbonate platform, eastern Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary; Frei, Robert; Gilleaudeau, Geoffrey Jon

    A broad suite of redox proxy data suggest that despite ocean and atmosphere oxygenation in the late Neoproterozoic, euxinic conditions persisted in the global deep oceans until the at least Ordovician [1,2,3]. Major changes in the sulphur isotopic composition of carbonate associated sulphate and ...

  17. In situ oxygen isotope compositions in olivines of different types of cosmic spherules: An assessment of relationships to chondritic particles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Jones, R.H.; Nagashima, K.

    ‰, -13 to 22‰ and -11 to 6‰. Our results suggest that the oxygen isotope compositions of the scoriaceous, relict-bearing, porphyritic and barred spherules show provenance related to the carbonaceous (CM, CV, CO and CR) chondrites. The different types...

  18. Amphiboles as indicators of mantle source contamination: Combined evaluation of stable H and O isotope compositions and trace element ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demény, A.; Harangi, S.; Vennemann, T.W.; Casillas, R.; Horváth, P.; Milton, A.J.; Mason, P.R.D.; Ulianov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope and trace element compositions of igneous amphiboles from different tectonic settings (ocean island basalts, intraplate alkaline basalts, subduction-related andesitic complexes) were compiled to help understand the role of fluids and melts in subduction-related mantle metasomatism

  19. Stable isotope composition of bulk and secondary carbonates from the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence in Sutto, Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koeniger, Paul; Barta, Gabriella; Thiel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of pedogenic carbonates were studied from the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence of Sutto in Hungary to investigate genetic processes in a paleoenvironmental context and to distinguish subtypes. Bulk carbonate samples taken at 2 cm vertical resolution...

  20. Neodymium isotopic composition and concentration in the western North Atlantic Ocean: Results from the GEOTRACES GA02 section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambelet, M.; van de Flierdt, T.; Crocket, K.; Rehkämper, M.; Kreissig, K.; Coles, B.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Steinfeldt, R.

    2016-01-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater is commonly used as a proxy to study past changes in the thermohaline circulation. The modern database for such reconstructions is however poor and the understanding of the underlying processes is incomplete. Here we present new observational data

  1. Neodymium isotopic composition and concentration in the western North Atlantic Ocean : results from the GEOTRACES GA02 section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambelet, Myriam; van de Flierdt, Tina; Crocket, Kirtsty; Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; Rijkenberg, Michaël; Gerringa, Loes J.A.; de Baar, Henricus; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater is commonly used as a proxy to study past changes in the thermohaline circulation. The modern database for such reconstructions is however poor and the understanding of the underlying processes is incomplete. Here we present new observational data

  2. Lead isotope composition of tree rings as bio-geochemical tracers of air pollution: a case study from Firenze, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommasini, S.; Davies, G.R.; Elliott, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Pb isotope composition of tree rings (Celtis Australis) and urban aerosols have been determined to assess whether arboreal species can be used as bio-geochemical tracers of the evolution of heavy metal pollution to the environment. Particular care was paid to setting up a high quality analytical

  3. [Determination of deuterium concentration in foods and influence of water with modified isotopic composition on oxidation parameters and heavy hydrogen isotopes content in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M; Baryshev, M G; Dzhimak, S S; Bykov, M I

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the study of the deuterium (D) content in food products as well as the influence of deuterium depleted water (DDW) on the concentration of heavy hydrogen isotopes in the blood and lyophilized tissues of rats. The most significant difference in the content of D was found between potato and pork fat, which indexes the standard delta notation (δ) D in promille, related to the international standard SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean of Water) amounted to -83,2 per thousand and -250,7 per thousand, respectively (pdeuterium concentration ranged from -75,5 per thousand (Narzan) to +72,1 per thousand (Kubai), that indicates the ability of some food products to increase the concentration of heavy hydrogen atoms in the body. The data obtained in the experimental modeling of the diet of male Wistar rats in the age of 5-6 mo (weight 235 ± 16 g) using DDW (δD = -743,2 per thousand) instead of drinking water (δD = -37,0 per thousand) with identical mineral composition showed that after 2 weeks significant (p deuterium-protium, D/H) gradient in the body is possible. Changing the direction of isotopic D/H gradient in laboratory animals in comparison with its physiological indicators (72-127 per thousand, "plasma>tissue") is due to different rates ofisotopic exchange reactions in plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart), which can be explained by entering into the composition of a modified diet of organic substrates with more than DDW concentration D, which are involved in the construction of cellular structures and eventually lead to a redistribution of D and change direction of D/H gradient "plasmaisotopic composition, aimed at reducing the level of heavy non-radioactive atoms will allow the targeted nutritional correction of prooxidant-antioxidant status of

  4. The Nd-isotopic composition of late Cretaceous bathyal-abyssal seawater from fossil fish skeletal debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S. A.; Vance, D.

    2009-04-01

    There is currently very little proxy data available for determining the inter-ocean mixing of deep-water masses during the Cretaceous, and thus uncertainty remains as to the importance of deep-water circulation in latitudinal heat transport and bottom-water oxygenation for that time. A solution lies in exploiting a geochemical water-mass tracer, such as the neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater. It has been shown that the distinct differences in the Nd-isotopic composition observed in modern deep and intermediate waters have persisted since the early Cenozoic, but currently our knowledge of the Cretaceous oceans is poor. Most of the existing Nd-isotope data for the Cretaceous are from shallow-water masses on the continental shelves of the Tethyan and Atlantic Oceans. It has previously been shown that biogenic apatites record the Nd-isotopic composition of bottom-waters during an early diagenetic reaction at the sediment-water interface. We present Nd-isotope data from fish-teeth and skeletal debris picked from deep-ocean sediments recovered by DSDP and ODP drilling in the North and South Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. The sites chosen for this study were all deposited at bathyal-abyssal water depths. In conjunction with other recent studies, our data establish that the Pacific Ocean has likely maintained a constant range of Nd-isotopic values between ~-5 and -3 since at least 135 Ma. The data from the North Atlantic, South Atlantic and proto-Indian Ocean show that bottom-waters in these basins had relatively radiogenic Nd-isotopic compositions for much of the mid-Cretaceous (~-8 to ~-5), before shifting to less radiogenic values (age for the establishment of the Cenozoic Nd-isotope pattern. However, this shift did not occur at the transition in the Turonian to more oxygenated sedimentation in the North Atlantic, thereby leaving unanswered the question of whether ocean circulation changes and shifting tectonic gateways were responsible for the

  5. Oxygen and Magnesium Isotopic Compositions of Asteroidal Materials Returned from Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto, H; Abe, M.; Ebihara, M.; Fujimura, A.; Hashizume, K.; Ireland, T. R.; Itoh, S.; Kawaguchi, K.; Kitajima, F.; Mukai, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft made two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa on November 20th and 26th, 2005. The Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is classified as an S-type asteroid and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. Near-infrared spectroscopy by the Hayabusa spacecraft proposed that the surface of this body has an olivine-rich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering [2]. The spacecraft made the reentry into the Earth s atmosphere on June 12th, 2010 and the sample capsule was successfully recovered in Australia on June 13th, 2010. Although the sample collection processes on the Itokawa surface had not been made by the designed operations, more than 1,500 grains were identified as rocky particles in the sample curation facility of JAXA, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa on November 17th, 2010 [3]. Although their sizes are mostly less than 10 microns, some larger grains of about 100 microns or larger were also included. The mineral assembly is olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, iron sulfide and iron metal. The mean mineral compositions are consistent with the results of near-infrared spectroscopy from Hayabusa spacecraft [2], but the variations suggest that the petrologic type may be smaller than the spectroscopic results. Several tens of grains of relatively large sizes among the 1,500 grains will be selected by the Hayabusa sample curation team for preliminary examination [4]. Each grain will be subjected to one set of preliminary examinations, i.e., micro-tomography, XRD, XRF, TEM, SEM, EPMA and SIMS in this sequence. The preliminary examination will start from the last week of January 2011. Therefore, samples for isotope analyses in this study will start from the last week of February 2011. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have measured the oxygen and

  6. Release of mantle helium from seismicity regions induced by the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, K.; Kusano, T.; Asamori, K.; Sueoka, S.

    2012-12-01

    Following the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake, there occurred not only aftershocks near the source fault along the plate boundary, but also many inland earthquakes along several active faults in the overriding plate. This indicates that the static stress change caused by the fault slip of the earthquake considerably affected the seismicity pattern in inland areas. On the following day, March 12, 2011, northern Nagano was shook by the Mj 6.7 major earthquake near the Tokamachi fault. The focal mechanism of the mainshock indicates a reverse-fault type with a NE-SE compression axis, similar to previous earthquakes that occurred along the Tokamachi fault. On June 30, 2011, the Mj 5.4 earthquake occurred at shallow depths around 3~4 km in central Nagano. The focal mechanism shows a strike-slip fault with a compression axis in a WNW-ESE direction. According to GPS data, small crustal movements associated with this event were observed in the vicinity of the epicenter. To the east of these events is the Gofukuji fault which forms part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line. Since Kennedy et al. [1997] demonstrated that mantle derived helium emanates from the San Andreas Fault, analyses of the helium isotopic composition of fault-related fluids from numerous different faults has shown that volatiles escape the mantle via crustal pathways (faults) to the surface. However, there seems to be little evidence of changes in helium isotopes observed before and after faulting in any of these earlier studies. Helium isotope data had been observed from the hot spring and drinking wells near the Tokamachi fault and Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line before the Tohoku earthquake occurred. In order to elucidate a significant emanation of mantle helium from the seismicity regions induced by the Tohoku earthquake, we measured helium isotopes from 20 wells around the Tokamachi fault and part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line. In the vicinity of the Tokamoachi fault, most gas samples showed

  7. Effects of elemental composition on the incorporation of dietary nitrogen and carbon isotopic signatures in an omnivorous songbird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Scott, F.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Greenberg, Catheryn, H.; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2003-02-28

    Pearson, S.F., D.J. Levey, C.H. Greenberg, and C.M. del Rio. 2003. Effects of elemental composition on the incorporation of dietary nitrogen and carbon isotopic signatures in an omnivorous songbird. Oecologia. 135:516-523. The use of stable isotopes to infer diet requires quantifying the relationship between diet and tissues and, in particular, knowing of how quickly isotopes turnover in different tissues and how isotopic concentrations of different food components change (discriminate) when incorporated into consumer tissues. We used feeding trials with wild-caught yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata) to determine d15N and d13C turnover rates for blood, d15N and d13C diet-tissue discrimination factors, and diet-tissue relationships for blood and feathers. After 3 weeks on a common diet, 36 warblers were assigned to one of four diets differing in the relative proportion of fruit and insects. Plasma half-life estimates ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 days for d13C and from 0.5 to 1.7 days for d15N. Half-life did not differ among diets. Whole blood half-life for d13C ranged from 3.9 to 6.1 days. Yellow-rumped warbler tissues were enriched relative to diet by 1.7.3.6% for nitrogen isotopes and by 1.2 to 4.3% for carbon isotopes, depending on tissue and diet. Consistent with previous studies, feathers were the most enriched and whole blood and plasma were the least enriched or, in the case of carbon, slightly depleted relative to diet. In general, tissues were more enriched relative to diet for birds with high percentages of insects. For all tissues, carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination factors increased with carbon and nitrogen concentrations of diets. The isotopic signature of plasma increased linearly with the sum of the isotopic signature of the diet and the discrimination factor. Because the isotopic signature of tissues depends on both elemental concentration and isotopic signature of the diet, attempts to reconstruct diet from stable isotope signatures

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of stable isotope composition of precipitation over the south american continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIABILITE SPATIALE ET TEMPORELLE DE LA COMPOSITION EN ISOTOPES STABLES DE LA PRECIPITATION SUR LE CONTINENT SUDAMERICAIN. L’Agence Internationale de l’Energie Atomique, en coopération avec l’Organisation Météorologique Mondiale, exploite un réseau mondial de stations pour la prise d’échantillons mensuels de précipitation. Actuellement, à peu près 60 stations fournissent des informations sur la composition isotopique de la précipitation sur le continent sudaméricain. Ces dernières années plusieurs réseaux d’échantillonnage d’un caractère national (Argentine, Brésil, Chili, Equateur, Pérou ont été initiés. Les données apportées par ces réseaux contribuent au réseau mondial de l’AIEA/OMM. Ces travaux se concentrent sur l’étude de la variabilité spatiale et temporelle de la composition isotopique stable de la précipitation sur le continent. Dans cette étude, est examinée en détail la relation entre la composition isotopique de la précipitation dans la région et quelques paramètres climatiques, tels que la quantité de précipitation et la température de l’air. VARIABILIDAD ESPACIAL Y TEMPORAL DE LA COMPOSICIÓN DE ISÓTOPOS ESTABLES DE LA PRECIPITACIÓN EN EL CONTINENTE SUDAMERICANO. El Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica (OIEA, en colaboración con la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM, está llevando a cabo un estudio a escala global de la composición isotópica de la precipitación a partir de muestras mensuales de lluvia recogidas en estaciones meteorológicas. En la actualidad alrededor de 60 estaciones proporcionan información sobre la composición isotópica de la precipitación en el continente sudamericano. Durante los últimos años se han establecido en la región varias redes de control con carácter nacional (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Perú. Los datos aportados por estas redes representan una valiosa contribución a la red mundial del OIEA/OMM. Este trabajo se

  9. It takes time to see the menu from the body: an experiment on stable isotope composition in freshwater crayfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussila J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For many applications and ecological studies in which wild individuals are brought to laboratory it would be essential to know accurately how fast novel diet is reflected in composition of different tissues. To study the effects of two different diets on the stable isotope composition of freshwater crayfish muscle and hemolymph, we conducted a three month experiment on noble crayfish (Astacus astacus and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus by feeding them sweet corn (Zea mays or Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras as novel food. During the experiment, the crayfish were given 0.4 g of selected food daily and the amount consumed was recorded. The samples for the stable isotope analyses were taken at the commencement of the experiment (initial control and three times (hemolymph or twice (muscle tissue during the experiment. We found that stable isotope changes can be similarly, and rather slowly, detected from muscle tissue and hemolymph under studied conditions. Hemolymph sampling, being non-lethal, can be recommended as a practical sampling method. Our results confirm earlier reports according to which diet changes reflect to crayfish isotope ratios slowly implying that isotope ratios indicate long-term diet.

  10. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Analysis of High Frequency Site-Specific Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. J.; Harris, E. J.; Olszewski, W.; Ono, S.; Prinn, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) significantly impacts Earth's climate due to its dual role as an inert potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere and as a reactive source of ozone-destroying nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere. However, there remain significant uncertainties in the global budget of this gas. The marked spatial divide in its reactivity means that all stages in the N2O life cycle—emission, transport, and destruction—must be examined to understand the overall effect of N2O on climate. Source and sink processes of N2O lead to varying concentrations of N2O isotopologues (14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N18O being measured) due to preferential isotopic production and elimination in different environments. Estimation of source and sink fluxes can be improved by combining isotopically resolved N2O observations with simulations using a chemical transport model with reanalysis meteorology and treatments of isotopic signatures of specific surface sources and stratospheric intrusions. We present the first few months of site-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition data from the Stheno-TILDAS instrument (Harris et al, 2013) at Mace Head, Ireland and compare these to results from MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) chemical transport model runs including N2O isotopic fractionation processes and reanalysis meterological fields (NCEP/NCAR, MERRA, and GEOS-5). This study forms the basis for future inverse modeling experiments that will improve the accuracy of isotopically differentiated N2O emission and loss estimates. Ref: Harris, E., D. Nelson, W. Olszewski, M. Zahniser, K. Potter, B. McManus, A. Whitehill, R. Prinn, and S. Ono, Development of a spectroscopic technique for continuous online monitoring of oxygen and site-specific nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide, Analytical Chemistry, 2013; DOI: 10.1021/ac403606u.

