Sample records for helium cryoplant off-line

  1. Four 12kW/4.5K cryoplants at CERN (United States)

    Claudet, S.; Erdt, W.; Frandsen, P.-K.; Gayet, P.; Solheim, N.-O.; Titcomb, C.; Winkler, G.

    The LEP 2 project at CERN, designed to increase the collision energy in the LEP electron-positron collider from 50 to 90 GeV/beam, involves the installation of 192 superconducting (sc) accelerating cavities in the straight sections of the LEP ring close to the four interaction points. To provide the refrigeration power for the cavities, four 12(18)kW/4.5K cryoplants where ordered in 1991, two from L'Air Liquide (France), and two from Sulzer (now Linde; Switzerland/Germany). These plants have been installed in the past years, and two of them have already accumulated a considerable number of operating hours. Processes, construction, commissioning and acceptance tests of the four plants will be described, and their main features will be compared. Performance of the liquid-helium distribution systems delivered by L'Air Liquide (France) and Cryogenmash (Russia) will also be given.

  2. ISOLDE Off-line Gas Leak Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kristoffer Bested


    This study investigates gas injection system of the ISOLDE Off-line separator. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to analysis the composition of the gas. Based on these measurements a contamination of the injected gas is found and a system upgrade is purposed. Furthermore a calibration of the leak rate of the leak valve is made.

  3. Summary and results of the cryoplant operation for HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen, J J; Petersen, B; Schnautz, T


    For about 15 years, leptons and protons collided inside the HERA particle accelerator with the intension of investigating the protons’ inner structure. 646 superconductive electromagnets and 16 superconductive cavities had to be constantly surrounded by liquid helium to operate at a temperature of around 4 K. To ensure the helium supply of HERA’s superconductive components a highly productive refrigeration plant was built. In this paper we report on the experience gathered during nearly 20 years of operation of the refrigeration plants’ 3 cold boxes and the corresponding 14 screw compressors together with the helium distribution system and the purification system.

  4. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition (United States)

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema


    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  5. Berkeley Off-line Radioisotope Generator (BORG)

    CERN Document Server

    Sudowe, R


    Development of chemical separations for the transactinides has traditionally been performed with longer-lived tracer activities purchased commercially. With these long-lived tracers, there is always the potential problem that the tracer atoms are not always in the same chemical form as the short-lived atoms produced in on-line experiments. This problem is especially severe for elements in groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, where hydrolysis is present. The long-lived tracers usually are stored with a complexing agent to prevent sorption or precipitation. Chemistry experiments performed with these long-lived tracers are therefore not analogous to those chemical experiments performed in on-line experiments. One way to eliminate the differences between off-line and on-line chemistry experiments is through the use of a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device. A sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device has already been constructed [1]. This device is limited in its capabilities. A ...

  6. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurns, John M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bäck, Harald [Sweco Industry AB, P.O. Box 286, 201 22 Malmö (Sweden); Gierow, Martin [Lunds Energikoncernen AB, P.O. Box 25, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)


    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  7. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri


    The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...... a system architecture for integrated robot task planning. It identifies and describes the components considered necessary for implementation. The focus is on functionality of these elements as well as on the information flow. A pilot implementation of such an integrated system architecture for a robot...

  8. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.


    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  9. Analysing Password Protocol Security Against Off-line Dictionary Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro


    We study the security of password protocols against off-line dictionary attacks. In addition to the standard adversary abilities, we also consider further cryptographic advantages given to the adversary when considering the password protocol being instantiated with particular encryption schemes. We

  10. Analysing Password Protocol Security Against Off-line Dictionary Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Busi, Nadia; Gorrieri, Roberto; Martinelli, Fabio

    We study the security of password protocols against off-line dictionary attacks. In addition to the standard adversary abilities, we also consider further cryptographic advantages given to the adversary when considering the password protocol being instantiated with particular encryption schemes. We

  11. Developmental trajectories of peer victimization: off-line and online experiences during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.


    Purpose: This study investigated the development and consequences of off-line and online victimization during adolescence. We examined the number and shapes of off-line and online victimization trajectories, the relationship between trajectories of off-line and online victimization, and their effect

  12. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  13. Off-line test of the KISS gas cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu, E-mail: [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Watanabe, Yutaka; Imai, Nobuaki; Ishiyama, Hironobu; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Miyatake, Hiroari; Oyaizu, Michihiro [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kim, Yung Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742 (Korea, Republic of); Mukai, Momo [Tsukuba University, Ibaraki 305 0006 (Japan); Matsuo, Yukari; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351 0198 (Japan); Huyse, Mark; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Van Duppen, Piet [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    Highlights: • Construction of the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) at RIKEN. • Ionization scheme of an iron. • Measurement of transport time profile in a gas cell. -- Abstract: The KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) has been constructed at RIKEN to study the β-decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes with neutron numbers around N = 126 for application to astrophysics. A key component of KISS is a gas cell filled with argon gas at a pressure of 50 kPa to stop and collect the unstable nuclei, where the isotopes of interest will be selectively ionized using laser resonance ionization. We have performed off-line tests to study the basic properties of the gas cell and of KISS using nickel and iron filaments placed in the gas cell.

  14. Writer adaptation in off-line Arabic handwriting recognition (United States)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Srihari, Sargur N.


    Writer adaptation or specialization is the adjustment of handwriting recognition algorithms to a specific writer's style of handwriting. Such adjustment yields significantly improved recognition rates over counterpart general recognition algorithms. We present the first unconstrained off-line handwriting adaptation algorithm for Arabic presented in the literature. We discuss an iterative bootstrapping model which adapts a writer-independent model to a writer-dependent model using a small number of words achieving a large recognition rate increase in the process. Furthermore, we describe a confidence weighting method which generates better results by weighting words based on their length. We also discuss script features unique to Arabic, and how we incorporate them into our adaptation process. Even though Arabic has many more character classes than languages such as English, significant improvement was observed. The testing set consisting of about 100 pages of handwritten text had an initial average overall recognition rate of 67%. After the basic adaptation was finished, the overall recognition rate was 73.3%. As the improvement was most marked for the longer words, and the set of confidently recognized longer words contained many fewer false results, a second method was presented using them alone, resulting in a recognition rate of about 75%. Initially, these words had a 69.5% recognition rate, improving to about a 92% recognition rate after adaptation. A novel hybrid method is presented with a rate of about 77.2%.

  15. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C


    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  16. Quantifying Transaction Costs in Online/Off-line Grocery Channel Choice


    Pradeep K. Chintagunta; Junhong Chu; Javier Cebollada


    Households incur transaction costs when choosing among off-line stores for grocery purchases. They may incur additional transaction costs when buying groceries online versus off-line. We integrate the various transaction costs into a channel choice framework and empirically quantify the relative transaction costs when households choose between the online and off-line channels of the same grocery chain. The key challenges in quantifying these costs are (i) the complexity of channel choice deci...

  17. Off-line ion source terminal for ISAC at TRIUMF. (United States)

    Jayamanna, K; Ames, F; Cojocaru, G; Baartman, R; Bricault, P; Dube, R; Laxdal, R; Marchetto, M; MacDonald, M; Schmor, P; Wight, G; Yuan, D


    The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal consists of a microwave cusp ion source, either a surface ion source or a hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source and an electrostatic switch that allows selecting any one of the sources without mechanical intervention. These sources provide variety of beams to ISAC experiments, for commissioning the accelerators, for setting up the radioactive experiments, and for tuning the beam lines. The microwave ion source has been operational since 1995 and provides singly and doubly charged beams from various stable isotopes for many ISAC experiments at high and low energy areas. Originally its prime goal was to provide beams from gaseous elements, but later two ovens and a sputtering system were added in order to provide beams from liquids and from solids. The surface ion source installed in 2002 can provide low energy spread beams from alkali and semialkali elements. It also has three separate ovens and an ionizer. Therefore, it can provide three different temperature regions simultaneously to provide different beams to ISAC. It is mainly used for laser spectroscopy experiments and other experiments, which require a finite beam quality. A hybrid surface-arc discharge ion source was also developed and installed in order to meet specific demands from experiments. This source terminal is now automated for start up and for mass selection. It is capable of providing stable beams for months without maintenance and it is also capable of providing negative ion beams if required. To date, over 40 different isotopes including many rear isotopes were delivered to various experiments from the OLIS source terminal. Performances of the ion sources and some of the results are discussed.

  18. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness. (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J


    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  19. Off-Line Robust Constrained MPC for Linear Time-Varying Systems with Persistent Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bumroongsri


    Full Text Available An off-line robust constrained model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear time-varying (LTV systems is developed. A novel feature is the fact that both model uncertainty and bounded additive disturbance are explicitly taken into account in the off-line formulation of MPC. In order to reduce the on-line computational burdens, a sequence of explicit control laws corresponding to a sequence of positively invariant sets is computed off-line. At each sampling time, the smallest positively invariant set containing the measured state is determined and the corresponding control law is implemented in the process. The proposed MPC algorithm can guarantee robust stability while ensuring the satisfaction of input and output constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed MPC algorithm is illustrated by two examples.

  20. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.


    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  1. Developmental trajectories of peer victimization: off-line and online experiences during adolescence. (United States)

    Sumter, Sindy R; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen


    This study investigated the development and consequences of off-line and online victimization during adolescence. We examined the number and shapes of off-line and online victimization trajectories, the relationship between trajectories of off-line and online victimization, and their effect on life satisfaction. A four-wave panel study with 6-month time intervals was conducted among a representative sample of Dutch adolescents aged 12-17 years (N = 1,762). We used group-based modeling to investigate the victimization trajectories. Three off-line victimization trajectories could be distinguished. One group followed a trajectory of low to no victimization experiences across adolescence. A second group followed a pathway of moderate and decreasing victimization. A third group followed a pathway of high and decreasing victimization. Two groups in online victimization could be distinguished. One group followed a trajectory of low to no victimization experiences. A second group followed a pathway of moderate victimization that peaked at age 14. Dual-trajectory analyses revealed a substantial overlap between off-line and online victimization trajectories. Finally, victimization and life satisfaction were longitudinally related; moderate and high victimization trajectories resulted in lower levels of life satisfaction during wave 4. The overlap between the off-line and online victimization trajectories and their negative consequences on life satisfaction suggests that prevention of victimization should focus on both types of victimization. The results suggest that peer victimization should not be studied without considering adolescent peer relationships on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of apolipoprotein E genotype on the off-line memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Spontaneous brain activity or off-line activity after memory encoding is associated with memory consolidation. A few recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI studies indicate that the RS-fMRI could map off-line memory consolidation effects. However, the gene effects on memory consolidation process remain largely unknown. Here we collected two RS-fMRI sessions, one before and another after an episodic memory encoding task, from two groups of healthy young adults, one with apolipoprotein E (APOE ε2/ε3 and the other with APOE ε3/ε4. The ratio of regional homogeneity (ReHo, a measure of local synchronization of spontaneous RS-fMRI signal, of the two sessions was used as an index of memory-consolidation. APOE ε3/ε4 group showed greater ReHo ratio within the medial temporal lobe (MTL. The ReHo ratio in MTL was significantly correlated with the recognition memory performance in the APOE ε3/ε4 group but not in ε2/ε3 group. Additionally, APOE ε3/ε4 group showed lower ReHo ratio in the occipital and parietal picture-encoding areas. Our results indicate that APOE ε3/ε4 group may have a different off-line memory consolidation process compared to ε2/ε3 group. These results may help generate future hypotheses that the off-line memory consolidation might be impaired in Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Reducing off-line to on-line: An example and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demange Marc


    Full Text Available We study on-line versions of maximum weighted hereditary subgraph problems for which the instance is revealed in two clusters. We focus on the comparison of these on-line problems with their respective off-line versions. In [3], we have reduced on-line versions to the off-line ones in order to devise competitive analysis for such problems. In this paper, we first devise hardness results pointing out that this previous analysis was tight. Then, we propose a process that allows, for a large class of hereditary problems, to transform an on-line algorithm into an off-line one with improvement of the guarantees. This result can be seen as an inverse version of our previous work. It brings to the fore a hardness gap between on-line and off-line versions of those problems. This result does not apply in the case of maximizing a k -colorable induced subgraph of a given graph. For this problem we point out that, contrary to the first case, the on-line version is almost as well approximated as the offline one. .

  4. Off-line production of transition-metal ions at BECOLA (United States)

    Ryder, Caleb; Asberry, Hillary; Harris, Justin; Mantica, Paul; Minamisono, Kei; Rossi, Dominic; Strum, Ryan; Smith, April


    Collinear laser spectroscopy (CLS) of stable reference beams produced using off-line methods is critical in CLS experiments for calibrating the beam energy during experimental runs, developing atomic laser excitation schemes and reliably deducing nuclear properties from hyperfine spectra collected from on-line beams of radioisotopes. The BEam COoler and LAser Spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University employs several ion sources for off-line stable beam production, each specializing in ion generation from specific materials. The focus of this talk will be on the Penning Ionization Gauge (PIG) ion source, a plasma sputtering source that has been recently implemented at BECOLA to readily produce transition metal ion beams. Collinear laser spectroscopy (CLS) of stable reference beams produced using off-line methods is critical in CLS experiments for calibrating the beam energy during experimental runs, developing atomic laser excitation schemes and reliably deducing nuclear properties from hyperfine spectra collected from on-line beams of radioisotopes. The BEam COoler and LAser Spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University employs several ion sources for off-line stable beam production, each specializing in ion generation from specific materials. The focus of this talk will be on the Penning Ionization Gauge (PIG) ion source, a plasma sputtering source that has been recently implemented at BECOLA to readily produce transition metal ion beams. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-11-02511.

  5. Executive Function Is Associated With Off-Line Motor Learning in People With Chronic Stroke. (United States)

    Al-Dughmi, Mayis; Al-Sharman, Alham; Stevens, Suzanne; Siengsukon, Catherine F


    Sleep has been shown to promote off-line motor learning in individuals following stroke. Executive function ability has been shown to be a predictor of participation in rehabilitation and motor recovery following stroke. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between executive function and off-line motor learning in individuals with chronic stroke compared with healthy control participants. Seventeen individuals with chronic stroke (>6 months poststroke) and 9 healthy adults were included in the study. Participants underwent 3 consecutive nights of polysomnography, practiced a continuous tracking task the morning of the third day, and underwent a retention test the morning after the third night. Participants underwent testing on 4 executive function tests after the continuous tracking task retention test. Participants with stroke showed a significant positive correlation between the off-line motor learning score and performance on the Trail-Making Test from Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (r = 0.652; P = 0.005), while the healthy control participants did not. Regression analysis showed that the Trail-Making Test-Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System is a significant predictor of off-line motor learning (P = 0.008). This is the first study to demonstrate that better performance on an executive function test of attention and set-shifting predicts a higher magnitude of off-line motor learning in individuals with chronic stroke. This emphasizes the need to consider attention and set-shifting abilities of individuals following stroke as these abilities are associated with motor learning. This in turn could affect learning of activities of daily living and impact functional recovery following stroke.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1,

  6. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R


    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  7. Dynamic modelling, identification and simulation of industrial robots – for off-line programming of robotised laser welding –

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiboer, R.R.


    Robotised laser welding is an innovative joining technique which is increasingly finding applications, especially in the automotive industry. In order to reduce the time needed to prepare and programthe laser welding robot, off-line programming systems are used. The off-line programming systems

  8. Data quality assurance in monitoring of wastewater quality: Univariate on-line and off-line methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alferes, J.; Poirier, P.; Lamaire-Chad, C.

    procedure is presented that combines univariate off-line and on-line methods to assess water quality sensors and to detect and replace doubtful data. While the off-line concept uses control charts for quality control, the on-line methods aim at outlier and fault detection by using autoregressive models...

  9. Regulation of the organic pollution level in anaerobic digesters by using off-line COD measurements. (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; García-Sandoval, J P; González-Álvarez, V; Alcaraz-González, V; Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A


    A sampled delayed scheme is proposed to regulate the organic pollution level in anaerobic digestion processes by using off-line COD measurements. The proposed scheme is obtained by combining an error feedback control with a steady state estimator to track constant references and attenuate process load disturbances. The controller performance is tested experimentally for the treatment of tequila vinasses over a period of 68days under different set-point values and several uncertain scenarios which include badly known kinetic parameters and load disturbances. Experimental results show that the COD concentration can be effectively regulated under the influence of set-point changes and high load disturbances by using only a daily off-line COD measurement, which makes the industrial application of the proposed control scheme feasible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of antibody immobilization for on-line or off-line immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Natascha Helena; Schou, Christian; Højrup, Peter


    . A systematic study was conducted to determine the most versatile antibody immobilization method for use in on-line and off-line IA chromatography applications using commonly accessible immobilization methods. Four chemistries were examined using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments. We...... immobilization especially using epoxy chemistry. In general, the most optimal covalent antibody immobilization for on-line IA-LC-MS was achieved using aminogroup immobilization of intact antibodies by epoxy- or aldehyde-activated POROS R20-matrices and in some cases by chemical crosslinking to Protein G......-POROS. Protein G-based matrices are very stable showing essentially no decline in performance after 50 application-wash-elution-reequilibration cycles and being easily prepared within 2-3 h of working time with a typical antibody coupling yield of above 80%. In off-line applications where constant flow...

  11. Off-line learning of motor skill memory: a double dissociation of goal and movement. (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Press, Daniel Z; Robertson, Edwin M


    Acquiring a new skill requires learning multiple aspects of a task simultaneously. For example, learning a piano sonata requires learning the musical notes and being able to implement this goal by learning the appropriate sequence of finger movements. After practice, skill continues to develop off-line during a period of consolidation. Here we show that different aspects of a procedural memory are processed separately during consolidation: Only the movement sequence is enhanced over the day; whereas only the goal is enhanced over a night of sleep. This double dissociation suggests that distinct systems, enhancing different aspects of a procedural memory, support improvements during consolidation. Consolidation is not a single process; instead, there are multiple routes to off-line learning, and the engagement of these distinct mechanisms is determined by when consolidation takes place.

  12. Robot off-line programming and simulation as a true CIME-subsystem


    Nielsen, L.F; Trostmann, S; Trostmann, Erik; Conrad, Finn


    A robot off-line programming and real-time simulation system, ROPSIM, which is based on the neutral interface concept and features simulation of the dynamics of both the controller and robot arm, has been developed. To avoid dependency on dedicated robot models, ROPSIM is based on generic models describing the robot controller, robot arm geometry, and the robot and arm kinetics. The software was developed using the C++ programming language. The key modules are discussed. The system is a true ...

  13. Helium cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Sciver, Steven W


    Twenty five years have elapsed since the original publication of Helium Cryogenics. During this time, a considerable amount of research and development involving helium fluids has been carried out culminating in several large-scale projects. Furthermore, the field has matured through these efforts so that there is now a broad engineering base to assist the development of future projects. Helium Cryogenics, 2nd edition brings these advances in helium cryogenics together in an updated form. As in the original edition, the author's approach is to survey the field of cryogenics with emphasis on helium fluids. This approach is more specialized and fundamental than that contained in other cryogenics books, which treat the associated range of cryogenic fluids. As a result, the level of treatment is more advanced and assumes a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles, including some quantum mechanics. The goal throughout the work is to bridge the gap between the physics and engineering aspe...

  14. Antiprotonic helium

    CERN Multimedia

    Eades, John


    An exotic atom in w hich an electron and an antiproton orbit a helium nucleus could reveal if there are any differences between matter and antimatter. The author describes this unusual mirror on the antiworld (5 pages)

  15. Off-line testing of multifunctional surfaces for metal forming applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, A.; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, L.


    In this paper, Bending-Under-Tension, an off-line test method simulating deep-drawing, is chosen for investigating the effectiveness of multifunctional (MUFU) surfaces in metal forming operations. Four different MUFU surfaces, characterized by a plateau bearing area and grooves for lubricant...... retention, are manufactured, together with two polished references. During the tests, surface texture is the only variable. The results show how MUFU surfaces perform better than the polished references, which produce severe galling, while MUFU surfaces with low bearing area display no clear evidence...

  16. Off-line mapping of multi-rate dependent task sets to many-core platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Noulard, Eric; Pagetti, Claire


    This paper presents an approach to execute safety-critical applications on multi- and many-core processors in a predictable manner. We investigate three concrete platforms: the Intel Single-chip Cloud Computer, the Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 and the Tilera TILEmpower-Gx36. We define an execution...... model to safely execute dependent periodic task sets on these platforms. The four rules of the execution model entail that an off-line mapping of the application to the platform must be computed. The paper details our approach to automatically compute a valid mapping. Furthermore, we evaluate our...

  17. Robot off-line programming and simulation as a true CIME-subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.F; Trostmann, S; Trostmann, Erik


    A robot off-line programming and real-time simulation system, ROPSIM, which is based on the neutral interface concept and features simulation of the dynamics of both the controller and robot arm, has been developed. To avoid dependency on dedicated robot models, ROPSIM is based on generic models...... describing the robot controller, robot arm geometry, and the robot and arm kinetics. The software was developed using the C++ programming language. The key modules are discussed. The system is a true computer-integrated manufacturing and engineering subsystem which facilitates the exchange and reuse of robot...... model definition data and robot program definition data with systems of other origin or different functionality...

  18. Off-Line Testing of Tribo-Systems for Sheet Metal Forming Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno


    -parameters, which are tool/workpiece normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed and interface contact temperature. The paper describes a generic methodology for such tests exemplified on an industrial, multistage deep drawing example, where deep drawing is followed by two successive re-drawing operations...... leading to very high tool/workpiece interface pressure and temperature in the second re-draw. Under such conditions only the best lubricant systems work satisfactory, and the paper shows how the performance of different tribo-systems in production may be predicted by off-line testing combined...

  19. Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth


    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran


    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority ...

  20. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor, E-mail: [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Casolino, Marco [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Conti, Livio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Fornaro, Claudio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); De Santis, Cristian [INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Shinozaki, Kenji [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center, University of Tübingen, Sand 6, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro [RIKEN, Wako (Japan)


    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper.

  1. First laser ions at an off-line mass separator of the ISAC facility at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Rauth, C; Horn, R; Lassen, J; Bricault, P; Wendt, K; 10.1016/j.nimb.2003.08.029


    For efficient and in particular for selective production of radioactive ion beams at on-line mass separator facilities the technique of resonance ionization laser ion sources (RILlS) has become the most powerful tool. In facilities like ISOLDE at CERN they nowadays represent the most commonly used type of ion source for rare short-lived isotopes, delivering highest suppression of isobaric contaminations. For a first off-line demonstration preparing the development and installation of such a laser ion source at the new ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver (Canada), an all solid state laser system developed at the University of Mainz (Germany), was transferred and tested there at an off-line test separator. The laser system consists of three tunable titanium:sapphire lasers with a repetition rate of 12 kHz, pulse length of ~30 ns, up to 2.5 W output power in the infrared to red spectral region and features additional frequency doubling units. With this system first RILIS studies were performed in a number of el...

  2. Conclusions from 12 Years Operational Experience of the Cryoplants for the Superconducting Magnets of the LEP Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, K; Delikaris, D; Passardi, Giorgio


    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) has ended its last physics run in November 2000, and it is at present being dismantled to liberate the tunnel for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project to be completed by end of 2005. The cryogenic systems for the superconducting solenoid and focusing quadrupoles for the two LEP experiments, ALEPH and DELPHI, each supplying a cooling power of 800 W/4.5 K entropy equivalent, have accumulated more then 100'000 hours of running time. The paper summarises the 12 years cryogenic experience in the various operating modes: cool-down, steady state, recovery after energy fast dump, utilities failures and warm-up of the superconducting magnets. The detailed operation statistics is presented and compared to the other CERN cryogenic systems. Emphasis is given to the technical analysis of the fault conditions and of their consequences on the helium refrigeration production time in view of the future operation of the LHC cryogenics.

  3. Off-Line and Dynamic Production Scheduling – A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożek Andrzej


    Full Text Available A comprehensive case study of manufacturing scheduling solutions development is given. It includes highly generalized scheduling problem as well as a few scheduling modes, methods and problem models. The considered problem combines flexible job shop structure, lot streaming with variable sublots, transport times, setup times, and machine calendars. Tabu search metaheuristic and constraint programming methods have been used for the off-line scheduling. Two dynamic scheduling methods have also been implemented, i.e., dispatching rules for the completely reactive scheduling and a multi-agent system for the predictivereactive scheduling. In these implementations three distinct models of the problem have been used, based on: graph representation, optimal constraint satisfaction, and Petri net formalism. Each of these solutions has been verified in computational experiments. The results are compared and some findings about advantages, disadvantages, and suggestions on using the solutions are formulated.

  4. Consumo de pornografía on-line y off-line en adolescentes colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Rivera


    Full Text Available El consumo de medios de comunicación se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años. Una consecuencia no deseada de ello es la proliferación de consumos de riesgo, como es el caso de la pornografía on-line y off-line. Aunque la literatura ha señalado una serie de variables predictoras (edad, género, etnia, nivel socioeconómico o estructura familiar, estudios recientes han sugerido incluir los valores y los estilos de vida como factores asociados a las decisiones de consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue examinar si los estilos de vida relacionales de los adolescentes son predictores relevantes del consumo de pornografía tanto en Internet como en revistas o vídeos. Se empleó un diseño observacional transversal que incluyó una muestra representativa de 9.942 adolescentes colombianos (Medad=14,93, DT=2,47. Los estilos de vida, controlando el efecto de variables sociodemográficas, estructurales e individuales, fueron sometidos a un análisis de regresión múltiple y a un análisis de mediación. Los resultados indicaron que el estilo intrafamiliar positivo estuvo asociado con una reducción en el consumo de pornografía, sin embargo, tanto el estilo intrafamiliar negativo como el de independencia relacional incrementan el mismo. Además se propone que los estilos relacionales familiares pueden mediar la relación entre los valores positivos y el comportamiento de riesgo on-line y off-line. Finalmente, se realiza una discusión de los resultados desde la perspectiva relacional y su aplicación en programas de educación mediática.

  5. Utilizing on- and off-line monitoring tools to follow a kinetic resolution step during flow synthesis. (United States)

    Farley, Kathleen A; Reilly, Usa; Anderson, Dennis P; Boscoe, Brian P; Bundesmann, Mark W; Foley, David A; Lall, Manjinder S; Li, Chao; Reese, Matthew R; Yan, Jiangli


    In situ reaction monitoring tools offer the ability to track the progress of a synthetic reaction in real time to facilitate reaction optimization and provide kinetic/mechanistic insight. Herein, we report the utilization of flow NMR, flow IR, and other off-line spectroscopy tools to monitor the progress of a flow chemistry reaction. The on-line and off-line tools were selected to facilitate the stereoselective kinetic resolution of a key racemic monomer, which lacked a chromophore, making conventional reaction monitoring difficult. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Adaptive off-line protocol for prostate external radiotherapy with cone beam computer tomography. (United States)

    Piziorska, M; Kukołowicz, P; Zawadzka, A; Pilichowska, M; Pęczkowski, P


    The goal of this work was to prepare and to evaluate an off-line adaptive protocol for prostate teleradiotherapy with kilovoltage cone beam computer tomography (CBCT). Ten patients with localized prostate carcinoma treated with external beams underwent image-guided radiotherapy. In total, 162 CBCT images were collected. Position of prostate and pubis symphysis (PS) with respect to the isocenter were measured off-line. Using the CBCT scans obtained in the first three fractions the average position of prostate in relation (AvPosPr) to PB was calculated. On each CBCT scan, the position of prostate with respect to AvPosPr was calculated and cumulative histogram of prostate displacement with respect to AvPosPr was prepared. Using this data, the adaptive protocol was prepared in which (1) based on the CBCT made in the first three fractions the AvPosPr to PS is obtained, (2) in all other fractions two orthogonal images are acquired and if for any direction set-up error exceeds 0.2 cm the patient's position is corrected, and (3) additionally, the patient's position is corrected if the AvPosPr exceeds 0.2 cm in any direction. To evaluate the adaptive protocol for 30 consecutive patients, the CBCT was also made in 10th and 21st fraction. For the first 10 patients, the results revealed that the prostate was displaced in relation to AvPosPr >0.7 cm in the vertical and longitudinal directions only on 4 and 5 images of 162 CBCT images, respectively. For the lateral direction, this displacement was >0.3 cm in one case. For the group of 30 patients, displacement was never >0.7, and 0.3 cm for the vertical and lateral directions. In two cases, displacements were >0.7 cm for the longitudinal direction. Implementation of the proposed adaptive procedure based on the on-line set-up error elimination followed by a reduction of systematic internal error enables reducing the CTV-PTV margin to 0.7, 0.7, and 0.4 cm for the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions

  7. Off-Line Optimization Based Active Control of Torsional Oscillation for Electric Vehicle Drivetrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin


    Full Text Available As there is no clutch or hydraulic torque converter in electric vehicles to buffer and absorb torsional vibrations. Oscillation will occur in electric vehicle drivetrains when drivers tip in/out or are shifting. In order to improve vehicle response to transients, reduce vehicle jerk and reduce wear of drivetrain parts, torque step changes should be avoided. This article mainly focuses on drivetrain oscillations caused by torque interruption for shifting in a Motor-Transmission Integrated System. It takes advantage of the motor responsiveness, an optimal active control method is presented to reduce oscillations by adjusting motor torque output dynamically. A rear-wheel-drive electric vehicle with a two gear automated manual transmission is considered to set up dynamic differential equations based on Newton’s law of motion. By linearization of the affine system, a joint genetic algorithm and linear quadratic regulator method is applied to calculate the real optimal motor torque. In order to improve immediacy of the control system, time consuming optimization process of parameters is completed off-line. The active control system is tested in AMEsim® and limitation of motor external characteristics are considered. The results demonstrate that, compared with the open-loop system, the proposed algorithm can reduce motion oscillation to a satisfied extent when unloading torque for shifting.

  8. Off-line simulation inspires insight: A neurodynamics approach to efficient robot task learning. (United States)

    Sousa, Emanuel; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Ferreira, Flora; Bicho, Estela


    There is currently an increasing demand for robots able to acquire the sequential organization of tasks from social learning interactions with ordinary people. Interactive learning-by-demonstration and communication is a promising research topic in current robotics research. However, the efficient acquisition of generalized task representations that allow the robot to adapt to different users and contexts is a major challenge. In this paper, we present a dynamic neural field (DNF) model that is inspired by the hypothesis that the nervous system uses the off-line re-activation of initial memory traces to incrementally incorporate new information into structured knowledge. To achieve this, the model combines fast activation-based learning to robustly represent sequential information from single task demonstrations with slower, weight-based learning during internal simulations to establish longer-term associations between neural populations representing individual subtasks. The efficiency of the learning process is tested in an assembly paradigm in which the humanoid robot ARoS learns to construct a toy vehicle from its parts. User demonstrations with different serial orders together with the correction of initial prediction errors allow the robot to acquire generalized task knowledge about possible serial orders and the longer term dependencies between subgoals in very few social learning interactions. This success is shown in a joint action scenario in which ARoS uses the newly acquired assembly plan to construct the toy together with a human partner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Manipulation and handling processes off-line programming and optimization with use of K-Roset (United States)

    Gołda, G.; Kampa, A.


    Contemporary trends in development of efficient, flexible manufacturing systems require practical implementation of modern “Lean production” concepts for maximizing customer value through minimizing all wastes in manufacturing and logistics processes. Every FMS is built on the basis of automated and robotized production cells. Except flexible CNC machine tools and other equipments, the industrial robots are primary elements of the system. In the studies, authors look for wastes of time and cost in real tasks of robots, during manipulation processes. According to aspiration for optimization of handling and manipulation processes with use of the robots, the application of modern off-line programming methods and computer simulation, is the best solution and it is only way to minimize unnecessary movements and other instructions. The modelling process of robotized production cell and offline programming of Kawasaki robots in AS-Language will be described. The simulation of robotized workstation will be realized with use of virtual reality software K-Roset. Authors show the process of industrial robot’s programs improvement and optimization in terms of minimizing the number of useless manipulator movements and unnecessary instructions. This is realized in order to shorten the time of production cycles. This will also reduce costs of handling, manipulations and technological process.

  10. New off-line aircraft instrumentation for non-methane hydrocarbon measurements. (United States)

    Bechara, Joelle; Borbon, Agnès; Jambert, Corinne; Perros, Pascal E


    New off-line instrumentation was developed to implement measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) on (French) research aircraft. NMHC are collected on multisorbent tubes by AMOVOC (Airborne Measurements Of Volatile Organic Compounds), a new automatic sampler. AMOVOC is a versatile and portable sampler targeting a wide range of NMHC at high frequency (sampling time of 10 min). Multisorbent tubes are analyzed on the ground by short-path thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The development and optimization of both NMHC sampling and analysis are reported here. On the one hand, the paper points out technical choices that were made according to aircraft constraints and avoiding sample loss or contamination. On the other hand, it describes analytical optimization, tube storage stability, and moisture removal. The method shows high selectivity, sensitivity (limit of detection less than 10 ppt) and precision (less than 24%). Finally, NMHC data collected on French aircraft during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign are reported for the first time. The results highlight instrumentation validity and protocol efficiency for NMHC measurements in the lower and upper troposphere.

  11. Action Intentions: Action Influences Both On-Line Perception and Off-Line Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kirtley


    Full Text Available Given that one role of vision is to gather information for upcoming tasks, previous studies have investigated whether the preparation for action affects visual behaviour. The current studies aimed to determine if such influences on visual selection would also influence the formation of subsequent memory representations. Two experiments were conducted- in the first, participants' action intentions towards a scene were manipulated by the performance of different grasping postures as they observed the scene. This was followed by a memory test for the objects presented. Participants' eye movements were affected by their action intention, so that performing a power grip led to significantly longer fixation durations on power grip compatible objects. In contrast, memory for the objects and their properties was not affected by the action. Our second study required participants to make the action posture during the recall phase. No effect on eye movements was found, but recall was affected, with a particular advantage for recall of the position of grip-compatible objects. Previous studies have shown that action intentions can affect the on-line perception of objects. The current study suggests this may not extend to off-line representations if they are accessed after the action has been completed or abandoned. However, the recall of information may be affected if gestures are formed during retrieval. Memory representations may not be tailored specifically to an action, but actions can still affect the recall of information.

  12. Control of a neuroprosthesis for grasping using off-line classification of electrocorticographic signals: case study. (United States)

    Márquez-Chin, C; Popovic, M R; Cameron, T; Lozano, A M; Chen, R


    Proof of concept study to control a neuroprosthesis for grasping using identification of arm movements from ECoG signals. To test the feasibility of using electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals as a control method for a neuroprosthesis for grasping. Acute care hospital, Toronto Western Hospital and spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Lyndhurst Centre. Both hospitals are located in Toronto, Canada. Two subjects participated in this study. The first subject had subdural electrodes implanted on the motor cortex for the treatment of essential tremor (ET). ECoG signals were recorded while the subject performed specific arm movements. The second subject had a complete SCI at C6 level (ASIA B score) and was fitted with a neuroprosthesis, capable of identifying arm movements from ECoG signals off-line, for grasping. To operate the neuroprosthesis, subject 2 issued a command that would trigger the release of a randomly selected ECoG signal recorded from subject 1, associated with a particular arm movement. The neuroprosthesis identified which arm movement was performed at the time of recording and used that information to trigger the stimulation sequence. A correct ECoG classification resulted in the neuroprosthesis producing the correct hand function (that is grasp and release). The neuroprosthesis classified ECoG signals correctly delivering the correct stimulation strategy with 94.5% accuracy. The feasibility of using ECoG signals as a control strategy for a neuroprosthesis for grasping was shown.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Alarcón


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the experience of the networked off-line improvisation ‘Listening and Remembering’, a performance for four commuters using voices and sounds from the Mexico City and Paris metros. It addresses the question: how can an act of collective remembering, inspired by listening to metro soundscapes, lead to the creation of networked voice-and sound-based narratives about the urban commuting experience? The networked experience is seen here from the structural perspective (telematic setting, the sonic underground context, the ethnographic process that led to the performance, the narratives that are created in the electro-acoustic setting, the shared acoustic environments that those creations suggest, and the technical features and participants’ responses that pre- vent or facilitate interaction. Emphasis is placed on the participants’ status as non-performers, and on their familiarity with the sonic environment, as a context that allows the participation of non-musicians in the making of music through telematically shared interfaces, using soundscape and real-time voice. Participants re-enact their routine experience through a dialogical relationship with the sounds, the other participants, themselves, and the experience of sharing: a collective memory.

  14. Automated off-line respiratory event detection for the study of postoperative apnea in infants. (United States)

    Aoude, Ahmed A; Kearney, Robert E; Brown, Karen A; Galiana, Henrietta L; Robles-Rubio, Carlos A


    Previously, we presented automated methods for thoraco-abdominal asynchrony estimation and movement artifact detection in respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) signals. This paper combines and improves these methods to give a method for the automated, off-line detection of pause, movement artifact, and asynchrony. Simulation studies demonstrated that the new combined method is accurate and robust in the presence of noise. The new procedure was successfully applied to cardiorespiratory signals acquired postoperatively from infants in the recovery room. A comparison of the events detected with the automated method to those visually scored by an expert clinician demonstrated a higher agreement (κ = 0.52) than that amongst several human scorers (κ = 0.31) in a clinical study . The method provides the following advantages: first, it is fully automated; second, it is more efficient than visual scoring; third, the analysis is repeatable and standardized; fourth, it provides greater agreement with an expert scorer compared to the agreement between trained scorers; fifth, it is amenable to online detection; and lastly, it is applicable to uncalibrated RIP signals. Examples of applications include respiratory monitoring of postsurgical patients and sleep studies.

  15. Combining one- and two-dimensional signal recognition approaches to off-line signature verification (United States)

    Chen, Siyuan; Srihari, Sargur


    A signature verification method that combines recognition methods of one-dimensional signals, e.g., speech and on-line handwriting, and two-dimensional images, e.g., holistic word recognition in OCR and off-line handwriting is described. In the one-dimensional approach, a sequence of data is obtained by tracing the exterior contour of the signature which allows the application of string-matching algorithms. The upper and lower contours of the signature are first determined by ignoring small gaps between signature components. The contours are combined into a single sequence so as to define a pseudo-writing path. To match two signatures a non-linear normalization method, viz., dynamic time warping, is applied to segment them into curves. Shape descriptors based on Zernike moments are extracted as features from each segment. A harmonic distance is used for measuring signature similarity. The two-dimensional approach is based on using features describing the word-shape. When the two methods are combined, the overall performance is significantly better than either method alone. With a database of 1320 genuines and 1320 forgeries the combination method has an accuracy of 90%.

  16. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning. (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice in children, young, and older adults. Subjects performed a ballistic task (A) followed by an accuracy-tracking task (B) designed to disrupt the consolidation of A. Retention tests of A were performed immediately and 24 hours after B. Older adults showed greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Time rather than sleep appears to enhance off-line learning and transfer of learning of an implicit continuous task. (United States)

    Al-Sharman, Alham; Siengsukon, Catherine F


    There is increasing evidence that sleep promotes off-line enhancement of a variety of explicitly learned motor tasks in young adults. However, whether sleep promotes off-line consolidation of implicitly learned motor tasks is still under question. Furthermore, the role of sleep in promoting transfer of learning remains unknown. This study examined the role of sleep in learning and transfer of learning of an implicit continuous motor task. Twenty-three neurologically intact individuals (mean age 26.4 years) were randomly assigned to either a sleep group or a no-sleep group. The sleep group practiced a continuous tracking task in the evening and underwent retention and transfer testing the following morning, while the no-sleep group practiced the tracking task in the morning and underwent retention and transfer testing in the evening. The results show that in both the sleep and no-sleep groups, performance improved off-line without further practice for both the general skill and the sequence-specific skill. The results also indicate that sleep and time promote transfer of learning of both sequence-specific and general skill learning to a spatial and temporal variation of the motor task. These findings demonstrate that sleep does not play a critical role in promoting off-line learning and transfer of learning of an implicit continuous motor task.

  18. Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands. (United States)

    van der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M; van Laar, Margriet; van der Pol, Peggy


    On-line drug markets flourish and consumers have high expectations of on-line quality and drug value. The aim of this study was to (i) describe on-line drug purchases and (ii) compare on-line with off-line purchased drugs regarding purity, adulteration and price. Comparison of laboratory analyses of 32 663 drug consumer samples (stimulants and hallucinogens) purchased between January 2013 and January 2016, 928 of which were bought on-line. The Netherlands. Primary outcome measures were (i) the percentage of samples purchased on-line and (ii) the chemical purity of powders (or dosage per tablet); adulteration; and the price per gram, blotter or tablet of drugs bought on-line compared with drugs bought off-line. The proportion of drug samples purchased on-line increased from 1.4% in 2013 to 4.1% in 2015. The frequency varied widely, from a maximum of 6% for controlled, traditional substances [ecstasy tablets, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) powder, amphetamine powder, cocaine powder, 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)] to more than a third for new psychoactive substances (NPS) [4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), 5/6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5/6-APB) and methoxetamine (MXE)]. There were no large differences in drug purity, yet small but statistically significant differences were found for 4-FA (on-line 59% versus off-line 52% purity for 4-FA on average, P = 0.001), MDMA powders (45 versus 61% purity for MDMA, P = 0.02), 2C-B tablets (21 versus 10 mg 2C-B/tablet dosage, P = 0.49) and ecstasy tablets (131 versus 121 mg MDMA/tablet dosage, P = 0.05). The proportion of adulterated samples purchased on-line and off-line did not differ, except for 4-FA powder, being less adulterated on-line (χ2  = 8.3; P < 0.02). Drug prices were mainly higher on-line, ranging for various drugs from 10 to 23% higher than that of drugs purchased off-line (six of 10 substances: P < 0.05). Dutch drug users increasingly

  19. Time rather than sleep appears to enhance off-line learning and transfer of learning of an implicit continuous task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharman A


    Full Text Available Alham Al-Sharman, Catherine F Siengsukon Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA Abstract: There is increasing evidence that sleep promotes off-line enhancement of a variety of explicitly learned motor tasks in young adults. However, whether sleep promotes off-line consolidation of implicitly learned motor tasks is still under question. Furthermore, the role of sleep in promoting transfer of learning remains unknown. This study examined the role of sleep in learning and transfer of learning of an implicit continuous motor task. Twenty-three neurologically intact individuals (mean age 26.4 years were randomly assigned to either a sleep group or a no-sleep group. The sleep group practiced a continuous tracking task in the evening and underwent retention and transfer testing the following morning, while the no-sleep group practiced the tracking task in the morning and underwent retention and transfer testing in the evening. The results show that in both the sleep and no-sleep groups, performance improved off-line without further practice for both the general skill and the sequence-specific skill. The results also indicate that sleep and time promote transfer of learning of both sequence-specific and general skill learning to a spatial and temporal variation of the motor task. These findings demonstrate that sleep does not play a critical role in promoting off-line learning and transfer of learning of an implicit continuous motor task. Keywords: sleep, off-line learning, implicit learning, transfer, continuous task

  20. Characterization of cetuximab F{sub c/2} dimers by off-line CZE-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    François, Yannis-Nicolas, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Biacchi, Michael; Said, Nassur; Renard, Charly [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Beck, Alain [Centre d' immunologie Pierre Fabre, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois (France); Gahoual, Rabah [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Laboratory of Bioanalytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)


    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics attract the largest concern due to their strong therapeutic potency and specificity. The Fc region of mAbs is common to many new biotherapeutics as biosimilar, antibody drug conjugate or fusion protein. Fc region has consequences for Fc-mediated effector functions that might be desirable for therapeutic applications. As a consequence, there is a continuous need for improvement of analytical methods to enable fast and accurate characterization of biotherapeutics. Capillary zone electrophoresis-Mass spectrometry couplings (CZE-MS) appear really attractive methods for the characterization of biological samples. In this report, we used CZE-MS systems developed in house and native MS infusion to allow precise middle-up characterization of F{sub c/2} variant of cetuximab. Molecular weights were measured for three F{sub c/2} charge variants detected in the CZE separation of cetuximab subunits. Two F{sub c/2} C-terminal lysine variants were identified and separated. As the aim is to understand the presence of three peaks in the CZE separation for two F{sub c/2} subunits, we developed a strategy using CZE-UV/MALDI-MS and CZE-UV/ESI-MS to evaluate the role of N-glycosylation and C-terminal lysine truncation on the CZE separation. The chemical structure of N-glycosylation expressed on the Fc region of cetuximab does not influence CZE separation while C-terminal lysine is significantly influencing separation. In addition, native MS infusion demonstrated the characterization of F{sub c/2} dimers at pH 5.7 and 6.8 and the first separation of these dimers using CZE-MS. - Highlights: • We confirm the power of off-line CE/MS coupling for the separation of mAb isoforms. • We demonstrate the role of C-terminal lysine truncation in the separation process. • We demonstrate the presence of non-covalent interactions between Fc/2 subunit. • We identify Fc/2 homo- and heterodimers.

  1. Real-time fMRI processing with physiological noise correction - Comparison with off-line analysis. (United States)

    Misaki, Masaya; Barzigar, Nafise; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Cheng, Samuel; Bodurka, Jerzy


    While applications of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) are growing rapidly, there are still limitations in real-time data processing compared to off-line analysis. We developed a proof-of-concept real-time fMRI processing (rtfMRIp) system utilizing a personal computer (PC) with a dedicated graphic processing unit (GPU) to demonstrate that it is now possible to perform intensive whole-brain fMRI data processing in real-time. The rtfMRIp performs slice-timing correction, motion correction, spatial smoothing, signal scaling, and general linear model (GLM) analysis with multiple noise regressors including physiological noise modeled with cardiac (RETROICOR) and respiration volume per time (RVT). The whole-brain data analysis with more than 100,000voxels and more than 250volumes is completed in less than 300ms, much faster than the time required to acquire the fMRI volume. Real-time processing implementation cannot be identical to off-line analysis when time-course information is used, such as in slice-timing correction, signal scaling, and GLM. We verified that reduced slice-timing correction for real-time analysis had comparable output with off-line analysis. The real-time GLM analysis, however, showed over-fitting when the number of sampled volumes was small. Our system implemented real-time RETROICOR and RVT physiological noise corrections for the first time and it is capable of processing these steps on all available data at a given time, without need for recursive algorithms. Comprehensive data processing in rtfMRI is possible with a PC, while the number of samples should be considered in real-time GLM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of on-line and off-line methods to quantify reactive oxygen species (ROS) in atmospheric aerosols (United States)

    Fuller, S. J.; Wragg, F. P. H.; Nutter, J.; Kalberer, M.