  12. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Apatite in Northwest Africa 7034: A Record of the "Intermediate" H-Isotopic Reservoir in the Martian Crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Santos, A. R.; Boyce, J. W.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and its pairings comprise a regolith breccia with a basaltic bulk composition [1] that yields a better match than any other martian meteorite to visible-infrared reflectance spectra of the martian surface measured from orbit [2]. The composition of the fine-grained matrix within NWA 7034 bears a striking resemblance to the major element composition estimated for the martian crust, with several exceptions. The NWA 7034 matrix is depleted in Fe, Ti, and Cr and enriched in Al, Na, and P [3]. The differences in Al and Fe are the most substantial, but the Fe content of NWA 7034 matrix falls within the range reported for the southern highlands crust [6]. It was previously suggested by [4] that NWA 7034 was sourced from the southern highlands based on the ancient 4.4 Ga ages recorded in NWA 7034/7533 zircons [4, 5]. In addition, the NWA 7034 matrix material is enriched in incompatible trace elements by a factor of 1.2-1.5 [7] relative to estimates of the bulk martian crust. The La/Yb ratio of the bulk martian crust is estimated to be approximately 3 [7], and the La/Yb of the NWA 7034 matrix materials ranges from approximately 3.9 to 4.4 [3, 8], indicating a higher degree of LREE enrichment in the NWA 7034 matrix materials. This elevated La/Yb ratio and enrichment in incompatible lithophile trace elements is consistent with NWA 7034 representing a more geochemically enriched crustal terrain than is represented by the bulk martian crust, which would be expected if NWA 7034 represents the bulk crust from the southern highlands. Given the similarities between NWA 7034 and the martian crust, NWA 7034 may represent an important sample for constraining the composition of the martian crust, particularly the ancient highlands. In the present study, we seek to constrain the H isotopic composition of the martian crust using Cl-rich apatite in NWA 7034. Usui et al., [9] recently proposed that a H isotopic reservoir exists within the martian crust that has

  13. Preparation of starch and soluble sugars of plant material for the analysis of carbon isotope composition: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Werner, Roland A; Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Jäggi, Maya; Gessler, Arthur; Brugnoli, Enrico; Hettmann, Elena; Göttlicher, Sabine G; Salmon, Yann; Bathellier, Camille; Kodama, Naomi; Nogués, Salvador; Søe, Astrid; Volders, Fillip; Sörgel, Karin; Blöchl, Andreas; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Buchmann, Nina; Gleixner, Gerd

    2009-08-30

    Starch and soluble sugars are the major photosynthetic products, and their carbon isotope signatures reflect external versus internal limitations of CO(2) fixation. There has been recent renewed interest in the isotope composition of carbohydrates, mainly for use in CO(2) flux partitioning studies at the ecosystem level. The major obstacle to the use of carbohydrates in such studies has been the lack of an acknowledged method to isolate starch and soluble sugars for isotopic measurements. We here report on the comparison and evaluation of existing methods (acid and enzymatic hydrolysis for starch; ion-exchange purification and compound-specific analysis for sugars). The selectivity and reproducibility of the methods were tested using three approaches: (i) an artificial leaf composed of a mixture of isotopically defined compounds, (ii) a C(4) leaf spiked with C(3) starch, and (iii) two natural plant samples (root, leaf). Starch preparation methods based on enzymatic or acid hydrolysis did not yield similar results and exhibited contaminations by non-starch compounds. The specificity of the acidic hydrolysis method was especially low, and we therefore suggest terming these preparations as HCl-hydrolysable carbon, rather than starch. Despite being more specific, enzyme-based methods to isolate starch also need to be further optimized to increase specificity. The analysis of sugars by ion-exchange methods (bulk preparations) was fast but produced more variable isotope compositions than compound-specific methods. Compound-specific approaches did not in all cases correctly reproduce the target values, mainly due to unsatisfactory separation of sugars and background contamination. Our study demonstrates that, despite their wide application, methods for the preparation of starch and soluble sugars for the analysis of carbon isotope composition are not (yet) reliable enough to be routinely applied and further research is urgently needed to resolve the identified problems

  14. Compound Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Type II and III Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Hydrogen (H) isotopes in understanding oil and gas resource plays is in its infancy. Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from oil and gas shale-derived kerogen. Application of this technique will progress our understanding. This work complements that of Pernia et al. (2013, this meeting) by providing a novel method for the H isotope analysis of specific compounds in the characterization of kerogen extracted by analytically diverse techniques. Hydrogen isotope analyses were carried out entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the extracted compounds. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and III) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight in vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C) which quantitatively forms H2, following a modified method of Burgoyne and Hayes, (1998, Anal. Chem., 70, 5136-5141). Samples ranging from approximately 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. Compounds were separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. Hydrogen isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight compounds. Water (H2O) average deltaD = -215.2 (V-SMOW), ranging from -271.8 for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 for the Polish Shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average deltaD of -89.7 0/00, ranging from -156.0 for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during formation within each basin. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes

  15. Construction of a Newly Designed Small-Size Mass Spectrometer for Helium Isotope Analysis: Toward the Continuous Monitoring of 3He/4He Ratios in Natural Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Sumino, Hirochika; Toyoda, Michisato; Okazaki, Ryuji; Osawa, Takahito; Ishihara, Morio; Katakuse, Itsuo; Notsu, Kenji; Igarashi, George; Nagao, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The construction of a small-size, magnetic sector, single focusing mass spectrometer (He-MS) for the continuous, on-site monitoring of He isotope ratios (3He/4He) is described. The instrument is capable of measuring 4He/20Ne ratios dissolved in several different types of natural fluids of geochemical interest, such as groundwater and gas from hot springs, volcanoes and gas well fields. The ion optics of He-MS was designed using an ion trajectory simulation program “TRIO,” which permits the simultaneous measurement of 3He and 4He with a double collector system under a mass resolution power (M/ΔM) of >700. The presently attained specifications of He-MS are; (1) a mass resolving power of ca. 430, sufficient to separate 3He+ from interfering ions, HD+ and H3+, (2) ultra-high vacuum conditions down to 3×10−8 Pa, and (3) a sufficiently high sensitivity to permit amounts of 3He to be detected at levels as small as 10−13 cm3 STP (3×106 atoms). Long term stability for 3He/4He analysis was examined by measuring the 3He/4He standard gas (HESJ) and atmospheric He, resulting in ∼3% reproducibility and ≤5% experimental error for various amounts of atmospheric He from 0.3 to 2.3×10−6 cm3 STP introduced into the instrument. A dynamic range of measurable 3He/4He ratios with He-MS is greater than 103 which was determined by measuring various types of natural fluid samples from continental gas (with a low 3He/4He ratio down to 2×10−8) to volcanic gas (with a high 3He/4He ratio up to 3×10−5). The accuracy and precision of 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne ratios were evaluated by comparing the values with those measured using well established noble gas mass spectrometers (modified VG5400/MS-III and -IV) in our laboratory, and were found to be in good agreement within analytical errors. Usefulness of the selective extraction of He from water/gas using a high permeability of He through a silica glass wall at high temperature (700°C) is demonstrated. PMID:24349910

  16. Multiple sulfur isotopic composition of main group pallasites support genetic links to IIIAB iron meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottin, James W.; Farquhar, James; Labidi, Jabrane

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the quadruple sulfur isotope composition of troilite nodules from Main Group Pallasites. Values range from -0.23‰ to 0.34‰ (average = 0.03 ± 0.17‰ S.D.) in δ34S and 0.008‰ to 0.025‰ (average = 0.018 ± 0.006‰ S.D.) in Δ33S and -0.38 to -0.01 (average = -0.17 ± 0.11‰ S.D.) in Δ36S. The variance of these analyses is comparable to estimates of analytical uncertainty (±0.3‰, ±0.008‰, and ±0.3‰, for δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S, respectively) and the average of these values is taken as a constraint on the composition of sulfur in the MG Pallasite parent body. The different Δ33S value compared to CDT and IAB iron meteorites at a similar δ34S value is interpreted as a mass-independent signature. This signature is similar in magnitude and direction to previously published values observed in IIIAB iron meteorites, further supporting a genetic relationship between the two groups of meteorites.

  17. A Procedure to Determine the Coordinated Chromium and Calcium Isotopic Composition of Astromaterials Including the Chelyabinsk Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, M. J.; Mills, R. D.; Ware, B.; Simon, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of elements are often used to characterize nucelosynthetic contributions in early Solar System objects. Coordinated multiple middle-mass elements with differing volatilities may provide information regarding the location of condensation of early Solar System solids. Here we detail new procedures that we have developed to make high-precision multi-isotope measurements of chromium and calcium using thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and characterize a suite of chondritic and terrestrial material including two fragments of the Chelyabinsk LL-chondrite.

  18. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  19. Chronicling a century of lead pollution in Mexico: stable lead isotopic composition analyses of dated sediment cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Jimenez, Martin F; Hibdon, Sharon A; Rankin, Charley W; Aggarawl, Jugdeep; Ruiz-Fernandez, A Carolina; Paez-Osuna, Federico; Flegal, A Russell

    2006-02-01

    Analyses of lead isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) of dated sediment cores from two coastal estuaries and two inland lakes chronicle the predominance of industrial lead emissions in Mexico over the past century. These isotopic ratios exhibit a shift in composition from the turn of the previous century (1900) that corresponds with measurable increases (from 2- to 10-fold) in lead concentrations in the cores above their baseline values (3-22 microg/g)--both changes are consistent with the development of Mexican lead production for export and the manufacture of tetraethyl lead additives for Mexican gasolines. While subsequent changes in lead concentrations in the cores correspond with calculated emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline in Mexico, isotopic compositions of the cores remain relatively constant throughout most of the 1900s (e.g., 206Pb/207Pb = 1.200 +/- 0.003; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.463 +/- 0.004). That isotopic constancy is attributed to the widespread pollution from lead production in Mexico and the dispersion of some of that lead used as an additive in Mexican gasolines.

  20. Modeling the isotopic composition of Antarctic snow using backward trajectories: simulation of snow pit records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325802459; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Scheele, M.P.; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative interpretation of isotope records (d18O, dD, and d excess) in ice cores can benefit from a comparison of observed meteorology with associated isotope variability. For this reason we studied four isotope records from snow pits in western Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, covering

  1. Magnesium and Titanium Isotopic Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende: It Is Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.-C.; Keller, L. P.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hibonite-rich refractory inclusions are among the first solids that formed in the solar nebula, and thus provide constraints on the earliest environment in the Solar System. An unusual hibonite-perovskite inclusion from Allende, SHAL, consists of a large (approximately 500 by 200 microns) single hibonite crystal and coexisting blocky perovskite (approximately 200 microns in size). The hibonite is characterized by chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions similar to those in the FUN (Fractionated and Unknown Nuclear anomalies) inclusion HAL. However, the rare earth element (REE) patterns measured at different spots of SHAL hibonite are highly variable, ranging from Group II-like (light REEs enriched relative to heavy REEs) to Group III-like (relatively flat with slight Eu depletions), but overall contrast largely with that of HAL, especially in the Ce and Yb abundances. This implies that SHAL hibonite formed and underwent distillation processes under more reducing conditions. Interestingly, the accompanying perovskite has uniform, unfractionated oxygen isotopic compositions (averaging delta (sup 17) O equals delta (sup 18) O equals -7 per mille) and REE abundances that are completely different from those of SHAL hibonite. This has been interpreted that perovskite and hibonite may not be co-genetic. Here we performed Al-Mg and Ti isotopic measurements of SHAL hibonite and perovskite to determine if the FUN characteristics are observed in these two isotope systems, and to further constrain the origin and evolution of SHAL. Results: Isotopic measurements of Al-Mg and Ti in SHAL were performed on the UCLA CAMECA ims-1290 ion microprobe by following the analytical protocols described in [1]. The Al-Mg and Ti data obtained in both terrestrial standards and SHAL hibonite and perovskite are shown below. Both SHAL hibonite and perovskite, despite very high (sup 27) Al to (sup 24) Mg ratios, are devoid of (sup 26) Mg excesses that can be attributed to the decay

  2. Authigenic oxide Neodymium Isotopic composition as a proxy of seawater: applying multivariate statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, C. C.; Scudder, R.; Thomas, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Neodymium Isotopic composition (Nd IC) of oxide coatings has been applied as a tracer of water mass composition and used to address fundamental questions about past ocean conditions. The leached authigenic oxide coating from marine sediment is widely assumed to reflect the dissolved trace metal composition of the bottom water interacting with sediment at the seafloor. However, recent studies have shown that readily reducible sediment components, in addition to trace metal fluxes from the pore water, are incorporated into the bottom water, influencing the trace metal composition of leached oxide coatings. This challenges the prevailing application of the authigenic oxide Nd IC as a proxy of seawater composition. Therefore, it is important to identify the component end-members that create sediments of different lithology and determine if, or how they might contribute to the Nd IC of oxide coatings. To investigate lithologic influence on the results of sequential leaching, we selected two sites with complete bulk sediment statistical characterization. Site U1370 in the South Pacific Gyre, is predominantly composed of Rhyolite ( 60%) and has a distinguishable ( 10%) Fe-Mn Oxyhydroxide component (Dunlea et al., 2015). Site 1149 near the Izu-Bonin-Arc is predominantly composed of dispersed ash ( 20-50%) and eolian dust from Asia ( 50-80%) (Scudder et al., 2014). We perform a two-step leaching procedure: a 14 mL of 0.02 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH) in 20% acetic acid buffered to a pH 4 for one hour, targeting metals bound to Fe- and Mn- oxides fractions, and a second HH leach for 12 hours, designed to remove any remaining oxides from the residual component. We analyze all three resulting fractions for a large suite of major, trace and rare earth elements, a sub-set of the samples are also analyzed for Nd IC. We use multivariate statistical analyses of the resulting geochemical data to identify how each component of the sediment partitions across the sequential

  3. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ202Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ202Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger.

  4. Diagenetic origin of carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of Permian Triassic boundary strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Ezat; Wade, William J.; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid

    2001-09-01

    Bulk carbonate δ13C and δ18O compositions of profiles across Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary sections in China, Italy, Austria, and Iran show wide varieties of trends. The δ13C depletions occur in all sections and range from 2 to 8‰ PDB in magnitude. These excursions take place over intervals ranging from less than 0.1 to more than 40 m. The δ18O values may increase or decrease toward the P-T boundary, but decrease sharply by 2-9‰ PDB at or above the boundary. Cross-plots of δ13C and δ18O values from all sections show positive covariance. Wide differences in magnitudes, trends, and position of the excursions relative to the boundary, as well as the covariance patterns suggest that P-T boundary δ18O and δ13C values are partially or entirely diagenetic in origin, formed in association with exposure surfaces. This interpretation implies that P-T boundary sections studied till date were subaerially exposed before, during, and after the mass extinction, resulting in the removal of strata containing key information about the extinction mechanism. This inference is consistent with the paleontological studies that have shown the presence of gaps at the boundary, and further supported by the sharp lithologic changes observed at virtually all P-T boundary sections. Subaerial exposures are documented by detailed sedimentologic and isotopic studies from central Tethyan sections in Abadeh and Shah Reza in Iran. Proposed P-T boundary extinction models are based on isotopic values that are diagenetic in origin and stratigraphic sections that are incomplete, leading to extinction mechanisms with little physical supporting evidence.

  5. Carbon Isotope Composition of Mysids at a Terrestrial-Marine Ecotone, Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkins, L. M.; Jelinski, D. E.; Karagatzides, J. D.; Carr, A.

    2002-04-01

    The relative contribution of summertime terrestrial versus marine carbon to an estuary on coastal British Columbia, Canada was explored using stable carbon isotopic (δ 13C values) analysis of mysid crustaceans (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Mysidacea). We hypothesized that landscape linkages between the forested upland and adjacent inshore marine waters, via river, groundwater and overland flows, may influence carbon content and metabolism in the coastal zone. We sampled 14 stations spatially distributed in a grid and found δ 13C compositions of mysids ranged from -15·2 to -18·4‰. There was, however, no obvious spatial distribution of δ 13C values relative to the estuarine gradient in Cow Bay. Heavy tidal mixing is suggested to disperse marine and terrestrial carbon throughout the entire bay. From a temporal perspective however, mysid δ 13C signatures became enriched over the sampling period (mid-July to mid-August), which is representative of a stronger marine influence. This may arise because mysids are exposed to greater marine-derived carbon sources later in the summer, a decrease in freshwater input (and hence terrestrial carbon), changes in phytoplankton or macrophyte community structure, or that mysids preferentially feed on marine food sources. Overall, the recorded isotopic values are characteristic of marine organic carbon signatures suggesting that in summer, despite the proximity to shore, little or no terrestrial carbon penetrates the food web at the trophic level of mysids. This notwithstanding we believe there is a strong need for additional study of carbon flows at the marine-terrestrial interface, especially for disturbed watersheds.

  6. Climatic controls on the isotopic composition and availability of soil nitrogen in mountainous tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Cole, R. J.; Schmitt, C. G.; All, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests in mountainous regions are often assumed to be nitrogen (N) limited, yet N dynamics across rugged terrain can be complex due to gradients in climate and topography. Elucidating patterns of N availability and loss across such gradients is necessary to predict and manage tropical forest response to environmental changes such as increasing N deposition and rising temperatures. However, such data is currently lacking, particularly in remote locations that are of high conservation value. To address this gap, a research expedition organized by the American Climber Science Program recently made a coast-to-coast journey across a remote region of Costa Rica, travelling over the Cordillera Talamanca and through La Amistad International Park. Numerous biological, chemical and hydrologic measurements were made en-route across montane to premontane wet tropical forests, spanning nearly 2,000 m in elevation and 200 km. Surface soil samples collected at regular intervals along this transect illuminate environmental drivers of N dynamics across the region. The dataset reveals strong links between soil natural abundance N isotopic composition (δ15N) and elevation and temperature parameters, and weaker links to precipitation and topography. This is in general agreement with global scale observations, but divergence from some previously published works is apparent and will be discussed. δ15N mass balance models suggest that N isotope patterns reflect differences in forms of N loss and the relative importance of fractionating and non-fractionating pathways. When combined with data on several other edaphic properties, especially C:N stoichiometry, the results points toward notable variation in soil N availability and N constraints across the transect. This study illustrates large, but predictable, variation in key N cycle traits across the premontane to montane wet tropical forest transition. These findings have management-relevant implications for tropical regions.

  7. Isotopic composition of precipitation at the station Ljubljana (Reaktor, Slovenia – period 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vreča

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen (δ2H and δ18O and the tritium activity (A were monitored in monthly collected precipitation at Ljubljana (Reaktor during the period 2007–2010. Monthly and yearly isotope variations are discussed and compared with those observed over the period 1981–2006 and with the basic meteorological parameters for Ljubljana (Bežigrad and Ljubljana (Hrastje stations for the period 2007−2010. The mean values for δ2H and δ18O, weighted by precipitation amount at Ljubljana (Reaktor, are –59.4 ‰ and –8.71 ‰. The reduced major axis local meteoric water line (LMWLRMA is δ2H = (8.19 ± 0.22×δ18O + (11.52 ± 1.97, while the precipitation weighted least square regression results in LMWLPWLSR-Re δ2H = (7.94 ± 0.21×δ18O + (9.76 ± 1.93. The lack of significant difference in the LMWL slopes indicates a relatively homogeneous distribution of monthly precipitation as well as the small number of low-amount monthly precipitation events with low deuterium excess. The deuterium excess weighted mean value is 10.3 ‰ which indicates the prevailing influence of the Atlantic air masses. The temperature coefficient of δ18O is 0.30 ‰/°C. Tritium activity in monthly precipitation shows typical seasonal variations, with a weighted mean tritium activity in this period of 8.5 TU. No decrease of mean annual activity is observed.

  8. Calcium isotopic composition of high-latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eisenhauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST history in climate-sensitive regions (e.g. tropical and polar oceans became a challenging task in palaeoceanographic research. Biogenic shell carbonate SST proxies successfully developed for tropical regions often fail in cool water environments. Their major regional shortcomings and the cryptic diversity now found within the major high latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. highlight an urgent need to explore complementary SST proxies for these cool-water regions. Here we incorporate the genetic component into a calibration study of a new SST proxy for the high latitudes. We found that the calcium isotopic composition (δ44/40Ca of calcite from genotyped net catches and core-top samples of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. is related to temperature and unaffected by genetic variations. The temperature sensitivity has been found to be 0.17 (±0.02‰ per 1°C, highlighting its potential for downcore applications in open marine cool-water environments. Our results further indicate that in extreme polar environments, below a critical threshold temperature of 2.0 (±0.5°C associated with salinities below 33.0 (±0.5‰, a prominent shift in biomineralization affects the δ44/40Ca of genotyped and core-top N. pachyderma (sin., becoming insensitive to temperature. These findings highlight the need of more systematic calibration studies on single planktonic foraminiferal species in order to unravel species-specific factors influencing the temperature sensitivity of Ca isotope fractionation and to validate the proxies' applicability.

  9. CO2 and CH4 isotope compositions and production pathways in a tropical peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M. Elizabeth; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Ogram, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely recognized that peatlands are important in the global carbon cycle, there is limited information on belowground gas production in tropical peatlands. We measured pore water methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and δ13C isotopic composition and CH4 and CO2 production rates in peat incubations from the Changuinola wetland in Panama. Our most striking finding was that CH4 was depleted in 13C (-94‰ in pore water and produced at -107‰ in incubated peat) relative to CH4 found in most temperate and northern wetlands, potentially impacting the accuracy of approaches that use carbon isotopes to constrain global mass balance estimates. Fractionation factors between CH4 and CO2 showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant CH4 production pathway, with up to 100% of the CH4 produced via this route. Far more CO2 than CH4 (7 to 100X) was measured in pore water, due in part to loss of CH4 through ebullition or oxidation and to the production of CO2 from pathways other than methanogenesis. We analyzed data on 58 wetlands from the literature to determine the dominant factors influencing the relative proportions of CH4 produced by hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis and found that a combination of environmental parameters including pH, vegetation type, nutrient status, and latitude are correlated to the dominant methanogenic pathway. Methane production pathways in tropical peatlands do not correlate with these variables in the same way as their more northerly counterparts and thus may be differently affected by climate change.

  10. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, M.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover) vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio. We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW) and sediment pore water (SPW) from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰), with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes. In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (-9.4‰ to 7.4‰) than for nitrate (-11.4‰ to -3.4‰), as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water). For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion). Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil interaction; and another highly influenced by soil conditions. The snow-type flow path contributes low DIN

  11. Significance of the air moisture source on the stable isotope composition of the precipitation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuppon, György; Bottyán, Emese; Krisztina, Krisztina; Weidinger, Tamás; Haszpra, László

    2017-04-01

    In the last few years, the analysis of backward trajectories has become a common use for identifying moisture uptake regions for the precipitation of various regions. Hungary is influenced by meteorological (climatological) conditions of Atlantic, Mediterranean and North/East regions therefore this area is sensitive to detect changes in the atmospheric circulation. In this study we present the result of the investigation about the determination of air moisture source regions for six localities in Hungary for more than four years. To reconstruct the path of the air moisture from the source region, we ran the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model using the GDAS database with 1° spatial and 6 hours temporal resolution for every precipitation event, for heights of 500, 1500 and 3000 m. We determined the location where water vapour entered into the atmosphere by calculating specific humidity along the trajectories. Five possible moisture source regions for precipitation were defined: Atlantic, North European, East European, Mediterranean and continental (local/convective). Additionally, this study evaluates the regional differences in stable isotope compositions of precipitation based on hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of daily rainwater samples. Stable isotope variations show systematic and significant differences between the regions. The variability of moisture source shows also systematic seasonal and spatial distribution. Interestingly, the most dominant among the identified source regions in all stations is the Mediterranean area; while the second is the Atlantic region. The ratio of the precipitations originated in Eastern and Northern Europe seem to correlate with the geographic position of the meteorological station. Furthermore, the ratios of the different moisture sources show intra annual variability. In each location, the amount weighted d-excess values were calculated for the identified moisture sources. The precipitation originated in the Mediterranean

  12. Memories of Earth Formation in the Modern Mantle: W Isotopic Composition of Flood Basalt Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R.; Horan, M. F.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Francis, D.; Jackson, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Four and a half billion years of geologic activity has overprinted much of the direct evidence for processes involved in Earth's formation and its initial chemical differentiation. Xenon isotopic ratios [1] and 3He/22Ne ratios [2] suggest that heterogeneities formed during Earth's accretion have been preserved to the present time. New opportunities to learn about early Earth history have opened up with the development of analytical techniques that allow high precision analysis of short-lived isotopic systems. The Hf-W system (t½ = 8.9 Ma) is particularly valuable for studying events that occurred during the first ~50 Ma of Solar System history. Here we report new data for ~ 60 Ma Baffin Bay and ~ 120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau lava samples. Both are large igneous provinces that may have sampled a primitive, less degassed deep mantle reservoir that has remained isolated since shortly after Earth formation [3,4]. Three samples analyzed have 182W/184W ratios that are 10 to 48 ppm higher than our terrestrial standard. These excesses in 182W are the highest ever measured in terrestrial rocks, and may reflect 182W ingrowth in an early-formed high Hf/W mantle domain that was produced by magma ocean differentiation [5]. Long and short-lived Sm-Nd systematics in these samples, however, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. The 182W excessses could rather reflect the derivation of these lavas from a mantle reservoir that was isolated from late accretionary additions [6]. The chondritic initial Os isotopic compositions and highly siderophile element abundances of these samples, however, are inconsistent with this interpretation. Tungsten concentrations for the Baffin Bay and Ontong Java Plateau samples range from 23 ppb to 62 ppb, and are negatively correlated with their 182W/184W ratios. We propose that the source reservoirs for these flood basalts likely formed through Hf/W fractionation caused by core-forming events occuring over a protacted time interval during Earth

  13. Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition of Various Fossil-fuel Combustion Nitrogen Oxide Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, W.; Michalski, G. M.; Fang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important trace gases that impact atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. In order to help constrain NOx source contributions, the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of NOx (δ15N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning. However, despite anthropogenic emissions being the most prevalent source of NOx, there is still large uncertainty in the δ15N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources. To this end, this study provides a detailed analysis of several fossil-fuel combustion NOx sources and their δ15N-NOx values. To accomplish this, exhaust or flue samples from several fossil-fuel combustion sources were sampled and analyzed for their δ15N-NOx that included airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a catalytic converter, gasoline-powered lawn tools and utility vehicles, diesel-electric buses, diesel semi-trucks, and natural gas-burning home furnace and power plant. A relatively large range of δ15N-NOx values were measured from -28.1 to 0.3‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples with cold started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the lowest δ15N-NOx values at -20.9‰, and warm-started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the highest values of -1.7‰. The NOx sources analyzed in this study primarily originated from the "thermal production" of NOx and generally emitted negative δ15N-NOx values, likely due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with its production. It was found that there is a negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ15N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with catalytic NOx reduction technology, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx may have an influence on δ15N-NOx values. Based on the δ15N-NOx values reported in this study and in previous studies, a δ15N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous United States. The constructed isoscape demonstrates the seasonal importance of various

  14. Uranium isotopic compositions of the crust and ocean: Age corrections, U budget and global extent of modern anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    The 238U/235U isotopic composition of uranium in seawater can provide important insights into the modern U budget of the oceans. Using the double spike technique and a new data reduction method, we analyzed an array of seawater samples and 41 geostandards covering a broad range of geological settings relevant to low and high temperature geochemistry. Analyses of 18 seawater samples from geographically diverse sites from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, and English Channel, together with literature data (n = 17), yield a δ238U value for modern seawater of -0.392 ± 0.005‰ relative to CRM-112a. Measurements of the uranium isotopic compositions of river water, lake water, evaporites, modern coral, shales, and various igneous rocks (n = 64), together with compilations of literature data (n = 380), allow us to estimate the uranium isotopic compositions of the various reservoirs involved in the modern oceanic uranium budget, as well as the fractionation factors associated with U incorporation into those reservoirs. Because the incorporation of U into anoxic/euxinic sediments is accompanied by large isotopic fractionation (ΔAnoxic/Euxinic-SW = +0.6‰), the size of the anoxic/euxinic sink strongly influences the δ238U value of seawater. Keeping all other fluxes constant, the flux of uranium in the anoxic/euxinic sink is constrained to be 7.0 ± 3.1 Mmol/yr (or 14 ± 3% of the total flux out of the ocean). This translates into an areal extent of anoxia into the modern ocean of 0.21 ± 0.09% of the total seafloor. This agrees with independent estimates and rules out a recent uranium budget estimate by Henderson and Anderson (2003). Using the mass fractions and isotopic compositions of various rock types in Earth's crust, we further calculate an average δ238U isotopic composition for the continental crust of -0.29 ± 0.03‰ corresponding to a 238U/235U isotopic ratio of 137.797 ± 0.005. We discuss the implications of

  15. The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 2. Surface waters and groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Darling

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of stable isotopes as tracers of the water molecule has a long pedigree. The study reported here is part of an attempt to establish a comprehensive isotopic 'baseline' for the British Isles as background data for a range of applications. Part 1 of this study (Darling and Talbot, 2003 considered the isotopic composition of rainfall in Britain and Ireland. The present paper is concerned with the composition of surface waters and groundwater. In isotopic terms, surface waters (other than some upland streams are poorly characterised in the British Isles; their potential variability has yet to be widely used as an aid in hydrological research. In what may be the first study of a major British river, a monthly isotopic record of the upper River Thames during 1998 was obtained. This shows high damping of the isotopic variation compared to that in rainfall over most of the year, though significant fluctuations were seen for the autumn months. Smaller rivers such as the Stour and Darent show a more subdued response to the balance between runoff and baseflow. The relationship between the isotopic composition of rainfall and groundwater is also considered. From a limited database, it appears that whereas Chalk groundwater is a representative mixture of weighted average annual rainfall, for Triassic sandstone groundwater there is a seasonal selection of rainfall biased towards isotopically-depleted winter recharge. This may be primarily the result of physical differences between the infiltration characteristics of rock types, though other factors (vegetation, glacial history could be involved. In the main, however, groundwaters appear to be representative of bulk rainfall within an error band of 0.5‰ δ18O. Contour maps of the δ18O and δ2H content of recent groundwaters in the British Isles show a fundamental SW-NE depletion effect modified by topography. The range of measured values, while much smaller than those for rainfall, still covers