    Atmospheric aerosol particle concentrations have been linked with a wide range of pulmonary and cardio-vascular diseases but the particle properties responsible for these negative health effects are largely unknown. It is often speculated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) present in atmospheric particles lead to oxidative stress in, and ultimately disease of, the human lung. The quantification of ROS is highly challenging because some ROS components such as radicals are highly reactive and therefore short-lived. Thus, fast analysis methods are likely advantageous over methods with a long delay between aerosol sampling and ROS analysis. We present for the first time a detailed comparison of conventional off-line and fast on-line methods to quantify ROS in organic aerosols. For this comparison a new and fast on-line instrument was built and characterized to quantify ROS in aerosol particles with high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 4 nmol H2O2 equivalents per m3 air. ROS concentrations are measured with a time resolution of approximately 15 min, which allows the tracking of fast changing atmospheric conditions. The comparison of the off-line and on-line method shows that, in oxidized organic model aerosol particles, the majority of ROS have a very short lifetime of a few minutes whereas a small fraction is stable for a day or longer. This indicates that off-line techniques, where there is often a delay of hours to days between particle collection and ROS analysis, may severely underestimate true ROS concentrations and that fast on-line techniques are necessary for a reliable ROS quantification in atmospheric aerosol particles and a meaningful correlation with health outcomes.

  3. An ultra low-power off-line APDM-based switchmode power supply with very high conversion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils


    This article describes the results from the research work on design of a ultra low power off-line power supply with very high conversion efficiency. The input voltage is 230 VAC nominal and output voltage is 5 VDC. By ultra low power levels, an output power level in the area ranging from 50 mW an......W and up to 1000 mW is meant. The small power supply is intended for use as a standby power supply in mains operated equipment, which requires a small amount of power in standby mode....

  4. Sleep parameters, functional status and time post-stroke are associated with off-line motor skill learning in people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSiengsukon


    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that individuals with stroke benefit from sleep to enhance learning of a motor task. While stage NREM2 sleep and REM sleep have been associated with off-line motor skill learning in neurologically-intact individuals, it remains unknown which sleep parameters or specific sleep stages are associated with off-line motor skill learning in individuals with stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals with chronic stroke (> 6 months following stroke and 10 neurologically slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Participants practiced a tracking task the morning before the third night and underwent a retention test the morning following the third night. Off-line learning on the tracking task was assessed. Pearson’s correlations assessed for associations between the magnitude of off-line learning and sleep variables, age, upper extremity motor function, stroke severity, depression and time since stroke occurrence.Results: Individuals with stroke performed with significantly less error on the tracking task following a night of sleep (p=.006 while the control participants did not (p=.816. Increased sleep efficiency (r= -.285, less time spent in stage NREM3 sleep (r=.260, and more time spent in stage REM sleep (r= -.266 was weakly-to-moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Furthermore, higher upper-extremity motor function (r = -.400, lower stroke severity (r = .360, and less time since stroke occurrence (r=.311 were moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Conclusion: This study is the first study to provide insight into which sleep stages and individual characteristics may be associated with off-line learning in people with stroke. Future work should continue to understand which factors or combination of factors promote off-line motor learning in people with neurologic injury to best promote motor recovery in

  5. On the design of reflectors that produce a cut-off line with a given anisotropic source of light (United States)

    Kloos, G.


    The problem of generating a cut-off line with a carefully calculated reflector contour has been treated in detail by Spencer et al. for the case of a cylindrical source of light mounted perpendicular to the optic axis. Because this geometry does not properly represent the geometry in which standard light sources are used in the illumination systems which we study, the attempt was made to extend this theory to anisotropic light sources. This case of lower symmetry is closer to the geometry of light sources encountered in headlamp design. Spencer et al. were able to obtain an implicit algebraic equation for the problem of high symmetry that they analyzed. After adopting their method to the problem under investigation, the method of analysis used was different insofar as an algebraic equation was not obtained and the corresponding ordinary differential equation and the corresponding initial-value problem were solved instead and the solutions are visualized with the aid of a computer-algebra system. In this context, the concept of a so-called polar line or surface proved helpful. This describes a set of points that connect the tangent lines that link a given point of the reflector contour to a given extended lightsource of low symmetry. The extension of the lightsource is assumed to be elliptical in the plane that contains the optic axis and the plane perpendicular to the cut-off line. The analysis extended to the anisotropic case gave some insight into the underlying scaling laws and geometrical constraints.

  6. Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues. (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Gonzaga, Gian C; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; VanderWeele, Tyler J


    Marital discord is costly to children, families, and communities. The advent of the Internet, social networking, and on-line dating has affected how people meet future spouses, but little is known about the prevalence or outcomes of these marriages or the demographics of those involved. We addressed these questions in a nationally representative sample of 19,131 respondents who married between 2005 and 2012. Results indicate that more than one-third of marriages in America now begin on-line. In addition, marriages that began on-line, when compared with those that began through traditional off-line venues, were slightly less likely to result in a marital break-up (separation or divorce) and were associated with slightly higher marital satisfaction among those respondents who remained married. Demographic differences were identified between respondents who met their spouse through on-line vs. traditional off-line venues, but the findings for marital break-up and marital satisfaction remained significant after statistically controlling for these differences. These data suggest that the Internet may be altering the dynamics and outcomes of marriage itself.

  7. Determination of Monomers Reactivity Ratios in Ethyl Acrylate-Methacrylic Acid Copolymerization by Off-Line 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ashenagar


    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of polymer systems depend on the micro-structural characteristics of their macromolecular chains. Along with the most characteristic kinetic parameters in copolymerization reactions are the reactivity ratios, which give a clear idea of the average composition and the monomer sequence distribution in copolymer systems. This research studies the solution radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA-ethyl acrylate (EA system at low conversion with 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as thermal initiator at 60°C in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6 as a reaction solvent. In this case, the monomer reactivity ratios were determined using linear off-line 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR methods such as Mayo-Louis, Finemann-Ross, Inverted Finemann-Ross , Ezrielev-Brokhina-Roskin, Joshi-Joshi, Kelen-Tudos, extended Kelen- Tudos, Mao-Huglin at low and high conversions. The next estimation process in off-line 1H NMR methods were performed by applying techniques based on ordinary least square (OLS and generalized least square (GLS. The results showed that the GLS approach compared to the OLS increased regression coefficients (R2 and the order of magnitude of parameter variances obtained from GLS was many times lower than that obtained from OLS. In addition, the monomer reactivity ratios obtained by the Mao-Huglin method and the GLS approach showed the best linear estimation.

  8. Three-dimensional volume off-line analysis as compared to real-time ultrasound for assessing adnexal masses. (United States)

    Alcázar, Juan Luis; Iturra, Alberto; Sedda, Federica; Aubá, María; Ajossa, Silvia; Guerriero, Stefano; Jurado, Matías


    To assess the agreement between three-dimensional volume off-line analysis as compared to real-time ultrasound for assessing adnexal masses. Ninety-nine non-consecutive women diagnosed as having an adnexal mass were assessed by transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound. One single examiner performed all ultrasound examinations. Based on the examiner's subjective evaluation using gray scale and Doppler ultrasound findings a presumptive diagnosis (benign or malignant) was provided after real-time ultrasound was performed. Once real-time was done a 3D volume of the adnexal mass was acquired and stored by this examiner. Two examiners, unaware of the real-time ultrasound results, evaluated the 3D volumes using multiplanar display and virtual navigation and also had to provide a presumptive diagnosis (benign or malignant). These two examiners, like the first one, had information about patient's age, menopausal status and complaints. All women underwent surgery or were followed-up until cyst resolution. Histologic diagnosis was used as gold standard. Cysts that resolved spontaneously were considered as benign for analytical purposes. The Kappa index was used to assess the agreement between real time ultrasound and 3D volume analysis. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods were calculated and compared using McNemar test. Forty-one masses were malignant and 58 were benign. Agreement between real-time ultrasound and 3D volume analysis was good for both off-line examiners (Kappa index: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93 and 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.90). Sensitivities for real-time ultrasound and 3D volume analyses were 100%, 93% and 90%, respectively (p>0.05). Specificities for real-time ultrasound and 3D volume analyses were 91%, 84% and 86%, respectively (p>0.05). Off-line 3D volume analysis may be a useful method for assessing adnexal masses, showing a good agreement with real-time ultrasound and having a similar diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  9. An off-line dual maximum resource bin packing model for solving the maintenance problem in the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Gruia


    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programming model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  10. A Methodology for Off-line Evaluation of New Environmentally Friendly Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels


    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged sheet stamping companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. Production testing of new lubricants is, however, costly and makes industry reluctant...... towards testing alternative solutions. The present paper presents a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems based on numerical modelling of production process as well as laboratory test to adjust the latter combined with testing of selected tribo-systems on a new automatic sheet......-tribo-tester emulating typical sheet forming production processes. Final testing of the tribo-systems in production verifies the methodology. © 2013 CIRP....

  11. Quasi-min-max Fuzzy MPC of UTSG Water Level Based on Off-Line Invariant Set (United States)

    Liu, Xiangjie; Jiang, Di; Lee, Kwang Y.


    In a nuclear power plant, the water level of the U-tube steam generator (UTSG) must be maintained within a safe range. Traditional control methods encounter difficulties due to the complexity, strong nonlinearity and “swell and shrink” effects, especially at low power levels. A properly designed robust model predictive control can well solve this problem. In this paper, a quasi-min-max fuzzy model predictive controller is developed for controlling the constrained UTSG system. While the online computational burden could be quite large for the real-time control, a bank of ellipsoid invariant sets together with the corresponding feedback control laws are obtained by off-line solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the UTSG states, the online optimization is simplified as a constrained optimization problem with a bisection search for the corresponding ellipsoid invariant set. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  12. Characterization of phosphoproteins from electrophoretic gels by nanoscale Fe(III) affinity chromatography with off-line mass spectrometry analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, A; Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard


    Detailed characterization of phosphoproteins as well as other post-translationally modified proteins is required to fully understand protein function and regulatory events in cells and organisms. Here we present a mass spectrometry (MS) based experimental strategy for the identification and mapping...... chromatography (Fe(III)-IMAC) columns were employed for enrichment of phosphorylated peptides from crude peptide mixtures prior to off-line analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS or nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). An optimized and sensitive procedure for alkaline...... of phosphorylation sites. The advantages and limitations of the experimental strategy was demonstrated by enrichment, identification and sequencing of phosphopeptides from the model proteins ovalbumin and bovine beta-casein isolated by gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, an autophosphorylation site at Ser-3...

  13. Identification of Nitrotyrosine Containing Peptides using Combined Fractional Diagonal Chromatography (COFRADIC) and Off-Line Nano-LC-MALDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Trine R; Bache, Nicolai; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert


    Protein nitration take place on tyrosine residues under oxidative stress conditions and may influence a number of processes including enzyme activity, protein-protein interactions and phospho-tyrosine signalling pathways. Nitrated proteins have been identified in a number of diseases, however......, the study of these proteins has been compromised by the lack of good methods for identifying nitrated proteins, their nitration sites and the level of nitration. Here, we present a method for identification of nitrated peptides that allows the site specific assignment of nitration, is easy to use...... and reproducible, and opens up for the possibility to quantify the level of nitration of specific peptides as function of different oxidative conditions, namely combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC) in combination with off-line nano-LC-MALDI. We identify six nitrated peptides from in vitro...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa


    Full Text Available The capability to bend in a controlled manner Gres Porcelain stoneware tiles passing by a very exclusive process of pyroplastic deformation opens up entirely new opportunities in utilisation of this important family of ceramics. A bended tile can be exploited in innovative applications, such as stairs, shelves, benches and even radiators, turning this element from a simple piece of furnishing in a modern functional component. But this change in functionality also requires a different approach in the quality control, both at the product and process levels, that can no longer be limited to the use of tests specified in the regulations for traditional ceramics (e.g. colour, porosity, hygroscopic .... This article describes the first device so far devised for the verification of resistance to bending of curved tiles, discussing the correct way of use. The adoption of this particular equipment as an off-line control device can represent a valid strategy for monitoring the product and process quality.

  15. The helium question. (United States)

    Cook, E


    Helium appears indispensable for certain energy-related uses that may be important 50 years from now, when helium-bearing natural gas, a much cheaper source than air, may be exhausted. Present demand, however, is lower than productive capacity, and much helium is being dissipated into the atmosphere as natural gas is burned for fuel. Controversy over the need for a government-directed helium-conservation program reflects fundamental differences in viewpoints on the economic future of industrial society, on the limits of substitution of labor and capital for a depleting resource, and on intergenerational equity and risk-bearing.

  16. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M


    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  17. : Connectibility and geography on social network sites: a glance at the relations between territory and identity and on-line/off-line permeability based on Orkut Conectibilidade e geografia em sites de rede social: um olhar sobre as relações entre território e identidade e a permeabilidade on-line/off-line a partir do Orkut


    Suely Fragoso


    territory and identity and on-line/off-line permeability based on Orkut — Digital con- nectedness has greatly facilitated distance communication in real time, so that physical space and geographical location appear to have become irrelevant. However, territorial references are still evident in many on-line interactions. This work seeks to describe and discuss the case of representations of off-line locations in on-line environments, emphasiz- ing the associat...

  18. SU-C-303-04: Evaluation of On- and Off-Line Bioluminescence Tomography System for Focal Irradiation Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B; Wang, K; Reyes, J; Tran, P; Wong, J [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Iordachita, I [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Purpose: We have developed offline and on-board bioluminescence tomography(BLT) systems for the small animal radiation research platform(SARRP) for radiation guidance of soft tissue targets. We investigated the effectiveness of offline BLT guidance. Methods: CBCT is equipped on both the offline BLT system and SARRP that are 10 ft. apart. To evaluate the setup error during animal transport between the two systems, we implanted a luminescence source in the abdomen of anesthetized mice. Five mice were studied. After CBCT was acquired on both systems, source centers and correlation coefficients were calculated. CBCT was also used to generate object mesh for BLT reconstruction. To assess target localization, we compared the localization of the luminescence source based on (1)on-board SARRP BLT and CBCT, (2)offline BLT and CBCT, and (3)offline BLT and SARRP CBCT. The 3rd comparison examines if an offline BLT system can be used to guide radiation when there is minimal target contrast in CBCT. Results: Our CBCT results show the offset of the light source center can be maintained within 0.2 mm during animal transport. The center of mass(CoM) of the light source reconstructed by the offline BLT has an offset of 1.0 ± 0.4 mm from the ‘true’ CoM as derived from the SARRP CBCT. The results compare well with the offset of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm using on-line BLT. Conclusion: With CBCT information provided by the SARRP and effective animal immobilization during transport, these findings support the use of offline BLT in close vicinity for accurate soft tissue target localization for irradiation. However, the disadvantage of the off-line system is reduced efficiency as care is required to maintain stable animal transport. We envisage a dual use system where the on-board arrangement allows convenient access to CBCT and avoids disturbance of animal setup. The off-line capability would support standalone longitudinal imaging studies. The work is supported by NIH R01CA158100 and Xstrahl

  19. Electrowetting-on-dielectric actuation of droplets with capillary electrophoretic zones for off-line mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Gorbatsova, Jelena; Borissova, Maria; Kaljurand, Mihkel


    Present article describes a novel technique based on digital microfluidics that allows collecting fractions of interest after electrophoretic separation and detection for further ESI-MS investigation. In this technique, a mixture is injected into a capillary electrophoresis (CE) apparatus, and microliter droplets are generated at the CE outlet at a frequency high enough to fraction each compound into several droplets, compartmentalizing the CE zones into a sequence of droplets. The droplets are transported from the CE outlet to a storage tube inlet using electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) for droplet actuation. By applying a vacuum at the other end of the storage tube, the droplets form a sequence of plugs separated by air gaps. The plugs stored in the tubing are later analyzed using a standalone spectrometric device. Off-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to characterize the corresponding vitamin and was performed by pumping the segmented plugs directly into a spray emitter tip. The technique could be of interest to laboratories without access to well-equipped facilities (e.g. clean-rooms or lab robots). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.


    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  1. Salting-out solvent extraction for the off-line preconcentration of benzalkonium chloride in capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    So, T S; Huie, C W


    The use of salting-out effect for the off-line preconcentration of charged analytes in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated for the first time. Using benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as model compound, a mixture of cationic surfactants consisting of even-numbered alkylbenzyl quaternary ammonium homologues (C8-C18), the addition of appropriate amounts of sodium chloride and acetonitrile in the sample solution (2 mL sample volume) was found to be capable of providing ca. 40-fold enhancement in detection sensitivity. In addition to affording a preconcentrating effect due to the extraction of BAK in the smaller volume water-miscible organic solvent phase (acetonitrile), the organic solvent also serves to improve the peak area and shape of the longer chain surfactants. Optimal experimental conditions, such as volume of acetonitrile and concentration of sodium chloride, for the preconcentration of BAK with good preconcentration factors and reproducibility were investigated. The usefulness of the present method was demonstrated for the improved determination of BAK present in commercially available industrial and pharmaceutical products.

  2. Development of off-line layer chromatographic and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods for arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Moricz, Agnes M. [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Kroepfl, Krisztina [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Szikora, Szilvia [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Parra, Lue Meru Marco [Universidad Centro-occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Departamento de Quimica y Suelos Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Apartado Postal 4076, Cabudare 3023 (Venezuela); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail:


    Rapid and low cost off-line thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods have been developed for separation of 25 ng of each As(III), As(V), monomethyl arsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid applying a PEI cellulose stationary phase on plastic sheets and a mixture of acetone/acetic acid/water = 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as eluent system. The type of eluent systems, the amounts (25-1000 ng) of As species applied to PEI cellulose plates, injection volume, development distance, and flow rate (in case of overpressured thin layer chromatography) were taken into consideration for the development of the chromatographic separation. Moreover, a microdigestion method employing nitric acid for the As spots containing PEI cellulose scratched from the developed plates divided into segments was developed for the subsequent total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. The method was applied for analysis of root extracts of cucumber plants grown in As(III) containing modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Both As(III) and As(V) were detected by applying the proposed thin layer chromatography/overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods.

  3. Estudio etnográfico de un grupo híbrido on-line/off-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tomàs i Justribó


    Full Text Available L'estudi se centra en l'anàlisi dels patrons d'interacció social d'un grup concret de nois que juguen a jocs en línia en un cibercafè de Barcelona. Es tracta d'un grup que es podria qualificar com a híbrid ?on-line/off-line? ja que, en ell, el contacte presencial alterna i se superposa amb la interacció virtual. Això fa que, només de forma molt limitada, s'hi doni la deslocalització que acompanya altres usos de les Noves Tecnologies de la Informació i la Comunicació (NTIC. El que sí que es produeix és una reinterpretació de les formes d'interacció social pròpies de qualsevol altre grup de joves, alhora que també una interpretació de les NTIC, adaptant-les a formes tradicionals de socialització. En el grup, en definitiva, es pot observar com s'uneixen i entrellacen de diverses maneres el lloc físic i el ciberlloc, l'experiència presencial i la ciberexperiència.

  4. Advanced Learners' Comprehension of Discourse Connectives: The Role of L1 Transfer across On-Line and Off-Line Tasks (United States)

    Zufferey, Sandrine; Mak, Willem; Degand, Liesbeth; Sanders, Ted


    Discourse connectives are important indicators of textual coherence, and mastering them is an essential part of acquiring a language. In this article, we compare advanced learners' sensitivity to the meaning conveyed by connectives in an off-line grammaticality judgment task and an on-line reading experiment using eye-tracking. We also assess the…

  5. Off-line setup corrections only marginally reduce the number of on-line corrections for prostate radiotherapy using implanted gold markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vight, L.P. van der; Lin, E.N.J.T. van; Spitters-Post, I.; Visser, A.G.; Louwe, R.J.W.


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency of combining on-line and off-line corrections for the positioning of patients receiving external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Daily portal images were acquired during the treatment of 102 patients to verify and correct the position

  6. A study of the growth for the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by photo-bio-calorimetry and other on-line and off-line techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patino, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Stockar, von U.


    Calorimetry and other on-line techniques are used for the first time as complement to the traditional off-line methods in order to follow the growth of the green Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. A 2-L photo-bio-reactor was adapted from a commercial calorimeter used previously to study heterotrophic

  7. Set-up improvement in head and neck radiotherapy using a 3D off-line EPID-based correction protocol and a customised head and neck support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, E.N.J.T. van; Vight, L.P. van der; Huizenga, H.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Visser, A.G.


    PURPOSE: First, to investigate the set-up improvement resulting from the introduction of a customised head and neck (HN) support system in combination with a technologist-driven off-line correction protocol in HN radiotherapy. Second, to define margins for planning target volume definition,

  8. Acceleration tracking control combining adaptive control and off-line compensators for six-degree-of-freedom electro-hydraulic shaking tables. (United States)

    Shen, Gang; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Zhencai; Tang, Yu; Zhu, Weidong; Liu, Shanzeng


    An electro-hydraulic shaking table (EHST) is an essential experimental facility to simulate in real-time actual vibration situations. An adaptive controller combined with off-line compensators is proposed to improve the acceleration frequency bandwidth and tracking accuracy of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) EHST. A servo controller has been employed to implement acceleration closed-loop and coordinate control of the 6-DOF EHST. A recursive extended least-squares algorithm is employed to identify acceleration closed-loop transfer functions and a zero-phase-error tracking controller is used to design off-line inverse model compensators using the identified transfer functions. However, the off-line compensators cannot compensate in real-time varying dynamics of the 6-DOF EHST; so an online adaptive controller with a least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm based on a delay compensator is employed. The proposed controller combines advantages of the off-line compensators and the online adaptive controller, which guarantees both a fast rate of convergence of the LMS algorithm and high-fidelity acceleration tracking accuracy of the 6-DOF EHST. Some experimental studies have been conducted on a 6-DOF EHST and experimental results show that acceleration tracking control performances, including the rate of convergence of the LMS algorithm and acceleration tracking accuracy, have been improved compared to a conventional three-variable controller and adaptive controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The core helium flash (United States)

    Cole, P. W.; Deupree, R. G.


    The role of convection in the core helium flash is simulated by two-dimensional eddies interacting with the thermonuclear runaway. These eddies are followed by the explicit solution of the two-dimensional conservation laws with a two-dimensional finite difference hydrodynamics code. Thus, no phenomenological theory of convection such as the local mixing length theory is required. The core helium flash is violent, producing a deflagration wave. This differs from the detonation wave (and subsequent disruption of the entire star) produced in previous spherically symmetric violent core helium flashes as the second dimension provides a degree of relief which allows the expansion wave to decouple itself from the burning front. The results predict that a considerable amount of helium in the core will be burned before the horizontal branch is reached and that some envelope mass loss is likely.

  10. The Descending Helium Balloon (United States)

    Helseth, Lars Egil


    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  11. ICP-MS-based characterization of inorganic nanoparticles--sample preparation and off-line fractionation strategies. (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Meermann, Björn; Ternes, Thomas A


    Validated and easily applicable analytical tools are required to develop and implement regulatory frameworks and an appropriate risk assessment for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Concerning metal-based ENPs, two main aspects are the quantification of the absolute mass concentration and of the "dissolved" fraction in, e.g., (eco)toxicity and environmental studies. To provide information on preparative aspects and on potential uncertainties, preferably simple off-line methods were compared to determine (1) the total concentration of suspensions of five metal-based ENP materials (Ag, TiO2, CeO2, ZnO, and Au; two sizes), and (2) six methods to quantify the "dissolved" fraction of an Ag ENP suspension. Focusing on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, the total concentration of the ENP suspensions was determined by direct measurement, after acidification and after microwave-assisted digestion. Except for Au 10 nm, the total concentrations determined by direct measurements were clearly lower than those measured after digestion (between 61.1 % for Au 200 nm and 93.7 % for ZnO). In general, acidified suspensions delivered better recoveries from 89.3 % (ZnO) to 99.3 % (Ag). For the quantification of dissolved fractions two filtration methods (ultrafiltration and tangential flow filtration), centrifugation and ion selective electrode were mainly appropriate with certain limitations, while dialysis and cloud point extraction cannot be recommended. With respect to precision, time consumption, applicability, as well as to economic demands, ultrafiltration in combination with microwave digestion was identified as best practice.

  12. Application of off-line image processing for optimization in chest computed radiography using a low cost system. (United States)

    Muhogora, Wilbroad E; Msaki, Peter; Padovani, Renato


     The objective of this study was to improve the visibility of anatomical details by applying off-line postimage processing in chest computed radiography (CR). Four spatial domain-based external image processing techniques were developed by using MATLAB software version (R14) and image processing tools. The developed techniques were implemented to sample images and their visual appearances confirmed by two consultant radiologists to be clinically adequate. The techniques were then applied to 200 chest clinical images and randomized with other 100 images previously processed online. These 300 images were presented to three experienced radiologists for image quality assessment using standard quality criteria. The mean and ranges of the average scores for three radiologists were characterized for each of the developed technique and imaging system. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to test the difference of details visibility between the images processed using each of the developed techniques and the corresponding images processed using default algorithms. The results show that the visibility of anatomical features improved significantly (0.005 ≤ p ≤ 0.02) with combinations of intensity values adjustment and/or spatial linear filtering techniques for images acquired using 60 ≤ kVp ≤ 70. However, there was no improvement for images acquired using 102 ≤ kVp ≤ 107 (0.127 ≤ p ≤ 0.48). In conclusion, the use of external image processing for optimization can be effective in chest CR, but should be implemented in consultations with the radiologists.

  13. Flow-injection determination of total organic fluorine with off-line defluorination reaction on a solid sorbent bed. (United States)

    Musijowski, Jacek; Trojanowicz, Marek; Szostek, Bogdan; da Costa Lima, José Luis Fontes; Lapa, Rui; Yamashita, Hiroki; Takayanagi, Toshio; Motomizu, Shoji


    Considering recent reports on widespread occurrence and concerns about perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental and biological systems, analysis of these compounds have gained much attention in recent years. Majority of analyte-specific methods are based on a LC/MS/MS or a GC/MS detection, however many environmental or biological studies would benefit from a total organic fluorine (TOF) determination. Presented work was aimed at developing a method for TOF determination. TOF is determined as an amount of inorganic fluoride obtained after defluorination reaction conducted off-line using sodium biphenyl reagent directly on the sorbent without elution of retained analytes. Recovered fluoride was analyzed using flow-injection system with either fluorimetric or potentiometric detection. The TOF method was tested using perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), as model compounds. Considering low concentrations of PFAS in natural samples, solid-phase extraction as a preconcentration procedure was evaluated. Several carbon-based sorbents were tested, namely multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres and activated carbon. Good sorption of all analytes was achieved and defluorination reaction was possible to carry out directly on a sorbent bed. Recoveries obtained for PFCAs, adsorbed on an activated carbon sorbent, and measured as TOF, were 99.5+/-1.7, 110+/-9.4, 95+/-26, 120+/-32, 110+/-12 for C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12-PFCA, respectively. Two flow systems that would enable the defluorination reaction and fluoride determination in a single system were designed and tested.

  14. A global off-line model of size-resolved aerosol microphysics: I. Model development and prediction of aerosol properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Spracklen


    Full Text Available A GLObal Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP has been developed as an extension to the TOMCAT 3-D Eulerian off-line chemical transport model. GLOMAP simulates the evolution of the global aerosol size distribution using a sectional two-moment scheme and includes the processes of aerosol nucleation, condensation, growth, coagulation, wet and dry deposition and cloud processing. We describe the results of a global simulation of sulfuric acid and sea spray aerosol. The model captures features of the aerosol size distribution that are well established from observations in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere. Modelled condensation nuclei (CN>3nm vary between about 250–500 cm-3 in remote marine boundary layer regions and are generally in good agreement with observations. Modelled continental CN concentrations are lower than observed, which may be due to lack of some primary aerosol sources or the neglect of nucleation mechanisms other than binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid-water particles. Remote marine CN concentrations increase to around 2000–10 000 cm (at standard temperature and pressure in the upper troposphere, which agrees with typical observed vertical profiles. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at 0.2% supersaturation vary between about 1000 cm-3 in polluted regions and between 10 and 500 cm-3 in the remote marine boundary layer. New particle formation through sulfuric acid-water binary nucleation occurs predominantly in the upper troposphere, but the model results show that these particles contribute greatly to aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer. For this sulfur-sea salt system it is estimated that sea spray emissions account for only ~10% of CCN in the tropical marine boundary layer, but between 20 and 75% in the mid-latitude Southern Ocean. In a run with only natural sulfate and sea salt emissions the global mean surface CN concentration is more than 60% of that from a run with 1985 anthropogenic

  15. Real Time On-line Space Research Laboratory Environment Monitoring with Off-line Trend and Prediction Analysis (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.


    their g-level contribution to the environment. The system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many Increments of the space station for selected disturbance activities. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential system failure as well as for use by research scientists during their science results analysis. Examples of both real time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line trend analysis are presented in this paper. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen s Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  16. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis. (United States)

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra


    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  17. Cavitation in flowing superfluid helium (United States)

    Daney, D. E.


    Flowing superfluid helium cavitates much more readily than normal liquid helium, and there is a marked difference in the cavitation behavior of the two fluids as the lambda point is traversed. Examples of cavitation in a turbine meter and centrifugal pump are given, together with measurements of the cavitation strength of flowing superfluid helium. The unusual cavitation behavior of superfluid helium is attributed to its immense thermal conductivity .

  18. Broken symmetry makes helium

    CERN Multimedia

    Gray, P L


    "The subatomic pion particle breaks the charge symmetry rule that governs both fusion and decay. In experiments performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Laboratory, physicists forced heavy hydrogen (1 proton + 1 neutron) to fuse into helium in a controlled, measurable environment" (1 paragraph).

  19. A comparison of 15 Hz sine on-line and off-line magnetic stimulation affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Dong, Lei; Gao, Yang; Dou, Jun-Rong; Li, Ze-yan


    Combined with the use of patch-clamp techniques, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has proven to be a noninvasive neuromodulation tool that can inhibit or facilitate excitability of neurons after extensive research. The studies generally focused on the method: the neurons are first stimulated in an external standard magnetic exposure device, and then moved to the patch-clamp to record electrophysiological characteristics (off-line magnetic exposure). Despite its universality, real-time observation of the effects of magnetic stimulation on the neurons is more effective (on-line magnetic stimulation). In this study, we selected a standard exposure device for magnetic fields acting on mouse prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons, and described a new method that a patch-clamp setup was modified to allow on-line magnetic stimulation. By comparing the off-line exposure and on-line stimulation of the same magnetic field intensity and frequency affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents, we succeeded in proving the feasibility of the new on-line stimulation device. We also demonstrated that the sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons increased significantly under the 15 Hz sine 1 mT, and 2 mT off-line magnetic field exposure and under the 1 mT and 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation, and the rate of acceleration was most significant on 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation. This study described the development of a new on-line magnetic stimulator and successfully demonstrated its practicability for scientific stimulation of neurons.

  20. Off-line cursive handwriting recognition using multiple classifier systems—on the influence of vocabulary, ensemble, and training set size (United States)

    Günter, Simon; Bunke, Horst


    Unconstrained handwritten text recognition is one of the most difficult problems in the field of pattern recognition. Recently, a number of classifier creation and combination methods, known as ensemble methods, have been proposed in the field of machine learning. They have shown improved recognition performance over single classifiers. In this paper, we examine the influence of the vocabulary size, the number of training samples, and the number of classifiers on the performance of three ensemble methods in the context of cursive handwriting recognition. All experiments were conducted using an off-line handwritten word recognizer based on hidden Markov models (HMMs).

  1. Applications of Groundwater Helium (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.


    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  2. Characterization of the lignin signature in Lake Mead, NV, sediment: comparison of on-line flash chemopyrolysis (600 degrees C) and off-line chemolysis (250 degrees C). (United States)

    Steinberg, Spencer M; Nemr, Elkas L; Rudin, Mark


    The distribution of lignin in sediment is a useful tool for tracing the transport of land-derived organic matter in an aquatic environment. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) flash chemopyrolysis, or chemolysis followed by GC-MS analysis can be used for evaluating the origin of organic carbon in sediments. TMAH chemopyrolysis or chemolysis of organic matter produces a myriad of semi-volatile products. Among these products are methylated phenols which are an indirect measure of lignin in sediment. In this study, total organic carbon, elemental carbon, and lignin were measured in Lake Mead sediments. This study indicates that terrestrial runoff makes a contribution to Lake Mead sediments, and that this contribution is most apparent in sediment that is close to the Las Vegas Wash. Two chemolysis methods (on-line and off-line) were examined and compared for detection of lignin phenols. The results from these sediment cores indicate that comparable results can be obtained from the two approaches, although detection levels are significantly lower for the off-line approach.

  3. [Application of off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography to the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim]. (United States)

    Yuan, Yun; Xin, Huaxia; Peng, Ziyue; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu


    An off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography (2D RPLC/SFC) method was developed for the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. (T. kirilowii.). In the experiment, RPLC was used in the first dimension to analyze the samples. And 12 fractions (F1-F12) were obtained according to the chromatographic peak collection mode, the fractions were re-analyzed in both RPLC and SFC modes. The results clearly showed that this 2D method had good orthogonality. The SFC was used as the second dimension. Ethanol-n-hexane (3:7, v/v) was used as a modifier in SFC. The modifier could provide appropriate elution power. When the sample load increased, it could also ensure the solubility of samples. The 2D RPLC/SFC method had obvious advantages for separating the compounds with similar properties, enriching and purifying the trace components. Finally, 150 peaks could be detected. The off-line 2D RPLC/SFC method will be further enlarged to a preparative level for preparation of compounds. The method can provide a practical reference for the purification of chemical constituents and material basis research of the seeds of T. kirilowii. in the future.

  4. A new Building Energy Model coupled with an Urban Canopy Parameterization for urban climate simulations—part II. Validation with one dimension off-line simulations (United States)

    Salamanca, Francisco; Martilli, Alberto


    Recent studies show that the fluxes exchanged between buildings and the atmosphere play an important role in the urban climate. These fluxes are taken into account in mesoscale models considering new and more complex Urban Canopy Parameterizations (UCP). A standard methodology to test an UCP is to use one-dimensional (1D) off-line simulations. In this contribution, an UCP with and without a Building Energy Model (BEM) is run 1D off-line and the results are compared against the experimental data obtained in the BUBBLE measuring campaign over Basel (Switzerland) in 2002. The advantage of BEM is that it computes the evolution of the indoor building temperature as a function of energy production and consumption in the building, the radiation coming through the windows, and the fluxes of heat exchanged through the walls and roofs as well as the impact of the air conditioning system. This evaluation exercise is particularly significant since, for the period simulated, indoor temperatures were recorded. Different statistical parameters have been calculated over the entire simulated episode in order to compare the two versions of the UCP against measurements. In conclusion, with this work, we want to study the effect of BEM on the different turbulent fluxes and exploit the new possibilities that the UCP-BEM offers us, like the impact of the air conditioning systems and the evaluation of their energy consumption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton C. de Siqueira

    Full Text Available Os métodos de avaliação da Saúde têm sofrido acentuadas modificações no decorrer do tempo. A introdução do computador digital eletrônico e a automatização do laboratório clínico permitiram que se atingisse, nos últimos anos, o processo denominado "Avaliação Multifásica e Automática da Saúde": "Multifásica", pelo fato de serem feitos vários exames (espirometría, ECG, audiometria, acuidade visual, provas de laboratório, etc. e "Automática" pela utilização do computador, do Auto-Analyzer e de outros equipamentos similares. Os resultados dos exames podem ser avaliados pelo computador de duas maneiras: "on-line", quando os diversos aparelhos estão diretamente ligados à unidade de processamento; "off-line" quando os resultados são registrados preliminarmente em cartão perfurado, folha óptica, etc. As duas técnicas são descritas e exemplificadas com a experiência da Universidade de São Paulo (método "off-line" e de uma organização particular (método "on-line", destacando-se a importância dessa metodologia na Medicina Preventiva.

  6. Sample deposition device for off-line combination of supercritical fluid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Planeta, Josef; Rehulka, Pavel; Chmelík, Josef


    A new sample deposition device for off-line SFC-MALDI combination of supercritical fluid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was assembled. This device was successfully applied to the detailed characterization of synthetic silicone oils. SFC was used to separate samples of silicone oils on micropacked capillary columns and to determine their molecular mass distribution. The separated fractions for the identification studies were obtained from SFC runs at defined time intervals. Using the constructed deposition device, these fractions were sprayed directly from the restrictor on the target probe covered with a proper matrix. MALDI-TOF MS was used for the identification of individual oligomers in the separated fractions and also in the unfractionated sample. The determined molecular mass distributions based on supercritical fluid chromatography with flame ionization detector, MALDI-TOF MS, and combined SFC-MALDI measurements were compared and the results were in a good agreement. The sample deposition device is based on a common plotter unit, complemented by a microcontroller PIC16C84. The unit is connected by an RS-232 interface to a PC with the main control software running under MS Windows. The new sample deposition device made the off-line combination SFC-MALDI simpler, faster, and more sensitive.

  7. Differential Off-line LC-NMR (DOLC-NMR) Metabolomics To Monitor Tyrosine-Induced Metabolome Alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Hammerl, Richard; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas


    A novel differential off-line LC-NMR approach (DOLC-NMR) was developed to capture and quantify nutrient-induced metabolome alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Off-line coupling of HPLC separation and (1)H NMR spectroscopy supported by automated comparative bucket analyses, followed by quantitative (1)H NMR using ERETIC 2 (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations), has been successfully used to quantitatively record changes in the metabolome of S. cerevisiae upon intervention with the aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine. Among the 33 metabolites identified, glyceryl succinate, tyrosol acetate, tyrosol lactate, tyrosol succinate, and N-acyl-tyrosine derivatives such as N-(1-oxooctyl)-tyrosine are reported for the first time as yeast metabolites. Depending on the chain length, N-(1-oxooctyl)-, N-(1-oxodecanyl)-, N-(1-oxododecanyl)-, N-(1-oxomyristinyl)-, N-(1-oxopalmityl)-, and N-(1-oxooleoyl)-l-tyrosine imparted a kokumi taste enhancement above their recognition thresholds ranging between 145 and 1432 μmol/L (model broth). Finally, carbon module labeling (CAMOLA) and carbon bond labeling (CABOLA) experiments with (13)C6-glucose as the carbon source confirmed the biosynthetic pathway leading to the key metabolites; for example, the aliphatic side chain of N-(1-oxooctyl)-tyrosine could be shown to be generated via de novo fatty acid biosynthesis from four C2-carbon modules (acetyl-CoA) originating from glucose.

  8. Implementation and workflow for PET monitoring of therapeutic ion irradiation: a comparison of in-beam, in-room, and off-line techniques. (United States)

    Shakirin, Georgy; Braess, Henning; Fiedler, Fine; Kunath, Daniela; Laube, Kristin; Parodi, Katia; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang


    An independent assessment of the dose delivery in ion therapy can be performed using positron emission tomography (PET). For that a distribution of positron emitters which appear as the result of interaction between ions of the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue is measured during or after the irradiation. Three concepts for PET monitoring implemented in various therapy facilities are considered in this paper. The in-beam PET concept relies on the PET measurement performed simultaneously to the irradiation by means of a PET scanner which is completely integrated into the irradiation site. The in-room PET concept allows measurement immediately after irradiation by a standalone PET scanner which is installed very close to the irradiation site. In the off-line PET scenario the measurement is performed by means of a standalone PET/CT scanner 10-30 min after the irradiation. These three concepts were evaluated according to image quality criteria, integration costs, and their influence onto the workflow of radiotherapy. In-beam PET showed the best performance. However, the integration costs were estimated as very high for this modality. Moreover, the performance of in-beam PET depends heavily on type and duty cycle of the accelerator. The in-room PET is proposed for planned therapy facilities as a good compromise between the quality of measured data and integration efforts. For facilities which are close to the nuclear medicine departments off-line PET can be suggested under several circumstances.

  9. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. (United States)


    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a) Definitions...

  10. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  11. Cavitation in liquid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R. D.; Kagiwada, R.; Barmatz, M.; Rudnick, I.


    Ultrasonic cavitation was induced in liquid helium over the temperature range 1.2 to 2.3 deg K, using a pair of identical transducers. The transducers were calibrated using a reciprocity technique and the cavitation threshold was determined at 90 kc/s. It was found that this threshold has a sharp peak at the lambda point, but is, at all temperatures quite low, with an approximate range of 0.001 to 0.01 atm. The significance of the results is discussed. (auth)

  12. Inter-laboratory calibration of natural gas round robins for δ2H and δ13C using off-line and on-line techniques (United States)

    Dai, Jinxing; Xia, Xinyu; Li, Zhisheng; Coleman, Dennis D.; Dias, Robert F.; Gao, Ling; Li, Jian; Deev, Andrei; Li, Jin; Dessort, Daniel; Duclerc, Dominique; Li, Liwu; Liu, Jinzhong; Schloemer, Stefan; Zhang, Wenlong; Ni, Yunyan; Hu, Guoyi; Wang, Xiaobo; Tang, Yongchun


    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of three natural gas round robins were calibrated by ten laboratories carrying out more than 800 measurements including both on-line and off-line methods. Two-point calibrations were performed with international measurement standards for hydrogen isotope ratios (VSMOW and SLAP) and carbon isotope ratios (NBS 19 and L-SVEC CO2). The consensus δ13C values and uncertainties were derived from the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) based on off-line measurements; the consensus δ2H values and uncertainties were derived from MLE of both off-line and on-line measurements, taking the bias of on-line measurements into account. The calibrated consensus values in ‰ relative to VSMOW and VPDB are: NG1 (coal-related gas): Methane: δ2HVSMOW = − 185.1‰ ± 1.2‰, δ13CVPDB = − 34.18‰ ± 0.10‰ Ethane: δ2HVSMOW = − 156.3‰ ± 1.8‰, δ13CVPDB = − 24.66‰ ± 0.11‰ Propane: δ2HVSMOW = − 143.6‰ ± 3.3‰, δ13CVPDB = − 22.21‰ ± 0.11‰ i-Butane: δ13CVPDB = − 21.62‰ ± 0.12‰ n-Butane: δ13CVPDB = − 21.74‰ ± 0.13‰ CO2: δ13CVPDB = − 5.00‰ ± 0.12‰ NG2 (biogas): Methane: δ2HVSMOW = − 237.0‰ ± 1.2‰, δ13CVPDB = − 68.89‰ ± 0.12‰ NG3 (oil-related gas): Methane: δ2HVSMOW = − 167.6‰ ± 1.0‰, δ13CVPDB = − 43.61‰ ± 0.09‰ Ethane: δ2HVSMOW = − 164.1‰ ± 2.4‰, δ13CVPDB = − 40.24‰ ± 0.10‰ Propane: δ2HVSMOW = − 138.4‰ ± 3.0‰, δ13CVPDB = − 33.79‰ ± 0.09‰ All of the assigned values are traceable to the international carbon isotope standard of VPDB and hydrogen isotope standard of VSMOW.

  13. Analysis of skin derived peptides from the Cuyaba Dwarf Frog Physalaemus nattereri by off-line LC MALDI MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Mariana S; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Fontes, Wagner


    We have investigated the potential for analysis of the complex peptide mixtures secreted from frog skin using off-line LC-MALDI MS/MS. Since only limited information about the sequence of such peptides is available, de novo sequencing followed by Blast search was needed. An automated workflow has...... been applied based on automated collection of the chromatographic fractions on the MALDI target followed by automated recording of the MS/MS spectra of the 10 most intense peaks in each fraction. The MS/MS spectra were submitted to de novo sequencing by the Peaks software and searched for potential...... matches in an amphibian database extracted from UniProt. A number of known skin secreted peptides as well as precursor proteins for these were identified. However, most of the recorded MS/MS data and deduced sequences did not result in matches with the databases. These sequences might serve as a reference...

  14. Electronic properties of physisorbed helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossler, Sarah


    This thesis deals with electronic excitations of helium physisorbed on metal substrates. It is studied to what extent the electronic properties change compared to the gas phase due to the increased helium density and the proximity of the metal. Furthermore, the influence of different substrate materials is investigated systematically. To this end, up to two helium layers were adsorbed onto Ru (001), Pt (111), Cu (111), and Ag (111) surfaces in a custom-made cryostat. These samples were studied spectroscopically using synchrotron radiation and a time-of-flight detector. The experimental results were then analyzed in comparison with extensive theoretical model calculations.

  15. Trapping fermionic and bosonic helium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stas, R.J.W.


    This thesis presents experimental and theoretical work performed at the Laser Centre of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam to study laser-cooled metastable triplet helium atoms. Samples containing about 3x10^8 helium atoms-either fermionic helium-3 atoms, bosonic helium-4 atoms or mixtures

  16. On the use of iron radio-isotopes to study iron speciation kinetics in seawater: A column separation and off-line counting approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, A.C. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Wolterbeek, H.Th. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Kroon, J.J. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Gerringa, L.J.A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Department of Marine Chemistry and Geology, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands); Timmermans, K.R. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Department of Marine Chemistry and Geology, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands); Elteren, J.T. van [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Teunissen, T. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)


    The determination of unidirectional fluxes of Fe in the seawater Fe-pools requires the use of Fe (radio)isotopes, which in turn necessitates off-line iron counting. To implement new off-line counting approaches, methods by King et al. (1991) [King DW, Lin J, Kester DR. Spectrophotometric determination of iron(II) in seawater at nanomolar concentrations. Anal Chim Acta 1991;247:125-32] were adapted for use with radio-iron for Fe(II) and total Fe analysis. The approach consists of passing samples through preloaded SepPak (registered) C{sub 18} cartridges with either ferrozine (FZ) for Fe(II) measurement or 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (1N2N) for total iron analysis. Cartridges are afterwards eluted with methanol and the eluate subsequently counted for radio-iron. A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the new method's applicability. This included loading and extraction behaviour, selectivity for the targeted iron species, iron species recovery, memory effects and the influence of iron concentration. The FZ-preloaded cartridge showed 85% Fe(II) recovery in seawater by direct determination. Recoveries of about 60% for Fe(II) in seawater were found when including 10-15 min waiting time and sample loops, which was probably caused by the instability of Fe(II) due to oxidation. Using 1N2N cartridges for total dissolved iron measurement, recovery was obtained as nearly 100%, but with high variability which was probably caused by the interaction time of Fe with the 1N2N-preloaded cartridges. The cartridges showed only small memory effects. Remaining radio-iron could only be removed from the cartridges with 0.5 M HCl, which destroyed the functionality of the cartridge. This result suggests that the Fe fraction, which could not be eluted by methanol, was irreversibly bound to the cartridge. Desferrioxamine B was applied as a model ligand to test for interference from naturally occurring organic ligands; the results indicate that interferences may occur and should

  17. RHIC off-line computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Featherly, J.; Gibbard, B.; Gould, J. [and others


    A report was prepared in Sept 1992, RHIC/DET Note 8, also known as ROCOCO, which estimated the various computing resources which will be required by the RHIC experimental program. A study has now been undertaken to review technical issues associated with supplying these resources. This study, organized by the HEP/NP Computing Group but including other appropriate participants, addresses questions of technologies, manpower, cost and schedule. The following document is an interim summary of this study both in terms of discussions which have occurred and initial conclusions reached.