  16. Stable calcium isotope composition of a pedogenic carbonate in forested ecosystem: the case of the needle fibre calcite (NFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliere, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Gussone, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    Calcium (Ca), carbon (C) and oxygen (O) are important elements in terrestrial environment, as their biogeochemical cycles are directly related to the storage of atmospheric carbon. Nevertheless, contrarily to C and O, Ca isotope composition has been only poorly studied in the terrestrial carbonates. Needle Fibre Calcite (NFC) is one of the most common pedogenic carbonates, unless its origin is still under debate. Recent studies explain its formation by precipitation inside fungal hyphae. Due to this possible biogenic origin, NFC can be considered as a potential bridge between the biochemistry (precipitation inside organic structure) and geochemistry (pedogenic carbonate related to soil conditions) of the Ca. Thus, the study of the Ca isotope composition of NFC seem to be of first interest in order to shed light on the behaviour of Ca in terrestrial environment, especially when precipitation of secondary carbonates is involved. The sampling site is situated in the Swiss Jura Mountains and has been chosen due to a previous complete study of the C and O isotope composition of NFC in relation to the ecosystem, which represent a good precondition for the understanding of the NFC Ca isotope signatures in this context. In this study, the implication of the fungi in the origin of NFC is investigated, by comparing the Ca isotope composition of NFC and a purely physicochemical calcite cement (LCC), both precipitated in the same environment. The δ44Ca signature of NFC and LCC crystals were used to determine possible differences of the precipitation rate during their formation. NFC and LCC have similar δ18O composition and are supposed to precipitate at the same temperature (Milliere et al., 2011a). Thus the study of Ca isotope composition of NFC seems to demonstrate that the elongated shape of the calcite needle can be explained by different precipitation processes than the rhombohedric calcite crystals precipitated in the same environment; and more precisely, the specific

  17. Evaluating the Historical Importance of Impact Induced Hydrothermal Systems on Mars Using the Stable Isotopic Composition of Martian Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of impact events during the early history of Mars is obvious through a simple examination of the character of the martian surface. This ancient, heavily cratered terrain has been shown to be associated with extensive phyllosilicate deposits. This geologic link could suggest that the extensive phyllosilicate-forming alteration may have occurred during early martian history through impact-induced hydrothermal alteration. However, examination of the oxygen isotopic composition of water on Mars suggests that the extensive phyllosilicate deposits were formed primarily through low temperature (Mars. The average oxygen isotopic composition of water on Earth is dictated by the nature of water-rock interactions. If these interactions occur at higher temperatures then the water will contain a higher proportion of 18O, while lower temperature interactions will result in water with a lower proportion of 18O. Water on Earth today contains a higher proportion of 18O because of plate tectonics and hydrothermal interaction at mid-ocean ridges. The oxygen isotopic composition of water on early earth, however, may have been quite different, containing a smaller proportion of 18O suggesting much less hydrothermal interaction. Because there are not yet any direct measurements of the oxygen isotopic composition of water on Mars, it needs to be inferred through examination of carbonates preserved in martian meteorites and the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2. This can be done because the oxygen incorporated into carbonates and CO2 is easily exchanged with liquid water if it is present. Independently, both measurements provide an estimate for the (Sigma)18O of water on Mars to be near -16%. This composition is consistent with low temperature weathering of the silicate crust, and indicates that impact hydrothermal systems did not play an important role in the early alteration of the planet. However, our understanding of impact-induced hydrothermal systems remains

  18. The helium question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E

    1979-12-07

    Helium appears indispensable for certain energy-related uses that may be important 50 years from now, when helium-bearing natural gas, a much cheaper source than air, may be exhausted. Present demand, however, is lower than productive capacity, and much helium is being dissipated into the atmosphere as natural gas is burned for fuel. Controversy over the need for a government-directed helium-conservation program reflects fundamental differences in viewpoints on the economic future of industrial society, on the limits of substitution of labor and capital for a depleting resource, and on intergenerational equity and risk-bearing.

  19. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.

    2017-07-01

    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  20. Alteration of the Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition in the Martian Surface Rocks Due to Cosmic Ray Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. K.; Ostryakov, V. M.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Mahaffy, P.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    C-13/C-12 and N-15/N-14 isotopic ratios are pivotal for our understanding of the Martian carbon cycle, history of the Martian atmospheric escape, and origin of the organic compounds on Mars. Here we demonstrate that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the surface rocks on Mars can be significantly altered by the continuous exposure of Martian surface to cosmic rays. Cosmic rays can effectively produce C-13 and N-15 isotopes via spallation nuclear reactions on oxygen atoms in various Martian rocks. We calculate that in the top meter of the Martian rocks, the rates of production of both C-13 and N-15 due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) exposure can vary within 1.5-6 atoms/cm3/s depending on rocks' depth and chemical composition. We also find that the average solar cosmic rays can produce carbon and nitrogen isotopes at a rate comparable to GCRs in the top 5-10 cm of the Martian rocks. We demonstrate that if the total carbon content in a surface Martian rock is biological" C-13/C-12 ratio would be effectively erased by cosmic rays over 3.5 billion years of exposure. We found that for the rocks with relatively short exposure ages (e.g., 100 million years), cosmogenic changes in N-15/N-14 ratio are still very significant. We also show that a short exposure to cosmic rays of Allan Hills 84001 while on Mars can explain its high-temperature heavy nitrogen isotopic composition (N-15/N-14). Applications to Martian meteorites and the current Mars Science Laboratory mission are discussed.

  1. Partitioning understory evapotranspiration in semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia using the isotopic composition of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Gaj, Marcel; Holtorf, Kim-Kirsten; Gröngröft, Alexander; Brokate, Ralph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Eschenbach, Annette

    2016-04-01

    In dry environments with a sparse vegetation cover, understory evapotranspiration is a major component of the ecosystem water balance. Consequently, knowledge on the size of evapotranspiration fluxes and the driving factors is important for our understanding of the hydrological cycle. Understory evapotranspiration is made up of soil evaporation and plant transpiration. Soil evaporation can be measured directly from patches free of vegetation. However, when understory vegetation is present distinguishing between soil evaporation and plant transpiration is challenging. In this study, we aim to partition understory evapotranspiration based on an approach that combines the measurements of water-vapour fluxes using the closed chamber method with measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour. The measurements were done in the framework of SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management). The study sites were located in three different semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia: thornbush savanna, Baikiaea woodland and shrubland. At each site measurements were done under tree canopies as well as at unshaded areas between the canopies. We measured evaporation from the bare soil and evapotranspiration from patches covered with herbaceous species and shrubs using a transparent chamber connected with an infrared gas analyser (LI-8100A, LICOR Inc.). The stable isotope composition of water vapour inside the chamber and depth profiles of soil water stable isotopes were determined in-situ using a tuneable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscope (OA-ICOS, Los Gatos Research, DLT 100). Xylem samples were extracted using the cryogenic vacuum extraction method and the isotopic composition of the extracted water was measured subsequently with a cavity-ring-down spectrometer (CRDS L2120-i, Picarro Inc.). We will present the quantified fluxes of understory evapotranspiration measured in the three different ecosystems, show the

  2. Alkane distribution and carbon isotope composition in fossil leaves: An interpretation of plant physiology in the geologic past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H. V.; Freeman, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The relative chain-length distribution and carbon-isotope composition of n-alkanes extracted from sedimentary rocks are important geochemical tools for investigating past terrestrial ecosystems. Alkanes preserved in ancient sediments are assumed to be contemporaneous, derived from the same ecosystem, and integrated from the biomass present on the landscape at the time of deposition. Further, there is an underlying assumption that ancient plants exhibited the same metabolic and physiological responses to climate conditions that are observed for modern plants. Interpretations of alkane abundances and isotopic signatures are complicated by the strong influence of phylogenetic affiliation and ecological factors, such as canopy structure. A better understanding of how ecosystem and taxa influence alkane properties, including homologue abundance patterns and leaf-lipid carbon isotope fractionation would help strengthen paleoecological interpretations based on these widely employed plant biomarkers. In this study, we analyze the alkane chain-length distribution and carbon-isotope composition of phytoleim and alkanes (d13Cleaf and d13Clipid) extracted from a selection of Cretaceous and Paleocene fossil leaves from the Guaduas and Cerrejon Formations of Colombia. These data were compared with data for the same families in a modern analogue biome. Photosynthetic and biosynthetic fractionation (∆leaf and elipid) values determined from the fossil material indicate carbon metabolism patterns were similar to modern plants. Fossil data were incorporated in a biomass-weighted mixing model to represent the expected lipid complement of sediment arising from this ecosystem and compared with alkane measurements from the rock matrix. Modeled and observed isotopic and abundance patterns match well for alkane homologs most abundant in plants (i.e., n-C27 to n-C33). The model illustrates the importance of understanding biases in litter flux and taphonomic pressures inherent in the

  3. Factors controlling carbon isotopic composition of land snail shells estimated from lab culturing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naizhong; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2014-05-01

    Carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate is widely applied in reconstructing the C3/C4 vegetation distribution of paleo-environment, which is considered to reflect variations of some environmental parameters [1][2][3]. Land snail shell carbon has three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested carbonate (limestone) [4]. However, their relative contributions to shell carbonate have not been understood well yet [4][5][6][7][8]. More researches are necessary before we could apply this tool in paleo-environment reconstruction, especially inter-lab culturing experiment. A kind of land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, was collected at Yokohama, Japan and cultured under suitable environment to lay eggs. The second generations were growing up from eggs to adults around 6-12 months at the temperature of 20°, 25° and 30°, respectively. All of the snails at 25° and 30° and most of those at 20° were fed by cabbage (C3 plant) during their life span while others were fed by corn (C4 plant). To investigate the effect of ingested carbonate, some of them were fed by Ca3(PO4)2 powder while others were fed by CaCO3 powder. δ13C of shells were analyzed by an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Thermo Finnigan MAT 253); δ13C of food and snail tissue were measured by a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (Picarro G1121-i). At the same time, δ13C of eggshell and new born snails were analyzed by a Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GasBench II). We confirmed that diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone could be important sources controlling shell δ13C values. And the temperature could affect shell carbonate δ13C values, too. A simple but credible frame was raised to discuss the mechanism of how each possible source and environmental parameter could affect shell carbonate δ13C values based on previous works [4][6][8] and this study. According to this frame and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the

  4. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C CAIs: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J

    2008-02-21

    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  5. Linking soil, water, and honey composition to assess the geographical origin of argentinean honey by multielemental and isotopic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, María V; Podio, Natalia S; Badini, Raúl G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Héctor A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gautier, Eduardo A; García, Pilar Peral; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2015-05-13

    The objective of this research was to investigate the development of a reliable fingerprint from elemental and isotopic signatures of Argentinean honey to assess its geographical provenance. Honey, soil, and water from three regions (Córdoba, Buenos Aires, and Entre Rı́os) were collected. The multielemental composition was determined by ICP-MS. δ(13)C was measured by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed by chemometrics looking for the association between the elements, stable isotopes, and honey samples from the three studied areas. Honey samples were differentiated by classification trees and discriminant analysis using a combination of eight key variables (Rb, K/Rb, B, U, (87)Sr/(86)Sr, Na, La, and Zn) presenting differences among the studied regions. The application of canonical correlation analysis and generalized procrustes analysis showed 91.5% consensus between soil, water, and honey samples, in addition to clear differences between studied areas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the correspondence between soil, water, and honey samples using different statistical methods, showing that elemental and isotopic honey compositions are related to soil and water characteristics of the site of origin.

  6. Distribution of stable isotopes in arid storms . I. Relation between the distribution of isotopic composition in rainfall and in the consequent runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, E. M.; Dody, A.; Geyh, M. A.; Yair, A.; Yakirevich, A.; Issar, A. S.

    Temporal distributions of the isotopic composition in arid rain storms and in the associated runoff were investigated in a small arid rocky basin in Israel. Customized rain and runoff samplers provided sequential water samples hermetically sealed in high-density PVC bags. In several storms where the runoff was isotopically depleted, compared with the rainfall, the difference could not be explained by fractionation effects occurring during overland flow. A water-balance study relating the runoff discharge to rainfall over a rocky watershed showed that the entire discharge is produced by a very small segment (1-2mm) of the rain storm. The major objective, therefore, was to provide quantitative relations between segments of rainfall (rain showers and rain spells) and runoff. The time distribution of the composition of stable isotopes (oxygen and hydrogen) was used to quantify the correlation between the rain spell's amount and the consequent runoff. The aim of this work was to (a) utilize the dynamic variations in the isotopic composition in rainfall and runoff and model the magnitude of surface-storage capacity associated with runoff processes of overland flow, and (b) characterize the isotopic composition of the percolating water with respect to the isotopic distribution in rainfall and runoff events. The conceptual model postulates an isotopic mixing of overland flow with water within the depression storage. A transport model was then formulated in order to estimate the physical watershed parameters that control the development of overland flow from a certain rainfall period. Part I (this paper) presents the results and the assessment of the relative depression storage obtained from oxygen-18 and deuterium analyses that lead to the physical and mathematical formulation of a double-component model of kinematic-wave flow and transport, which is presented in Part II (accompanying paper). Résumé Les variations temporelles, en zone aride, de la composition isotopique

  7. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    ;Clumped-isotope; thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope ;clumps;). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  8. What controls the stable isotope composition of precipitation in the Mekong Delta? A model-based statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Le Duy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence of local and regional climatic factors on the stable isotopic composition of rainfall in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD as part of the Asian monsoon region. It is based on 1.5 years of weekly rainfall samples. In the first step, the isotopic composition of the samples is analyzed by local meteoric water lines (LMWLs and single-factor linear correlations. Additionally, the contribution of several regional and local factors is quantified by multiple linear regression (MLR of all possible factor combinations and by relative importance analysis. This approach is novel for the interpretation of isotopic records and enables an objective quantification of the explained variance in isotopic records for individual factors. In this study, the local factors are extracted from local climate records, while the regional factors are derived from atmospheric backward trajectories of water particles. The regional factors, i.e., precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and the length of backward trajectories, are combined with equivalent local climatic parameters to explain the response variables δ18O, δ2H, and d-excess of precipitation at the station of measurement. The results indicate that (i MLR can better explain the isotopic variation in precipitation (R2  =  0.8 compared to single-factor linear regression (R2  =  0.3; (ii the isotopic variation in precipitation is controlled dominantly by regional moisture regimes (∼ 70 % compared to local climatic conditions (∼ 30 %; (iii the most important climatic parameter during the rainy season is the precipitation amount along the trajectories of air mass movement; (iv the influence of local precipitation amount and temperature is not significant during the rainy season, unlike the regional precipitation amount effect; (v secondary fractionation processes (e.g., sub-cloud evaporation can be identified through the d-excess and take

  9. Non-destructive estimates of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and associated soil water oxygen isotope composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam P.; Ogée, Jérôme; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Saavedra, Noelia; Fernández-Prado, Noelia; Maire, Juliette; Launois, Thomas; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange can be estimated based on the differential influence of leaves and soils on budgets of the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. To do so, the activity of carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a group of enzymes that catalyse the hydration of CO2 in soils and plants, needs to be understood. Measurements of soil CA activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the δ18O of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of CO2 hydration. This requires information about the δ18O of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water, typically obtained from destructive, depth-resolved sampling and extraction of soil water. In doing so, an assumption is made about the soil water pool that CO2 interacts with, which may bias estimates of CA activity if incorrect. Furthermore, this can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the potential for spatial and temporal variability in the δ18O of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by inferring the rate of CO2 hydration and the δ18O of soil water from the relationship between the δ18O of CO2 fluxes and the δ18O of CO2 at the soil surface measured at different ambient CO2 conditions. This approach was tested through laboratory incubations of air-dried soils that were re-wetted with three waters of different δ18O. Gas exchange measurements were made on these soils to estimate the rate of hydration and the δ18O of soil water, followed by soil water extraction to allow for comparison. Estimated rates of CO2 hydration were 6.8-14.6 times greater than the theoretical uncatalysed rate of hydration, indicating that CA were active in these soils. Importantly, these estimates were not significantly different among water treatments, suggesting

  10. Non-destructive estimates of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and associated soil water oxygen isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Jones

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net land–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2 exchange can be estimated based on the differential influence of leaves and soils on budgets of the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O of atmospheric CO2. To do so, the activity of carbonic anhydrases (CAs, a group of enzymes that catalyse the hydration of CO2 in soils and plants, needs to be understood. Measurements of soil CA activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the δ18O of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of CO2 hydration. This requires information about the δ18O of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water, typically obtained from destructive, depth-resolved sampling and extraction of soil water. In doing so, an assumption is made about the soil water pool that CO2 interacts with, which may bias estimates of CA activity if incorrect. Furthermore, this can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the potential for spatial and temporal variability in the δ18O of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by inferring the rate of CO2 hydration and the δ18O of soil water from the relationship between the δ18O of CO2 fluxes and the δ18O of CO2 at the soil surface measured at different ambient CO2 conditions. This approach was tested through laboratory incubations of air-dried soils that were re-wetted with three waters of different δ18O. Gas exchange measurements were made on these soils to estimate the rate of hydration and the δ18O of soil water, followed by soil water extraction to allow for comparison. Estimated rates of CO2 hydration were 6.8–14.6 times greater than the theoretical uncatalysed rate of hydration, indicating that CA were active in these soils. Importantly, these estimates were not significantly different among water

  11. Ventilation of the Black Sea anoxic zone: Evidence from the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, A. V.; Dubinina, E. O.; Kossova, S. A.; Berezhnaya, E. D.

    2017-08-01

    Assuming stability of the Black Sea system and conservative behavior of sulfate in relation to salinity outside the bottom convective layer (BCL), the influence of shelf-modified Mediterranean water (SMMW) on the water column of the Black Sea below the core of the cold intermediate layer (CIL) was estimated on the basis of variations in the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate. As a result of construction of the model of mixing of three water masses, it was shown that the SMMW fraction in the area of hydrogen sulfide onset at a salinity of 20.8-20.9 was 5-7 times higher than the amount of water produced by mixing of the CIL and the BCL. The SMMW fraction decreased with depth rapidly and was only 10% at a depth of 1000 m. Significant supply of SMMW to the pycnocline area provided a high renewal rate of water, which prevented accumulation of 32S-rich sulfate resulted from hydrogen sulfide oxidation.

  12. First Measurements of the Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of NOx from Biomass Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Dorothy L; Hastings, Meredith G

    2016-11-01

    The nitrogen isotopic composition (δ(15)N) of NOx (NO + NO2) was measured during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). The δ(15)N-NOx produced by burning a variety of biomass types ranged from -7 to +12‰ (vs air N2). In the laboratory experiments, two types of emissions were sampled: "stack" fires where the emissions were measured within a few seconds of production from the fire and "chamber" fires where the emissions were held in a room for 1-2 h and sampled continuously. For both types of emissions sampled, the primary control on δ(15)N-NOx is the δ(15)N of the biomass burned (δ(15)N-biomass), although differences were found for δ(15)N-NOx between the two types of fires. For the stack emissions, δ(15)N-NOx = 0.41 × δ(15)N-biomass +1.0 (R(2) = 0.83, p-value biomass +1.7 (R(2) = 0.94, p-value biomass suggests that in any given environment, the δ(15)N-NOx can be predicted.

  13. Bulk hydrogen stable isotope composition of seaweeds: Clear separation between Ulvophyceae and other classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Matheus C; Carneiro, Pedro Bastos de Macedo; Dellatorre, Fernando Gaspar; Gibilisco, Pablo Ezequiel; Sachs, Julian; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the bulk hydrogen stable isotope composition (δ(2) H) of seaweeds. This study investigated the bulk δ(2) H in several different seaweed species collected from three different beaches in Brazil, Australia, and Argentina. Here, we show that Ulvophyceae (a group of green algae) had lower δ(2) H values (between -94‰ and -130‰) than red algae (Florideophyceae), brown algae (Phaeophyceae), and species from the class Bryopsidophyceae (another group of green algae). Overall the latter three groups of seaweeds had δ(2) H values between -50‰ and -90‰. These findings were similar at the three different geographic locations. Observed differences in δ(2) H values were probably related to differences in hydrogen (H) metabolism among algal groups, also observed in the δ(2) H values of their lipids. The marked difference between the δ(2) H values of Ulvophyecae and those of the other groups could be useful to trace the food source of food webs in coastal rocky shores, to assess the impacts of green tides on coastal ecosystems, and to help clarify aspects of their phylogeny. However, reference materials for seaweed δ(2) H are required before the full potential of using the δ(2) H of seaweeds for ecological studies can be exploited. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Data reduction framework for standard atomic weights and isotopic compositions of the elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Possolo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We outline a general framework to compute consensus reference values of standard atomic weights, isotope ratios, and isotopic abundances, and to evaluate associated uncertainties using modern statistical methods for consensus building that can handle mutually inconsistent measurement results. The multivariate meta-regression approach presented here is directly relevant to the work of the IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and atomic weights (CIAAW), and we illustrate the proposed method in meta-analyses of the isotopic abundances and atomic weights of zinc, platinum, antimony, and iridium.

  15. Structural controls on fluid circulation at the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC) geothermal area (Chile-Argentina), revealed by soil CO2 and temperature, self-potential, and helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Bravo, Francisco; Pinti, Daniele L.; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pizarro, Marcela; Tardani, Daniele; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; de la Cal, Federico; Esteban, Carlos; Morata, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Natural geothermal systems are limited areas characterized by anomalously high heat flow caused by recent tectonic or magmatic activity. The heat source at depth is the result of the emplacement of magma bodies, controlled by the regional volcano-tectonic setting. In contrast, at a local scale a well-developed fault-fracture network favors the development of hydrothermal cells, and promotes the vertical advection of fluids and heat. The Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), straddling Chile and Argentina, has an important, yet unexplored and undeveloped geothermal potential. Studies on the lithological and tectonic controls of the hydrothermal circulation are therefore important for a correct assessment of the geothermal potential of the region. Here, new and dense self-potential (SP), soil CO2 and temperature (T) measurements, and helium isotope data measured in fumaroles and thermal springs from the geothermal area located in the north-eastern flank of the Copahue volcanic edifice, within the Caviahue Caldera (the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex - CCVC) are presented. Our results allowed to the constraint of the structural origin of the active thermal areas and the understanding of the evolution of the geothermal system. NE-striking faults in the area, characterized by a combination of SP, CO2, and T maxima and high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.16 ± 0.21Ra, whereas atmospheric Ra is 1.382 × 10- 6), promote the formation of vertical permeability preferential pathways for fluid circulation. WNW-striking faults represent low-permeability pathways for hydrothermal fluid ascent, but promote infiltration of meteoric water at shallow depths, which dilute the hydrothermal input. The region is scattered with SP, CO2, and T minima, representing self-sealed zones characterized by impermeable altered rocks at depth, which create local barriers for fluid ascent. The NE-striking faults seem to be associated with the upflowing zones of the geothermal system, where the boiling process

  16. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  17. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-01-01

    “Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals.We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect.Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3− and CO32−. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many

  18. Variability in the carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids in plant proteins from different sources: 1 Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anthony H; Kruger, Nicholas J; Hedges, Robert E M; McCullagh, James S O

    2016-05-01

    The natural carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids from plant leaf proteins has been measured to establish potential sources of variability. The plant leaves studied, taken from a range of plant groups (forbs, trees, grasses, and freshwater aquatic plants), showed no significant influence of either season or environment (water and light availability) on their Δδ(13)C values. Plant groups did, however, differ in carbon isotope composition, although no consistent differences were identified at the species level. A discriminant analysis model was constructed which allowed leaves from (1) nettles, (2) Pooideae, (3) other Poales, (4) trees and (5) freshwater higher plants to be distinguished from each other on the basis of their natural abundance (13)C/(12)C ratios of individual amino acids. Differences in carbon isotope composition are known to be retained, to some extent, in the tissues of their consumers, and hence an understanding of compound-specific variation in (13)C/(12)C fractional abundance in plants has the potential to provide dietary insights of value in archaeological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnesium isotope composition of the altered upper oceanic crust at ODP Holes 504B and 896A, Costa Rica Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumais, Aurélien; Teagle, Damon A. H.; James, Rachael H.; Harris, Michelle; Pearce, Christopher R.; Milton, James A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2017-04-01

    Chemical reactions between the oceanic crust and seawater play a major role in regulating the composition of the oceans that, in turn, influence important geochemical cycles (e.g., C, S, Mg). It is well established that alteration of the oceanic crust is the principal sink of Mg in seawater, but the effect of this process on the Mg isotope composition of the oceans remains unclear. Here we present the first measurements of Mg isotopes in altered oceanic crust from ODP Holes 504B and 896A. These holes are located in 5.9 Ma crust located 200 km south of the intermediate spreading rate Costa Rica Rift. Hole 504B penetrates: (i) A volcanic section, consisting of primitive to moderately altered mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) that was open to seawater alteration under oxic-suboxic conditions at temperatures concentrations. Consequently, there is no observable change to the Mg isotopic composition of the dikes at bulk rock scale. [1] Teng et al., (2010) GCA 74, 4150-4166. [2] Huang et al., (2015) Lithos 231, 53-61.

  20. Modelling environmental controls on ecosystem photosynthesis and the carbon isotope composition of ecosystem‐respired CO2 in a coastal Douglas‐fir forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CAI, TIEBO; FLANAGAN, LAWRENCE B; JASSAL, RACHHPAL S; BLACK, T. ANDREW

    2008-01-01

    We developed and applied an ecosystem‐scale model that calculated leaf CO 2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, chloroplast CO 2 concentration and the carbon isotope composition of carbohydrate formed during photosynthesis separately...

  1. Enclosure from DOE letter dated 7/20/07 - Table 5-2, Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This enclosure from a DOE letter to EPA regarding a waste container disposed at the WIPP from the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project includes Table 5-2, Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium.

  2. Isotopic Studies of the Guerrero Composite Terrane, West-Central Mexico: Implications for Provenance of Crustal Rocks and Ore Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, A.; Macfarlane, A. W.; Salters, V. J.; Sachi-Kocher, A.

    2010-12-01

    New Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope analyses of various crustal units and ores from the Guerrero terrane are presented in order to gain insight into their provenance. Mesozoic basement rocks from the Arteaga Complex and Tejupilco metamorphic suite contain radiogenic Pb relative to bulk earth models (206Pb/204Pb between 18.701 and 19.256, 207Pb/204Pb between 15.623 and 15.693, and 208Pb/204Pb between 38.694 and 39.216), plotting to the right of the average Pb crust evolution curve of Stacey and Kramers (1975). The isotopic compositions of Pb in these rocks are substantially more radiogenic than published data on high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Grenvillian-age Oaxaca terrane, but are similar to Paleozoic basement rocks of the Mixteca terrane. Sr and Nd isotope data suggest that the basement rocks of the Guerrero terrane partly originated from ocean-floor rocks which were overlain by sediments derived from a cratonic terrane, possibly represented by the metamorphic complexes of the Oaxaca or Mixteca terranes. Lead isotope ratios of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Zihuatanejo and Huetamo Sequences define two different clusters, with the Zihuatanejo Sequence units shifted to more radiogenic values (206Pb/204 between 18.763 and 19.437, 207Pb/204Pb between 15.580 and 15.643, and 208Pb/204Pb between 38.510 and 38.892). Samples from the Huetamo Sequence are less radiogenic than the metamorphic basement, with Pb isotope ratios between 18.630 and 18.998 for 206Pb/204, 15.563 and 15.641 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 38.369 and 38.610 for 208Pb/204Pb. They plot close to the radiogenic end of the MORB field, suggesting a possible mixing line between the basement rocks and the MORB component. Lead isotope ratios of Tertiary intrusive rocks from La Verde, El Malacate, and La Esmeralda resemble the orogene reservoir in the plumbotectonics model of Zartman and Doe (1981). Plutonic rocks from La Verde show the most radiogenic Pb compositions, suggesting a significant influence of old

  3. Tracing Anthropogenic Osmium around Japan using the Osmium Isotopic Composition of Macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproson, A. D.; Selby, D. S.; Suzuki, K.

    2016-12-01

    The present-day open ocean seawater 187Os/188Os value of 1.06 is seen to reflect the balance between unradiogenic mantle derived osmium (Os) and radiogenic continental Os. However, Os released by anthropogenic activities has been detected in coastal sediments, lakes, estuaries, rain and snow from sources such as sewage sludge, catalytic convertors, smelting, fossil fuel burning and use as a staining reagent, thereby impacting the global Os budget. Despite over two decades of research, contemporary Os inputs into the ocean are believed to be underestimated by a factor of 3, leading to discrepancies in oceanic Os residence times estimated from mass balance calculations. This, in part, is due to the problems associated with directly measuring ultra-low concentrations of Os in seawater. Recently, it has been proposed that the 187Os/188Os of macroalgae (seaweed) reflects that of the seawater in which it lives. This suggests macroalgae can act as a proxy for the Os isotopic composition of seawater. We present Os isotope data for macroalgae collected from Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay, the Noto Peninsula, Izu Peninsula and Hokkaido. Macroalgae close to the major cities of Tokyo and Osaka exhibit unradiogenic 187Os/188Os values as low as 0.45, in agreement with published sediment data. As you move away from central Tokyo and Osaka, 187Os/188Os values become more radiogenic, reaching values as high as 0.95 due to the entrainment of more radiogenic seawater. Macroalgae from the less urbanised Noto and Izu Peninsulas show a radiogenic 187Os/188Os range of 0.70-0.91, close to global river estimates suggesting little contamination from anthropogenic processes. Deep-water species off the coast of Hokkaido exhibit 187Os/188Os values in agreement with published Pacific Ocean seawater data. We propose macroalgae is recording the influence of anthropogenic processes - in particular sewage sludge production and catalytic convertor exhaust - on the Os budget of Japanese waters. Therefore

  4. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Zeyer, Kerstin; Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N2O and CH4 were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010-August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NOx removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx removal. N2O emissions from incineration plants with NOx removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0g N2O tonne(-1) waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t(-1)) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N2O GJ(-1)), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6g N2O t(-1); 4.5 ± 0.9g N2O GJ(-1)). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120g N2O t(-1) (10.4g N2O GJ(-1)) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N2O emitted from the two plants with SNCR, which had considerable N2O emissions, was measured using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy. The isotopic site preference of N2O - the enrichment of (14)N(15)NO relative to (15)N(14)NO - was found to be 17.6 ± 0.8‰, with no significant difference between the two plants. Comparison to previous studies suggests SP of 17-19‰ may be characteristic for N2O produced from SNCR. Methane emissions were found to be insignificant, with a maximum emission factor of 2.5 ± 5.6g CH4 t(-1) (0.2 ± 0.5g CH4 GJ(-1)), which is expected due to high incinerator temperatures and efficient combustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  5. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses-Isotopic Composition Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The expanded use of burnup credit in the United States (U.S.) for storage and transport casks, particularly in the acceptance of credit for fission products, has been constrained by the availability of experimental fission product data to support code validation. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has noted that the rationale for restricting the Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit for storage and transportation casks (ISG-8) to actinide-only is based largely on the lack of clear, definitive experiments that can be used to estimate the bias and uncertainty for computational analyses associated with using burnup credit. To address the issues of burnup credit criticality validation, the NRC initiated a project with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to (1) develop and establish a technically sound validation approach for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety evaluations based on best-available data and methods and (2) apply the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the isotopic composition (depletion) validation approach and resulting observations and recommendations. Validation of the criticality calculations is addressed in a companion paper at this conference. For isotopic composition validation, the approach is to determine burnup-dependent bias and uncertainty in the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff) due to bias and uncertainty in isotopic predictions, via comparisons of isotopic composition predictions (calculated) and measured isotopic compositions from destructive radiochemical assay utilizing as much assay data as is available, and a best-estimate Monte Carlo based method. This paper (1) provides a detailed description of the burnup credit isotopic validation approach and its technical bases, (2) describes the application of the approach for