  18. Application of on-line and off-line heart-cutting LC in determination of secondary metabolites from the flowers of Lonicera caerulea cultivar varieties. (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Głód, Daniel; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława


    Lonicera caerulea is a shrub native to the Northen Hemisphere, with its fruits having a long tradition of being used in traditional medicine. The flowers, although a potential source of diverse phenolic compounds have not been studied in terms of phenolic content. In this paper, a 2D LC heart-cutting system, operating in both on-line and off-line modes, was developed and successfully employed in identification and quantification of secondary metabolites in the flowers of L. caerulea. A total of 51 compounds have been resolved and identified as either flavonoids, phenolic acids or iridoids. Flavonoids were the dominating group of compounds, alongside substantial levels of both phenolic acids and iridoids. A comparison between three varieties of L. caerulea flowers revealed that 'Wojtek' contained markedly more flavonols and phenolic acids than the remaining two varieties, whereas iridoids were at similar levels. Heart-cutting 2D LC method used in this study offers a convenient approach and an effective tool for secondary metabolite analysis in L. caerulea flowers, and possibly other species from the genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pesticide residue analysis by off-line SPE and on-line reversed-phase LC-GC using the through-oven-transfer adsorption/desorption interface. (United States)

    Perez, M; Alario, J; Vazquez, A; Villén, J


    A new method to determine pesticide residue in water is presented. The described method includes using off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) and on-line reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (RPLC-GC). An interface, based on a modified programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector, packed with a suitable trapping material, is used for on-line RPLC-GC. The changes made in the PTV injector affect the pneumatic system, sample introduction, and solvent elimination. The new interface is easily capable of automation. Methanol/wate (70/30) is used as the eluent in the LC preseparation step. The LC column flow during elution is different from the flow during the transfer step. The transferred volumes range from 500 to 1400 microL (volume of the fractions of interest). Solvent elimination is almost 100% before the sample reaches the GC column. The described system does not show any variation of the peak retention times. The detection limit for real samples ranges from 0.04 to 1.5 ng/L, using NP detection.

  20. Antioxidant profiling of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata): Off-line coupling heart-cutting HSCCC with HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. (United States)

    Gao, Qingping; Ma, Ruyi; Chen, Lin; Shi, Shuyun; Cai, Ping; Zhang, Shuihan; Xiang, Haiyan


    Vine tea with strong antioxidant activity is commonly consumed as healthy tea/beverage. However, detailed information about its antioxidants is incomplete. Here, off-line hyphenation of heart-cutting high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) were described for systematic profiling antioxidants in vine tea. At first, antioxidants were rapidly screened by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC). Subsequently, stepwise HSCCC using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:9:4:9, v/v/v/v) and (4:9:5:8, v/v/v/v) as solvent systems was optimized to fractionate and enrich antioxidants from ethyl acetate fraction of vine tea. Finally, heart-cutting mode was used to collect five interesting HSCCC fractions for HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS analysis. Desirable orthogonality between HSCCC and HPLC led to identification of fifteen antioxidant flavonoids, while four minor flavonoids were first reported in vine tea. Results showed that the developed system is efficient to comprehensively explore antioxidants from complex natural herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Histamine in Silages Using Nanomaghemite Core (γ-Fe2O3-Titanium Dioxide Shell Nanoparticles Off-Line Coupled with Ion Exchange Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cernei


    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines is a hallmark of degraded food and its products. Herein, we focused on the utilization of magnetic nanoparticles off-line coupled with ion exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization and Vis detection for histamine (Him separation and detection. Primarily, we described the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with nanomaghemite core (γ-Fe2O3 functionalized with titanium dioxide and, then, applied these particles to specific isolation of Him. To obtain further insight into interactions between paramagnetic particles’ (PMP surface and Him, a scanning electron microscope was employed. It was shown that binding of histamine causes an increase of relative current response of deprotonated PMPs, which confirmed formation of Him-PMPs clusters. The recovery of the isolation showed that titanium dioxide-based particles were able to bind and preconcentrate Him with recovery exceeding 90%. Finally, we successfully carried out the analyses of real samples obtained from silage. We can conclude that our modified particles are suitable for Him isolation, and thus may serve as the first isolation step of Him from biological samples, as it is demonstrated on alfalfa seed variety Tereza silage.

  2. Design, construction, and testing of an automated NIR in-line analysis system for potatoes. Part I: Off-line NIR feasibility study for the characterization of potato composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Drost, W.C.


    An off-line near-infrared reflectance (NIR) feasibility study was conducted to explore the critical steps in the NIR determination of the major potato constituents (dry matter, starch, and protein) in relatively large (10 kg) potato samples. The results were important for the design of an automated

  3. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    CERN Multimedia


    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  4. Off-line TMAH-GC/MS and NMR characterization of humic substances extracted from river sediments of northwestern São Paulo under different soil uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria, E-mail: [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Pantano, Glaucia; Toffoli, Ana Lúcia de [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Fontaine, Barbara; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Risonanza Magnetica Nucleare (NMR) per L' ambiente, l' Agro-Alimentare ed i Nuovi Materiali, CERMANU, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); and others


    Humic substances (HS) vary according to the physical and chemical factors present in the environment. Thus, the characterization of HS is very important because it improves the understanding of the groups that comprise the chemical structure. Sediment HS were extracted from four locations representative of sugar cane cultivation, pasture, urban area and the impoundment of the Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Power Plant. Characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed us to infer that the HS from an area predominantly characterized by sugar cane cultivation (41.9%) and a typical rural area (35.0%) showed the highest aromaticity percentage. Using the off-line TMAH-thermochemolysis-GC-MS, we inferred that the HS of a typical rural area had a structure rich in plant waxes, plant biopolyester and a large amount of fatty acid methyl ester, which are related to the large amount of humic acid in the structure. The HS samples from the sugar cane cultivation area and the impoundment receiving all of the pollution load from the Turvo/Grande Hydrographic Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Turvo/Grande—BHTG) contained contributions from compounds rich in lipids and fatty acid methyl esters, highlighting the presence of the breakdown of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the area receiving the entire pollution load. We conclude that the HS extracted from the sediments of the Preto, Turvo and Grande rivers showed well-defined characteristics that varied depending on soil use and occupation, especially the HS extracted from sediments sampled in areas typically planted with sugar cane and rural areas, whose structures contained more aromatic groups. - Highlights: • The characterization of HS allows the understanding of the chemical structure. • HS of sediment in areas planted with sugar cane and rural areas contained more aromatic groups. • Influence of soil use and occupation on the chemical structure of the HS.

  5. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotomaby normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Z.G.; Li, H.X.; Hu, F. [Nanjing Agricultural University, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hong, F.S. [Suzhou University, Department of Biology, College of Life Sciences, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yin, M. [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, G.W. [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Chemistry, Hefei 230026 (China); Wong, J.W.C. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Department of Biology, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)


    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L{sup -1} 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis. (orig.)

  6. SU-C-202-03: A Tool for Automatic Calculation of Delivered Dose Variation for Off-Line Adaptive Therapy Using Cone Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B; Lee, S; Chen, S; Zhou, J; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Purpose: Monitoring the delivered dose is an important task for the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) and for determining time to re-plan. A software tool which enables automatic delivered dose calculation using cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been developed and tested. Methods: The tool consists of four components: a CBCT Colleting Module (CCM), a Plan Registration Moduel (PRM), a Dose Calculation Module (DCM), and an Evaluation and Action Module (EAM). The CCM is triggered periodically (e.g. every 1:00 AM) to search for newly acquired CBCTs of patients of interest and then export the DICOM files of the images and related registrations defined in ARIA followed by triggering the PRM. The PRM imports the DICOM images and registrations, links the CBCTs to the related treatment plan of the patient in the planning system (RayStation V4.5, RaySearch, Stockholm, Sweden). A pre-determined CT-to-density table is automatically generated for dose calculation. Current version of the DCM uses a rigid registration which regards the treatment isocenter of the CBCT to be the isocenter of the treatment plan. Then it starts the dose calculation automatically. The AEM evaluates the plan using pre-determined plan evaluation parameters: PTV dose-volume metrics and critical organ doses. The tool has been tested for 10 patients. Results: Automatic plans are generated and saved in the order of the treatment dates of the Adaptive Planning module of the RayStation planning system, without any manual intervention. Once the CTV dose deviates more than 3%, both email and page alerts are sent to the physician and the physicist of the patient so that one can look the case closely. Conclusion: The tool is capable to perform automatic dose tracking and to alert clinicians when an action is needed. It is clinically useful for off-line adaptive therapy to catch any gross error. Practical way of determining alarming level for OAR is under development.

  7. Determination of rare earth elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with off-line column preconcentration using 2,6-diacetylpyridine functionalized Amberlite XAD-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadas, Cennet [Department of Chemistry, Art and Science Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey); Kara, Derya, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Art and Science Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey); Fisher, Andrew [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    An off-line column preconcentration technique using a micro-column of 2,6 diacetylpyridine functionalized Amberlite XAD-4 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as a means of detection has been developed. The aim of the method was to determine rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) in seawater. Sample solutions (2-10 mL) were passed through the column which was then washed with ultra-pure water to remove residual matrix. The adsorbed cations on the resin were eluted by using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} containing 10 ng mL{sup -1} indium as an internal standard. The eluent was analyzed for the metal concentrations using ICP-MS. Sample pH as well as the sample and eluent flow rates were optimized. The sorption capacity of resin was determined by the batch process, by equilibrating 0.05 g of the resin with solutions of 50 mL of 25 mg L{sup -1} of individual metal ions for 4 h at pH 6.0 at 26 deg. C. The sorption capacities for the resin were found to range between 47.3 {mu}mol g{sup -1} (for Lu) and 136.7 {mu}mol g{sup -1} (for Gd). Limits of detection (3{sigma}), without any preconcentration, ranged from 2 ng L{sup -1} to 10.3 ng L{sup -1} (for Tm and Lu respectively). The proposed method was applied to the determination of REEs in seawater and tap water samples.

  8. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma by normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS. (United States)

    Wei, Z G; Hong, F S; Yin, M; Li, H X; Hu, F; Zhao, G W; Wong, J W C


    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L(-1) 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis.

  9. Comparison of different mesoporous silicas for off-line solid phase extraction of 17β-estradiol from waters and its determination by HPLC-DAD. (United States)

    Gañán, Judith; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Sierra, Isabel


    Functionalized (SBA-C₁₈ and SM-C₁₈) and non-functionalized (SBA-15 and SM) mesoporous silicas were then examined as sorbents for solid-phase extraction of 17β-estradiol in aqueous media. Experiments were run in order to test critical factors affecting the procedure extraction efficiency, including the type of sorbent, the analyte concentration, the solvent and volume used for elution and the sample volume. Among the prepared materials, SBA-C₁₈ had the highest adsorption affinity towards 17β-estradiol and under optimized conditions (200mg of sorbent, 150 mL of water sample, elution with 3 × 2 mL of methanol) this sorbent proved good extraction capacity and elution efficiency for this hormone from aqueous media (recovery near 100%). To evaluate the analytical applicability of the proposed method, it was applied to the determination of 17β-estradiol in drinking water by high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Calibration curves were shown to be linear between 1.25 and 100 mg L(-1)with correlation coefficients ≥0.999 (n=5) for 17β-estradiol. The instrumental detection and quantitation limits calculated were 0.38 and 1.25 mg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation obtained values were ≤3% and the mean recoveries obtained were of 82%. The results suggest that SBA-C18 is a promising material for the off-line solid phase extraction of 17β-estradiol from waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is a...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  12. 30 CFR 256.11 - Helium. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helium. 256.11 Section 256.11 Mineral Resources... Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a reservation by the United States, under section 12(f) of the Act, of the ownership of and the right to extract helium...

  13. Simplicity works for superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowley, Roger [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    The famous philosopher Karl Popper once said that ''science is the art of systematic oversimplification''. Indeed, when faced with a new puzzle the trick is to simplify it without losing the essential physics - something that is easier said than done. However, this approach has paid off recently in low-temperature physics. Last year Richard Packard, Seamus Davis and co-workers at the University of California at Berkeley encountered a puzzling new phenomenon in superfluid helium-3, a quantum fluid that remains a liquid close to absolute zero and exhibits unusual properties such as the ability to flow without friction (A Machenkov et al. 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3860). Previous experiments had revealed that certain effects in liquid helium are analogous to effects observed in superconductors, materials that lose all resistance to electric current at low temperatures. When the Berkeley researchers connected two reservoirs of superfluid helium-3, the superfluid flowed back and forth through apertures that formed a ''weak link'' between the two containers. This behaviour is similar to the oscillatory current of electrons that can flow across an insulating gap separating two superconductors - a device that is known as a Josephson junction. What was puzzling about the Berkeley results was that the helium-3 had two different stable configurations, both of which behaved in an unconventional way compared with a Josephson junction. This puzzle has now been solved independently by Sidney Yip at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Taiwan, and by Janne Viljas and Erkki Thuneberg at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland (Phys. Rev. Lett. 1999 83 3864 and 3868). In this article the author describes the latest research on superfluid helium. (UK)

  14. Charging dynamics of dopants in helium nanoplasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Grüner, Barbara; Schomas, Dominik


    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the charging dynamics of helium nanodroplets doped with atoms of different species and irradiated by intense near-infrared laser pulses (≤1015 W cm−2). In particular, we elucidate the interplay of dopant ionization inducing the ignition...... of a helium nanoplasma, and the charging of the dopant atoms driven by the ionized helium host. Most efficient nanoplasma ignition and charging is found when doping helium droplets with xenon atoms, in which case high charge states of both helium (He2+) and of xenon (Xe21+) are detected. In contrast, only low...

  15. HeREF-2003 : Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. • Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 • Cost per participant: 500.- CHF ...

  16. HeREF-2003: Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 Cost per participant: 500.- CHF Language: Bilingual English...

  17. Helium atom scattering from surfaces

    CERN Document Server


    High resolution helium atom scattering can be applied to study a number of interesting properties of solid surfaces with great sensitivity and accuracy. This book treats in detail experimental and theoretical aspects ofthis method as well as all current applications in surface science. The individual chapters - all written by experts in the field - are devoted to the investigation of surface structure, defect shapes and concentrations, the interaction potential, collective and localized surface vibrations at low energies, phase transitions and surface diffusion. Over the past decade helium atom scattering has gained widespread recognitionwithin the surface science community. Points in its favour are comprehensiveunderstanding of the scattering theory and the availability of well-tested approximation to the rigorous theory. This book will be invaluable to surface scientists wishing to make an informed judgement on the actual and potential capabilities of this technique and its results.

  18. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Investigational study on the cascade utilization of thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) (feasibility study by the off-line system); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Netsu energy (reinetsu to onnetsu) no cascade riyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (off-line hoshiki ni yoru feasibility study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper studied a system to effectively use unused and low-grade thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) in the Tokyo-Yokohama seaside area. For transportation of thermal energy, the batch transportation, that is, off-line system was discussed which uses insulated tank loaded barges and railroad freight trains. Thermal energy supply sources are 1) 0.3 million kW class thermal power plant, and 2) LNG storage base of 3 million ton/year class. Thermal energy users are Tokyo (Haneda) Airport D.H.C. (District Heating/Cooling Co.), MM 21 D.H.C. and Shin-Kawasaki D.H.C. The cold heat energy supplied to these three is about 1.5 million Mcal/daytimes300 days/year, and the hot heat energy supplied is about 1.33 million Mcal/daytimes150 days/year. Cold heat is obtained from seawater after the LNG vaporization, and hot heat from heat extracted from thermal turbine. Subcooled ice was selected for cold heat medium, and PCM-120A for hot heat medium. For batch transportation, an STL heat storage system is used which transports plastic capsules sealed with heat medium. Oil saving of 62,000 tons/year and CO2 reduction of about 53,000 tons/year can be expected. 85 figs., 98 tabs.

  19. Investigations of levitated helium drops (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight Lawrence


    We report on the development of two systems capable of levitating drops of liquid helium. Helium drops of ˜20 mum have been levitated with the radiation pressure from two counter-propagating Nd:YAG laser beams. Drops are produced with a submerged piezoelectric transducer, and could be held for up to three minutes in our optical trap. Calculations show that Brillouin and Raman scattering of the laser light in the liquid helium produces a negligible rate of evaporation of the drop. Evaporation caused by the enhanced vapor pressure of the curved drop surfaces appears to be a significant effect limiting the drop lifetimes. Helium drops as large as 2 cm in diameter have been suspended in the earth's gravitational field with a magnetic field. A commercial superconducting solenoid provides the necessary field, field-gradient product required to levitate the drops. Drops are cooled to 0.5 K with a helium-3 refrigerator, and can be held in the trap indefinitely. We have found that when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. This effect is a result of the evaporation of liquid from between the two drops, and is found to occur only for normal fluid drops. We can induce shape oscillations in charged, levitated drops with an applied ac electric field. We have measured the resonance frequencies and damping rates for the l = 2 mode of oscillation as function of temperature. We have also developed a theory to describe the small amplitude shape oscillations of a He II drop surrounded by its saturated vapor. In our theory, we have considered two sets of boundary conditions---one where the drop does not evaporate and another in which the liquid and vapor are in thermodynamic equilibrium. We have found that both solutions give a frequency that agrees well with experiment, but that the data for the damping rate agree better with the solution without evaporation.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas. (United States)

    Nelson, H. F.


    Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma for postulated conditions present in a stagnation shock layer of a spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Jupiter. These properties can be used to evaluate transport properties, to calculate convective heating, and to investigate nonequilibrium behavior. The calculations have been made for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K, densities of 10 to the minus 7th and .00001 g cu cm, and three plasma compositions: pure hydrogen, 50% hydrogen/50% helium, and pure helium. The shock layer plasma consists of electrons, protons, atomic hydrogen, atomic helium, singly ionized helium, and doubly atomized helium. The thermodynamic properties which have been investigated are: pressure, average molecular weight, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, and isentropic speed of sound. A consistent model was used for the reduction of the ionization potential in the calculation of the partition functions.

  1. Critical Landau velocity in helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Brauer, Nils B; Smolarek, Szymon; Loginov, Evgeniy; Mateo, David; Hernando, Alberto; Pi, Marti; Barranco, Manuel; Buma, Wybren J; Drabbels, Marcel


    The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective excitations of the helium atoms in the liquid. In the present work we determine to what extent this concept can still be applied to nanometer-scale, finite size helium systems. To this end, atoms and molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets of various sizes are accelerated out of the droplets by means of optical excitation, and the speed distributions of the ejected particles are determined. The measurements reveal the existence of a critical velocity in these systems, even for nanodroplets consisting of only a thousand helium atoms. Accompanying theoretical simulations based on a time-dependent density functional description of the helium confirm and further elucidate this experimental finding.

  2. Ras Laffan helium recovery unit 2 (United States)

    Fauve, Eric Arnaud; Grabié, Veronique; Grillot, David; Delcayre, Franck; Deschildre, Cindy


    In May 2010, Air Liquide was awarded a contract for the Engineering Procurement and Construction (Turnkey EPC) for a second helium recovery unit [RLH II] dedicated to the Ras Laffan refinery in Qatar. This unit will come in addition to the one [RLH I] delivered and commissioned by Air Liquide in 2005. It will increase the helium production of Qatar from 10% to 28% of worldwide production. RLH I and RLH II use Air Liquide Advanced Technologies helium liquefiers. With a production of 8 tons of liquid helium per day, the RLH I liquefier is the world largest, but not for long. Thanks to the newly developed turbine TC7, Air Liquide was able to propose for RLH II a single liquefier able to produce over 20 tons per day of liquid helium without liquid nitrogen pre-cooling. This liquefier using 6 Air Liquide turbines (TC series) will set a new record in the world of helium liquefaction.

  3. Backscattered Helium Spectroscopy in the Helium Ion Microscope: Principles, Resolution and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Raoul; Hlawacek, G.; Dutta, S.; Poelsema, Bene


    We demonstrate the possibilities and limitations for microstructure characterization using backscattered particles from a sharply focused helium ion beam. The interaction of helium ions with matter enables the imaging, spectroscopic characterization, as well as the nanometer scale modification of

  4. Parameters of helium absorption by porous structures (United States)

    Bukin, A. N.; Ivanova, A. S.; Marunich, S. A.; Pak, Yu. S.; Rozenkevich, M. B.


    Results from investigating the parameters of helium absoption by hollow glass-crystalline cenospheres obtained at the Reftinsky regional power station in the city of Asbest are presented. The permeability coefficients of helium penetrating through shells are determined, and the apparent activation energy is estimated ( E act = 33 ± 5 kJ/mol). The possibility of selectively extracting helium from mixtures of it and nitrogen is shown.

  5. Surface Impact Simulations of Helium Nanodroplets (United States)


    AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2015-001 Surface Impact Simulations of Helium Nanodroplets Robert J. Hinde Department of Chemistry University of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Surface Impact Simulations of Helium Nanodroplets 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8651-11-1-0005 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...captures atomic delocalization of the helium atoms characteristic of the quantum solvent, but allow the single-particle wavefunctions to vary throughout

  6. Behaviour of helium after implantation in molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France)], E-mail:; Maillard, S.; Carlot, G.; Valot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France); Gilabert, E. [Chimie Nucleaire Analytique and Bio-environnementale (CNAB), Gradignan (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI-CNRS, Orleans (France); Peaucelle, C.; Moncoffre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), Lyon (France)


    This study deals with the behaviour of helium in a molybdenum liner dedicated to the retention of fission products. More precisely this work contributes to evaluate the release of implanted helium when the gas has precipitated into nanometric bubbles close to the free surface. A simple model dedicated to calculate the helium release in such a condition is presented. The specificity of this model lays on the assumption that the gas is in equilibrium with a simple distribution of growing bubbles. This effort is encouraging since the calculated helium release fits an experimental dataset with a set of parameters in good agreement with the literature.

  7. Helium resources of the United States, 1989 (United States)

    Miller, Richard D.; Hamak, John E.

    The helium resources base of the United States was estimated by the Bureau of Mines to be 894.6 Bcf as of January 1, 1989. These resources are divided into four categories in decreasing degree of the assurance of their existence: (1) helium in storage and in proved natural gas reserves, 282.4 Bcf; (2) helium in probable natural gas resources, estimated at 237.7 Bcf; (3) helium in possible natural gas resources, estimated to be 263.2 Bcf; and (4) helium in speculative natural gas resources, 111.4 Bcf. These helium resources are further divided into depleting and nondepleting, with the helium in storage being in a separate classification. The depleting resources are those associated with natural gasfields that are, or will be, produced for the natural gas they contain. Almost all of the helium in potential (probable, possible, and speculative) natural gas resources is included in this classification. These depleting resources are estimated to contain 775 Bcf of the total helium resource base.

  8. The helium-graphite interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, F.; Lhuillier, C.; Brami, B. (Lab. de Physique Theorique des Liquides, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France))


    We propose a very simple empirical form of the helium-on-graphite potential, which reproduces the energy of the six known bound states, the experimental average distance of the {sup 4}He atom from the surface in the ground state and the correct asymptotic behaviour of the interaction. This optimized potential is used to compute the binding energy of a {sup 3}He atom on the same substrate. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results is a check of the set of variational parameters. (orig.).

  9. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic


    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  10. LOX Tank Helium Removal for Propellant Scavenging (United States)

    Chato, David J.


    System studies have shown a significant advantage to reusing the hydrogen and oxygen left in these tanks after landing on the Moon in fuel cells to generate power and water for surface systems. However in the current lander concepts, the helium used to pressurize the oxygen tank can substantially degrade fuel cell power and water output by covering the reacting surface with inert gas. This presentation documents an experimental investigation of methods to remove the helium pressurant while minimizing the amount of the oxygen lost. This investigation demonstrated that significant quantities of Helium (greater than 90% mole fraction) remain in the tank after draining. Although a single vent cycle reduced the helium quantity, large amounts of helium remained. Cyclic venting appeared to be more effective. Three vent cycles were sufficient to reduce the helium to small (less than 0.2%) quantities. Two vent cycles may be sufficient since once the tank has been brought up to pressure after the second vent cycle the helium concentration has been reduced to the less than 0.2% level. The re-pressurization process seemed to contribute to diluting helium. This is as expected since in order to raise the pressure liquid oxygen must be evaporated. Estimated liquid oxygen loss is on the order of 82 pounds (assuming the third vent cycle is not required).

  11. Helium-cooled high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D.B.


    Experience with several helium cooled reactors has been favorable, and two commercial plants are now operating. Both of these units are of the High Temperature Graphite Gas Cooled concept, one in the United States and the other in the Federal Republic of Germany. The initial helium charge for a reactor of the 1000 MW(e) size is modest, approx.15,000 kg.

  12. Organ protection by the noble gas helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, K.F.


    The aims of this thesis were to investigate whether helium induces preconditioning in humans, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind this possible protection. First, we collected data regarding organ protective effects of noble gases in general, and of helium in particular (chapters 1-3). In chapter

  13. Nanofabrication with a helium ion microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, D.; Van Veldhoven, E.; Chen, P.; Sidorkin, V.; Salemink, H.; Van der Drift, E.; Alkemade, P.


    The recently introduced helium ion microscope (HIM) is capable of imaging and fabrication of nanostructures thanks to its sub-nanometer sized ion probe [1,2]. The unique interaction of the helium ions with the sample material provides very localized secondary electron emission, thus providing a

  14. Helium Speech: An Application of Standing Waves (United States)

    Wentworth, Christopher D.


    Taking a breath of helium gas and then speaking or singing to the class is a favorite demonstration for an introductory physics course, as it usually elicits appreciative laughter, which serves to energize the class session. Students will usually report that the helium speech "raises the frequency" of the voice. A more accurate description of the…

  15. Radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P.G.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; Aysto, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R


    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve

  16. Permeability of Hollow Microspherical Membranes to Helium (United States)

    Zinoviev, V. N.; Kazanin, I. V.; Pak, A. Yu.; Vereshchagin, A. S.; Lebiga, V. A.; Fomin, V. M.


    This work is devoted to the study of the sorption characteristics of various hollow microspherical membranes to reveal particles most suitable for application in the membrane-sorption technologies of helium extraction from a natural gas. The permeability of the investigated sorbents to helium and their impermeability to air and methane are shown experimentally. The sorption-desorption dependences of the studied sorbents have been obtained, from which the parameters of their specific permeability to helium are calculated. It has been established that the physicochemical modification of the original particles exerts a great influence on the coefficient of the permeability of a sorbent to helium. Specially treated cenospheres have displayed high efficiency as membranes for selective extraction of helium.

  17. Global helium particle balance in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motojima, G., E-mail: [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Masuzaki, S.; Tokitani, M.; Kasahara, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Morisaki, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Akiyama, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Mutoh, T.; Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)


    Global helium particle balance in long-pulse discharges is analyzed for the first time in the Large Helical Device (LHD) with the plasma-facing components of the first wall and the divertor tiles composed of stainless steel and carbon, respectively. During the 2-min discharge sustained by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and electron cyclotron heating (ECH), helium is observed to be highly retained in the wall (regarded as both the first wall and the divertor tiles). Almost all (about 96%) puffed helium particles (1.3 × 10{sup 22} He) are absorbed in the wall near the end of the discharge. Even though a dynamic retention is eliminated, 56% is still absorbed. The analysis is also applied to longer pulse discharges over 40 min by ICRH and ECH, indicating that the helium wall retention is dynamically changed in time. At the initial phase of the discharge, a mechanism for adsorbing helium other than dynamical retention is invoked.

  18. Exotic helium molecules; Molecules exotiques d'helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, M


    We study the photo-association of an ultracold cloud of magnetically trapped helium atoms: pairs of colliding atoms interact with one or two laser fields to produce a purely long range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}P{sub 0}) molecule, or a {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) long range molecule. Light shifts in one photon photo-association spectra are measured and studied as a function of the laser polarization and intensity, and the vibrational state of the excited molecule. They result from the light-induced coupling between the excited molecule, and bound and scattering states of the interaction between two metastable atoms. Their analysis leads to the determination of the scattering length a = (7.2 {+-} 0.6) ruling collisions between spin polarized atoms. The two photon photo-association spectra show evidence of the production of polarized, long-range {sup 4}He{sub 2}(2{sup 3}S{sub 1}-2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) molecules. They are said to be exotic as they are made of two metastable atoms, each one carrying a enough energy to ionize the other. The corresponding lineshapes are calculated and decomposed in sums and products of Breit-Wigner and Fano profiles associated to one and two photon processes. The experimental spectra are fit, and an intrinsic lifetime {tau} = (1.4 {+-} 0.3) {mu}s is deduced. It is checked whether this lifetime could be limited by spin-dipole induced Penning autoionization. This interpretation requires that there is a quasi-bound state close to the dissociation threshold in the singlet interaction potential between metastable helium atoms for the theory to match the experiment. (author)

  19. Off-line combination of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with seamless post-source decay fragment ion analysis for characterization of square-planar nickel(II) complexes. (United States)

    Rehulka, Pavel; Popkov, Alexander; Nádvorník, Milan; Planeta, Josef; Mazanec, Karel; Chmelík, Josef


    Characterization of square-planar nickel(II) complexes of the Schiff base of (S)-N-benzylproline (2-benzoylphenyl)amide and various amino acids that are used as efficient alpha-amino acids synthons was carried out using laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) in off-line combination with liquid chromatography. A mixture of four square-planar nickel(II) complexes was separated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and the separated fractions from the chromatographic run were spotted on the metal target directly from the column outlet using a lab-made sample deposition device. The separated fractions were then analyzed by LDI-TOF MS. Seamless postsource decay (sPSD) fragment ion analysis was used for their structural characterization, which made possible the confirmation of expected chemical structures of the analyzed compounds. The off-line combination of the separation by RPLC and analysis by LDI-TOF MS allowed successful separation, sensitive detection and structure elucidation of the square-planar nickel(II) complexes. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Helium Detonations on Neutron Stars (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Timmes, F. X.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D. Q.; Olson, K.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P.; Rosner, R.; Truran, J. W.; MacNeice, P.; Tufo, H.


    We present the results of a numerical study of helium detonations on the surfaces of neutron stars. We analyze the evolution of a detonation as it breaks through the envelope of the neutron star and propagates across its surface. A series of surface waves propagate across the pool of hot ash with a speed of 1.3 x 109 \\ cm \\ s-1, matching the speed expected from shallow water wave theory. The entire envelope bounces in the gravitational potential well of the neutron star with a period of 50 μ s. The photosphere reaches a height of 15 km above the surface of the neutron star. The sensitivity of the results to the spatial resolution and assumed initial conditions are analyzed, and the relevance of this model to Type I X-ray bursts is discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Grant No. B341495 to the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago.

  1. Electric response in superfluid helium (United States)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.


    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  2. In Beam Tests of Implanted Helium Targets

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, J E; Ahmed, M W; Blackston, M A; Delbar, T; Gai, M; Kading, T J; Parpottas, Y; Perdue, B A; Prior, R M; Rubin, D A; Spraker, M C; Yeomans, J D; Weissman, L; Weller, H R; Delbar, Th.; Conn, LNS/U; Duke, TUNL/


    Targets consisting of 3,4He implanted into thin aluminum foils (approximately 100, 200 or 600 ug/cm^2) were prepared using intense (a few uA) helium beams at low energy (approximately 20, 40 or 100 keV). Uniformity of the implantation was achieved by a beam raster across a 12 mm diameter tantalum collimator at the rates of 0.1 Hz in the vertical direction and 1 Hz in the horizontal direction. Helium implantation into the very thin (approximately 80-100 ug/cm^2) aluminum foils failed to produce useful targets (with only approximately 10% of the helium retained) due to an under estimation of the range by the code SRIM. The range of low energy helium in aluminum predicted by Northcliffe and Shilling and the NIST online tabulation are observed on the other hand to over estimate the range of low energy helium ions in aluminum. An attempt to increase the amount of helium by implanting a second deeper layer was also carried out, but it did not significantly increase the helium content beyond the blistering limit (ap...

  3. Helium implanted AlHf as studied by Ta TDPAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    TDPAC; electric field gradient; Hf solute clusters; helium-vacancy complex; defect recovery. 1. Introduction. In recent years a considerable effort has been directed to the behaviour of helium in metals as helium is produced by (n, α) reaction in nuclear materials. Helium atoms are insoluble in metals and are strongly attracted ...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a gas...

  5. Development of a transferline connecting a helium liquefier coldbox and a liquid helium Dewar (United States)

    Menon, Rajendran S.; Rane, Tejas; Chakravarty, Anindya; Joemon, V.


    A helium liquefier with demonstrated capacity of 32 1/hr has been developed by BARC. Mumbai. A transferline for two way flow of helium between the helium liquefier coldbox and receiver Dewar has been developed in-house at BARC. Further, a functionally similar, but structurally improved transferline has been developed through a local fabricator. This paper describes and discusses issues related to the development of these cryogenic transferlines. The developed transferlines have been tested with a flow of liquid nitrogen and successfully utilised later in the helium liquefier plant.

  6. ASACUSA Anti-protonic Helium_Final

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Production Service; CERN AD; Paola Catapano; Julien Ordan, Arzur Catel; Paola Catapano; ASACUSA COLLABORATION


    Latest precision measurement of the mass of the proton and the anti proton though the production of antiprotonic helium by the ASACUSA experiment at CERN's antimatter factory, with a beam from the Antiproton Decelerator

  7. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium (United States)

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.


    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  8. Helium-Hydrogen Recovery System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Immense quantities of expensive liquefied helium are required at Stennis and Kennedy Space Centers for pre-cooling rocket engine propellant systems prior to filling...

  9. Characterizing string-of-pearls colloidal silica by multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography and comparison to multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, off-line multiangle static light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M


    The string-of-pearls-type morphology is ubiquitous, manifesting itself variously in proteins, vesicles, bacteria, synthetic polymers, and biopolymers. Characterizing the size and shape of analytes with such morphology, however, presents a challenge, due chiefly to the ease with which the "strings" can be broken during chromatographic analysis or to the paucity of information obtained from the benchmark microscopy and off-line light scattering methods. Here, we address this challenge with multidetector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC), which has the ability to determine, simultaneously, the size, shape, and compactness and their distributions of string-of-pearls samples. We present the quadruple-detector HDC analysis of colloidal string-of-pearls silica, employing static multiangle and quasielastic light scattering, differential viscometry, and differential refractometry as detection methods. The multidetector approach shows a sample that is broadly polydisperse in both molar mass and size, with strings ranging from two to five particles, but which also contains a high concentration of single, unattached "pearls". Synergistic combination of the various size parameters obtained from the multiplicity of detectors employed shows that the strings with higher degrees of polymerization have a shape similar to the theory-predicted shape of a Gaussian random coil chain of nonoverlapping beads, while the strings with lower degrees of polymerization have a prolate ellipsoidal shape. The HDC technique is contrasted experimentally with multidetector size-exclusion chromatography, where, even under extremely gentle conditions, the strings still degraded during analysis. Such degradation is shown to be absent in HDC, as evidenced by the fact that the molar mass and radius of gyration obtained by HDC with multiangle static light scattering detection (HDC/MALS) compare quite favorably to those determined by off-line MALS analysis under otherwise identical conditions. The

  10. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte Vianney


    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  11. Helium and Neon in Comets (United States)

    Jewitt, David


    Two comets were observed with EUVE in late 1994. Both comet Mueller and comet Borrelly are short-period comets having well established orbital elements and accurate ephemerides. Spectra of 40 ksec were taken of each. No evidence for emission lines from either Helium or Neon was detected. We calculated limits on the production rates of these atoms (relative to solar) assuming a standard isotropic outflow model, with a gas streaming speed of 1 km/s. The 3-sigma (99.7% confidence) limits (1/100,000 for He, 0.8 for Ne) are based on a conservative estimate of the noise in the EUVE spectra. They are also weakly dependent on the precise pointing and tracking of the EUVE field of view relative to the comet during the integrations. These limits are consistent with ice formation temperatures T greater than or equal to 30 K, as judged from the gas trapping experiments of Bar-Nun. For comparison, the solar abundances of these elements are He/O = 110, Ne/O = 1/16. Neither limit was as constraining as we had initially hoped, mainly because comets Mueller and Borrelly were intrinsically less active than anticipated.

  12. Helium Detonations on Neutron Stars (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Timmes, F. X.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D. Q.; Olson, K.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P.; Rosner, R.; MacNeice, P.; Tufo, H. M.


    We present the results of a numerical study of helium detonations on the surfaces of neutron stars. We describe two-dimensional simulations of the evolution of a detonation as it breaks through the accreted envelope of the neutron star and propagates laterally through the accreted material. The detonation front propagates laterally at nearly the Chapman-Jouguet velocity, v=1.3×109 cm s-1. A series of surface waves propagate across the pool of hot ash behind the detonation front with the same speed, matching the speed expected from shallow water wave theory. The entire envelope oscillates in the gravitational potential well of the neutron star with a period of ~50 μs. The photosphere reaches an estimated height of 10 km above the surface of the neutron star. Our study confirms that such a detonation can insure the spread of burning over the entire neutron star surface on a timescale consistent with burst rise times. We analyze the sensitivity of the results to the spatial resolution and the assumed initial conditions. We conclude by presenting a comparison of this model to type I X-ray bursts.

  13. Standard Guide for Simulation of Helium Effects in Irradiated Metals

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide provides advice for conducting experiments to investigate the effects of helium on the properties of metals where the technique for introducing the helium differs in some way from the actual mechanism of introduction of helium in service. Simulation techniques considered for introducing helium shall include charged particle implantation, exposure to α-emitting radioisotopes, and tritium decay techniques. Procedures for the analysis of helium content and helium distribution within the specimen are also recommended. 1.2 Two other methods for introducing helium into irradiated materials are not covered in this guide. They are the enhancement of helium production in nickel-bearing alloys by spectral tailoring in mixed-spectrum fission reactors, and isotopic tailoring in both fast and mixed-spectrum fission reactors. These techniques are described in Refs (1-5). Dual ion beam techniques (6) for simultaneously implanting helium and generating displacement damage are also not included here. This lat...

  14. Suicide by asphyxiation due to helium inhalation. (United States)

    Howard, Matthew O; Hall, Martin T; Edwards, Jeffrey D; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E; Winecker, Ruth E


    Suicide by asphyxiation using helium is the most widely-promoted method of "self-deliverance" by right-to-die advocates. However, little is known about persons committing such suicides or the circumstances and manner in which they are completed. Prior reports of suicides by asphyxiation involving helium were reviewed and deaths determined by the North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner to be helium-associated asphyxial suicides occurring between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 were included in a new case series examined in this article. The 10 asphyxial suicides involving helium identified in North Carolina tended to occur almost exclusively in non-Hispanic, white men who were relatively young (M age = 41.1 T 11.6). In 6 of 10 cases, decedents suffered from significant psychiatric dysfunction; in 3 of these 6 cases, psychiatric disorders were present comorbidly with substance abuse. In none of these cases were decedents suffering from terminal illness. Most persons committing suicide with helium were free of terminal illness but suffered from psychiatric and/or substance use disorders.

  15. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.


    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  16. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline (United States)


    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants cut the lines to helium-filled balloons. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  17. Screw Compressor Characteristics for Helium Refrigeration Systems (United States)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Creel, J.; Arenius, D.; Casagrande, F.; Howell, M.


    The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss mechanisms, as well as to implement practical solutions.

  18. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining (United States)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    With fossil fuels running out and global energy demand increasing, the need for alternative energy sources is apparent. Nuclear fusion using Helium-3 may be a solution. Helium-3 is a rare isotope on Earth, but it is abundant on the Moon. Throughout the space community lunar Helium-3 is often cited as a major reason to return to the Moon. Despite the potential of lunar Helium-3 mining, little research has been conducted on a full end-to-end mission. This abstract presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by students from Delft University of Technology. The goal of the study was to assess whether a continuous end-to-end mission to mine Helium-3 on the Moon and return it to Earth is a viable option for the future energy market. The set requirements for the representative end-to-end mission were to provide 10% of the global energy demand in the year 2040. The mission elements have been selected with multiple trade-offs among both conservative and novel concepts. A mission architecture with multiple decoupled elements for each transportation segment (LEO, transfer, lunar surface) was found to be the best option. It was found that the most critical element is the lunar mining operation itself. To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. The required heating power, if mining both day and night, would add up to 39 GW. The resulting power system mass for the lunar operations would be in the order of 60,000 to 200,000 tons. A fleet of three lunar ascent/descent vehicles and 22 continuous-thrust vehicles for orbit transfer would be required. The costs of the mission elements have been spread out over expected lifetimes. The resulting profits from Helium

  19. Electron correlation for helium-like atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, U. [Visvabharati Univ., Santiniketan (India). Dept. of Comput. Sci.; Talukdar, B. [Visvabharati Univ., Santiniketan (India). Dept. of Physics


    A recently proposed analytical approach to the ground-state energy of helium atom is generalised to study the effect of electron-electron correlation on the properties of helium isoelectronic sequence. The expectation values of the Hamiltonian and some important functions of radial distances are expressed in terms of derivatives of Lewis integrals which not only permit the straightforward variational calculation to get numerical results but also help one derive interesting recurrence relations for radial expectation values. The results presented for atoms from H{sup -} to Si{sup 12+} indicate that the present analytical model will have quantitative applicability for the study of electronic correlation in high-Z helium-like atoms within the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. (orig.) 22 refs.

  20. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel (United States)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier


    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  1. Experimental helium liquefier with a GM cryocooler (United States)

    Choudhury, Anup; Sahu, Santosh


    A helium liquefier has been developed with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler using the cold enthalpy available at the first stage, the inter-stage, and the second stage of the cryocooler. Most of the enthalpy of the helium gas at 300 K is absorbed in the first stage by a coaxial heat exchanger and inter-stage region of the cryocooler. Pre-cooled helium gas is liquefied at the second stage heat exchanger where the final cooldown and condensation happens. The measured production capacity of the liquefier is 17.4 l/day at atmospheric pressure. The whole setup has been designed to work in a coaxial configuration where the two heat exchangers, the cryostat, and the dewar are symmetrically placed around the central axis.

  2. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  3. Single term off-line coins (United States)

    Ferguson, Niels T.


    A construction for offline electronic coins that is both far more efficient and much simpler than previous systems is presented. Instead of using many terms, each for a single bit of the challenge, the system uses a single term for a large number of possible challenges. The withdrawal protocol does not use a cut and choose methodology as with earlier systems, but uses a direct construction.

  4. Photoassociation of cold metastable helium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenenk, G.R.


    During the last decades the study of cold atoms has grown in a great measure. Research in this field has been made possible due to the development of laser cooling and trapping techniques. We use laser cooling to cool helium atoms down to a temperature of 1 mK and we are able to

  5. Parametric study of radiofrequency helium discharge under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The excitation temperatures in the α and γ modes were 3266 and 4500 K respectively, evaluated by Boltzmann's plot method. The estimated gas temperature increased from 335 K in the α mode to 485 K in the γ mode, suggesting that the radio frequency atmospheric pressure helium discharge can be used for surface ...

  6. Critical Landau Velocity in Helium Nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, N.B.; Smolarek, S.; Loginov, E.; Mateo, D.; Hernando, A.; Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Buma, W.J.; Drabbels, M.


    The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective

  7. Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride in Musical Instruments (United States)

    Forinash, Kyle; Dixon, Cory L.


    The effects of inhaled helium on the human voice were investigated in a recent article in "The Physics Teacher." As mentioned in that article, demonstrations of the effect are a popular classroom activity. If the number of YouTube videos is any indication, the effects of sulfur hexafluoride on the human voice are equally popular.…

  8. Interatomic Coulombic decay in helium nanodroplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbinin, Mykola; Laforge, Aaron; Sharma, Vandana


    Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) is induced in helium nanodroplets by photoexciting the n=2 excited state of He+ using XUV synchrotron radiation. By recording multiple-coincidence electron and ion images we find that ICD occurs in various locations at the droplet surface, inside the surface region...

  9. Messer to provide helium for LHC

    CERN Multimedia


    Over the course of the next few years, industrial gas specialist The Messer Group, through its Swiss subsidiary Messer Schweiz AG, is to provide a 160,000kg supply of helium to the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) for the operation of the world's largest particle accelerator.

  10. Messer to provide helium for LHC project

    CERN Multimedia


    Over the course of the next few years, industrial gas specialist The Messer Group, through its Swiss subsidiary Messer Schweiz AG, is to provide a 160,000kg supply of helium to the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) for the operation of the world's largest particle accelerator.

  11. Near field characteristics of buoyant helium plumes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    affects the combustion. Puffing is also observed in low density gas plumes when the ratio of inlet ... generated using helium and helium–air mixtures, hot gases were used to understand the flow dynamics associated .... The glass lens acts as a filter to block any UV light and prevents fluorescence signal contamination. Since.

  12. Near field characteristics of buoyant helium plumes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 3. Near field characteristics of buoyant helium plumes. Kuchimanchi K Bharadwaj Debopam Das Pavan K Sharma. Section I – Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP) Volume 40 Issue 3 May 2015 pp 757- ...

  13. Thirty years of screw compressors for helium; Dreissig Jahre Schraubenkompressoren fuer Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, H. [Kaeser Kompressoren GmbH, Coburg (Germany). Technisches Buero/Auftragskonstruktion


    KAESER helium compressors, as well as their other industrial compressors, will be further developed with the intention to improve the availability and reliability of helium liquefaction systems. Further improvement of compressor and control system efficiency will ensure a low and sustainable operating cost. Fast supply of replacement parts with several years of warranty is ensured by a world-wide distribution system and is also worked on continuously. (orig.)

  14. Femtosecond spectroscopy on alkali-doped helium nanodroplets; Femtosekundenspektroskopie an alkalidotierten Helium-Nanotroepfchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claas, P.


    In the present thesis first studies on the short-time dynamics in alkali dimers and microclusters, which were bound on the surface of superfluid helium droplets, were presented. The experiments comprehended pump-probe measurements on the fs scale on the vibration dynamics on the dimers and on the fragmentation dynamics on the clusters. Generally by the studies it was shown that such extremely short slopes can also be observed on helium droplets by means of the femtosecond spectroscopy.

  15. Assay for trenbolone and its metabolite 17 alpha-trenbolone in bovine urine based on immunoaffinity chromatographic clean-up and off-line high-performance liquid chromatography-thin-layer chromatography. (United States)

    van Ginkel, L A; van Blitterswijk, H; Zoontjes, P W; van den Bosch, D; Stephany, R W


    An high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method was developed to detect the illegal use of the xenobiotic growth promotor Trenbolone acetate (TBA). Very effective clean-up of bovine urine was achieved by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). The active form of TBA, the steroid 17 beta-Trenbolone (17 beta-TB), as well as its major metabolite 17 alpha-Trenbolone (17 alpha-TB), were assayed simultaneously with HPLC and on-line UV detection. The fraction containing 17 alpha-TB and 17 beta-TB (TB-fraction) was collected, and for confirmation 17 beta- and 17 alpha-TB were subsequently separated and identified by TLC. The limit of detection by on-line HPLC-UV (350 nm) was 1-2 micrograms TB/l. Off-line TLC detection was even more sensitive, 0.5 microgram 17 beta- or 17 alpha-TB/1. The assay was validated by investigating urine samples from veal calves implanted with TBA. The presence of 17 beta- and 17 alpha-TB was clearly demonstrated. A survey of the illegal use of TBA in cattle was performed by applying the assay to urine obtained at slaughter. No residues of TBA or its metabolites were found in any of the 144 random samples from the Dutch public health surveillance programme.

  16. Determination of tropicamide and its major impurity in raw material by the HPLC-DAD analysis and identification of this impurity using the off-line HPLC-FT-IR coupling. (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Zdzisława; Stefanowicz, Jacek; Mulas, Karolina


    This study presents TLC, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-FT-IR analyses concerning the detection, identification and determination of organic impurities of commercial tropicamide ((R,S)-N-ethyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-N-(4-pyridylmethyl)propanamide) as a medical substance designed for the production of eye drops. In the examined samples from several random production batches, only one impurity (defined by Ph. Eur. 6th Ed.) was discovered in the amount sufficient for the quantitative analysis. On the basis of comparison of retention times, UV and IR spectra of the impurity and its synthesized standard, this impurity was identified as apotropicamide (N-ethyl-2-phenyl-N-(4-pyridylmethyl)prop-2-enamide). For the chemical identification of organic compounds occurring in the tropicamide samples, an off-line coupling of HPLC with FT-IR was used. The structure of a standard of apotropicamide was confirmed by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analysis. Validation of the HPLC-DAD method of determination both tropicamide and apotropicamide in the tropicamide medical substance was performed. This method is suitable for use in the quality control of tropicamide during its production.

  17. Evaluation of helium cooling for fusion divertors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B.


    The divertors of future fusion reactors will have a power throughput of several hundred MW. The peak heat flux on the diverter surface is estimated to be 5 to 15 MW/m{sup 2} at an average heat flux of 2 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertors have a requirement of both minimum temperature (100{degrees}C) and maximum temperature. The minimum temperature is dictated by the requirement to reduce the absorption of plasma, and the maximum temperature is determined by the thermo-mechanical properties of the plasma facing materials. Coolants that have been considered for fusion reactors are water, liquid metals and helium. Helium cooling has been shown to be very attractive from safety and other considerations. Helium is chemically and neutronically inert and is suitable for power conversion. The challenges associated with helium cooling are: (1) Manifold sizes; (2) Pumping power; and (3) Leak prevention. In this paper the first two of the above design issues are addressed. A variety of heat transfer enhancement techniques are considered to demonstrate that the manifold sizes and the pumping power can be reduced to acceptable levels. A helium-cooled diverter module was designed and fabricated by GA for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. This module was recently tested at Sandia National Laboratories. At an inlet pressure of 4 MPa, the module was tested at a steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. The pumping power required was less than 1% of the power removed. These results verified the design prediction.

  18. The future of helium as a natural resource

    CERN Document Server

    Glowacki, Bartek A; Nuttall, William J


    The book reveals the changing dynamics of the helium industry on both the supply-side and the demand-side. The helium industry has a long-term future and this important gas will have a role to play for many decades to come. Major new users of helium are expected to enter the market, especially in nuclear energy (both fission and fusion). Prices and volumes supplied and expected to rise and this will prompt greater efforts towards the development of new helium sources and helium conservation and recycling.

  19. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification (United States)

    Scholes, Colin A.; Ghosh, Ujjal K.


    Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources. PMID:28218644

  20. Preparative mass-spectrometry profiling of bioactive metabolites in Saudi-Arabian propolis fractionated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography and off-line atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometry injection. (United States)

    Jerz, Gerold; Elnakady, Yasser A; Braun, André; Jäckel, Kristin; Sasse, Florenz; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Omar, Mohamed O M; Winterhalter, Peter


    Propolis is a glue material collected by honeybees which is used to seal cracks in beehives and to protect the bee population from infections. Propolis resins have a long history in medicinal use as a natural remedy. The multiple biological properties are related to variations in their chemical compositions. Geographical settings and availability of plant sources are important factors for the occurrence of specific natural products in propolis. A propolis ethylacetate extract (800mg) from Saudi Arabia (Al-Baha region) was separated by preparative scale high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) using a non-aqueous solvent system n-hexane-ACN (1:1, v/v). For multiple metabolite detection, the resulting HSCCC-fractions were sequentially injected off-line into an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) device, and a reconstituted mass spectrometry profile of the preparative run was visualized by selected ion traces. Best ion-intensities for detected compounds were obtained in the negative APCI mode and monitored occurring co-elution effects. HSCCC and successive purification steps resulted in the isolation and characterization of various bioactive natural products such as (12E)- and (12Z)-communic acid, sandaracopimaric acid, (+)-ferruginol, (+)-totarol, and 3β-acetoxy-19(29)-taraxasten-20a-ol using EI-, APCI-MS and 1D/2D-NMR. Cycloartenol-derivatives and triterpene acetates were isolated in mixtures and elucidated by EI-MS and 1D-NMR. Free fatty acids, and two labdane fatty acid esters were identified by APCI-MS/MS. In total 19 metabolites have been identified. The novel combination of HSCCC fractionation, and APCI-MS-target-guided molecular mass profiling improve efficiency of lead-structure identification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study for separation of atmospheric humic-like substance (HULIS) by ENVI-18, HLB, XAD-8 and DEAE sorbents: elemental composition, FT-IR, 1H NMR and off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). (United States)

    Fan, Xingjun; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an


    Humic-like substances (HULIS) are significant constituents of aerosols, and the isolation and characterization of HULIS by solid-phase extraction methods are dependent on the sorbents used. In this study, we used the following five methods: ENVI-18, HLB-M, HLB-N, XAD-8 and DEAE, to isolate atmospheric HULIS at an urban site. Then we conducted a comparative investigation of the HULIS chemical characteristics by means of elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The results indicate that HULIS isolated using different methods show many similarities in chemical composition and structure. Some differences were however also observed between the five isolated HULIS: HULISHLB-M contains a relatively high content of OCH group, compared to HULISENVI-18 and HULISXAD-8; HULISXAD-8 contains a relatively high content of hydrophobic and aromatic components, compared to HULISENVI-18 and HULISHLB-M; HULISDEAE contains the highest content of aromatic functional groups, as inferred by (1)H NMR spectra, but a great amount of salts generally present in the HULISDEAE and thereby limited the choices for characterizing the materials (i.e., elemental analysis and TMAH thermochemolysis); HULISHLB-N has relatively high levels of H and N, a high N/C atomic ratio, and includes N-containing functional groups, which suggests that it has been altered by 2% ammonia introduced in the eluents. In summary, we found that ENVI-18, HLB-M, and XAD-8 are preferable methods for isolation and characterization of HULIS in atmospheric aerosols. These results also suggest that caution is required when applying DEAE and HLB-N isolating methods for characterizing atmospheric HULIS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Off-line hyphenation of boronate affinity monolith-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for efficient analysis of glycoproteins/glycopeptides. (United States)

    Bie, Zijun; Chen, Yang; Li, Hengye; Wu, Ronghu; Liu, Zhen


    Boronate affinity materials have attracted increasing attentions as sample enrichment platforms for glycoproteomic analysis in recent years. However, most of the boronate affinity materials that have already employed for proteomic analysis are suffering from apparent disadvantages, such as alkaline pH for binding, weak affinity, and relatively poor selectivity. Benzoboroxoles are a unique class of boronic acids which have showed excellent binding properties for the recognition of cis-diol-containing compounds. Recently, a 3-carboxy-benzoboroxole-functionalized monolithic column had been reported and it had exhibited the best selectivity and affinity as well as the lowest binding pH among all reported boronate affinity monolithic columns. In this study, an off-line hyphenation of this boronate affinity monolithic column-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed and the powerfulness of this hyphenated approach in the analysis of glycoproteins and glycopeptides in complex samples was investigated. The approach was first applied to the analysis of glycopeptides in the tryptic digest of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Totally 22 glycopeptides were identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best performance among all the boronic acid-functionalized materials. We further employed this approach to the analysis of intact proteins in human saliva. Totally 6 intact glycoproteins were successfully identified. As comparison, when the samples were analyzed without extraction, only a few glycopeptides were identified from the tryptic digest of HRP while no glycoproteins were found from the saliva samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Survivor from asphyxiation due to helium inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Etteri


    Full Text Available In this rare case report we describe a 27- year-old white man survived to suicide by asphyxiation using the so-called suicide bag (or exit bag filled with helium supplied through a plastic tube. He had no previous psychiatric or organic illnesses. At the time of presentation to our Emergency Department he was awake and reported severe dyspnea with a clinical pattern of acute respiratory failure. Imaging studies showed pulmonary edema and the patient was treated with non-invasive ventilation in Intensive Care Unit. After 15 days the patient was discharged from hospital in optimal conditions. These rare cases of survivor might suggest the possible causes of death from inhaling helium.

  4. Detection of charged particles in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, Simon R. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)


    This thesis is concerned with the use of a large superfluid helium detector for the detection of solar neutrinos. A small-scale prototype of this type of detector has been constructed and tested. In this thesis the author discussed in detail the design of the apparatus, the experiments which have been carried out, and what has been learned about the important physical processes involved in this type of detector. These processes include the anisotropic generation of phonons and rotons by the recoiling particle, the propagation of the phonons and rotons in the liquid, the evaporation process at the liquid surface, and the adsorption of the helium atoms onto the wafers. In addition he discusses the generation and detection of fluorescent photons from recoiling particles. The implications of these results to the design of a full-scale detector of neutrinos are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.


    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  6. Tritium decay helium-3 effects in tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimada


    Full Text Available Tritium (T implanted by plasmas diffuses into bulk material, especially rapidly at elevated temperatures, and becomes trapped in neutron radiation-induced defects in materials that act as trapping sites for the tritium. The trapped tritium atoms will decay to produce helium-3 (3He atoms at a half-life of 12.3 years. 3He has a large cross section for absorbing thermal neutrons, which after absorbing a neutron produces hydrogen (H and tritium ions with a combined kinetic energy of 0.76 MeV through the 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the 3He produced in tungsten by tritium decay compared to the neutron-induced helium-4 (4He produced in tungsten. This is important given the fact that helium in materials not only creates microstructural damage in the bulk of the material but alters surface morphology of the material effecting plasma-surface interaction process (e.g. material evolution, erosion and tritium behavior of plasma-facing component materials. Effects of tritium decay 3He in tungsten are investigated here with a simple model that predicts quantity of 3He produced in a fusion DEMO FW based on a neutron energy spectrum found in literature. This study reveals that: (1 helium-3 concentration was equilibrated to ∼6% of initial/trapped tritium concentration, (2 tritium concentration remained approximately constant (94% of initial tritium concentration, and (3 displacement damage from 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction became >1 dpa/year in DEMO FW.

  7. Laser-Induced Breakdown in Liquid Helium (United States)

    Sirisky, S.; Yang, Y.; Wei, W.; Maris, H. J.


    We report on experiments in which focused laser light is used to induce optical breakdown in liquid helium-4. The threshold intensity has been measured over the temperature range from 1.1 to 2.8 K with light of wavelength 1064 nm. In addition to the measurement of the threshold, we have performed experiments to study how the breakdown from one pulse modifies the probability that a subsequent pulse will result in breakdown.

  8. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator (United States)

    Brown, Donald P.


    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  9. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.


    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  10. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.


    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  11. Optical traps for ultracold metastable helium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, Juliette [LKB ENS, Paris (France)


    One of the main characteristics of metastable helium atoms is their high internal energy (20 eV). This energy can be released when a metastable atom hits a surface, ejecting one electron. Therefore, using a Channeltron Electron Multiplier (CEM), one can detect atoms with a time resolution of up to 5 ns. However, this high internal energy raises the problem of inelastic Penning ionizations, following: He{sup *}+He{sup *}{yields}He+He{sup +}+e{sup *}. This process has a rate of the order of 10 x 10 cm{sup 3} cot s{sup -}1 but is reduced by four orders of magnitude if the atoms are spin polarized due to total spin conservation. We report on the progress of the set up of a dipole trap for ultracold metastable helium using a red detuned fiber laser at 1560 nm. One of the aims of this optical trap is to release the constraint on the magnetic field value. We plan to measure the magnetic field dependance of inelastic collision rates for temperatures smaller than 10 {mu}K. In a spin polarized gas of helium, the spin-spin interaction produces spin relaxation and relaxation induced Penning ionization if the polarization condition is no longer maintained. We also present the development of a optical lattices in 1D and later in 3D. We intend to monitor the Penning ionization rate in order to follow the real-time dynamics of the superfluid-Mott insulator quantum phase transition.

  12. Laser Spectroscopy of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    CERN Multimedia


    %PS205 %title\\\\ \\\\Following the discovery of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms ($\\overline{p}He^{+} $) at KEK in 1991, systematic studies of their properties were made at LEAR from 1991 to 1996. In the first two years the lifetime of $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ in liquid and gaseous helium at various temperatures and pressures was measured and the effect of foreign gases on the lifetime of these atoms was investigated. Effects were also discovered which gave the antiproton a 14\\% longer lifetime in $^4$He than in $^3$He, and resulted in important differences in the shape of the annihilation time spectra in the two isotopes.\\\\ \\\\Since 1993 laser spectroscopy of the metastable $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atoms became the main focus of PS205. Transitions were stimulated between metastable and non-metastable states of the $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atom by firing a pulsed dye laser beam into the helium target every time an identified metastable atom was present (Figure 1). If the laser frequency matched the transition energy, the...

  13. In situ controlled modification of the helium density in single helium-filled nanobubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.-L., E-mail:; Pailloux, F. [Institut Pprime, UPR 3346 CNRS-Université de Poitiers, SP2MI, 86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil cedex (France); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Mc Master University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Alix, K.; Mauchamp, V.; Pizzagalli, L. [Institut Pprime, UPR 3346 CNRS-Université de Poitiers, SP2MI, 86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil cedex (France); Couillard, M.; Botton, G. A. [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Mc Master University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mc Master University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)


    We demonstrate that the helium density and corresponding pressure can be modified in single nano-scale bubbles embedded in semiconductors by using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope as a multifunctional probe: the measurement probe for imaging and chemical analysis and the irradiation source to modify concomitantly the pressure in a controllable way by fine tuning of the electron beam parameters. The control of the detrapping rate is achieved by varying the experimental conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms are discussed; our experimental observations suggest that the helium detrapping from bubbles could be interpreted in terms of direct ballistic collisions, leading to the ejection of the helium atoms from the bubble.

  14. Retention of hydrogen isotopes and helium in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Mitsumasa; Sato, Rikiya; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.


    In the present study, a thin foil of nickel was irradiated by H{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} to a fluence of 1.2-6.0x10{sup 20}/m{sup 2} using the TBTS (Tritium Beam Test System) apparatus. The thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) technique was employed to evaluate the total amount of retained hydrogen isotope and helium atoms in nickel. In the spectra, two peaks appeared at 440-585K and 720-735K for helium. Hydrogen isotopes irradiation after helium preirradiation were found to enhance the helium release and to decrease the peak temperatures. Helium irradiation after hydrogen isotopes preirradiation were found to enhance the helium release, but the peak temperature showed little difference from that without preirradiation. (author)

  15. Capacity enhancement of indigenous expansion engine based helium liquefier (United States)

    Doohan, R. S.; Kush, P. K.; Maheshwari, G.


    Development of technology and understanding for large capacity helium refrigeration and liquefaction at helium temperature is indispensable for coming-up projects. A new version of helium liquefier designed and built to provide approximately 35 liters of liquid helium per hour. The refrigeration capacity of this reciprocating type expansion engine machine has been increased from its predecessor version with continuous improvement and deficiency debugging. The helium liquefier has been built using components by local industries including cryogenic Aluminum plate fin heat exchangers. Two compressors with nearly identical capacity have been deployed for the operation of system. Together they consume about 110 kW of electric power. The system employs liquid Nitrogen precooling to enhance liquid Helium yield. This paper describes details of the cryogenic expander design improvements, reconfiguration of heat exchangers, performance simulation and their experimental validation.

  16. Helium induces preconditioning in human endothelium in vivo. (United States)

    Smit, Kirsten F; Oei, Gezina T M L; Brevoord, Daniel; Stroes, Erik S; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schlack, Wolfgang S; Hollmann, Markus W; Weber, Nina C; Preckel, Benedikt


    Helium protects myocardium by inducing preconditioning in animals. We investigated whether human endothelium is preconditioned by helium inhalation in vivo. Forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in healthy volunteers (each group n = 10) was performed by inflating a blood pressure cuff for 20 min. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses were measured after cumulative dose-response infusion of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, at baseline and after 15 min of reperfusion using strain-gauge, venous occlusion plethysmography. Helium preconditioning was applied by inhalation of helium (79% helium, 21% oxygen) either 15 min (helium early preconditioning [He-EPC]) or 24 h before I/R (helium late preconditioning). Additional measurements of He-EPC were done after blockade of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Plasma levels of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell-derived microparticles were determined. Forearm I/R attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (acetylcholine) with unaltered endothelium-independent response (sodium nitroprusside). Both He-EPC and helium late preconditioning attenuated I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction (max increase in forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine after I/R was 180 ± 24% [mean ± SEM] without preconditioning, 573 ± 140% after He-EPC, and 290 ± 32% after helium late preconditioning). Protection of helium was comparable to ischemic preconditioning (max forearm blood flow 436 ± 38%) and was not abolished after endothelial nitric oxide synthase blockade. He-EPC did not affect plasma levels of cytokines, adhesion molecules, or microparticles. Helium is a nonanesthetic, nontoxic gas without hemodynamic side effects, which induces early and late preconditioning of human endothelium in vivo. Further studies have to investigate whether helium may be an instrument to induce endothelial preconditioning in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Asteroseismic estimate of helium abundance of 16 Cyg A, B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Kuldeep


    Full Text Available The helium ionization zone in a star leaves a characteristic signature on its oscillation frequencies, which can be used to estimate the helium content in the envelope of the star. We use the oscillation frequencies of 16 Cyg A and B, obtained using 2.5 years of Kepler data, to estimate the envelope helium abundance of these stars. We find the envelope helium abundance to lie in the range 0.231–0.251 for 16 Cyg A and 0.218–0.266 for 16 Cyg B.

  18. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials (United States)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.


    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  19. Fluorine speciation analysis using reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled off-line to continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (CS-MAS): identification and quantification of novel fluorinated organic compounds in environmental and biological samples. (United States)

    Qin, Zhiwei; McNee, David; Gleisner, Heike; Raab, Andrea; Kyeremeh, Kwaku; Jaspars, Marcel; Krupp, Eva; Deng, Hai; Feldmann, Jörg


    Driven by increasing demand for the monitoring of industrial perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), the identification of novel fluorine containing compounds (FOCs) and the tracking of organofluorine drugs and their degradation products, there is a clear need for sensitive, fluorine-specific detection of unknown FOCs. Here we report the first ever direct fluorine-specific (speciation) method; capable of individually detecting untargeted FOCs in environmental and biological samples through the application of continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (CS-MAS) using a commercial CS-AAS. Two model FOCs (2,4,6, trifluorobenzoic acid (TFBA) and 5-fluoroindol-5-carboxylic acid (FICA)) were used, achieving fluorine-specific detection across a range of 0.1 to 300 ng/mL fluorine, corresponding to a limit of detection of 4 pg F and 5.26 nM for both compounds. Both TFBA and FICA showed a similar response to CS-MAS detection, potentially enabling the quantification of fluorine content in novel FOCs without having molecular standards available. This paper also reports the use of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled off-line with CS-MAS for the identification of single organofluorines in a mixture of FOCs via fraction collection. The linear range of both FOCs was determined to be from 1 to 500 ng/mL. The limits of detection of those species were just above 1 ng/mL (100 pg) and can therefore compete with targeted analytical methods such as ESI-MS. Finally, as a proof of principle the analysis of a fluoride-containing groundwater sample from Ghana demonstrated that this method can be used in the detection of novel FOCs, with identification achieved through parallel ESI-MS. Coupled HPLC-CS-MAS/ESI-MS is the first analytical methodology capable of selectively detecting and identifying novel FOCs, making possible the quantification of all fluorine containing compounds in one sample. This is the necessary analytical requirement to perform

  20. Helium-3 and Helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Leemans, W P; Bulanov, S V; Margarone, D; Korn, G; Haberer, T


    The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (Magnetic Vortex Acceleration and hole-boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration) of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He3 ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He4 with the ...

  1. The antimicrobial effects of helium and helium-air plasma on Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile. (United States)

    Galvin, S; Cahill, O; O'Connor, N; Cafolla, A A; Daniels, S; Humphreys, H


    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) affect 5-10% of acute hospital admissions. Environmental decontamination is an important component of all strategies to prevent HCAI as many bacterial causes survive and persist in the environment, which serve as ongoing reservoirs of infection. Current approaches such as cleaning with detergents and the use of chemical disinfectant are suboptimal. We assessed the efficacy of helium and helium-air plasma in killing Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile on a glass surface and studied the impact on bacterial cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both plasma types exhibited bactericidal effects on Staph. aureus (log3·6 - >log7), with increased activity against methicillin-resistant strains, but had a negligible effect on Cl. difficile spores (helium and helium-air plasma as a decontaminant and demonstrated a significant reduction in bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus on a glass surface. Atomic force microscopy morphologically confirmed the impact on bacterial cells. This approach warrants further study as an alternative to current options for hospital hygiene. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Helium-3 and helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Bulanov


    Full Text Available The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions (heavier than protons. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (magnetic vortex acceleration and hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He^{3} ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He^{4} with the same energy per nucleon, require less laser power to be accelerated to the required energy for the hadron therapy.

  3. Helium passage through homogeneous ultrafine hydrocarbon layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenchikov Michael A.


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of helium atoms and methane molecules moving through a hydrocarbon layer of evenly distributed energy sources. A computational technique for integrating the Schrödinger equation based on formulation of two fundamental numerical solutions to the problem of waves passing through a barrier is suggested. A linear combination of these solutions defines the required wave function, while cross-linking with asymptotic boundary conditions allows determining the coefficients of transmission and particle reflection from the potential layer barrier.

  4. Linde standard helium plant of medium capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, A.; Stephan, A.; Nienaber, U.; Weber, J.


    The unit is designed to deliver up to 70 l/h of liquid helium (LHe) without precooling by liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}), up to 105 l/h with LN{sub 2} precooling, or up to 210 W cryo-refrigeration output at 4.5 K. Its principal components are an oil-flooded screw compressor, gas-bearing expansion turbines, vacuum-brazed aluminium plate-fin heat exchangers, an automatic feed gas purifier, and a process control system. Descriptions are given of the process layout, the main system components, and operation of the unit. (orig.).

  5. Heuristic theory of positron-helium scattering. (United States)

    Drachman, R. J.


    An error in a previous modified adiabatic approximation (Drachman, 1966), due to a lack of generality in the form of the short-range correlation part of the wave function for L greater than zero, is corrected heuristically by allowing the monopole suppression parameter to depend on L. An L-dependent local potential is constructed to fit the well-known positron-hydrogen s, p, and d wave phase shifts below the rearrangement threshold. The same form of potential yields a positron-helium cross-section in agreement with a recent experimental measurement near threshold.

  6. Production of thorium-229 using helium nuclei (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Saed [Knoxville, TN; Garland, Marc Alan [Knoxville, TN


    A method for producing .sup.229Th includes the steps of providing .sup.226Ra as a target material, and bombarding the target material with alpha particles, helium-3, or neutrons to form .sup.229Th. When neutrons are used, the neutrons preferably include an epithermal neutron flux of at least 1.times.10.sup.13 n s.sup.-1cm.sup.-2. .sup.228Ra can also be bombarded with thermal and/or energetic neutrons to result in a neutron capture reaction to form .sup.229Th. Using .sup.230Th as a target material, .sup.229Th can be formed using neutron, gamma ray, proton or deuteron bombardment.

  7. Quantum entanglement in helium-like ions (United States)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K.


    Recently, there have been considerable interests to investigate quantum entanglement in two-electron atoms [1-3]. Here we investigate quantum entanglement for the ground and excited states of helium-like ions using correlated wave functions, concentrating on the particle-particle entanglement coming from the continuous spatial degrees of freedom. We use the two-electron wave functions constructed by employing B-spline basis to calculate the linear entropy of the reduced density matrix L=1-TrA(ρA^2 ) as a measure of the spatial entanglement. HereρA=TrB(| >AB ABDehesa et. al., J. Phys. B 45, 015504 (2012)

  8. Variable helium diffusion characteristics in fluorite (United States)

    Wolff, R.; Dunkl, I.; Kempe, U.; Stockli, D.; Wiedenbeck, M.; von Eynatten, H.


    Precise analysis of the diffusion characteristics of helium in fluorite is crucial for establishing the new fluorite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometer (FHe), which potentially provides a powerful tool for dating ore deposits unsuitable for the application of conventional geochronometers. Incremental helium outgassing experiments performed on fluorites derived from a spectrum of geological environments suggest a thermally activated volume diffusion mechanism. The diffusion behaviour is highly variable and the parameters range between log D0/a2 = 0.30 ± 0.27-7.27 ± 0.46 s-1 and Ea = 96 ± 3.5-182 ± 3.8 kJ/mol. Despite the fact that the CaF2 content of natural fluorites in most cases exceeds 99 weight percent, the closure temperature (Tc) of the fluorite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometer as calculated from these diffusion parameters varies between 46 ± 14 °C and 169 ± 9 °C, considering a 125 μm fragment size. Here we establish that minor substitutions of calcium by rare earth elements and yttrium (REE + Y) and related charge compensation by sodium, fluorine, oxygen and/or vacancies in the fluorite crystal lattice have a significant impact on the diffusivity of helium in the mineral. With increasing REE + Y concentrations F vacancies are reduced and key diffusion pathways are narrowed. Consequently, a higher closure temperature is to be expected. An empirical case study confirms this variability: two fluorite samples from the same deposit (Horni Krupka, Czech Republic) with ca. 170 °C and ca. 43 °C Tc yield highly different (U-Th-Sm)/He ages of 290 ± 10 Ma and 79 ± 10 Ma, respectively. Accordingly, the fluorite sample with the high Tc could have quantitatively retained helium since the formation of the fluorite-bearing ores in the Permian, despite subsequent Mesozoic burial and associated regional hydrothermal heating. In contrast, the fluorite with the low Tc yields a Late Cretaceous age close to the apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He ages (AHe

  9. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  10. Nano-engineering with a focused helium ion beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, D.J.; Drift, E.W. van der; Veldhoven, E. van; Meessen, J.; Rudneva, M.; Alkemade, P.F.A.


    Although Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) was introduced only a few years ago, many new application fields are budding. The connecting factor between these novel applications is the unique interaction of the primary helium ion beam with the sample material at and just below its surface. In particular,

  11. Turnkey Helium Purification and Liquefaction Plant for DARWIN, Australia (United States)

    Lindemann, U.; Boeck, S.; Blum, L.; Kurtcuoglu, K.


    The Linde Group, through its Australian subsidiary BOC Limited, has signed an agreement with Darwin LNG Pty Ltd for the supply of feed-gas to Linde's new helium refining and liquefaction facility in Darwin, Australia. Linde Kryotechnik AG, located in Switzerland, has carried out the engineering and fabrication of the equipment for the turn key helium plant. The raw feed gas flow of 20'730 Nm3/h contains up to of 3 mol% helium. The purification process of the feed gas consists of partial condensation of nitrogen in two stages, cryogenic adsorption and finally catalytic oxidation of hydrogen followed by a dryer system. Downstream of the purification the refined helium is liquefied using a modified Bryton process and stored in a 30'000 gal LHe tank. For further distribution and export of the liquid helium there are two stations available for filling of truck trailers and containers. The liquid nitrogen, required for refrigeration capacity to the nitrogen removal stages in the purification process as well as for the pre-cooling of the pure helium in the liquefaction process, is generated on site during the feed gas purification process. The optimized process provides low power consumption, maximum helium recovery and a minimum helium loss.

  12. Thermal stability of helium-vacancy clusters in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, K; Wirth, B D; Díaz de la Rubia, T


    Molecular dynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the thermal stability of helium-vacancy clusters (He sub n V sub m) in Fe using the Ackland Finnis-Sinclair potential, the Wilson-Johnson potential and the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark-Beck potential for describing the interactions of Fe-Fe, Fe-He and He-He, respectively. Both the calculated numbers of helium atoms, n, and vacancies, m, in clusters ranged from 0 to 20. The binding energies of an interstitial helium atom, an isolated vacancy and a self-interstitial iron atom to a helium-vacancy cluster were obtained from the calculated formation energies of clusters. All the binding energies do not depend much on cluster size, but they primarily depend on the helium-to-vacancy ratio (n/m) of clusters. The binding energy of a vacancy to a helium-vacancy cluster increases with the ratio, showing that helium increases cluster lifetime by dramatically reducing thermal vacancy emission. On the other hand, both the binding energies of a helium atom and an iron ...

  13. Proton-Helium Elastic Electromagnetic Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Burn [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou (China); Ng, Kingyuen B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    In the test facility of the C-ADS project, A 25-MeV proton beam is directed to hit a target consisting of 1-mm tungsten balls lubricated by 100-Pa helium gas. To estimate the power loss to the helium gas, an accurate collision cross section is computed.

  14. Nuclear polarizability of helium isotopes in atomic transitions


    Pachucki, K.; Moro, A. M.


    We estimate the nuclear polarizability correction to atomic transition frequencies in various helium isotopes. This effect is non-negligible for high precision tests of quantum electrodynamics or accurate determination of the nuclear charge radius from spectroscopic measurements in helium atoms and ions. In particular, it amounts to $28(3)$ kHz for 1S-2S transition in 4He+.

  15. Deposition, milling, and etching with a focused helium ion beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, P.F.A.; Veldhoven, E. van


    The recent successful development of the helium ion microscope has produced both a new type of microscopy and a new tool for nanoscale manufacturing. This chapter reviews the first explorations in this new field in nanofabrication. The studies that utilize the Orion helium ion microscope to grow or

  16. Low Temperature Gaseous Helium and very High Turbulence Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pietropinto, S; Castaing, B; Chabaud, B; Gagne, Y; Hébral, B; Ladam, Y; Lebrun, P; Pirotte, O; Poulain, C; Roche, P E


    Cryogenic gaseous helium gives access to extreme turbulent experimental conditions. The very high cooling helium flow rates available at CERN have been used to reach Reynolds numbers up to Re ~ 10**7 in a round jet experiment. First results are discussed.

  17. Search for Dislocation Free Helium 4 Crystals. (United States)

    Souris, F; Fefferman, A D; Haziot, A; Garroum, N; Beamish, J R; Balibar, S

    The giant plasticity of [Formula: see text]He crystals has been explained as a consequence of the large mobility of their dislocations. Thus, the mechanical properties of dislocation free crystals should be quite different from those of usual ones. In 1996-1998, Ruutu et al. published crystal growth studies showing that, in their helium 4 crystals, the density of screw dislocations along the c-axis was less than 100 per cm[Formula: see text], sometimes zero. We have grown helium 4 crystals using similar growth speeds and temperatures, and extracted their dislocation density from their mechanical properties. We found dislocation densities that are in the range of 10[Formula: see text]-10[Formula: see text] per cm[Formula: see text], that is several orders of magnitude larger than Ruutu et al. Our tentative interpretation of this apparent contradiction is that the two types of measurements are somewhat indirect and concern different types of dislocations. As for the dislocation nucleation mechanism, it remains to be understood.

  18. Helium enrichment during convective carbon dioxide dissolution (United States)

    Larson, T.; Hesse, M. A.


    Motivated by observed variations of the CO2/He ratios in natural carbon dioxide (CO2) reservoirs, such as the Bravo Dome field in northeastern New Mexico, we have performed laboratory experiments equilibrating gas mixtures containing Helium (He) and CO2 with water, at close to ambient conditions in a closed system. The experimental design allows for continuous measurement of headspace pressure as well as timed interval measurements of the CO2/He ratios and the δ13C value of CO2 in the headspace. Results from three dissolution experiments are reported: 1) pure Helium system, 2) 98% CO2 + 2% Nitrogen system, and 3) 97% CO2 and 3% Helium. Final equilibrated experimental results are compared to theoretical results obtained using Henry's Law relationships. The evolution of the amount of dissolved CO2 computed from gas pressure and gas compositions are in good agreement with Henry's Law relationships. For example, the CO2 + N2 system was initially pressurized with pure CO2 to 1323 mbar and after six days it equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 596 mbar. This compares very well with a calculated equilibrium headspace pressure of 592 mbar for this system. The CO2 + He system was pressurized to 1398 mbar CO2 and after six days equilibrated to a measured headspace pressure of 397 mbar. This measured pressure is slightly higher than the predicted equilibrated headspace pressure of 341 mbar, indicating a possible leak in the system during this particular experiment. In both experiments the initial pH of the water was 9.3 and the final equilibrated pH was 5.4. The δ13C value of equilibrated headspace CO2 was within 0.25‰ of its starting δ13C value, demonstrating insignificant carbon isotope fractionation at low pH. Measured Helium/ CO2 ratios throughout the CO2+Helium experiment preserve a non-linear trend of increasing He/ CO2 ratios through time that correlate very well with the measured pressure drop from CO2 dissolution. This indicates that gas composition

  19. Binary helium dwarf supernovae. [numerical hydrodynamic investigation of evolution (United States)

    Mazurek, T. J.


    The possibility of helium dwarf evolution to sufficiently high densities for violent helium ignition in low-massed binary systems is investigated. During accretional evolution the occurrence of thermonuclear runaway is found to be probable when the dwarf's mass approaches 1 solar mass, and steady-state discontinuous wave propagation considerations indicate that the dwarf is totally incinerated (i.e., its total mass burns to nuclear equilibrium) by a detonation wave. A numerical stellar dynamic investigation, including the full effects of nuclear statistical equilibrium and electron capture indicates total disruption for all reasonable dwarf central densities. For consistency with the cosmic element abundances, the conclusion of total disruption requires a low frequency for helium supernova events, implying that helium ignition in mass-exchanging binaries must occur at the lower densities of the relatively mild helium flash.

  20. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom (United States)

    Harbola, Varun


    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  1. Helium processing for deuterium/helium burns in ITER's physics phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.


    The requirements for vacuum pumping and fuel processing for deuterium/helium (D/{sup 3}He) burns in the physics operating phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were assessed. These burns are expected to have low fusion power (100 MW), short burn times ({le}30 s), limited operation (2000 shots), and a fractional burn {approximately}0.3%. For the physics phase, the fuel processing system will include several units to separate deuterium and helium (activated charcoal bed, SAES getter and a Pd/Ag diffuser), as well as an isotopic separation system to separate {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. The needed vacuum system's cryosorption surface area may be as large as 10 m{sup 2} if the burn time is {approximately}200 s, the fractional burn is <0.3%, or the fusion power is >100 MW. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Imprints from the solar cycle on the helium atom and helium pickup ion distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rucinski


    Full Text Available Neutral interstellar helium atoms penetrate into the solar system almost unaffected by gas–plasma interactions in the heliospheric interface region, and thus can be considered as carriers of original information on the basic parameters (like density, temperature, bulk velocity of the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM. Such information can nowadays be derived from analysis of data obtained from different experimental methods: in situ measurements of He atoms (Ulysses, observations of the solar backscattered He 584 A radiation (EUVE, in situ measurements of He + pickup ions (AMPTE, Ulysses, Wind, SOHO, ACE. In view of the current coordinated international ISSI campaign devoted to the study of the helium focusing cone structure and its evolution, we analyze expected variations of neutral He density, of He + pickup fluxes and of their phase space distributions at various phases of the solar activity cycle based on a realistic time-dependent modelling of the neutral helium and He + pickup ion distributions, which reflect solar cycle-induced variations of the photoionization rate. We show that the neutral helium density values are generally anticorrelated with the solar activity phase and in extreme cases (near the downwind axis the maximum-to-minimum density ratio may even exceed factors of ~ 3 at 1 AU. We also demonstrate that in the upwind hemisphere (at 1 AU and beyond the He + fluxes are correlated with the solar cycle activity, whereas on the downwind side the maximum of the expected flux up to distances of ~ 3 AU occurs around solar minimum epoch, and only further away does the correlation with solar activity become positive. Finally, we present the response of the phase space distribution spectra of He + pickup ions (in the solar wind frame for different epochs of the solar cycle and heliocentric distances from 1 to 5 AU covering the range of Ulysses, Wind and ACE observations.Key words. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy

  3. Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride in Musical Instruments (United States)

    Forinash, Kyle; Dixon, Cory L.


    The effects of inhaled helium on the human voice were investigated in a recent article in The Physics Teacher.1 As mentioned in that article, demonstrations of the effect are a popular classroom activity. If the number of YouTube videos is any indication, the effects of sulfur hexafluoride on the human voice are equally popular. However, there appears to be little information available on the effects of either of these gases on musical instruments.2 We describe here the results of a student project that involved measuring the frequency shifts in an organ pipe, a trumpet, and a trombone as the result of filling the instruments with these two gases. The project was one of several possible end-of-semester projects required in an elective science of sound course for non-science majors.

  4. Frequency metrology in quantum degenerate helium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassen Wim


    Full Text Available We have measured the absolute frequency of the 1557-nm doubly forbidden transition between the two metastable states of helium, 2 3S1 (lifetime 8000 s and 2 1S0 (lifetime 20 ms, with 1 kHz precision. With an Einstein coefficient of 10−7 s−1 this is one of weakest optical transitions ever measured. The measurement was performed in a Bose-Einstein condensate of 4He* as well as in a Degenerate Fermi Gas of 3He*, trapped in a crossed dipole trap. From the isotope shift we deduced the nuclear charge radius difference between the α-particle and the helion. Our value differs by 4σ with a very recent result obtained on the 2 3S → 2 3P transition.

  5. An Update of the Primordial Helium Abundance (United States)

    Peimbert, Antonio; Peimbert, Manuel; Luridiana, Valentina


    Three of the best determinations of the primordial helium abundance (Yp) are those obtained from low metallicity HII regions by Aver, Olive, Porter, & Skillman (2013); Izotov, Thuan, & Guseva (2014); and Peimbert, Peimbert, & Luridiana (2007). In this poster we update the Yp determination by Peimbert et al. taking into account, among other aspects, recent advances in the determination of the He atomic physical parameters, the temperature structure, the collisional effects of high temperatures on the Balmer lines, as well as the effect of H and He bound-bound absorption.We compare our results with those of Aver et al. and Izotov et al. and point out possible explanations for the differences among the three determinations. We also compare our results with those obtained with the Plank satellite considering recent measurements of the neutron mean life; this comparison has implications on the determination of the number of light neutrino families.

  6. Cluster counting in helium based gas mixtures (United States)

    Cataldi, G.; Grancagnolo, F.; Spagnolo, S.


    The statistical advantages deriving from counting primary ionization, as opposed to the conventional energy loss measurement, are extensively discussed. A primary ionization counting method is proposed for a "traditional", cylindrical, single sense wire cell drift chamber, which makes use of a helium based gas mixture. Its conceptual feasibility is proven by means of a simple Monte Carlo simulation. A counting algorithm is developed and tested on the simulation output. A definition of the parameters of the read-out and of the digitizing electronics is given, assuming the described counting algorithm applied to a general detector design, in order to have a complete and realistic planning of a cluster counting measurement. Finally, some interesting results from a beam test, performed according to the described parameters, on primary ionization measurements and on {π}/{μ} separation are shown.

  7. Helium Inventory Management For LHC Cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Pyarali, Maisam


    The LHC is a 26.7 km circumference ring lined with superconducting magnets that operate at 1.9 K. These magnets are used to control the trajectory of beams of protons traveling in opposite directions and collide them at various experimental sites across the LHC where their debris is analyzed. The focus of this paper is the cryogenic system that allows the magnets to operate in their superconducting states. It aims to highlight the operating principles of helium refrigeration and liquefaction, with and without nitrogen pre-cooling; discuss the various refrigerators and liquefiers used at CERN for both LHC and Non-LHC applications, with their liquefaction capacities and purposes; and finally to deliberate the management of the LHC inventory and how it contributes to the strategic decision CERN makes regarding the inventory management during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), Extended Year-End Technical Stop (EYETS) and long shutdowns.

  8. Photoionization of helium dimers; Photoionisation von Heliumdimeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havermeier, Tilo


    The helium dimer is one of the most weakly bound systems in the universe. This makes it an interesting quantum mechanical object for investigation. These Van der Waals Clusters can be produced in an expansion of a cryogenic gas jet through a small nozzle into vacuum. In the present experiment we examine the interaction of He dimers with synchrotron radiation at an energy range from 64 to 78 eV. We observed different pathways leading to single ionization of both He atoms of the dimer compound. This two close standing ions begin now to dissociate in cause of their coulomb potential. All charged fragments were detected in coincidence with a COLTRIMS system. Especially Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD) and the two step process (TS1) were clearly identified. Furthermore a distribution of the internuclear distance was obtained from the measured Kinetic Energy Release (KER). (orig.)

  9. Positronium and Electron Scattering on Helium (United States)

    DiRienzi, Joseph


    A recent work [1] establishes experimentally that Positronium scattering by atoms of various elements is surprisingly close in total cross-section to that of an isolated electron of the same velocity. In this work we will look at the scattering of Ps on Helium and compare it to a determination of the scattering of an e- with the same element. For both the Ps scattering and the e- scattering on He, we assume the symmetrization of the e- with the closed shell He electrons is the dominant interaction. A local effective potential employed in [2] and [3] is used to model the electron exchange and cross- sections are determined for a set of partial waves. For the Ps scattering we include as a secondary effect the Van der Waals interaction. For single e- scattering of He, we also employ a short range Coulomb potential and dispersion as contributing effects. Results of the cross-sections determined in each case are then compared

  10. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus. (United States)


    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  11. Liquid Oxygen Thermodynamic Vent System Testing with Helium Pressurization (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.


    This report presents the results of several thermodynamic vent system (TVS) tests with liquid oxygen plus a test with liquid nitrogen. In all tests, the liquid was heated above its normal boiling point to 111 K for oxygen and 100 K for nitrogen. The elevated temperature was representative of tank conditions for a candidate lunar lander ascent stage. An initial test series was conducted with saturated oxygen liquid and vapor at 0.6 MPa. The initial series was followed by tests where the test tank was pressurized with gaseous helium to 1.4 to 1.6 MPa. For these tests, the helium mole fraction in the ullage was quite high, about 0.57 to 0.62. TVS behavior is different when helium is present than when helium is absent. The tank pressure becomes the sum of the vapor pressure and the partial pressure of helium. Therefore, tank pressure depends not only on temperature, as is the case for a pure liquid-vapor system, but also on helium density (i.e., the mass of helium divided by the ullage volume). Thus, properly controlling TVS operation is more challenging with helium pressurization than without helium pressurization. When helium was present, the liquid temperature would rise with each successive TVS cycle if tank pressure was kept within a constant control band. Alternatively, if the liquid temperature was maintained within a constant TVS control band, the tank pressure would drop with each TVS cycle. The final test series, which was conducted with liquid nitrogen pressurized with helium, demonstrated simultaneous pressure and temperature control during TVS operation. The simultaneous control was achieved by systematic injection of additional helium during each TVS cycle. Adding helium maintained the helium partial pressure as the liquid volume decreased because of TVS operation. The TVS demonstrations with liquid oxygen pressurized with helium were conducted with three different fluid-mixer configurations-a submerged axial jet mixer, a pair of spray hoops in the tank

  12. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aver, Erik [Department of Physics, Gonzaga University, 502 E Boone Ave, Spokane, WA, 99258 (United States); Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Porter, R.L., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602 (United States)


    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  13. Suicidal asphyxiation with helium: report of three cases. (United States)

    Grassberger, Martin; Krauskopf, Astrid


    Helium is an inert gas that among other things is used medically to alleviate the symptoms of airway obstruction, as part of a diving mix in deep-sea diving or as balloon gas. In recent years the so-called right-to-die literature has suggested suffocation with inhaled helium as an effective and peaceful means of self-deliverance for terminally ill patients. Helium displaces oxygen and carbon dioxide and can thus lead to asphyxia. We report three cases of suicidal asphyxiation with helium gas that were examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine Vienna within three months in 2006. In all three cases, autopsy was unrewarding from the point of view of gross pathology. Special autopsy techniques and devices are required for collection of the gas from the lungs. Gas-chromatography is used to examine the gas for helium; however, this requires replacement of the carrier gas, which is itself usually helium. The fact that three people in Vienna committed suicide using this method within a short period of time, together with the abundance of detailed how-to literature on the Internet, suggests a possible future increase in the number of deaths associated with the inhalation of inert gases, particularly helium. Because of the diagnostic obstacles involved, it is necessary to rely on good death-scene investigation for situational evidence when the body is discovered.