  6. Lead isotopic compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from HIMU basalts and possible link to sulfide components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Kogiso, Tetsu; Abe, Kanshi; Barsczus, Hans G.; Utsunomiya, Atsushi; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2004-08-01

    Pb isotopic compositions of melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts of lava samples from Mangaia and Rarotonga, Cook-Austral islands, have been determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Pb isotopic compositions of melt inclusions from Rarotonga are consistent with those of bulk rock. On the other hand, Pb isotopic compositions of sulfide-free melt inclusions from Mangaia Island are widely distributed along the join between HIMU (i.e. highly radiogenic Pb) and less radiogenic components. The variation is much wider than that in bulk-rock samples that are invariably end-member HIMU values. In contrast, Pb isotopic compositions of sulfide and carbonate inclusions are restricted to HIMU end-member values. The variations in Pb isotopic ratios can be explained by mixing between the HIMU component and another component with less radiogenic Pb, and suggests that the HIMU component is enriched in sulfide and carbonate phases as well as Pb compared with the less radiogenic component. It seems paradoxical that a sulfide-rich component is associated with highly radiogenic Pb, because sulfides generally have extremely low U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios, which result in quite unradiogenic Pb. Subducted oceanic crust is not a likely source for such a sulfide-rich component because sulfides in subducted crust may not survive dehydration processes in subduction zones, although it can produce highly radiogenic Pb. The association of highly radiogenic Pb and sulfides implies that sulfides and radiogenic Pb in the HIMU source originate from distinct reservoirs. A possible origin of the sulfides is the Earth's core, because the core is the largest sulfur budget in the Earth. The highly radiogenic Pb may originate from subducted oceanic crust which resides at the core-mantle boundary. Alternative source for radiogenic Pb is Ca-perovskite in the lower mantle, which is the main host of incompatible elements in the lower mantle and has high U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios. The core-derived sulfides

  7. Sulfur and lead isotopic compositions of massive sulfides from deep-sea hydrothermal systems : implications for ore genesis and fluid circulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Chen, S; Selby, D.; Wang, X.; X. Yin

    2017-01-01

    Studies of sulfur and lead isotopic compositions in hydrothermal deposits are an important tool to determine the source and processes of both sulfur and lead, and to understand the origin of hydrothermal ore deposits. Here, the sulfur and lead isotopic compositions of sulfide minerals have been studied for different hydrothermal fields in the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), Central Indian Ridge (CIR), Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and North Fiji Basin (NFB). The sulfur iso...

  8. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  9. Isotope composition and volume of Earth´s early oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    ´D relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios...

  10. Converting isotope values to diet composition - the use of mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common use of stable isotope analysis in mammalogy is to make inferences about diet from isotopic values (typically δ13C and δ15N) measured in a consumer’s tissues and its food sources. Mathematical mixing models are used to estimate the proportional contributions of food sour...

  11. CONVERTING ISOTOPE RATIOS TO DIET COMPOSITION - THE USE OF MIXING MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigations of wildlife foraging ecology with stable isotope analysis are increasing. Converting isotope values to proportions of different foods in a consumer's diet requires the use of mixing models. Simple mixing models based on mass balance equations have been used for d...

  12. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Eliza, E-mail: eliza.harris@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zeyer, Kerstin [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat [FOEN, Federal Office for the Environment, Air Pollution Control and Chemicals, CH-3003 Berne (Switzerland); Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}O emissions from waste incineration with SNCR NO{sub x} removal are 51.5 ± 10.6 g t{sup −1}. • This is significantly lower than the reported Swiss emission factor of 120 g t{sup −1} (FOEN, 2013). • N{sub 2}O contributes <0.3% and ≈2.5% of GHG emissions from SCR and SNCR plants. • Measured isotopic SP of 17.7‰ is likely characteristic for N{sub 2}O emissions from SNCR. • CH{sub 4} emitted by waste incineration is negligible, contributing <0.01% to total GHGs. - Abstract: Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010–August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NO{sub x} removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} removal. N{sub 2}O emissions from incineration plants with NO{sub x} removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0 g N{sub 2}O tonne{sup −1} waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t{sup −1}) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1}; 4.5 ± 0.9 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1} (10.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N{sub 2}O emitted from the two

  13. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere (UTLS region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2 mixing ratios (χ(H2 and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD.

    More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS. These show that χ(H2 does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D; the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4 and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O, as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=−0.35 · χ(CH4[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=−1.90· χ(N2O[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS.

    Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2, but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4 increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4 and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2 increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of

  14. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartrons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio.

    We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW and sediment pore water (SPW from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰, with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes.

    In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (−9.4‰ to 7.4‰ than for nitrate (−11.4‰ to −3.4‰, as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water. For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion. Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil

  15. Effects of different water storage procedures on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically contrasted waters from the Amazon River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Daniel S; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo R

    2015-11-15

    Although recent studies have investigated the Fe isotopic composition of dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases from continental and oceanic natural waters, few efforts have been made to evaluate whether water sample storage and the separation of different pore-size fractions through filtration can cause any change to the Fe isotopic compositions. The present study investigates the possible biases introduced by different water storage conditions on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically different waters. Water samples were collected from an organic-rich river and from mineral particulate-rich rivers. Filtered and unfiltered water samples were stored either at room temperature or frozen at -18°C in order to assess possible biases due to (i) different water storage temperature, and (ii) storage of bulk (unfiltered) vs filtered water. Iron isotope measurements were performed by Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a Thermo Electron Neptune instrument, after Fe purification using anion-exchange resins. Our data reveal that bulk water storage at room temperature without filtration produces minor changes in the dissolved Fe isotopic composition of mineral particulate-rich waters, but significant isotopic composition changes in organic-rich waters. In both cases, however, the impact of the different procedures on the Fe concentrations was strong. On the other hand, the bulk water stored frozen without filtration produced more limited changes in the dissolved Fe concentrations, and also on isotopic compositions, relative to the samples filtered in the field. The largest effect was again observed for the organic-rich waters. These findings suggest that a time lag between water collection and filtration may cause isotopic exchanges between the dissolved and particulate Fe fractions. When it is not possible to filter the samples in the field immediately after collection, the less detrimental approach is to

  16. Does a Heavy Fe-Isotope Composition of Akilia Quartz-Amphibole-Pyroxene Rocks Necessitate a BIF Origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M J; Schoenberg, R; Fedo, C M; Kamber, B S

    2015-10-01

    The age and origin of the quartz-amphibole-pyroxene (qap) gneiss from the island of Akilia, southern West Greenland, have been the subject of intense debate since the light C-isotope composition of graphite inclusions in apatite was interpreted to indicate the presence of Earth's earliest biological activity. Although this claim for biogenic relicts has been vigorously challenged, the possibility that the rocks might represent some of Earth's earliest water-lain sediments and, hence, a suitable repository for life remains an open question. While some workers have suggested that the entire sequence represents an originally mafic-ultramafic igneous precursor subsequently modified by metasomatism, quartz injection, high-grade metamorphism, and extreme ductile deformation, others maintain that at least a small part of the sequence retains geochemical characteristics indicative of a chemical sedimentary origin. Fractionated Fe isotopes with δ(56)Fe values similar to those observed in Isua BIF have been reported from high-SiO2 units of qap and used to support a chemical sedimentary protolith for the qap unit. Here, we present new Fe isotope data from all lithologic variants in the qap gneiss on Akilia, including layers of undisputed ultramafic igneous origin. Since the latter require introduction of fractionated Fe into at least part of the qap unit, we argue that Fe isotopes must therefore be treated with considerable caution when used to infer BIF for part or all of the qap protolith.

  17. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of eclogites and associated rocks from the Eastern Sesia zone (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmons, J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of mineral separates from eclogites, glaucophanites and glaucophane schists from the eastern Sesia zone (Italian Western Alps). Regularities in (1) hydrogen isotope compositions, (2) order of 18O enrichment among coexisting minerals, and (3) ?? 18O (quartz-rutile) and ?? 18O (quartz-phengite) imply attainment of a high degree of isotopic equilibrium. However, some scattering of ??18O values of individual minerals indicates that the eclogitic assemblage did not form in the presence of a thoroughly pervasive fluid. Minerals from an eclogitic lens enclosed in marble have ??18O values distinctly different from those measured in the other rocks. The ??18O values are high in comparison with other type C eclogites of the world, and it is proposed that the fluid present during the high pressure metamorphism has to a large extent been inherited from the precursor rocks of amphibolite facies. An average formation temperature of 540 ?? C is inferred from the oxygen isotope fractionations between quartz and rutile and between quartz and white mica. This temperature is in accordance with petrologic considerations and implies subduction of the precursor rocks into the upper mantle to achieve the high pressures required. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on stable isotope compositions of Stephanorhinus sp. and Mammut sp. teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter; Kovács, János; Kocsis, László; Gasparik, Mihály; Vennemann, Torsten; Demény, Attila; Virág, Attila

    2014-05-01

    Stable isotope measurements of skeletal apatite from herbivorous mammals are often used to provide information on the terrestrial paleoenvironment and paleoclimate. In this study fossil teeth of Stephanorhinus Kretzoi 1942 (rhinoceros) and Mammut Blumenbach 1799 (mastodon), amongst others, were investigated from the Carpathian Basin. According to the biostratigraphy, the age of the samples has a range from Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Reconstructing paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of this era is important as it can be an analogue for the future climate. Oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions were measured from the tooth enamel, because it is believed to be the most resistant to diagenetic alteration (e.g., Kohn & Cerling, 2002). The carbon isotopic composition in the carbonate fraction of apatite can be related to the diet of the animal (Kohn & Cerling, 2002). Hence, it can reflect the photosynthetic pathway (C3 or C4) of the plants consumed by these herbivores. The δ18O values were determined in the phosphate fraction of apatite. In the case of large mammals that are obligate drinkers, the δ18O values closely track those of the environmental water (Bryant & Froelich, 1995). Knowing the δ18O values of environmental water and relating it to local precipitation, the mean annual temperature (MAT) of the site can be calculated (Dansgaard, 1964). The δ13C values range from -10 to -15 o (VPDB). The result clearly shows that these animals consumed C3 plants. Most of the δ13C values indicate mixed grassland-open woodland rather than a closed canopy forest. Although there is variation in the δ18O values (mean 14.2 ± 1.0 o VSMOW, n=17), most of the samples would support a MAT range of 8-12 ° C. This is in good agreement with other proxies for the localities and time period (Kovács et al., 2013). Bryant, D.J. & Froelich, P.N. (1995) A model of oxygen-isotope fractionation in bodywater of large-mammals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59, 4523

  19. Stable isotope composition of mercury forms in flue gases from a typical coal-fired power plant, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shunlin, E-mail: tangshunlin@hpu.edu.cn [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); Feng, Chaohui [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); Feng, Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Zhu, Jianming [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100086 (China); Sun, Ruoyu, E-mail: ruoyu.sun@tju.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Fan, Huipeng; Wang, Lina; Li, Ruiyang; Mao, Tonghua [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); Zhou, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The first speciated Hg isotope ratios in coal combustion flue gases are presented. • Significant Hg isotope kinetic MDF was observed during Hg forms transformation. • Emitted gaseous Hg highly enriches in heavy Hg isotopes relative to feed coal. - Abstract: Mercury forms emitted from coal combustion via air pollution control devices are speculated to carry different Hg isotope signatures. Yet, their Hg isotope composition is still not reported. Here, we present the first onsite Hg isotope data for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) of flue gases from a typical lignite-fired power plant (CFPP). Significant mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and insignificant mass independent fractionation (MIF) are observed between feed coal and coal combustion products. As compared to feed coal (δ{sup 202}Hg = −2.04 ± 0.25‰), bottom ash, GEM and GOM in flue gases before and after wet flue gas desulfurization system significantly enrich heavy Hg isotopes by 0.7–2.6‰ in δ{sup 202}Hg, while fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and waste water show slight but insignificant enrichment of light Hg isotopes. GEM is significantly enriched heavy Hg isotopes compared to GOM and Hg in fly ash. Our observations verify the previous speculation on Hg isotope fractionation mechanism in CFPPs, and suggest a kinetically-controlled mass dependent Hg isotope fractionation during transformation of Hg forms in flue gases. Finally, our data are compared to Hg isotope compositions of atmospheric Hg pools, suggesting that coal combustion Hg emission is likely an important atmospheric Hg contributor.

  20. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 respired by trunks: comparison of four sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damesin, C; Barbaroux, C; Berveiller, D; Lelarge, C; Chaves, M; Maguas, C; Maia, R; Pontailler, J-Y

    2005-01-01

    The (13)C natural abundance of CO(2) respired by plants has been used in the laboratory to examine the discrimination processes that occur during respiration. Currently, field measurements are being expanded to interpret the respiration delta(13)C signature measured at ecosystem and global levels. In this context, forests are particularly important to consider as they represent 80% of the continental biomass. The objective of this investigation was to compare four methods of sampling the CO(2) respired by trunks for the determination of its carbon isotope composition: three in situ methods using chambers placed on the trunk, and one destructive method using cores of woody tissues. The in situ methods were based either on a Keeling plot approach applied at the tissue level or on an initial flush of the chamber with nitrogen or with CO(2)-free air. In parallel, we investigated the possibility of an apparent discrimination during tissue respiration by comparing the delta(13)C signature of the respired CO(2) and that of the organic matter. The study was performed on six tree species widely distributed in temperate and mediterranean areas. The four methods were not significantly different when overall means were considered. However, considering the individual data, the Keeling plot approach and the nitrogen flush methods gave fairly homogeneous results, whereas the CO(2)-free air method produced more variable results. The core method was not correlated with any of the chamber methods. Regardless of the methodology, the respired CO(2) generally was enriched in (13)C relative to the total organic matter. This apparent enrichment during respiration was variable, reaching as much as 3-5 per thousand. This study showed that, on the whole, the different sampling techniques gave similar results, but one should be aware of the variability associated with each method. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Functional strategies of tropical dry forest plants in relation to growth form and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, L. S.; Silvera, K.; Andrade, J. L.; Dawson, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) undergo a substantial dry season in which plant species must endure several months of drought. Although TDFs support a diverse array of plant growth forms, it is not clear how they vary in mechanisms for coping with seasonal drought. We measured organic tissue stable isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) across six plant growth forms including epiphytes, terrestrial succulents, trees, shrubs, herbs, and vines, and oxygen (δ18O) of four growth forms, to distinguish among patterns of resource acquisition and evaluate mechanisms for surviving annual drought in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatan, Mexico. Terrestrial succulent and epiphyte δ13C was around –14‰, indicating photosynthesis through the Crassulacean acid metabolism pathway, and along with one C4 herb were distinct from mean values of all other growth forms, which were between –26 and –29‰ indicating C3 photosynthesis. Mean tissue δ15N across epiphytes was –4.95‰ and was significantly lower than all other growth forms, which had values around +3‰. Tissue N concentration varied significantly among growth forms with epiphytes and terrestrial succulents having significantly lower values of about 1% compared to trees, shrubs, herbs and vines, which were around 3%. Tissue C concentration was highest in trees, shrubs and vines, intermediate in herbs and epiphytes and lowest in terrestrial succulents. δ18O did not vary among growth forms. Overall, our results suggest several water-saving aspects of resource acquisition, including the absolute occurrence of CAM photosynthesis in terrestrial succulents and epiphytes, high concentrations of leaf N in some species, which may facilitate CO2 drawdown by photosynthetic enzymes for a given stomatal conductance, and potentially diverse N sources ranging from atmospheric N in epiphytes with extremely depleted δ15N values, and a large range of δ15N values among trees, many of which are legumes and

  2. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, S.; Yamaoka, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2010-12-01

    The boron contents and isotopic compositions were determined for the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust through the Troodos ophiolite. The samples were represented by the International Crustal Research Drilling Group (ICRDG) drill-Holes CY1 (479m), CY2A (689m), CY4 (2263m), and selected outcrops along the Akaki river. Hole CY1 was composed upper and lower pillow lava, CY4 constituted sheeted dike complex and gabbro section, and the samples along Akaki river formed from pillow lava to sheeted dike complex. Hole CY2A was composed pillow lava and sheeted dike, drilled near Agrokipia ‘B’ deposit a stockwork type which completely enclosed within the lower pillow lava. The goal of this study is to understand the Boron geochemistry during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust including hydrothermal ore deposit as Agrokipia ‘B’. The average boron contents of each sequence from Troodos ophiolite were pillow lava (63.2ppm), sheeted dike complex (4.5ppm), gabbro section (1.6ppm). But then, those of Oman ophiolite were 7.9ppm, 5.3ppm, 1.7ppm (Yamaoka et al., 2010 submitted). Thus, both of these ophiolites, the vertical profile of boron content decreased with depth, also the boron contents were much richer than fresh-MORB (0.5ppm) (Spivack and Edmond, 1987; Chaussidon and Jambon, 1994). This indicates boron rich of the altered oceanic crust were derived from seawater. And sheeted dike complex and gabbro section were similar value relatively, but pillow lava differed widely. These results may represent the difference of length being submarine, because these ophiolites were generated in deep water of the Tethys sea about 90Ma (Late Cretaceous) (Tilton et al., 1981; Mukasa and Ludden, 1987), and Oman ophiolite was obducted about 70Ma (Lanphere, 1981) but Troodos ophiolite uplifted about 10Ma (Middle Miocene) (Robertson and Woodcock, 1979).