  14. Toxicological findings in three cases of suicidal asphyxiation with helium. (United States)

    Oosting, Roelof; van der Hulst, Rogier; Peschier, Leo; Verschraagen, Miranda


    Toxicological findings in deaths by asphyxiation due to a pure inert gas like helium are rare. We present three suicide cases of asphyxial death attributed to anoxia caused by inhalation of helium in a plastic bag positioned over the head. In one case, lung tissue, brain tissue and heart blood were obtained during standard autopsy procedures. In two cases, samples were obtained differently: heart blood, femoral blood, brain tissue, lung tissue and/or air from the lungs were directly sealed into headspace vials during autopsy. Air from the lungs was collected using a syringe and transferred into an aluminum gas sampling bag which was heat sealed as soon as possible. Semi-quantitative gas analyses were performed using headspace gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detection (HS-GC/TCD) with a molsieve column capable of separating permanent gasses. Nitrogen was used as carrier gas. In the first case no helium was detected in lung tissue, brain tissue and heart blood. In the second case the presence of helium was detected in lung tissue (approximately 5% helium in gaseous phase) but not in femoral blood. In the third case the presence of helium was detected in air from the lungs (0.05%), lung tissue (0.4%), brain tissue (0.1%) and heart blood (0.04%). Helium is easily lost if sampling is not performed properly. The presented cases suggest that quick sample collection of various matrices during autopsy is suitable to detect gasses like helium in postmortem cases. Use of HS-GC/TCD enables to detect an inert gas like helium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of Oil-Injected Scroll Compressors for Helium Refrigerators (United States)

    Shiibayashi, Masao; Izunaga, Yasushi; Sado, Shintaro

    In recent years there arises growing demand of helium liquefaction refrigerators for the magnetic resonance imaging systems, magnetically levitated vehicles and other systems using superconducting magnet. From this background, a small size, scroll type of hermetic helium compressor capable of compressing helium gas to the pressure ratio of 20 in a single stage is developed. Main features of this compressor are as follows. 1) Discharge capacity can be varied from 7 to 20 Nm3/h by changing driving motor frequency from 30 to 80 Hz. 2) The overall adiabatic efficiency showed 72%∼79% under the pressure ratio range of 11∼20 at 60 Hz using oil injection cooling device.

  16. European standardization activities on safety of liquid helium cryostats

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    This talk gives a general overview on the challenges of designing safety units for liquid helium cryostats with regard to existing industry standards. It reviews the work of a national working group that published the technical guideline DIN SPEC 4683 in April 2015, which is dedicated to the particular conditions in liquid helium cryostats. Based on both this guideline and equivalent documents from e.g. CEA, CERN, a working group is being formed at the European Committee for Standardization, associated to CEN/TC 268, which will work on a European standard on safety of liquid helium cryostats. The actual status and the schedule of this project are presented.

  17. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state helium-4

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S; McCarty, R D


    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Helium-4 presents the IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables for the thermodynamic properties of helium. The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project has therefore encouraged the critical analysis of the available thermodynamic measurements for helium and their synthesis into tables. This book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the experimental results and compares with the equations used to generate the tables. These equations are supplemented by a vapor pressure equation, which represents the 1958 He-4 scale of temperature that is

  18. Multi-objective Optimization on Helium Liquefier Using Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Meng, Y. R.; Liu, L. Q.


    Research on optimization of helium liquefier is limited at home and abroad, and most of the optimization is single-objective based on Collins cycle. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization is conducted using genetic algorithm (GA) on the 40 L/h helium liquefier developed by Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Science (TIPC, CAS), steady solutions are obtained in the end. In addition, the exergy loss of the optimized system is studied in the case of with and without liquid nitrogen pre-cooling. The results have guiding significance for the future design of large helium liquefier.

  19. New experimental device for VHTR structural material testing and helium coolant chemistry investigation - High Temperature Helium Loop in NRI Rez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Jan, E-mail: [Research Centre Rez, Ltd, Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Matecha, Josef, E-mail: [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Cerny, Michal [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Viden, Ivan, E-mail: [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sus, Frantisek [Research Centre Rez, Ltd, Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Hajek, Petr [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)


    The High Temperature Helium Loop (HTHL) is an experimental device for simulation of VHTR helium coolant conditions. The purpose of the HTHL is structural materials testing and helium coolant chemistry investigation. In the HTHL pure helium will be used as working medium and its main physical parameters are 7 MPa, max. temperature in the test section 900 Degree-Sign C and flow rate 37.8 kg/h. The HTHL consists of an active channel, the helium purification system, the system of impurities dosage (e.g. CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}) and the helium chemistry monitoring system (sampling and on-line analysis and determination of impurities in the helium flow). The active channel is planned to be placed into the core of the experimental reactor LVR-15 which will serve as a neutron flux source (max. 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} n/m{sup 2} s for fast neutrons). The HTHL is now under construction. Some of its main parts are finished, some are still being produced (active channel internals, etc.), some should be improved to work correctly (the helium circulatory compressor); certain sub-systems are planned to be integrated to the loop (systems for the determination of moisture and other impurities in helium, etc.). The start of the HTHL operation is expected during 2011 and the integration of the active channel into the LVR-15 core during 2012.

  20. How to make Raman-inactive helium visible in Raman spectra of tritium-helium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloesser, M.; Pakari, O.; Rupp, S.; Mirz, S.; Fischer, S. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Raman spectroscopy, a powerful method for the quantitative compositional analysis of molecular gases, e.g. mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues, is not able to detect monoatomic species like helium. This deficit can be overcome by using radioluminescence emission from helium atoms induced by β-electrons from tritium decay. We present theoretical considerations and combined Raman/radioluminescence spectra. Furthermore, we discuss the linearity of the method together with validation measurements for determining the pressure dependence. Finally, we conclude how this technique can be used for samples of helium with traces of tritium, and vice versa. (authors)

  1. Performance of Screw Compressor for Small-Capacity Helium Refrigerators (United States)

    Urashin, Masayuki; Matsubara, Katsumi; Izunaga, Yasushi

    A helium compressor is one of the important components comprising a cryogenic refrigerator. The purpous of this investigation is to develop a new small-capacity helium screw compressor. The performance of a single-stage compressor at high compression ratio and the cooling performance of the compressor are investigated. A semi-hermetic screw compressor with new profile screw rotors, with which high performance can be obtained, is utilized in this investigation. Lubricating oil is applied to cool the compressor motor and the compressed gas. As a result, an overall isentropic efficiency of 80% is obtained when helium is compressed to a compression ratio of 19.8 with a single-stage screw compressor. At the same time, the temperature of a compressor motor and discharge gas can be maintained at low levels. Therefore, it is found that a single-stage screw compressor can compress helium to high compression ratio.

  2. Gaseous Helium Reclamation at Rocket Test Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GHe reclamation is critical in reducing operating costs at rocket engine test facilities. Increases in cost and shortages of helium will dramatically impact testing...

  3. One of the Helium Liquifiers in the North Area

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Several Helium Liquifiers were installed in the North Area to cool superconducting magnets used in the experiments. At center top is M.Dykes, at bottom right J.Dozio. See CERN Annual Report 1979 p.82.

  4. General mechanism for helium blistering involving displaced atom transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.


    A mechanism developed to account for formation of vertically elongated blisters in high displacement environments produced by /sup 252/Cf alpha particles and fission fragments has been extended to formation of done-shaped blisters in the low displacement environments produced by simple helium ion beams. In this mechanism, transport of displaced atoms to relieve compressive stresses in the helium-implanted layer allows interconnections of small, subsurface bubbles to form the blister cavity. The same transport may cause thickening of the blister caps at low implantation energies. The transition from dome-shaped to vertically elongated blistering occurs between the 300 and 3000 displacements per helium atom produced by simple helium ions and /sup 252/Cf radiations respectively.

  5. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes proposed development of a conceptual design for a Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) for design and fabrication...

  6. High-Range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes development of a conceptual design for a High-range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) for the field range +/-16 Gauss. The HSHM...

  7. Helium, hydrogen, and fuzz in plasma-facing materials (United States)

    Hammond, Karl D.


    Tungsten, the primary material under consideration as the divertor material in magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors, has been known for the last decade to form ‘fuzz’—a layer of microscopic, high-void-fraction features on the surface—after only a few hours of exposure to helium plasma. Fuzz has also been observed in molybdenum, tantalum, and several other metals. Helium bubbles in tungsten and other metals are also known to change the hardness of the surface, accumulate at grain boundaries and dislocations, and increase hydrogen isotope retention. This article reviews helium- and hydrogen-induced surface evolution, including fuzz formation, in tungsten and other plasma-facing materials, as well as modeling and experimental efforts that have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of fuzz formation, helium and hydrogen transport in plasma-facing materials, and relevant atomic-scale and electronic effects relevant to plasma-facing materials.

  8. Dark Matter Detection Using Helium Evaporation and Field Ionization (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Seidel, George M.; Stein, Derek


    We describe a method for dark matter detection based on the evaporation of helium atoms from a cold surface and their subsequent detection using field ionization. When a dark matter particle scatters off a nucleus of the target material, elementary excitations (phonons or rotons) are produced. Excitations which have an energy greater than the binding energy of helium to the surface can result in the evaporation of helium atoms. We propose to detect these atoms by ionizing them in a strong electric field. Because the binding energy of helium to surfaces can be below 1 meV, this detection scheme opens up new possibilities for the detection of dark matter particles in a mass range down to 1 MeV /c2 .

  9. Advances in molecular mechanism of cardioprotection induced by helium (United States)

    Ding, Yi-ping; Zhang, Ju-yi; Feng, Dong-xia; Kong, Yan; Xu, Zhuan; Chen, Gang


    Helium has been classified as a kind of inert gas that is not effortless to spark chemical reactions with other substances in the past decades. Nevertheless, the cognition of scientists has gradually changed accompanied with a variety of studies revealing the potential molecular mechanism underlying organ-protection induced by helium. Especially, as a non-anesthetic gas which is deficient of relevant cardiopulmonary side effects, helium conditioning is recognized as an emerging and promising approach to exert favorable effects by mimicking the cardioprotection of anesthetic gases or xenon. In this review we will summarize advances in the underlying biological mechanisms and clinical applicability with regards to the cardioprotective effects of helium. PMID:28744366

  10. Gaseous Helium Reclamation at Rocket Test Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to restore large amounts of vented gaseous helium (GHe) at rocket test sites preserves the GHe and reduces operating cost. The used GHe is vented into...

  11. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase 2 SBIR proposal describes the design, fabrication and calibration of a brass-board Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM). The SVHM instrument...

  12. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Wan Xia; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, J P; Äystö, J


    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaeskylae, Finland. An open sup 2 sup 2 sup 3 Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling sup 2 sup 1 sup 9 Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  13. Dark Matter Detection Using Helium Evaporation and Field Ionization. (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J; Seidel, George M; Stein, Derek


    We describe a method for dark matter detection based on the evaporation of helium atoms from a cold surface and their subsequent detection using field ionization. When a dark matter particle scatters off a nucleus of the target material, elementary excitations (phonons or rotons) are produced. Excitations which have an energy greater than the binding energy of helium to the surface can result in the evaporation of helium atoms. We propose to detect these atoms by ionizing them in a strong electric field. Because the binding energy of helium to surfaces can be below 1 meV, this detection scheme opens up new possibilities for the detection of dark matter particles in a mass range down to 1  MeV/c^{2}.

  14. Future Energy Source. [Mining Helium-3 on the Moon (United States)


    This video describes the efforts of the Center for the Commercial Development of Space in Wisconsin to develop a strategy for mining Helium-3, an efficient, environmentally safe alternative to fossil fuels that exists on the moon. Animated sequences depict the equipment that could mine the lunar surface, boil away Helium-3 to be transported back to earth, and return the soil to the moon without destroying the lunar surface.

  15. Pulsed extraction of ionization from helium buffer gas


    Morrissey, D. J.; Bollen, G.; Facina, M.; Schwarz, S.


    The migration of intense ionization created in helium buffer gas under the influence of applied electric fields is considered. First the chemical evolution of the ionization created by fast heavy-ion beams is described. Straight forward estimates of the lifetimes for charge exchange indicate a clear suppression of charge exchange during ion migration in low pressure helium. Then self-consistent calculations of the migration of the ions in the electric field of a gas-filled cell at the Nationa...

  16. Using Electrons on Liquid Helium for Quantum Computing


    Dahm, A. J.; Goodkind, J. M.; Karakurt, I.; Pilla, S.


    We describe a quantum computer based on electrons supported by a helium film and localized laterally by small electrodes just under the helium surface. Each qubit is made of combinations of the ground and first excited state of an electron trapped in the image potential well at the surface. Mechanisms for preparing the initial state of the qubit, operations with the qubits, and a proposed readout are described. This system is, in principle, capable of 100,000 operations in a decoherence time.

  17. Robust Ferromagnetism of Chromium Nanoparticles Formed in Superfluid Helium. (United States)

    Yang, Shengfu; Feng, Cheng; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Latimer, Elspeth; Ellis, Andrew M; Binns, Chris; Peddis, Davide; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yafei; Trohidou, Kalliopi N; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Ntallis, Nikolaos; MacLaren, Ian; de Groot, Frank M F


    Chromium nanoparticles are formed using superfluid helium droplets as the nanoreactors, which are strongly ferromagnetic. The transition from antiferromagentism to ferromagnetism is attributed to atomic-scale disorder in chromium nanoparticles, leading to abundant unbalanced surface spins. Theoretical modeling confirms a frustrated aggregation process in superfluid helium due to the antiferromagnetic nature of chromium. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Helium penetrates into silica glass and reduces its compressibility. (United States)

    Sato, Tomoko; Funamori, Nobumasa; Yagi, Takehiko


    SiO(2) glass has a network structure with a significant amount of interstitial voids. Gas solubilities in silicates are expected to become small under high pressure due to compaction of voids. Here we show anomalous behaviour of SiO(2) glass in helium. Volume measurements clarify that SiO(2) glass is much less compressible than normal when compressed in helium, and the volume in helium at 10 GPa is close to the normal volume at 2 GPa. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements suggest that voids are prevented from contracting when compressed in helium because helium penetrates into them. The estimated helium solubility is very high and is between 1.0 and 2.3 mol per mole of SiO(2) glass at 10 GPa, which shows marked contrast with previous models. These results may have implications for discussions of the Earth's evolution as well as interpretations of various high-pressure experiments, and also lead to the creation of new materials.

  19. Atomistic simulation of helium bubble nucleation in palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liang [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hu, Wangyu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail:; Xiao Shifang [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail:; Yang Jianyu [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Deng Huiqiu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)


    A palladium crystal has been constructed with 11808 atoms. 55 helium atoms occupied the octahedral position of palladium crystal are introduced and retained in a spherical region. Molecular dynamic simulations are performed in a constant temperature and constant volume ensemble (NVT) with temperature controlled by Nose-Hoover thermostat. The interactions between palladium atoms are described with modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM), the interactions between palladium atom and helium atom are in the form of Morse potential, and the interactions between helium atoms are in the form of L-J potential function. With the analysis of the radial distribution function (RDF) and microstructure, it reveals that some of helium atoms form a series of clusters with different size, and the nucleation core is random at low temperature, and which is the embryo of helium bubble. Increasing temperature can accelerate the process of bubble nucleation, and the clusters will aggregate and coalesce into a bigger one in which there are no palladium atoms, and it is considered as a helium bubble.

  20. Measurement of helium production cross sections of iron for d-T neutrons by helium accumulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Kanda, Yukinori; Nagae, Koji; Fujimoto, Toshihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro


    Helium production cross sections of Iron were measured by helium accumulation method for neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.9 MeV. Iron samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. As the neutron energy varies according to the emission angle at the neutron source, the samples were set around the neutron source and were irradiated by neutrons of different energy depending on each sample position. The amount of helium produced in a sample was measured by Helium Atoms Measurement System at Kyushu University. The results of this work are in good agreement with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3. (author)

  1. Quantum interference spectroscopy of rubidium-helium exciplexes formed on helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Mudrich, M; Stienkemeier, F; Droppelmann, G; Claas, P; Schulz, C P


    Femtosecond multiphoton pump-probe photoionization is applied to helium nanodroplets doped with rubidium (Rb). The yield of Rb+ ions features pronounced quantum interference (QI) fringes demonstrating the coherence of a superposition of electronic states on a time scale of tens of picoseconds. Furthermore, we observe QI in the yield of formed RbHe exciplex molecules. The quantum interferogram allows us to determine the vibrational structure of these unstable molecules. From a sliced Fourier analysis one cannot only extract the population dynamics of vibrational states but also follow their energetic evolution during the RbHe formation.

  2. Cavity optomechanics in a levitated helium drop (United States)

    Childress, L.; Schmidt, M. P.; Kashkanova, A. D.; Brown, C. D.; Harris, G. I.; Aiello, A.; Marquardt, F.; Harris, J. G. E.


    We describe a proposal for a type of optomechanical system based on a drop of liquid helium that is magnetically levitated in vacuum. In the proposed device, the drop would serve three roles: its optical whispering-gallery modes would provide the optical cavity, its surface vibrations would constitute the mechanical element, and evaporation of He atoms from its surface would provide continuous refrigeration. We analyze the feasibility of such a system in light of previous experimental demonstrations of its essential components: magnetic levitation of mm-scale and cm-scale drops of liquid He , evaporative cooling of He droplets in vacuum, and coupling to high-quality optical whispering-gallery modes in a wide range of liquids. We find that the combination of these features could result in a device that approaches the single-photon strong-coupling regime, due to the high optical quality factors attainable at low temperatures. Moreover, the system offers a unique opportunity to use optical techniques to study the motion of a superfluid that is freely levitating in vacuum (in the case of 4He). Alternatively, for a normal fluid drop of 3He, we propose to exploit the coupling between the drop's rotations and vibrations to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of angular momentum.

  3. Helium irradiation induced hardening in MNHS steels (United States)

    Cui, Minghuan; Wang, Ji; Wang, Zhiguang; Shen, Tielong; Wei, Kongfang; Yao, Cunfeng; Sun, Jianrong; Gao, Ning; Zhu, Yabin; Pang, Lilong; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huiping; Han, Yi; Fang, Xuesong


    A recently developed reduced activation martensitic MNHS steel was irradiated with 200 keV helium (He) ions to a fluence of 1.0 × 1020 ions/m2 at 300 °C and 1.0 × 1021 ions/m2 at 300 °C and 450 °C. After irradiation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nano-indentation measurements were used to investigate the hardness change and defects induced by He irradiation. Two kinds of defects including He bubbles and dislocation loops are observed by TEM. Irradiation induces hardening of MNHS steels and peak hardness values occur in all irradiated samples. Hardness increments induced by He bubbles and dislocation loops are predicted and fitted with the experimental peak hardness increment, based on the dispersed barrier-hardening (DBH) model and the size and number density of the two defects. A good agreement is got between the predicted and experimental hardness increment and the obstacle strength factor of He bubbles is a little stronger than the obstacle strength of dislocation loops. Other possible contributions to irradiation induced hardening are also discussed.

  4. Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities (United States)

    Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; ElEid, M. F.


    Although the exact site for the origin of the r-process isotopes remains mysterious, most thinking has centered on matter ejected from the cores of massive stars in core-collapse supernovae [13]. In the 1970's and 1980's, however, difficulties in understanding the yields from such models led workers to consider the possibility of r-process nucleosynthesis farther out in the exploding star, in particular, in the helium burning shell [4,5]. The essential idea was that shock passage through this shell would heat and compress this material to the point that the reactions 13C(alpha; n)16O and, especially, 22Ne(alpha; n)25Mg would generate enough neutrons to capture on preexisting seed nuclei and drive an "n process" [6], which could reproduce the r-process abundances. Subsequent work showed that the required 13C and 22Ne abundances were too large compared to the amounts available in realistic models [7] and recent thinking has returned to supernova core material or matter ejected from neutron star-neutron star collisions as the more likely r-process sites.

  5. Thermal vacancies and phase separation in bcc mixtures of helium-3 and helium-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraass, Benedick Andrew [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Thermal vacancy concentrations in crystals of 3He-4He mixtures have been determined. A new x-ray diffractometer-position sensitive detector system is used to make measurements of the absolute lattice parameter of the helium crystals with an accuracy of 300 ppM, and measurements of changes in lattice parameters to better than 60 ppM. The phase separation of the concentrated3He-4He mixtures has been studied in detail with the x-ray measurements. Vacancy concentrations in crystals with 99%, 51%, 28%, 12%, and 0% 3He have been determined. Phase separation has been studied in mixed crystals with concentrations of 51%, 28%, and 12% 3He and melting pressures between 3.0 and 6.1 MPa. The phase separation temperatures determined in this work are in general agreement with previous work. The pressure dependence of Tc, the phase separation temperature for a 50% mixture, is found to be linear: dTc/dP = -34 mdeg/MPa. The x-ray measurements are used to make several comments on the low temperature phase diagram of the helium mixtures.

  6. LRO-LAMP Observations of Lunar Exospheric Helium (United States)

    Grava, Cesare; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, Randy; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Cook, Jason C.; Stern, Alan; Pryor, Wayne R.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Kaufmann, David E.


    We present results from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s (LRO) UV spectrograph LAMP (Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project) campaign to study the lunar atmosphere. Two kinds of off-nadir maneuvers (lateral rolls and pitches towards and opposite the direction of motion of LRO) were performed to search for resonantly scattering species, increasing the illuminated line-of-sight (and hence the signal from atoms resonantly scattering the solar photons) compared to previously reported LAMP “twilight observations” [Cook & Stern, 2014]. Helium was the only element distinguishable on a daily basis, and we present latitudinal profiles of its line-of-sight column density in December 2013. We compared the helium line-of-sight column densities with solar wind alpha particle fluxes measured from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) twin spacecraft. Our data show a correlation with the solar wind alpha particle flux, confirming that the solar wind is the main source of the lunar helium, but not with a 1:1 relationship. Assuming that the lunar soil is saturated with helium atoms, our results suggest that not all of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium, allowing for a non-negligible fraction (~50 %) to escape as suprathermal helium or simply backscattered from the lunar surface. We also support the finding by Benna et al. [2015] and Hurley et al. [2015], that a non-zero contribution from endogenic helium, coming from radioactive decay of 232Th and 238U within the mantle, is present, and is estimated to be (4.5±1.2) x 106 He atoms cm-2 s-1. Finally, we compare LAMP-derived helium surface density with the one recorded by the mass spectrometer LACE (Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment) deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission, finding good agreement between the two measurements. These LRO off-nadir maneuvers allow LAMP to provide unique coverage of local solar time and

  7. Theoretical model of the helium zone plate microscope (United States)

    Salvador Palau, Adrià; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil


    Neutral helium microscopy is a new technique currently under development. Its advantages are the low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms, a potential large depth of field, and the fact that at thermal energies the helium atoms do not penetrate into any solid material. This opens the possibility, among others, for the creation of an instrument that can measure surface topology on the nanoscale, even on surfaces with high aspect ratios. One of the most promising designs for helium microscopy is the zone plate microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by an aperture (skimmer) focused by a Fresnel zone plate onto a sample. The resolution is determined by the focal spot size, which depends on the size of the skimmer, the optics of the system, and the velocity spread of the beam through the chromatic aberrations of the zone plate. An important factor for the optics of the zone plate is the width of the outermost zone, corresponding to the smallest opening in the zone plate. The width of the outermost zone is fabrication limited to around 10 nm with present-day state-of-the-art technology. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and width of the outermost zone. Here we present an optimization model for the helium zone plate microscope. Assuming constant resolution and width of the outermost zone, we are able to reduce the problem to a two-variable problem (zone plate radius and object distance) and we show that for a given beam temperature and pressure, there is always a single intensity maximum. We compare our model with the highest-resolution zone plate focusing images published and show that the intensity can be increased seven times. Reducing the width of the outermost zone to 10 nm leads to an increase in intensity of more than 8000

  8. Optomechanics in a Levitated Droplet of Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Brown, Charles; Harris, Glen; Harris, Jack


    A critical issue common to all optomechanical systems is dissipative coupling to the environment, which limits the system's quantum coherence. Superfluid helium's extremely low optical and mechanical dissipation, as well as its high thermal conductivity and its ability cool itself via evaporation, makes the mostly uncharted territory of superfluid optomechanics an exciting avenue for exploring quantum effects in macroscopic objects. I will describe ongoing work that aims to exploit the unique properties of superfluid helium by constructing an optomechanical system consisting of a magnetically levitated droplet of superfluid helium., The optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of the droplet, as well as the mechanical oscillations of its surface, should offer exceptionally low dissipation, and should couple to each other via the usual optomechanical interactions. I will present recent progress towards this goal, and also discuss the background for this work, which includes prior demonstrations of magnetic levitation of superfluid helium, high finesse WGMs in liquid drops, and the self-cooling of helium drops in vacuum.

  9. Rotovibrational spectroscopy of hydrogen peroxide embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Raston, Paul L; Knapp, Chrissy J; Jäger, Wolfgang


    We report the infrared depletion spectrum of para- and ortho-hydrogen peroxide embedded in superfluid helium nanodroplets in the OH stretching region. Six transitions were observed in the antisymmetric stretching band (v(5)) of H(2)O(2), and three in the weaker symmetric stretching band (v(1)). While rotations about the b- and c-axes are slowed by a factor of ∼0.4 relative to the gas phase, rotations about the a-axis are not significantly affected; this relates to the rotational speed about the a-axis being too fast for helium density to adiabatically follow. The trans tunneling splitting does not appear to be considerably affected by the helium droplet environment, and is reduced by only 6% relative to the gas phase, under the assumption that the vibrational shifts of the v(5) and v(1) torsional subbands are the same. The linewidths increase with increasing rotorsional energies, and are significantly narrower for energies which fall within the "phonon gap" of superfluid helium. These narrower lines are asymmetrically broadened, indicative of a dynamical coupling between the H(2)O(2) rotor and surrounding helium density.

  10. Validation of Helium Inlet Design for ITER Toroidal Field Coil

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, C; Hamada, K; Foussat, A; Le Rest, M; Mitchell, N; Decool, P; Savary, F; Sgobba, S; Weiss, K-P


    The ITER organization has performed design and its validation tests on a helium inlet structure for the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coil under collaboration with CERN, KIT, and CEA-Cadarache. Detailed structural analysis was performed in order to optimize the weld shape. A fatigue resistant design on the fillet weld between the shell covers and the jacket is an important point on the helium inlet structure. A weld filler material was selected based on tensile test at liquid helium temperature after Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment. To validate the design of the weld joint, fatigue tests at 7 K were performed using heat-treated butt weld samples. A pressure drop measurement of a helium inlet mock-up was performed by using nitrogen gas at room temperature in order to confirm uniform flow distribution and pressure drop characteristic. These tests have validated the helium inlet design. Based on the validation, Japanese and European Union domestic agencies, which have responsibilities of the TF coil procurement, are pr...

  11. Photoionization Energies and Oscillator Strengths of Helium and Helium-like Ions (United States)

    Faye, N. A. B.; Ndao, A. S.; Konte, A.; Biaye, M.; Wague, A.


    We first studied the resonant photoionization of helium-like ions, such as C4+, N5+, and O6+, and determined the wave functions, the excitation energies, and the partial and total widths of the autoionizing states of these ions lying under the n = 3 thresholds of the residual ion. For more detailed analysis of the theory, and a better comprehension of the internal dynamics of atomic resonances and electronic phenomena of correlation, we extended these calculations to other helium-like ions, under higher thresholds (n = 4 and 5) of the hydrogen ions H-, and of Li+, C4+, N5+, and O6+. We were also interested in oscillator strengths. These parameters are important for interpreting the spectra and diagnosing astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, as well as for analyzing the spectra coming from space and determining the composition and relative abundance from the various elements of the stellar and interstellar environment. We sought a better comprehension of the coupling between autoionizing and continuum states and of the phenomena of electronic correlations. We used the method of diagonalization that has been used below the n = 2 threshold of the residual ion. The results are important for astrophysicists and physicists studying matter-radiation interaction and for the invention of new laser systems. We also measured laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) emission spectra of the leaves of some tropical plants using a compact fiber-optic fluorosensor with a continuous-wave violet diode laser as the exciting source and an integrated digital spectrometer to analyze the state of stress of the plants.

  12. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant (United States)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.


    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  13. A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L


    CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

  14. Helium and neon isotopes in deep Pacific Ocean sediments (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.


    Helium and neon concentration measurements, along with isotope ratio determinations, have been made for particles collected in the deep Pacific with a magnetic sled, and they are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin. Analyses were made for samples consisting of composites of many extremely fine particles and for several individual particles large enough to contain sufficient gas for analysis but small enough to escape melting in their passage through the atmosphere. Step-heating was employed to extract the gas. Cosmic-ray spallation products or solar-wind helium and neon, if present, were not abundant enough to account for the isotopic compositions measured. In the case of the samples of magnetic fines, the low temperature extractions provided elemental and isotopic ratios in the general range found for the primordial gas in carbonaceous chondrites and gas-rich meteorites. The isotopic ratios found in the high temperature extractions suggest the presence of solar-flare helium and neon.

  15. The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Biman B


    Biman Nath The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics Helium was the first element ever discovered by astronomers. Its presence was first indicated in the Sun and not on Earth. Further, its discovery marked the birth of the new science of astrophysics. However, it turns out that the events leading to the discovery of helium have been rather misrepresented in books, journals, and even encyclopedias. The usual story about its joint discovery during a solar eclipse in 1868 by French astronomer Pierre Janssen and late in England by Norman Lockyer, is far from the truth. Janssen never mentioned any new spectral line in his reports. The actual story turns out to be as dramatic as in fiction. This book tells the story without jargon, using the words of the scientists themselves (from their letters and reports), and rescues the real story from the backwaters of history.

  16. Commissioning of the JT-60SA helium refrigerator (United States)

    Kamiya, Koji; Natsume, Kyohei; Ohtsu, Kiichi; Oishi, Makoto; Honda, Atsushi; Kashiwa, Yoshitoshi; Kizu, Kaname; Koide, Yoshihiko; Hoa, Christine; Michel, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal; Lamaison, Valerie; Bonne, Francois; Dipietro, Enrico; Cardella, Antonino; Wanner, Manfred; Legrand, Jerome; Pudys, Vincent; Langevin, Baptiste


    The JT-60SA project will use superconducting magnets to confine the plasma and achieve a plasma current with a typical flat top duration of 100 second in purely inductive mode. The helium refrigerator has an equivalent cooling power of 9 kW at 4.5 K providing 3.7 K, 4.5 K, 50 K and 80 K for the diverter cryopump, the superconducting magnets, the HTS current leads, and the thermal shields, respectively. This paper summarizes the JT-60SA helium refrigerator commissioning activities aiming at successful operation of heat load smoothing technology to manage the 12 kW heat pulses by 9 kW cooling power using a 7000 liter liquid helium.

  17. A quantitative experiment on the fountain effect in superfluid helium (United States)

    Amigó, M. L.; Herrera, T.; Neñer, L.; Peralta Gavensky, L.; Turco, F.; Luzuriaga, J.


    Superfluid helium, a state of matter existing at low temperatures, shows many remarkable properties. One example is the so called fountain effect, where a heater can produce a jet of helium. This converts heat into mechanical motion; a machine with no moving parts, but working only below 2 K. Allen and Jones first demonstrated the effect in 1938, but their work was basically qualitative. We now present data of a quantitative version of the experiment. We have measured the heat supplied, the temperature and the height of the jet produced. We also develop equations, based on the two-fluid model of superfluid helium, that give a satisfactory fit to the data. The experiment has been performed by advanced undergraduate students in our home institution, and illustrates in a vivid way some of the striking properties of the superfluid state.

  18. Helium and mercury in the central Seward Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, E.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)


    The central Seward Peninsula, Alaska, has one Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) at Pilgrim Springs, and has recent volcanic flows, fault systems, topographic and tectonic features which can be explained by a rift model. As part of a geothermal reconnaissance of the area we used helium and mercury concentrations in soil as indicators of geothermal resources. The largest helium concentrations were found in the vicinity of the Pilgrims Springs KGRA, and indicate prime drilling sites. Five profile lines were run across the suspected rift system. Significant helium anomalies were found on several of the traverses, where future exploration might be concentrated. Mercury values showed a great range of variability on the traverses, and seem unreliable as geothermal indicators except in the vicinity of the Pilgrim Springs. Permafrost at the surface resulting in variations in sampling depth may contribute to the mercury variations.

  19. Supersonic jets of hydrogen and helium for laser wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, K.; Wojda, F.; Senje, L.; Burza, M.; Aurand, B.; Genoud, G.; Persson, A.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Lundh, O.


    The properties of laser wakefield accelerated electrons in supersonic gas flows of hydrogen and helium are investigated. At identical backing pressure, we find that electron beams emerging from helium show large variations in their spectral and spatial distributions, whereas electron beams accelerated in hydrogen plasmas show a higher degree of reproducibility. In an experimental investigation of the relation between neutral gas density and backing pressure, it is found that the resulting number density for helium is ∼30% higher than for hydrogen at the same backing pressure. The observed differences in electron beam properties between the two gases can thus be explained by differences in plasma electron density. This interpretation is verified by repeating the laser wakefield acceleration experiment using similar plasma electron densities for the two gases, which then yielded electron beams with similar properties.

  20. HEATHER - HElium Ion Accelerator for RadioTHERapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Jordan [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, Thomas [Huddersfield U.; Green, Stuart [Birmingham U.; Johnstone, Carol [Fermilab


    A non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (nsFFAG) accelerator is being designed for helium ion therapy. This facility will consist of 2 superconducting rings, treating with helium ions (He²⁺ ) and image with hydrogen ions (H + 2 ). Currently only carbon ions are used to treat cancer, yet there is an increasing interest in the use of lighter ions for therapy. Lighter ions have reduced dose tail beyond the tumour compared to carbon, caused by low Z secondary particles produced via inelastic nuclear reactions. An FFAG approach for helium therapy has never been previously considered. Having demonstrated isochronous acceleration from 0.5 MeV to 900 MeV, we now demonstrate the survival of a realistic beam across both stages.

  1. 3D CFD Transient Numerical Simulation of Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Reynaud, J.; Pascali, S.; Baudouy, B.


    Numerical simulations of superfluid helium are necessary to design the next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets at CERN. Previous studies have presented the thermodynamic equations implemented in the Fluent CFD software to model the thermal behavior of superfluid helium. Momentum and energy equations have been modified in the solver to model a simplified two-fluid model. In this model, the thermo-mechanical effect term and the Gorter-Mellink mutual friction term are the dominant terms in the momentum equation for the superfluid component. This assumption is valid for most of superfluid applications. Transient thermal and dynamic behavior of superfluid helium has been studied in this paper. The equivalent thermal conductivity in the energy equation is represented by the Gorter-Mellink term and both the theoretical and the Sato formulation of this term have been compared to unsteady helium superfluid experiments. The main difference between these two formulations is the coefficient to the power of the temperature gradient between the hot and the cold part in the equivalent thermal conductivity. The results of these unsteady simulations have been compared with two experiments. The first one is a Van Sciver experiment on a 10 m long, and 9 mm diameter tube at saturation conditions and the other, realized in our laboratory, is a 150×50×10 mm rectangular channel filled with pressurized superfluid helium. Both studies have been performed with a heating source that starts delivering power at the beginning of the experiment and many temperature sensors measure the transient thermal behavior of the superfluid helium along the length of the channel.

  2. Application of helium isotopes to studies of ocean circulation (United States)

    Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Winckler, G.; Lupton, J.; Jenkins, W.; Top, Z.; Roether, W.; Jean-Baptiste, P.


    Since the discovery of excess He-3 in the ocean by Clarke and Craig in the 1960's helium isotopes have been used in local, regional and global studies of circulation patterns and water mass transformation in the world ocean. From initial pilot studies through systematic exploration of these tracers during the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections) program to the recent global survey as part of the WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) hydrographic program (WHP) we obtained more detailed information on the distribution of helium isotopes, as well as their sources and sinks in the ocean. This information can now be applied to construct global fields of helium isotopes and to extract unique information on the circulation patterns at different depth levels in the ocean, as well as on local and regional processes such as ventilation of water masses in deep water formation regions. Additionally, the data sets are now sufficiently large to be useful for validation of Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM's). In this contribution we present examples of global helium isotope fields constructed from major programs such as GEOCECS, TTO (Transient Tracers in the Ocean), SAVE (South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment) and WOCE, as well as from individual ocean sections. We use the data to delineate circulation patterns in the major ocean basins at several depth levels, especially mid-depth waters. Additionally, we outline the use of helium isotopes in studies of ocean ventilation. Finally, we compare observed and simulated helium isotope fields to highlight OGCM capabilities and deficiencies to reproduce internal He-3 excesses in the ocean and the related ventilation processes.

  3. Radioactive core ions of microclusters, ``snowballs`` in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shimoda, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Miyatake, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mizoi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kobayashi, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sasaki, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shirakura, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Itahashi, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Mitsuoka, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Matsukawa, T. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Tokushima (Japan); Ikeda, N. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Morinobu, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hinde, D.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences; Asahi, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ueno, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Izumi, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics


    Short-lived beta-ray emitters, {sup 12}B, sustaining nuclear spin polarization were introduced into superfluid helium. The nuclear polarization of {sup 12}B was observed via measurement of beta-ray asymmetry. It was found that the nuclear polarization was preserved throughout the lifetime of {sup 12}B (20.3 ms). This suggests that the ``snowball``, an aggregation of helium atoms produced around an alien ion, constitutes a suitable milieu for freezing-out the nuclear spin of the core ion and that most likely the solidification takes place at the interior of the aggregation. (orig.).

  4. High temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, James S.K.-L., E-mail: [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Roberts, Steve G. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Armstrong, David E.J. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)


    Nanoindentation has been performed on tungsten, unimplanted and helium-implanted to ~600 appm, at temperatures up to 750 °C. The hardening effect of the damage was 0.90 GPa at 50 °C, but is negligible above 450 °C. The hardness value at a given temperature did not change on re-testing after heating to 750 °C. This suggests that the helium is trapped in small vacancy complexes that are stable to at least 750 °C, but which can be bypassed due to increased dislocation mobility (cross slip or climb) above 450 °C.

  5. Supercritical Helium Cooling of the LHC Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Hatchadourian, E; Tavian, L


    The cold mass of the LHC superconducting magnets, operating in pressurised superfluid helium at 1.9 K, must be shielded from the dynamic heat loads induced by the circulating particle beams, by means of beam screens maintained at higher temperature. The beam screens are cooled between 5 and 20 K by forced flow of weakly supercritical helium, a solution which avoids two-phase flow in the long, narr ow cooling channels, but still presents a potential risk of thermohydraulic instabilities. This problem has been studied by theoretical modelling and experiments performed on a full-scale dedicated te st loop.

  6. Hydrogen-Helium shock Radiation tests for Saturn Entry Probes (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.


    This paper describes the measurement of shock layer radiation in Hydrogen/Helium mixtures representative of that encountered by probes entering the Saturn atmosphere. Normal shock waves are measured in Hydrogen-Helium mixtures (89:11% by volume) at freestream pressures between 13-66 Pa (0.1-0.5 Torr) and velocities from 20-30 km/s. Radiance is quantified from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Near Infrared. An induction time of several centimeters is observed where electron density and radiance remain well below equilibrium. Radiance is observed in front of the shock layer, the characteristics of which match the expected diffusion length of Hydrogen.

  7. A Neutron Scattering Study of Collective Excitations in Superfluid Helium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, E. H.; Minkiewicz, V. J.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans


    Extensive inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments have been performed on superfluid helium over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers. A high-resolution study has been made of the pressure dependence of the single-excitation scattering at the first maximum of the dispersion curve over...... of the multiexcitation scattering was also studied. It is shown that the multiphonon spectrum of a simple Debye solid with the phonon dispersion and single-excitation cross section of superfluid helium qualitatively reproduces these data....

  8. K2 spots rotation in the helium star HD144941 (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Simon; Ramsay, Gavin


    HD144941 is an evolved early-type metal-poor low-mass star with a hydrogen-poor surface. It is frequently associated with other intermediate helium-rich subdwarfs and extreme helium stars. Previous photometric studies have failed to detect any variability. New observations with the K2 mission show complex but periodic variations with a full amplitude of 4 parts per thousand. It is proposed that these are due to an inhomogeneous surface brightness distribution (spots) superimposed on a rotation period of 13.9 ± 0.2 d. The cause of the surface inhomogeneity is not identified, although an oblique dipolar magnetic field origin is plausible.

  9. Conductivity change of defective graphene by helium ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Naitou


    Full Text Available Applying a recently developed helium ion microscope, we demonstrated direct nano-patterning and Anderson localization of single-layer graphene (SLG on SiO2/Si substrates. In this study, we clarified the spatial-resolution-limitation factor of direct nano-patterning of SLG. Analysis of scanning capacitance microscopy measurements reveals that the conductivity of helium ion (H+-irradiated SLG nanostructures depends on their geometrical size, i.e., the smaller the H+-irradiated SLG region, the higher its conductivity becomes. This finding can be explained by the hopping carrier transport across strongly localized states of defective SLG.

  10. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Optical polarization of helium-3 nuclei (United States)

    Laloë, F.; Leduc, M.; Nacher, P.-J.; Novikov, L. N.; Tastevin, G.


    The present state of the problem of producing highly polarized systems of helium-3 by laser optical pumping over a broad temperature range is reviewed. The physical principles underlying the polarization of 3He nuclei during optical pumping and the exchange of metastability are described. Particular features of laser pumping at low temperatures are discussed. The possible use of polarized helium atoms in research on exchange and relaxation processes, in quantum magnetometry, and in nuclear physics to produce polarized targets and particle beams is discussed. The results of theoretical and experimental research on the quantum properties of highly polarized systems at low temperatures, near the temperature of quantum degeneracy, are reviewed.

  11. Heat transport of nitrogen in helium atmospheric pressure microplasma

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Shaofeng


    Stable DC atmospheric pressure normal glow discharges in ambient air were produced between the water surface and the metallic capillary coupled with influx of helium gas. Multiple independent repeated trials indicated that vibrational temperature of nitrogen rises from 3200 to 4622 K, and rotational temperature of nitrogen decreases from 1270 to 570 K as gas flux increasing from 20 to 80 sccm and discharge current decreasing from 11 to 3 mA. Furthermore, it was found that the vibrational degree of the nitrogen molecule has priority to gain energy than the rotational degree of nitrogen molecule in nonequilibrium helium microplasma.

  12. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation (United States)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan


    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  13. Detectability of Light Dark Matter with Superfluid Helium. (United States)

    Schutz, Katelin; Zurek, Kathryn M


    We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ∼keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is 3 orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. For dark matter lighter than ∼100  keV, the kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.

  14. Sodium dopants in helium clusters: Structure, equilibrium and submersion kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, Rue de La Piscine, Campus Saint Martin d’Hères, 38000 Grenoble (France)


    Alkali impurities bind to helium nanodroplets very differently depending on their size and charge state, large neutral or charged dopants being wetted by the droplet whereas small neutral impurities prefer to reside aside. Using various computational modeling tools such as quantum Monte Carlo and path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, we have revisited some aspects of the physical chemistry of helium droplets interacting with sodium impurities, including the onset of snowball formation in presence of many-body polarization forces, the transition from non-wetted to wetted behavior in larger sodium clusters, and the kinetics of submersion of small dopants after sudden ionization.

  15. 43 CFR 16.1 - Agreements to dispose of helium in natural gas. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreements to dispose of helium in natural gas. 16.1 Section 16.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONSERVATION OF HELIUM § 16.1 Agreements to dispose of helium in natural gas. (a) Pursuant to his authority and...

  16. Helium inhalation in adolescents: characteristics of users and prevalence of use. (United States)

    Whitt, Ahmed; Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O


    Although helium-related fatalities and concerns about potentially harmful effects of helium use have increased in recent years, virtually nothing is known about the epidemiology of helium inhalation in adolescents. This exploratory investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of helium inhalation in a large sample of at-risk youth. Study participants were 723 Missouri adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2) in residential treatment for delinquent behavior. More than one-in-nine (N = 81, 11.5%) adolescents had inhaled helium with the intention of getting high, and one-third (N = 27, 34.2%) of helium users reported they actually did get high when they inhaled helium. Helium users were significantly more likely to be Caucasian, to live in rural/small town areas, and to have histories of mental illness, auditory hallucinations, and alcohol and marijuana use than nonusers. Helium users also reported significantly more current psychiatric distress, suicidality, traumatic life experiences, and antisocial attitudes, traits, and behaviors than nonusers. Helium inhalation was prevalent in this sample and many such users reported getting high while using helium. Helium users had psychosocial profiles similar to those of volatile solvent users, suggesting that they may be at substantial risk for a variety of adverse health outcomes.

  17. 76 FR 30362 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium (United States)


    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement concerning acquisition of helium. Public comments are... Collection 9000- 0113, Acquisition of Helium, by any of the following methods: : http://www...

  18. 76 FR 12357 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Acquisition of Helium (United States)


    ... Helium AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National... requirement concerning acquisition of helium. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this...: A. Purpose The Helium Act (Pub. L. 86-777) (50 U.S.C. 167a, et seq.) and the Department of the...

  19. Helium implanted AlHf as studied by 181 Ta TDPAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements on helium implanted sample indicate the binding of helium associated defects by Hf solute clusters. Isochronal annealing measurements indicate the dissociation of the helium implantation induced defects from Hf solute clusters for annealing treatments beyond 650 K. On comparison of the present results ...

  20. Path integral Monte Carlo calculations of helium and hydrogen-helium plasma thermodynamics and of the deuterium shock Hugoniot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levashov, P R [Institute for High Energy Densities, RAS, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Filinov, V S [Institute for High Energy Densities, RAS, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Leibnizstr. 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V E [Institute for High Energy Densities, RAS, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)


    In this work, we calculate the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas with different mass fractions of helium by the direct path integral Monte Carlo method. To avoid unphysical approximations, we use the path integral representation of the density matrix. We pay special attention to the region of weak coupling and degeneracy and compare the results of simulation with a model based on the chemical picture. Further with the help of calculated deuterium isochors, we compute the shock Hugoniot of deuterium. We analyse our results in comparison with recent experimental and calculated data on the deuterium Hugoniot.