  3. Calibration of the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Bostock, Helen C.; Cartapanis, Olivier; Curry, William B.; Filipsson, Helena L.; Galbraith, Eric D.; Gottschalk, Julia; Herguera, Juan Carlos; Hoogakker, Babette; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lund, David C.; Martínez-Méndez, Gema; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Mackensen, Andreas; Michel, Elisabeth; Mix, Alan C.; Oppo, Delia W.; Peterson, Carlye D.; Repschläger, Janne; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; Spero, Howard J.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2017-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of seawater provides valuable insight on ocean circulation, air-sea exchange, the biological pump, and the global carbon cycle and is reflected by the δ13C of foraminifera tests. Here more than 1700 δ13C observations of the benthic foraminifera genus Cibicides from late Holocene sediments (δ13CCibnat) are compiled and compared with newly updated estimates of the natural (preindustrial) water column δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDICnat) as part of the international Ocean Circulation and Carbon Cycling (OC3) project. Using selection criteria based on the spatial distance between samples, we find high correlation between δ13CCibnat and δ13CDICnat, confirming earlier work. Regression analyses indicate significant carbonate ion (-2.6 ± 0.4) × 10-3‰/(μmol kg-1) [CO32-] and pressure (-4.9 ± 1.7) × 10-5‰ m-1 (depth) effects, which we use to propose a new global calibration for predicting δ13CDICnat from δ13CCibnat. This calibration is shown to remove some systematic regional biases and decrease errors compared with the one-to-one relationship (δ13CDICnat = δ13CCibnat). However, these effects and the error reductions are relatively small, which suggests that most conclusions from previous studies using a one-to-one relationship remain robust. The remaining standard error of the regression is generally σ ≅ 0.25‰, with larger values found in the southeast Atlantic and Antarctic (σ ≅ 0.4‰) and for species other than Cibicides wuellerstorfi. Discussion of species effects and possible sources of the remaining errors may aid future attempts to improve the use of the benthic δ13C record.

  4. Isotopic compositions of tropical East African flora and their potential as source indicators of organic matter in coastal marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    1999-04-01

    The C and N stable isotope compositions of some flora of East Africa from coastal Tanzania and Amboseli National Park (Kenya) are used to assess if they can be used as a terrestrial end member during the estimation of terrestrial fraction in coastal marine sediments. The results of C isotope composition of various tree leaves, which average -29.3 ± 1.4%, indicate that these tropical higher land plant species follow a Calvin-Benson or non-Kranz (C 3) type of metabolism. The results for grass species, which average -13.2 ± 2.4%, indicate that most of them follow a Hatch-Slack or Kranz (C 4) type of metabolism. However, some of the succulent plants from the Amboseli National Park have δ13C values that average -14.7%, an indication that they follow a CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) type of metabolism. The N isotope values are relatively higher than expected for the terrestrial organic material. The average δ15N values for both tree and grass samples are higher than 5% and fall within the range normally considered to be marine. The high enrichment in 15N may be related to the environmental conditions in which plants thrive. Plants growing in sandy, dry and overgrazed environments are expected to be enriched in 15N owing to full utilisation of all available N species, regardless of their isotopic compositions. Other processes which may cause an enrichment in 15N include adsorption by various types of clay minerals, supply of 15N-enriched nitrate through sea-spray, and local denitrification, especially in swampy and lake margins where the input of organic matter may be higher than the rate of decomposition. The stable isotopic composition of organic C and N for surficial organic matter for the coastal marine sediments averages -17.0 ± 0.9% and 5.4 ± 1.1%, respectively. These values indicate a substantial contribution of C 4 plants and sea grasses. However, contribution of C 4 relative to that of sea grasses can not be evaluated owing to the fact that there is no

  5. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  6. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  7. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G

    2014-02-20

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  8. A laboratory comparison of two methods used to estimate the isotopic composition of soil delta13CO2 efflux at steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayler, Zachary E; Sulzman, Elizabeth W; Marshall, John D; Mix, Alan; Rugh, William D; Bond, Barbara J

    2008-08-01

    The stable isotopic composition of soil (13)CO(2) flux is important for monitoring soil biological and physical processes. While several methods exist to measure the isotopic composition of soil flux, we do not know how effective each method is at achieving this goal. To provide clear evidence of the accuracy of current measurement techniques we created a column filled with quartz sand through which a gas of known isotopic composition (-34.2 per thousand) and concentration (3,000 ppm) diffused for 7 h. We used a static chamber at equilibrium and a soil probe technique to test whether they could identify the isotopic signature of the known gas source. The static chamber is designed to identify the source gas isotopic composition when in equilibrium with the soil gas, and the soil probe method relies on a mixing model of samples withdrawn from three gas wells at different depths to identify the gas source. We sampled from ports installed along the side of the sand column to describe the isotopic and concentration gradient as well as to serve as a control for the soil probe. The soil probe produced similar isotopic and concentration values as the control ports, as well as Keeling intercepts. The static chamber at equilibrium did not identify the source gas but, when applied in a two end-member mixing model, did produce a similar Keeling intercept produced from the control ports. Neither of the methods was able to identify the source gas via the Keeling plot method probably because CO(2) profiles did not reach isotopic steady state. Our results showed that the static chamber at equilibrium should be used only with a Keeling plot approach and that the soil probe is able to provide estimates of uncertainty for the isotopic composition of soil gas as well as information pertinent to the soil profile. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The oxygen isotope composition of earth's oldest rocks and evidence of a terrestrial magma ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumble, D.; Bowring, S.; Iizuka, T.

    2013-01-01

    such long-lived consistency was most easily established by mixing in a terrestrial magma ocean. The measured identical oxygen isotope mass fractionation lines for Earth and Moon suggest that oxygen isotope reservoirs of both bodies were homogenized at the same time during a giant moon-forming impact....... But other sources of heat for global melting cannot be excluded such as bolide impacts during early accretion of proto-Earth, the decay of short-lived radioactive isotopes, or the energy released during segregation of core from mantle....

  10. Li-isotopic composition of upper oceanic crust: Implications for the link between global change in climate and seawater chemistry over the past 120 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedali, M.; Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the rate of dissolution of continental and/or oceanic crust, and the associated CO2 draw-down, are expected to occur in response to changes in global mean temperature providing a negative feedback on the long-term carbon cycle. The Li-isotopic composition of seawater provides a potentially powerful tool to track these processes. For example, Cenozoic cooling is associated with a 9‰ increasing in the Li-isotopic composition of seawater that has been suggested to reflect a change in continental weathering style [1]. To investigate the role of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of the upper oceanic crust on the Li-isotopic composition of seawater, we have measured Li concentration and isotopic compositions of altered bulk rock samples from eight ODP/DSDP drill cores. The isotopic composition of Li added to the crust is determined by assuming the bulk-rock compositions are simple mixtures of fresh and altered rocks. An empirical Li-isotope fractionation factor for each site is calculated from the difference between the Li-isotopic composition of contemporaneous seawater [1,2] and the altered end-member. The fractionation factor so determined correlates with the temperature of alteration in the drill core determined from the O-isotopic composition of hydrothermal carbonates in the drill core (2-40°C). This correlation suggests that a 15°C cooling of bottom water from the later Cretaceous to modern has led to a 4‰ increase in the fractionation factor between altered upper oceanic crust and seawater. If this increase in the fractionation factor for Li is reflective of the change in the Li-isotopic composition of the entire Li-sink from the ocean then roughly half the 9‰ increasing in the Li-isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic can be explained by changes in low-temperature alteration of the oceanic crust. [1] Misra & Froelich (2012), Science 335, 818-824. [2] Pogge von Strandmann et al., (2013), Nature Geosciences 6, 668-672.

  11. BASIN TCP Stable Isotope Composition of CO2 in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports stable isotope ratio data of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) associated with photosynthetic and respiratory exchanges across the...

  12. Nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions relate linearly in cormorant tissues and its diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, H.; Kabaya, Y.; Wada, E. (Mitsubishi Kasei Inst. of Life Sciences, Tokyo (Japan). Lab. of Biogeochemistry and Sociogeochemistry)

    1991-01-01

    An application of stable isotope distribution of bioelements to ecogeochemical and archaeological studies requires precise knowledge on the relationship between available field samples and diet. As the nature of birds makes it possible to set up an isotopically well defined experiment, nitrogen and carbon isotope relationships between various tissues of a cormorant and its constant diet was studied. The tissues were collected after more than 23 years on the same diet. The two stable isotope ratios for the diet and the tissues showed a high correlation (r=0.92). The linear regression analysis gave the slope of 1.1. Among the tissues examined, skin showed the highest enrichment in both {sup 15}N (4.8per mille) and {sup 13}C (4.2per mille), while brain gave the lowest enrichments (0.8per mille for {sup 15}N and 1.1per mille for {sup 13}C). (orig.).

  13. Cu Isotopic Composition in Surface Environments and in Biological Systems: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuhong Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is a transition metal and an essential micronutrient for organisms, but also one of the most widespread toxic inorganic contaminants at very high content. The research on Cu isotopes has grown rapidly in the last decade. Hitherto, a large number of studies have been published on the theoretical fractionation mechanisms, experimental data and natural variations of Cu isotopes in variable environments and ecosystems. These studies reported a large variation of δ65Cu (−16.49 to +20.04‰ in terrestrial samples and showed that Cu isotopes could be fractionated by various biogeochemical processes to different extent. Several papers have previously reviewed the coupling of Cu and Zn isotope systematics, and we give here a tentative review of the recent publications only on Cu isotopesin variable surface repositories, animals and human beings, with a goal to attract much attention to research on Cu (and other metals behaviors in the environment and biological systems.

  14. Analytical procedures for determining Pb and Sr isotopic compositions in water samples by ID-TIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Few articles deal with lead and strontium isotopic analysis of water samples. The aim of this study was to define the chemical procedures for Pb and Sr isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from an urban sedimentary aquifer. Thirty lead and fourteen strontium isotopic analyses were performed to test different analytical procedures. Pb and Sr isotopic ratios as well as Sr concentration did not vary using different chemical procedures. However, the Pb concentrations were very dependent on the different procedures. Therefore, the choice of the best analytical procedure was based on the Pb results, which indicated a higher reproducibility from samples that had been filtered and acidified before the evaporation, had their residues totally dissolved, and were purified by ion chromatography using the Biorad® column. Our results showed no changes in Pb ratios with the storage time.

  15. BASIN TCP Stable Isotope Composition of CO2 in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports stable isotope ratio data of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) associated with photosynthetic and respiratory exchanges across the biosphere-atmosphere...

  16. Cu Isotopic Composition in Surface Environments and in Biological Systems: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuhong; Chen, Jiubin; Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-18

    Copper (Cu) is a transition metal and an essential micronutrient for organisms, but also one of the most widespread toxic inorganic contaminants at very high content. The research on Cu isotopes has grown rapidly in the last decade. Hitherto, a large number of studies have been published on the theoretical fractionation mechanisms, experimental data and natural variations of Cu isotopes in variable environments and ecosystems. These studies reported a large variation of δ(65)Cu (-16.49 to +20.04‰) in terrestrial samples and showed that Cu isotopes could be fractionated by various biogeochemical processes to different extent. Several papers have previously reviewed the coupling of Cu and Zn isotope systematics, and we give here a tentative review of the recent publications only on Cu isotopesin variable surface repositories, animals and human beings, with a goal to attract much attention to research on Cu (and other metals) behaviors in the environment and biological systems.

  17. Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monna, F. (Institut FA Forel (Switzerland)); Aiuppa, A.; Varrica, D. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy)); Dongarra, G. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy) CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi)

    1999-08-01

    A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb range for urban and industrial aerosols matches the anthropogenic signature. Lichens instead, are closer to the compositional field of [sup 206]Pb rich geogenic sources. This natural input is more evident at Vulcano island than at Mt. Etna, where the anthropogenic activities are considerably more effective. On the basis of lead isotope data, Pb/Br ratios and calculated lead enrichment factors, a natural lead pollution from volcanoes is suggested. Volcanic lead contribution ranges from 10 to 30% at Mt. Etna to 10--80% at Vulcano island.

  18. Measurement and Modeling of Site-specific Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. J.; Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Ono, S.

    2015-12-01

    Global mixing ratios of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, have increased nearly linearly from the beginning of the modern industrial period to today, with the current global average in excess of 325 ppb. This increase can be largely attributed to anthropogenic activity above the level of N2O emissions from natural biotic sources. The effect of N2O on Earth's climate is twofold: in the troposphere, N2O is radiatively active and chemically inert, while it serves as a reactive source of ozone-destroying nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere. The marked altitudinal divide in its reactivity means that all stages in the N2O life cycle—emission, transport, and destruction—must be examined to understand the overall effect of N2O on Earth's climate. However, the understanding of the total impact of N2O is incomplete, as there remain significant uncertainties in the global budget of this gas. Due to unique isotopic substitutions (15N and 18O) made by different N2O sources and stratospheric chemical reactions, the measurement of N2O isotopic ratios in ambient air can help identify the distribution and magnitude of distinct source types. We present the first year of site-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition data from the MIT Stheno-tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) instrument at Mace Head, Ireland. Aided by the Stheno preconcentration system, Stheno-TILDAS can achieve measurement precisions of 0.10‰ or greater for all isotopic ratios (δ15N and δ18O) in ambient N2O. We further compare these data to the results from Model for Ozone and Related Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) simulations, including N2O isotopic fractionation processes and MERRA/GEOS-5 reanalysis meteorological fields. These results will form the basis of future Bayesian inverse modeling simulations that will constrain global N2O source, circulation, and sink dynamics better.