  1. Dissolved helium and TDS in groundwater from Bhavnagar in Gujarat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22


    Jan 2, 2003 ... quake related or induced by other environmental. Keywords. Groundwater; Helium; TDS; Bhavnagar; seismicity. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.) .... (ppm AEU) surface. Sample. Well type. Location lithology. Depth. Sept. Jan. March. Sept. Jan. March. Sept. Jan. March code. TW/HP name. AL/BAS.

  2. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles


    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…

  3. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori


    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosten, M; Michael Morgan, M


    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was conducted to characterize the helium bubble distributions in tritium-charged-and-aged 304L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel fusion welds containing approximately 150 appm helium-3. TEM foils were prepared from C-shaped fracture toughness test specimens containing {delta} ferrite levels ranging from 4 to 33 volume percent. The weld microstructures in the low ferrite welds consisted mostly of austenite and discontinuous, skeletal {delta} ferrite. In welds with higher levels of {delta} ferrite, the ferrite was more continuous and, in some areas of the 33 volume percent sample, was the matrix/majority phase. The helium bubble microstructures observed were similar in all samples. Bubbles were found in the austenite but not in the {delta} ferrite. In the austenite, bubbles had nucleated homogeneously in the grain interiors and heterogeneously on dislocations. Bubbles were not found on any austenite/austenite grain boundaries or at the austenite/{delta} ferrite interphase interfaces. Bubbles were not observed in the {delta} ferrite because of the combined effects of the low solubility and rapid diffusion of tritium through the {delta} ferrite which limited the amount of helium present to form visible bubbles.

  5. Helium Neon laser therapy for post mastectomy lymphedema and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of Helium Neon (He–Ne) laser therapy on post mastectomy lymphedema and shoulder mobility. Thirty female patients with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), with or without radiotherapy had been participated in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two ...

  6. Turbulent Mixing on Helium-accreting White Dwarfs (United States)

    Piro, Anthony L.


    An attractive scenario for producing Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a double detonation, where detonation of an accreted helium layer triggers ignition of a C/O core. Whether or not such a mechanism can explain some or most SNe Ia depends on the properties of the helium burning, which in turn is set by the composition of the surface material. Using a combination of semi-analytic and simple numerical models, I explore when turbulent mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities during the accretion process can mix C/O core material up into the accreted helium. Mixing is strongest at high accretion rates, large white dwarf (WD) masses, and slow spin rates. The mixing would result in subsequent helium burning that better matches the observed properties of SNe Ia. In some cases, there is considerable mixing that can lead to more than 50% C/O in the accreted layer at the time of ignition. These results will hopefully motivate future theoretical studies of such strongly mixed conditions. Mixing also has implications for other types of WD surface explosions, including the so-called .Ia supernovae, the calcium-rich transients (if they arise from accreting WDs), and metal-enriched classical novae.

  7. Resonances of the helium atom in a strong magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Al-Hujaj, Omar-Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter


    We present an investigation of the resonances of a doubly excited helium atom in a strong magnetic field covering the regime B=0–100  a.u. A full-interaction approach which is based on an anisotropic Gaussian basis set of one-particle functions being nonlinearly optimized for each field strength...

  8. Suicidal asphyxiation by using helium – two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra


    Full Text Available Helium is one of inert gases causing physical asphyxiation, whose excess content in the breathing atmosphere reduces the partial pressure of oxygen and may be fatal after short-term exposure. When breathing a mixture of an inert gas (helium, nitrogen, argon with a small amount of oxygen, with the possibility of exhaling carbon dioxide, no warning signs characteristic of suffocation are perceived by the subject. Freedom from discomfort and pain, effectiveness, rapid effect and relatively easy availability of required accessories have resulted in the use of inert gases for suicidal purposes. The paper reports two cases of suicide committed by using a special kit consisting of the so-called “suicide bag” (or “exit bag” filled with helium supplied through a plastic tube. In both cases, examination of the sites where the corpses were found and analysis of collected material allowed to establish that before their death the subjects had searched the Internet for instructions on how to commit suicide using helium. Due to the advanced putrefaction process, the autopsies failed to determine the causes of their death unequivocally. However, the circumstances surrounding the deaths suggested rapid asphyxiation as a result of oxygen deficiency in the breathing mixture. Since in cases of the type discussed here the cause of death cannot generally be established by autopsy, knowledge of the circumstances of disclosure of the corpse, as well as examination of the cadaver and the death scene is of utmost importance.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderveldt, T.; Vassen, W.; Hogervorst, W.


    In a CW laser-atomic beam experiment metastable helium atoms are excited to Rydberg states (n = 58) in a magnetic field (= 0.1 T) The observed l-mixing spectra are reproduced using the method of diagonalization of the energy matrix as well as semiclassical theories. Also the first anticrossing


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderveldt, T.; Vassen, W.; Hogervorst, W.


    Diamagnetism in helium Rydberg atoms is studied near the ionisation threshold using constant scaled-energy laser spectroscopy. Quasi-Landau resonances in the Fouriertransform of the energy spectrum are explained using the classical periodic-orbit theory. Longlaser scans combined with a

  11. Dissolved helium and TDS in groundwater from Bhavnagar in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The increase in basaltic aquifers has been explained by enhanced pumping of old groundwater with relatively higher concentration of dissolved helium and salt, whereas the decrease in alluvial aquifers has been explained by dilution from the post monsoon groundwater recharge. Therefore, the observed temporal ...

  12. Lattice location of helium in uranium dioxide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, F.; Nowicki, L. E-mail:; Sattonnay, G.; Sauvage, T.; Thome, L


    Lattice location of {sup 3}He atoms implanted into UO{sub 2} single crystals was performed by means of the channeling technique combined with nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction was used. The experimental angular scans show that helium atoms occupy octahedral interstitial positions.

  13. Automated liquid-helium transfer tube lifting system (United States)

    Kato, Kiyonori; Suzui, Mitsukazu


    An automatic liquid-helium transfer tube lifting system has been developed, in which the transfer tube can be raised or lowered very slowly by remote control. This system relieves the operator of considerable manual labor, and protects the O-ring seals from damage at low temperature.

  14. Electronic spectroscopy of aniline ions embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, N.B.; Smolarek, S.D.; Zhang, X.; Buma, W.J.; Drabbels, M.


    Excitation spectra of the Ã2A2←X̃2B1 and B̃2B1←X̃2B1 transitions of aniline cations embedded in helium nanodroplets are reported. The spectra are characterized by broad asymmetric resonances that consist of an intrinsically broadened zero-phonon line, which partially overlaps with the accompanying

  15. Numerical simulation of losses along a natural circulation helium loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knížat, Branislav, E-mail:; Urban, František, E-mail:; Mlkvik, Marek, E-mail:; Ridzoň, František, E-mail:; Olšiak, Róbert, E-mail: [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Nám. slobody 17, 812 31 Bratislava, Slovak Republik (Slovakia)


    A natural circulation helium loop appears to be a perspective passive method of a nuclear reactor cooling. When designing this device, it is important to analyze the mechanism of an internal flow. The flow of helium in the loop is set in motion due to a difference of hydrostatic pressures between cold and hot branch. Steady flow at a requested flow rate occurs when the buoyancy force is adjusted to resistances against the flow. Considering the fact that the buoyancy force is proportional to a difference of temperatures in both branches, it is important to estimate the losses correctly in the process of design. The paper deals with the calculation of losses in branches of the natural circulation helium loop by methods of CFD. The results of calculations are an important basis for the hydraulic design of both exchangers (heater and cooler). The analysis was carried out for the existing model of a helium loop of the height 10 m and nominal heat power 250 kW.

  16. Sputtering of solid nitrogen by keV helium ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, O.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.


    Solid nitrogen has become a standard material among the frozen molecular gases for electronic sputtering. We have combined measurements of sputtering yields and energy spectra from nitrogen bombarded by 4-10 keV helium ions. The data show that the erosion is electronic rather than knockon...

  17. Conceptual design of a helium heater for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xue Zhou, E-mail:; Chen, Yuming; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen


    Highlights: •A special design of heater with two vessels is introduced for the operation at 10 MPa and 800 °C. •The additional coupling between the cold leg and the hot leg of the loop due to the heater design has an impact on the loop energy budget. •Reducing the heat transfer between the two flow channels inside the heater by means of a helium gap in the inlet nozzle is proven to be effective. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Advanced Technologies Helium Loop (KATHELO) has been designed for testing divertor modules as well as qualifying materials for high heat flux, high temperature (up to 800 °C) and high pressure (10 MPa) applications. The test section inlet temperature level is controlled using a process electrical heater. To cope with the extreme operating conditions, a special design of this unit has been proposed. In this paper the conceptual design of the unit will be presented and the impact of the coupling between the cold and hot helium gas on the overall efficiency of the loop will be investigated. The detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis of the feed through of the hot helium into the low temperature pressure vessel using ANSYS CFX will be presented. The impact of the design choices on the overall energy budget of the loop will be analyzed using RELAP5-3D.

  18. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.


    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...

  19. Impulsive Laser Induced Alignment of Molecules Dissolved in Helium Nanodroplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentlehner, Dominik; H. Nielsen, Jens; Slenczka, Alkwin


    We show that a 450 fs nonresonant, moderately intense, linearly polarized laser pulse can induce field-free molecular axis alignment of methyliodide (CH3I) molecules dissolved in a helium nanodroplet. Time-resolved measurements reveal rotational dynamics much slower than that of isolated molecule...

  20. The Helium Atom and Isoelectronic Ions in Two Dimensions (United States)

    Patil, S. H.


    The energy levels of the helium atom and isoelectronic ions in two dimensions are considered. The difficulties encountered in the analytical evaluation of the perturbative and variational expressions for the ground state, promote an interesting factorization of the inter-electronic interaction, leading to simple expressions for the energy. This…

  1. Accurate Determination of the Volume of an Irregular Helium Balloon (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Bradvica, Rafaela; Karl, Katherine


    In a recent paper, Zable described an experiment with a near-spherical balloon filled with impure helium. Measuring the temperature and the pressure inside and outside the balloon, the lift of the balloon, and the mass of the balloon materials, he described how to use the ideal gas laws and Archimedes' principal to compute the average molecular…

  2. Maintenance free gas bearing helium blower for nuclear plant (United States)

    Molyneaux, A., Dr; Harris, M., Prof; Sharkh, S., Prof; Hill, S.; de Graaff, T.


    This paper describes the design, testing and operation of novel helium blowers used to recirculate the helium blanketing gas in the nuclear reactor used as a neutron source at the Institut Laue Langevan, Grenoble, France. The laser sintered shrouded centrifugal wheel operates at speeds up to 45000 rpm supported on helium lubricated hydrodynamic spiral groove bearings, and is driven by a sensorless permanent magnet motor. The entire machine is designed to keep the helium gas (polluted by a small amount of D2O) out of contact with any iron or copper materials which would contribute to the corrosion of parts of the circuit. It is designed to have zero maintenance during a lifetime of 40,000 hours of continuous operation. This paper will describe the spiral groove journal and thrust bearings. Design and manufacture of the 1 kW motor and centrifugal wheel will be explained including their CFD and FEA analyses. Measurements of rotor displacement will be presented showing the behaviour under factory testing as well as details of the measured centrifugal wheel and motor performances. Two machines are incorporated into the circuit to provide redundancy and the first blower has been in continuous operation since Jan 2015. The blower was designed, manufactured, assembled and tested in the UK using predominantly UK suppliers.

  3. Subsurface analysis of semiconductor structures with helium ion microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Raoul; Hlawacek, G.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene


    We have used helium ion microscopy to directly track the subsurface diffusion of Pd through a Si stack in a non-invasive manner. The imaging and analysis of semiconductor structures along a direction perpendicular to the substrate is traditionally performed by making cross sections of a sample and

  4. US Congress considers bill to relieve helium shortage (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter


    A bill to alleviate the threat of a significant shortage of helium was set to be debated in the US House of Representatives as Physics World went to press with the House's Natural Resources Committee putting the finished touches to the motion.

  5. Cold Helium Gas Pressurization For Spacecraft Cryogenic Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Atwell. Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Melcher, J. C.


    To reduce the dry mass of a spacecraft pressurization system, helium pressurant may be stored at low temperature and high pressure to increase mass in a given tank volume. Warming this gas through an engine heat exchanger prior to tank pressurization both increases the system efficiency and simplifies the designs of intermediate hardware such as regulators, valves, etc. since the gas is no longer cryogenic. If this type of cold helium pressurization system is used in conjunction with a cryogenic propellant, though, a loss in overall system efficiency can be expected due to heat transfer from the warm ullage gas to the cryogenic propellant which results in a specific volume loss for the pressurant, interpreted as the Collapse Factor. Future spacecraft with cryogenic propellants will likely have a cold helium system, with increasing collapse factor effects as vehicle sizes decrease. To determine the collapse factor effects and overall implementation strategies for a representative design point, a cold helium system was hotfire tested on the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) in a thermal vacuum environment at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station. The ICPTA vehicle is a small lander-sized spacecraft prototype built at NASA Johnson Space Center utilizing cryogenic liquid oxygen/liquid methane propellants and cryogenic helium gas as a pressurant to operate one 2,800lbf 5:1 throttling main engine, two 28lbf Reaction Control Engines (RCE), and two 7lbf RCEs (Figure 1). This vehicle was hotfire tested at a variety of environmental conditions at NASA Plum Brook, ranging from ambient temperature/simulated high altitude, deep thermal/high altitude, and deep thermal/high vacuum conditions. A detailed summary of the vehicle design and testing campaign may be found in Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article Thermal Vacuum Hotfire Testing, AIAA JPC 2017.

  6. Saturn's Helium Abundance from Cassini CIRS and RSS Data (United States)

    Achterberg, Richard K.; Schinder, Paul J.; Flasar, F. Michael


    The ratio of helium to hydrogen in Saturn's atmosphere provides an important constraint on models of Saturn's formation and evolution, but has been poorly constrained by available data. Measurements combining Voyager infrared and radio data [1] gave a He/H2 mole ratio of 0.034 ± 0.024, far below the protosolar value and requiring either significant helium loss or sequestration in the interior. Prompted by discrepancies between the Voyager infrared/radio and Galileo probe measurements of helium on Jupiter, Conrath and Gautier [2] reevaluated the helium abundance on Saturn from Voyager infrared data only, obtaining a He/H2 mole ratio of 0.135 ± 0.025, inconsistent with the previous results. Because of this discrepancy, estimating Saturn's atmospheric helium abundance has been a major goal of the Cassini mission.We are estimating the He/H2 mole ratio in Saturn's atmosphere using a combination of data from the Cassini Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) and Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). Radio occultations, in which a carrier signal is observed as Cassini passed behind Saturn as seen from antennas on Earth, give a vertical profile of atmospheric refractivity, which can be converted to temperature as a function of pressure assuming a mean molecular weight. The assumed molecular weight is adjusted until synthetic thermal infrared spectra match spectra observed by CIRS at the same latitude and time. Preliminary results from a set of eleven near-equatorial occultations taken in 2005 give He/H2 mole ratios varying between ~0.060 and 0.085.[1] Conrath, B. J., et al., 1984, Ap. J., 282:807-815[2] Conrath, B. J. and D. Gautier, 2000, Icarus, 144:124-134

  7. Thermophysicochemical Reaction of ZrCo-Hydrogen-Helium System (United States)

    Jung, Kwangjin; Kang, Hee-Seok; Yun, Sei-Hun; Chung, Hongsuk


    Nuclear fusion energy, which is clean and infinite, has been studied for more than half a century. Efforts are in progress worldwide for the demonstration and validation of nuclear fusion energy. Korea has been developing hydrogen isotope storage and delivery system (SDS) technologies including a basic scientific study on a hydrogen storage medium. An SDS bed, which is a key component of the SDS, is used for storing hydrogen isotopes in a metal hydride form and supplying them to a tokamak. Thermophysicochemical properties of the ZrCo-H2-He system are investigated for the practical utilization of a hydriding alloy system. The hydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx is composed as ZrCo absorbing hydrogen, is exothermic. The dehydriding reaction, in which ZrCoHx decomposes into ZrCo and hydrogen, is endothermic. The heat generated through the hydriding reaction interrupts the hydriding progress. The heat loss by a dehydriding reaction impedes the dehydriding progress. The tritium decay product, helium-3, covers the ZrCo and keeps the hydrogen from contact with ZrCo in the SDS bed. In this study, we designed and fabricated a ZrCo bed and its performance test rig. The helium blanketing effect on a ZrCo hydrogen reaction with 0 % to 20 % helium content in a gaseous phase and a helium blanket removal method were studied experimentally. In addition, the volumetric flow rates and temperature at the beginning of a ZrCo hydrogen reaction in a hydrogen or helium atmosphere, and the cooling of the SDS bed by radiation only and by both radiation and natural convection related to the reuse cycle, were obtained.

  8. Effect of weld thermal cycle on helium bubble formation in stainless steel (United States)

    Kano, F.; Nakahigashi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Uesugi, N.; Mitamura, T.; Terasawa, M.; Irie, H.; Fukuya, K.


    Helium bubble structure was examined on a helium-implanted stainless steel after applying two kinds of heat input. Helium ions were implanted on Type 304 stainless steel at 573 K from 2 to 200 appm to a peak depth of 0.5 μm from the surface. After that, weld thermal history was applied by an electron beam. The cooling rates were selected to be 370 and 680 K/s from 1023 to 773 K. TEM observation revealed that nucleation and growth of helium bubbles were strongly dependent on the cooling rate after welding and the helium concentration.

  9. Probing helium interfaces with light scattering: from fluid mechanics to statistical physics. (United States)

    Wolf, P E; Bonnet, F; Guyon, L; Lambert, T; Perraud, S; Puech, L; Rousset, B; Thibault, P


    We have investigated the formation of helium droplets in two physical situations. In the first one, droplets are atomised from superfluid or normal liquid by a fast helium vapour flow. In the second, droplets of normal liquid are formed inside porous glasses during the process of helium condensation. The context, aims, and results of these experiments are reviewed, with focus on the specificity of light scattering by helium. In particular, we discuss how, for different reasons, the closeness to unity of the index of refraction of helium allows in both cases to minimise the problem of multiple scattering and obtain results which it would not be possible to get using other fluids.

  10. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! HEREF-2002 : HELIUM REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè


    Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2002 is a new course, in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2002 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2002 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (5 mornings and 2 afternoons), 21-25 October, 2002. Estimated cost: 300.- CHF Language: Bilingual English-French. The course support will be in English, the ...

  11. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC ! HeREF-2002 : Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè


    Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2002 is a new course, in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2002 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2002 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (5 mornings and 2 afternoons), 21-25 October 2002. Estimated cost: 300.- CHF Language: Bilingual English-French. The course support will be in English, the...

  12. Explosive Hydrogen and Helium Burning in Astrophysical Events. (United States)

    Wallace, Richard Kent

    The nuclear energy generation and nucleosynthesis that occur in hydrogen-rich compositions at temperatures substantially greater than 10('8) K are examined in detail. At these high temperatures, a new kind of nucleosynthetic process (the "rp-process") involving the rapid capture of protons on seed nuclei (or on the products of helium burning in a situation with zero initial metallicity) can lead to the production of heavy elements up to and beyond the iron group with an accompanying energy generation rate greatly modified from that of the (beta)-limited CNO cycle customarily employed in such calculations. New nuclear reaction rates of interest are tabulated, and reaction network calculations are presented to illustrate the application of this process to exploding supermassive stars, accreting neutron stars, novae, and certain chaotic cosmologies. Implications for (gamma)-line astronomy and x-ray burst models are discussed. To further explore the importance of thermonuclear instabilities for accreting neutron stars, the evolution of a 1.41 M(,(CIRCLE)) neutron star accreting both solar and metal-deficient mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and heavy elements at rates ranging from about 10('-11) to 10('-10) M(,(CIRCLE)) per year is examined using a one-dimensional numerical model. The metal deficient compositions may result either from placement of the neutron star in a binary system with a Population II Red Giant or from gravitational settling of heavy ions in the accreted material. For such accretion rates and metallicities, hydrogen burning, mediated by the (beta)-limited CNO cycle, is stable and leads to the accumulation of a thick helium layer with mass 10('23) to 10('25) g and temperature 0.7 (LESSTHEQ) T(,8) (LESSTHEQ) 1.2. Helium ignition occurs under extremely degenerate circumstances and is catastrophically violent. In the lower mass helium shells this runaway is propagated as a convective deflagration; for the thicker layers a detonation front is set up which

  13. Purge Monitoring Technology for Gaseous Helium (GHe) Conservation (United States)

    Dickey, Jonathan; Lansaw, John


    John C. Stennis Space Center provides rocket engine propulsion testing for the NASA space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has gone through acceptance testing before going to Kennedy Space Center for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that used Liquid Oxygen (LO2) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as propellants. Due to the extremely cold cryogenic conditions of this environment, an inert gas, helium, is used as a purge for the engine and propellant lines since it can be used without freezing in the cryogenic environment. As NASA moves forward with the development of the new ARES V launch system, the main engines as well as the upper stage engine will use cryogenic propellants and will require gaseous helium during the development testing of each of these engines. The main engine for the ARES V will be similar in size to the SSME.

  14. The maintenance record of the KSTAR helium refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, K. M.; Joo, J. J.; Kim, N. W. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others


    Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has a helium refrigeration system (HRS) with the cooling capacity of 9 kW at 4.5 K. Main cold components are composed of 300 tons of superconducting (SC) magnets, main cryostat thermal shields, and SC current feeder system. The HRS comprises six gas storage tanks, a liquid nitrogen tank, the room temperature compression sector, the cold box (C/B), the 1st stage helium distribution box (DB no.1), the PLC base local control system interconnected to central control tower and so on. Between HRS and cold components, there is another distribution box (DB#2) nearby the KSTAR device. The entire KSTAR device was constructed in 2007 and has been operated since 2008. This paper will present the maintenance result of the KSTAR HRS during the campaign and discuss the operation record and maintenance history of the KSTAR HRS.

  15. Boron gettering on cavities induced by helium implantation in Si (United States)

    Roqueta, F.; Alquier, D.; Ventura, L.; Dubois, Ch.; Jérisian, R.


    In this paper, we shed light on the strong interaction between the cavity layer induced by helium implantation and boron. First of all, we evidence the impact of He gettering step on a boron-diffused profile. In order to study the boron-cavity interaction, we had used uniformly boron-doped wafers implanted with helium at high dose and anneal using usual furnace annealing (FA) as well as rapid thermal annealing. Then, to avoid any precipitation phenomena, conditions were chosen to not exceed the boron solid solubility value. Our experimental results exhibit a large trapping of boron within the cavity layer. This trapping occurs since the early stage of the annealing. These results enable us to have better understanding of this He gettering step as well as its interaction with boron atoms, which are of great interest for device.

  16. A stable compound of helium and sodium at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiao; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Lobanov, Sergey; Saleh, Gabriele; Qian, Guang-Rui; Zhu, Qiang; Gatti, Carlo; Deringer, Volker L.; Dronskowski, Richard; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Konôpková, Zuzana; Popov, Ivan A.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Wang, Hui-Tian


    Helium is generally understood to be chemically inert and this is due to its extremely stable closed-shell electronic configuration, zero electron affinity and an unsurpassed ionization potential. It is not known to form thermodynamically stable compounds, except a few inclusion compounds. Here, using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm USPEX and subsequent high-pressure synthesis in a diamond anvil cell, we report the discovery of a thermodynamically stable compound of helium and sodium, Na2He, which has a fluorite-type structure and is stable at pressures >113 GPa. We show that the presence of He atoms causes strong electron localization and makes this material insulating. This phase is an electride, with electron pairs localized in interstices, forming eight-centre two-electron bonds within empty Na8 cubes. We also predict the existence of Na2HeO with a similar structure at pressures above 15 GPa.

  17. Neutrino-induced Neucleosynthesis in Supernova Helium Shells (United States)

    Banerjee, Projjwal

    We re-examine a neutrino-driven r-process mechanism in the helium shell of a core-collapse supernova. We analyze the pre-shock evolution in detail using recent stellar models. In addition we perform full hydrodynamic simulations including the effect of shock, finding that the outer helium shells can be the site for an r-process. We find that this mechanism could succeed in early stars of metallicity ≲ 10-3 the solar value, at relatively low temperatures and neutron densities, producing A ˜ 130 and 195 abundance peaks over ˜ 50--60 s. The mechanism is extremely sensitive to the neutrino emission model and to neutrino oscillations. While this mechanism is not very sensitive to the explosion energy, mixing of the ejecta can be different for different explosion energies. We discuss the implications of an r-process that could alter interpretations of abundance data from metal-poor stars.

  18. Communication: Electron diffraction of ferrocene in superfluid helium droplets (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; He, Yunteng; Kong, Wei


    We report electron diffraction of ferrocene doped in superfluid helium droplets. By taking advantage of the velocity slip in our pulsed droplet beam using a pulsed electron gun, and by doping with a high concentration of ferrocene delivered via a pulsed valve, we can obtain high quality diffraction images from singly doped droplets. Under the optimal doping conditions, 80% of the droplets sampled in the electron beam are doped with just one ferrocene molecule. Extension of this size selection method to dopant clusters has also been demonstrated. However, incomplete separation of dopant clusters might require deconvolution and modeling of the doping process. This method can be used for studies of nucleation processes in superfluid helium droplets.

  19. The Astro-E2/XRS-2 helium insert system (United States)

    Shirron, P. J.; DiPirro, M. J.; Panek, J.; Kelley, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Hirabayashi, M.; McCammon, D.


    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS-2) instrument on the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) Astro-E2 spacecraft will measure faint X-ray emissions in the energy range of 0.2-10 keV. A square array of 32 X-ray microcalorimeters used will be able to distinguish individual photons to better than 10 eV at 6 keV, with a quantum efficiency near 100%. The detectors are cooled to 60 mK by means of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR rejects heat to a 1.3 K superfluid helium tank, which is surrounded by a 17 K solid neon tank. A Stirling cycle cryocooler precools an outer shield around the neon tank. This system will provide an estimated 3 years of on-orbit lifetime. This paper describes the helium insert, the ADR, the high temperature superconducting leads, and early on-orbit performance.

  20. submitter Data-driven RBE parameterization for helium ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mairani, A; Dokic, I; Valle, S M; Tessonnier, T; Galm, R; Ciocca, M; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Jäkel, O; Haberer, T; Pedroni, P; Böhlen, T T


    Helium ion beams are expected to be available again in the near future for clinical use. A suitable formalism to obtain relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for treatment planning (TP) studies is needed. In this work we developed a data-driven RBE parameterization based on published in vitro experimental values. The RBE parameterization has been developed within the framework of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model as a function of the helium linear energy transfer (LET), dose and the tissue specific parameter ${{(\\alpha /\\beta )}_{\\text{ph}}}$ of the LQ model for the reference radiation. Analytic expressions are provided, derived from the collected database, describing the $\\text{RB}{{\\text{E}}_{\\alpha}}={{\\alpha}_{\\text{He}}}/{{\\alpha}_{\\text{ph}}}$ and ${{\\text{R}}_{\\beta}}={{\\beta}_{\\text{He}}}/{{\\beta}_{\\text{ph}}}$ ratios as a function of LET. Calculated RBE values at 2 Gy photon dose and at 10% survival ($\\text{RB}{{\\text{E}}_{10}}$ ) are compared with the experimental ones. Pearson's correlati...

  1. SNS Central Helium Liquefier spare Carbon Bed installation and commissioning (United States)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.


    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been without major operations downtime since operations were started back in 2006. This system utilizes a vessel filled with activated carbon as the final major component to remove oil vapor from the compressed helium circuit prior to insertion into the system’s cryogenic cold box. The need for a spare carbon bed at SNS due to the variability of carbon media lifetime calculation to adsorption efficiency will be discussed. The fabrication, installation and commissioning of this spare carbon vessel will be presented. The novel plan for connecting the spare carbon vessel piping to the existing infrastructure will be presented.

  2. Phase separation of metallic hydrogen-helium alloys (United States)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.; Beck, H.


    Calculations are presented for the thermodynamic functions and phase-separation boundaries of solid metallic hydrogen-helium alloys at temperatures between zero and 19,000 K and at pressures between 15 and 90 Mbar. Expressions for the band-structure energy of a randomly disordered alloy (including third order in the electron-ion interaction) are derived and evaluated. Short- and long-range orders are included by the quasi-chemical method, and lattice dynamics in the virtual-crystal harmonic approximation. It is concluded that at temperatures below 4000 K, there is essentially complete phase separation of hydrogen-helium alloys and that a miscibility gap remains at the highest temperatures and pressures considered. The relevance of these results to models of the deep interior of Jupiter is briefly discussed.

  3. Anderson localization of graphene by helium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitou, Y., E-mail: [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305–8562 (Japan); Ogawa, S. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305–8569 (Japan)


    Irradiation of a single-layer graphene (SLG) with accelerated helium ions (He{sup +}) controllably generates defect distributions, which create a charge carrier scattering source within the SLG. We report direct experimental observation of metal-insulator transition in SLG on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates induced by Anderson localization. This transition was investigated using scanning capacitance microscopy by monitoring the He{sup +} dose conditions on the SLG. The experimental data show that a defect density of more than ∼1.2% induced Anderson localization. We also investigated the localization length by determining patterned placement of the defects and estimated the length to be several dozen nanometers. These findings provide valuable insight for patterning and designing graphene-based nanostructures using helium ion microscopy.

  4. A High Reliability Gas-driven Helium Cryogenic Centrifugal Compressor

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneton, M; Gistau-Baguer, Guy M; Turcat, F; Viennot, P


    A helium cryogenic compressor was developed and tested in real conditions in 1996. The achieved objective was to compress 0.018 kg/s Helium at 4 K @ 1000 Pa (10 mbar) up to 3000 Pa (30 mbar). This project was an opportunity to develop and test an interesting new concept in view of future needs. The main features of this new specific technology are described. Particular attention is paid to the gas bearing supported rotor and to the pneumatic driver. Trade off between existing technologies and the present work are presented with special stress on the bearing system and the driver. The advantages are discussed, essentially focused on life time and high reliability without maintenance as well as non pollution characteristic. Practical operational modes are also described together with the experimental performances of the compressor. The article concludes with a brief outlook of future work.

  5. Electrical heater for very-low pressure helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Benda, V; Vuillierme, B


    Testing superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in superfluid helium requires large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8K. At CERN, this is provided by a combination of a cold compressor and a set of warm vacuum pumps capable of handling up to 18g/s at 1 kPa suction pressure. The cold helium vapour, after the cold compressor, is warmed up from about 5K to ambient temperature in a 32 kW electrical heater. The device is designed to operate reliably at flow rates varying from 1 to 18g/s, inlet pressure of 1 kPa to 3 kPa, with pressure drop 100 Pa. Design and construction of the heater, completely realised at CERN, are presented, as well as measured performance. Some technological problems are discussed.

  6. Argon metastable production in argon-helium microplasmas (United States)

    Hoskinson, Alan R.; Gregorío, José; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Galbally-Kinney, Kristin; Davis, Steven J.; Rawlins, Wilson T.


    Microwave resonator-driven microplasmas are a promising technology for generating the high density of rare-gas metastable states required for optically pumped rare gas laser systems. We measure the density of argon 1s5 states (Paschen notation) in argon-helium plasmas between 100 Torr and atmospheric pressure using diode laser absorption. The metastable state density is observed to rise with helium mole fraction at lower pressures but to instead fall slightly when tested near atmospheric pressure. A 0-D model of the discharge suggests that these distinct behaviors result from the discharge being diffusion-controlled at lower pressures, but with losses occurring primarily through dissociative recombination at high pressures. In all cases, the argon metastable density falls sharply when the neutral argon gas fraction is reduced below approximately 2%.

  7. The Thermodynamical Instability Induced by Pressure Ionization in Fluid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qiong; Zhang, Gong-Mu; Zhao, Yan-Hong; Lu, Guo; Tian, Ming-Feng; Song, Hai-Feng


    A systematic study of pressure ionization is carried out in the chemical picture by the example of fluid helium. By comparing the variants of the chemical model, it is demonstrated that the behavior of pressure ionization depends on the construction of the free energy function. In the chemical model with the Coulomb free energy described by the Pad\\'e interpolation formula, thermodynamical instability induced by pressure ionization is found to be manifested by a discontinuous drop or a continuous fall and rise along the pressure-density curve as well as the pressure-temperature curve, which is very much like the first order liquid-liquid phase transition of fluid hydrogen from the first principles simulations. In contrast, in the variant chemical model with the Coulomb free energy term empirically weakened, no thermodynamical instability is induced when pressure ionization occurs, and the resulting equation of state achieves good agreement with the first principles simulations of fluid helium.

  8. Mechanisms of void coarsening in helium implanted silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J H


    There has been recent discussion of the mechanisms that give rise to the observed coarsening of void populations introduced into silicon by implanting helium and then annealing to remove the helium. Over the temperature range from approximately 700 to 1000 degree sign C and beyond, further annealing leads to an increase of the average void size and decrease in void density. This paper sets out to calculate the coarsening expected from the two primary potential mechanisms, migration and coalescence (M and C) and Ostwald ripening (OR). The methodology of the calculations is carefully set out together with the surface diffusion and vacancy diffusion parameters on which the mechanisms depend. For moderate anneal temperatures, up to 1000 degree sign C, it would seem unlikely that OR can play any part in void coarsening. On the other hand, M and C calculations show that this mechanism gives results consistent with the size range found in experimental results.

  9. The Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in Determining the Ionization Energies of the Helium Atom and Helium-Like Ions (United States)

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.


    For helium and helium-like ions, we have examined the differences between the values of the ionization energies as calculated from the Bohr theory and those measured in experiments. We find that these differences vary linearly with the atomic number of the system. Using this result, we show how the Bohr model for single-electron systems may be…

  10. Investigation of Cellular Interactions of Nanoparticles by Helium Ion Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Yumei; Tolic, Ana; Williams, Nolann G.; Orr, Galya


    The helium ion mircroscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5x FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  11. Atmospheric helium isotope ratio: Possible temporal and spatial variations (United States)

    Sano, Yuji; Furukawa, Yukiko; Takahata, Naoto


    The atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio has been considered to be constant on a global scale, because the residence time of helium is significantly longer than the mixing time in the atmosphere. However, this ratio may be decreasing with time owing to the anthropogenic release of crustal helium from oil and natural gas wells, although this observation has been disputed. Here, we present the 3He/ 4He ratios of old air trapped in historical slags in Japan and of modern surface air samples collected at various sites around the world, measured with a newly developed analytical system. In air helium extracted from metallurgical slag found at refineries in operation between AD 1603 and 1907 in Japan, we determined a mean 3He/ 4He ratio of (5106 ± 108) × 10 -5 R HESJ (where R HESJ is the 3He/ 4He ratio of the Helium Standard of Japan), which is consistent with the previously reported value of (5077 ± 59) × 10 -5 R HESJ for historical slags in France and United Arab Emirates and about 4% higher than that of average modern air, (4901 ± 4) × 10 -5 R HESJ. This result implies that the air 3He/ 4He ratio has decreased with time as expected by anthropogenic causes. Our modern surface air samples revealed that the 3He/ 4He ratio increases from north to south at a rate of (0.16 ± 0.08) × 10 -5 R HESJ/degree of latitude, suggesting that the low 3He/ 4He ratio originates in high-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere, which is consistent with the fact that most fossil fuel is extracted and consumed in the northern hemisphere.

  12. A quantum computer based on electrons floating on liquid helium


    Dykman, M. I.; Platzman, P. M.


    Electrons on a helium surface form a quasi two-dimensional system which displays the highest mobility reached in condensed matter physics. We propose to use this system as a set of interacting quantum bits. We will briefly describe the system and discuss how the qubits can be addressed and manipulated, including interqubit excitation transfer. The working frequency of the proposed quantum computer is ~1GHz. The relaxation rate can be at least 5 orders of magnitude smaller, for low temperatures.

  13. 10 atm helium-methane streamer chamber with holographic registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falomkin, I.V.; Ivanov, I.Ts.; Khovansky, N.N.; Lyashenko, V.I.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Tudor, T.; Shcherbakov, Yu.A.; Yani, Ya.; Trifonov, A.; Troshev, T. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))


    Electron track holograms were registered in a 10 atm helium-methane (3/1) self-shunted streamer chamber. From the Gabor holograms tracks were reconstructed: a streamer density of (14 +- 1) str/cm and streamer images of about 150 in diameter were obtained. The density and diameter values remain constant for delay times of the laser pulse with respect to the high voltage pulse within the range of 200 to 9000 ns.

  14. 10 atm helium-methane streamer chamber with holographic registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falomkin, I.V.; Ivanov, I.Ts.; Khovansky, N.N.; Lyashenko, V.I.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Tudor, T.; Shcherbakov, Yu.A.; Yani, Ya.; Trifonov, A.; Troshev, T.; Khristov, V.


    Electron track holograms were registered in a 10 atm helium-methane (3/1) self-shunted streamer chamber. From the Gabor holograms tracks were reconstructed: a streamer density of (14+-1) str/cm and streamer images of about 150 in diameter were obtained. The density and diameter values remain constant for delay times of the laser pulse with respect to the high voltage pulse within the range of 200 to 9000 ns. (orig.).

  15. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  16. Transition to ballistic regime for heat transport in helium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciacca, Michele, E-mail: [Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, Università degli studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Sellitto, Antonio, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Matematica, Informatica ed Economia, Università della Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Jou, David, E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    The size-dependent and flux-dependent effective thermal conductivity of narrow capillaries filled with superfluid helium is analyzed from a thermodynamic continuum perspective. The classical Landau evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of quiescent superfluid, or the Gorter–Mellinck regime of turbulent superfluids, is extended to describe the transition to ballistic regime in narrow channels wherein the radius R is comparable to (or smaller than) the phonon mean-free path ℓ in superfluid helium. To do so, we start from an extended equation for the heat flux incorporating non-local terms, and take into consideration a heat slip flow along the walls of the tube. This leads from an effective thermal conductivity proportional to R{sup 2} (Landau regime) to another one proportional to Rℓ (ballistic regime). We consider two kinds of flows: along cylindrical pipes and along two infinite parallel plates. - Highlights: • Heat transport in counterflow helium in the ballistic regime. • The one-fluid model based on the Extended Thermodynamics is used. • The transition from the Landau regime to the ballistic regime. • The transition from quantum turbulence to ballistic regime.

  17. Simulation of Helium-3 Extraction from Lunar Ilmenite (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Schmitt, H. H.


    Knowledge of the trapping mechanisms and diffusion characteristics of solar-wind implanted isotopes in the minerals of the lunar regolith will enable the optimization of the processes to extract solar wind gases from regolith particles. Extraction parameters include the temperature and duration of extraction, particle size, and gas yield. Diffusion data will increase the efficiency and profitability of future mining ventures. This data will also assist in optimizing the evaluations of various potential mining sites based on remote sensing data. For instance, if magnesian ilmenite (Mg,Fel.,Ti03) is found to retain He better than stoichiometric ilmenite (FeTi03), remote sensing data for Mg could be considered in addition to Ti and maturity data. The context of the currently discussed work is the mining of helium-3 for potential use as a fuel for fusion energy generation. However, the potential resources deposited by the solar wind include hydrogen (and derived water), helium-4, nitrogen and carbon. Implantation experiments such as those performed for helium isotopes in ilmenite are important for the optimized extraction of these additional resources. These experiments can easily be reproduced for most elements or isotopes of interest.

  18. Helium abundances on the moon: Assumptions and estimates (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.


    Nuclear energy is a highly desirable source of energy, and He-3 is the most prized of the fusion reactants. As the Wisconsin Group has emphasized, He-3 may be the only true economic ore on the Moon. The lack of a shielding atmosphere on the Moon permits solar-wind alpha particles to impinge upon the lunar regolith and become implanted into the various solid components. In particular, large quantities of helium (5 to 50 ppm) are presented. The measured parameter of I(sub s)/FeO, a direct indicator of maturity and exposure age, can be used as a first approximation to predict the abundances of many solar-wind components in the soils. However, because ilmenite has a much higher retentivity for helium than the other phases, the TiO2 contents of the soils are better indicators of helium contents (Taylor, Space 90). High-Ti mare bassalt regions, such as at the Apollo 17 locale, appear to be the best areas for He mining (15 to 50 ppm He(sub T)), versus 3 to 9 ppm in the Highlands. However, the relationships between I(sub s)/FeO, TiO2 and He-3 contents are complicated - e.g., many of the most He-rich soils are immature to submature. The amount of He-3 in the regolith of the moon is estimated at 220,000 tons in the outer 2 m of the Maria.

  19. Helium-neon laser improves skin repair in rabbits. (United States)

    Peccin, Maria Stella; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; de Oliveira, Flavia; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on skin injury in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral skin damage in leg. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluence of 6 J∕cm2 and wavelength of 632.8 nm, was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right leg lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections. The results showed little infiltration of inflammatory cells, with proliferation of fibroblasts forming a few fibrous connective tissue after 1 week post-injury. The lesion on the 3rd week was characterized by granulation tissue, which formed from proliferated fibrous connective tissue, congested blood vessels and mild mononuclear cell infiltration. On the 5th week, it was observed that debris material surrounded by a thick layer of connective tissue and dense collage, fibroblasts cells present in the dermis covered by a thick epidermal layer represented by keratinized epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve skin repair in rabbits at early phases of recovery.

  20. Helium measurements in support of MHTGR lithium target testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; Rogers, J.W. [EG and G-Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    The New Production-Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) development program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as part of its task the irradiation testing of the lithium target material. The lithium target material tritium ({sup 3}H) production is predominantly through the {sup 6}Li (n,{alpha}){sup 3}H reaction which also produces equal amounts of {sup 4}He ({alpha}). The tritium produced decays to {sup 3}He (12.38 year half-life), with some of this {sup 3}He being converted back to tritium during irradiation via the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H reaction. From these reactions, and the irradiation time-history, the measurement of the {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He content of a lithium monitor or target material sample can be used to determine several important variables associated with the target material performance, as well as to independently determine the neutron fields associated with the test environment. Helium measurements have been used to determine lithium burnup, tritium retention in target pellets, pellet material composition and variation and threshold temperature for helium release from the pellets. The present paper presents selected results obtained form the various helium measurements and discusses their relevance and importance to the MHTGR target development program.

  1. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris


    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency of 32768 Hz has been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 12 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 2 smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting o...

  2. SWCX Emission from the Helium Focusing Cone - Preliminary Results (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Collier, M. R.


    Preliminary results from an XMM-Newton campaign to study solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission from the heliospheric focusing cone of interstellar helium are presented. The detections of enhanced O VII and O VIII emission from the cone are at the 2(sigma) and 4(sigma) levels. The solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission in the heliosphere not associated with distinct objects (e.g., comets and planets including exospheric material in and near Earth s magnetosheath) is proportional to the flux of the solar wind and the space density of neutral material. The neutral material originates in the interstellar medium (ISM) and passes through the solar system due to the relative motion of the Sun and the ISM. The flow of the neutral material through the solar system is strongly perturbed by the Sun both by gravity and by radiation pressure. Because of the relative radiative scattering cross sections and the effect of solar gravitation the density of interstellar hydrogen near the Sun is reduced while interstellar helium is gravitationally focused. This creates a helium focusing cone downstream of the Sun [e.g., 1, and references therein].

  3. Pulmonary Kinematics From Tagged Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Awate, Suyash P.; Cai, Jing; Altes, Talissa A.; Miller, G. Wilson; de Lange, Eduard E.; Mugler, John P.; Gee, James C.


    Purpose To propose and test the feasibility of a novel method for quantifying 3-D regional pulmonary kinematics from hyperpolarized helium-3 tagged MRI in human subjects using a tailored image processing pipeline and a recently developed nonrigid registration framework. Materials and Methods Following image acquisition, inspiratory and expiratory tagged helium-3 MR images were preprocessed using various image filtering techniques to enhance the tag surfaces. Segmentation of the three orthogonal sets of tag planes in each lung produced distinct point-set representations of the tag surfaces. Using these labeled point-sets, deformation fields and corresponding strain maps were obtained via nonrigid point-set registration. Kinematic analysis was performed on three volunteers. Results Tag lines in inspiratory and expiratory images were co-registered producing a continuous 3-D correspondence mapping. Average displacement and directional strains were calculated in three subjects in the inferior, mid, and superior portions of the right and left lungs. As expected, the predominant direction of displacements with expiration is from inferior to superior. Conclusion Kinematic quantitation of pulmonary motion using tagged helium-3 MRI is feasible using the applied image preprocessing filtering techniques and nonrigid point-set registration. Potential benefits from regional pulmonary kinematic quantitation include the facilitation of diagnosis and local assessment of disease progression. PMID:20432362

  4. Formation of Au and tetrapyridyl porphyrin complexes in superfluid helium. (United States)

    Feng, Cheng; Latimer, Elspeth; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Bullen, Shem; Boatwright, Adrian; Ellis, Andrew M; Yang, Shengfu


    Binary clusters containing a large organic molecule and metal atoms have been formed by the co-addition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H2TPyP) molecules and gold atoms to superfluid helium nanodroplets, and the resulting complexes were then investigated by electron impact mass spectrometry. In addition to the parent ion H2TPyP yields fragments mainly from pyrrole, pyridine and methylpyridine ions because of the stability of their ring structures. When Au is co-added to the droplets the mass spectra are dominated by H2TPyP fragment ions with one or more Au atoms attached. We also show that by switching the order in which Au and H2TPyP are added to the helium droplets, different types of H2TPyP-Au complexes are clearly evident from the mass spectra. This study suggests a new route for the control over the growth of metal-organic compounds inside superfluid helium nanodroplets.

  5. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system. (United States)

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R


    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  6. Online helium inventory monitoring of JLab cryogenic systems (United States)

    Hasan, N.; Knudsen, P.; Wright, M.


    There are five cryogenic plants at Jefferson Lab which support the LINAC, experiment hall end-stations and test facility. The majority of JLab’s helium inventory, which is around 15 tons, is allocated in the LINAC cryo-modules, with the majority of the balance of helium distributed at the cryogenic-plant level mainly as stored gas and liquid for stable operation. Due to the organic evolution of the five plants and independent actions within the experiment halls, the traditional inventory management strategy suffers from rapid identification of potential leaks. This can easily result in losses many times higher than the normally accepted (average) loss rate. A real-time program to quickly identify potential excessive leakage was developed and tested. This program was written in MATLAB© for portability, easy diagnostics and modification. It interfaces directly with EPICS to access the cryogenic system state, and with and NIST REFPROP© for real fluid properties. This program was validated against the actual helium offloaded into the system. The present paper outlines the details of the inventory monitoring program, its validation and a sample of the achieved results.

  7. Proton and Helium Spectra from the CREAM-III Flight (United States)

    Yoon, Y. S.; Anderson, T.; Barrau, A.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Derome, L.; Han, J. H.; Jeon, J. A.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, S. E.; Link, J. T.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Mognet, S. I.; Nutter, S.; Park, I. H.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Putze, A.; Seo, E. S.; Smith, J.; Wu, J.


    Primary cosmic-ray elemental spectra have been measured with the balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment since 2004. The third CREAM payload (CREAM-III) flew for 29 days during the 2007-2008 Antarctic season. Energies of incident particles above 1 TeV are measured with a calorimeter. Individual elements are clearly separated with a charge resolution of ˜0.12 e (in charge units) and ˜0.14 e for protons and helium nuclei, respectively, using two layers of silicon charge detectors. The measured proton and helium energy spectra at the top of the atmosphere are harder than other existing measurements at a few tens of GeV. The relative abundance of protons to helium nuclei is 9.53 ± 0.03 for the range of 1 TeV/n to 63 TeV/n. This ratio is considerably smaller than other measurements at a few tens of GeV/n. The spectra become softer above ˜20 TeV. However, our statistical uncertainties are large at these energies and more data are needed.

  8. Proton and Helium Spectra from the CREAM-III Flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. S.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, S. E. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States); Anderson, T.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Mognet, S. I. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Barrau, A.; Derome, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Jeon, J. A.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J.; Park, I. H. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Link, J. T.; Mitchell, J. W. [Astrophysics Space Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Menchaca-Rocha, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Nutter, S. [Department of Physics, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States); and others


    Primary cosmic-ray elemental spectra have been measured with the balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment since 2004. The third CREAM payload (CREAM-III) flew for 29 days during the 2007–2008 Antarctic season. Energies of incident particles above 1 TeV are measured with a calorimeter. Individual elements are clearly separated with a charge resolution of ∼0.12 e (in charge units) and ∼0.14 e for protons and helium nuclei, respectively, using two layers of silicon charge detectors. The measured proton and helium energy spectra at the top of the atmosphere are harder than other existing measurements at a few tens of GeV. The relative abundance of protons to helium nuclei is 9.53 ± 0.03 for the range of 1 TeV/n to 63 TeV/n. This ratio is considerably smaller than other measurements at a few tens of GeV/n. The spectra become softer above ∼20 TeV. However, our statistical uncertainties are large at these energies and more data are needed.

  9. Word segmentation of off-line handwritten documents (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Srihari, Sargur N.


    Word segmentation is the most critical pre-processing step for any handwritten document recognition and/or retrieval system. When the writing style is unconstrained (written in a natural manner), recognition of individual components may be unreliable, so they must be grouped together into word hypotheses before recognition algorithms can be used. This paper describes a gap metrics based machine learning approach to separate a line of unconstrained handwritten text into words. Our approach uses a set of both local and global features, which is motivated by the ways in which human beings perform this kind of task. In addition, in order to overcome the disadvantage of different distance computation methods, we propose a combined distance measure computed using three different methods. The classification is done by using a three-layer neural network. The algorithm is evaluated using an unconstrained handwriting database that contains 50 pages (1026 line, 7562 words images) handwritten documents. The overall accuracy is 90.8%, which shows a better performance than a previous method.

  10. A 168E emulator for off-line production

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    By the end of 1982 seven such processors each with 184 kbyte memory were made available to a few experiments for about 3500 hours of equivalent IBM 370/168 equivalent time, at a cost of about 300 hours of equivalent IBM 370/168 time on the Computer Centre IBM. See Annual Report 1982 p. 81. In front of the computer, Christiane Ball

  11. The Off-line Group Seat Reservation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Hjorth, Allan Nordlunde; Nielsen, Morten


    In this paper we address the problem of assigning seats in a train for a group of people traveling together. We consider two variants of the problem. One is a special case of two-dimensional knapsack where we consider the train as having fixed size and the objective is to maximize the utilization...

  12. Off-line time calibration of the ATLAS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodini, G; The ATLAS collaboration


    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC's), operated in saturated avalanche regime, are used in the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment to produce the first level of the muon trigger in the central region, $|eta| <$ 1.05. The logic, based on a coincidence of hits in three layers of detector doublets, takes advantage of the very good time resolution of these detectors which allows to easily identify the LHC bunch crossing. The RPC readout electronics, based on a 320 MHz clock, allows to store a very granular time information, making potentially the RPC system the detector providing the most accurate time measurement in ATLAS. To fully exploit the intrinsic time resolution of detector and readout electronics a careful calibration of the system is needed, involving about 330,000 channels. The ATLAS data recorded during 2011 in LHC p-p collisions at $sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV have been used to show that, after applying an offline calibration procedure, a time resolution uniform over the entire detector and stable in time c...

  13. Efficient analyses for realistic off-line partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondorf, Anders; Jørgensen, Jesper


    Partial evaluation, program analysis, flow analysis, binding time analysis, poor man's generalization......Partial evaluation, program analysis, flow analysis, binding time analysis, poor man's generalization...

  14. On- and off-line monitoring of ion beam treatment (United States)

    Parodi, Katia


    Ion beam therapy is an emerging modality for high precision radiation treatment of cancer. In comparison to conventional radiation sources (photons, electrons), ion beams feature major dosimetric advantages due to their finite range with a localized dose deposition maximum, the Bragg peak, which can be selectively adjusted in depth. However, due to several sources of treatment uncertainties, full exploitation of these dosimetric advantages in clinical practice would require the possibility to visualize the stopping position of the ions in vivo, ideally in real-time. To this aim, different imaging methods have been proposed and investigated, either pre-clinically or even clinically, based on the detection of prompt or delayed radiation following nuclear interaction of the beam with the irradiated tissue. However, the chosen or ad-hoc developed instrumentation has often relied on technologies originally conceived for different applications, thus compromising on the achievable performances for the sake of cost-effectiveness. This contribution will review major examples of used instrumentation and related performances, identifying the most promising detector developments for next generation devices especially dedicated to on-line monitoring of ion beam treatment. Moreover, it will propose an original combination of different techniques in a hybrid detection scheme, aiming to make the most of complementary imaging methods and open new perspectives of image guidance for improved precision of ion beam therapy.

  15. Effective potentials for charge-helium and charge-singly-ionized helium interactions in a dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Amirov, S.M.; Moldabekov, Zh.A. [Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    The effective electron (proton)-He and electron (proton)-He{sup +} screened pair interaction potentials arising as a result of partial screening of the helium nucleus field by bound electrons, taking into account both screening by free charged particles and quantum diffraction effect in dense plasmas were derived. The impact of quantum effects on screening was analyzed. It was shown that plasma polarization around the atom leads to the additional repulsion (attraction) between the electron (proton) and the helium atom. The method of constructing the full electron (proton)-He and electron (proton)-He{sup +} screened pair interaction potentials as the sum of the derived potentials with the polarization potential and exchange potential is discussed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles neutron-irradiated up to 230appm tritium and 3000appm helium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Chakin


    Full Text Available Study of tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1mm after high-dose neutron irradiation at temperatures of 686–968K was performed. The release rate always has a single peak, and the peak temperatures at heating rates of 0.017K/s and 0.117K/s lie in the range of 1100–1350K for both tritium and helium release. The total tritium release from 1mm pebbles decreases considerably by increasing the irradiation temperature. The total tritium release from 0.5mm pebbles is less than that from 1mm pebbles and remains constant regardless of the irradiation temperature. At high irradiation temperatures, open channels are formed which contribute to the enhanced tritium release.

  17. Using uncertainty principle to find the ground-state energy of the helium and a helium-like Hookean atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbola, Varun, E-mail: [Kendriya Vidyalaya (Central School) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur-208 016 (India)


    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron cloud. Our calculation also shows how the Coulomb interaction between electrons affects their distribution. This leads to a physical picture of how electrons are located with respect to each other in these atoms. Finally, we also obtain through our calculations a general formula for the estimate of ground-state energy and radius of two electron atoms and ions with atomic number Z.

  18. Lightweight Liquid Helium Dewar for High-Altitude Balloon Payloads (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; James, Bryan; Fixsen, Dale


    Astrophysical observations at millimeter wavelengths require large (2-to-5- meter diameter) telescopes carried to altitudes above 35 km by scientific research balloons. The scientific performance is greatly enhanced if the telescope is cooled to temperatures below 10 K with no emissive windows between the telescope and the sky. Standard liquid helium bucket dewars can contain a suitable telescope for telescope diameter less than two meters. However, the mass of a dewar large enough to hold a 3-to-5-meter diameter telescope would exceed the balloon lift capacity. The solution is to separate the functions of cryogen storage and in-flight thermal isolation, utilizing the unique physical conditions at balloon altitudes. Conventional dewars are launched cold: the vacuum walls necessary for thermal isolation must also withstand the pressure gradient at sea level and are correspondingly thick and heavy. The pressure at 40 km is less than 0.3% of sea level: a dewar designed for use only at 40 km can use ultra thin walls to achieve significant reductions in mass. This innovation concerns new construction and operational techniques to produce a lightweight liquid helium bucket dewar. The dewar is intended for use on high-altitude balloon payloads. The mass is low enough to allow a large (3-to-5-meter) diameter dewar to fly at altitudes above 35 km on conventional scientific research balloons without exceeding the lift capability of the balloon. The lightweight dewar has thin (250- micron) stainless steel walls. The walls are too thin to support the pressure gradient at sea level: the dewar launches warm with the vacuum space vented continuously during ascent to eliminate any pressure gradient across the walls. A commercial 500-liter storage dewar maintains a reservoir of liquid helium within a minimal (hence low mass) volume. Once a 40-km altitude is reached, the valve venting the vacuum space of the bucket dewar is closed to seal the vacuum space. A vacuum pump then

  19. Helium turbine power generation in high temperature gas reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasuo [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    This paper presents studies on the helium turbine power generator and important components in the indirect cycle of high temperature helium cooled reactor with multi-purpose use of exhaust thermal energy from the turbine. The features of this paper are, firstly the reliable estimation of adiabatic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, secondly the introduction of heat transfer enhancement by use of the surface radiative heat flux from the thin metal plates installed in the hot helium and between the heat transfer coil rows of IHX and RHX, thirdly the use of turbine exhaust heat to produce fresh water from seawater for domestic, agricultural and marine fields, forthly a proposal of plutonium oxide fuel without a slight possibility of diversion of plutonium for nuclear weapon production and finally the investigation of GT-HTGR of large output such as 500 MWe. The study of performance of GT-HTGR reduces the result that for the reactor of 450 MWt the optimum thermal efficiency is about 43% when the turbine expansion ratio is 3.9 for the turbine efficiency of 0.92 and compressor efficiency of 0.88 and the helium temperature at the compressor inlet is 45degC. The produced amount of fresh water is about 8640 ton/day. It is made clear that about 90% of the reactor thermal output is totally used for the electric power generation in the turbine and for the multi-puposed utilization of the heat from the turbine exhaust gas and compressed helium cooling seawater. The GT-Large HTGR is realized by the separation of the pressure and temperature boundaries of the pressure vessel, the increase of burning density of the fuel by 1.4 times, the extention of the nuclear core diameter and length by 1.2 times, respectively, and the enhancement of the heat flux along the nuclear fuel compact surface by 1.5 times by providing riblets with the peak in the flow direction. (J.P.N.).

  20. Evolution Law of Helium Bubbles in Hastelloy N Alloy on Post-Irradiation Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao


    Full Text Available This work reports on the evolution law of helium bubbles in Hastelloy N alloy on post-irradiation annealing conditions. After helium ion irradiation at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 600 °C (1 h, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM micrograph indicates the presence of helium bubbles with size of 2 nm in the depth range of 0–300 nm. As for the sample further annealed at 850 °C (5 h, on one hand, a “Denuded Zone” (0–38 nm with rare helium bubbles forms due to the decreased helium concentration. On the other hand, the “Ripening Zone” (38–108 nm and “Coalescence Zone” (108–350 nm with huge differences in size and separation of helium bubbles, caused by different coarsening rates, are observed. The mechanisms of “Ostwald ripening” and “migration and coalescence”, experimentally proved in this work, may explain these observations.

  1. Effects of sequential tungsten and helium ion implantation on nano-indentation hardness of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D. E. J.; Edmondson, P. D.; Roberts, S. G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)


    To simulate neutron and helium damage in a fusion reactor first wall sequential self-ion implantation up to 13 dpa followed by helium-ion implantation up to 3000 appm was performed to produce damaged layers of {approx}2 {mu}m depth in pure tungsten. The hardness of these layers was measured using nanoindentation and was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Substantial hardness increases were seen in helium implanted regions, with smaller hardness increases in regions which had already been self-ion implanted, thus, containing pre-existing dislocation loops. This suggests that, for the same helium content, helium trapped in distributed vacancies gives stronger hardening than helium trapped in vacancies condensed into dislocation loops.

  2. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source (United States)

    Golden, Timothy Christopher [Allentown, PA; Farris, Thomas Stephen [Bethlehem, PA


    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  3. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dethloff, Christian, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gaganidze, Ermile [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy Str. 42, 432970 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Aktaa, Jarir [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different {sup 10}B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  4. Gaseous Helium storage and management in the cryogenic system for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco-Luque, M


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently under construction at CERN. Its main components are superconducting magnets which will operate in superfluid helium requiring cryogenics on a length of about 24 km around the machine ring with a total helium inventory of about 100 tonnes. As no permanent liquid helium storage is foreseen and for reasons of investment costs, only half of the total helium content can be stored in gaseous form in medium pressure vessels. During the LHC operation part of these vessels will be used as helium buffer in the case of multiple magnet quenches. This paper describes the storage, distribution and management of the helium, the layout and the connection to the surface and underground equipment of the cryogenic system.

  5. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions (United States)

    SRD 124 Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions (Web, free access)   The databases ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, or helium ions. Stopping-power and range tables can be calculated for electrons in any user-specified material and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials.

  6. Avaliação participativa online e off-line Participative evaluation online and off line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Leite


    Full Text Available Este é um trabalho de pesquisa coletiva que vem sendo construído por várias mãos no espaço da parceria. O texto apresenta a revisão de literatura, metodologia e resultados parciais de uma investigação que entende Avaliação Participativa (AP em seu acoplamento com Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação (TICs, um tema sobre o qual as pedagogias ainda não produzem respostas suficientes e adequadas. Mostra como foram captadas (observação e mini-estudos etnográficos, registradas (protocolos e estudos de caso e analisadas (referenciais as formas de avaliação que foram praticadas em cenários universitários, educação presencial e não presencial, educação a distância (EAD e em cenários de ações sociais e educação não formal, praticadas em periferias urbanas (ONG.This is a collective research that has been constructed collaboratively by many hands. The text presents the literature research, the methodology and the partial results of an investigation that understands Participative Evaluation (PE in its connection with the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, a topic about which the pedagogies still do not produce sufficient or adequate answers. It shows how the kinds of evaluation that were practiced in university settings, presential and distance education and; and in social action and non-formal education settings, practiced in urban peripheries (NGO are collected (observation and mini ethnographic studies, registered (protocols and case studies and analyzed (referentials.

  7. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.


    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  8. Development of an Agent-based Model to Analyze Contemporary Helium Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Matthew E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Uckun, Canan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Macal, Charles M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Although U.S. helium demand has remained relatively flat since 2009, exports of helium have increased significantly since then, driven primarily by demand for electronic and semiconductor manufacturing in Asia. In the midst of this global demand shift, the Helium Act dictates a new procedure for pricing and distributing the gas through a reserve that historically functioned as a loose “oligarchy.” The new procedure requires prices to be determined by the open market through auctions and a survey of market prices, as opposed to increasing prices according to the consumer price index. Response to these changes has caused temporary shortages, price increases, and a significant increase in the development of the helium extraction technologies used to produce helium from formerly marginal sources. Technologies are being developed and refined to extract helium from formerly low-yielding natural gas fields containing much lower amounts of helium than the previously considered economic threshold of 0.3%. Combining these transformative policies with the potential for new and significant global supplies from Qatar, Algeria, and Russia could lead to new and unforeseen market behaviors and reactions from global helium markets. The objective of the project is to analyze the global helium markets.

  9. Energy-related applications of helium: a revision of the ERDA-13 data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, E.F.; Krupka, M.C.


    A re-examination, revision, and re-evaluation of the data base contained within the 1975 document, ERDA-13, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, were completed and results are presented in this report. New technical and resource data, current legislative proposals, updated supply-and-demand relationships, latest legal developments, programmatic changes affectng the future demand for helium, socio-economic aspects, and the effects of the latest energy-consumption projections were considered and are discussed. In contrast to ERDA-13, however, explicit recommendations with respect to the formulation of Federal helium policy, as it pertains to the energy-related applications of helium, are not given.

  10. Limitations of superfluid helium droplets as host system revealed by electronic spectroscopy of embedded molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premke, Tobias


    Superfluid helium nanodroplets serve a unique cryogenic host system ideal to prepare cold molecules and clusters. Structures as well as dynamic processes can be examined by means of high resolution spectroscopy. Dopant spectra are accompanied by helium-induced spectroscopic features which reveal information on the dopant to helium interaction. For this reason the experimental research focuses on the investigation of such helium-induced effects in order to provide new information on the microsolvation inside the droplets. Since the quantitative understanding of helium-induced spectral features is essential to interpret molecular spectra recorded in helium droplets, this study contributes further experimental details on microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. For this purpose two contrary systems were examined by means of high resolution electronic spectroscopy. The first one, phthalocyanine (Pc), is a planar organic molecule offering a huge and planar surface to the helium atoms and thus, the non-superfluid helium solvation layer can form different structures. The second system is iodine and in contrast to Pc it is of simple molecular shape. That means that in this case different complex structures of the non-superfluid helium solvation layer and the dopant can be expected to be avoided. Thus, both molecules should show clear differences in their microsolvation behavior. In this work a detailed examination of different spectroscopic properties of phthalocyanine is given by means of fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectroscopy. It raises legitimate doubts about the assignment of experimentally observed signals to features predicted by the model of the microsolvation. Even though there are no experimental observations which disprove the empirical model for the solvation in helium droplets, an unambiguous assignment of the helium-induced spectroscopic structures is often not possible. In the second part of this work, the investigation of the

  11. Energetic ionized helium in the quiet time radiation belts - Theory and comparison with observation (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.


    Theoretical calculations of helium ion distributions in the inner magnetosphere are compared to observations made by ATS-6 and Explorer-45. Coupled transport equations for equatorially mirroring singly and doubly ionized helium ions in the steady state limit with an outer boundary of L = 7 are solved. Radial profiles and energy spectra are computed at all lower L values. Theoretical quiet time predictions are compared to satellite observations of energetic helium ions in the lower MeV range. It is found that the theory adequately represents the principal characteristics of the radiation belt helium ion population.

  12. Formation of interstitial atoms in surface layers of helium-implanted tungsten (United States)

    Dudka, O. V.; Ksenofontov, V. A.; Masilov, A. A.; Sadanov, E. V.


    Using a method of field ion microscopy, the atomic structure of surface and near-surface layers of a perfect dislocation-free tungsten irradiated by helium ions with energies below the threshold of displacement was studied. We have found the output of tungsten atoms from the bulk as a result of their displacement from regular lattice positions occupied by implanted helium atoms and the formation of interstitial tungsten atoms. It is shown that high concentrations of helium and the presence of image forces have a considerable effect on the development of these processes. Depleted zones consisting of helium-vacancy complexes are revealed within the irradiated near-surface layer.

  13. Coupling a Small Ensemble of Electrons on Helium to a Superconducting Circuit (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Koolstra, Gerwin; Czaplewski, David; Ocola, Leonidas; Schuster, David I.

    Electrons on helium is a unique two-dimensional electron gas system formed at the interface of a quantum liquid (superfluid helium) and vacuum. If single electrons on helium can be isolated, the motional and spin states could form the building blocks for hybrid quantum computing. Here we first review the strong coupling between a large electron ensemble and a microwave resonator. Then we will describe methods to isolate small mesoscopic ensembles with less than 100 electrons in a micron-sized trap at the end of a quarter wavelength microwave cavity. Finally we will discuss the effect of helium fluctuations on the coherence of the hybrid circuit.

  14. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone. (United States)

    Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G


    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  15. Helium mobility in SON68 borosilicate nuclear glass: A nuclear reaction analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bès, R., E-mail: [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Sauvage, T. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Université d’Orléans, Faculté des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Peuget, S. [CEA/DEN/VRH/DTCD/SECM/LMPA Marcoule (France); Haussy, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Chamssedine, F. [Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences V, Nabatiyeh (Lebanon); Oliviero, E. [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 104-108, F-91405 Orsay (France); Fares, T. [CEA/DEN/VRH/DTCD/SECM/LMPA Marcoule (France); Vincent, L. [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay (France)


    The {sup 3}He behavior in the non active R7T7 type borosilicate glass called SON68 has been investigated using the implantation method to introduce helium in the material. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was performed to follow the helium concentration depth profile evolution as a function of annealing time and temperature. In addition, in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been implemented to study the formation of helium bubbles during both implantation and annealing processes. Numerical modeling with two different approaches is proposed and discussed to investigate the helium mobility mechanisms. Our study reveals for helium incorporation by implantation at low temperature the presence of several helium populations with disparate diffusivities. The most mobile helium fraction would be attributed to atomic diffusion. The corresponding activation energy value (0.61 eV) extracted from Arrhenius graphs is in good agreement with literature data. The results also highlight that the damages associated to helium sursaturation are the source of small helium clusters formation, with a reduced mobility instead of the atomic mobility measured by the infusion technique. Small cavities that support this assumption have been observed by TEM at low temperature.

  16. Optimization of Helium Vessel Design for ILC Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratangelo, Enrico [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)


    The ILC (International Linear Collider) is a proposed new major particle accelerator. It consists of two 20 km long linear accelerators colliding electrons and positrons at an energy exceeding 500 GeV, Achieving this collision energy while keeping reasonable accelerator dimensions requires the use of high electric field superconducting cavities as the main acceleration element. These cavities are operated at l.3 GHz inside an appropriate container (He vessel) at temperatures as low as 1.4 K using superfluid Helium as the refrigerating medium. The purpose of this thesis, in the context of the ILC R&D activities currently in progress at Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), is the mechanical study of an ILC superconducting cavity and Helium vessel prototype. The main goals of these studies are the determination of the limiting working conditions of the whole He vessel assembly, the simulation of the manufacturing process of the cavity end-caps and the assessment of the Helium vessel's efficiency. In addition this thesis studies the requirements to certify the compliance with the ASME Code of the whole cavity/vessel assembly. Several Finite Elements Analyses were performed by the candidate himself in order to perform the studies listed above and described in detail in Chapters 4 through 8. ln particular the candidate has developed an improved procedure to obtain more accurate results with lower computational times. These procedures will be accurately described in the following chapters. After an introduction that briefly describes the Fennilab and in particular the Technical Division (where all the activities concerning with this thesis were developed), the first part of this thesis (Chapters 2 and 3) explains some of the main aspects of modem particle accelerators. Moreover it describes the most important particle accelerators working at the moment and the basic features of the ILC project. Chapter 4 describes all the activities that were done to

  17. Contribution to the experimental study of the polarized liquid helium-3; Contributions a l'etude experimentale de l'helium-3 liquide polarise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, B


    Spin-polarized liquid helium-3 is prepared by laser optical pumping in low magnetic field and at room temperature, prior to fast liquefaction of the polarized sample. The use of a new helium-3 cryostat enabled us to obtain liquid helium-3 with polarization rates up to 25 % at well-stabilized temperatures (around 0.5 K). We could thereby study the effect of nuclear polarization on liquid-vapour equilibrium, and particularly on the saturated vapour pressure. Very sensitive capacitive gauges were developed. We estimated (to first order in M{sup 2}) the expected effects when the polarization M is suddenly destroyed. These effects were experimentally observed in helium-3/helium-4 mixtures, in pure helium-3, only a transient increase in pressure has been recorded. We then describe in a third part a preliminary experiment which aimed at determining the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in mixtures. Relaxation on the walls is efficiently reduced by a cesium coating and T1s of order 20 minutes were observed. A careful determination of the helium-3 concentration in the liquid phase was made. Finally we studied the effects of dipolar field on transverse polarisation decay in our strongly polarized samples. We observed the free precession of polarization after a NMR pulse, and analysed in detail its decay time constant as a function of different parameters. This time constant drastically varied with the tipping angle, an effect which could be linked to NMR dynamical instabilities. (author)

  18. Helium Tagging Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Reactive Ions. (United States)

    Roithová, Jana; Gray, Andrew; Andris, Erik; Jašík, Juraj; Gerlich, Dieter


    The interrogation of reaction intermediates is key for understanding chemical reactions; however their direct observation and study remains a considerable challenge. Mass spectrometry is one of the most sensitive analytical techniques, and its use to study reaction mixtures is now an established practice. However, the information that can be obtained is limited to elemental analysis and possibly to fragmentation behavior, which is often challenging to analyze. In order to extend the available experimental information, different types of spectroscopy in the infrared and visible region have been combined with mass spectrometry. Spectroscopy of mass selected ions usually utilizes the powerful sensitivity of mass spectrometers, and the absorption of photons is not detected as such but rather translated to mass changes. One approach to accomplish such spectroscopy involves loosely binding a tag to an ion that will be removed by absorption of one photon. We have constructed an ion trapping instrument capable of reaching temperatures that are sufficiently low to enable tagging by helium atoms in situ, thus permitting infrared photodissociation spectroscopy (IRPD) to be carried out. While tagging by larger rare gas atoms, such as neon or argon is also possible, these may cause significant structural changes to small and reactive species, making the use of helium highly beneficial. We discuss the "innocence" of helium as a tag in ion spectroscopy using several case studies. It is shown that helium tagging is effectively innocent when used with benzene dications, not interfering with their structure or IRPD spectrum. We have also provided a case study where we can see that despite its minimal size there are systems where He has a huge effect. A strong influence of the He tagging was shown in the IRPD spectra of HCCl(2+) where large spectral shifts were observed. While the presented systems are rather small, they involve the formation of mixtures of isomers. We have therefore

  19. Dynamics of the Galapagos hotspot from helium isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, M.D.; Geist, D.


    The authors have measured the isotopes of He, Sr, Nd and Pb in a number of lava flows from the Galapagos Archipelago; the main goal is to use magmatic helium as a tracer of plume influence in the western volcanoes. Because the Galapagos lava flows are so well preserved, it is also possible to measure surface exposure ages using in situ cosmic-ray-produced {sup 3}He. The exposure ages range from {lt}0.1 to 580 Ka, are consistent with other chronological constrains, and provide the first direct dating of these lava flows. The new age data demonstrate the utility of the technique in this important age range and show that the western Galapagos volcanoes have been erupting distance compositions simultaneously for the last {approximately}10 Ka. The magmatic {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios range from 6.0 to 27 times atmospheric (R{sub a}), with the highest values found on the islands of Isabella (16.8 R{sub a} for Vulcan Sierra Negra) and Fernandina (23 to 27 R{sub a}). Values from Santa Cruz are close to typical mid-ocean ridge basalt values (MORB, of {approximately}9 R{sub 2}) and Pinta has a {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio lower than MORB (6.9 R{sub a}). These data confirm that the plume is centered beneath Fernandina which is the most active volcano in the archipelago and is at the leading edge of plate motion. The data are consistent with previous isotopic studies, confirming extensive contributions from depleted asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle sources, especially to the central islands. The most striking aspect of the helium isotopic data is that the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios decrease systematically in all directions from Fernandina. This spatial variability is assumed to reflect the contribution of the purest plume component to Fernandina magmatism, and shows that helium is a sensitive indicator of plume influence. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are found in volcanoes with lowest Na{sub 2}O(8) and FeO(8), which may relate to source composition as well as degree

  20. Doubly excited helium. From strong correlation to chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yuhai


    In the present dissertation, the double excitation states of helium including the autoionization decay of these states were studied experimentally and theoretically in a broad energy region, which includes the transition from strong correlation below the low single ionization thresholds (SIT) to the region of quantum chaos at energies very close to the double-ionization threshold. Two kind of experiments were performed, namely total-ion-yield measurements with the aim to observe total cross sections (TCS) and electron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements to obtain partial cross sections (PCS) as well as angular distribution parameters (ADP). Both types of measurements were performed at the third generation synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin. The TCSs were recorded up to the SIT I{sub 15}, and they were found to be in in excellent agreement with state-of-the-art complex-rotation calculations performed recently by D. Delande. These experimental and theoretical data on the TCSs were analyzed in order to study quantum chaos in doubly excited helium, and interesting signatures of quantum chaos were found. The TOF technique allowed to measure PCSs and ADPs in the energy regions from I{sub 5} to I{sub 9} and I{sub 7}, respectively. These experimental data provide a critical assessment of theoretical models that can be used to explore the dynamics of strong correlation as well as quantum chaos in helium. In the theoretical part of this dissertation, the n- and l-specific PCSs and ADPs below I{sub 4} were calculated employing the R-matrix method. The present theoretical results agree well with a recent experimental study of l-specific PCSs below I{sub 4} by J.R. Harries et al. An analysis of patterns in the PCSs and ADPs on the basis of the present experimental and theoretical l-specific data allowed to improve the present understanding of autoionization decay dynamics in this two-electron atom. (orig.)

  1. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.


    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  2. High Resolution Helium Ion Scanning Microscopy of the Rat Kidney (United States)

    Rice, William L.; Van Hoek, Alfred N.; Păunescu, Teodor G.; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A.; Brown, Dennis


    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  3. Helium diffusion during formation of the first galaxies (United States)

    Medvedev, P.; Sazonov, S.; Gilfanov, M.


    We investigate the possible impact of diffusion on the abundance of helium and other primordial elements during formation of the first structures in the early Universe. We consider the primary collapse of a perturbation and subsequent accretion of matter on to the virialized halo, restricting our consideration to haloes with masses considerably above the Jeans limit. We find that diffusion in the cold and nearly neutral primordial gas at the end of the Dark Ages could raise the abundance of primordial elements relative to hydrogen in the first virialized haloes: helium enrichment could reach δYp/Yp ˜ 10-4 in the first star-forming minihaloes of ˜105-106 M⊙. A moderate (to ˜100 K) preheating of the primordial gas at the beginning of cosmic reionization could increase this effect to δYp/Yp ˜ 3 × 10-4 for ˜106 M⊙ haloes. Even stronger abundance enhancements, δYp/Yp ˜ a few 10-3, may arise at much later, post-reionization epochs, z ˜ 2, in protogroups of galaxies (˜1013 M⊙) as a result of accretion of warm-hot intergalactic medium with T ˜ 106 K. The diffusion-induced abundance changes discussed, here, are small but comparable to the already achieved ˜0.1 per cent precision of cosmological predictions of the primordial He abundance. If direct helium abundance measurements (in particular, in low-metallicity H II regions in dwarf galaxies) achieve the same level of precision in the future, their comparison with the BBN predictions may require consideration of the effects discussed here.

  4. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney. (United States)

    Rice, William L; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Păunescu, Teodor G; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A; Brown, Dennis


    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  5. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Rice

    Full Text Available Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details

  6. Accuracy of helium accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center


    A helium (He) accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for fast reactor dosimetry. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of neutron fluence by the HAFM method, the HAFMs of enriched boron (B) and beryllium (Be) were irradiated in the Fast Neutron Source Reactor `YAYOI`. The number of He atoms produced in the HAFMs were measured and compared with the calculated values. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the neutron fluence could be measured within 5 % by the HAFM method, and that met the required accuracy for fast reactor dosimetry. (author)

  7. Fabrication of semiconductor microspheres with laser ablation in superfluid helium (United States)

    Minowa, Yosuke; Oguni, Yuya; Ashida, Masaaki


    We fabricated semiconductor ZnO microspheres via the pulsed laser ablation in the superfluid helium. The scanning electron microscope observation revealed the high sphericity and smooth surface. We also observed whispering gallery mode resonances, the electromagnetic eigenmode resonances within the microspheres, in the cathodoluminescence spectrum, verifying the high symmetry of the fabricated microspheres. Further, we cross-sectioned the microspheres with using focused ion beam. The scanning electron microscope observation of the cross section uncovers the existence of small holes within the microspheres. The inner structure examination helps us to understand the microscopic mechanism of our fabrication method.

  8. Flow of Helium-4 in One-dimensional Channel (United States)

    Harris, Clayton R.; Banavar, Samhita; Kim, Duk Y.; Chan, Moses H. W.; Bischof, Jesse; Badding, John V.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier


    Superfluidity breaks down in the one-dimensional limit. However, other experiments have demonstrated superfluid flow through pores on the order of nanometers. Here we report on studying liquid helium flow through a single-hole glass capillary with internal diameters ranging from 80 to 150 nm. We observed a significant flow rate increase below the lambda transition temperature. The estimated critical velocities at low temperatures are approximately 10 m/s, which belongs to the highest group of measured critical velocities. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  9. Phase Measurement of Resonant Two-Photon Ionization in Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, M; Klünder, K; Dahlström, J M; Miranda, M; Buth, C; Schafer, K J; Mauritsson, J; L'Huillier, A; Gisselbrecht, M


    We study resonant two-color two-photon ionization of Helium via the 1s3p 1P1 state. The first color is the 15th harmonic of a tunable titanium sapphire laser, while the second color is the fundamental laser radiation. Our method uses phase-locked high-order harmonics to determine the {\\it phase} of the two-photon process by interferometry. The measurement of the two-photon ionization phase variation as a function of detuning from the resonance and intensity of the dressing field allows us to determine the intensity dependence of the transition energy.

  10. White light transverse cooling of a helium beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasel, E.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Saverio Pavone, F.; Perales, F.; Unnikrishnan, C.S.; Leduc, M. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France). Dept. de Phys.


    We report a study of transverse laser cooling on a metastable helium beam using spectrally broadened diode lasers (''white light'') to increase its flux. For this purpose, beam profile and atomic flux versus laser power and other parameters have been characterized. We have performed experiments to compare this technique with other transverse cooling methods using monochromatic light. Best results are obtained with a ''ziz-zag'' configuration using ''white light''. (orig.)

  11. Theoretical studies of photoassociation in ultracold metastable helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocks, D G; Whittingham, I B, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Mathematics, Physics and Information Technology, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 (Australia)


    Line shifts and line shapes for photoassociation of spin-polarised metastable helium to long-range vibrational states in the J = 1,0{sup +}{sub u} potential dissociating to the 2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} + 2p {sup 3}P{sub 0} limit are studied using a nonperturbative multichannel calculation valid for arbitrary laser intensities. Asymptotically-free dressed states of the laser plus matter system are used to obtain the S-matrix elements required to generate the photoassociation profiles. Issues associated with the very shallow nature of the potentials that support the excited states are investigated.

  12. Rotational excitation of methanol by helium at interstellar temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pottage, J


    Calculations have been performed to obtain accurate cross-sections and thermally averaged rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of methanol by helium, using the Coupled States quantum-mechanical approach. Transitions within the ground and first torsionally excited states of A and E-type methanol were considered. The 'propensity rules' governing the collisional transitions were examined and compared with the results of microwave double resonance experiments. Predictions are made of line intensity ratios which are sensitive to the density of the He perturber and which lend themselves to the determination of the perturber densities in astrophysically interesting regions of molecular clouds.

  13. Helium in double-detonation models of type Ia supernovae (United States)

    Boyle, Aoife; Sim, Stuart A.; Hachinger, Stephan; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang


    The double-detonation explosion model has been considered a candidate for explaining astrophysical transients with a wide range of luminosities. In this model, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf star explodes following detonation of a surface layer of helium. One potential signature of this explosion mechanism is the presence of unburned helium in the outer ejecta, left over from the surface helium layer. In this paper we present simple approximations to estimate the optical depths of important He i lines in the ejecta of double-detonation models. We use these approximations to compute synthetic spectra, including the He i lines, for double-detonation models obtained from hydrodynamical explosion simulations. Specifically, we focus on photospheric-phase predictions for the near-infrared 10 830 Å and 2 μm lines of He i. We first consider a double detonation model with a luminosity corresponding roughly to normal SNe Ia. This model has a post-explosion unburned He mass of 0.03 M⊙ and our calculations suggest that the 2 μm feature is expected to be very weak but that the 10 830 Å feature may have modest opacity in the outer ejecta. Consequently, we suggest that a moderate-to-weak He i 10 830 Å feature may be expected to form in double-detonation explosions at epochs around maximum light. However, the high velocities of unburned helium predicted by the model ( 19 000 km s-1) mean that the He i 10 830 Å feature may be confused or blended with the C i 10 690 Å line forming at lower velocities. We also present calculations for the He i 10 830 Å and 2 μm lines for a lower mass (low luminosity) double detonation model, which has a post-explosion He mass of 0.077 M⊙. In this case, both the He i features we consider are strong and can provide a clear observational signature of the double-detonation mechanism.

  14. Dilute helium mixtures at low temperatures : properties and cooling methods


    Pentti, Elias


    This thesis describes experimental work on dilute mixtures of ³He in 4He, mainly at millikelvin temperatures. The isotopic helium mixture has the unique property of remaining a miscible liquid down to the absolute zero temperature. In the mK regime, it consists of two very different components: perfectly superfluid 4He, and a weakly interacting degenerate Fermi liquid of ³He, predicted by theory to undergo transition to the superfluid state at an extremely low temperature. To discover that tr...

  15. Behavior of W-based materials in hot helium gas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Vilémová, Monika; Hadraba, Hynek; Di Gabriele, F.; Kuběna, Ivo; Kolíbalová, E.; Michalička, J.; Čech, J.; Jäger, Aleš


    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 405-410 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : tungsten * helium * fusion materials Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFM-A); JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D)

  16. Active helium target: Neutron scalar polarizability extraction via Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Meg, E-mail:; Hornidge, David [Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick (Canada); Annand, John; Strandberg, Bruno [University of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    Precise measurement of the neutron scalar polarizabilities has been a lasting challenge because of the lack of a free-neutron target. Led by the University of Glasgow and the Mount Allison University groups of the A2 collaboration in Mainz, Germany, preparations have begun to test a recent theoretical model with an active helium target with the hope of determining these elusive quantities with small statistical, systematic, and model-dependent errors. Apparatus testing and background-event simulations have been carried out, with the full experiment projected to run in 2015. Once determined, these values can be applied to help understand quantum chromodynamics in the nonperturbative region.

  17. Control Optimization of a LHC 18 KW Cryoplant Warm Compression Station Using Dynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bradu, B; Niculescu, S I


    This paper addresses the control optimization of a 4.5 K refrigerator used in the cryogenic system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. First, the compressor station with the cold-box have been modeled and simulated under PROCOS (Process and Control Simulator), a simulation environment developed at CERN. Next, an appropriate parameter identification has been performed on the simulator to obtain a simplified model of the system in order to design an Internal Model Control (IMC) enhancing the regulation of the high pressure. Finally, a floating high pressure control is proposed using a cascade control to reduce operational costs.

  18. Electronic Spectroscopy of Phthalocyanine and Porphyrin Derivatives in Superfluid Helium Nanodroplets. (United States)

    Slenczka, Alkwin


    Phthalocyanine and porphyrin were among the first organic compounds investigated by means of electronic spectroscopy in superfluid helium nanodroplets. Superfluid helium nanodroplets serve as a very gentle host system for preparing cold and isolated molecules. The uniqueness of helium nanodroplets is with respect to the superfluid phase which warrants the vanishing viscosity and, thus, minimal perturbation of the dopant species at a temperature as low as 0.37 K. These are ideal conditions for the study of molecular spectra in order to analyze structures as well as dynamic processes. Besides the investigation of the dopant species itself, molecular spectroscopy in helium droplets provides information on the helium droplet and in particular on microsolvation. This article, as part of a special issue on phthalocyanines and porphyrins, reviews electronic spectroscopy of phthalocyanine and porphyrin compounds in superfluid helium nanodroplets. In addition to the wide variety of medical as well as technical and synthetical aspects, this article discusses electronic spectroscopy of phthalocyanines and porphyrins in helium droplets in order to learn about both the dopant and the helium environment.

  19. Soil-gas helium and surface-waves detection of fault zones in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gas helium; surface-waves; faults and fractures; groundwater; granite basement. ... Soil-gas helium emanometry has been utilized in Wailapally watershed,near Hyderabad in southern India,for the detection of fracture and fault zones in a granite ...

  20. Imaging and nanofabrication with the helium ion microscope of the Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory in Delft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, P.F.A.; Koster, E.M.; Veldhoven, E. van; Maas, D.J.


    Although helium ion microscopy (HIM) was introduced only a few years ago, many new application fields are emerging. The connecting factor between these novel applications is the unique interaction of the primary helium ion beam with the sample material at and just below its surface. In particular,

  1. Characteristics of an activated carbon monolith for a helium adsorption compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano-Castello, D.; Jorda-Beneyto, M.; Cazorla-Amoros, D.; Linares-Solano, A.; Burger, Johannes Faas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Holland, Herman J.


    An activated carbon monolith (ACM) with a high helium adsorption/desorption capacity, high density, low pressure drop, low thermal expansion and good mechanical properties was prepared and applied successfully in a helium adsorption compressor as a part of a 4.5 K sorption cooler. The activated

  2. Gravitational and radiative effects on the escape of helium from the moon (United States)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.


    On the moon, and probably on Mercury and other similar regolith-covered bodies with tenuous atmosphere, the dominant gas is He-4. It arises as the radiogenic product of the decay of uranium and thorium within any planet, but its major source appears to be the alpha particle flux of the solar wind. The moon intercepts solar wind helium at an average rate of 1.1 times 10 to the 24th atom/sec, and loses it at the same rate. Some helium may escape directly as the result of the process of solar wind soil bombardment which may release previously trapped helium at superthermal speeds. Atmospheric models have been calculated with the total helium influx as source. Subsequent comparison of model and measured helium concentrations indicates that the fraction of helium escaping via the atmosphere may range from 20% to 100% of the solar wind influx. Of the escaping atmosphere, most of the helium (about 93%) becomes trapped in earth orbit, while about 5% gets trapped in satellite orbits about the moon. Owing to a 6 month lifetime for helium in solar radiation, the satellite atoms form a lunar corona that exceeds the lunar atmosphere in total abundance by a factor of 4 to 5.

  3. Calculation of the density shift and broadening of the transition lines in pionic helium: Computational problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, INRNE (Bulgaria)


    The potential energy surface and the computational codes, developed for the evaluation of the density shift and broadening of the spectral lines of laser-induced transitions from metastable states of antiprotonic helium, fail to produce convergent results in the case of pionic helium. We briefly analyze the encountered computational problems and outline possible solutions of the problems.

  4. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations (United States)

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen


    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  5. Modeling the effects of dissolved helium pressurant on a liquid hydrogen rocket propellant tank (United States)

    Richardson, I. A.; Leachman, J. W.


    A model was developed using NASA’s Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) for the self-pressurization of a liquid hydrogen propellant tank due to boil-off to determine the significance of mixture non-idealities. The GFSSP model compared the tank performance for the traditional model that assumes no helium pressurant dissolves into the liquid hydrogen propellant to an updated model that accounts for dissolved helium pressurant. Traditional NASA models have been unable to account for this dissolved helium due to a lack of fundamental property information. Recent measurements of parahydrogen-helium mixtures enabled the development of the first multi-phase Equation Of State (EOS) for parahydrogen-helium mixtures. The self-pressurization GFSSP model was run assuming that the liquid propellant was pure liquid hydrogen and assuming helium dissolved into the liquid utilizing the new helium-hydrogen EOS. The analysis shows that having dissolved helium in the propellant does not have a significant effect on the tank pressurization rate for typical tank conditions (-423 °F and 30 psia).

  6. Visualization of steps and surface reconstructions in Helium Ion Microscopy with atomic precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlawacek, G.; Jankowski, Maciej; Wormeester, Herbert; van Gastel, Raoul; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene


    Helium Ion Microscopy is known for its surface sensitivity and high lateral resolution. Here, we present results of a Helium Ion Microscopy based investigation of a surface confined alloy of Ag on Pt(111). Based on a change of the work function of 25 meV across the atomically flat terraces we can

  7. Phonons in quantum solids with defects. [lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen (United States)

    Jacobi, N.; Zmuidzinas, J. S.


    A formalism was developed for temperature-dependent, self-consistent phonons in quantum solids with defects. Lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen, as well as electronic excitations in solid helium, were treated as defects that modify properties of these systems. The information to be gained from the modified phonon spectrum is discussed.

  8. Nanolithography with metastable helium atoms in a high-power standing-wave light field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petra, S.J.H.; Feenstra, L.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.


    We have created periodic nanoscale structures in a gold substrate with a lithography process using metastable triplet helium atoms that damage a hydrophobic resist layer on top of the substrate. A beam of metastable helium atoms is transversely collimated and guided through an intense standing-wave

  9. Final report on the Controlled Cold Helium Spill Test in the LHC tunnel at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dufay-Chanat, L; Casas-Cubillos, J; Chorowski, M; Grabowski, M; Jedrusyna, A; Lindell, G; Nonis, M; Koettig, T; Vauthier, N; van Weelderen, R; Winkler, T


    The 27 km circumference LHC underground tunnel is a space in which the helium cooled LHC magnets are installed. The vacuum enclosures of the superconducting magnets are protected by over-pressure safety relief devices that open whenever cold helium escapes either from the magnet cold enclosure or from the helium supply headers, into this vacuum enclosure. A 3-m long no stay zone around these devices is defined based on scale model studies, protecting the personnel against cold burns or asphyxia caused by such a helium release event. Recently, several simulation studies have been carried out modelling the propagation of the helium/air mixture, resulting from the opening of such a safety device, along the tunnel. The released helium flows vary in the range between 1 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. To validate these different simulation studies, real life mock-up tests have been performed inside the LHC tunnel, releasing helium flow rates of 1 kg/s, 0.3 kg/s and 0.1 kg/s. For each test, up to 1000 liters of liquid helium wer...