  19. Stable lead isotope compositions in selected coals from around the world and implications for present day aerosol source tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Somoano, M; Kylander, M E; López-Antón, M A; Suárez-Ruiz, I; Martínez-Tarazona, M R; Ferrat, M; Kober, B; Weiss, D J

    2009-02-15

    The phasing out of leaded gasoline in many countries around the world at the end of the last millennium has resulted in a complex mixture of lead sources in the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that coal combustion has become an important source of Pb in aerosols in urban and remote areas. Here, we report lead concentration and isotopic composition for 59 coal samples representing major coal deposits worldwide in an attempt to characterize this potential source. The average concentration in these coals is 35 microg Pb g(-1), with the highest values in coals from Spain and Peru and the lowest in coals from Australia and North America. The 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios range between 1.15 and 1.24, with less radiogenic Pb in coals from Europe and Asia compared to South and North America. Comparing the Pb isotopic signatures of coals from this and previous studies with those published for Northern and Southern Hemisphere aerosols, we hypothesize that coal combustion might now be an important Pb source in China, the eastern U.S., and to some extent, in Europe but not as yet in other regions including South Africa, South America, and western U.S. This supports the notion that "old Pb pollution" from leaded gasoline reemitted into the atmosphere or long-range transport (i.e., from China to the western U.S.) is important. Comparing the isotope ratios of the coals, the age of the deposits, and Pb isotope evolution models for the major geochemical reservoirs suggests that the PbIC in coals is strongly influenced by the depositional coal forming environment.

  20. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Department of Environmental Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Flagship, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Davis, Jeffrey [CSIRO Energy Flagship, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); O' Connor, Gary [Queensland Department of Environment & Heritage Protection, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb vs {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation. - Highlights: • Soil Pb values up to 1200 mg/kg below Pb painted bridge • Microscopy & SEM characterised up to 6 different paint layers. • Isotopes identified different sources of Pb including paint and gasoline. • Multiple methods provide definitive answers.

  1. The effects of biomanipulation on the biogeochemistry, carbon isotopic composition and pelagic food web relations of a shallow lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Bontes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of experimental biomanipulation on community structure, ecosystem metabolism, carbon biogeochemistry and stable isotope composition of a shallow eutrophic lake in the Netherlands. Three different biomanipulation treatments were applied. In two parts of the lake, isolated from the rest, fish was removed and one part was used as a reference treatment in which no biomanipulation was applied. Stable isotopes have proved useful to trace trophic interactions at higher food web levels but until now methodological limitations have restricted species specific isotope analysis in the plankton community. We applied a new approach based on the combination of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS to trace carbon flow through the planktonic food web. With this method we aimed at obtaining group specific δ13C signatures of phytoplankton and to trace possible shifts in δ13C resulting from fish removal. Biomanipulation led to an increase in transparency and macrophyte biomass and decrease in phytoplankton abundance, but zooplankton numbers did not increase. Fish removal also resulted in high pH, high O2, low CO2 and more negative δ13CDIC values than expected, which is attributed to chemical enhanced diffusion with large negative fractionation. Despite high temporal variation we detected differences between the isotopic signatures of the primary producers and between the different treatments. The fractionation values of green algae (~21 and diatoms (~23 were similar and independent of treatment, while fractionation factors of filamentous cyanobacteria were variable between the treatments that differed in CO2 availability. 13C-labeling of the phytoplankton groups showed that biomanipulation led to increased growth rates of green algae and diatoms at the expense of cyanobacteria. Finally, consumers seemed generalists to the available food sources.

  2. Cu Isotopic Composition in Surface Environments and in Biological Systems: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuhong Wang; Jiubin Chen; Ting Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is a transition metal and an essential micronutrient for organisms, but also one of the most widespread toxic inorganic contaminants at very high content. The research on Cu isotopes has grown rapidly in the last decade. Hitherto, a large number of studies have been published on the theoretical fractionation mechanisms, experimental data and natural variations of Cu isotopes in variable environments and ecosystems. These studies reported a large variation of δ65Cu (−16.49 to +20.0...

  3. The core helium flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P. W.; Deupree, R. G.

    1980-12-01

    The role of convection in the core helium flash is simulated by two-dimensional eddies interacting with the thermonuclear runaway. These eddies are followed by the explicit solution of the two-dimensional conservation laws with a two-dimensional finite difference hydrodynamics code. Thus, no phenomenological theory of convection such as the local mixing length theory is required. The core helium flash is violent, producing a deflagration wave. This differs from the detonation wave (and subsequent disruption of the entire star) produced in previous spherically symmetric violent core helium flashes as the second dimension provides a degree of relief which allows the expansion wave to decouple itself from the burning front. The results predict that a considerable amount of helium in the core will be burned before the horizontal branch is reached and that some envelope mass loss is likely.

  4. The Descending Helium Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  5. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of hopanoids in seep carbonates from the South China Sea continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hongxiang; Sun, Yongge; Mao, Shengyi; Zhu, Xiaowei; Wu, Nengyou

    2014-10-01

    The lipid biomarkers of hopanoids in cold seep carbonates from the South China Sea continental slope were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometer (GC-ir-MS). The distribution of hopanes/hopenes shows a preference for the ‘biological’ 17β(H), 21β(H)-over the ‘geological’ 17α(H), 21β(H)-configuration. This interpretation is in agreement with the strong odd-even preference of long-chain n-alkanes in those samples, suggesting that the ββ hopanes may be the early diagenetic products of biohopanoids and the αβ, βα configurations of hopanes were mainly derived from allochthonous sources contributing to the organic matter of the carbonates. In terms of hopanoid acids, the C30 to C33 17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanoid acids were detected with C32 17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanoid acid being the most abundant. However, there is a significant difference in stable carbon isotopic compostions of the C32 17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanoic acid among samples (-30.7‰ to -69.8‰). The δ13C values match well with the carbon isotopic compositions of SRB-derived iso-/anteiso-C15:0 fatty acids in the samples, which strongly depend on the carbon utilization types by microbe. The most abundant compound of hopanols detected in the samples, C30-17β(H), 21β(H)-hopanol, may be a good indicator of diagenetic product of type I methanotrophs. The molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of hopanoids demonstrate clearly that there is a combination contribution of both SRB and type I or type X methanotrophs to the source organism in the seep carbonates from the South China Sea continental slope.

  6. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from laboratory culturing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-10-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail subspecies, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on results obtained from previous works and this study, a simple but credible framework is presented to illustrate how each source and environmental parameter affects shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage-fed (C3 plant) groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested limestone vary in the ranges of 66-80, 16-24, and 0-13%, respectively. For corn-fed (C4 plant) groups, because of the possible food stress (less ability to consume C4 plants), the values vary in the ranges of 56-64, 18-20, and 16-26%, respectively. Moreover, according to the literature and our observations, the subspecies we cultured in this study show preferences towards different plant species for food. Therefore, we suggest that the potential food preference should be considered adequately for some species in paleoenvironment studies. Finally, we inferred that only the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails controls carbon isotope fractionation.

  7. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from lab culturing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-05-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on previous works and on results obtained in this study, a simple but credible framework is presented for discussion of how each source and environmental parameter can affect shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage (C3 plant) fed groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone respectively vary as 66-80%, 16-24%, and 0-13%. For corn (C4 plant) fed groups, because of the possible food stress (lower consumption ability of C4 plant), the values vary respectively as 56-64%, 18-20%, and 16-26%. Moreover, we present new evidence that snails have discrimination to choose C3 and C4 plants as food. Therefore, we suggest that food preferences must be considered adequately when applying δ13C in paleo-environment studies. Finally, we inferred that, during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails, carbon isotope fractionation is controlled only by the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium.

  8. Sr isotopic composition of hydroxyapatite from recent and fossil salmon: the record of lifetime migration and diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Paul L.; Halliday, Alex N.; Walter, Lynn M.; Stearley, Ralph F.; Huston, Ted J.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1992-02-01

    By comparing the Sr isotopic composition of migratory fossil salmon, which lived in the ocean but died in continental regions, to the well established marine Sr isotopic record, the age of the continental deposit could be determined with high accuracy. This approach to marine-continental correlation and dating requires (1) that marine-resident salmon bear a marine 87Sr/ 86Sr value in their bones or teeth, and (2) that the original 87Sr/ 86Sr value of fossils is not overprinted by diagenesis. The vertebrae of modern, hatchery-reared salmon exhibit Sr isotopic variations indicative of freshwater to marine migration during bone growth. Modern marine 87Sr/ 86Sr values were preserved in growth layers formed later in life. Marine-phase growth layers in the bones and teeth of the late Miocene migratory salmon, Oncorhynchus rastrosus, were subjected to stepwise selective leaching to separate biogenic hydroxyapatite from diagenetic calcium carbonate and recrystallized hydroxyapatite. Although the procedure yielded leachates with Sr/Ca and Ca/P values characteristic of apatite, the leachates had 87Sr/ 86Sr values consistently less radiogenic than values for late Miocene seawater ( ⊃ 0.7087. The fossils were substantially contaminated by Sr from the hosting clastic sediments. Specimens in continental deposits differed in 87Sr/ 86Sr value from host sediments by 0.0002 to 0.0200, supporting the conclusion that these salmon were migrants from marine waters. However, because the original Sr isotopic composition of fossil bones and teeth cannot be determined with confidence, archaeological, paleobiological and stratigraphic applications of this technique may be limited.

  9. The parent body controls on cosmic spherule texture: Evidence from the oxygen isotopic compositions of large micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Sonzogni, C.; Alexandre, A.; Vidal, V.; Genge, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    High-precision oxygen isotopic compositions of eighteen large cosmic spherules (>500 μm diameter) from the Atacama Desert, Chile, were determined using IR-laser fluorination - Isotope Ratio Mass spectrometry. The four discrete isotopic groups defined in a previous study on cosmic spherules from the Transantarctic Mountains (Suavet et al., 2010) were identified, confirming their global distribution. Approximately 50% of the studied cosmic spherules are related to carbonaceous chondrites, 38% to ordinary chondrites and 12% to unknown parent bodies. Approximately 90% of barred olivine (BO) cosmic spherules show oxygen isotopic compositions suggesting they are related to carbonaceous chondrites. Similarly, ∼90% porphyritic olivine (Po) cosmic spherules are related to ordinary chondrites and none can be unambiguously related to carbonaceous chondrites. Other textures are related to all potential parent bodies. The data suggests that the textures of cosmic spherules are mainly controlled by the nature of the precursor rather than by the atmospheric entry parameters. We propose that the Po texture may essentially be formed from a coarse-grained precursor having an ordinary chondritic mineralogy and chemistry. Coarse-grained precursors related to carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. chondrules) are likely to either survive atmospheric entry heating or form V-type cosmic spherules. Due to the limited number of submicron nucleation sites after total melting, ordinary chondrite-related coarse-grained precursors that suffer higher peak temperatures will preferentially form cryptocrystalline (Cc) textures instead of BO textures. Conversely, the BO textures would be mostly related to the fine-grained matrices of carbonaceous chondrites due to the wide range of melting temperatures of their constituent mineral phases, allowing the preservation of submicron nucleation sites. Independently of the nature of the precursors, increasing peak temperatures form glassy textures.

  10. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  11. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) has been little studied for some time, but has recently drawn more attention due to its expected future use as an energy carrier. Concerns have been raised that this use may lead to large-scale leakage of H2 into the atmosphere, with implications for the atmosphere's oxidative capacity and stratospheric ozone chemistry. A thorough understanding of the global H2 cycle is therefore needed, but at present, the uncertainties are still large. Studying the stable isotopic composition of H2 (δD(H2)) is a promising way to gain more information about the H2 cycle. Over the last decade, studies of the isotope effects in H2 source and sink processes have appeared, δD(H2) has been incorporated into global chemical transport models and many more environmental observations of δD(H2) have been published. However, some knowledge gaps can be easily identified. Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) has a strong influence on tropospheric δD(H2), but very few δD(H2) data are available from samples taken around the tropopause, where this exchange takes place. For large regions of the globe, no δD(H2) data have been published. In the CARIBIC project, air samples are collected in the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region with a commercial passenger aircraft and routinely analysed for various gases. This sampling platform can potentially provide global coverage. More than 450 CARIBIC samples have been analysed for H2 mixing ratios (m(H2)) and δD(H2). More than 120 of these samples consisted of lowermost stratosphere (LMS) air. They show the lack of variation in m(H2) and the δD(H2) increase that is typical for the stratosphere, caused by the competing and deuterium-enriching source and sink processes of H2 in the stratosphere. The deuterium-enrichment signal grows stronger with distance above the tropopause. As a result of the relatively long lifetimes of H2, CH4 and N2O, strong negative correlations appear between δD(H2) and m

  12. [Effect of processes in the earth's crust on evolution of photosynthesis (as indicated by data on carbon isotopic composition)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A A

    2010-01-01

    model, data on isotope composition of carbon of carbonate and organic substance in rocks are used and its ability to explain several known natural regularities and empirical correlations. The model is used for analysis of some key stages of evolution of photosynthesis.

  13. Influence of glass composition on secondary ion mass spectrometry instrumental mass fractionation for Si and Ca isotopic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissandier, Laurent; Rollion-Bard, Claire

    2017-02-28

    In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis requires the use of standards to unravel the instrumental mass fractionation (IMF) induced by the analytical procedures. Part of this IMF might be caused by the nature of the sample and the differences in composition and structure between the sample and the standards. This "matrix effect" has been tentatively corrected for by using standards with chemical compositions equivalent to the samples, or by the empirical use of chemical parameters. However, these corrections can only be applied to a narrow compositional range and fail to take proper account of the matrix effect when a wider chemical field is tested. We synthesized a series of glasses whose compositions span a very large part of the NCMAS (Na2 O-CaO-MgO-Al2 O3 -SiO2 ) system. Si and Ca isotopic analyses were performed on two ion microprobes (Cameca IMS-1270 and IMS-1280). The matrix effect observed may reach 20‰ between extreme compositions and cannot be accounted for by the previously used "chemical" parameters (e.g. SiO2 , SiO2 /(SiO2  + Al2 O3 )) nor by the NBO/T parameter. It therefore appears necessary to consider not only the structure of the glasses, but also the nature of the different atoms. Consequently, we assessed the use of another concept, the optical basicity, based on the electronegativities of the constitutive elements of glass. We show that this parameter significantly improves the efficiency of the matrix-effect correction and that it can be applied across the entire NCMAS compositional range studied here. Furthermore, the use of optical basicity reduces the number of glass standards required for a reliable isotopic study, and it can also be used to probe the structure of the glass. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  15. Chronological study of oxygen isotope composition for the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Fluffy Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) containing reversely zoned melilite crystals are suggested to be aggregates of direct condensates from solar nebular gas. We conducted an investigation of 26Al-26Mg systematics of a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano, named V2-01, with known oxygen isotopic distributions of reversely zoned melilite crystals; we also conducted oxygen isotope measurements of coexisting minerals. Two of six reversely zoned melilite crystals show continuous variations in magnesium isotopic composition, with δ25Mg decreasing along the inferred direction of crystal growth, which supports the idea that they originated through condensation. Petrography suggests that the constituent minerals of V2-01 formed in the following order: first spinel and fassaite enclosed by melilite, then reversely zoned melilite crystals, and spinel and diopside in the Wark-Lovering rim. The spinel enclosed by melilite has 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O ∼ -24‰) and on an Al-Mg evolutionary diagram plots along model isochron with an initial value of (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The fassaite enclosed by melilite crystals shows variable oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O ∼ -12‰ and -17‰) and plots on an isochron with (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The oxygen isotopic compositions of reversely zoned melilite showed continuous variations in Δ17O along the inferred direction of crystal growth, suggesting that surrounding nebular gas, during the formation of the reversely zoned melilite, changed from 16O-poor (Δ17O values larger than -10‰) to 16O-rich (Δ17O ∼ -25‰). The six reversely zoned melilite crystals show indistinguishable initial 26Al/27Al values with an average (26Al/27Al)0 of (4.7 ± 0.3) × 10-5, which is clearly distinguishable from the value of enclosed spinel and fassaite, indicating a younger formation age than the enclosed s