  10. The Mechanism of Helium-Induced Preconditioning: A Direct Role for Nitric Oxide in Rabbits (United States)

    Pagel, Paul S.; Krolikowski, John G.; Pratt, Phillip F.; Shim, Yon Hee; Amour, Julien; Warltier, David C.; Weihrauch, Dorothee


    BACKGROUND Helium produces preconditioning against myocardial infarction by activating prosurvival signaling, but whether nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase plays a role in this phenomenon is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NO mediates helium-induced cardioprotection in vivo. METHODS Rabbits (n = 62) instrumented for hemodynamic measurement were subjected to a 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 3 h reperfusion, and received 0.9% saline (control) or three cycles of 70% helium–30% oxygen administered for 5 min interspersed with 5 min of an air–oxygen mixture before left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion in the absence or presence of pretreatment with the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg), the selective inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG; 300 mg/kg), or selective neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 50 mg/kg). In additional rabbits, the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluroscein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and confocal laser microscopy were used to detect NO production in the absence or presence of helium with or without L-NAME pretreatment. RESULTS Helium reduced (P helium-induced cardioprotection. Helium enhanced DAF-2DA fluorescence compared with control (26 ± 8 vs 15 ± 5 U, respectively). Pretreatment with L-NAME abolished these helium-induced increases in DAF-2DA fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that cardioprotection by helium is mediated by NO that is probably generated by endothelial NOS in vivo. PMID:18713880

  11. Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Gauging of an Isothermal Cryogenic Propellant Tank Pressurized with Gaseous Helium (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.


    Results are presented for pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging of a liquid oxygen/liquid nitrogen tank pressurized with gaseous helium that was supplied by a high-pressure cryogenic tank simulating a cold helium supply bottle on a spacecraft. The fluid inside the test tank was kept isothermal by frequent operation of a liquid circulation pump and spray system, and the propellant tank was suspended from load cells to obtain a high-accuracy reference standard for the gauging measurements. Liquid quantity gauging errors of less than 2 percent of the tank volume were obtained when quasi-steady-state conditions existed in the propellant and helium supply tanks. Accurate gauging required careful attention to, and corrections for, second-order effects of helium solubility in the liquid propellant plus differences in the propellant/helium composition and temperature in the various plumbing lines attached to the tanks. On the basis of results from a helium solubility test, a model was developed to predict the amount of helium dissolved in the liquid as a function of cumulative pump operation time. Use of this model allowed correction of the basic PVT gauging calculations and attainment of the reported gauging accuracy. This helium solubility model is system specific, but it may be adaptable to other hardware systems.

  12. The Trapping of Helium at a Low Angle Tilt Boundary in Molybdenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.H.; Veen, A. van; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Bullough, R.; Willis, J.R.


    This paper presents experimental evidence of helium trapping at a set of b = [100] edge dislocations defining a low angle tilt boundary in molybdenum together with theoretical results on two aspects of helium-dislocation behaviour. The low angle boundary, with a misfit angle of ≈1/5 °, was found

  13. Electronic Transport in Helium Beam Modified Graphene and Ballistic Josephson Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.


    This thesis describes the capabilities of the helium ion microscope (HIM) and that of graphene to explore fundamental physics and novel applications. While graphene offers superior electronic properties, the helium ion microscope allows us to combine imaging and modification of materials at the

  14. Nanostructuring of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces by low-energy helium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Bystrov, K.; Zielinski, J. J.; Balden, M.; Matern, G.; Arnas, C.; Marot, L.


    The formation of metallic nanostructures by exposure of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces to high fluxes of low energy helium ions is studied as a function of the ion energy, plasma exposure time, and surface temperature. Helium plasma exposure leads to the formation of nanoscopic filaments on the

  15. Helium purity control by thin film gas sensors at the NA48 experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, V; Ferroni, M; Petrucci, F; Sberveglieri, G


    The authors have implemented a system for monitoring the purity of helium for the NA-48 experiment on high-energy physics at CERN. This measurement is important for correct execution of the experiment. A set of SnO2 sensors was used to the purpose for on-line information on helium purity within the required accuracy.

  16. Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon (United States)

    Andersen, V.; Wilson, T. L.; Pinsky, L. S.


    The subject of conducting fundamental physics and astronomy experiments on the lunar surface continues to be of interest in the planetary science community. Such an inquiry necessarily requires an analysis of the backscatter albedos produced by Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) when they directly impact the lunar regolith. Unlike the Earth, this happens because the Moon has only a tenuous exosphere. Such secondary radiation constitutes a background that obscures and interferes with measurements conducted in the normal sense of laboratory physics on Earth. Our previous investigations using recent enhancements in the Monte Carlo program known as FLUKA included the production of charged particles, neutrons, photons, and neutrinos by the impact of Galactic protons. That investigation is extended here to include the effect of ionized helium, He-4, or a particles. Because high-energy GCRs excite planetary regoliths into giving rise to charmed mesons, neutrinos are produced. Thus a connection is established for the GCR helium production of prompt neutrinos on the Moon using the physics of charm.

  17. Imaging of carbon nanomembranes with helium ion microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Beyer


    Full Text Available Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs prepared from aromatic self-assembled monolayers constitute a recently developed class of 2D materials. They are made by a combination of self-assembly, radiation-induced cross-linking and the detachment of the cross-linked SAM from its substrate. CNMs can be deposited on arbitrary substrates, including holey and perforated ones, as well as on metallic (transmission electron microscopy grids. Therewith, freestanding membranes with a thickness of 1 nm and macroscopic lateral dimensions can be prepared. Although free-standing CNMs cannot be imaged by light microscopy, charged particle techniques can visualize them. However, CNMs are electrically insulating, which makes them sensitive to charging. We demonstrate that the helium ion microscope (HIM is a good candidate for imaging freestanding CNMs due to its efficient charge compensation tool. Scanning with a beam of helium ions while recording the emitted secondary electrons generates the HIM images. The advantages of HIM are high resolution, high surface sensitivity and large depth of field. The effects of sample charging, imaging of multilayer CNMs as well as imaging artefacts are discussed.

  18. Aerial Deployment and Inflation System for Mars Helium Balloons (United States)

    Lachenmeler, Tim; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Hall, Jeffery, L.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Pauken, Michael T.; Walsh, Gerald J.; White, Christopher V.


    A method is examined for safely deploying and inflating helium balloons for missions at Mars. The key for making it possible to deploy balloons that are light enough to be buoyant in the thin, Martian atmosphere is to mitigate the transient forces on the balloon that might tear it. A fully inflated Mars balloon has a diameter of 10 m, so it must be folded up for the trip to Mars, unfolded upon arrival, and then inflated with helium gas in the atmosphere. Safe entry into the Martian atmosphere requires the use of an aeroshell vehicle, which protects against severe heating and pressure loads associated with the hypersonic entry flight. Drag decelerates the aeroshell to supersonic speeds, then two parachutes deploy to slow the vehicle down to the needed safe speed of 25 to 35 m/s for balloon deployment. The parachute system descent dynamic pressure must be approximately 5 Pa or lower at an altitude of 4 km or more above the surface.

  19. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Cartigny, A.; Blakely, E.A.; Lyman, J.T.; Zink, S.R.


    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons.

  20. Development of helium electron cyclotron wall conditioning on TCV (United States)

    Douai, D.; Goodman, T.; Isayama, A.; Fukumoto, M.; Wauters, T.; Sozzi, C.; Coda, S.; Blanchard, P.; Figini, L.; Garavaglia, S.; Miyata, Y.; Moro, A.; Ricci, D.; Silva, M.; Theiler, C.; Vartanian, S.; Verhaegh, K.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the TCV Team


    JT-60SA envisions electron cyclotron wall conditioning (ECWC), as wall conditioning method in the presence of the toroidal field to control fuel and impurity recycling and to improve plasma performance and reproducibility. This paper reports on Helium ECWC experiments on TCV in support of JT-60SA operation. Nearly sixty Helium conditioning discharges have been successfully produced in TCV, at a toroidal field B T  =  1.3 or 1.54 T, with gyrotrons at 82.7 GHz in X2 mode, mimicking ECWC operation in JT-60SA at the second harmonic of the EC wave. Discharge parameters were tuned in order to (i) minimize the time for the onset of ECWC plasmas, thus minimizing absorption of stray radiation by in-vessel components, (ii) improve discharge homogeneity by extending the discharge vertically and radially, and wall coverage, in particular of inboard surfaces where JT-60SA plasmas will be initiated, (iii) assess the efficiency of He-ECWC to deplete carbon walls from fuel. An optimized combination of vertical and radial magnetic fields, with amplitudes typically 0.1 to 0.6% of that of B T, has been determined, which resulted in lowest breakdown time, improved wall coverage and enhanced fuel removal. A standard ohmic D 2-plasma could be then sustained, whereas it would not have been possible without He-ECWC.

  1. Hydrogen isotope accumulation in the helium implantation zone in tungsten (United States)

    Markelj, S.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Založnik, A.


    The influence of helium (He) on deuterium (D) transport and retention was studied experimentally in tungsten (W). Helium was implanted 1 µm deep into W to a maximum calculated concentration of 3.4 at.%. To minimize the influence of displacement damage created during the He implantation on D retention, so-called self-damaged W was used. W was damaged by 20 MeV W ion bombardment and defects were populated by low-temperature D plasma at room temperature before He implantation. Deuterium depth profiling was performed in situ during isochronal annealing in the temperature range from 300 K to 800 K. It is shown for the first time unambiguously that He attracts D and locally increases D trapping. Deuterium retention increased by a factor of two as compared to a non-He implanted W reference after sample annealing at 450 K. Rate equation modelling can explain the measured D depth profiles quantitatively when keeping the de-trapping parameters unchanged but only increasing the number of traps in the He zone. This bolsters the confidence in the theoretical calculations predicting that more hydrogen isotopes can be stored around a He cluster zone.

  2. Helium-Cooled Refractory Alloys First Wall and Blanket Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Nygren, R.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Fogarty, P.; Ghoniem, N.; Khater, H.; McCarthy, K.; Merrill, B.; Nelson, B.; Reis, E.E.; Sharafat, S.; Schleicher, R.; Sze, D.K.; Ulrickson, M.; Willms, S.; Youssef, M.; Zinkel, S.


    Under the APEX program the He-cooled system design task is to evaluate and recommend high power density refractory alloy first wall and blanket designs and to recommend and initiate tests to address critical issues. We completed the preliminary design of a helium-cooled, W-5Re alloy, lithium breeder design and the results are reported in this paper. Many areas of the design were assessed, including material selection, helium impurity control, and mechanical, nuclear and thermal hydraulics design, and waste disposal, tritium and safety design. System study results show that at a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) gross thermal efficiency of 57.5%, a superconducting coil tokamak reactor, with an aspect ratio of 4, and an output power of 2 GWe, can be projected to have a cost of electricity at 54.6 mill/kWh. Critical issues were identified and we plan to continue the design on some of the critical issues during the next phase of the APEX design study.

  3. Photospheric Diagnostics of Core Helium Burning in Giant Stars (United States)

    Hawkins, Keith; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Walter-Rix, Hans


    Core helium burning primary red clump (RC) stars are evolved red giant stars that are excellent standard candles. As such, these stars are routinely used to map the Milky Way or determine the distance to other galaxies, among other things. However, distinguishing RC stars from their less evolved precursors, namely red giant branch (RGB) stars, is still a difficult challenge and has been deemed the domain of asteroseismology. In this paper, we use a sample of 1676 RGB and RC stars that have both single epoch infrared spectra from the APOGEE survey and asteroseismic parameters and classification to show that the spectra alone can be used to (1) predict asteroseismic parameters with precision high enough to (2) distinguish core helium burning RC from other giant stars with less than 2% contamination. This will not only allow for a clean selection of a large number of standard candles across our own and other galaxies from spectroscopic surveys, but also will remove one of the primary roadblocks for stellar evolution studies of mixing and mass loss in red giant stars.

  4. Collagen immobilization on polyethylene terephthalate surface after helium plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflori, Magdalena, E-mail: [Department of Polymers Physics and Polymeric Materials, “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Drobota, Mioara [Department of Polymers Physics and Polymeric Materials, “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Dimitriu, Dan Gh. [Faculty of Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 20A Bulevardul Carol I, 700505 Iasi (Romania); Stoica, Iuliana [Department of Polymers Physics and Polymeric Materials, “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, Bogdana [Department of Polymers Physics and Polymeric Materials, “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); “Costin D. Nenitescu” Centre of Organic Chemistry, 202B Splaiul Independentei, 71141 Bucharest (Romania); Harabagiu, Valeria [Department of Polymers Physics and Polymeric Materials, “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)


    An attractive alternative to add new functionalities such as biocompatibility due to the micro- and nano-scaled modification of polymer surfaces is offered by plasma processing. Many vital processes of tissue repair and growth following injuries depend on the rate of adsorption and self-assembling of the collagen molecules at the interfaces. Consequently, besides the amount of protein, it is necessary to investigate the form in which the collagen molecules are organizing on the polymer surface. In this study, direct current (DC) helium plasma treatment was used in order to obtain poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films with different amounts of collagen and different shapes of aggregates formed from the collagen molecules. The immobilization of collagen on PET surface was confirmed by XPS measurements, an increase of the nitrogen content by increasing the plasma exposure time being recorded. The SEM and AFM measurements revealed the presence of grains and dendrites of collagen formed on the polymer surface. At 15 min plasma treatment time, the polymer surface after collagen immobilization has a homogenous topography. Usually, one can find fibrils, coil or dendrimers of collagen formed in buffer solutions and immobilized on different polymer surfaces. On the other hand, in this particular configuration, the combination of DC plasma and helium gas as a PET functionalization tool is an original one. As the collagen is not covalently immobilized on the surfaces, it may interact with the cell culture medium proteins, part of the collagen might being replaced by other serum proteins.

  5. Neoclassical flows in deuterium-helium plasma density pedestals

    CERN Document Server

    Buller, Stefan; Newton, Sarah; Omotani, John


    In tokamak transport barriers, the radial scale of profile variations can be comparable to a typical ion orbit width, which makes the coupling of the distribution function across flux surfaces important in the collisional dynamics. We use the radially global steady-state neoclassical {\\delta}f code Perfect to calculate poloidal and toroidal flows, and radial fluxes, in the pedestal. In particular, we have studied the changes in these quantities as the plasma composition is changed from a deuterium bulk species with a helium impurity to a helium bulk with a deuterium impurity, under specific profile similarity assumptions. The poloidally resolved radial fluxes are not divergence-free in isolation in the presence of sharp radial profile variations, which leads to the appearance of poloidal return-flows. These flows exhibit a complex radial-poloidal structure that extends several orbit widths into the core and is sensitive to abrupt radial changes in the ion temperature gradient. We find that a sizable neoclassi...

  6. Neutron Irradiation Tests of Pressure Transducers in Liquid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Amand, J F; Casas-Cubillos, J; Thermeau, J P


    The superconducting magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will operate in pressurised superfluid helium (1 bar, 1.9 K). About 500 pressure transducers will be placed in the liquid helium bath for monitoring the filling and the pressure transients after resistive transitions. Their precision must remain better than 100 mbar at pressures below 2 bar and better than 5% for higher pressures (up to 20 bar), with temperatures ranging from 1.8 K to 300 K. All the tested transducers are based on the same principle: the fluid or gas is separated from a sealed reference vacuum by an elastic membrane; its deformation indicates the pressure. The transducers will be exposed to high neutron fluence (2 kGy, 1014 n/cm2 per year) during the 20 years of machine operation. This irradiation may induce changes both on the membranes characteristics (leakage, modification of elasticity) and on gauges which measure their deformations. To investigate these effects and select the transducer to be used in the LHC, a...

  7. Advanced helium purge seals for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) turbopumps (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur; Lee, Chester C.


    Program objectives were to determine three advanced configurations of helium buffer seals capable of providing improved performance in a space shuttle main engine (SSME), high-pressure liquid oxygen (LOX) turbopump environment, and to provide NASA with the analytical tools to determine performance of a variety of seal configurations. The three seal designs included solid-ring fluid-film seals often referred to as floating ring seals, back-to-back fluid-film face seals, and a circumferential sectored seal that incorporated inherent clearance adjustment capabilities. Of the three seals designed, the sectored seal is favored because the self-adjusting clearance features accommodate the variations in clearance that will occur because of thermal and centrifugal distortions without compromising performance. Moreover, leakage can be contained well below the maximum target values; minimizing leakage is important on the SSME since helium is provided by an external tank. A reduction in tank size translates to an increase in payload that can be carried on board the shuttle. The computer codes supplied under this program included a code for analyzing a variety of gas-lubricated, floating ring, and sector seals; a code for analyzing gas-lubricated face seals; a code for optimizing and analyzing gas-lubricated spiral-groove face seals; and a code for determining fluid-film face seal response to runner excitations in as many as five degrees of freedom. These codes proved invaluable for optimizing designs and estimating final performance of the seals described.

  8. Process Control Migration of 50 LPH Helium Liquefier (United States)

    Panda, U.; Mandal, A.; Das, A.; Behera, M.; Pal, Sandip


    Two helium liquefier/refrigerators are operational at VECC while one is dedicated for the Superconducting Cyclotron. The first helium liquefier of 50 LPH capacity from Air Liquide has already completed fifteen years of operation without any major trouble. This liquefier is being controlled by Eurotherm PC3000 make PLC. This PLC has become obsolete since last seven years or so. Though we can still manage to run the PLC system with existing spares, risk of discontinuation of the operation is always there due to unavailability of spare. In order to eliminate the risk, an equivalent PLC control system based on Siemens S7-300 was thought of. For smooth migration, total programming was done keeping the same field input and output interface, nomenclature and graphset. New program is a mix of S7-300 Graph, STL and LAD languages. One to one program verification of the entire process graph was done manually. The total program was run in simulation mode. Matlab mathematical model was also used for plant control simulations. EPICS based SCADA was used for process monitoring. As of now the entire hardware and software is ready for direct replacement with minimum required set up time.

  9. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Kulsreshath, M K; Schwaederle, L; Dufour, T; Overzet, L J; Lefaucheux, P; Dussart, R


    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*(3S1) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 s long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the ext...

  10. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others


    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  11. Quantum transition and decoherence of levitating polaron on helium film thickness under an electromagnetic field (United States)

    Kenfack, S. C.; Fotue, A. J.; Fobasso, M. F. C.; Djomou, J.-R. D.; Tiotsop, M.; Ngouana, K. S. L.; Fai, L. C.


    We have studied the transition probability and decoherence time of levitating polaron in helium film thickness. By using a variational method of Pekar type, the ground and the first excited states of polaron are calculated above the liquid-helium film placed on the polar substrate. It is shown that the polaron transits from the ground to the excited state in the presence of an external electromagnetic field in the plane. We have seen that, in the helium film, the effects of the magnetic and electric fields on the polaron are opposite. It is also shown that the energy, transition probability and decoherence time of the polaron depend sensitively on the helium film thickness. We found that decoherence time decreases as a function of increasing electron-phonon coupling strength and the helium film thickness. It is seen that the film thickness can be considered as a new confinement in our system and can be adjusted in order to reduce decoherence.

  12. Targets Involved in Cardioprotection by the Non-Anesthetic Noble Gas Helium. (United States)

    Weber, Nina C; Smit, Kirsten F; Hollmann, Markus W; Preckel, Benedikt


    Research data from the past decade indicate that noble gases like xenon and helium exert profound cardioprotection when applied before, during or after organ ischemia. Of all noble gases, especially helium, has gained interest in the past years because it does not have an anesthetic "side effect" like xenon, allowing application of this specific gas in numerous clinical ischemia/reperfusion situations. Because helium has several unique characteristics and no hemodynamic side effects, helium could be administered in severely ill patients. Investigations in animals as well as in humans have proven that this noble gas is not completely inert and can induce several biological effects. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms of helium-induced cardiac protection are still not yet fully understood, recently different signaling pathways have been elucidated.

  13. Atomically resolved phase transition of fullerene cations solvated in helium droplets (United States)

    Kuhn, M.; Renzler, M.; Postler, J.; Ralser, S.; Spieler, S.; Simpson, M.; Linnartz, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cami, J.; Mauracher, A.; Wang, Y.; Alcamí, M.; Martín, F.; Beyer, M. K.; Wester, R.; Lindinger, A.; Scheier, P.


    Helium has a unique phase diagram and below 25 bar it does not form a solid even at the lowest temperatures. Electrostriction leads to the formation of a solid layer of helium around charged impurities at much lower pressures in liquid and superfluid helium. These so-called `Atkins snowballs' have been investigated for several simple ions. Here we form HenC60+ complexes with n exceeding 100 via electron ionization of helium nanodroplets doped with C60. Photofragmentation of these complexes is measured by merging a tunable narrow-bandwidth laser beam with the ions. A switch from red- to blueshift of the absorption frequency of HenC60+ on addition of He atoms at n=32 is associated with a phase transition in the attached helium layer from solid to partly liquid (melting of the Atkins snowball). Elaborate molecular dynamics simulations using a realistic force field and including quantum effects support this interpretation.

  14. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging. (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie


    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p liver tissue, but other parameters kept constant. CT perfusion imaging is able to detect decrease in blood perfusion of liver cancer post-argon-helium knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Tensile properties and microstructure of helium-injected and reactor-irradiated V-20 Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.P.; Bloom, E.E.; Horak, J.A.


    Mechanical properties and microstructure of vanadium-20% titanium were examined following helium-injection and reactor irradiation. Helium was injected at ambient temperature to concentrations of 90 and 200 at. ppM; neutron irradiation was at 400, 575, 625, and 700/sup 0/C to fluence of 3 x 10/sup 26/ n/m/sup 2/, E > 0.1 MeV. Cavities representing negligible volume swelling were observed in all helium-injected specimens. Degradation of mechanical properties, especially loss of ductility due to helium, occurred at temperatures of 625 and 700/sup 0/C. The levels of helium produced in the fusion spectrum can be expected to alter the response of vanadium alloys from that observed in fast reactor irradiations.

  16. Heat and mass transfer of submerged helium injection in liquid oxygen vessel (United States)

    Jung, Youngsuk; Cho, Namkyung; Baek, Seungwhan; Jeong, Sangkwon


    The submerged helium injection process results in the heat and mass transfer between the helium bubble and the cryogenic liquid. The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of the heat and mass transfer process. It is observed that during the helium injection process the dynamics of mass transfer is dominant and the transient heat transfer is negligible. The helium bubble shape and rising patterns are observed with a visualization device that helps to discern the dominant process between heat transfer and mass transfer. The clustering patterns such as coalescence of helium bubbles are observed with the visualization device. The visualization results indicate that, it is very difficult to determine the representative size of bubbles due to the irregular shape of the helium bubbles. The shape and size of the helium bubbles are important parameters for evaluating the overall mass transfer coefficient (kGA) which is the essential parameter for calculating the evaporation rate of the bulk liquid into the helium bubbles. In this paper, the simplified lumped model is considered to fairly approximate the evaporation rate of the cryogenic liquid into the bubbles and the cooling rate of helium injection. The empirical correlation for the average concentration (C‾A) of evaporated cryogenic liquid into the helium bubbles is presented and the overall mass transfer coefficients (kGA) are calculated as the result of the lumped model. The proposed model and empirical correlations are compared with the experimental results, and the comparison result shows good agreement with differences that are less than ±0.4 K.

  17. 75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry (United States)


    ... for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry AGENCY: Office of Fossil...) Office of Oil and Natural Gas is seeking public comments on the volumes and uses of Helium-3 by the oil... Considerations: In developing its allotment process, DOE seeks information on the uses of Helium-3 by members of...

  18. 75 FR 53353 - Notice of Availability of Final Interim Staff Guidance Document No. 25 “Pressure and Helium... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Final Interim Staff Guidance Document No. 25 ``Pressure and Helium... Guidance Document No. 25 (ISG-25) ``Pressure and Helium Leakage Testing of the Confinement Boundary of... helium leakage testing and ASME Code required pressure (hydrostatic/pneumatic) testing that is specified...

  19. Monitoring Saturn's Upper Atmosphere Density Variations Using Helium 584 Airglow (United States)

    Parkinson, Chris


    The study of He 584 Å brightnesses is interesting as the EUV (Extreme UltraViolet) planetary airglow have the potential to yield useful information about mixing and other important parameters in its thermosphere. Resonance scattering of sunlight by He atoms is the principal source of the planetary emission of He 585 Å. The principal parameter involved in determining the He 584 Å albedo are the He volume mixing ratio, f_He, well below the homopause. Our main science objective is to estimate the helium mixing ratio in the lower atmosphere. Specifically, He emissions come from above the homopause where optical depth trau=1 in H2 and therefore the interpretation depends mainly on two parameters: He mixing ratio of the lower atmosphere and K_z. The occultations of Koskinen et al (2015) give K_z with an accuracy that has never been possible before and the combination of occultations and airglow therefore provide estimates of the mixing ratio in the lower atmosphere. We make these estimates at several locations that can be reasonably studied with both occultations and airglow and then average the results. Our results lead to a greatly improved estimate of the mixing ratio of He in the upper atmosphere and below. The second objective is to constrain the dynamics in the atmosphere by using the estimate of the He mixing ratio from the main objective. Once we have an estimate of the He mixing ratio in the lower atmosphere that agrees with both occultations and airglow, helium becomes an effective tracer species as any variations in the Cassini UVIS helium data are direct indicator of changes in K_z i.e., dynamics. Our third objective is to connect this work to our Cassini UVIS data He 584 Å airglow analyses as they both cover the time span of the observations and allow us to monitor changes in the airglow observations that may correlate with changes in the state of the atmosphere as revealed by the occultations Saturn's upper thermosphere. This work helps to determine the

  20. An MCMC determination of the primordial helium abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)


    Spectroscopic observations of the chemical abundances in metal-poor H II regions provide an independent method for estimating the primordial helium abundance. H II regions are described by several physical parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, and reddening, in addition to y, the ratio of helium to hydrogen. It had been customary to estimate or determine self-consistently these parameters to calculate y. Frequentist analyses of the parameter space have been shown to be successful in these parameter determinations, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have proven to be very efficient in sampling this parameter space. Nevertheless, accurate determination of the primordial helium abundance from observations of H II regions is constrained by both systematic and statistical uncertainties. In an attempt to better reduce the latter, and continue to better characterize the former, we apply MCMC methods to the large dataset recently compiled by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasińska (2007). To improve the reliability of the determination, a high quality dataset is needed. In pursuit of this, a variety of cuts are explored. The efficacy of the He I λ4026 emission line as a constraint on the solutions is first examined, revealing the introduction of systematic bias through its absence. As a clear measure of the quality of the physical solution, a χ{sup 2} analysis proves instrumental in the selection of data compatible with the theoretical model. Nearly two-thirds of the observations fall outside a standard 95% confidence level cut, which highlights the care necessary in selecting systems and warrants further investigation into potential deficiencies of the model or data. In addition, the method also allows us to exclude systems for which parameter estimations are statistical outliers. As a result, the final selected dataset gains in reliability and exhibits improved consistency. Regression to zero metallicity yields Y{sub p} = 0.2534 ± 0.0083, in

  1. Spectroscopy of lithium atoms and molecules on helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Lackner, Florian; Poms, Johannes; Krois, Günter; Pototschnig, Johann V; Ernst, Wolfgang E


    We report on the spectroscopic investigation of lithium atoms and lithium dimers in their triplet manifold on the surface of helium nanodroplets (He(N)). We present the excitation spectrum of the 3p ← 2s and 3d ← 2s two-photon transitions for single Li atoms on He(N). The atoms are excited from the 2S(Σ) ground state into Δ, Π, and Σ pseudodiatomic molecular substates. Excitation spectra are recorded by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight (REMPI-TOF) mass spectroscopy, which allows an investigation of the exciplex (Li*–He(m), m = 1–3) formation process in the Li–He(N) system. Electronic states are shifted and broadened with respect to free atom states, which is explained within the pseudodiatomic model. The assignment is assisted by theoretical calculations, which are based on the Orsay–Trento density functional where the interaction between the helium droplet and the lithium atom is introduced by a pairwise additive approach. When a droplet is doped with more than one alkali atom, the fragility of the alkali–He(N) systems leads preferably to the formation of high-spin molecules on the droplets. We use this property of helium nanodroplets for the preparation of Li dimers in their triplet ground state (13Σu(+)). The excitation spectrum of the 23Πg(ν′ = 0–11) ← 13Σu(+)(ν″ = 0) transition is presented. The interaction between the molecule and the droplet manifests in a broadening of the transitions with a characteristic asymmetric form. The broadening extends to the blue side of each vibronic level, which is caused by the simultaneous excitation of the molecule and vibrations of the droplet (phonons). The two isotopes of Li form 6Li2 and 7Li2 as well as isotope mixed 6Li7Li molecules on the droplet surface. By using REMPI-TOF mass spectroscopy, isotope-dependent effects could be studied.

  2. Experimental study on neon refrigeration system using commercial helium compressor (United States)

    Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyobong; Hong, Yong-Ju; Yeom, Hankil; Koh, Deuk-Yong; Park, Seong-Je


    In this study, we developed neon refrigeration system using commercial helium compressor which was originally designed for GM cryocooler. We performed this research as precedent study before developing neon refrigeration system for small-scale hydrogen liquefaction system. The developed system is based on precooled Linde-Hampson system with liquid nitrogen as precoolant. Design parameters of heat exchangers are determined from thermodynamic cycle analysis with operating pressure of 2 MPa and 0.4 MPa. Heat exchangers have concentric-tube heat exchanger configuration and orifice is used as Joule- Thomson expansion device. In experiments, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate and compressor input power are measured as charging pressure. With experimental results, the characteristics of heat exchanger, Joule-Thomson expansion and refrigeration effect are discussed. The developed neon refrigeration system shows the lowest temperature of 43.9 K.

  3. Improved Study of the Antiprotonic Helium Hyperfine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Pask, T.; Dax, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Hori, M.; Horvath, D.; Juhasz, B.; Malbrunot, C.; Marton, J.; Ono, N.; Suzuki, K.; Zmeskal, J.; Widmann, E.


    We report the initial results from a systematic study of the hyperfine (HF) structure of antiprotonic helium (n,l) = (37,~35) carried out at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. We performed a laser-microwave-laser resonance spectroscopy using a continuous wave (cw) pulse-amplified laser system and microwave cavity to measure the HF transition frequencies. Improvements in the spectral linewidth and stability of our laser system have increased the precision of these measurements by a factor of five and reduced the line width by a factor of three compared to our previous results. A comparison of the experimentally measured transition frequencies with three body QED calculations can be used to determine the antiproton spin magnetic moment, leading towards a test of CPT invariance.

  4. Hans A. Bethe Prize Lecture: The Primordial Helium Abundance (United States)

    Peimbert, Manuel


    It is generally accepted that the production of the light elements (He, D, and Li) during the early stages of the expansion of the Universe is one of the three pillars of the Big Bang theory. The main results obtained from the observational determination of the primordial helium abundance, Yp, and its comparison with the value predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis will be presented, in particular: a) the recognition that galaxies form with Yp in the 0.24 to 0.26 range, b) that Yp was produced during the Big Bang, c) that Yp is fundamental as a critical test for cosmological theories and the baryonic content of the Universe, and d) that the value of Yp provides an observational constraint on the number of light neutrino species, which is smaller than four and probably equal to three. In addition, the present status of the observationally determined Yp value based on extragalactic H II regions will be discussed.

  5. Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Stephen Milton [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)


    A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

  6. 2-dimensional Helium Detonations on the Surface of Neutron Stars (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Timmes, F. X.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D. Q.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Rosner, R.; Truran, J. W.

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of helium detonations on the surfaces of neutron stars performed with the FLASH Code -- a multidimensional, adaptive hydrodynamics code developed at the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. These calculations show the evolution of the detonation as it breaks through the atmosphere of the neutron star and propagates across the surface. The calculation shows a series of surface waves propagating behind the detonation, and the bouncing of the atmosphere as the detonation evolves. The sensitivity of the results to spatial resolution and initial conditions are explored. The event is followed as the detonation travels 2 km across the surface of the neutron star. The detonation velocity implies a timescale of a few milliseconds to propagate around the star. The relevance of such a model to observed X-ray bursts is discussed.

  7. Investigations of Pointwise Ignition of Helium Deflagrations on Neutron Stars (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Woosley, S. E.; Cumming, A.; Calder, A.; Dursi, L. J.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.; Rosner, R.; Timmes, F. X.

    We look at the spreading of localized temperature perturbations in the accreted fuel layer of a non-rotating neutron star. The pressure at the base of the accreted fuel layer is large and the material is only partially degenerate. Any temperature perturbations and resulting pressure gradients will lead to enormous accelerations (both laterally and vertically) of the material in the fuel layer. If the burning of this fuel cannot proceed more rapidly than the spreading of this perturbation, then localized burning cannot take place, and it is likely that the ignition would have to proceed simultaneously throughout the envelope. We present some multidimensional simulations of the spreading of temperature perturbations in a helium atmosphere on a neutron star.

  8. Research on the Helium Permeability of Graphene Oxide Membranes (United States)

    Ren, G. H.; Meng, D. H.; Yan, R. X.; Guo, C. W.


    In order to meet the sealing performance requirements, extra-high sensitive mass spectrometer leak detection method is developed. So the leak rate of 10‑15Pa•m3 / s on the order of the standard leakage is demanded. Increasing the number of holes in the graphene on the artificial control, the leak rate of grapheme would be improved. Based on this idea, a certain defective graphene as a penetrating element, using in the ultra-sensitive leak detection can be made. In this paper the relationship among the permeability of helium and the pressure difference and the thickness of the GO membrane were studied. The permeation mechanism of GO membrane of the minimal leak rate was discussed, which provides a reference for the study of ultra-sensitive leak detection technology.

  9. The helium cryogenic plant for the CMS superconducting magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Perinic, G; Dagut, F; Dauguet, P; Hirel, P


    A new helium refrigeration plant with a cooling capacity of 800 W at 4.45 K, 4500 W between 60 K and 80 K, and 4 g/s liquefaction simultaneously has been designed and is presently being constructed by Air Liquide for CERN. The refrigeration plant will provide the cooling power for the cool down and the operation of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) superconducting coil whose cold mass weighs 225 t. The refrigeration plant will at first be installed in a surface building for the tests of the superconducting magnet. On completion of the tests the cold box will be moved to its final underground position next to the CMS experimental cavern. This paper presents the process design, describes the main components and explains their selection. (4 refs).

  10. Penning collisions of laser-cooled metastable helium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Leonard, J.; Sinatra, A.; Wang, Junmin; Leduc, M. [Dept. de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Perales, F. [Lab. de Physique des Lasers, Univ. Paris-Nord, Villetaneuse (France); Saverio Pavone, F. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Perugia, Via Pascoli, Perugia (Italy); Lens and INFM, Firenze (Italy); Rasel, E. [Univ. Hannover (Germany); Unnikrishnan, C.S. [TIFR, Mumbai (India)


    We present experimental results on the two-body loss rates in a magneto-optical trap of metastable helium atoms. Absolute rates are measured in a systematic way for several laser detunings ranging from -5 to -30 MHz and at different intensities, by monitoring the decay of the trap fluorescence. The dependence of the two-body loss rate coefficient {beta} on the excited state (2{sup 3}P{sub 2}) and metastable state (2{sup 3}S{sub 1}) populations is also investigated. From these results we infer a rather uniform rate constant K{sub sp} = (1{+-}0.4) x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 3}/s. (orig.)

  11. Effective doping of low energy ions into superfluid helium droplets (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lei; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei


    We report a facile method of doping cations from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source into superfluid helium droplets. By decelerating and stopping the ion pulse of reserpine and substance P from an ESI source in the path of the droplet beam, about 104 ion-doped droplets (one ion per droplet) can be recorded, corresponding to a pickup efficiency of nearly 1 out of 1000 ions. We attribute the success of this simple approach to the long residence time of the cations in the droplet beam. The resulting size of the doped droplets, on the order of 105/droplet, is measured using deflection and retardation methods. Our method does not require an ion trap in the doping region, which significantly simplifies the experimental setup and procedure for future spectroscopic and diffraction studies. PMID:26298127

  12. Time–frequency representation of autoionization dynamics in helium (United States)

    Busto, D.; Barreau, L.; Isinger, M.; Turconi, M.; Alexandridi, C.; Harth, A.; Zhong, S.; Squibb, R. J.; Kroon, D.; Plogmaker, S.; Miranda, M.; Jiménez-Galán, Á.; Argenti, L.; Arnold, C. L.; Feifel, R.; Martín, F.; Gisselbrecht, M.; L’Huillier, A.; Salières, P.


    Autoionization, which results from the interference between direct photoionization and photoexcitation to a discrete state decaying to the continuum by configuration interaction, is a well known example of the important role of electron correlation in light–matter interaction. Information on this process can be obtained by studying the spectral, or equivalently, temporal complex amplitude of the ionized electron wave packet. Using an energy-resolved interferometric technique, we measure the spectral amplitude and phase of autoionized wave packets emitted via the sp2+ and sp3+ resonances in helium. These measurements allow us to reconstruct the corresponding temporal profiles by Fourier transform. In addition, applying various time–frequency representations, we observe the build-up of the wave packets in the continuum, monitor the instantaneous frequencies emitted at any time and disentangle the dynamics of the direct and resonant ionization channels.

  13. Simulation Studies of the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO) (United States)

    Sanford, Nikki; Scholberg, Kate


    Simulation studies for were conducted for the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO), the supernova neutrino detector at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Ontario. HALO consists of 79 tons of lead, with 128 ^3He counters which detect the scattered lead neutrons resulting from incoming neutrinos. Improvements were made to the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation's geometry by the addition of water boxes and plastic baseboards, which serve to reflect scattered neutrons back towards counters, and shield against outside neutrons and gammas. Several box designs were created, and the resulting event detection efficiencies and labeling of 1n and 2n events were studied. It was found that these additions cause a 2% efficiency increase, a slight improvement of correctly labeled events, and are a significant improvement to the HALO simulation.

  14. Design of oilfree all turbo-type helium refrigerator (United States)

    Saji, N.; Nagai, S.; Asakura, H.; Kaneko, Y.

    We have designed a high efficient, compact 300 W oilfree all turbo-type heliumrefrigerator capable of long maintenance free continuous operation. The main compressor at ambient temperature which is driven by a helium gas turbine attached to the same shaft, is supported by magnetic bearings, and, has an inlet and outlet pressure of 0.35 MPa and 0.7 MPa. Four turbo expanders are employed, including one at 80 K because LN 2 is not used in this system. Each expander drives a cold compressor, accompanying a generator brake by use of an induction motor. This provides very easy control. Variable nozzles are adopted to the expanders, and the number of valves are diminished as much as possible to reduce line pressure loss. Concerning a heat exchanger, we have examined a micro tube laminar flow heat exchanger which is compact and enables high efficiency at low temperature. This heat exchanger can reduce pressure loss greatly.

  15. The helium cryogenic plant for the CMS superconducting magnet (United States)

    Perinić, G.; Caillaud, A.; Dagut, F.; Dauguet, P.; Hirel, P.


    A new helium refrigeration plant with a cooling capacity of 800 W at 4.45 K, 4500 W between 60 K and 80 K, and 4 g/s liquefaction simultaneously has been designed and is presently being constructed by Air Liquide for CERN. The refrigeration plant will provide the cooling power for the cool down and the operation of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) superconducting coil whose cold mass weighs 225 t. The refrigeration plant will at first be installed in a surface building for the tests of the superconducting magnet. On completion of the tests the cold box will be moved to its final underground position next to the CMS experimental cavern. This paper presents the process design, describes the main components and explains their selection.

  16. Small-Scale Bolometers for Cryogenic Helium Turbulence Experiments (United States)

    Smith, Jolinda; Wybourne, M. N.


    We have developed small (50 =B5m) bolometers for use at the Cryogenic Helium Turbulence Laboratory at the University of Oregon. The devices are composed of AuGe sensing elements on 50 =B5m diameter optic fibers. Micron-size bolometers have recently been reported; however, in these devices the sensing elements were defined using a crude wire-masking technique.(O. Chanal, B. Baguenard, O. B=E9thoux, and B. Chabaud, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68), 2442 (1997) By using electron-beam lithography to define the sensing elements, we have greater control over their geometry and electrical characteristics. We will also discuss the application of electron-beam lithography to the fabrication of submicron bolometers and anemometers.

  17. Probing the A-B interface of superfluid helium-3 (United States)

    Haley, Richard


    At temperatures around 1 mK helium-3 forms a BCS spin triplet condensate. The order parameter is sufficiently complex that more than one superfluid phase exists, each exhibiting a different broken symmetry, and there is a model first order transition between the two most stable phases, labeled A and B. The Lancaster Ultra-Low Temperature Group has developed techniques to probe the properties of the A-B interface in the deep sub-mK regime where the superfluid is in the pure condensate limit. Shaped and controllable magnetic fields are used to induce the transition, and to stabilize and move the A-B phase boundary inside the experimental volume. The latent heat of the transition has been measured, and the nucleation behavior shown to be incompatible with conventional thermodynamic models. Since superfluid helium-3 is inherently pure, and the order parameter transforms continuously across the A-B interface, it is the most coherent two-dimensional structure to which we have experimental access. It has been proposed that this 2D surface in the surrounding 3D bulk volume is a good analog of a cosmological brane separating two distinct quantum vacuum states; experiments that simulate brane annihilation and the creation of topological defects have been carried out at Lancaster. Other investigations have included measurements of the surface tension and wetting behavior of the interface. During these studies it was discovered that a large, unpredicted frictional force was acting on the interface even though it is moving through a pure superfluid. Recent breakthrough work on the dynamics of the A-B interface has finally solved this puzzle. Current experiments include a setup where the interface region is probed directly using quartz tuning fork resonators that couple to the local density of broken Cooper pair quasiparticle excitations and thus give insight into the order parameter energy gap structure as A transforms to B.

  18. Unstable Helium Shell Burning on Accreting White Dwarfs (United States)

    Shen, Ken J.; Bildsten, Lars


    AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) binaries consist of a degenerate helium donor and a helium, C/O, or O/Ne white dwarf accretor, with accretion rates of \\dot{M} = 10^{-13}\\--10^{-5} \\, M_\\odot \\; yr^{-1}. For accretion rates thermonuclear supernovae. In this paper, we study the evolution of the He-burning shells in more detail. We calculate maximum achievable temperatures as well as the minimum envelope masses that achieve dynamical burning conditions, finding that AM CVn systems with accretors gsim0.8 M sun will undergo dynamical burning. Triple-α reactions during the hydrostatic evolution set a lower limit to the 12C mass fraction of 0.001-0.05 when dynamical burning occurs, but core dredge-up may yield 12C, 16O, and/or 20Ne mass fractions of ~0.1. Accreted 14N will likely remain 14N during the accretion and convective phases, but regardless of 14N's fate, the neutron-to-proton ratio at the beginning of convection is fixed until the onset of dynamical burning. During explosive burning, the 14N will undergo 14N(α, γ)18F(α, p)21Ne, liberating a proton for the subsequent 12C(p, γ)13N(α, p)16O reaction, which bypasses the relatively slow α-capture onto 12C. Future hydrodynamic simulations must include these isotopes, as the additional reactions will reduce the Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring length, making the propagation of the detonation wave more likely.

  19. Krypton and helium irradiation damage in neodymium-zirconolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, M., E-mail: [Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Davoisne, C. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, CNRS-UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Stennett, M.; Hyatt, N. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Peng, N.; Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Nodus Laboratory, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH Surrey (United Kingdom); Lee, W.E. [Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    A leading candidate for the immobilisation of actinides, zirconolite's suitability as a potential ceramic host for plutonium disposition, both in storage and geological disposal, has been the subject of much research. One key aim of this study is to understand the effects of radiation damage and noble gas accommodation within the zirconolite material. To this end, a series of ex situ irradiations have been performed on polycrystalline (Ca{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2})Zr(Ti{sub 1.8}Al{sub 0.2})O{sub 7} zirconolite samples. Zirconolite samples, doped with Nd{sup 3+} (as a Pu surrogate) on the Ca-site and charge-balanced by substituting Al{sup 3+} onto the Ti-site, were irradiated with {sup 36}Kr{sup +} (2 MeV) ions at fluences of 1 x 10{sup 14} and 5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and {sup 4}He{sup +} (200 keV) ions at fluences of 1 x 10{sup 14}, 5 x 10{sup 15} and 1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} to simulate the impact of alpha decay on the microstructure. Microstructural analysis revealed no damage present at the lower Kr{sup +} fluence, but that the higher {sup 36}Kr{sup +} fluence rendered the zirconolite completely amorphous. Similarly, evidence of helium accumulation was only seen at the highest {sup 4}He{sup +} fluence (1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}). Monte Carlo simulations using the TRIM code predict the highest concentration of helium accumulating at a depth of 720 nm, in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  20. Helium-filled soap bubbles for vortex core velocimetry (United States)

    Caridi, Giuseppe Carlo Alp; Sciacchitano, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio


    Velocity measurements within the core of high-swirl vortices are often hampered by heavier-than-air particle tracers being centrifuged outside the vortex core region. The use of neutrally buoyant and lighter-than-air tracers is investigated to aim at homogeneous tracers concentration in air flow experiments dealing with high-swirl vortices using particle image velocimetry. Helium-filled soap bubbles (HFSB) of sub-millimeter diameter are employed as flow tracers. Their density is controlled varying the relative amount of helium and soap solution composing the bubbles. The dynamics of HFSB and micro-size droplets is modeled within a Lamb-Oseen vortex to retrieve the order of magnitude of the tracers slip velocity. A positive radial drift for heavier-than-air tracers leads to an empty vortex core. In contrast, the concentration at the vortex axis is expected to increase for lighter than air tracers. Experiments are conducted on a sharp-edged slender delta wing at 20° incidence. At chosen chord-based Reynolds numbers of 2 × 105 and 6 × 105, a stable laminar vortex is formed above the delta wing. Laser sheet visualization is used to inspect the spatial concentration of tracers. A comparison is made between micron-sized fog droplets and HFSB tracers in the nearly neutrally buoyant condition. Stereo-PIV measurements with fog droplets return a systematically underestimated axial velocity distribution within the vortex core due to drop-out of image cross-correlation signal. The nearly neutrally buoyant HFSB tracers appear to maintain a homogeneous spatial concentration and yield cross-correlation signal up to the vortex axis. The resulting velocity measurements are in good agreement with literature data.